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Sample records for giemsa-stained blood smears

  1. Comparing Leishman and Giemsa staining for the assessment of peripheral blood smear preparations in a malaria-endemic region in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sathpathi, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Akshaya K; Satpathi, Parthasarathi; Mishra, Saroj K.; Behera, Prativa K.; Patel, Goutam; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Microscopy of peripheral blood thin and thick films remains the reference for malaria diagnosis. Although Giemsa staining is most commonly used, the Leishman staining method provides better visualization of the nuclear chromatin pattern of cells. It is less well known whether accuracy of parasitaemia assessment is equally accurate with the latter method. Methods Peripheral blood thin and thick smears from consecutive febrile patients admitted to Ispat General hospital, Rourkela, Od...

  2. Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films

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    Scholzen Anja

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia' across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a descriptive and permanent record of parasitaemia data that is highly amenable to subsequent 'data-mining'. Digital photography was utilized in conjunction with a basic purpose-written computer programme to test the viability of the concept. Partial automation of the determination of percent parasitaemia was then explored, resulting in the successful customization of commercially available broad-spectrum image analysis software towards this aim. Lastly, automated discrimination between infected and uninfected RBCs based on analysis of digital parameters of individual cell images was explored in an effort to completely automate the calculation of an accurate percent-parasitaemia.

  3. Typing of Plasmodium falciparum DNA from 2 years old Giemsa-stained dried blood spots using nested polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D; Dhiman, S; Rabha, B; Goswami, D; Yadav, K; Deka, M; Veer, V; Baruah, I

    2016-01-01

    A panel of 129 Giemsa-stained thick blood spots (TBS) confirmed for Plasmodium falciparum infection having different levels of parasite density were collected from a malaria endemic area. DNA was extracted and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was performed to amplify P. falciparum DNA. Nested PCR assay successfully amplified P. falciparum DNA at a very low parasitaemia of ~10 parasites/μl of blood. Current PCR assay is very simple and can be used retrospectively to monitor the invasion and prevalence of different Plasmodium species in endemic areas. PMID:27080775

  4. A simple, efficient and inexpensive method for malaria parasites' DNA catching from fixed Giemsa-stained blood slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarian, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Sara; Abedi, Saeed

    2016-09-01

    As parasitological or microscopic method is the gold standard and the best method for diagnosis of malaria, so fixed Geimsa-stained blood slides in the form of thick and thin blood smears are the most important data collections of malaria, especially historical slides. The parasites are dead but their DNA is valuable for many molecular biologic researches. A simple and efficient method for catching and extraction malaria parasites' DNA with a desired yield from dried and stained blood on slides is the first and major step. Introduction of an applicable, efficient and inexpensive DNA catching method and assessment of its performance in following molecular applications  was the main objective of present study. PMID:27605792

  5. DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Andreyan Osipov; Ekaterina Arkhangelskaya; Alexei Vinokurov; Nadezhda Smetaninа; Alex Zhavoronkov; Dmitry Klokov

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977). The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2...

  6. Comparison of PCR with blood smear and inoculation of small animals for diagnosis of Babesia microti parasitemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, P J; Telford, S; Spielman, A.; Ryan, R; Magera, J; Rajan, T V; Christianson, D; Alberghini, T V; Bow, L; Persing, D

    1996-01-01

    The specific diagnosis of babesiosis, which is caused by the piroplasm Babesia microti, is made by microscopic identification of the organism in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears, detection of babesial antibody in acute-and convalescent-phase sera, or identification of the organism following the injection of patient blood into laboratory animals. Although rapid diagnosis can be made with thin blood smears, parasites are often not visualized early in the course of infection. PCR is a new, rapid...

  7. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase Abnormalities of hemoglobin , the protein in ... sickle and Pappenheimer Red blood cells, target cells Formed elements of blood References Bain BJ. The peripheral ...

  8. Image Analysis Approach for Development of a Decision Support System for Detection of Malaria Parasites in Thin Blood Smear Images

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Keerthana; Winter, Jan; Bhat, Udayakrishna M.; Raviraja V Acharya; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes development of a decision support system for diagnosis of malaria using color image analysis. A hematologist has to study around 100 to 300 microscopic views of Giemsa-stained thin blood smear images to detect malaria parasites, evaluate the extent of infection and to identify the species of the parasite. The proposed algorithm picks up the suspicious regions and detects the parasites in images of all the views. The subimages representing all these parasites are put toget...

  9. Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania Species in Patients and Rodents Giemsa-Stained Slides by PCR-RFLP in Damghan District, Iran

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    S. Mohammadi Azni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. This disease is reported from more than 15 provinces of Iran as a health problem. Identification of reservoirs and characterization of parasite species in patients is very important for identifying the epidemiological aspects of disease and planning for control program.Materials & Methods: This survey was performed as a descriptive study by PCR-RFLP method in Damghan district. Study was carried out on giemsa-stained smears from cases of leishmaniasis and rodents which collected in infected villages that leishmanal infection was confirmed by microscopic observations. DNA of giemsa-stained slides was extracted and followed by conventional PCR technique using specific primers of ITS1. PCR products were digested with a restriction enzyme (HaeIII.Results: Totally 25 smears from human skin lesions and 8 rodent ear scrapings were examined by PCR. Electrophoresis results showed that leishmania major was present in patients and rodents giemsa-stained slides.Conclusion: PCR-RFLP is an effective method to identify leishmania species from giemsa-stained smears which have been collected from humans and animal reservoirs. Using this method identification of causative species of leishmaniasis is possible without sequencing.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;17(4:5-9

  10. Fractal characteristics of May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained chromatin are independent prognostic factors for survival in multiple myeloma.

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    Daniela P Ferro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of computerized image analysis for the study of nuclear texture features has provided important prognostic information for several neoplasias. Recently fractal characteristics of the chromatin structure in routinely stained smears have shown to be independent prognostic factors in acute leukemia. In the present study we investigated the influence of the fractal dimension (FD of chromatin on survival of patients with multiple myeloma. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed 67 newly diagnosed patients from our Institution treated in the Brazilian Multiple Myeloma Study Group. Diagnostic work-up consisted of peripheral blood counts, bone marrow cytology, bone radiograms, serum biochemistry and cytogenetics. The International Staging System (ISS was used. In every patient, at least 40 digital nuclear images from diagnostic May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained bone marrow smears were acquired and transformed into pseudo-3D images. FD was determined by the Minkowski-Bouligand method extended to three dimensions. Goodness-of-fit of FD was estimated by the R(2 values in the log-log plots. The influence of diagnostic features on overall survival was analyzed in Cox regressions. Patients that underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation were censored at the day of transplantation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Median age was 56 years. According to ISS, 14% of the patients were stage I, 39% were stage II and 47% were stage III. Additional features of a bad prognosis were observed in 46% of the cases. When stratifying for ISS, both FD and its goodness-of-fit were significant prognostic factors in univariate analyses. Patients with higher FD values or lower goodness-of-fit showed a worse outcome. In the multivariate Cox-regression, FD, R(2, and ISS stage entered the final model, which showed to be stable in a bootstrap resampling study. CONCLUSIONS: Fractal characteristics of the chromatin texture in routine cytological preparations revealed relevant prognostic

  11. Purpose and Criteria for Blood Smear Scan, Blood Smear Examination, and Blood Smear Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Gene; Song, Jinming; Florea, Alina Dulau; Gong, Jerald

    2012-01-01

    A microscopic examination of an appropriately prepared and well-stained blood smear by a knowledgeable laboratory professional is necessary and clinically useful in a number of circumstances and for a variety of reasons. In this article, an attempt is made to delineate the purpose and criteria for blood smear examination in a variety of circumstances that are encountered in everyday laboratory hematology practice. A blood smear scan serves to at least (a) verify the flagged automated hematolo...

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in the pharynx of patients with chronic pharyngitis detected with TDT-FP and modified Giemsa stain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Ping Zhang; Zhen-Hui Peng; Ju Zhang; Xiang-Hong Zhang; Qing Yin Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect whether there is Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) colonization in the pharynx mucous membrane of healthy people and whether chronic pharyngitis is related to H pylori infection.METHODS: Fifty cases of chronic pharyngitis refractory over three months were prospectively studied from Match 2004 to August 2004 in the otolaryngology outpatient department of the Second Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. Template-directed dye-terminator incorporated with fluorescence polarization detection (TDI-FP) and modified Giemsa stain were used to examine pharynx mucous membrane tissue for H pylori colonization in the patients with chronic pharyngitis and the healthy people as a control group.RESULTS: In the control group, no people were detected to have H pylori in the pharynx. In contrast, in 50cases with chronic pharyngitis, 19 (38.0%) cases were H pylori positive with a TDI-FP assay and 4 (8%) cases were TDI-FP positive with Giemsa staining in the pharynx. Sixteen of the 50 pharyngitis cases had stomach ailment history, 11 cases (68.8%) of these 16 patients were determined to be H pylori positive in the pharynx with the TDI-FP assay. x2 test showed that this infection rate was remarkably higher (P= 0.0007) than that in the cases without stomach ailment history. Giemsa staining showed that 3 cases (18.8%) of the patients with stomach ailment history were infected with H pylori in the pharynx, which was remarkably higher (P =0.042) than that in the patients without stomach ailment history (1case, which was 2.9%).CONCLUSION: H pylori may not be detected in the pharynx of healthy people. Chronic pharyngitis may be related to H pylori infection. The infection rate with H pylori in the pharynx is higher in patients with stomach ailment histories than in patients without stomach ailment histories, suggesting that chronic pharyngitis may be related to stomach ailment history.

  13. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

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    Nina Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. METHODS: Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27 and uninfected controls (n = 20 were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls. From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. CONCLUSION: We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for

  14. Genetic detection of Plasmodium falciparum with Chelex-extracted DNA from thin blood smears%Chelex法从恶性疟原虫薄血涂片提取DNA的基因诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静宜; 齐志群; 薛燕萍

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of Chelex DNA extraction from thin blood smears for genetic analysis, and to develop smear-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 18S RNA of Plasrnodium falciparum. Methods Chelex-100 which was chelating ion exchange resin was used to extract DNA from Giemsa-stained or unstained thin blood smears of different concentrations of Plasmodium falciparum. With the extracted DNA as the template, 18S RNA gene was amplified by nested PCR to test the susceptibility of Chelex method. Results Positive band of 205bp appeared in nested PCR with DNA extracted from Giemsa-stained or unstained thin blood smears of patient with falciparum malaria. Using the Chelex method, the detection limits of the smear-based nested PCR were 1.5 × 101 parasite/μL blood for Giemsa-stained and 1.5×10-1 parasite/μL blood for unstained thin blood smears. Conclusions Chelex DNA extraction is a simple and efficient method for extracting trace amount of DNA from thin blood smear. The smear-based nested PCR developed in this study is feasible to identify the gene from reserved thin blood smears and will provide a new approach for clinical diagnosis and study of molecular epidemiology.%目的 建立从恶性疟原虫薄血涂片中提取DNA进行恶性疟原虫18S RNA基因套式PCR检测方法 ,并探讨其可行性.方法 利用螯合型的离子交换树脂Chelex-100作为介质,一步法分别提取患者染色和未染色薄血涂片恶性疟原虫DNA,行套式PCR扩增.以培养的不同浓度恶性疟原虫制备的染色和未染色薄血涂片提取恶性疟原虫DNA为模板进行PCR扩增,检测该方法的灵敏度.结果 用Chelex-100法提取恶性疟原虫患者染色与未染色薄血膜DNA,PCR扩增均出现205 bp特异扩增片段.染色及未染色薄血膜恶性疟原虫PCR扩增的最低虫体浓度分别为1.5×101/μL血和1.5×10-1/μL血.结论 Chelex-100法薄血涂片中提取微量DNA的套式PCR检测方法,可在基因

  15. Comparison of methenamine silver nitrate and Giemsa stain for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, W; Kolmos, H J

    1989-01-01

    found positive with both methods, but a further 10 were diagnosed with Giemsa indicating that the trophozoite stain is more sensitive. As Giemsa stain is simple, quick, cheap and familiar to most microbiological laboratories it should be used for screening of samples to be examined for Pneumocystis...

  16. Gram negative septicaemia diagnosed on peripheral blood smear appearances.

    OpenAIRE

    Fife, A; D. Hill; Barton, C.; Burden, P

    1994-01-01

    Buffy coat smears from febrile patients may contain visible bacteria and therefore detect bacteraemia before conventional blood cultures become positive. However, it is unusual to see micro-organisms in an otherwise untreated peripheral blood smear. The case of a febrile neutropenic patient is reported. A Wright's stained peripheral blood smear contained bacterial elements, thus making earlier diagnosis of septicaemia and identification of the causative bacterium possible.

  17. Prevalence of theileriosis in cross-bred cattle: its detection through blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India

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    Shweta Kohli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Theileriosis is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Theileria is a protozoan parasite that causes theileriosis, a fatal disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of theileriosis in crossbred cattle belonging to Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: We screened 301 blood samples each month from apparently normal/healthy crossbred cattle from various locations of Dehradun district. Samples were tested using Giemsa's staining technique and specific PCR test. Result: Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 27.2% (82 overall prevalence of theileriosis. The highest prevalence was found in rainy season with a prevalence rate 45.4%. By Theileria genus specific PCR test, 98 samples (32.5 % were found to be positive for theileriosis. Conclusion: Our study suggests that theileriosis is spreading to even the temperate region in Uttarakhand and immediate screening norms/policies are needed to reduce the extent of spread. There is a need for further investigation using molecular technique.

  18. Automatic Working Area Classification in Peripheral Blood Smears

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Wei; Ong, S. H.; Lim, Joo-Hwee; Chiong, Kelvin Foong Weng; LIU, JIANG; Racoceanu, Daniel; Chong, Alvin; Tan, Kevin,

    2010-01-01

    Cell enumeration and diagnosis using peripheral blood smears are routine tasks in many biological and pathological examinations. Not every area in the smear is appropriate for such tasks due to severe cell clumping or sparsity. Manual working area selection is slow, subjective, inconsistent and statistically biased. Automatic working area classification can reproducibly identify appropriate working smear areas. However, very little research has been reported in the literature. With the aim of...

  19. Polymicrobial candidaemia revealed by peripheral blood smear and chromogenic medium

    OpenAIRE

    Yera, H.; Poulain, D.; Lefebvre, A.; Camus, D.; Sendid, B.

    2004-01-01

    Candida spp are the fourth most common group of nosocomial pathogens isolated from patients on medical, surgical, and intensive care wards. Polymicrobial candidaemia has rarely been described. The diagnosis of candidaemia from peripheral blood smears has not been widely reported. This report describes the case of a young woman suffering from Ewing’s sarcoma who developed a syndrome of septic shock. Deep fungal infection was diagnosed from a systematic peripheral blood smear and yeasts were is...

  20. CENTRIFUGED BUFFY COAT SMEAR: AN ALTERNATIVE TO CONVENTIONAL PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam; Praveen; Vaibhavi; Piyush

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge with more than 200 million deaths annually, specially in the tropical and subtropical countries.(1) In India malaria is endemic throughout the country, problem accounting for 1-2 million cases and 1100 deaths per year.(1) The commonly employed method for diagnosis of malaria involves the microscopic examination of Romanowsky stained blood films.(2) For decades light microscopy of blood smears has be...

  1. An evaluation of blood smears made by a new method using a spinner and diluted blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, M; Atwood, J G; Raccio, J; Seligson, D

    1978-12-01

    Blood smears were prepared with the use of a spinner, which rotated with a fixed velocity for a fixed time. All blood samples used for spun smears were diluted with a fixed ratio of buffered isotonic saline solution. Distribution of cells in these smears was found to be random. The average number of cells per unit area was substantially uniform from place to place on the same slide and on multiple slides made with the smae sample. The distribution of leukocytes by type was also iniform. For different blood samples, the average number of cells per unit area in the smears correlated well with the measured cell concentrations per unit volume in the samples for leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Leukocyte differential counts on replicate spun smears using the same bloods also agreed to within the sampling error. They similarly agreed with differential counts on pulled smears made from undiluted samples of the same bloods. With few exceptions, erythrocytic morphology on the spun smears was comparable to that on the good areas of pulled smears made with undiluted samples of the same bloods. Nearly all the spun smears were suitable for both viual and fully automated hematologic examination for leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets. This was true over nearly the whole area of each spun slide. In these ways this spinner method makes smears whose consistently high quality is little affected by either the properties of the blood sample or the skill of maker.

  2. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

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    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  3. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Potkonjak Aleksandar; Lako Branislav; Belić Branislava; Milošević Nikolina; Stevančević Ognjen; Cincović Marko; Lako Bjanka

    2010-01-01

    The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasi...

  4. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

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    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then

  5. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya; Dr.Nandita Mehta; Dr.Hansa Goswami; Dr.R.N.Gonsai

    2015-01-01

    The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC) parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results an...

  6. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

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    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  7. Leukocytes Detection, Classification and Counting in Smears of Peripheral Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Castro, J.; Reyes-Cadena, S.; E. Felipe-Riverón

    2014-01-01

    Using the k -NN classifier in combination with the first Minkowski metric, in addition to techniques of digital image processing, we developed a computational system platform-independent, which is able to identify, to classify and to count five normal types of leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. It is important to emphasize that this work does not attempt to differentiate between smears of leukocytes coming from healthy and sick people; this is because ...

  8. Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist. PMID:22256137

  9. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

  10. A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Parija S; Dhodapkar Rahul; Elangovan Subashini; Chaya D

    2009-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC), plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman&#...

  11. Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

    2011-03-01

    This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

  12. [Technical recommendations and best practice guidelines for May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining: literature review and insights from the quality assurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaton, Eric; Fabre, Monique; Goubin-Versini, Isabelle; Bretz-Grenier, Marie-Françoise; Courtade-Saïdi, Monique; Vincent, Serge; Belleannée, Geneviève; Thivolet, Françoise; Boutonnat, Jean; Debaque, Hervé; Fleury-Feith, Jocelyne; Vielh, Philippe; Cochand-Priollet, Béatrix; Egelé, Caroline; Bellocq, Jean-Pierre; Michiels, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain is a Romanowsky-type, polychromatic stain as those of Giemsa, Leishman and Wright. Apart being the reference method of haematology, it has become a routine stain of diagnostic cytopathology for the study of air-dried preparations (lymph node imprints, centrifuged body fluids and fine needle aspirations). In the context of their actions of promoting the principles of quality assurance in cytopathology, the French Association for Quality Assurance in Anatomic and Cytologic Pathology (AFAQAP) and the French Society of Clinical Cytology (SFCC) conducted a proficiency test on MGG stain in 2013. Results from the test, together with the review of literature data allow pre-analytical and analytical steps of MGG stain to be updated. Recommendations include rapid air-drying of cell preparations/imprints, fixation using either methanol or May-Grünwald alone for 3-10minutes, two-step staining: 50% May-Grünwald in buffer pH 6.8 v/v for 3-5minutes, followed by 10% buffered Giemsa solution for 10-30minutes, and running water for 1-3minutes. Quality evaluation must be performed on red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes, not on tumour cells. Under correct pH conditions, RBCs must appear pink-orange (acidophilic) or buff-coloured, neither green nor blue. Leukocyte cytoplasm must be almost transparent, with clearly delineated granules. However, staining may vary somewhat and testing is recommended for automated methods (slide stainers) which remain the standard for reproducibility. Though MGG stain remains the reference stain, Diff-Quik(®) stain can be used for the rapid evaluation of cell samples. PMID:26188673

  13. Ontology-based Malaria Parasite Stage and Species Identification from Peripheral Blood Smear Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkapati, V.; Rao, R.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of malaria infection requires detectingthe presence of malaria parasite in the patient as well as identification of the parasite species. We present an image processing-basedapproach to detect parasites in microscope images of blood smear andan ontology-based classificati

  14. Diagnosis of Carrion's disease by direct blood PCR in thin blood smear negative samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana del Valle Mendoza

    Full Text Available Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion's disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers, and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion's disease.

  15. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  16. Ontology-based Malaria Parasite Stage and Species Identification from Peripheral Blood Smear Images

    OpenAIRE

    Makkapati, V.; Rao, R

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of malaria infection requires detectingthe presence of malaria parasite in the patient as well as identification of the parasite species. We present an image processing-basedapproach to detect parasites in microscope images of blood smear andan ontology-based classification of the stage of the parasite for identifying the species of infection. This approach is patterned after the diagnosis approach adopted by a pathologist for visual examination and hence is expect...

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BLOOD SMEAR, QBC AND ANTIGEN DETECTION FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suthar, Dr. Mitesh N.; Mevada, Dr. Amita K.; Pandya, Dr. Neha H.; Desai, Dr. Kinnar S.; Patel, Dr. Vaishali; Goswami, Dr. Toral

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives:Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. We made an attempt to compare blood smear, Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) and rapid antigen detection methods for the rapid diagnosis of malaria.Methods & materials:A Cross sectional prospective study was conducted for 6 months in G.G.Hospital, Jamnagar. A total number of 90 hospitalized...

  18. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charwudzi, Alice; Olayemi, Edeghonghon E; Ekem, Ivy; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Coyle, Mariann; Benneh, Amma Anima; Allotey, Emmanuel Alote

    2014-01-01

    Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM) and 3 peripheral blood (PB) smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95%) of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r = 0.870; P = 0.035). Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Charwudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM and 3 peripheral blood (PB smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95% of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r=0.870; P=0.035. Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  20. Low Sensitivity of Peripheral Blood Smear for Diagnosis of Subclinical Visceral Leishmaniasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, J.; Pineda, J. A.; Macías, J.; Regordán, C.; Gallardo, J. A.; Leal, M.; Sanchez-Quijano, A.; Lissen, E.

    1998-01-01

    The peripheral blood smear is an easy method for the diagnosis of symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. However, its efficiency in diagnosing subclinical VL remains unknown. In this study, Leishmania amastigotes were seen in blood smears from 1 of 13 HIV-1-positive individuals with subclinical VL. This shows that this procedure is not suitable for subclinical-VL diagnosis.

  1. Labelling of T cell subsets under field conditions in tropical countries. Adaptation of the immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining method for blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Whittle, H; Aaby, P;

    1990-01-01

    Immuno-alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining for T cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) of smears from fingerprick blood functioned well under tropical climatic conditions when smears were stored frozen with silica gel before being labelled. Unlabelled smears were stored for up to 12 months and could be trans......Immuno-alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining for T cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) of smears from fingerprick blood functioned well under tropical climatic conditions when smears were stored frozen with silica gel before being labelled. Unlabelled smears were stored for up to 12 months and could...

  2. A comparison of two different techniques for the detection of blood parasite, Theileria annulata, in cattle from two districts in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa Province (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattak R.M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Theileria annulata in large ruminants from two districts, Peshawar and Kohat, in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa (Pakistan. Blood samples were collected from 95 cattle. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. No significant risk factors were found associated with the spread of tropical theileriosis in the study area. Two different parasite detection techniques, PCR amplification and screening of Giemsa stained slides, were compared and it was found that PCR amplification is a more sensitive tool (33.7% parasite detection, as compared to smear scanning (5.2% parasite detection for the detection of Theileria annulata. 32 out of 95 animals, from both districts, produced the 721-bp fragment specific for Theileria annulata.

  3. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  4. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gavazza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016 and 8.47% (133 of 1569 of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958 and 4.47% (138 of 3,081 of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once. Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P<0.0001, decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P<0.0001, RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P<0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively. qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement.

  5. Giemsa and Grocott in the recognition of Histoplasma capsulatum in blood smears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Bava; Alcides Troncoso

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To facilitate the recognition of intracellular yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum and differentiate it from Leishmania amastigotes and other parasites, using the combination of then Giemsa) to previously fixed peripheral blood smears. Microscopy was performed with 400ístudy. Methods: The combination of both stains was applied consecutively (first Grocott and Giemsa and a rapid modification of Grocott stains to peripheral blood smears in a hematological and 1000í, the latter using immersion oil. Results: The yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum were observed into the cytoplasm of leukocytes as brownish oval elements, with 3-4 µm in diameter. Conclusions: The combination of both techniques is a simple and fast method to facilitate recognition of intracellular yeasts and it is different from intracellular parasitic elements. Moreover, it allows distinguishing the cell elements that are in the microscopic preparations. It may be very helpful in those cases in which the presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis has not been established yet and where other more sophisticated methods are not available.

  6. Atypical Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK presenting as a perforated corneal ulcer with a large infiltrate in a contact lens wearer: multinucleated giant cells in the Giemsa smear offered a clue to the diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemuganti Geeta K

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To report a case of atypical herpes simplex keratitis initially diagnosed as bacterial keratitis, in a contact lens wearer. Results Case report of an 18-year-old woman using contact lenses who presented with pain, redness and gradual decrease in vision in the right eye. Examination revealed a paracentral large stromal infiltrate with a central 2-mm perforation. Corneal and conjunctival scrapings were collected for microbiological investigations. Corneal tissue was obtained following penetrating keratoplasty. Corneal scraping revealed no microorganisms. Giemsa stained smear showed multinucleated giant cells. Conjunctival, corneal scrapings and tissue were positive for herpes simplex virus - 1 (HSV antigen. Corneal tissue was positive for HSV DNA by PCR. Conclusions Atypical HSV keratitis can occur in contact lens wearers. A simple investigation like Giemsa stain may offer a clue to the diagnosis.

  7. Diagnosis of Carrion’s Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a...

  8. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a convention...

  9. Application of May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques in the diagnosis of acute leukemia%骨髓形态学染色联合荧光原位杂交技术在急性白血病鉴别诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承文; 代芸; 薄丽津; 刘旭平; 秦爽; 于成龙; 刘世和; 王建祥

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨联合骨髓形态学染色和荧光原位杂交(MGG-FISH)技术在Ph染色体阳性急性淋巴细胞白血病(Ph+ALL)和慢性粒细胞白血病急性淋巴细胞白血病变(CML-LBC)鉴别诊断中的临床应用价值.方法 应用BCR(绿色)和ABL(橘红色)双色双融合探针,通过MGG-FISH技术对4例Ph+ALL患者、4例CML-LBC患者、1例CML急性白血病变合并淋巴瘤、1例CML急性混合细胞白血病变患者的骨髓涂片标本进行检测,依据形态学分别检测10份标本红细胞系、粒细胞系和淋巴细胞系的BCR/ABL融合信号阳性细胞百分率.结果 通过MGG-FISH方法分析,4份Ph+ALL骨髓标本红细胞系未累及,BCR/ABL融合信号阳性细胞百分率均为0%;粒细胞系阳性率分别为11%(1/9)、8%(1/12)、0%(0/8)、10%(1/10);淋巴细胞系阳性率分别为97%(76/78)、98%(87/89)、98%(97/99)、97%(75/77).4份CML-LBC骨髓标本红细胞系阳性率分别为100%(8/8)、91%(10/11)、82%(9/11)、88%(7/8);粒细胞系阳性率分别为89%(8/9)、96%(94/98)、100%(47/47)、98%(40/41);淋巴细胞系阳性率分别为96%(78/81)、93%(52/56)、96%(68/71)、95%(58/61).其余2份标本阳性率均超过80%,且通过MGG-FISH分析鉴定了恶性克隆的来源.结论 MGG-FISH技术可以准确、快速地对原发性Ph+ALL和CML-LBC进行鉴别,并可进行克隆源性分析.%Objective To evaluate the clinical application of May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (MGG-FISH) technique in the differentiation diagnosis of Ph-chromosome positive acute lymphoid leukemia (Ph + ALL) from chronic myeloid leukemia in lymphoid blast crisis(CML-LBC). Methods The bone marrow smears of 4 patients with Ph+ ALL, 4 patients with CML-LBC, 1 patient with CML in myelocytic blast crisis complicated with lymphoma and 1 patient with CML in mixed blast crisis were assayed with the MGG-FISH technique in which the spectrum green labeled BCR and spectrum orange labeled ABL dual color dual

  10. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaebum Chung

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM's captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods.

  11. Molecular Identification of Leishmania Species Using Samples Obtained from Negative Stained Smears

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    MA Mohaghegh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers sus­pected to CL by PCR method.Methods: Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL referred to the Parasitology lab, nega­tive Giemsa stained smears were collected. DNA extraction performed by scraping stained smears, then PCR was performed.Results: Among the DNA extracted from smears, L. tropica was isolated from 9 (11.1% of the smears and L.major was not isolated from any samples.Conclusion: Direct microscopy on stained smears for diagnosis of leishmaniasis is not enough accu­rate. PCR is recommended for clinically suspected lesions with negative result of direct smear.

  12. Evaluation of Immunochromatography test and Quantitative buffy coat against peripheral blood smear examination in diagnosis of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of enormous preventive and control measures, malaria has resurged in many tropical countries including India. The limited access to effective diagnosis and treatment of cases in endemic areas is one of the most important factors hampering the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with malaria.Aims and objective: The present study was conducted with an aim to evaluate immunochromatography test (ICT) and quantitative buffy coat (QBC) against peripheral blood smear...

  13. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Charwudzi; Olayemi, Edeghonghon E; Ivy Ekem; Olufunmilayo Olopade; Mariann Coyle; Amma Anima Benneh; Emmanuel Alote Allotey

    2014-01-01

    Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis o...

  14. Inactivating Zaire Ebolavirus in Whole-Blood Thin Smears Used for Malaria Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Todd; Cook, Bradley; Poliquin, Guillaume; Strong, James; Theriault, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is an important mimic or coinfection in potential Ebolavirus disease patients. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the 100% methanol-inactivating Zaire Ebolavirus Makona variant for malaria thin-smear preparation. We determined that 100% methanol completely inactivated the virus after 15 min. PMID:26865684

  15. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Yu A.

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  16. Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Hansen, B F;

    1999-01-01

    phenotyping of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood smears. In the first step, the cells were incubated with antibodies against urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and subsequently with secondary antibodies conjugated to peroxidase-labeled dextran polymers. A brown...... color reaction was developed with diaminobenzidine as chromogen. In the second step, the cells were incubated with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated murine monoclonal antibodies against a common cytokeratin epitope and a red color reaction was developed with new fuchsin as substrate. This method allows...

  17. Peripheral Blood Buffy Coat Smear: a Promising Tool for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, M. Abdus; Khan, M. Gulam Musawwir; Bhaskar, Khondaker Rifat Hasan; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Huda, M Mamun; Mondal, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Confirmative diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is still a challenge at the primary health care facilities in most of the rural areas of endemicity in the Indian subcontinent. Conventional methods for parasitological confirmation are risky and require skilled personnel, and hence they are unavailable to the poor people in the regions of endemicity. Buffy coat smear microscopy, as a minimally invasive, simple alternative for the parasitological diagnosis of VL, was evaluated in this pros...

  18. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD. With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility of nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and reliable investigation in allergic respiratory disorders. This is a prospective clinical correlation study of patients attending outpatient department. 100 subjects aged between 2-18 years of either sex were selected for the estimation of eosinophil count in nasal and peripheral smear in allergic respiratory disorders. All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa and nasal obstruction were common findings in allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma. Nasal eosinophilia was seen in 52.4% and 64.9% of cases of allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Blood eosinophilia was seen in 54% and 56.8% of cases of allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and non- invasive procedure can be used as an alternative to invasive peripheral smear eosinophilia as both are equally efficacious in diagnosing allergic respiratory diseases.

  19. STUDY OF TZANCK SMEARS OVER A PERIOD OF SIX MONTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Cytology of cutaneous lesions can be used for preliminary and rapid diagnosis of many skin diseases. Though the gold standard is a biopsy with or without immunofluorescent studies, the use of simple Tzanck test gives reliable information in many varieties of skin lesions. It is especially useful for cutaneous herpetic lesions and also for early presumptive diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. AIMS : The study was carried out to determine the usefulness of Tzanck test in herpetic lesions, pemphigus vulgaris and other cutaneous lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study was a prospective one, carried out over a six month period in the department of pathology at Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Resear ch Centre, Hyderabad, from June 2014 to December 2014. A total of twenty - one Tzanck smears were studied. The material was collected in the Dermatology out - patient department by the dermatologist and sent to the laboratory. A Giemsa stain was used for all t he smears and examined under the microscope. RESULTS : There were total 21 cases ranging in age from 3 years to 62 years. There were 11 male and 10 female patients, the male to female ratio being 1.1:1. There were 8 cases of herpes zoster and Tzanck smear w as reported positive in 5 cases (62.5%. For pemphigus vulgaris, out of 4 cases, 2 (50% were reported positive on Tzanck smear. As biopsy was not available for all the cases the histopathological correlation could not be done. CONCLUSION : Tzanck smear is a rapid, simple, inexpensive and reliable test which is useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous viral infections like herpes zoster, varicella and molluscum contagiosum. It is also helpful for the presumptive diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris thereby facilitat ing early treatment of the patients

  20. Limit of blank and limit of detection of Plasmodium falciparum thick blood smear microscopy in a routine setting in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Joanny, Fanny; Löhr, Sascha JZ; Engleitner, Thomas; Lell, Bertrand; Mordmüller, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Background Proper malaria diagnosis depends on the detection of asexual forms of Plasmodium spp. in the blood. Thick blood smear microscopy is the accepted gold standard of malaria diagnosis and is widely implemented. Surprisingly, diagnostic performance of this method is not well investigated and many clinicians in African routine settings base treatment decisions independent of microscopy results. This leads to overtreatment and poor management of other febrile diseases. Implementation of q...

  1. Cytoplasm enhancement operator of peripheral blood smear images that are instable-stained and overexposed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Nucleus and cytoplasm are both essential for white blood cell recognition but the edges of cytoplasm are too blurry to be detected because of instable staining and overexposure. This paper aims at proposing a cytoplasm enhancement operator (CEO) to achieve accurate convergence of the active contour model. The CEO contains two parts. First, a nonlinear over-exposure enhancer map is yielded to correct over-exposure, which suppresses background noise while preserving details and improving contrast. Second, the over-exposed regions of cytoplasm in particular is further enhanced by a tri- modal histogram specification based on the scale-space filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed CEO and its corresponding GVF snake is superior to other unsupervised segmentation approaches.

  2. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of murine myeloid leukemia (ML by FISH of peripheral blood smear using probe of PU. 1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ban Nobuhiko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine myeloid leukemia (ML provides a good animal model to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia in humans. This disease has been cytogenetically characterized by a partial deletion of chromosome 2 with G-banding. For the rapid diagnosis of ML, this study reports a FISH method using spleen cells and peripheral blood smears from ML mice exposed to gamma rays and neutrons with PU.1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor, as a probe. Results Among mice that were tentatively diagnosed with ML by clinical findings and blood smear examination, 85% carried spleen cells showing the loss of PU.1 although the frequency of these abnormal cells varied among individuals. Mice with very low frequencies of cells showing the loss of one copy of PU.1 (one-PU.1 frequency were later diagnosed pathologically not with ML but with blastic or eosinophilic leukemia. Some neutron-irradiated mice had cells showing translocated PU.1, although no pathological features differentiated these ML mice from ML mice expressing the simple loss of PU.1. The one-PU.1 frequency can be detected from spleen metaphase cells, spleen interphase cells, and blood smears. There was a good correlation between the one-PU.1 frequency in spleen metaphase cells and that in spleen interphase cells (r = 0.96 and between one-PU.1 frequency in spleen interphase cells and that in blood cells (r = 0.83. Conclusion The FISH method was capable of detecting aberration of copy number of the PU.1 gene on murine chromosome 2, and using a peripheral blood smear is more practical and less invasive than conventional pathological diagnosis or the cytogenetic examination of spleen cells.

  3. A Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis Detected in Peripheral Blood Smear Staining Revealing AIDS at Terminal Phase in a Female Patient from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mandengue Ebenye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is endemic in the American continent and also in Sub-Saharan Africa, coexisting with the African histoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients, especially those with advanced HIV infection develop a severe disseminated histoplasmosis with fatal prognosis. The definitive diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis is based on the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from patient’ tissues samples or body fluids. Among the diagnostic tests peripheral blood smear staining is not commonly used. Nonetheless a few publications reveal that Histoplasma capsulatum has been discovered by chance using this method in HIV infected patients with chronic fever and hence revealed AIDS at the terminal phase. We report a new case detected in a Cameroonian woman without any previous history of HIV infection. Peripheral blood smear staining should be commonly used for the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in the Sub-Saharan Africa, where facilities for mycology laboratories are unavailable.

  4. Comparative Study of Modified Quantitative Buffy Coat and Two Rapid Tests in Comparison with Peripheral Blood Smear in Malaria Diagnosis in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kocharekar, Manali M.; Sougat S. Sarkar; Debjani Dasgupta

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify a quick and reliable technique for accurate diagnosis of malaria, study of the efficiency of the tests such as Parahit total (HRPII & aldolase Ag), Advantage mal card (parasite specific LDH), and modified QBC was done in comparison with conventional blood smear microscopy. One hundred patients infected with P. vivax and 101 infected with P. falciparum were included in this study. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. falciparum d...

  5. Comparative Study of Modified Quantitative Buffy Coat and Two Rapid Tests in Comparison with Peripheral Blood Smear in Malaria Diagnosis in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kocharekar, Manali M.; Sougat S. Sarkar; Dasgupta, Debjani

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify a quick and reliable technique for accurate diagnosis of malaria, study of the efficiency of the tests such as Parahit total (HRPII & aldolase Ag), Advantage mal card (parasite specific LDH), and modified QBC was done in comparison with conventional blood smear microscopy. One hundred patients infected with P. vivax and 101 infected with P. falciparum were included in this study. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. falciparum dete...

  6. Comparison of a Real-Time PCR Method with Serology and Blood Smear Analysis for Diagnosis of Human Anaplasmosis: Importance of Infection Time Course for Optimal Test Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Schotthoefer, A. M.; Meece, J. K.; Ivacic, L. C.; Bertz, P. D.; Zhang, K.; Weiler, T.; Uphoff, T S; Fritsche, T R

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely related pathogens. Currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. We compared the performance of a published real-time PCR assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species with ...

  7. A Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis Detected in Peripheral Blood Smear Staining Revealing AIDS at Terminal Phase in a Female Patient from Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Mandengue Ebenye

    2012-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is endemic in the American continent and also in Sub-Saharan Africa, coexisting with the African histoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients, especially those with advanced HIV infection develop a severe disseminated histoplasmosis with fatal prognosis. The definitive diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis is based on the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from patient' tissues samples or body fluids. Among the diagnostic tests peripheral blood smear staining is not commonly u...

  8. Extraction of Nucleolus Candidate Zone in White Blood Cells of Peripheral Blood Smear Images Using Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Soltanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of each white blood cell (WBC is its nucleus which contains chromosomes. Although white blood cells (WBCs with giant nuclei are the main symptom of leukemia, they are not sufficient to prove this disease and other symptoms must be investigated. For example another important symptom of leukemia is the existence of nucleolus in nucleus. The nucleus contains chromatin and a structure called the nucleolus. Chromatin is DNA in its active form while nucleolus is composed of protein and RNA, which are usually inactive. In this paper, to diagnose this symptom and in order to discriminate between nucleoli and chromatins, we employ curvelet transform, which is a multiresolution transform for detecting 2D singularities in images. For this reason, at first nuclei are extracted by means of K-means method, then curvelet transform is applied on extracted nuclei and the coefficients are modified, and finally reconstructed image is used to extract the candidate locations of chromatins and nucleoli. This method is applied on 100 microscopic images and succeeds with specificity of 80.2% and sensitivity of 84.3% to detect the nucleolus candidate zone. After nucleolus candidate zone detection, new features that can be used to classify atypical and blast cells such as gradient of saturation channel are extracted.

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Sandhya K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

  10. Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: a 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Bekele, Mammo

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future. PMID:20701879

  11. Rapid and reliable diagnosis of murine myeloid leukemia (ML) by FISH of peripheral blood smear using probe of PU. 1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor

    OpenAIRE

    Ban Nobuhiko; Ishida Yuka; Ohmachi Yasushi; Tsuji Satsuki; Kanda Reiko; Shimada Yoshiya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Murine myeloid leukemia (ML) provides a good animal model to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia in humans. This disease has been cytogenetically characterized by a partial deletion of chromosome 2 with G-banding. For the rapid diagnosis of ML, this study reports a FISH method using spleen cells and peripheral blood smears from ML mice exposed to gamma rays and neutrons with PU.1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor, as a probe. Results Among mice that were tent...

  12. Evaluation of hematological profile, biochemical and peripheral blood smear with a view to the health profile in primates of the Cebus genre maintained in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baruc Cruvinel Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates serve as a model for studies on the dynamics of transmission routes and natural history of diseases shared between humans and animals. The captive environment is conducive the dissemination of zoonotic diseases. Many of these animals do not present clinical symptomatology, even when infected, which characterize them as an important source of infection for domestic animals and man. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanity of non-human primates kept in captivity through hematological and biochemical analysis as well as peripheral blood smear, aiming to investigate the presence of zoonotic pathogens, serving as a model for future studies on the dynamics of routes of transmission of diseases shared between humans and animals. Were collected samples of blood from 15 nail monkeys (Cebus sp., adults, clinically healthy and belonging to Park Zoobotanic of Teresina. Were stained smear sanguine blades and obtained the haematological and biochemical profiles of each animal. The data analysis was based on basic statistics. Did not observed any haemoparasite present in peripheral blood. All animals were anemic, 46,7% thrombopenics and 87% of the animals showed some type of pathological process of chronic evolution, due to the high rate of monocytes found. All animals showed high rates of alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases AST and ALT, indicating injury of the hepatic parenchyma. New studies should be conducted to better elucidate of results, seeing that biochemical physiological data primate of the genus Cebus are scarce in literature.

  13. Whole Blood Interferon-γ Release Assay Is Insufficient for the Diagnosis of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Heejin; Shin, Jung Ar; Kim, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Chul Min; CHANG, YOON SOO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the value of an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among sputum smear negative PTB suspects in an environment with intermediate burden of PTB and high Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination rate. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed IGRA, medical records, chest PA and CT scan of PTB suspects seen at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2013. "Active PTB" was diagnosed wh...

  14. Egg and larvae of filarial worm in fine-needle aspiration smears of lymph node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a major health problem in tropical countries like India. Detection of egg with or without larva in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is very unusual despite the high incidence of this parasite in endemic zone. Early diagnosis and treatment prevent the more severe manifestations of disease. A 6-year-old male from eastern Uttar Pradesh presented with the complaints of axillary swelling, fever and loss of appetite. On examination, swelling was 3 cm × 2 cm in size, freely mobile, firm and non-tender. FNA was performed and air-dried smears were stained with Giemsa stain. Smears showed many short and blunt larvae without any distinct sheath and nuclei. Numerous round to oval eggs with short coiled larvae inside them were also seen. A diagnosis of filarial lymphadenopathy was made. The case was considered worth documentation to highlight the finding of filarial eggs in FNA of lymph node, which can be missed or misdiagnosed by an unexperienced pathologist leading to delayed or wrong treatment of a curable disease.

  15. Use of Blood Smears and Dried Blood Spots for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Infection and Plasmodium falciparum in Severely Ill Febrile African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Dondorp, Arjen M; Turner, Paul; Woodrow, Charles J; Imwong, Mallika

    2016-02-01

    Molecular approaches offer a means of testing archived samples stored as dried blood spots in settings where standard blood cultures are not possible. Peripheral blood films are one suggested source of material, although the sensitivity of this approach has not been well defined. Thin blood smears and dried blood spots from a severe pediatric malaria study were assessed using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers to detect non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS; MisL gene), Streptococcus pneumoniae (lytA), and Plasmodium falciparum (18S rRNA). Of 16 cases of NTS and S. pneumoniae confirmed on blood culture, none were positive by PCR using DNA extracts from blood films or dried blood spots. In contrast, four of 36 dried blood spots and two of 178 plasma samples were PCR positive for S. pneumoniae, despite negative bacterial blood cultures, suggesting false positives. Quantitative assessment revealed that the effective concentration of P. falciparum DNA in blood films was three log orders of magnitude lower than for dried blood spots. The P. falciparum kelch13 gene could not be amplified from blood films. These findings question the value of blood PCR-based approaches for detection of NTS and S. pneumoniae, and show that stored blood films are an inefficient method of studying P. falciparum.

  16. Development of hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of chronic myelogenous leukocytes from microscopic image of peripheral blood smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Madhumala; Chakraborty, Chandan; Konar, Amit; Ray, Ajoy K

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces a hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of leukocytes in case of chronic myelogenous leukemia using light microscopic images of peripheral blood smears. The concept of modified discrimination measure is applied to develop the measure of divergence based on Shannon exponential entropy and Yager's measure of entropy. These two measures of divergence are compared with the existing literatures and validated by ground truth images. Finally, it is found that hedge operator based divergence measure using Yager's entropy achieves better segmentation accuracy i.e., 98.29% for normal and 98.15% for chronic myelogenous leukocytes. Furthermore, Jaccard index has been performed to compare the segmented image with ground truth ones where it is found that that the proposed scheme leads to higher Jaccard index (0.39 for normal, 0.24 for chronic myelogenous leukemia).

  17. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Kumar; Kiran Bylappa; Ramesh AC; Swetha Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD). With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility o...

  18. Assessment of Red Blood Cell Parameters and Peripheral Smear at Different Temperatures in Case of Cold Agglutination Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cold agglutination disease (CAD) is characterized by an auto-antibody which is able to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) at temperatures lower than that of the body, and subsequently to activate the complement system responsible for lysis of RBCs. Patients show hemolytic anemia of varying degrees of severity, which arise or worsen upon exposure to low temperatures. We describe a case who presented with fever and symptoms of asthenia. His investigations yielded bizarre RBC parameters which le...

  19. Analysis and countermeasures of unqualified neonatal blood smear in inherited metabolic disease screening%新生儿遗传代谢病筛查不合格血片原因分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓丽; 王梅; 曹静

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨影响新生儿遗传代谢病筛查采血合格率因素及对策.方法 根据对不合格滤纸血片原因进行分析.结果 2006至2010年全市330家医疗接生单位共采集递送血片513040例,其中不合格血片共6 257例,血卡填写错误2 375例,出生不满72小时1 273例,洗脱不全1 226例,采血技术操作不良1090,血斑污染293例.血片不合格率为1.22%,实际召回重采5 528例,不合格血片召回率为88.35%.结论 加强宣传和技术培训工作,做好筛查各个环节质量管理,提高筛查血片采集的合格率,重视对不合格血片的追踪召回,保证筛查质量的每个环节.%Objective To explore the influencing factors and countermeasures of blood sampling qualified rate in neonatal screening for inherited metabolic diseases. Method According to The Acquisition Specifications for Newborn Blood Spot Screening for Inherited Metabolic Disease, the causes of unqualified filter paper blood smears were analyzed. Results Among 513 040 blood smears collected from 330 medical institutions between 2006 and 2010, 6 257 blood smears were unqualified, 2 375 blood cards were filled with wrong information, 1 273 cases were sampled within 72 hours after birth, 1 273 smears were eluted incompletely, 1 090 cases were sampled with error technical, and 293 samples were polluted. The unqualified rate of blood smears was 1. 22%. There were 5 528 cases recalled for second sampling, and the recall rate was 88. 35% . Conclusion Propaganda and technical training should be strengthened. Each link in screening should be controlled and qualified rate of sampling is needed to be raised. Pay attention to the recalling of unqualified blood smears and ensure the quality of each link in screening.

  20. A preliminary comparative report of quantitative buffy coat and modified quantitative buffy coat with peripheral blood smear in malaria diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kochareka, Manali; Sarkar, Sougat; Dasgupta, Debjani; Aigal, Umesh

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique is a method of diagnosing malarial parasites based on micro-centrifugation, fluorescence, and density gradient of infected red blood cells. The aim of the present study was to modify the QBC technique in order to reduce the cost per test of malaria diagnosis. This was achieved by introducing some modifications to routine QBC wherein REMI centrifuge (cost Rs 19 000/–) and ultra-violet microscope (Rs 115 000) were used instead of parafuge (Rs 108 000)...

  1. Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Hansen, B F;

    1999-01-01

    The presence of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood has prognostic importance in patients with carcinomas. Much evidence indicates that dissemination of tumor cells may depend on activation of a variety of degradative enzymes. A strong positive correlation has been...... color reaction was developed with diaminobenzidine as chromogen. In the second step, the cells were incubated with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated murine monoclonal antibodies against a common cytokeratin epitope and a red color reaction was developed with new fuchsin as substrate. This method allows...

  2. Intralesional autotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis with buffy coat cells: cytological findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabiri, S; Meymandi, S S; Hayes, M M;

    2000-01-01

    The skin lesions of five patient volunteers with dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated by intralesional injection of auto-leukocytes prepared from buffy coat of the patient's own blood. Giemsa stained, air-dried cytological smear preparations were prepared from scrapings taken from...... the potential for intralesional autotherapy with buffy coat in dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis....

  3. 血涂片细胞形态检查在初诊患者临床诊断中的应用%Blood smear the application of the cell morphology was in clinical diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕瑞军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the blood smear cells form to check the application result was in clinical diagnosis. Meth-ods Selecting in June 2013 to May 2014, our hospital 380 cases of patients with both the fever, adopt blood smear cell morpho-logical examination, observation of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, smear tail abnormal morphology and abnormal cells. Results 380 patients in the final diagnosis of 136 cases of bacterial infection, blood routine examination is normal, the blood smears neutrophil particles in plasma and enlargement, and poisoning phenomenon; 45 cases of iron-deficiency anaemia, the red blood cells form is differ, the cell body is small, light colored areas significantly increased; Giant cell anemia in 59, ma-ture red blood cells form is differ, the main oval, big cell body; Myelodysplastic syndrome 32 cases, red blood cell sizes, see more huge platelets and polymorphic, abnormal red blood cells; 45 cases of acute leukemia, immature cells, red blood cells. conclusion The blood smear cell morphological examination to observe the platelets, white blood cells and red blood cell mor-phology, preliminarily determine whether patients are blood disease, bacterial infection, anemia, such as simple operation, easy to grasp, was to the patient's clinical diagnosis is of high value.%目的:探讨血涂片细胞形态检查在初诊患者临床诊断中的应用效果。方法选取2013年6月至2014年5月我院收治的初诊发热患者380例,均采用血涂片细胞形态检查,观察红细胞、白细胞、血小板形态、涂片尾部细胞异常形态和异常物。结果380例患者中最终确诊细菌感染136例,血常规检查正常,血涂片检查中性粒细胞浆内颗粒增粗、增多和中毒现象;缺铁性贫血45例,红细胞形态不一,胞体较小,淡染区明显扩大;巨幼细胞性贫血59例,成熟红细胞形态不一,主要呈椭圆形,胞体偏大;骨髓增生异常综合征32例,红

  4. Differential staining of interspecific chromosomes in somatic cell hybrids by alkaline Giemsa stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, K K; Chen, S; Ruddle, F H

    1976-03-01

    Staining of chromosome preparations of Chinese hamster-human hybrid cells and mouse-chimpanzee hybrids with alkaline Giemsa has yielded color differentiation of the interspecific chromosomes. Bicolor chromosomes, indicating apparent translocations also are observed for each of these hybrids. The specific color differences observed provide a rapid means of recognizing and aiding in the identification of the interspecific chromosomes and apparent translocations in these somatic cell hybrids. PMID:1028166

  5. The use of fluorescence enhancement to improve the microscopic diagnosis of falciparum malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Paul; Guy Rebecca; Pennefather Peter; Crandall Ian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Giemsa staining of thick blood smears remains the "gold standard" for detecting malaria. However, this method is not very good for diagnosing low-level infections. A method for the simultaneous staining of Plasmodium-parasitized culture and blood smears for both bright field and fluorescence was developed and its ability to improve detection efficiency tested. Methods A total of 22 nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes were tested for their ability to provide easily obser...

  6. Clinical Significance of Combined Examinations of Peripheral Blood Smear,Bone Marrow Smear,Bone Marrow Biopsy,and Chromosome Analysis in the Diagnosis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes%四项联检对骨髓增生异常综合征诊断价值的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝建萍; 陈双; 马遇庆; 哈力达·亚森; 江明; 钟笛; 李玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of combined examinations of peripheral blood smear, bone marrow smear, bone marrow biopsy, and chromosome analysis in the diagnoisis of myelodysplastic syndromes ( MDS ). Methods Totally 89 MDS patients received the above four examinations. The results and their correlations were analyzed. Results Immature granulocytes and erythroblasts were detected in the peripheral blood smears of 46 and 37 patients, respectively. As shown by bone marrow smear, the dysplasias of granulocytic, erythrocytic, and megakaryocytic lines were found in 76 cases (85% ), 67 cases ( 75% ) and 35 cases ( 39% ), respectively. The bone marrow biopsy slice was superior to that in smear for the judgment of bone marrow hyperplasia ( P 5% in 28 cases ( 31% ). The detective rate of megakaryoid dysplasia in sections was higher than that of smear ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion The combined examination of these four methods can improve the accuracy of MDS diagnosis, but without statistical significance.%目的 初步探讨外周血涂片、骨髓涂片、骨髓活检和染色体联合检查在骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)中的诊断意义.方法 对初诊MDS的89例患者同时进行外周血涂片、骨髓涂片、骨髓活检和染色体检查,分析四项联检对MDS的诊断价值.结果 46例患者外周血出现幼稚粒细胞、37例出现幼稚红细胞;骨髓涂片三系病态造血分别为:髓系76例(85%)、红系67例(75%)和巨核系35例(39%);骨髓活检对骨髓增生程度的判断优于骨髓涂片(P<0.05);骨髓活检中出现幼稚前体细胞异位(ALIP)27例(30%),CD+34>5% 28例(31%),巨核系病态造血检出率骨髓活检高于骨髓涂片(P<0.05);合并网状纤维增生18例(20%),染色体异常35例(39%).外周血+骨髓涂片检查诊断MDS的阳性符合率为88%,外周血涂片+骨髓涂片+骨髓活检诊断阳性符合率为93%,外周血涂片+骨髓涂片+骨髓活检+染色体检查诊断阳性符合率为95%.但3种联检方

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) - A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat Sandhya K; Sastry Apurba S; Nagaraj E.R.; Sharadadevi Mannur; Sastry Anand S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 sam...

  8. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Sebaio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de

  9. Smeared Gauge Fixing

    CERN Document Server

    Hetrick, J E; Forcrand, Ph. de

    1998-01-01

    We present a new method of gauge fixing to standard lattice Landau gauge, Max Re Tr $\\sum_{\\mu,x}U_{\\mu,x}$, in which the link configuration is recursively smeared; these smeared links are then gauge fixed by standard extremization. The resulting gauge transformation is simultaneously applied to the original links. Following this preconditioning, the links are gauge fixed again as usual. This method is free of Gribov copies, and we find that for physical parameters ($\\beta \\geq 2$ in SU(2)), it generally results in the gauge fixed configuration with the globally maximal trace. This method is a general technique for finding a unique minimum to global optimization problems.

  10. Researches on efficacy of levofloxacin combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of retreated smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and its influence on T-cell subgroup levels in peripheral blood of patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Rong Yang; Wei-Jie Chen; Hui-Qi Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the efficacy of levofloxacin combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of retreated smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and its influence on t-cell subgroup levels in peripheral blood of patients. Methods:A total of 85 cases with TB were divided into control group (n=42) and study group (n=43) based on therapeutic methods, and patients in control group were given 3HRZE/6HRE conventional chemotherapy treatment, while patients in study group were added with levofloxacin treatment, on the basis of control group. Finally the influence of these two therapeutic methods on t-cell subgroup levels in peripheral blood of patients was compared. Results:(1) After treatment, t-cell subgroup levels in peripheral blood of patients in study group were significantly higher than that in control group;CD4+/CD8+level difference of patients in both groups had no statistical significance before and after treatment;(2) Adverse reaction occurrence rate of patients in control group during the therapeutic process was 14.29%(6/42), while adverse reaction occurrence rate of patients in study group during the therapeutic process was 11.63%(5/43), adverse reaction occurrence rate difference of patients during the therapeutic process in both groups had no statistical significance. Conclusion:Efficacy of levofloxacin combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of retreated smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis was obvious, and it could improve the organism immune function through improving t-cell subgroup levels in peripheral blood of patients, which was deserved clinical popularization.

  11. Analysis on peripheral blood smear red blood cell morphology in 93 patients of anemia%93例贫血患者外周血涂片红细胞形态学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morphological characteristics of peripheral blood red blood cell (RBC) in the patients with anemia .Methods The peripheral blood smears were selected from 93 cases of anemia and performed the morphological exami‐nation by the automatic reading instrument ,the heteromorphic red blood cells were examined by the manual microscopy .Results Among 93 patients of anemia analyzed by the DM‐96 automatic blood cell morphological analytical system ,anisocytosis accounted for 77 .4% ,in which 48 .4% were mainly microcytic ,heteromorphic RBC accounted for 55 .9% ,the detection rate of polychromato‐phil RBC had large difference between the manual microscopy and the instrument automatic reading ,the hypochromic RBC accoun‐ted for 11 .8% .The top three places of detection rates in heteromorphic RBC were elliptocyte ,RBC fragment and RBC rouleaux ar‐rangement .Conclusion Peripheral blood erythrocyte morphology analysis has an important significance in the RBC diseases ,espe‐cially in the diagnosis ,prognosis and treatment of anemia ,which provides the important basis of morphology for the reliability of la‐boratory report .%目的:探讨贫血患者外周血红细胞的形态学特征。方法选择93例贫血患者的外周血涂片在全自动阅片仪上进行红细胞形态学检查,对于异形性红细胞采取人工镜检。结果93例贫血患者经 DM‐96全自动血细胞形态分析系统分析,红细胞大小不均占77.4%,其中48.4%以小红细胞为主,异形性红细胞占55.9%,嗜多色性红细胞人工镜检与仪器自动阅片检出率差异较大,低色素性红细胞占11.8%。异形性红细胞形态中检出率居前三位的是椭圆形红细胞、红细胞碎片及红细胞缗钱状排列。结论外周血红细胞形态学分析在红细胞疾病,尤其是贫血的诊断、预后、治疗中具有重要的意义,为实验室报告的可靠性提供了形态学上的重要依据。

  12. The Finding and Phylogenetic Evolution Analysis of Bovine Piroplasms in the Rasŏn Area of North Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-jun; ZHANG Shou-fa; CAO Shi-nuo; QIAN Nian-chao; YU Long-zheng; XUAN Xue-nan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of bovine Piroplasms infections in the Rasŏn area of North Korea. The survey was carried out by light microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and phylogenetic evolution analysis of 128 blood samples collected from the Rasŏn area. The results showed that the infection rates of the small and large parasites were about 2.5 and 1.5% on average, respectively, in all Theileria sergenti and Babesia ovata-positive blood smears by microscopic examination of blood smears. The detection rate of T. sergenti Giemsa-stained smears was 43.75%, while that with PCR was 67.97%. The detection rate of B. ovata Giemsa-stained smears was 49.21%, while that with PCR was 71.88%. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA showed 98.84%homology between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. sergenti isolates from North Korean and that of Yanbian state from China, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. Moreover, 100%homology was shown between the 18S rRNA gene sequence of B. ovata isolates from North Korea and the published sequence AY081192 of GenBank, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. This survey confirmed that Rasŏn is the endemic area of T. sergenti and B. ovata in North Korea.

  13. Plasmodium ovale infection in Malaysia: first imported case

    OpenAIRE

    T Thiruventhiran; Chew Ching; Mahmud Rohela; Lim Yvonne AL; Chua Kek

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasmodium ovale infection is rarely reported in Malaysia. This is the first imported case of P. ovale infection in Malaysia which was initially misdiagnosed as Plasmodium vivax. Methods Peripheral blood sample was first examined by Giemsa-stained microscopy examination and further confirmed using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing. Results and Discussion Initial results from peripheral blood smear examination diagnosed P. vivax infection. However fur...

  14. Evaluation on blood smear review criteria for hematology analyzer%血细胞分析仪血涂片复审标准的制定及应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洁

    2009-01-01

    目的 制定血细胞分析仪血涂片复检的标准并加以评价,建立适合本院的复审标准.方法 通过对1368份临床标本血涂片进行显微镜检查,评价仪器提示结果与手工检查的一致性和标准执行的可行性.结果 仪器提示血小板减少与血涂片显微镜镜检结果相比较Kappa值0.95,U=35.19,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);未成熟粒细胞、异常淋巴细胞、核左移、血小板聚集的仪器结果与镜检结果比较,Kappa值分别为0.64、0.60、0.52,0.60,U值分别为24.9、22.2、21.98、17.65,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);原始粒细胞、有核红细胞的仪器结果与镜检结果比较,Kappa值分别为0.39、0.36,U值分别为13.54、8.24,差异有统计学意义P<0.01).依据标准复检血涂片,敏感度为81.9%,特异度为99%,准确度为95.5%.结论 本复检标准敏感度高、特异性强,表明符合本复检标准的标本均需要严格按照操作规程进行显微镜镜检,以免造成漏诊、误诊现象,提高血液学分析质量.%Objective To establish and evaluate blood smear review criteria for hematology analyzer,use hematology analyzer accurately,rationally and efficiently,so as to establish the review criteria suitable for our hospital.Methods The blood smear review criteria was established according to characteristics of hospitals and XE-2100 type hematology analyzer,and microscopic examination was performed on 1368 cases of blood smears.Then the concordance of test results of the hematology analyzer and manual method was analyzed,and the feasibility of the criteria was evaluated.Results The comparative results of analyzer method and blood smear method were as follows:platelet reduction (Kappa=0.95,U=35.19,P<0.0 1;with good concordance);immature granulocyte (Kappa=0.64,U:24.9,P<0.01;with acceptable concordance);atypitical lymphocyte (Kappa=0.60,U:22.2,P<0.01;with acceptable concordance);shift to the left (Kappa=0.52,U=21.98,P<0.01,with acceptable concordance

  15. Rapid diagnosis of bacteremia in adults using acridine orange stained buffy coat smears

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark; Mendelson, Jack

    1990-01-01

    The use of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was assessed as a rapid screening test for bacteremia in adults. A total of 356 consecutive blood cultures were submitted with simultaneous anticoagulated blood samples, from which a buffy coat smear was prepared and stained with acridine orange (100 mg/L; pH 3.0). Forty-one of 356 blood samples (12%) yielded organisms in the blood culture system. Compared to blood culture, the overall sensitivity of acridine orange stained buffy coat smear...

  16. A Study on Characteristics and Clinical Signifi cance of Blood Smear Heterotypic Lymphocytes Morphological Classifi cation%血涂片分类中异型淋巴细胞形态学特征分析及临床意义探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁进

    2014-01-01

    Blood smear classification plays an important role in clinical diagnosis of fever and other factors caused by diseases such as abnormal peripheral blood leukocytes. Blood smear classifi cation is indispensable, its accuracy directly affect the clinical doctor to the patient's diagnosis and treatment. Blood cell morphology is the main content of routine blood test and inspection personnel of the basic skills, however, blood cell microscopy was gradually neglected, after full automatic instrument widely used. To avoid misdiagnosis, we analyze the classification of blood smear in different spray cells morphological characteristics, and compared it with blood count instrument classifi cation results.%血涂片分类对于临床诊断发热及其他因素引起的外周血白细胞异常等疾病起着不可或缺的重要作用,其分类的准确与否直接影响着临床医生对患者的诊断与治疗。血细胞形态学是血常规检验的主要内容和检验人员必须掌握的基本技能,但是,血细胞显微镜检查逐渐被忽视,在全自动血细胞仪普遍使用后。为避免误诊,我们观察分析血涂片分类中异淋细胞的形态学特点,并与血细胞计数仪分类的结果进行比较。

  17. Rapid diagnosis by buffy coat smear of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, J. M.; Dealist, C; Lewis, W; Heseltine, P N

    1990-01-01

    A smear of the buffy coat of peripheral blood for acid-fast bacilli was assessed for sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Seventeen AIDS patients with blood cultures positive for MAC had simultaneous quantitative blood cultures and buffy coat smears performed, as did 4 patients later proven not to have disseminated MAC. The sensitivity of the buffy coat smear for the dete...

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against...

  19. Hypercubic smeared links for dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenfratz, A.; Hoffmann, R. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schaefer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-02-15

    We investigate a variant of hypercubic gauge link smearing where the SU(3) projection is replaced with a normalization to the corresponding unitary group. This smearing is differentiable and thus suitable for use in dynamical fermion simulations using molecular dynamics type algorithms. We show that this smearing is as efficient as projected hypercubic smearing in removing ultraviolet noise from the gauge fields. We test the normalized hypercubic smearing in dynamical improved (clover) Wilson and valence overlap simulations. (orig.)

  20. Survey on infection rate, vectors and molecular identification of Theileria annulata in cattle from North West, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand Yamchi, Jafar; Tavassoli, Mousa

    2016-09-01

    Tropical theileriosis is a progressive bovine lymphoproliferative disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. In this study 138 blood samples and 289 ticks were collected and examined from cattle that belonged to 10 randomly selected flocks. The Tbs-S/Tbs-A primer set was used for PCR amplification of Theileria spp. and the Ta-S/Tbs-A specific primer set was used in semi-nested PCR technique for detection of T. annulata. Blood smears of each case were examined by Giemsa staining method. The semi-nested PCR accurately revealed 22 (15.94 %) positive samples; whereas Giemsa staining method could detect 15 (10.86 %) out of 138 blood samples. The examination of 289 ticks by semi-nested PCR revealed that, 32.86 % of Hyalomma anatulicum anatulicum, 26.47 % of Hyalomma anatulicum excavatum and 22.42 % of Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum, were infected with T. annulata. The results suggest that H. anatulicum anatolicum may play a major role in transmission of T. annulata infection in Iran. The results indicated that the Giemsa staining method, having low sensitivity, while the semi-nested PCR technique can be used as a gold standard method for this purpose. PMID:27605839

  1. Morphological characteristics in corneal smear of acanthamoeba keratitis%阿米巴角膜炎刮片细胞学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智群; 李然; 张琛; 罗时运; 孙旭光; 金秀英

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the morphological characteristics in corneal smear of acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods Experimental study. From May 1991 to December 2007, in Department of Microbiology, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, 159 cases with acanthamoeba keratitis were analyzed for the laboratory results and clinical data. Giemsa's stained smear and wet-mount preparation of 159 cases were observed, all the results of cytology be photographed as the records. Results Among the 159 cases with acanthamoeba keratitis, 131 patients (82.4%) were positive on smear, and 110 cases (69.2%) were positive in culture of amoeba. The detection positive rate of smear was apparently higher than culture. Typical trophozoites, pre-encystment trophozoites, mature cysts and empty cysts could be observed by smear. So it is an important method for the clinical diagnosis. The edema and dissolved corneal epithelial cells, exudate cells, arthrospore or chlamydoconidium of mycelial fungus, vacuolus, lipid droplet and medicine crystallization should be differentiated with the pathogen. The movement of trophozoites could mainly be observed through wet-mount preparation. Conclusion The detection of typical features of trophozoites, pre-encystment trophozoites, mature cysts and empty cysts by corneal smear is important for the etiological diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis.%目的 探讨刮片细胞学检查诊断阿米巴角膜炎病原体形态特征.方法 实验研究.收集1991年5月至2007年12月期间,首都医科大学附属北京同仁医院、北京市眼科研究所眼微生物室诊断为阿米巴角膜炎的病例159例,对其实验室检查与临床资料进行分析.采用姬姆萨染色法和湿片检查法,对角膜刮片细胞进行观察并照相记录.结果 159例阿米巴角膜炎通过姬姆萨染色刮片细胞学检出阿米巴病原131例(82.4%),阿米巴培养阳性110例(69.2%).刮片细胞学检出率明显高于培养检出率.刮片细胞

  2. Usefulness of a centrifuged buffy coat smear examination for diagnosis of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, S.; Sharma, R.; M Deb

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge. Microscopic examination of peripheral blood smear (PBS) is the standard method for malaria diagnosis, which is easily available and has low cost but its reliability is questionable at low level of parasitaemia. The present study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of a modified centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS) technique for diagnosis of malaria and to compare it with conventional PBS examination and antigen detection te...

  3. Predictors and outcomes of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected smear- negative presumptive tuberculosis patients in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nakiyingi, Lydia; Ssengooba, Willy; Nakanjako, Damalie; Armstrong, Derek; Holshouser, Molly; Bruce J Kirenga; Shah, Maunank; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Moses L Joloba; Ellner, Jerrold J; Susan E Dorman; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis lacks sensitivity in HIV-infected symptomatic patients and increases the likelihood that mycobacterial infections particularly disseminated TB will be missed; delays in diagnosis can be fatal. Given the duration for MTB growth in blood culture, clinical predictors of MTB bacteremia may improve early diagnosis of mycobacteremia. We describe the predictors and mortality outcome of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected sputum smear-n...

  4. Comparação de nested-PCR com o diagnóstico direto na detecção de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. N. Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sinais clínicos das infecções por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são similares, e o diagnóstico desses patógenos feito por esfregaços sanguíneos corados é difícil devido à sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnósticos moleculares são altamente sensíveis e específicos, e nested-PCRs têm sido otimizadas para o diagnóstico preciso desses patógenos em cães. Em um Hospital Veterinário Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 cães, e esfregaços foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extraído e submetido à nPCR para detecção de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaços sanguíneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relação à nPCR, 57 e 55% dos cães foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaços sanguíneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR é altamente sensível e específica para detecção de ambos os patógenos, e os diagnósticos moleculares podem ser mais úteis nos Hospitais Veterinários.The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys

  5. Clay smear: Review of mechanisms and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk, Peter J.; Urai, Janos L.; Kettermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Clay smear is a collection of fault processes and resulting fault structures that form when normal faults deform layered sedimentary sections. These elusive structures have attracted deep interest from researchers interested in subsurface fluid flow, particularly in the oil and gas industry. In the four decades since the association between clay-smear structures and oil and gas accumulations was introduced, there has been extensive research into the fault processes that create clay smear and the resulting effects of that clay smear on fluid flow. We undertake a critical review of the literature associated with outcrop studies, laboratory and numerical modeling, and subsurface field studies of clay smear and propose a comprehensive summary that encompasses all of these elements. Important fault processes that contribute to clay smear are defined in the context of the ratio of rock strength and in situ effective stresses, the geometric evolution of fault systems, and the composition of the faulted section. We find that although there has been progress in all avenues pursued, progress has been uneven, and the processes that disrupt clay smears are mostly overlooked. We highlight those research areas that we think will yield the greatest benefit and suggest that taking these emerging results within a more process-based framework presented here will lead to a new generation of clay smear models.

  6. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  7. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  8. PAP SMEAR FOR SCREENING T. VAGINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh. K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is sometimes seen in Papanico laou stained smears, but because emphasis is placed on malignant cells in Papanicolaou stained smears, not much is done to search for this parasite in smears. In this study, cervical and vaginal specimens were examined by conventional Papanicolaou method fo r the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis microscopically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred high vaginal swabs collected from gynaecology OPD were stained with Papanicolaou stain. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty (30% out of 500 Papanicolaou stained smea rs screened, were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of them 76.67% of positiv e smears were from asymptomatic females. Presumptive diagnosis based on perinuclear halo and complete T. vaginalis had the highest sensitivity of 69.33%, while diagnosis base d on perinuclear halo alone was 50.66% and 41.33% for diagnosis based on identification of com plete organisms in Pap smear

  9. Comparison of Radiologic Findings among Smear-Positive and Smear- Negative Tuberculosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keramat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The most common site of involvement in TB is the lungs. TB in-volves different parts of the lungs and has variable radiologic features. The aim of this study was to compare radiologic sequels between smear positive and smear negative pulmonary tu-berculosis patients (PTPs. Materials & Methods: In an analytic cross-sectional study, 63 pulmonary tuberculosis patients who referred to Farshchian hospital and Health center in Hamadan from March 2012 to Sep-tember 2014 were enrolled. Demographic data, clinical manifestations of the patients (smear positive and smear negative, sputum smear results and imaging reports were gathered. In ad-ditional, clinical manifestations and radiological findings of the patients were evaluated at the end of the treatment. Thirty two patients remained until the end of the study. Results: Sixty three patients with mean age 56.85±24.20 were enrolled among that 68.25% of the patients were men and 31.75% were women. Forty four (69.84% of the patients were smear positive and 19 (30.16% of them were smear negative. Sputum was seen in smear positive patients more than smear negative patients. At the beginning of the treatment, the most common pulmonary involvements in imaging among the smear positive patients were reported to be nodular infiltration and fibrotic changes, but at the end of the treatment it was found to be atelectasis. However,in the smear negative patients the involvements were alveo-lar consolidation, nodular infiltration, pleural effusion, ground glass patterns and lymphade-nopathy, and at the end of the treatment, fibrotic changes and reduction of pulmonary volume were seen. At the end of the treatment, 54.5% of smear negative patients and 85.7% of smear positive patients had abnormal imaging. Conclusion: At the end of the treatment, abnormal findings on diagnostic imaging were ob-served in both smear positive and negative patients (more than 50%. Knowledge of common and various

  10. Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD. We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinical practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86% was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%. However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.As sombras nucleares têm sido classicamente associadasà leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC, embora possam ser encontradas nos esfregaços do sangue periférico de outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas (DLBC. Nesse estudo, nós investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfregaços do sangue periférico pode ser utilizada na prática clínica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfregaços do sangue periférico de 63 pacientes com o diagnóstico de LLC

  11. Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la Amazonía Peruana Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rosas-Aguirre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer nivel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año, utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito. Un microscopista con concordancia ≥90% (≥18 láminas acertadas fue definido como "experto", 80 a Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO, we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ≥90% (≥ 18 slides with correct diagnosis, as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and <90%, "competent" if they are between 70 and <80% and "in training" if they have <70%. Results. Microscopists with expertise (68.6% had more agreement than those without expertise (48.2%. The competency assessment was acceptable (competent, referent, or experts

  12. Utility of intradermal smear in the diagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H; Sen, R; Singh, S; Siwach, S B; Jagdish; Singh, R M

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the usefulness of the intradermal smear test in the diagnosis of malaria. One hundred cases of suspected malaria (having received no prior antimalarials) were investigated. Both peripheral blood film (PBF) and intradermal smears (IDS) were simultaneously prepared and patients placed on antimalarial therapy. The slides were repeated for the next 2 days. At admission, 70 cases were positive on PBF--59 were Plasmodium falciparum (PF) and 11 were Plasmodium vivax (PV) whereas surprisingly 62 cases were positive on IDS at admission--61 were PF, one was PV. IDS identified two more cases of PF [P value (not significant)] but failed to identify any new cases of PV (P value NS). On subsequent days IDS positivity for PF was higher than for PBF (P diagnostic tool in cases where malaria is strongly suspected but peripheral blood slides are repeatedly negative due to prior use of antimalarial therapy. IDS may be added to routine PBF in malaria (especially PF). PMID:12680550

  13. The significance of microbiopsies in cytological smears

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    Rana K Sherwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of malignant lesions is well documented. Conventionally obtained fine needle aspiration (FNA smears frequently contain well preserved viable intact tissue fragments (microbiopsies. Aims: The present study was aimed at evaluating the microbiopsies and carrying out further cyto-histopathologic correlation in order to assess what additional information they could provide. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 FNA smears from clinically suspected malignant lesions were examined, of which 81 smears (70.0% contained representative tissue fragments of the tumors. Histopathological details were available in 75 cases. Immunocytochemistry (ICC was applied in selected smears as and when required. Results: Tumors in which microbiopsies aided in diagnosis chiefly included soft tissue malignancies (12 cases, typed into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, fibrosarcoma, spindle cell sarcoma and malignant melanoma; lung tumors (14 cases classified as small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma; breast tumors (08 cases, typed into ductal, medullary and lobular carcinoma; and lymph node metastasis (19 cases from primaries in lung, larynx and thyroid. The cyto-histopathologic concordance was raised from 81.2% in the absence of microbiopsies to 93.2% in their presence. Conclusions: FNA smears containing microbiopsies are of ample help in establishing firm diagnosis, tumor typing, and predicting possible primary sites in metastatic tumors which were not possible by cytology alone. Hence, this technique can be utilized to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC, if put into practice in evaluation of routine cytology smears, without increasing any financial burden on patients.

  14. Improvement of fully automatically microscopic scanning system based on the oil-lens and its application in reading of malaria blood smears%基于油镜的全自动显微图像扫描采集系统改进和优化及在疟疾血片复审的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原; 纵兆民; 杨佩才; 张洪英; 魏德会; 李燕青; 黄景章; 周晓农

    2012-01-01

    Objective To improve the automatically microscopic scanning system based on the oil-lens and apply it in read-ing of malaria blood smears. Methods The software of the system was modified and optimized. A total of 115 blood films from Tengchong City of Yunnan Province were examined by the automatically systematic method or read by blood smear examination staff of Tengchong City and the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were determined and compared between the two methods. Re-sults The scanning of the system was speedier and the actual operation was more simple and convenient. The accuracy, sensitivi-ty and specificity of the system were better than those of the professional staff. There was a significant difference of accuracy be-tween the two methods (P = 0.002) and there was a significant difference of comprehensive sensitivity and specificity between the two methods (P < 0.01). Moreover, the system had the function of automatically saving scanning pictures which could be read again by everyone through the Internet. Conclusions The fully automatically microscopic scanning system based on the oil-lens has many functions and the operation is simple. It can improve the speed, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of malaria blood smears and those indices are much better than those of the reading smears under a microscope by the professional staff. Therefore, it is easier to be applied at the grassroots level.%目的 对基于油镜的全自动显微图像扫描采集系统(图象系统)软件部分进行修改和优化,并观察该改进和优化后的系统在疟疾血片复审中的应用效果.方法 对基于油镜的全自动显微图像扫描采集系统进行了软件部分的修改和优化.用改进和优化后的图像系统对云南省腾冲县的4个乡(镇)医疗机构门诊镜检站镜检员人工常规镜下读片的115张疟疾血片进行复审,比较该图像系统和人工镜下读片的准确度、敏感度和特异度.结果 改进和优化

  15. Effect of ultraviolet light in combination with ozone and hyperthermia on apoptosis induction in human peripheral blood lymphocytes%紫外线联合臭氧及高温诱导人外周血淋巴细胞凋亡作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍勇; 焦云根; 张昕; 杜林; 李伟; 张振刚

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of ultraviolet light in combination with ozone and hyperthermia on the apoptosis rate in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and to explore its mechanism in treatment of inflammatory-immune diseases. METHODS: Wright-Giemsa stain smear microscopy, DNA gel electro-phoresis and flow cytometry analysis were used to detect the respective and combined apoptosis rates of ultraviolet light, ozone and hyperthermia in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. RESULTS: The induced lymphocytes showed typical morphological changes of apoptosis and DNA typical ladder type line spectrum. Each apoptosis situation was quantitatively determined by flow cytometry. After ultraviolet irradiation for 10, 20 and 30 min, the apoptosis rates were, respectively, 12. 03% , 16. 98% and 26. 58% . After the high temperature at 40, 42. 5 and 451 for 20 min, the apoptosis rates were, respectively, 15. 9% , 26. 83% and 39. 88% . After ultraviolet irradiation and the high temperature, the apoptosis rate was 54. 5 % . After ultraviolet irradiation combined with hyperthermia and ozone, the highest apoptosis rate reached up to 76.2%. CONCLUSION: Lymphocyte apoptosis rates induced by ultraviolet light combined with ozone and hyperthermia increase significantly. Apoptosis rates of lymphocytes increase in a dose and time-dependent fashion within a certain range and reach the highest point after ultraviolet irradiation combined with hyperthermia at 42.5 C and ozone concentrations on 29 μg/ml for 20 min.%目的:观察紫外线、臭氧及高温综合治疗对人外周血淋巴细胞凋亡水平的影响,并探讨其在免疫炎症性疾病治疗中的作用.方法:采用瑞氏-姬姆萨染色涂片镜检、琼脂糖DNA凝胶电泳及流式细胞仪定量测定技术,检测紫外线、高温及臭氧分别及联合运用时人外周血淋巴细胞的凋亡率.结果:经诱导的淋巴细胞在光镜下均可观察到典型的凋亡细胞的形态改变,DNA电泳呈现有

  16. Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear

  17. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  18. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Simonato

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC. Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205 in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg. Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94. miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  19. Propagation and band width of smeared cracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The crack band approach (in the smeared crack concept) is widely used for the modeling of concrete fracture and is an important analysis technique within advanced engineering. However, the simulations can be impeded by mesh-induced directional bias. Cracks prefer to propagate along continuous mesh l

  20. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  1. Clinical and hematological study of canine Ehrlichiosis with otherhemoprotozoan parasites in Kolkata, West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mousam Das; Sabyasachi Konar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe other hemoprotozoan diseases with canine ehrlichiosis and to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with ehrlichiosis with other hemoprotozoan diseases.Methods:Blood was collected for hematological value and Giemsa stained blood smear was made for diagnosis of Ehrlichia sp. and other hemoprotozoan parasites from naturally infected dogs. Case history was taken from the owner and clinical signs and symptoms were noted.Results:A total of 47 cases of ehrlichiosis in dogs were reported with babesiosis (8.51%) and hepatozoonosis (6.38%) hemoprotozoan diseases. Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Brucella canis,Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis were observed under oil immersion lense of microscope in Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears. Marked anaemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis were observed.Conclusions:The results of this study stated that clinical and haematological changes occurred in canine ehrlichiosis with babesiosis and hepatozoonosis due to parasitemia. In mixed infection, the disease more severe, and also it depended on immunity of animals. Babesia gibsoni andHepatozoon canis with Ehrlichia sp. were first reported from West Bengal state of India by this study.

  2. Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?

    OpenAIRE

    K. Bhutia; M Puri; Gami, N.; Aggarwal, K; Trivedi, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap...

  3. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six...

  4. Prevalence and molecular phylogenetic characterization of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) minasense in the peripheral blood of small neotropical primates after a quarantine period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Leo, Natalie; Katakai, Yuko; Takano, Jun-ichiro; Akari, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shin-ichiro; Une, Yumi

    2008-10-01

    Neotropical primates of the Cebidae and Callitrichidae, in their natural habitats, are frequently infected with a variety of trypanosomes including Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes a serious zoonosis, Chagas' disease. The state of trypanosome infection after a 30-day quarantine period was assessed in 85 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and 15 red-handed tamarins (Saguinus midas), that were wild-caught and exported to Japan as companion animals or laboratory animals, for biomedical research, respectively. In addition to many microfilariae of Mansonella (Tetrapetalonema) mariae at a prevalence of 25.9%, and Dipetalonema caudispina at a prevalence of 3.5%, a few trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) minasense were detected in Giemsa-stained thin films of blood from 20 squirrel monkeys at a prevalence of 23.5%. Although few T. minasense trypomastigotes were found in Giemsa-stained blood films from tamarins, a buffy-coat examination detected trypanosomes in 12 red-handed tamarins (80.0%), and PCR amplification of a highly variable region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA) for Trypanosoma spp. detected the infection in 14 of the 15 tamarins (93.3%). Nucleotide sequences of the amplicons were identical for trypanosomes from tamarins and squirrel monkeys, indicating a high prevalence but low parasitemia of T. minasense in imported Neotropical nonhuman primates. Based on the SSU rDNA and 5.8S rDNA, the molecular phylogenetic characterization of T. minasense indicated that T. minasense is closely related to trypanosomes with Trypanosoma theileri-like morphology and is distinct from Trypanosoma (Tejeraia) rangeli, as well as from T. cruzi. Using some blood samples from these monkeys, amplification and subsequent sequencing of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene fragments detected 4 trypanosome genotypes, including 2 types of T. cruzi clade, 1 type of T. rangeli clade, and 1 T. rangeli-related type, but failed to

  5. The Shape of Covariantly Smeared Sources in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    von Hippel, Georg M; Rae, Thomas D; Wittig, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Covariantly smeared sources are commonly used in lattice QCD to enhance the projection onto the ground state. Here we investigate the dependence of their shape on the gauge field background and find that the presence of localized concentrations of magnetic field can lead to strong distortions which reduce the smearing radii achievable by iterative smearing prescriptions. In particular, as $a\\to 0$, iterative procedures like Jacobi smearing require increasingly large iteration counts in order to reach physically-sized smearing radii $r_{sm}\\sim$ 0.5 fm, and the resulting sources are strongly distorted. To bypass this issue, we propose a covariant smearing procedure (``free-form smearing'') that allows us to create arbitrarily shaped sources, including in particular Gaussians of arbitrary radius.

  6. Effect of The Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor кB and RANK Ligand on In Vitro Differentiation of Cord Blood CD133+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Osteoclasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Kalantari,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL appears to be an osteoclast-activating factor, bearing an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Some studies demonstrated that U-266 myeloma cell line and primary myeloma cells expressed RANK and RANKL. It had been reported that the expression of myeloid and monocytoid markers was increased by co-culturing myeloma cells with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. This study also attempted to show the molecular mechanism of RANK and RANKL on differentiation capability of human cord blood HSC to osteoclast, as well as expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR on cord blood HSC surface. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood and cultured in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF and RANKL. Osteoclast differentiation was characterized by using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining, giemsa staining, immunophenotyping, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for specific genes. Results: Hematopoietic stem cells expressed RANK before and after differentiation into osteoclast. Compared to control group, flow cytometric results showed an increased expression of RANK after differentiation. Expression of CTR mRNA showed TRAP reaction was positive in some differentiated cells, including osteoclast cells. Conclusion: Presence of RANKL and M-CSF in bone marrow could induce HSCs differentiation into osteoclast.

  7. Effect of The Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor кB and RANK Ligand on In Vitro Differentiation of Cord Blood CD133+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Osteoclasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Nasim; Abroun, Saeid; Soleimani, Masoud; Kaviani, Saeid; Azad, Mehdi; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Habibi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) appears to be an osteoclast-activating factor, bearing an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Some studies demonstrated that U-266 myeloma cell line and primary myeloma cells expressed RANK and RANKL. It had been reported that the expression of myeloid and monocytoid markers was increased by co-culturing myeloma cells with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). This study also attempted to show the molecular mechanism of RANK and RANKL on differentiation capability of human cord blood HSC to osteoclast, as well as expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) on cord blood HSC surface. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood and cultured in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL. Osteoclast differentiation was characterized by using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, giemsa staining, immunophenotyping, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for specific genes. Results Hematopoietic stem cells expressed RANK before and after differentiation into osteoclast. Compared to control group, flow cytometric results showed an increased expression of RANK after differentiation. Expression of CTR mRNA showed TRAP reaction was positive in some differentiated cells, including osteoclast cells. Conclusion Presence of RANKL and M-CSF in bone marrow could induce HSCs differentiation into osteoclast. PMID:27602313

  8. Comparison of Two Methods of Fixation with Carnoy`s Solution and 96% Ethyl Alcohol in Pap Smear Slides

    OpenAIRE

    KH Abdali; M Shamsi; N Riyaz Montazer; HR Tabatabaee

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Cervical carcinoma is a significant health care problem world wide. The Papanicolaou test is the most common effective tool available for early detection of cervical cancer. Blood could have a negative influence on the quality of the pap smear. Good fixation reduces red blood cells of the back ground slides and can help to improve this technique. One of the effective solutions for hemolyzing red blood cells is using Carnoys solution. The aim of this stu...

  9. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  10. Antigen detection of rabies virus in brain smear using direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanti R; Rahmadani I; Fitria Y

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is zoonotic disease caused by a fatal, neurotropic virus. Rabies virus is classified into the Genus of Lyssavirus under the yang family of Rhabdoviridae. Rabies affecting hot- blooded animals, as well as human. Dogs, cats, monkeys are the vectors or reservoirs for rabies and the virus was transmitted through the saliva after infected animal’s bites. The aim of this study was to conduct rapid diagnosis to detect rabies viral antigen in brain smear using immunohistochemical (IHC) method ...

  11. Evaluation of the effect of presence of blood in the stomach on endoscopic diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of blood in the stomach has been thought to affect the performance of diagnostic tests used in detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in the stomach. This study evaluated the effect of blood on the efficacy of rapid urease test (RUT and microscopic appearance of the biopsy after staining with Giemsa stain. Materials and Methods: Patients with bleeding oesophageal varices who met the inclusion criteria were tested for H. pylori by RUT and microscopic examination of the biopsy. A repeat endoscopy, RUT and histology were done one month following initial presentation. The performance of the diagnostic tests was evaluated with and without the presence of intraluminal blood. A combined result of the two tests, RUT and histology, carried out in presence or absence of blood for the diagnosis of H. pylori, when considered together was considered as the gold standard. Results: Thirty six patients included in the study were in the ages ranging between 15-60 years (mean age = 44.14 years ±2.1. The combination of tests at both visits showed 20/36 (55.6% patients were positive for H. pylori. The decrease in H. pylori positivity in the presence of blood was significant for RUT (8.3% vs. 38.9%; P=0.005 and combined test (19.4% vs. 47.2%; P=0.02 but the decrease in positivity for histology (11.1% vs 30.6% was not significant (P=0.08. In the presence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combined tests were 15%, 20% and 35%, respectively. In the absence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combination of tests was 70%, 55% and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Blood in the stomach significantly decreased the sensitivity of RUT, histology and the combination of both. Negative results of these tests in acute upper gastro intestinal (GI bleeding should therefore be interpreted carefully.

  12. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  13. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  14. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Palaoro

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper.

  15. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and

  16. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  17. A Study of 13315 Papanicolau Smear Diagnoses in Shohada Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Afrakhteh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods:  A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The abnormal Pap smear reports based on the Bethesda System were assessed.Results: A total of 13315 Pap smear reports were reviewed from patients aging 20 to 79 years old. Totally 6065 (45.55% cases had diagnosis of ‘negative', 293(2.21% smears were labeled as ‘inadequate', and 6799 (51.06% reports had ‘Benign cellular changes'. There were 158(1.18% abnormal Pap smears consisting of 84 (53.18% SIL with undetermined grade (ASC-US, 28(17.73% low grade SIL (LSIL, 17(10.75% high grade SIL (HSIL, 27(17.08% carcinoma and 2(1.26% atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS. Overall incidence of the cervical cancer among these samples was 0.2%. Benign cellular changes numbered 6799(51.06%, of which 5365 (78.9% smears demonstrated infectious processes.Conclusion: The number of abnormal pap smears in this study is less than western countries, but is comparable with Middle East and Islamic regions. More prospective studies are recommended.

  18. Influence of Root Canal Tapering on Smear Layer Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Tanbakuchi, Behrad; Zadeh, Mohsen Movahed; Mohammadi, Marzieh Maghadam

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to compare the influence of root canal taper on the efficacy of irrigants and chelating agents in smear layer removal. Eighty mesial roots of molar teeth were selected and prepared with rotary instruments. In group A, file 30/0.02 and in group B, file 30/0.4 were placed at working length and the smear layer was removed. In groups C and D, root canal preparation was the same as in groups A and B, respectively, except that the smear layer was not removed. The amount of the smear layer was quantified using a scanning electron microscope. Greater smear layer was detected in the apical portion of each group, whereas no significant difference was detected between groups in other portions. No statistical difference was found between canals with different tapers. PMID:27348950

  19. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Surabhi; Einstein, A; Shukla, Abhilasha; Mishra, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC), recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC) technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life. PMID:26980958

  20. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC, recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life.

  1. Usefulness of crush smears in intraoperative consultation of neurosurgical biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate accuracy of intraoperative crush smears diagnosis of neurosurgical biopsies. One hundred, neurosurgical biopsies were received for intraoperative consultation over a period of one year. Clinical information regarding age, gender, history, and CT scan or MRI findings were recorded. Crush smears were prepared, fixed in 95% alcohol and stained with rapid haemotoxylin and eosin (H and E) stains. Diagnosis was categorized into inflammatory, benign and malignant tumours. Remaining tissue was fixed overnight in 10% formalin for histological sections. Permanent H and E sections were used as the gold standard. The average time required for intraoperative cytological diagnosis was 8 minutes. Out of 100 neurosurgical biopsies, crush smears of 94 were considered suitable for interpretation. There were 8 inflammatory, 41 benign and 41 malignant tumours, including 4 inconclusive. Eighty-four of the crush smears diagnosis agreed with the histological diagnosis. Overall diagnostic accuracy of crush smears was 93.3%. Diagnosis of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumours showed specificity of 98.7%, 96% and 94%, and a sensitivity of 70%, 97.5% and 95% respectively. Crush smears are useful in the intraoperative diagnosis of space occupying lesions of central nervous system. The crush smears cytology was found highly reliable, rapid and inexpensive mode of intraoperative diagnosis. (author)

  2. Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)

  3. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Monahan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new "locally smeared operator product expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standard operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.

  4. Tuberculosis:an experience from Mycobacterium smears and culture analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeehaida M; Siti Asma H; Siti Hawa H; Zaidah AR; Norbanee TH

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Simple tests like direct smear of the acid fast bacilli (AFB)and Mycobacterium culture could assist the diagnosis of tuberculosis.This study is aimed at reviewing the outcome of smears,culture results and con-tamination rate among specimens requested for AFB smear and Mycobacterium culture.Methods:Retrospec-tive laboratory data analysis requesting for Mycobacterium culture from January 2005 till December 2006 was done in a tertiary teaching hospital of Universiti Sains Malaysia,Kubang Kerian,Kelantan,Malaysia.Re-sults:Four hundred and sixty seven (36.6%)isolates grew from 1 277 specimens.Of these isolates,314 (67.2%)grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis,23 (4.9%)grew Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis and 38 (8.1%)grew contaminants.Among the M.tuberculosis cultures,165 (52.5%)had growth of more than 100 confluent colonies,whereas 39 cultures (12.4%)had growth of less than 19 colonies.Direct smear for AFB among smear positive cases showed presence of more than 50 bacilli /line in 231 (49.5%)cases and smear negative cases accounted for 63 (13.5%).Among smear positive cases,291 (94.5%)cultures grew Myco-bacterium species and another 17 (5.5%)cultures grew contaminants.In smear negative cases,32 (62.7%) cultures grew Mycobacterium species and 19 (37.3%)cultures grew contaminants.Conclusion:The results from data analysis of the Mycobacterium cultures should be critically utilized in order to review the laboratory performance and to improve its services in the future.Some of the data is also useful to the administrators of the hospital in terms of estimating the risk of occupational hazard faced by the health care workers.

  5. Bleached smear microscopy provides higher yield in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jithendra Kandati; Suresh Kumar Boorsu; Ramamohan Pathalapati; Madhavulu Buchineni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the major deadliest communicable diseases throughout the world. Worldwide, 9.6 million people are estimated to have fallen ill with TB in 2014, India accounts for 23% of total global cases. The study evaluated the performance of direct sputum smear versus bleach concentration smear in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Patients more than 10 years of age who presented with history of cough for >2 weeks duration were included. One spot ...

  6. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence...... sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which...

  7. Exflagellated microgametes of Plasmodium vivax in human peripheral blood: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tembhare Prashant; Shirke Shalaka; Subramanian P; Sehgal Kunal; Gujral Sumeet

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral blood smear examination is the most specific as well as the most common test performed for the diagnosis of malaria. Schizonts, ring forms (trophozoites) and gametocytes are the stages of malarial parasite that are commonly seen in the peripheral blood smear of a patient. Here, we report an extremely rare case of a 40-year-old male patient who presented with Plasmodium vivax infection with multiple exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear with review of the litera...

  8. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rao P; Devi S; Shriyan A; Rajaram M; Jagdishchandra K

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalenc...

  9. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Enzyme-Linked Immunospot for Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cattamanchi, Adithya; Ssewenyana, Isaac; Nabatanzi, Rose; Cecily R Miller; den Boon, Saskia; Davis, J. Lucian; Andama, Alfred; Worodria, William; Samuel D Yoo; Cao, Huyen; Huang, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral blood interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, assessment of local immune responses has been reported to improve the accuracy of TB diagnosis. Methods We enrolled HIV-infected adults with cough ≥2 weeks’ duration admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda and referred for bronchoscopy following two negative sputum acid-fast bacillus smears. We performed an ELISPO...

  10. Cytologic Findings of Cervicovaginal Smears in Women with Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Hye Sun; Hong, Sung Ran; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the cytomorphologic features of histologically confirmed uterine papillary serous carcinomas (UPSC) of the endometrium. We reviewed cervicovaginal smears from 12 patients with UPSC who had done their cervical smears at six months to a year earlier before the time of diagnosis; nine smears (75%) were diagnosed as positive for malignancy and three smears (25%) were diagnosed as negative. The cervical smears of patients with UPSC revealed frequent papillary...

  11. Comparison of Diagnostic Cytomorphology of Atypical Squamous Cells in Liquid-Based Preparations and Conventional Smears

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung Dal; Oh, Young-Ha; Lee, Seong Ok; Kim, Jong Yull

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to compare the cytomorphologic features diagnostic of atypical squamous cells (ASC) in liquid-based preparations (LBPs) and conventional Pap (CP) smears and to cytomorphologically assess the performance of the Cell Scan 1500™ in cervical cytology practice. Methods Cervicovaginal smears were obtained from 938 women. Two smears were obtained simultaneously from each individual, one for an LBP and the other for a CP smear; the smears were independently exam...

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria -- overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, K M

    1994-01-01

    Features of the laboratory diagnosis of malaria are described. Microscope equipment is absolutely essential. Clinical symptoms are inadequate for the proper diagnosis of malaria. Screening for malaria involves identification of all cases where high fever is present in endemic areas. Diagnosis is complicated because many people take antimalarial drugs which reduce the chances of detecting malarial parasites. Confirmation should be made before treatment is administered. A thick blood slide can be quickly and cheaply taken without much training of health personnel. The disadvantage of thick stains is the difficulty in identifying "plasmodium" strains. When a thin smear with Giemsa and Leishmanin stain is used, a light infection may be missed. Thin smears require trained personnel and time, which in peak seasons may be impractical. Urinary tract and viral infections may be confused with malaria. Evidence of parasites can be discerned from thick stains. Modern assay techniques are also available. There are enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and immunofluorescent assay techniques (IFAT), which are frequently used in large scale seroepidemiological studies. DNA probes have the limitation of radioisotope handling problems. Acridine orange fluorescent microscopy with capillary centrifuged blood is a technique which improves the viability of Giemsa stain procedures. This technique is desirable because of the sensitivity and speed of diagnosis. The quantitative buddy coat (GBC) technique is superior to Giemsa stained thick blood film in identifying malaria, but it is not reliable with mixed infections. Advanced techniques are not readily available in local settings. The recommendation is to continue use of thick or thin blood film and trained health personnel. Laboratory results must be interpreted in the context of when the flood film was prepared, prior drug administration, and clinical manifestations.

  13. Can the skin smear examination in NLEP be reconsidered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porichha, D; Nayak, S; Sahoo, L B; Sahoo, N N; Jinde, B N

    2011-01-01

    Slit and skin smear examination is an important laboratory test which was made optional in the NLEP. In a laboratory managed by LEPRA Society, this test was provided to voluntary reporting cases and those referred by the general health service institutions of the area. Total cases tested were 1180, out of which 152 (12.9%) were positive. Of the 152 smear reports, 121 were from Koraput district and constitute the sample for this study. Regarding the spread of site wise highest BI, 56% cases had BI of 3.1+ to 6+. Of the 121 cases, 112 (92.6%) cases completed 12 doses of MDT. Seventy patients, from whom detailed information was collected by personal contact, responded well to MDT resulting in regression of lesions. Out of them, 46 cases had repeat smear showing negative smear in 39% and decline of 81 in the rest of cases. There are 16 contact cases with 2 family clusters. A rough block-wise mapping showed 4 strata with a dense clustering in the urban area where the laboratory facility is available. The probable reasons for uneven distribution of cases and causes for late diagnosis were discussed. The study reflects the leprosy problem in urban pockets which high infection pool. Together these two factors remain unexposed due to winding up of smear labs and pose a potential threat to elimination. The paper also emphasized on the reasons for past failure of the test along with suggestions to revive this facility with minor modifications.

  14. Socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Silvia Troyahn; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Ferla, Alcindo Antônio; Gouveia, Helga Geremias; Anschau, Fernando; Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To identify socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods An ecological study based on data of the 2011-2012 national health information system to estimate the annual coverage of pap smears for the overall female population of the state and for women without private health insurance. We estimated annual pap smear coverage according to the Municipal Social Vulnerability Index and health macro-regions and regions of the state. Results The percentage of women without private health insurance ranged from 38.1% to 94.2% in the health regions. Pap smear coverage was 17.3% for the overall female population and 23.8% for women without private health insurance. Pap smear coverage was higher in more socially vulnerable municipalities and regions with a higher percentage of women with private health insurance. Conclusions The prevalence of private health insurance should be considered in studies that address the coverage of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). PMID:26982680

  15. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita P. Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  16. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jamie L.; Paterson, Joyce; Liu, Weiguo; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:27403362

  17. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs.

  18. Drug resistance pattern among afb smear positive retreatment completed cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide, multidrug resistance (MDR TB) is a serious issue. It has increased over the last decade. Re-treatment completed sputum smear positive cases have much higher incidence of MDR- TB as compared to primary MDR - TB. Objective: To estimate the incidence of drug resistance pattern among AFB smear positive re-treatment completed cases. Study Design: Evidence based prospective study. Study Setting: Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan. Methodology: A total 50 (Male 22, Female 28) pulmonary TB patients who had completed Re- treatment regimen in the past and are still sputum smear positive for acid fast Bacilli were included in the study. Three consecutive sputum specimens were collected at Aga Khan University collection center at Lahore. The specimen were sent to Aga Khan University Lab Karachi for AFB smear, culture and drug sensitivity both for essential and reserve drugs. Reports for AFB smear were received within a week, while culture and drug sensitivity' reports after 6 weeks. Reports data was analyzed for essential and reserve anti tuberculous drug sensitivity for mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: Data Analysis revealed MDR TB in 31(62%) patients which include 11 males and 23 females. Individual drug resistance to essential drugs was INH - 62%, Rifampicin - 68%, Ethambutol - 24%, PZA - 25% and Streptomycin - 21 %. Poly drug resistance was determined in' 38% cases. Individual drug resistance to reserve drugs - kanamycin, Amikacin, ofloxacin, Ethionamide and PAS was 4%, 4%, 36%, 10% and 2% respectively. Conclusion: There is a very high proportion of MDR TB in sputum smear AFB positive retreatment cases. Suggestion: Comprehensive measures including DO- TS PLUS are needed to control MDR TB in Pakistan. (author)

  19. Comparative evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assay with microscopy for detection of asymptomatic carrier state of theileriosis in a herd of crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Charaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. Materials and Methods: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle. Blood smears from all animals and lymph node biopsy smears from animal with swollen lymph nodes were examined microscopically after conventional Giemsa staining. Phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method was used for extracting DNA from blood. Previously published primers targeting cytochrome b gene sequence of Theileria annulata were used in the PCR assay that was standardized to use in the laboratory. Results: Out of 29 samples tested,18 (62.06% were found positive for theileriosis by PCR assay, whereas only 10 (34.48% samples were detected positive by conventional microscopic technique using Giemsa staining method. Conclusions: On the basis results of comparative studies, it can be concluded that PCR assay is a more sensitive than microscopic examination for detection of theileriosis. This can be attributed to the ability of PCR assay to detect small amounts of genomic DNA of T. annulata or low parasitemia in cows. Therefore, PCR assay can serve as a more sensitive tool to detect Theileria for detection of theileriosis even in asymptomatic carrier cattle which is important for the implementation of successful control programs.

  20. Comparative evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assay with microscopy for detection of asymptomatic carrier state of theileriosis in a herd of crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaya, Gaurav; Rakha, N. K.; Maan, Sushila; Kumar, Aman; Kumar, Tarun; Jhambh, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. Materials and Methods: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle. Blood smears from all animals and lymph node biopsy smears from animal with swollen lymph nodes were examined microscopically after conventional Giemsa staining. Phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method was used for extracting DNA from blood. Previously published primers targeting cytochrome b gene sequence of Theileria annulata were used in the PCR assay that was standardized to use in the laboratory. Results: Out of 29 samples tested,18 (62.06%) were found positive for theileriosis by PCR assay, whereas only 10 (34.48%) samples were detected positive by conventional microscopic technique using Giemsa staining method. Conclusions: On the basis results of comparative studies, it can be concluded that PCR assay is a more sensitive than microscopic examination for detection of theileriosis. This can be attributed to the ability of PCR assay to detect small amounts of genomic DNA of T. annulata or low parasitemia in cows. Therefore, PCR assay can serve as a more sensitive tool to detect Theileria for detection of theileriosis even in asymptomatic carrier cattle which is important for the implementation of successful control programs. PMID:27733810

  1. [The dentinal smear layer. Characteristics and interactions. 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, P L; Eramo, S; Lotito, M; De Pino, C

    1991-03-15

    The Authors, after the presentation (in the first part of the Dossier) of a large literature review about the physical, chemical and clinical characteristics of formation, interaction, remotion of "smear layer" during cavity preparation in hard tooth tissue, describe the results of a scanning microelectronic research about the action as cleanser (for the dentinal cavity wall) of the CK101 (Caridex) versus wather, Tubulicid and phosphoric acid. The experimental results obtained "in vitro" show that the substance has relative action, without removing the tubular portion of "smear layer". PMID:2070916

  2. Filarial infections in domestic dogs in Lusaka, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T.; Nejsum, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott......'s concentration methods revealed microfilariae in 16 (5.9%) of the dogs. PCR confirmed that most of these dogs had Acanthocheilonema reconditum infection. Ten (4.0%) of the examined dogs were positive for Dirofilaria immitis circulating antigen (by DiroCHEK(®) test), but D. immitis microfilariae were...... not identified in any of the dogs and the status of this infection remains unclear. Further studies are needed to explore the occurrence of filariae in Zambian dogs and the zoonotic potential for humans....

  3. First case of visceral Leishmaniosis/HIV coinfection in Niš - southeastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniosis (VL has emerged as an important opportunistic parasitosis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The aim of this paper is to report the first case of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in a patient from Niš (Southeastern Serbia. Microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained bone marrow (BM smears show the presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes based on their morphological characteristics. In spite of the parasitological finding, the serological test applied gave negative results. Molecular analyses confirmed the infection and allowed us to identify the leishmania species as Leishmania infantum (100% identity. VL/HIV coinfection has important clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological implications. In fact, the failure of serological tests is expected in this condition, and the application of molecular diagnostics to the blood may offer, apart from an easy and non-invasive diagnostic opportunity, the possibility of warning about the risk of possible nosocomial infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41018 and br. 175034

  4. Molecular detection of natural Babesia bovis infection from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Babesia bovis (B. bovis) is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, with a considerable worldwide impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR assay and microscopical examination (ME) for detection of B. bovis in naturally infected and apparently healthy water...... were apparently healthy. Two blood samples were collected from each animal; one was used for preparation of Giemsa-stained smears for ME while the other sample was used for DNA extraction and PCR testing. Out of 34 cattle and buffaloes, ME identified 13 animals (38.2%) as infected by B. bovis whereas...... apparently healthy, 5 animals (26.3%) were identified as infected by ME meanwhile 15 animals (78.9%) were identified by PCR. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that water buffalos are likely to have a natural tolerance to B. bovis pathogen and/or more likely to be persistent carriers which were...

  5. Web-Based Virtual Microscopy of Digitized Blood Slides for Malaria Diagnosis: An Effective Tool for Skills Assessment in Different Countries and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Leonard H; Ainley, Carol; De la Salle, Barbara; Brereton, Michelle; Hyde, Keith; Burthem, John; Gilmore, William Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Morphological examination of blood films remains the reference standard for malaria diagnosis. Supporting the skills required to make an accurate morphological diagnosis is therefore essential. However, providing support across different countries and environments is a substantial challenge. Objective This paper reports a scheme supplying digital slides of malaria-infected blood within an Internet-based virtual microscope environment to users with different access to training and computing facilities. The feasibility of the approach was established, allowing users to test, record, and compare their own performance with that of other users. Methods From Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films, 56 large high-resolution digital slides were prepared, using high-quality image capture and 63x oil-immersion objective lens. The individual images were combined using the photomerge function of Adobe Photoshop and then adjusted to ensure resolution and reproduction of essential diagnostic features. Web delivery employed the Digital Slidebox platform allowing digital microscope viewing facilities and image annotation with data gathering from participants. Results Engagement was high with images viewed by 38 participants in five countries in a range of environments and a mean completion rate of 42/56 cases. The rate of parasite detection was 78% and accuracy of species identification was 53%, which was comparable with results of similar studies using glass slides. Data collection allowed users to compare performance with other users over time or for each individual case. Conclusions Overall, these results demonstrate that users worldwide can effectively engage with the system in a range of environments, with the potential to enhance personal performance through education, external quality assessment, and personal professional development, especially in regions where educational resources are difficult to access. PMID:27515009

  6. 眼部真菌感染组织涂片细胞学特征及其鉴别%Features and differentiation of smear cytology in ocular fungal infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智群; 李然; 张阳; 侯文博; 姜超; 孙旭光

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cytological feature and differentiate diagnosis of ocular fungal infections by smear cytology.Methods Experimental study.One thousand two hundred and twentysix specimens of smear cytology were collected retrospectively during January 2007-December 2010 from Microbial Laboratory of Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology.The 1226 specimens analyzed in this study were collected from patients who suffered from ocular fungal infections.The corneal scraping cells were observed by Giemsa staining,and the photographic record was saved.The morphological characteristics of fungal pathogens and the surrounding cells were analyzed by light microscopy.Results Nine hundred and ninety eight of 1226 (81.40%)specimens were positive with fungal pathogens,228 of 1226 (18.60%) specimens were fungal negative by smear cytology.976 of 998 (97.80%) fungal positive specimens were filamentous fungi positive,and 22 of 998 (2.20%) specimens were yeast positive.Among the 998 fungal positive specimens analyzed in this study,twenty-seven(2.71%)were collected from the vitreous,twelve(1.20%)were collected from aqueous humors,thirteen (1.30%) were collected from conjunctiva,seven (0.70%)were collected from eyelid margin,three(0.30%)were collected from lachrymal,and 8 were collected from other parts.The fungal pathogens should be differentiated from the deformed corneal epithelial cells,vacuoles,amebic cyst and other tissue cells during scraping.Conclusions The smear cytology test for the diagnosis of ocular fungal infections has advantages of higher detection rate,less time-consuming and easier operation.The identification of fungal like ingredients is very important to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of ocular fungal infections.%目的 探讨眼部真菌感染组织涂片细胞学特征及其鉴别要点.方法 临床实验研究.收集2007年1月至2010年12月期间,北京市眼科研究所眼微生物室眼部真菌感染组织涂片标本1226份,

  7. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Pap smear is simple, inexpensive and can be performed in the outpatient department. Hence, it should be recommended routinely as a method of improving reproductive health, early detection of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1911-1916

  8. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  9. Automated identification of cancerous smears using various competitive intelligent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounias, G; Bjerregaard, B; Jantzen, J; Tsakonas, A; Ampazis, N; Panagi, G; Panourgias, E

    2006-01-01

    In this study the performance of various intelligent methodologies is compared in the task of pap-smear diagnosis. The selected intelligent methodologies are briefly described and explained, and then, the acquired results are presented and discussed for their comprehensibility and usefulness to medical staff, either for fault diagnosis tasks, or for the construction of automated computer-assisted classification of smears. The intelligent methodologies used for the construction of pap-smear classifiers, are different clustering approaches, feature selection, neuro-fuzzy systems, inductive machine learning, genetic programming, and second order neural networks. Acquired results reveal the power of most intelligent techniques to obtain high quality solutions in this difficult problem of medical diagnosis. Some of the methods obtain almost perfect diagnostic accuracy in test data, but the outcome lacks comprehensibility. On the other hand, results scoring high in terms of comprehensibility are acquired from some methods, but with the drawback of achieving lower diagnostic accuracy. The experimental data used in this study were collected at a previous stage, for the purpose of combining intelligent diagnostic methodologies with other existing computer imaging technologies towards the construction of an automated smear cell classification device. PMID:16525690

  10. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios;

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis in...

  11. Tubercular endometritis detected through Pap smear campaign in Enugu, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuigbo, Wilson; Esimai, Bessie; Nwaekpe, Chinenye; Chijioke, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In a series of 3,267 cervical smears examined in Enugu, Nigeria, from 1993 through 2010, there was a single positive case of tuberculosis (TB). It was found in a 55-year-old, Para 7, postmenopausal woman. Treatment for tuberculosis was instituted successfully. PMID:22593783

  12. Critical evaluation of peripheral smear in cases of anemia with high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in children: A series of four cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Sunita; Pujani Meenu; Pahuja Sangeeta; Chandra Jagdish; Rath B; Labhchand

    2010-01-01

    Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), a parameter that is reported as a part of a standard complete blood count by automated analyzer, is a measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cell. Values of MCHC significantly above reference range are not physiologically possible due to limitations on solubility of hemoglobin. The high MCHC can give us a clue to certain type of hemolytic anemia and necessitate critical evaluation of peripheral smear t...

  13. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

  14. Assessing the Performance of CareStart Malaria Pf/Pv Combo Test Against Thick Blood Film in the Diagnosis of Malaria in Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse HAILU; Kebede, Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Bivalent rapid diagnostic tests are promising diagnostic tools for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Their diagnostic performance was evaluated against thick blood smear to assist national malaria control programs. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the performance of CareStart against thick blood smears among 398 acute febrile patients visiting the Felegeselam Health Center in December of 2011. Thick blood smears were examined under 100× objectives to diagnose Plasmodium spe...

  15. Does the practice of blood film microscopy for detection and quantification of malaria parasites in northwest Ethiopia fit the standard?

    OpenAIRE

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Ali, Jemal; Walle, Fisha; Gudeta, Nigussu; Kassu, Afework; Mulu, Andargachew

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of malaria in clinical laboratories mainly depends on blood smear microscopy and this technique remains the most widely used in Ethiopia. Despite the importance of blood smear microscopy for patient’s diagnosis and treatment, little effort has been made to precisely determine and identify sources of error in malaria smear microscopic diagnosis and quantification of parasitaemia. The main objective of the present study was to assess the laboratory practices of health c...

  16. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography

  17. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  18. Dysbacteriosis in silver-stained cervical smears of Dutch-Moroccan immigrants : HPV infection and preneoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, BSM; Boon, ME; van Schie, MA; Wijsman-Grootendorst, R; Kok, LP

    2006-01-01

    The vaginal/cervical smears of a group of Moroccan immigrants were used to compare vaginal dysbacteriosis (i.e., a bacterial population change with a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase of coccoid bacteria in vaginal/cervical smears) with Dutch women. From our archives, 779 smears from Moroccan

  19. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Fred Luciano Neves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni.

  20. Delay in treatment seeking of smear positive tuberculous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)

  1. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  2. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Pleva; Leona Buňková; Eva Theimrová; Vendula Bartošáková; František Buňka; Khatantuul Purevdorj

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci...

  3. Screening of cancer cervix: Pap smear in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Parimala A; Nidhi Sharma; Jayashree K. Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cervical premalignant lesions in rural India is likely to be high due to presence of several risk factors like early marriage, early coitarche and multiparity. Hence prospective cross sectional study was conducted to find the incidence of pre-invasive state and cancer of cervix in women between the age group 30 and 60 years, visiting Thirumazhisai health centre by Pap's smear method. Methods: Cervical mucosa is scraped, using Ayre spatula a 360 and deg; tu...

  4. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Dhanashri V Kulkarni; V L Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symp...

  5. Pap smear rates among Haitian immigrant women in eastern Massachusetts.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Eric H.; Freund, Karen M; Posner, Michael A.; David, Michele M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given limited prior evidence of high rates of cervical cancer in Haitian immigrant women in the U.S., this study was designed to examine self-reported Pap smear screening rates for Haitian immigrant women and compare them to rates for women of other ethnicities. METHODS: Multi-ethnic women at least 40 years of age living in neighborhoods with large Haitian immigrant populations in eastern Massachusetts were surveyed in 2000-2002. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used ...

  6. ANALYSIS OF CELL BLOCK VS . CONVENTIONAL SMEAR IN FLUID CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cytological examination of aspirates of serous effusions is a routinely accepted , simple , safe and minimally invasive technique . Diagnosis in this investigation , especially in malignant effusions , helps in staging , prognosis and management of the patients . AIMS: To assess the utility and sensitivity of cell block method over conventional smear technique in cytodiagnosis of the serous effusions . METHODS: A total of 72 fluid specimens were subjected to simultaneous processing by conventional s mear and cell block technique . Each fluid specimen was divided into two equal parts and results compared for cellularity , cell architecture , cytoplasmic and nuclear features . Cell blocks were prepared using modified cell block technique using alcohol forma lin fixative . RESULTS: The utility of cell block technique in diagnosing malignant effusions is highly significant as compared to the conventional smear technique . Also , the technique using alcohol formalin fixative is simple , safe and these chemicals are routinely used in laboratory . CONCLUSION: Cell block technique is superior to conventional smear technique , especially for malignant effusions . It gives more information about the architectural arrangement and the likely source of primary . More important is that diagnostic material in cell blocks is available for special studies for . I mmunohistochemistry which can further supplement our knowledge about the primary source of metastasis

  7. PCR和染色镜检方法诊断猪附红细胞体的比较%Comparison of PCR and Microscopic Examination of Giemsa-stained to Detect Mycoplasma suis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾杏林; 齐长明; 沈志强; 田凤荣; 庄金秋

    2010-01-01

    参照Hoelzle等报道的猪附红细胞体(Mycoplasma suis)PCR诊断方法,提取病原DNA进行PCR扩增,经克隆、测序得到781 bp片段,与Genbank中序列(登录号AJ504999)进行比较,同源性为99.4%.用该方法从大肠杆菌等猪常见病原基因组未扩增出相同的序列,表明其特异性好.以PCR和染色镜检方法分别检测3个猪场15份临床发病猪血液样品,M.suis阳性率均为100%,结果符合率为100%,差异不显著(P>0.05);PCR检测和涂片染色镜检5个猪场25份临床健康猪血样,M. suis阳性率分别为100%和68.0%,二者符合率为68.0%,差异显著(P<0.05).

  8. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    OpenAIRE

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-01-01

    Complete blood count (CBC) tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters,...

  9. Usefulness of a centrifuged buffy coat smear examination for diagnosis of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohanty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge. Microscopic examination of peripheral blood smear (PBS is the standard method for malaria diagnosis, which is easily available and has low cost but its reliability is questionable at low level of parasitaemia. The present study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of a modified centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS technique for diagnosis of malaria and to compare it with conventional PBS examination and antigen detection test. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a 6-month period from July to December 2011. Blood samples (2-3 ml per patient collected in EDTAvials from patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria were subjected to all three tests, that is PBS, CBCS and antigen test and results were compared with antigen test as the gold standard. Result: Of 1655 samples received, 394 (23.8% samples were positive for infection with malaria parasites. All the three tests detected malaria infection equally in 279 samples, and gave varied results in the remaining 115 samples. Addition of centrifugation (i.e. CBCS to the conventional method of PBS enabled detection of 80 more cases of plasmodia infection, especially (43, 53.7% at low levels of parasitaemia (<200 parasites/μl. While both PBS and CBCS had excellent specificity (99.7% and 99.2%, respectively, PBS examination had low sensitivity (72.9% in detecting malaria parasites in comparison to CBCS. The sensitivity of CBCS in detecting malaria parasites was 91.9%. Conclusion: The development of easy, rapid and accurate tests for the reliable detection of plasmodia infection is highly desirable. The CBCS technique fulfils most of these criteria and may be adopted for rapid and reliable diagnosis of malaria in resource-limited settings.

  10. Loss of accuracy using smeared properties in composite beam modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning

    Advanced composite materials have broad, proven applications in many engineering systems ranging from sports equipment sectors to components on the space shuttle because of their lightweight characteristics and significantly high stiffness. Together with this merit of composite materials is the challenge of improving computational simulation process for composites analysis. Composite structures, particularly composite laminates, usually consist of many layers with different lay-up angles. The anisotropic and heterogeneous features render 3D finite element analysis (FEA) computationally expensive in terms of the computational time and the computing power. At the constituent level, composite materials are heterogeneous. But quite often one homogenizes each layer of composites, i.e. lamina, and uses the homogenized material properties as averaged (smeared) values of those constituent materials for analysis. This is an approach extensively used in design and analysis of composite laminates. Furthermore, many industries tempted to use smeared properties at the laminate level to further reduce the model of composite structures. At this scale, smeared properties are averaged material properties that are weighted by the layer thickness. Although this approach has the advantage of saving computational time and cost of modeling significantly, the prediction of the structural responses may not be accurate, particularly the pointwise stress distribution. Therefore, it is important to quantify the loss of accuracy when one uses smeared properties. In this paper, several different benchmark problems are carefully investigated in order to exemplify the effect of the smeared properties on the global behavior and pointwise stress distribution of the composite beam. In the classical beam theory, both Newtonian method and variational method include several ad hoc assumptions to construct the model, however, these assumptions are avoided if one uses variational asymptotic method. VABS

  11. National guidelines not always followed when diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with HIV in Botswana.

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    Taurayi A Tafuma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPTB is challenging, especially in patients with HIV. The Botswana National Tuberculosis Program (BNTP guidelines give guidance in diagnosing and treating SNPTB. Patients with chronic cough should be screened for TB by 3 sputum smear investigations. If negative, a chest x-ray (CXR should be performed. If negative for TB, antimicrobial treatment for other infections should be started. We investigated the clinicians' use of the guidelines in clinical practice. METHODS: Data regarding the medical history (coughing period, requested and conducted investigations concerning tuberculosis diagnosis (sputum smear or culture or CXR or alternative diagnoses (sputum microscopy or blood or sputum culture for diagnosis of other organisms, in SNPTB HIV-positive patients (outpatients and admitted patients from 2006-2009 in a district hospital in Botswana were extracted from all available hospital medical records. Additionally, a survey was done in all doctors diagnosing SNPTB in this hospital using a self-administered questionnaire with questions regarding the application of the BNTP guidelines in practice. Descriptive analyses of collected data were performed to test the compliance to the guidelines. RESULTS: Data from medical records showed that in 47.0% (132/281 of patients, TB treatment was started without microbiological results from sputum smears. Other methods to rule out or confirm PTB were used in 2.1% (6/281; and 99.6% (280/281 of SNPTB patients had received a CXR. The survey in 7 clinicians found that all always used CXR, and all clinicians requested three sputum results only sometimes. Six out of 7 clinicians started antibiotics before starting TB treatment. Reasons clinicians gave for difficulties in following the guidelines included inability of patients to produce sputum; and laboratory delays in releasing sputum results. CONCLUSION: Between 2006 and 2009 a high proportion of SNPTB

  12. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

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    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  13. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in 3D - a field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettermann, Michael; Tronberens, Sebastian; Urai, Janos; Asmus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Clay smears in sedimentary basins are important factors defining the sealing properties of faults. However, as clay smears are highly complex 3D structures, processes involved in the formation and deformation of clay smears are not well identified and understood. To enhance the prediction of sealing properties of clay smears extensive studies of these structures are necessary including the 3D information. We present extraordinary outcrop data from an open cast lignite mine (Hambach) in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have Shale Gouge Ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. Material in the fault zones is layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. We studied the 3D thickness distribution of clay smear from a series of thin-spaced incremental cross-sections and several cross-sections in larger distances along the fault. Additionally, we excavated two large clay smear surfaces. Our observations show that clay smears are strongly affected by R- and R'-shears, mostly at the footwall side of our outcrops. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes. Thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cutoffs. Investigating the 3D thickness of the clay smears shows a heterogeneous distribution, rather than a continuous thinning of the smear with increasing distance to the source layers. We found two types of layered clay smears: one with continuous sheared sand between two clay smears providing vertical pathways for fluid flow, and one which consists of overlapping clay patches separated by sheared sand that provide a tortuous pathway across the clay smear. On smaller scale we identified grain-scale mixing as an important process for the formation of clay smears. Sand can be entrained into the clay smear by mixing from the surrounding host rock as well as due to intense shearing of sand lenses that were incorporated into the smear. This causes clay smears

  14. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

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    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  15. Changing trends in prevalence of different Plasmodium species with dominance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in Aligarh (India)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haris M Khan; Fatima Shujatullah; Mohammad Ashfaq; Adil Raza

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of malaria in Aligarh and analyze species dominance in different years over a decade. Methods: Diagnosis of malaria was done using microscopy as gold standard, rapid antigen detection assays and quantitative buffy coat (QBC) assays. Giemsa stained blood smear examination was done, thick and thin films were examined for presence of different Plasmodium spp. Rapid antigen detection assays employing detection of HRP-2 and parasite lactate dehydrogenase antigen (pLDH) by immunochromatography was done in patients whose blood smear found to be negative by conventional Giemsa slide examination. QBC was done in cases where there is strong clinical suspicion of malaria with blood smear negative, in patients with chronic malaria, splenomegaly, or in those patients who had inadequate treatment and for post-treatment follow up. Results: Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were only species detected in our hospital. Overall prevalence of malaria in Aligarh was found to be 8.8%. The maximum prevalence of 20.1% was observed in year 2008 and lowest 2.3% in 2002.Conclusions:High prevalence of malaria is observed in this part of country with dominance of both species particularly Plasmodium falciparum should be monitored and factors accounting for occurrence should be studied to employ effective control measures.

  16. Alignment of microcircuit chips using optically smeared images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R W

    1979-02-01

    An optical method for determining the position of microcircuit chips for wirebonding or electrical testing stations was evaluated. Optically smearing the chip image in one direction with a cylindrical lens produces a convenient means for determining both chip angular orientation and position. Digitized images from a linear photodiode array camera were analyzed. The results show that a class of microcircuit chips with medium scale integration can be aligned in angle and position to a higher accuracy than required for wirebonding and electrical testing stations. PMID:20208714

  17. Mass shell smearing effects in top pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksa, V I; Vlasenko, D E

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production and decay are considered in the framework of the smeared-mass unstable particles model. The results for total and differential cross sections in vicinity of $t\\bar{t}$ threshold are in good agreement with the previous ones in the literature. The strategy of calculations of the higher order corrections in the framework of the model is discussed. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations compared to the standard perturbative one and can serve as a convenient tool for fast and precise preliminary analysis of processes involving intermediate time-like top quark exchanges in the near-threshold region.

  18. Smearing of Observables and Spectral Measures on Quantum Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2012-01-01

    An observable on a quantum structure is any $\\sigma$-homomorphism of quantum structures from the Borel $\\sigma$-algebra of the real line into the quantum structure which is in our case a monotone $\\sigma$-complete effect algebras with the Riesz Decomposition Property. We show that every observable is a smearing of a sharp observable which takes values from a Boolean $\\sigma$-subalgebra of the effect algebra, and we prove that for every element of the effect algebra there is its spectral measure.

  19. Critical evaluation of peripheral smear in cases of anemia with high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in children: A series of four cases

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    Sharma Sunita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, a parameter that is reported as a part of a standard complete blood count by automated analyzer, is a measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cell. Values of MCHC significantly above reference range are not physiologically possible due to limitations on solubility of hemoglobin. The high MCHC can give us a clue to certain type of hemolytic anemia and necessitate critical evaluation of peripheral smear to reach a definitive diagnosis. Here we are presenting a series of four cases with raised MCHC, emphasizing the importance of systematic and meticulous examination of the peripheral smear to render a definitive diagnosis.

  20. Immunofluorescence of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen in white blood cells from experimentally infected immunocompetent calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezek, D M; Baker, J. C.; Kaneene, J B

    1988-01-01

    A study to evaluate the detection of bovine virus diarrhea viral antigen using immunofluorescence testing of white blood cells was conducted. Five colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated intravenously with a cytopathic strain of the virus. Lymphocyte and buffy coat smears were prepared daily for direct immunofluorescent staining for detection of antigen. Lymphocytes were separated from heparinized blood using a Ficoll density procedure. Buffy coat smears were prepared from centrifuged blood...

  1. Blood parameters changes in cord blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers

    OpenAIRE

    BOLAT, Ahmet; Gursel, Orhan; Kurekci, Emin; Atay, Avni; Ozcan, Okan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the peripheral blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers. The umbilical cord blood from newborns of 31 hypertensive mothers and 32 healthy mothers were examined. In all subjects, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin levels and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. The subjects were followed up on for 1 year in terms of infections. RBC, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and norm...

  2. Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients.

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    Adithya Cattamanchi

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. However, assessment of local immune responses has been reported to improve the accuracy of TB diagnosis.We enrolled HIV-infected adults with cough ≥2 weeks' duration admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda and referred for bronchoscopy following two negative sputum acid-fast bacillus smears. We performed an ELISPOT-based IGRA (T-SPOT.TB®, Oxford Immunotec, Oxford, UK using peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid mononuclear cells, and determined the accuracy of IGRAs using mycobacterial culture results as a reference standard.94 HIV-infected patients with paired peripheral blood and BAL IGRA results were included. The study population was young (median age 34 years [IQR 28-40 years] and had advanced HIV/AIDS (median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count 60 cells/µl [IQR 22-200 cells/µl]. The proportion of indeterminate IGRA results was higher in BAL fluid than in peripheral blood specimens (34% vs. 14%, difference 20%, 95% CI 7-33%, p = 0.002. BAL IGRA had moderate sensitivity (73%, 95% CI 50-89% but poor specificity (48%, 95% CI 32-64% for TB diagnosis. Sensitivity was similar (75%, 95% CI 57-89% and specificity was higher (78%, 95% CI 63-88% when IGRA was performed on peripheral blood.BAL IGRA performed poorly for the diagnosis of smear-negative TB in a high HIV/TB burden setting. Further studies are needed to examine reasons for the large proportion of indeterminate results and low specificity of BAL IGRA for active TB in high HIV/TB burden settings.

  4. Smear correction of highly-variable, frame-transfer-CCD images with application to polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Nagaraju, K

    2015-01-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutter-less operation of frame transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear, do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  5. Determination of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors of female physicians about Pap smear test

    OpenAIRE

    Oguz Isik; Mustafa Celik; Hamit Sirri Keten; Ahmet Ferit Dalgaci; Fatis Yildirim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Pap smear test is a cytological screening test based on collecting and examining shedded cervical cells. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female physicians in Pap smear test. Material and Methods: In the present study, a total of 197 female physicians who worked in Kahramanmaras province were included. After obtaining informed consents, questionnaire was applied to participants. Knowledge level of participants in Pap smear test were ev...

  6. Comparison of ThinPrep and conventional smears in head and neck fine needle aspiration cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya KÖYBAŞIOĞLU; Önal, Binnur; Gülçin Güler ŞİMŞEK; Yilmazer, Demet; Han, Ünsal

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The ThinPrep Processor has gained popularity as a collection and preparation technique for fine needle aspiration cytology in addition to Papanicolaou smear test. The aim of this study was to compare the various cytologic features of ThinPrep and conventional smear in head and neck masses.Material and Methods: We reviewed 71 consecutive fine needle aspiration cytology specimens and the conventional smear and ThinPrep slides diagnosed without knowledge of histopathologic diagnosis. Statis...

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of abnormal Papanicolaou smear in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M.; Kamal, Mehak; Bamuhair, Samira S.; Omair, Aamir A.; Bamefleh, Hana S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of abnormal pap smear in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this retrospective case control study conducted in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Histopathology at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, all pap smears screened for Saudi women between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed. Approximately 5000 pap smears are screened annually at King Abdulaziz Medical City utilizing the Bethesda III...

  8. [Papanicolau smears: reducing the false negative rate by improving the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Galya; Levy, Tally

    2004-03-01

    Screening for cervical carcinoma precursors by Papanicolau (Pap) smears diminishes the incidence of cervical cancer in screened populations. The Pap smear test has a considerable rate of false negatives and in order to improve its efficiency and sensitivity several types of technologies were developed, two of which are discussed in this review. One entails measures for collecting cells from the cervix into a liquid medium and preparing single layer smears from these cells. Using this method, a thin and clean smear is obtained, in comparison to the regular Pap smear. The liquid-based test improves sample adequacy and increases the diagnostic accuracy of low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The second type of technology is computerized deciphering of cervical smears, which are prepared either by the regular method or using the previously mentioned thin smear. the computerized deciphering is based on structural measurements of cells via an instrument that is programmed to differentiate between cellular components, thus categorizing the smears into those which are normal and those that require further evaluation by a cytopathologist. Alternatively the computer can display the most abnormal cells in the smear to the cytopathologist. In this manner, the workload of the cytopathologist is reduced while the test efficiency and sensitivity are increased.

  9. Stepwise Protocol for Cytospin-enhanced Smearing for Scraped Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyalatha, Mani V; Malathi, Jambulingam; Madhavan, Hajib N

    2016-01-01

    Proteins and antigens present on the cell surface are usually determined by immunofluorescence staining. Uniform distribution of cells is required to appreciate the presence of surface proteins. Improper smearing or crushing of the corneal epithelial cells can potentially destroy the cellular integrity. Thus a simplified, systemic method was designed to smear the cells scraped from the cornea. The procedure includes trypsinisation for dissociation of corneal epithelial cells and cytospinning for concentrating the cells in a smear. The standardized protocol was found to be efficient in maintaining the integrity of the corneal epithelial cells and also the distribution of the cells in the smear. PMID:26633702

  10. Auditing smear microscopy results according to time to detection using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ TB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaghier, A A F

    2015-09-01

    Smear microscopy is a rapid method for the identification of the most infectious patients with mycobacterial infection. Suboptimal smear microscopy may significantly compromise or delay patient isolation and contact tracing. A stringent method for auditing mycobacterial smear results is thus needed. This article proposes an auditing tool based on time to detection (TTD) of culture-positive samples using the automated BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 TB system. In our study, sputum samples subjected to liquefaction and concentration before staining with a TTD of ≤ 13 days using the BACTEC system should be positive on smear microscopy. PMID:26260828

  11. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  12. The first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel Theileria spp. co-infection in a South African giraffe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tongyi; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Lv, Yali; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Jiantang; Yang, Guangcheng; Ning, Changshen

    2016-08-01

    Organisms of the genera Anaplasma and Theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. In the present study, a 12-month-old male wild South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from South Africa, and living in Zhengzhou Zoo (located in the urban district of Zhengzhou in the provincial capital of Henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and died 1day after the onset of the clinical signs. By microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears combined with nested PCR and DNA sequence analysis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis and a novel Theileria spp. were found in the blood of this giraffe. The six other Cervidae animals in the zoo and three ruminants living in the same colony house with them were found to be negative for both Anaplasma and Theileria in their blood specimens. We report on the first case of an A. phagocytophilum infection and the occurrence of a novel Theileria spp. in the blood of a giraffe. This is the first reported case of a multi-infection of A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. in a giraffe, as revealed by microscopic examination of blood smears and the results of nested PCR and DNA sequencing. PMID:27109775

  13. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  14. A STUDY OF SEX CHEROMATIN FORM BUCCAL SMEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of sex of an individual is an important subject in Forensic Medicine and Criminology and in Civil Law. The determination of sex is necessary in both living and the dead bodies. The expert opinion of the medico legal specialist regarding positive identification of an individual will be required for the following reasons. For the identification of the sex of individual whether living or dead , For deciding cases relating to legitimacy, divorce, paternity, affiliation, marriage, education, im potence, right to disposal of property, and in intersex condition & in cases of concealed sex. Determination of sex will be done by presumptive, probable and certain signs of sex. Sex chromatin is a planoconvex mass of about 1 micron in diameter lying near nuclear membrane - Barr body. In the buccal smear the percentage of the nuclei containing chromatin body ranges from 0 to 4 in males & 20n to 80 in females . In females neutrophil leucocytes contain a small nuclear attachment of drum stick form - David son bo dy in up to 6% of cell . This is absent in males . Exact sex determination can be made by using a single specimen of buccal smear , saliva or hair follicle, by the combined treatment of quinacrinedi hydrochloride staining for Y chromosome which is seen as bright florescent body in the nuclei of male cell & florescent feulgen reaction using acriflavin Schiff reagent for X chromosomes , which is seen as bright yellow spot in the nuclei . The percentage of quanacrine positive bodies ranges from 45 to 80% in male s , and 0 to 4% in females . With feulgen reaction technique florescent bodies are found in 50 to 70 % of cell in females, and 0 to 2% in males. Determination of sex chromatin pattern was done by examination of oral smears technique on 50 males and 50 female s who have attended the Casualty of Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu., A. P . , in the Dept . of forensic Medicine from 17 - 06 - 2012 to 30 - 12 - 2014. Slides were

  15. Study on impression smears of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Reddy, B Sudhakara; Rayulu, V C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic coccidiosis is a contagious and lethal disease condition in rabbits. The disease was recorded in six rabbits suffering with watery diarrhoea. Clinically, affected rabbits showed decreased growth rate, anorexia, debilitation, diarrhea and rough hair coat. Examination of the faecal samples revealed the presence of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. After sporulation Eimeria stiedae oocysts were identified. Postmortem examination revealed hepatomegaly with presence of discrete yellowish-white nodules on the surface of the liver. Impression smears from the liver revealed the presence of numerous developmental stages of E. stiedae corresponding with the stage of the liver lesion and also represent the histological changes of the liver. Rabbits were treated with a combination of sulphaquinoxaline and diaveridine for five days. PMID:27605807

  16. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  17. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert;

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1...

  18. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  19. CONFOCAL SECTIONING OF THICK, OTHERWISE UNDIAGNOSABLE CELL GROUPINGS IN CERVICAL SMEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOON, ME; KOK, LP; SUTEDJA, G; DUTRIEUX, RP

    1993-01-01

    Confocal sectioning of thick, otherwise undiagnosable cell groupings in cervical smears results in detailed visualization of the diagnostic features of neoplastic fragments in the original Cytobrush smear. We argue that the large step forward due to confocal microscopy is the dramatic improvement of

  20. Passive gravitational sedimentation of peripheral blood increases the sensitivity of microscopic detection of malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Davis; Trenden Flanigan; Eric Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine if passive gravitational sedimentation of blood samples, followed by buffy coat thin smear preparation could increase the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis when compared to conventional thin smear preparation without the additional cost of centrifuges or molecular diagnostics. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 205 patients. Each patient sample was analyzed using all three methods of sample preparation. Results: Buffy coat analysis of centrifuged blood samples greatly increased the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis when compared to standard thin smear techniques. Sensitivity between mechanically centrifuged samples and gravitationally sedimented samples showed equal improvement in sensitivity when compared to standard thin smear preparation. Conclusions: Passive gravitational sedimentation of red blood cells followed by buffy coat analysis dramatically improves the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis without the additional costs associated with centrifugation.

  1. Peripheral blood film - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewoyin, A S; Nwogoh, B

    2014-12-01

    The peripheral blood film (PBF) is a laboratory work-up that involves cytology of peripheral blood cells smeared on a slide. As basic as it is, PBF is invaluable in the characterization of various clinical diseases. This article highlights the basic science and art behind the PBF. It expounds its laboratory applications, clinical indications and interpretations in the light of various clinical diseases. Despite advances in haematology automation and application of molecular techniques, the PBF has remained a very important diagnostic test to the haematologist. A good quality smear, thorough examination and proper interpretation in line with patient's clinical state should be ensured by the haemato-pathologist. Clinicians should be abreast with its clinical utility and proper application of the reports in the management of patients. PMID:25960697

  2. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth. PMID:1659858

  3. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth.

  4. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L; Rothblat, I; Warhol, M

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index. HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases. Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization.

  5. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  6. Quantitative differences in sputum smear microscopy results for acid-fast bacilli by age and sex in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieder, H L; Lauritsen, Jens; Naranbat, N;

    2009-01-01

    To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results.......To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results....

  7. Rapid detection of chromosome 18 copy number in buccal smears using DNA probes and FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Nunez, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, WI (United States); Giraldez, R. [ONCOR, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 in newborns is often critical to clinical management decisions that must be made in a minimum of time. DNA probes combined with FISH can be used to accurately to determine the copy number of chromosome 18 in interphase cells. We have used the D18Z1 alpha satellite DNA probe to determine signal frequency in normal, previously karyotyped subjects, 12 females and 6 males. We also present one clinical case of trisomy 18, confirmed by karyotype, for comparison to the results obtained from normal subjects. Buccal smears, unlike cytogenetic preparations from peripheral blood, are quite resistant to penetration of probes and detection reagents resulting in higher levels of false monosomy. We have studied 19 individuals and have obtained consistent FISH results, ranging from 64 to 90% disomy. False monosomy rates ranged from 10 to 36%, while false trisomy or tetrasomy was less than 1% in all samples. High rates of false monosomy make this test questionable for detection of low order mosaicism for monosomy, but the extremely low false hyperploidy rate suggests that this is a dependable procedure for detection of trisomy 18, enabling the use of buccal epithelium which can be collected easily from even premature and tiny infants.

  8. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  9. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  10. Epidemiology of malaria in East Azerbaijan province, Iran, from 2001 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafraz, Seddigheh; Ghabouli Mehrabani, Nader; Mirzaei, Yaghoub; Jafari, Rasool; Ghabouli Mehrabani, Reza; Rahnamaye Hayati, Vahid; Parsaei, Mahdi; Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide, which is characterized by high morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiology of malaria in East Azerbaijan province, Iran, from 2001 to 2013. During 13 years, blood samples were taken from all suspected malaria cases using lancet and then peripheral blood smear was prepared using one blood drop. The smears were stained by Giemsa's stain and were examined under a light microscope with 1000X of magnification. All demographic variables and epidemiological recorded data were obtained from Health Center and were analyzed by SPSS v. 16 software using descriptive statistical tests. Total of 133 cases were fined to be infected by malaria in 13 years that the highest rate (54.13 %) was observed in Kaleybar county. One hundred and fifteen (86.46 %) and 18 (13.54 %) out of 133 infected individuals were male and female, respectively. Mean age of the infected people was 31.57 years. The most affected age group was 30-40 years. One hundred twenty seven (95.48 %) and 6 (4.52 %) cases were infected by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, the incidence of malaria has been declined continuously over the past decade in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. PMID:27605789

  11. The Application of Molecular Diagnostics to Stained Cytology Smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Maja H; Adler, Esther; Hakima, Laleh; Grunblatt, Eli; Pieri, Evan; Seymour, Andrew; Khader, Samer; Cajigas, Antonio; Suhrland, Mark; Goswami, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    Detection of mutational alterations is important for guiding treatment decisions of lung non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid nodules with atypical cytologic findings. Inoperable lung tumors requiring further testing for staging and thyroid lesions often are diagnosed using only cytology material. Molecular diagnostic tests of these samples typically are performed on cell blocks; however, insufficient cellularity of cell blocks is a limitation for test performance. In addition, some of the fixatives used while preparing cell blocks often introduces artifacts for mutation detection. Here, we applied qClamp xenonucleic technology and quantitative RT-PCR to cells microdissected directly from stained cytology smears to detect common alterations including mutations and translocations in non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid lesions. By using this approach, we achieved a 1% molecular alteration detection rate from as few as 50 cells. Ultrasensitive methods of molecular alteration detection similar to the one described here will be increasingly important for the evaluation of molecular alterations in clinical scenarios when only tissue samples that are small are available. PMID:26921541

  12. COMPARISION AND CORRELATION OF PAP SMEAR WITH COLPOSCOPY AND HISTOPATHIOLOGY IN EVALUATION OF CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : Correlate pap smear findings wi th colposcopic findings, To localize the lesion by colposcopy and obtain biopsy and to provide appropriate treatment wherever possible. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This was a prospective comparative study of 104 patients who attended the Gynecology OPD of KIMS f rom may2012 to may 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women of age between 20 - 65 years. 2. Women with symptoms like vaginal discharge, post coital bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, intermenstrual bleeding and persistent leucorrhoea . 3. Women with normal looking cervix but symptomatic. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women with bleeding at the time of examination . 2. Women with frank lesions . 3. Women with clinical evidence of acute pelvic infection . 4. Women who was previously treated for carcinoma cervix . 5. Pregnant wome n. RESULTS : Sensitivity of pap smear was found to be very low which was 31.25% compared to its specificity which was 94.44%. Which means pap smear shows higher no. of false negative smears Colposcopy showed a high sensitivity 96.57% and a good specificity 88.55% compared to pap smear . CONCLUSIOS: It is evident that colposcopy is definitely more sensitive and accurate than pap smear. By combining pap smear with colposcopy, we can maximize the sensitivity and specificity of cancer cervix screening.

  13. Four and a half year follow up of women with dyskaryotic cervical smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, A; Metaxas, N; Grubb, C; Chamberlain, J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the proportion of women with mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears who (a) progress to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III or worse or (b) regress. DESIGN--Four and a half year cytological follow up study of women with mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears. SETTING--666 Women (mean age 28 (SD 8) years; range 14-74) found to have borderline, mild, or moderate dyskaryosis on routine screening. RESULTS--45 Women (6.8%) had a cone biopsy recommended on the basis of an abnormal follow up smear (severe dyskaryosis suggestive of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III or invasive cancer), and in one patient cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III was reported in a biopsy specimen after dilatation and curettage. Life table analysis gave a 14% probability of a patient being recommended for a biopsy after four and a half years of follow up (95% confidence interval 12% to 15%). There was a significant excess incidence of invasive cancer of the cervix in the series compared with the general population (five cases observed compared with less than 0.1 expected). 157 Patients (24%) showed reversion to a normal cell pattern sustained in several smears over more than 18 months but a single negative smear was an unreliable indicator of apparent regression. Having two successive smears showing mild dyskaryosis or a smear at any time showing moderate dyskaryosis was a significant predictor of a subsequent severely dyskaryotic smear. CONCLUSIONS--Women found to have mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears should be kept under regular surveillance. The optimum management of these patients--by cytology or colposcopy--needs to be determined by randomised controlled trials. PMID:2224218

  14. Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    on the current development with results from finite element (FE) simulations that include the exact cross-sectional geometries of the stiffened panel. In order to demonstrate applications of the improved smearing technique, the predicted forced response is compared with both experimental and FE results. Another......New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequate...

  15. Observation of the effect of cleaning the smear layer and tubule plugs with SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dan-ni; DONG Ya-li

    2001-01-01

    To clean out the smear layer on teeth surface, and protect the teeth medulla, the experiment applied the study observing the cleanup of six groups of surface smear layer of dental caries and the tubule plugs reserving effect after using of different cavity cleansers with the help of SEM. The result implied that both the acidic preparations and chelator could clean out the smear layer on.teeth surface in some way, but the later one could also reserve partial tubule plugs, which reduce the stimulation to the teeth medulla. So the chelator is better cleansers in clinical use.

  16. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; Zhu, Qiao

    2014-02-01

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole.

  17. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole. (authors)

  18. Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assael R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20% had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical

  19. Sputum smear microscopy at two months into continuation-phase: should it be done in all patients with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Padamchand Gandhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP of India recommends follow-up sputum smear examination at two months into the continuation phase of treatment. The main intent of this (mid-CP follow-up is to detect patients not responding to treatment around two-three months earlier than at the end of the treatment. However, the utility of mid-CP follow-up under programmatic conditions has been questioned. We undertook a multi-district study to determine if mid-CP follow-up is able to detect cases of treatment failures early among all types of patients with sputum smear-positive TB. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed existing records of patients with sputum smear-positive TB registered under the RNTCP in 43 districts across three states of India during a three month period in 2009. We estimated proportions of patients that could be detected as a case of treatment failure early, and assessed the impact of various policy options on laboratory workload and number needed to test to detect one case of treatment failure early. RESULTS: Of 10055 cases, mid-CP follow-up was done in 6944 (69% cases. Mid-CP follow-up could benefit 117/8015 (1.5% new and 206/2040 (10% previously-treated sputum smear-positive cases by detecting their treatment failure early. Under the current policy, 31 patients had to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. All cases of treatment failure would still be detected early if mid-CP follow-up were discontinued for new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after the intensive-phase of treatment. This would reduce the related laboratory workload by 69% and only 10 patients would need to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of mid-CP follow-up among new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after completing the intensive-phase of treatment will reduce the laboratory workload without impacting overall early

  20. A screening system for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. de O. Souza Filho

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In settings with a high prevalence of smear-negative PTB, the system can be useful for screening and also to aid clinical practice in expediting complementary tests for higher risk patients.

  1. A note on smeared branes in flux vacua and gauged supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the known examples of flux vacua with calibrated spacetime-filling sources (branes or orientifold planes), one can smear the source in order to perform a standard KK reduction and obtain a lower-dimensional supergravity description. Furthermore, it is expected that the smeared and localized solution preserve equal amounts of supersymmetry. In this note we point out that the AdS7 solution discussed in http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.2605 and http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.2949 is a counterexample to this common lore. The solution is supersymmetric when the spacetime-filling D6-branes are localized but breaks supersymmetry in the smeared limit. By using the embedding tensor formalism we demonstrate that there is no gauged supergravity description for the solution, regardless of the source being smeared or not. We conjecture that for flux solutions with separation between the KK scale and AdS radius this cannot occur

  2. [Effect of smear layer removal on bevelled and retrofilled teeth in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, E; Simon, J

    1990-03-01

    The "smear layer" is composed of debris that cover and insert into dentinal tubules. It is not really known if this form of debris may harbon viable bacterias or does form a barrier that enhances endodontic fillings by lining or plugging the tubules. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of the smear layer in leakage by using two groups of teeth in which the smear layer was removed of the root canals, in the first group and left into the roots in the second group. Some samples were beveled and all teeth were retrofilled after Root Canal Preparation, and then filled with India Ink. After examination of leakage under various conditions, it has been found a correlation between leakage and removal of smear layer. PMID:2382045

  3. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The

  4. Exflagellated microgametes of Plasmodium vivax in human peripheral blood: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tembhare Prashant

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear examination is the most specific as well as the most common test performed for the diagnosis of malaria. Schizonts, ring forms (trophozoites and gametocytes are the stages of malarial parasite that are commonly seen in the peripheral blood smear of a patient. Here, we report an extremely rare case of a 40-year-old male patient who presented with Plasmodium vivax infection with multiple exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear with review of the literature. Exflagellation of microgametes in malarial parasites is only seen in the definitive host, mosquito, and is very unusual to see during the developmental phases in the intermediate host, human. It is important to recognize these exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear as they may lead to diagnostic confusion with organisms such as spirochetes and trypanosomes.

  5. Analysis of cervico-vaginal (Papanicolaou) smears, in girls 18 years and under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussia, P R; Gay, G H E; Bruce, A

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted retrospectively at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and a private laboratory in Barbados to determine the types of epithelial abnormalities in cervico-vaginal Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained smears, and their clinical implications in Barbadian girls, 18 years and under, during the five-year period January 1995 to December 1999. Two hundred and sixty-five Pap smears from 236 patients were examined and the gynaecological history, initial and repeat Pap smear diagnoses, and histology reports of these patients were analyzed. Of the 236 first-visit smears, 94 (39.8%) were abnormal with 36 (15.3%) displaying cytologic features of squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL), (33 low grade and 3 high grade). A diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) was reported in the remaining 58 (24.5%) abnormal smears, of which 35 (60.3%) were suspected to be related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Twenty-two (23.4%) of these 94 patients, who had abnormal smears of either ASCUS or low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL) were re-evaluated within six to twelve months of the initial abnormal Pap smear diagnosis. Eight of these 22 patients (36.4%) had histological diagnosis of LSIL inclusive of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and condylomata. High-risk HPV DNA types were detected in two of these eight patients (25%). The study confirms that sexually active teenage girls are at risk of developing SIL and high-risk HPV infection. Screening of sexually active teenaged girls by Pap smears followed by other appropriate investigative procedures is recommended. PMID:12089874

  6. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: diagnosis using routinely processed smears of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, T.; Yamamoto, Y; Yokoyama, M.; Okayasu, I

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: For the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens it is normally necessary to make an ultrastructural examination. However, this is thought to be impractical for bronchoalveolar lavage specimens that have been routinely fixed in ethanol. In the present study, bronchoalveolar lavage cytology smears on slide glasses were examined directly ultrastructurally to make a diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage smears ...

  7. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mugusi Ferdinand M; Swai Hedwiga F; Mbwambo Jessie K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm u...

  8. Incremental yield of bronchial washing for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the increased diagnostic yield for pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchial washing cultures compared with sputum cultures. METHODS: Study conducted with 61 adults in Lima, Peru, from January 2006 to December 2007. The yield of sputum cultures was compared with the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures of bronchial washing for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in suspected cases of clinical tuberculosis with negative acid fast bacilli sputum smears. RESULTS: ...

  9. Comparative study of Smear Microscopy, Rapid Slide Culture, and Lowenstein - Jensen culture in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Kumar Muddaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB, a dreadful disease known to mankind continues to be a problem in a developing country like India. The incidence of people getting infected with TB is on the rise due to compounding factors like coinfection with the human immunodefiency virus and multidrug-resistant strains. There is a definitive need for early diagnosis and treatment of TB to curb transmission of the infection. Direct smear microscopy, though cheap and rapid, lacks sensitivity. Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture requires a long time, because of which there is a need for a rapid method which has good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of M. tuberculosis. The present study was undertaken to determine the test which diagnoses TB rapidly and to compare the sensitivity of smear microscopy, concentration method, rapid slide culture, and Lowenstein - Jensen (LJ culture. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 200 patients were subjected to direct smear and concentration by modified Petroff′s method. The concentrated sputum was also taken for slide culture using human blood medium and inoculated on LJ media. Results: LJ culture was positive in 47 (23.5% cases, of which three were nontubercular mycobacteria. Using LJ culture as the standard method, the sensitivity of direct smear, concentration method, and rapid slide culture method was 68, 83, and 89%, respectively, and specificity was 100% in all the three tests. Conclusion: Rapid slide culture showed good sensitivity which was comparable to and next in efficacy to LJ culture and this technique can be adopted in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP as it is a rapid, cheap, sensitive, and specific method.

  10. PRECANCEROUS AND CANCEROUS LESIONS OF CERVIX DIAGNOSED BY PAP’S SMEAR - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

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    Komal Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical intra - epithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer remain important health problems for women worldwide. It is largely a preventable disease that is characterized by a long lead time. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of precancerous lesions of cervix by Pap smear screening. METHODS : A retrospective hospital based study was conducted at Department of Pathology, in a Tertiary Care Institute and associated hospital, Bhopal. Data was collected from the records of Pap’s smear testing done on 388 patients in years 2011 & 2012. Analysis was done by entering data in SPSS software and Chi - square test was applied to find statistical significance. RESULTS: Most common lesions on Pap’s smear was Low grade squamous intraepithelial les ion (LSIL in 104 (26.8% of cases and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL in 15 (3.9% of cases. 44 (11.3% were senile Atopic Changes, parasitic Infection in 27 (7% of cases and 2 (0.5% were carcinoma cervix cases. All the cervical lesion s were most common in age of 31 - 40 yrs. and were significantly associated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Pap’s smear examination information should be spread in community apart from hospitals. Especially the young women should be motivated for regular Pap’s smear. Pap’s smear is the single most important screening method for early detection of precancerous & cancerous cervical lesions

  11. Inflammation on the Cervical Papanicolaou Smear: Evidence for Infection in Asymptomatic Women?

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    Stavroula Baka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The significance of the possible presence of infection on the Pap smear of asymptomatic women based on cytological criteria is practically unknown. Materials and Methods. A total of 1117 asymptomatic nonpregnant women had Pap smear tests and vaginal as well as cervical cultures completed (622 with and 495 without inflammation on the Pap smear. Results. Out of the 622 women with inflammation on Pap test, 251 (40.4% had negative cultures (normal flora present, while 371 (59.6% women had positive cultures with different pathogens. In contrast, the group of women without inflammation on Pap test displayed significantly increased percentage of negative cultures (67.1%, and decreased percentage of positive cultures (32.9%, . Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed more frequently in both groups and significantly more in the group with inflammation on Pap smear compared to the group without inflammation (. Conclusions. A report of inflammatory changes on the cervical Pap smear cannot be used to reliably predict the presence of a genital tract infection, especially in asymptomatic women. Nevertheless, the isolation of different pathogens in about 60% of the women with inflammation on the Pap smear cannot be overlooked and must be regarded with concern.

  12. Agreement Between Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaous Smear as Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)

  13. Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.

    2000-11-01

    The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

  14. Morphology and incidence of the "posttherapeutic lymphoid cell" in the bone marrow of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Schuurmans Stekhoven, J. H.; Langenhuysen, C. A.; Bakkeren, J. A.; Holland, R.; Höller, I.; De Vaan, G. A.; Schretlen, E. D.

    1986-01-01

    In the posttherapeutic bone marrow of a group of 30 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), small numbers of a particular lymphoid cell with a comparatively large size and large dark nucleus were found. This cell was called the "posttherapeutic lymphoid cell." This type of cell is easily distinguishable in the May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears as well as in semi- and ultrathin Epon sections. Immunoelectron-microscopically it proved to be positive for common ALL. It is hypothesized ...

  15. A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Seman Zainina; Abdul Kahar Badrul; Sadeghian Farnoosh; Ramli Abdul; Saripan M-Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs) only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the amount and condition of the WBC. The main objective of this paper is to segment the WBC to its two dominant elements: nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using a proposed ...

  16. Antigen detection of rabies virus in brain smear using direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is zoonotic disease caused by a fatal, neurotropic virus. Rabies virus is classified into the Genus of Lyssavirus under the yang family of Rhabdoviridae. Rabies affecting hot- blooded animals, as well as human. Dogs, cats, monkeys are the vectors or reservoirs for rabies and the virus was transmitted through the saliva after infected animal’s bites. The aim of this study was to conduct rapid diagnosis to detect rabies viral antigen in brain smear using immunohistochemical (IHC method namely direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT. A total number of 119 brain samples were achieved from Bukittinggi Veterinary Laboratory, West Sumatra. Standardisation and validation of the method were compared to Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT as a golden standard for rabies diagnosis. Results show that dRIT was a very good method, it can be performed within two hours without the need of fluorescent microscope. The samples were tested using FAT and from 119 samples tested, 80 (67.23% samples were positive for rabies and 39 (32.77% samples were negative for rabies whereas using dRIT showed that 78 (65.54% samples were positive for rabies and 41 (34.45% samples were negative for rabies. The dRIT results were validated by comparing them with FAT results as a golden standard for rabies. The relative sensitivity of dRIT to FAT was 97.5% and the relative specificity to FAT was 100% (with Kappa value of 0.976, stated as excellent. The achievement showed that dRIT is very potential diagnostic tool and is highly recommended to be used widely as a rapid diagnosis tool for rabies.

  17. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  18. Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Pap Smear Screening in Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdfar, Zahra; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Majlesi, Freshteh; Rahimi, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smear screening has resulted in deceasing incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries but low uptake of Pap smear screening among women in developing countries is still a public health challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and timely uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women. A total of 580 married women referred to primary health care centers covered administratively by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were administered a questionnaire by trained staff. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age for participants was 33.1±8.8 years. There was a significant association between self-efficacy and Pap smear screening (Pmarriage and husband's education with Pap smear uptake (Pmarriage (OR = 5.7 for 5-14 years and OR=10.4 for more than 15), age (OR =2.7 for 27-34 years and OR=7.4 for more than 35 years) and husband education level (OR=2.3 for more than 12 years of education). In multivariate analysis, significant associations persisted between Pap smear uptake and self-efficacy (OR = 23.8; 95% CI: 8.7, 65.5), duration of marriage (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.2), age (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 12.9) and husband's education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0, 10.3). Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer and improve their self-efficacy and perceptions of the Pap smear screening in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:27165236

  19. Tuberculosis recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study

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    Datiko Daniel G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decentralization of DOTS has increased the number of cured smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients. However, the rate of recurrence has increased mainly due to HIV infection. Recurrence rate could be taken as an important measure of long-term success of TB treatment. We aimed to find out the rate of recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study on cured smear-positive TB patients who were treated from 1998 to 2006. Recurrence of smear-positive TB was used as an outcome measure. Person-years of observation (PYO were calculated per 100 PYO from the date of cure to date of interview. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression methods were used to determine the survival and the hazard ratio (HR. Results 368 cured smear-positive TB patients which were followed for 1463 person-years. Of these, 187 patients (50.8% were men, 277 patients (75.5% were married, 157 (44.2% were illiterate, and 152 patients (41.3% were farmers. 15 of 368 smear-positive patients had recurrence. The rate of recurrence was 1 per 100 PYO (0.01 per annum. Recurrence was not associated with age, sex, occupation, marital status and level of education. Conclusion High recurrence rate occurred among smear-positive patients cured under DOTS. Further studies are required to identify factors contributing to high recurrence rates to improve disease free survival of TB patients after treatment.

  20. Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

  1. TB-SA antibody test for diagnosis and monitoring treatment outcome of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxu; Xu, Hancheng; Jiang, Shiwen; Jing, Kuanhe; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Weibin; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lixia

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the TB-SA antibody test to diagnose tuberculosis in sputum smear negative (SS-) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients and its applicability for monitoring treatment outcomes in these patients. This study was conducted in three counties/districts in Chongqing Municipality, Liaoning Province, China between June 2005 and June 2007. A total of 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients were recruited and their blood was collected prior to treatment, at the end of 1 month of treatment, 2 months of treatment and 6 months of treatment (E6MT). The serum samples were analyzed with a TB-SA antibody test kit. Of the 432 SS suspected pulmonary TB patients, serum samples were obtained at all time points in 316 patients and analyzed. The 316 patients were divided into three groups according to sputum smear and sputum culture results and the chest X-ray results before treatment and at E6MT. Ten point four percent were SS-/culture positive (C+), 73.1% were SS-/culture negative (C-) with X-rays abnormalities, and 16.5% were SS-/C- without X-rays abnormalities. The positive rates for TB-SA antibody in the three groups were 57.6, 44.6 and 44.2%, respectively, before treatment, and 18.2, 19.1 and 26.9%, respectively, at E6MT. There was a significant decrease in TB-SA antibody positivity with treatment for all 3 groups. The TB-SA antibody test may be a useful adjunct to diagnose tuberculosis in SS- pulmonary TB patients, and may be useful for monitoring treatment outcomes of SS- pulmonary TB patients. PMID:22299440

  2. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CORRILATION OF PAP SMEAR AND LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY IN BAD CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to analyze the prevalence of premalignant lesion based on Pap smear and liquid based cytology in patients of bad cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for screening of bad cervix and to know IDR (increase detection rate of cervical cancer by conventional Pap smear and liquid based cytology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 200 women attending Gynaecology OPD were random selection on the basis of inclusion criteria. All 200 selected women were subjected for down staging through per speculum examination for identification of bad cervix. Pap smears of all 200 selected women were taken and ensured that no local douche, antiseptic cream and no local internal examination was done on the day of test. The prepared smears were then stained according to Papanicolaou's technique. Liquid based cytology smears preparing by using cervical brush 1-1.5cm were inserted into the cervical os until the large outer bristles of the brush touch ectocervix. Data collected for sociodemographic, parity, down staging clinical examination Pap smear and LBC was organised, interpreted and analysis on appropriate statistical software. P value < 0.05 is considered significant RESULT: Analysis revealed that the maximum number of women in our study are from middle age group(31-40yrs, low socioeconomic status, married before 18 yrs, multipara, do not use any contraceptive, uneducated, urban, Muslim population.in this study more abnormal smear is seen in LBC as compared to pap smear. Sensitivity and specificity for LBC is more as compare to pap smear. CONCLUSION: In low resource setting like ours were facilities for radiology, chemo- radiotherapy and supportive care are limited or unavailable. It is important to identify which resources fill healthcare need most effectively and to consider alternative approaches, LBC is strongly advocated in the best interest of public health, by improving the quality of the sample and reducing the

  3. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Testing in Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Ghaoomeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As one of the five most common cancers among Iranian women, cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of its long period of the pre-invasive stage, availability of appropriate screening tools, and effective treatments for early invasive cervical lesions. Screening is among the main measures to prevent the disease and Pap smear testing is an optional screening strategy for cervical cancer. Pop smear is a mass screening test. The current paper aimed to evaluate the levels of awareness and practice regarding Pap smear screening among women aged 20-65 years in Tehran (Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in Tehran city of Iran in 2015. The research population included all married, widowed and divorced women aged 20-65 years. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation and t-tests in SPSS 23. It also worth note that a new variable which is labeled as Pop smear knowledge is defined by weighting four questions by the expert opinions. Results: A total of 66.6% subjects had Pap smear tests. There was a significant relationship between the awareness of Pap smear and educational level (of both wives and husbands. The people who have graduate degree, have the best awareness of pop smear. Also, there was a significant difference between housewives and working women in the level of awareness; working women revealed higher level of awareness about Pap smear screening test. Shame and fear of taking the cancer were the most common reasons which lead to avoidance in doing the test by the women, while the most encouraging factors for performing the test were the information mostly provided by physicians and after that, the information provided by friends. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of cervical cancer and the prolonged pre invasive course, the role of Pap smear testing for early diagnosis necessitate the use of proper and inexpensive instructional

  4. Evaluation of diagnostic role of in situ PCR on slit-skin smears in pediatric leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, R; Natrajan, M; Katoch, K; Katoch, V M

    2010-01-01

    A large proportion of early cases of leprosy in children remain AFB negative in skin smears. Such cases required additional techniques to confirm the diagnosis. In situ PCR on slit- skin smears is minimally invasive and less cumbersome as compared to skin biopsies. This study was initiated in our institute with the objective to evaluate the diagnostic value of in situ PCR on slit- skin smears in pediatric leprosy. A total of 25 cases of leprosy below 16 years of age were included in the study. After detailed history and thorough clinical examination, informed consent was obtained from the parents of children for slit- skin smears from lesion sites for AFB staining and for in situ PCR technique. Cases were clinically categorized according to IAL classification into indeterminate (I), tuberculoid tuberculoid (TT), borderline tuberculoid (BT), borderline borderline (BB), borderline lepromatous (BL) and lepromatous (LL). Most of the patients (76%) were between 9-16 years of age and 64% of the cases had history of contact with leprosy patients within the family. Skin smears were positive for AFB in only 20% of the cases. On applying in situ PCR, it was observed that 62.5% cases of I/TT/BT/BB category and 88.8% of BL/LL category gave positive signals. Overall in situ PCR confirmed the diagnosis in 72% cases while by slit smears diagnosis was confirmed in only 20% of cases. Further, out of 20 skin smear negative cases, 13 were positive by in situ PCR. Specificity of the signals of in situ PCR was established by demonstrating the absence of signals in nonleprosy dermatological conditions of vitiligo and P.alba. This study supports the potential usefulness of in situ PCR on slit- skin smears of early pediatric leprosy cases. This strategy will be especially useful in cases where skin smears are negative and in those cases where skin biopsy can not be done either because of unusual locations of lesions or because of sensitive age of the patients.

  5. Morphometric Analysis in Breast Lesions A Rapid Conjunct to Intraoperative Imprint Smears

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    Nisha Marwah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor and leading cause of cancer deaths in women. While fine needle aspiration cytology is highly accurate in the diagnosis of breast lesions, it possesses certain drawbacks. In those circumstancesintraoperative imprint cytology assumes importance, however, imprint cytology is subjected to interpretative errors. Computer image analysis has become an important tool in the pathology laboratory for quantitative morphometric analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare the morphometric values of various breast lesions onintraoperative imprint smears with final histopathological sections.Methods: The study group comprised 30 cases of, borderline(suspicious, and malignant lesions. Intraoperative imprint smears were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue. Morphometry was done on these smears and compared with morphometry on the histopathological sections, followed by statistical correlation. We studied the following five parameters: mean nuclear area, mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear perimeter, feret circle, and nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio.Results: In the current work, all of the studied parameters with the exception of feret circle showed significantly lower values in benign ductal epithelial cells compared to malignant lesions and concentrate on the importance of morphometry as a diagnostictool that could differentiate benign from malignant lesions, especially if it can be employed on imprint smears intraoperatively. Accurate assessment of intraoperative margins by imprint smears using image analysis automation can prevent multiple reexcisionprocedures in breast conservation surgery.

  6. Instabilities of near-extremal smeared branes and the correlated stability conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the classical and local thermodynamic stability of non- and near-extremal Dp-branes smeared on a transverse direction. These two types of stability are connected through the correlated stability conjecture for which we give a proof in this specific class of branes. The proof is analogous to that of Reall for unsmeared branes, and includes the construction of an appropriate two-parameter off-shell family of smeared Dp-brane backgrounds. We use the boost/U-duality map from neutral black strings to smeared black branes to explicitly demonstrate that non-and near-extremal smeared branes are classically unstable, confirming the validity of the conjecture. For near-extremal smeared branes in particular, we show that a natural definition of the grand canonical ensemble exists in which these branes are thermodynamically unstable, in accord with the conjecture. Moreover, we examine the connection between the unstable Gregory-Laflamme mode of charged branes and the marginal modes of extremal branes. Some features of T-duality and implications for the finite temperature dual gauge theories are also discussed

  7. The Effect of Smear Layer on Apical Seal of Endodontically Treated Teeth

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    A Farhad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. Methods: Sixty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=25 and two control groups (n=5. The teeth were instrumented with K–type files to size 40 and then flared. Apical patency was ensured in all teeth. 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used as irrigants to remove the smear layer in the second experimental group. The experimental groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta – percha with Roth 801 sealer. The positive control group was obturated with gutta – percha without sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish and sticky wax except for the apex in the experimental groups and positive control group. The roots were completely covered in the negative control group. The samples were then immersed in India ink for 1 week at 37°C. Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that the apical leakage was significantly increased in obturated canals with smear layer. Conclusion: The removal of smear layer might improve the long term apical seal and success of endodontically treated teeth. Keywords: Apical Seal, EDTA, Removal, Sodium Hypochlorite, Smear Layer.

  8. Activation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by a 940 nm diode laser for enhanced removal of smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagemann, Manfred; George, Roy; Chai, Lei; Walsh, Laurence J

    2014-08-01

    Laser enhancement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) has previously been shown to increase removal of smear layer, for middle-infrared erbium lasers. This study evaluated the efficiency of EDTAC activation using a near-infrared-pulsed 940 nm laser delivered by plain fibre tips into 15% EDTAC or 3% hydrogen peroxide. Root canals in 4 groups of 10 single roots were prepared using rotary files, with controls for the presence and absence of smear layer. After laser treatment (80 mJ pulse(-1) , 50 Hz, 6 cycles of 10 s), roots were split and the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal were examined using scanning electron microscopy, with the area of dentine tubules determined by a validated quantitative image analysis method. Lasing EDTAC considerably improved smear layer removal, while lasing into peroxide gave minimal smear layer removal. The laser protocol used was more effective for smear layer removal than the 'gold standard' protocol using EDTAC with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In addition, lasers may also provide a benefit through photothermal disinfection. Further research is needed to optimise irrigant activation protocols using near-infrared diode lasers of other wavelengths.

  9. Prevalence of national treatment algorithm defined smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV positive patients in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Linguissi, Laure Stella Ghoma; Mayengue, Pembe Issamou; Sidibé, Anissa; Vouvoungui, Jeannhey C; Missontsa, Mitawa; Madzou-Laboum, Igor Kevin; Essassa, Gaston Bango; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Frank, Matthias; Penlap, Veronique; Ntoumi, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Republic in Congo, the national algorithm for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) relies on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) sputum smear microscopy, chest X-ray radiography (CXR) and clinical symptoms. Microscopy positive pulmonary TB (MPT+) is defined as symptoms of TB and a positive ZN smear. Microscopy negative pulmonary TB (MPT-) is defined as symptoms of TB, a negative ZN smear but CXR changes consistent with TB. The present cross-sectional study was designed to determine t...

  10. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the 6- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phas...

  11. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

  12. The occurrence of blood protozoa in North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1957-01-01

    This report is based on review of literature and examination of a great number of blood smears from native birds in North America, particularly Passeriformes and Anseriformes. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon occur most frequently, although various species of Plasmodium and, occasionally, other less known forms are recognized. Prevalence of these parasites in wild birds is related to season of year and age of host. Highest incidence occurs in spring and summer. Relapse of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon is common in the spring. Blood smears of adult wood ducks, on the Atlantic flyway, in April and May show a high prevalence of Haemoproteus, while smears at other times are usually negative. Although the author (Herman, 1938) demonstrated that young redwings in Massachusetts primarily acquired Plasmodium infections after leaving the nest, in many cases infection is acquired by the nestling. Nestling magpies in northeastern California acquire a high incidence of infection with several parasites. The hypothesis, expressed by Manwell and Herman (1935), that a higher prevalence of infection can be expected in more southerly ranging species, is subject to question. Smears taken during the winter demonstrate higher parasite prevalence in birds at the southern limits of their range, such as juncos and white-throated sparrows, than do smears of other species with more southern range. Little is known of significance of these parasites to survival of the host, although O'Roke ( 1934) reported a high loss for ducklings from Leucocytozoon and there have been occasional reports of fatality in other species.

  13. Antibodies against Mycobacterial Proteins as Biomarkers for HIV-Associated Smear-Negative Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Siev, Michael; Wilson, Douglas; Kainth, Supreet; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Feintuch, Catherine M.; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth R.; Achkar, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Serology data are limited for patients with sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the serum antibody responses against the mycobacterial proteins MPT51, MS, and echA1 and the 38-kDa protein via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in South African (S.A.) HIV-positive (HIV+) smear-negative TB patients (n = 56), U.S. HIV+ controls with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST+; n = 21), and S.A. HIV-negative (HIV−) (n = 18) and HIV+ (n = 24) controls. TB p...

  14. Size-dependent momentum smearing effect of positron annihilation radiation in embedded nano Cu clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momentum density distributions determined by the analysis of positron annihilation radiation in embedded nano Cu clusters in iron were studied by using a first-principles method. A momentum smearing effect originated from the positron localization in the embedded clusters is observed. The smearing effect is found to scale linearly with the cube root of the cluster's volume, indicating that the momentum density techniques of positron annihilation can be employed to explore the atomic-scaled microscopic structures of a variety of impurity aggregations in materials.

  15. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  16. Hematozoa of forest birds in American Samoa - Evidence for a diverse, indigenous parasite fauna from the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Utzurrum, R.C.; Seamon, J.O.; Savage, Amy F.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduced avian diseases pose a significant threat to forest birds on isolated island archipelagos, especially where most passerines are endemic and many groups of blood-sucking arthropods are either absent or only recently introduced. We conducted a blood parasite survey of forest birds from the main islands of American Samoa to obtain baseline information about the identity, distribution and prevalence of hematozoan parasites in this island group. We examined Giemsa-stained blood smears from 857 individual birds representing 20 species on Tutuila, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Four hematozoan parasites were identified - Plasmodium circumflexum (1%, 12/857), Trypanosoma avium (4%, 32/857), microfilaria (9%, 76/857), and an Atoxoplasma sp. (bird species from the archipelago. Overall prevalence of infection varied significantly among bird species, individual islands, and between Tutuila and the more isolated Manu'a group of islands. Infections with Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and filarial worms occurred throughout the archipelago, including islands without introduced birds. There was a statistically significant difference in the overall prevalence of infection before and after Hurricane Olaf in February 2005, suggesting that catastrophic hurricanes may influence the dynamics of parasite infections. Given the central location of American Samoa in the South Pacific, it is likely that avian malaria and other hematozoan parasites are indigenous and widespread at least as far as the central South Pacific. Their natural occurrence may provide some immunological protection to indigenous birds in the event that other closely related parasites are accidentally introduced to the region.

  17. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  18. Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Recurrence in the Setting of Negative Splenic Smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Golam; Basher, Ariful; Nath, Proggananda; Ghosh, Prakash; Hossain, Faria; Hossain, Shakhawat; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    This report presents two cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) recurrence where the microscopy of the splenic smear failed in diagnosis. However, a strong clinical suspicion compelled further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which validated the etiology. This short report highlights the usefulness of PCR in diagnosing cases of suspected smear-negative VL recurrence.

  19. "Owl's eye" cells in a cervical smear of a transplant recipient: don't forget to inform the referring physician.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, A.L.M.; Salet-van de Pol, M.R.J. van de; Borst, S.M.; Berg, A.P. van den; Grefte, J.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infected cells in cervical smears are a rare finding but may have severe consequences. We describe the presence of characteristic "owl eye" cells in a conventional cervical smear. Medical history revealed a liver transplantation from a CMV seropositive donor 1 yr earlier. The p

  20. 'Owl's eye' cells in a cervical smear of a transplant recipient : Don't forget to inform the referring physician

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, A. L. M.; Salet-van de Pol, M. R. J.; Borst, S. M.; van den Berg, A. P.; Grefte, J. M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infected cells in cervical smears are a rare finding but may have severe consequences. We describe the presence of characteristic 'owl eye' cells in a conventional cervical smear. Medical history revealed a liver transplantation from a CMV seropositive donor 1 yr earlier. The p

  1. Evaluation of smear layer removal from ultrasonically prepared retrocavities by three agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of 35% orthophosphoric acid, 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and 10% citric acid in the removal of smear layer from retrocavities prepared with ultrasonic retro-tips using scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Root canals of fifty single-rooted teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH plus sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was sectioned with a diamond disc and retrograde cavities were prepared with Kis # 1 ultrasonic retro-tips to a depth of 3 mm. Retro cavities in Group I were treated with a gel of 35% orthophosphoric acid for 15 seconds, Group II were treated with a gel of 24% EDTA at neutral pH for 2 minutes, and Group III were treated with a gel of 10% citric acid for 2 minutes, followed by 1 minute rinsing with distilled water for all groups. The samples were prepared for scanning electron microscopic observation. Scoring was performed for the presence of the smear layer on the walls of the retrocavity. Results: In the orthophosphoric acid group, it was observed that all dentinal tubules were open in 70% of the samples. The majority of analyzed samples in EDTA and citric acid group showed dentinal tubules covered with the smear layer. Conclusions: Application of 35% orthophosphoric acid gel for 15 seconds on retrocavities prepared with ultrasonic retro-tips is the most effective means for removal of smear layer.

  2. Evaluation of sputum smear microscopy in the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in the north of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Huong; B.D. Duong; N.N. Linh; L.N. Van; N.V. Co; J.F. Broekmans; F.G.J. Cobelens; M.W. Borgdorff

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the yield of sputum smear microscopy and sex differences in the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in the north of Vietnam. METHODS: Review of registers of 30 randomly selected laboratories (26 district, 4 provincial level). RESULTS: The average daily workload per technicia

  3. A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Jha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in these women. Methods: The study was carried out on 407 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counseling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 200 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynecology OPD with various gynecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group(Pvalue <0.05. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conlcusion: Regular gynecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females.Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 81-84

  4. Comparison of diagnostic methods in cutaneous Leishmaniasis (histopathology compared to skin smears).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazozai, Sanaullah; Iqbal, Javeid; Bukhari, Ishrat; Bashir, Sajid

    2010-10-01

    Present study is carried out to compare laboratory diagnostic methods of Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) for the outdoor patients of Bolan Medical College Complex Hospital, Quetta, Balochistan. From November 2005 to December 2007, three hundred cases of CL patients were selected without restriction of age and sex. The lesions were divided into two groups. Early with duration less than 2 months and late duration between 2 to 4 months and were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers and scarring (in case of relapses). Skin smears were taken on first visit of the patients, followed by skin biopsy for histopathological examination. Result showed that out of 300 cases 163 (54.33%) were positive smears for Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies and 137 (45.67%) were negative smears for LD bodies.. While histological examination of all 300 cases showed that only 83 (27.66%) cases were negative for (LD) bodies and no granuloma seen, except with evidence of acute and chronic inflammation. Further analysis of histological observations of positive cases (72.34%) revealed that 91(30.33%) cases had LD bodies,, 78 (26%) cases had only necrotic sloughs showing polymorph neutrophilic infiltration, and 48(16%) cases were having granulomas composed of, epithelioid cells Langhan's type of giant cells and lymphocytes. It is therefore concluded that histopathological examination as compared to skin smears method is more sensitive method for diagnosis of CL.

  5. Reactivation of inactive X chromosome in buccal smear of carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natekar Prashant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosal smears of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls matched accordingly. The frequency of Barr bodies was significantly lower in carcinoma of breast patients (menstruating and menopausal women P < 0.001 when compared with controls indicating reactivation of the inactive X chromosome.

  6. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired BTZ black hole based on Lorentzian smeared mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Liu, Bo

    2012-11-01

    A noncommutative BTZ black hole is constructed in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. In this black-hole model, the noncommutative smearing is obtained by replacing the point-like source term with a Lorentzian distribution. We mainly investigate the thermodynamical properties of this black hole, including Hawking temperature, entropy, heat capacity and free energy.

  7. Computed tomography in predicting smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Feng; SHI Yu-xin; XIA Gan-lin; ZHU Ying; LU Hong-zhou; ZHANG Zhi-yong

    2013-01-01

    Background The correct diagnosis of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients is very important to their therapy.We aimed to assess the value of the computed tomography (CT) and clinical findings in predicting smearnegative pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients.Methods A total of 121 AIDS patients suspected of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis by clinical and radiographic findings were recruited.Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 57 (47.1%) patients.The CT and clinical predictors were selected to diagnose AIDS-related pulmonary tuberculosis through univariate and multivariate Logistic analysis.Results Multivariate analysis showed that five variables,including weight loss,presence of miliary nodules,necrotic lymph node,Iobular consolidation,tree-in-bud sign,were independent predictors of pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients.Predicted scores based on the five variables were used to identify pulmonary tuberculosis.If the predicted score of 3 was taken as the ideal cut-off point in the diagnosis of AIDS-related smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis,the sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value,negative predictive value,and accuracy were 84.2%,81.2%,80.0%,85.2%,and 82.6%,respectively.Conclusion The prediction method based on five key factors of clinical and CT findings are useful in guiding the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients.

  8. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier...

  9. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L;

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative...

  10. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...

  11. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  12. Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

  13. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  14. Micronuclei as prognostic indicators in oral cytological smears: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronucleus is a microscopically visible round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass in the extra nuclear vicinity, originated from aberrant mitosis, which consists of eccentric chromosomes that have failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis and are used as biomarkers for assessment of DNA damage. Micronuclei are characteristically seen in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa and urinary bladder wall in precancerous and cancerous conditions. Oral habits of smoking tobacco or chewing areca nut damage the oral tissues. An assessment of the damage is feasible by the detection of micronuclei in exfoliated cells of the oral tissues using smears. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the presence or increase of micronuclei in buccal smears of individuals with tobacco habits against a control group of teetotalers. Materials and Methods: Two groups (smokers and non-smokers of 50 individuals each were examined. Buccal smears of all participants were taken using cytobrush and stained with standard Papanicolaou′s (PAP stain. Presence of micronuclei was assessed under Χ100 magnification and a count per 500 cells was determined. The results were analyzed statistically using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Smears of individuals with tobacco habits showed a significant increase in the total number of micronuclei per 500 cell counts. There was a definite correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. A paradoxical age related increase in middle-aged groups was also observed. Conclusions: The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. This is present even in the absence of clinically evident changes. This observation is vital in utilization of the micronuclei detection in smears as a prognostic, educational and interventional tool in the management of patients

  15. To Evaluate the Efficacy of an Innovative Irrigant on Smear Layer Removal – SEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy; Subbiya, Arunajatesan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of endodontic therapy is to completely eliminate the microorganisms and the smear layer from the root canal in order to provide a good seal of the root filling materials. Aim The aim of this study was to find a viable alternative irrigant, which is easily available with less erosion and clinically acceptable smear layer removal by comparing the efficacy of EDTA and commercially available super-oxidized water, named Oxum, as a final rinse on smear layer removal and erosion in relation to coronal, middle and apical thirds of radicular dentin using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Materials and Methods Freshly extracted 30 human lower second premolar teeth with straight roots and type I canal anatomy were selected. The root canals were cleaned and shaped using Universal Protaper Rotary System. Irrigation was performed with 1 ml of 2.5% of NaOCl solution after each instrument change. The final irrigation (5 ml) sequence was as follows: Group I- 17% EDTA, Group II – OXUM, and Group III - 0.9% saline (control) for one minute. Then, the root canals were finally irrigated with 5ml of distilled water to remove any precipitate. The roots were then gently split into two halves using a chisel and subjected to SEM analysis. Results The SEM photomicrographs were evaluated by two independent examiners and Mann Whitney results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two examiners. Non-parametric statistical analysis of all experimental groups showed significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third for smear layer removal with p-value<0.05. For erosion, in group II (oxum) showed statistically significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third and it showed significantly less dentine erosion when compared to EDTA. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, Oxum the commercially available super-oxidized water proved to be equally effective in smear layer removal with less

  16. Comparison of direct smear method and improvement method to detection rate of ant-bacillus%直接涂片法与改良法对抗酸杆菌检出率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秀珍; 张杰; 周璐; 罗桂根; 邓志敏

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨一种简单易行,提高阳性率的胸水涂片抗酸杆菌检查方法。方法采用破坏红细胞改良法和直接涂片法对96例随机采样的胸水标本进行抗酸染色镜检,其中直接涂片法只采用离心沉淀涂片,改良法采用蒸馏水破坏红细胞后取离心沉淀物涂片。结果直接涂片法抗酸染色阳性率为3.13%,破坏红细胞改良法抗酸染色阳性率为10.42%(P<0.05)。结论破坏红细胞改良法抗酸染色阳性检出率相比较直接涂片法有显著性差异,且涂片效果清晰,易于辨认,故其可作为综合性基层医院一种行之有效的检测方法推广应用。%Objective To approach an ant-bacillus check method of pleural fluid smear which is simple and would raise the positive rate. Methods To deploy the improvement method of demolishing red cells and direct smear method to give an acid-fast stain microscopy to 96 cases of pleural fluid collection of random sampling Cuj. The direct smear method only deploys centrifugation precipitate smear method,and the improvement method extracts centrifugation precipitate after deploying distilled water to destroy red cells. Results The positive rate of acid-fast stain of direct smear method is 3.13%,and that of the improvement method of demolishing red cells is 10.42%(P<0.05).Conclusion The positive rate of damage there was significantly difference between red blood cells modified acid-fast staining , and smear effect is clear,easy to identify,The destruction of red blood cells modified method can be used as a comprehensive grass-roots hospital a effective method,and application.

  17. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

  18. The use of different diagnostic tools for Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Menofia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayel, Mohamed; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Elsify, Ahmed; Hassan, Hany; Ibrahim, Elsayed; Salama, Akram; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    Bovine piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne hemoprotozoans of the genera Babesia and Theileria and is the most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, causing a major economic impact worldwide. In the current study, a total of 405 cattle of different ages, sexes, and breeds were randomly sampled for surveying and diagnosis of babesiosis and theileriosis using three methods: direct microscopy (blood smears), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed that, out of 405 examined cattle, 33 (8.15 %) were infected with Babesia sp. and 65 (16.05 %) with Theileria sp. (total number of infected cattle was 98). Mixed infection was seen in 11 (2.72 %) animals. Moreover, application of the three diagnostic assays on 158 randomly sampled cattle indicated that 17 (10.76 %) and 33 (20.89 %) were positive for Babesia and Theileria spp. by the direct smear technique, 25 (15.82 %) and 33 (20.89 %) by IFAT (fluorescence was greenish yellow for Babesia and yellowish for Theileria), and 20 (12.66 %) and 38 (24.05 %) by PCR. Using primers specific for Babesia and Theileria spp., we found that diagnostic bands appeared at ~350 and ~370 bp, respectively indicating the presence of these piroplasms. Statistically, there was a non-significant difference of the positivity in response to the three techniques; thus, any of these methods can be described as useful for diagnosing blood parasites in both domesticated animals and birds. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that direct microscopy can be used in acute infections, whereas IFAT and PCR are useful in chronicity.

  19. Plasmodium ovale infection in Malaysia: first imported case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thiruventhiran

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium ovale infection is rarely reported in Malaysia. This is the first imported case of P. ovale infection in Malaysia which was initially misdiagnosed as Plasmodium vivax. Methods Peripheral blood sample was first examined by Giemsa-stained microscopy examination and further confirmed using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing. Results and Discussion Initial results from peripheral blood smear examination diagnosed P. vivax infection. However further analysis using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing confirmed the presence of P. ovale. Given that Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles dirus, vectors of P. ovale are found in Malaysia, this finding has significant implication on Malaysia's public health sector. Conclusions The current finding should serve as an alert to epidemiologists, clinicians and laboratory technicians in the possibility of finding P. ovale in Malaysia. P. ovale should be considered in the differential diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Malaysia due to the exponential increase in the number of visitors from P. ovale endemic regions and the long latent period of P. ovale. It is also timely that conventional diagnosis of malaria via microscopy should be coupled with more advanced molecular tools for effective diagnosis.

  20. Prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in dairy cattle (Friesian breeds at nagari integrated dairy farms, Gauta-Nike village, Keffi local government area, Nasarawa state, north central of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Abdullahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The of prevalence ofhaemoparasites of cattle located in Nagari Integrated Farms, Gauta-NikeVillage, Keffi Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria was conducted inOctober 2012 where 50 Friesian cattle (male and females are kept on intensivesystem of management were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected in ananticoagulant sample bottle and submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory ofFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna state ofNigeria for parasitological examination. Giemsa stained thin blood smears wereexamined for hemoparasites and Hematocrit Centrifuge Technique (HCT was usedto determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 90%(82% female and 8% male was recorded for all samples examined, 21 (42% wereinfected with Anaplasma marginale, Theileria mutans shows 20 (40% prevalenceand 4 (8% were infected by Babesia bigemina. Mixed infection between Anaplasmamarginale and Babesia bigemina revealed 2 (4% while Anaplasma marginale andTheileria mutans was 7 (14%. There was a significant difference (P > 0.05in infections caused by Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileriamutans (Table 1 and also between sexes(Table 3,  but there was no significant difference  (P<0.05 between any of the mixedinfections observed (Table 2. The result of this study shows thesehemoparasites are endemic in the cattle under study which may result in seriousdisease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition.

  1. Molecular Prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Trypanosoma evansi in Dairy Animals from Punjab, India, by Duplex PCR: A Step Forward to the Detection and Management of Concurrent Latent Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed on 411 (386 cattle and 25 buffaloes blood samples of dairy animals from 9 districts of Punjab, India, for simultaneous detection of Babesia bigemina and Trypanosoma evansi. The results were compared and correlated with conventional Giemsa stained thin blood smear (GSTBS examination and haematological alterations to know the clinical status and pathogenicity of infections. The Bg3/Bg4 and TR3/TR4 primers were used in duplex PCR for B. bigemina and T. evansi amplified products of 689 bp and 257 bp, respectively. The overall prevalence by duplex PCR was found to be 36.49, 2.43, and 3.41% for T. evansi, B. bigemina, and dual infection, respectively. A more significant difference was observed for dual infection status (P≤0.005 as compared to T. evansi (P≤0.05 and B. bigemina (P≤0.01 among various districts under study. A very low prevalence of T. evansi (0.73% and B. bigemina (0.48% was seen by GSTBS. The highly sensitive, specific, and cost-effective duplex PCR was able to detect latent T. evansi and B. bigemina infection in cattle and buffaloes. Haematological evaluation revealed marked pathology in B. bigemina infected group and in dual infected group in contrast to that infected with T. evansi alone.

  2. Evaluation of DNA Recombinant Methodologies for the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and their Comparison with the Microscopy Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Urdaneta

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20 have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21 to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia, as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolívar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r=1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies

  3. Trypanosoma cf. varani in an imported ball python (Python reginus) from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Une, Yumi; Watanabe, Haruo; Mukhtar, Maowia M

    2009-08-01

    Peripheral blood from a ball python (Python reginus) imported from Ghana was cultured in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) medium for Borrelia spp. isolation, resulting in the prominent appearance of free, and clusters of, trypanosomes in a variety of morphological forms. The molecular phylogenetic characterization of these cultured trypanosomes, using the small subunit rDNA, indicated that this python was infected with a species closely related to Trypanosoma varani Wenyon, 1908, originally described in the Nile monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) from Sudan. Furthermore, nucleotide sequences of glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of both isolates showed few differences. Giemsa-stained blood smears, prepared from the infected python 8 mo after the initial observation of trypanosomes in hemoculture, contained trypomastigotes with a broad body and a short, free flagellum; these most closely resembled the original description of T. varani, or T. voltariae Macfie, 1919 recorded in a black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) from Ghana. It is highly possible that lizards and snakes could naturally share an identical trypanosome species. Alternatively, lizards and snakes in the same region might have closely related, but distinct, Trypanosoma species as a result of sympatric speciation. From multiple viewpoints, including molecular phylogenetic analyses, reappraisal of trypanosome species from a wide range of reptiles in Africa is needed to clarify the relationship of recorded species, or to unmask unrecorded species.

  4. Morphology and staining behavior of neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Martina; Curths, Christoph; Dahlmann, Franziska; Wichmann, Judy; Bauer, Natali; Moritz, Andreas; Braun, Armin; Knauf, Sascha; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gruber-Dujardin, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used as translational animal models for human diseases. However, a comparative study of cytological and histochemical detection methods as well as morphometric and ultrastructural characterization of neutrophils and eosinophils in this species is lacking. Blood samples of house dust mite sensitized and allergen challenged as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged marmosets were analyzed with different cytological and histological staining methods. Furthermore, cell size and number of nuclear segments were compared between neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy was performed to characterize the ultrastructure of granulocytes. Of all applied cytological stains, three allowed differentiation of eosinophils and neutrophils and, thus, reliable quantification in blood smears: May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, Congo Red and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate-Esterase. For histology, Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) could not demonstrate clear differences, whereas Sirius Red, Congo Red, and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate Esterase showed capable results for identification of eosinophils or neutrophils in lung tissue. Morphometry revealed that marmoset neutrophils have more nuclear segments and are slightly larger than eosinophils. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils presented with large homogeneous electron-dense granules without crystalloid cores, while neutrophils were characterized by heterogeneous granules of different size and density. Additionally, sombrero-like vesicles were detected in tissue eosinophils of atopic marmosets, indicative for hypersensitivity-related piecemeal degranulation. In conclusion, we provide a detailed overview of marmoset eosinophils and neutrophils, important for phenotypic characterization of marmoset models for human airway diseases. PMID:27165445

  5. "Proof-of-concept" evaluation of an automated sputum smear microscopy system for tuberculosis diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: "TBDx" is an innovative smear microscopy system that automatically loads slides onto a microscope, focuses and digitally captures images and then classifies smears as positive or negative using computerised algorithms. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of TBDx, using culture as the gold standard, and compare this to a microscopist's diagnostic performance. METHODS: This study is nested within a cross-sectional study of tuberculosis suspects from South African gold mines. All tuberculosis suspects had one sputum sample collected, which was decontaminated prior to smear microscopy, liquid culture and organism identification. All slides were auramine-stained and then read by both a research microscopist and by TBDx using fluorescence microscopes, classifying slides based on the WHO classification standard of 100 fields of view (FoV at 400× magnification. RESULTS: Of 981 specimens, 269 were culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (27.4%. TBDx had higher sensitivity than the microscopist (75.8% versus 52.8%, respectively, but markedly lower specificity (43.5% versus 98.6%, respectively. TBDx classified 520/981 smears (53.0% as scanty positive. Hence, a proposed hybrid software/human approach that combined TBDx examination of all smears with microscopist re-examination of TBDx scanty smears was explored by replacing the "positive" result of slides with 1-9 AFB detected on TBDx with the microscopist's original reading. Compared to using the microscopist's original results for all 981 slides, this hybrid approach resulted in equivalent specificity, a slight reduction in sensitivity from 52.8% to 49.4% (difference of 3.3%; 95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 6.5%, and a reduction in the number of slides to be read by the microscopist by 47.0%. DISCUSSION: Compared to a research microscopist, the hybrid software/human approach had similar specificity and positive predictive value, but sensitivity requires further improvement

  6. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  7. On the problem of the deuteron smearing corrections - 1: the conventional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive analysis to the problem of deuteron smearing corrections is given. Some problems of the usual approach (conventional approach) are discussed. It is shown that the formalism adopted by this approach leads to i) the existence of the so-called West #betta# corrections and ii) the disagreement of the sum rules with the quark parton model expectations in leptonic scattering. It is also shown that in this formalism the electroproduction expression is not inconsistent, and hence, in contradiction with Bodek's conclusion. Following West for the identification of the wave function, it is found that the smearing correction σsub(s) of the high-energy (50-370 GeV) pion - and nucleon - process is non-negligible, and hence, in contradiction with the usual expectation. Another test for this approach is suggested. (author)

  8. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  9. Aspergillus in a cervico-vaginal smear of an adult postmenopausal female: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several case reports documenting opportunistic fungal infection in the female genital tract, with Aspergillus spp being a rarely reported causative organism. We hereby report a case of Aspergillus infection in a 48 year-old, postmenopausal female with carcinoma of the cervix. She presented with features of pelvic inflammatory disease, and an initial routine cervico-vaginal smear revealed severe inflammation along with fungal bodies. The features were consistent with the presence of Aspergillus spp, while the background epithelial cells were negative for intraepithelial malignancy. She was offered therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. A repeat Papanicolaou smear after two weeks was negative for intraepithelial organisms, but showed the evidence of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, with biopsy confirming squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  11. Why don't some women return for cervical smears? A hermeneutic phenomenological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen; Janes, Ron; Steed, Robin; Ihimaera, Louise; Elley, C Raina

    2007-10-01

    To enhance understanding of how having a cervical smear can lead some women not to keep up-to-date with this test, a hermeneutic (interpretative) phenomenological study was undertaken. Participants were six purposively selected New Zealand women -- predominantly Māori -- at least 6 months overdue for a follow-up cervical screen in the previous 6 years. Each woman gave an in-depth interview. Transcribed and analyzed via a general inductive approach, the interviews suggested that the smears can violate women's positive aloneness with their bodies, and magnify aloneness as a negative state. Overdueness for the test avoids these effects. To minimize such effects, primary health care needs to acknowledge and address these issues, for example by providing an opportunity to connect the aloneness to trusted others. PMID:17907011

  12. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  13. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  14. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  15. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  16. Determining the Stage of the Estrous Cycle in Female Mice by Vaginal Smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Female mice undergo a 3- to 5-d, hormonally controlled estrous cycle. The estrous cycle is divided into different stages, including diestrus, proestrus, estrus, and metestrus. These stages can easily be determined by examining washes or cell smears of the vagina. Determining the stage of the estrous cycle may be important for setting up matings, identifying receptive females for artificial insemination, and analyzing phenotypes of the female reproductive tract. PMID:27480723

  17. Epithelial membrane antigen in cells from the uterine cervix: immunocytochemical staining of cervical smears.

    OpenAIRE

    Valkova, B; Ormerod, M G; Moncrieff, D.; Coleman, D V

    1984-01-01

    Smears made from cervical scrapes have been stained immunocytochemically for epithelial membrane antigen using a polyclonal antiserum and two monoclonal antibodies. With the polyclonal antiserum malignant cells and those showing dysplasia consistently expressed the antigen. Normal cells were generally negative, with the exception of some metaplastic cells. The monoclonal antibodies, although they stained the abnormal cells less consistently, gave the same pattern of staining. All three antibo...

  18. Gravitational Collapse of the Shells with the Smeared Gravitational Source in Noncommutative Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, John J.; Park, Chanyong

    2009-01-01

    We study the formation of the (noncommutative) Schwarzschild black hole from collapsing shell {of the} generalized matters containing polytropic and Chaplygin gas. We show that this collapsing shell depending on various parameters forms either a black hole or a naked singular shell with the help of the pressure.Furthermore, by considering the smeared gravitational sources, we investigate the noncommutative black holes formation. Though this mild noncommutative correction of matters cannot ult...

  19. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kritski Afrânio; Chaisson Richard E; Conde Marcus; Rezende Valéria MC; Soares Sérgio; Bastos Luiz; Mello Fernanda; Ruffino-Netto Antonio; Werneck Guilherme

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT) accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs ...

  20. Effect of chitosan-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid on Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm and smear layer removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethapriya, Nagarajan; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Vivekanandan, Paramasivam; Sukumaran, Virudhachalam Ganapathy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan and chitosan-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (3:1,1:1,1:3) in comparison with 5.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in disinfecting Enterococcus faecalis biofilm on root canal dentin and in the removal of smear layer with minimal erosion. Materials and Methods: Seventy single-rooted extracted human mandibular premolars (n = 70) were selected for the study. Forty tooth samples were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, and sterilized by autoclaving. The tooth sections were artificially infected with E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 [n = 35] and clinical isolate [SBEF2, n = 35]) to form mature dentinal biofilm in vitro. The tooth samples were treated with the test solutions: chitosan and chitosan-EDTA (3:1, 1:1, 1:3), and the killing time was determined. The smear layer removal ability of the test solutions (Group A: chitosan-EDTA [1:1], Group B: EDTA, Group C: control) (n = 10 tooth/group) was assessed. Results: Chitosan and chitosan-EDTA (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) exhibited antibacterial activity against both the strains of E. faecalis. Chitosan and chitosan-EDTA caused 3 log reduction in the viable count of the sessile cells of E. faecalis at 15 min while 5.2% NaOCl exhibited 99.98% inhibition at 15 min. Chitosan-EDTA (1:1) was found to be effective in removing the smear layer and showed lesser erosion than EDTA at the coronal and middle portions. Conclusion: Chitosan-EDTA (1:1) is a potential root canal irrigant that performs a dual role – root canal disinfection and smear layer removal. PMID:27656070

  1. The Effect of Smear Layer on Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Root Canal Irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Zargar, Nazanin; Dianat, Omid; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Zadsirjan, Saeede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main goals of endodontic treatment is to decrease the harboring bacteria within the root canal system and dentinal tubules. This experimental study attempted to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of three root canal irrigants in the presence and absence of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: A total of 210 sound extracted human single-rooted teeth were prepared. After creating the SL and its removal in half of the samples, they were infected with Candida albi...

  2. DIAGNOSTIC TEST OF SPUTUM GENEXPERT MTB/RIF FOR SMEAR NEGATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Phetsuriyawong, Attawoot; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Ananta, Pimjai

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Gene-Xpert MTB/RIF sputum test for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear negative results in Thailand, a country with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied 151 patients who presented to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand with a 2 week or more history of fever and/or cough and an abnormal chest radiograph between 2010 and 2014; these patients had at least 2 negative sputum AFB smear results. Of these, 76 were diagnosed as having either confirmed or probable pulmonary TB: the 32 confirmed cases were those with a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the 44 probable case were those with clinical and radiographic findings consistent with TB and who had a response to anti-TB therapy. Seventy-five cases were diagnosed as not having pulmonary TB. Of the 32 patients with a positive sputum culture for MTB, 26 had a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF sputum test. Compared to sputum culture for MTB the GeneXpert MTB/ RIF test gave a sensitivity of 83.9% (95% CI: 66.3-94.5) and a specificity of 92.1% (95% CI: 83.6-97), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.3% (95% CI: 63.6-92.8) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.3% (95% CI: 85.1-97.8). The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test had a fair sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing smear negative pulmonary TB. It may be useful for diagnosing pulmonary TB in patients with a negative sputum AFB smear. The assay is faster than culture and can detect rifampicin resistant strains of MTB. PMID:27405129

  3. Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Deb Prabal; Iyer Venkateswaran; Bhatla Neerja; Markovic O; Verma Kusum

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP) test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap) staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation ...

  4. The ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as cleaner of the root canal wall smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is one of traditional medicines. Pulpa tamaridorum consist of organic acid that is usually used as irrigant and to remove root canal wall smear layer. The aimed of this study was to elucidate the ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as a root canal irrigant to remove root canal wall smear layer. Eighteen tooth samples were cut on cervical line and divided into 2 then groups were prepared with K file and irrigated. Group 1 was irrigated by sterile aquabidest and group 2 was irrigated by 5% Tamarindus indica extract. Samples were cut longitudinally and formed 7 × 2× 2 mm specimen. Each specimen was photographed by scanning electron microscope, scored and summed. The total score obtained is used as the hygiene value of root canal wall. The collected data were statistically analyzed by using independent t test at 0.05 level. The result of the study showed there was a significant difference between 5% Tamarindus indica extract and sterile aquabidest (p < 0.05, the hygiene value of 5% Tamarindus indica extract was higher than sterile aquabidest. The conclusion of this investigation showed that 5% Tamarindus indica extract remove root canal wall smear layer.

  5. [Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; França, Elisabeth Barboza

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  6. Efficacy of different final irrigant activation protocols on smear layer removal by EDTA and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Daniel R; Santos, Zarina T; Tay, Lidia Y; Silva, Emmanuel J; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different activation protocols for chelating agents used after chemo-mechanical preparation (CMP), for smear layer (SL) removal. Forty-five single-rooted human premolars with straight canals and fully formed apex were selected. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups depending on the chelating agent used for smear layer removal: distilled water (DW, control group); 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); and 10% citric acid (CA). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the activation protocol used: no-activation (NA), manual dynamic activation (MDA), or sonic activation (SA). After CMP, all specimens were sectioned and processed for observation of the apical thirds by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two calibrated evaluators attributed scores to each specimen. The differences between activation protocols were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for comparison between each root canal third. When chelating agents were activated, either by MDA or SA, it was obtained the best cleaning results with no significant difference between EDTA and CA (P > 0.05). Sonic activation showed the best results when root canal thirds were analyzed, in comparison to MDA and NA groups (P benefits smear layer removal from root canals.

  7. Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis

    OpenAIRE

    NAKADA, Kojin; FUJISAWA, Kuniyasu; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of ch...

  8. External Quality Assessment of Sputum Smear Microscopy in Tuberculosis Laboratories in Sughd, Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tajikistan has a laboratory network with three levels of tuberculosis (TB laboratories. The external quality assessment (EQA of sputum smear microscopy was implemented in 2007. The objective of this study was to evaluate the EQA system and identify potential performance improvement strategies in TB microscopic laboratories in Sughd, Tajikistan.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on retrospective record review and secondary data analyses on Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB microscopy data and EQA reading results collected between the first quarter of 2011 and the fourth quarter of 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the overview of microscopy laboratories activities, EQA results, and laboratory performance. Result: Of the 123,874 smears examined between 2011 and 2013, 11,522 (9.30% were re-checked by the EQA system. The population TB screening rate rose from 0.46% in 2011 to 0.57% in 2013, and the case positivity rate decreased from 6.98% to 4.80%. The regional EQA results showed a reduction in high false-positive, high false-negative, and low false-negative errors. False-positive errors had decreased from 0.13% in 2011 to 0.07% in 2013, and false-negative errors from 0.91% in 2011 to 0.15% in 2013. Regional sensitivity of smear microscopy, when compared to re-checking controller, increased from 88.2% in 2011 to 97.2% in 2013. The regional specificity level remained relatively stable at above 99%.Conclusion: Our study found that a decreasing trend of case positivity rate from 2011 to 2013 in Sughd, though the overall laboratory workload was on the rise. In addition, EQA results showed an overall error reduction and an improved sensitivity of smear microscopy in the region. The overview of microscopic laboratory activities and the actual evaluation of the EQA system on sputum smear microscopy complement each other in providing a better picture on the progress of TB laboratory strengthening. We recommend similar

  9. An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Teresa Cristina M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34% and 88 (79% of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M. theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

  10. Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T. equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response.

  11. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamankhan Malayeri, Hamed; Jamshidi, Shahram; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases. Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology, bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Cytologic smears were stained using Gram and Giemsa staining methods. Aerobic bacterial culture performed on blood agar and MacConkey agar. Among total number of 92 isolated bacteria, 68 were Staphylococcus intermedius. Other isolated bacteria included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella canis, and six other species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed for all isolated bacteria using 14 antibiotics. Based on the results of this study, all isolated Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive to amikacin, enrofloxacin, and rifampin, and had low resistance to gentamicin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone. More than half of gram-positive isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Generally, all isolated gram-negative bacteria, were sensitive to amikacin and enrofloxacin, and had low resistance to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. They were highly resistant to penicillin, eythromycin, and cephalothin. Regarding the results of this study, in cases of uncomplicated otitis externa, it is possible to select antimicrobial drugs merely based on cytology, but it is recommended to perform bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. However, in complicated or refractory cases, antimicrobials should be selected based on bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test.

  12. Prevalence of parasitic infections in cattle of Ludhiana district, Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Haque, M; Rath, S S

    2012-10-01

    A total of 862 cattle were sampled for both haematological (703) and coprological (159) investigations at the Large Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 22.9 % (161/703) of cattle were infected with haematozoa comprising Theileria annulata (14.65 %), Trypanosoma evansi (0.28 %), Babesia bigemina (1.56 %) and Anaplasma marginale (8.53 %) while mixed infection appeared in 2.13 % (15/703) animals. The prevalence of total haemoparasites and A. marginale infections were significantly higher (p Balantidium coli, strongyles and Trichuris spp. were detected from 3.77, 1.88, 3.77, 2.52, 10.69 and 1.26 % of examined animals. Except coccidiosis, there was no significant variation of GI parasitic infections in relation to sex as Eimeria spp. were found higher (p < 0.01) in males. The prevalence of Trichuris spp. was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in younger animals <6 months of age. The present work emphasized that strongyles and T. annulata were the most prevalent GI and haemoparasites, respectively. PMID:24082538

  13. A piscirickettsiosis-like syndrome in cultured Nile tilapia in Latin America with Francisella spp. as the pathogenic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauel, M J; Soto, E; Moralis, J A; Hawke, J

    2007-03-01

    In 2004, cultured Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in several Latin America farms began to succumb to a disease similar to the piscirickettsiosis-like syndrome previously reported in tilapia in Taiwan and the United States. Mortality increased during 2005; reductions in tilapia biomass ranged from 5% to 80% in individual ponds and averaged 50% overall. All ages of fish have been involved. Clinical signs include lethargy, loss of appetite, petechia, exophthalmia, and abnormal swimming behavior. Gross lesions have included splenomegaly, renomegaly, and numerous white nodules observed in the spleen, kidney, testes, heart, ovaries, and occasionally the liver. A previously unreported black granulomatous lesion was reported in up to 30% of the fillets. Histologically, granulomatous infiltrates were observed in the kidney, spleen, liver, testes, ovary, and choroid gland, and rarely in the brain and heart. A small pleomorphic bacterium was observed in Giemsa-stained blood smears and spleen imprints. The bacterium did not grow on standard microbiological media and has not been isolated in cell culture. We obtained a near-complete 16S ribosomal DNA sequence with high similarity to Francisella spp. sequences previously identified in tilapias Oreochromis spp. (Taiwan), Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (Norway), and three-line grunts Parapristipoma trilineatum (Japan). PMID:18236629

  14. Pharmacodynamic evaluation for antiplasmodial activity of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (Neemb) in Plasmodium berghei infected mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jadhav Priyanka; Lal Hingorani; Kshirsagar Nilima

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of aqueous extracts of plants selected based on the symptomology mentioned in Ayurveda. Methods: The aqueous extracts of Holarrhena antidysentrica (H. antidysentrica) (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (A. indica) (Neemb) for their antiplasmodial potential in Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infected mice was assessed using Peters four day suppressive test. Both the extracts were administered at 2 dose levels, full dose (1 000 mg/d) and minimized dose (200 mg/d). 106 P. berghei infected RBCs were injected on day ’0’ and treated from day ’0’ till day ’3’ post-infection. Tail blood smears were collected, giemsa stained and analyzed. The mice were observed for survival and parasitemia was assessed till 50% of mice in control survived. Results: It was observed that the percentage of parasitemia increased gradually in all the groups, with maximum in control group (Day 3-35, Day 9-46.98) and minimum in Chloroquine arm (Day 3-14.06, Day 9-19.92). The percentage of parasitemia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test depicting that all test groups exhibited reduction in parasitemia as compared to control (P-value<0.002 for all groups). These groups showed similar percentage of survival as Chloroquine. Conclusions: The present investigation demonstrated the anti-plasmodial effects of H. antidysentrica and A. indica, which are two most commonly used medicinal plants in Ayurved for treatment of fever.

  15. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  16. An investigation on the ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) and its possible role in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, T C; de Oliveira, E; Dias, L S; Almeida, M D; Nogueira, W O; Pires, F D

    1998-01-01

    From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead) were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34%) and 88 (79%) of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M.) theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man. PMID:9921289

  17. Clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected dogs with Babesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Andoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Babesia. During the period of February 2011-February 2012 twenty-nine cases of Babesia Canis were diagnosed in the clinic of Small Animal at the Veterinary Faculty of Tirana. The animal was considered infected when pear shaped babesia was observed inside infected erythrocytes in Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. The animal stay for one week in our clinic and during this period we evaluated the canine babesiosis cases by means of clinical history, physical examination, hematological and biochemical tests. Based in the clinical sing of babesia the animal was divided in two groups with uncomplicated and complicate babesia. The duration of clinical signs ranged from 1 to 5 days prior to the arrival at the clinic and all the animals were positive with B. c. canis infections. The main clinical signs were dehydration and anemia in (79%, apathy (74%, anorexia or decrease appetite (70% and fever (68%. The anemia was present in the dogs and classified severe (13% as mild (45%, and moderate (52% of all the cases. In conclusion, the main clinicopathological findings were a mild to moderate hemolytic anemia and mild to severe thrombocytopenia.

  18. C-Reactive Protein (CRP in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Septicemia

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    Setal B Chauhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is often difficult because symptoms and signs are usually non-specific. A study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. Method: The prospective observational study was conducted at NICU, V. S. Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to June 2009. 75 neonates were included with the age group of first 28days (4week of life (infant age in study, all of which were suspected to have sepsis in clinical settings. All peripheral smear of neonate stained with Giemsa stain were reviewed .CRP performed by semi quantitative latex agglutination method. Positive cultures were the “gold standard” against which the performance of CRP , abnormal white blood cell counts (WBC & absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were compared. Results: Among 75 septic screens, 39 (52% patients had positive cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP 0.6 mg/dL was 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. Abnormal platelet count had the lowest specificity(45% and sensitivity(23.07% among them. Conclusion: CRP assay using semi quantitative latex agglutination method is a valuable adjunct in screening for neonatal sepsis, complementing clinical decision-making. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 276-278

  19. Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission

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    Zborowski Maciej

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55 provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13, trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01, schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08 and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002 parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

  20. Demonstration of Actinomyces and Arachnia species in cervicovaginal smears by direct staining with species-specific fluorescent-antibody conjugate.

    OpenAIRE

    Pine, L; Malcolm, G B; Curtis, E M; Brown, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    For direct observation of microaerophilic actinomycetes by fluorescent antibody, a procedure was developed in which pepsin treatment and rhodamine conjugate of normal serum were used to reduce nonspecific staining in cervicovaginal smears. Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Arachnia propionica were observed in cervicovaginal smears from women who did use and who did not use an intrauterine contraceptive device. A. israelii was found more commonly in women with an intrauterine c...

  1. Characteristics of Patients with Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) in a Region with High TB and HIV Prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Cruz Campos; Marcos Vinícius Vieira Rocha; Denise Maria Cunha Willers; Denise Rossato Silva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smear-negative pulmonary TB (SNPT) represents 30–60% of all pulmonary TB cases. The mortality of these patients can reach 25% in populations with high prevalence of HIV infection, and 10–20% of TB transmission at the population level are attributable to SNPT cases. Methods We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate epidemiological, clinical, and radiological characteristics of patients with SNPT and to compare these with patients who were diagnosed as having smear-positive pu...

  2. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    OpenAIRE

    Sebahat Gucuk; Servet Alkan; Secil Arica; Aysegul Ates

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history ...

  3. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarland, Ditsapelo

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included ...

  4. Psychosocial outcomes of three triage methods for the management of borderline abnormal cervical smears: an open randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    McCaffery, Kirsten J.; Irwig, Les; Turner, Robin; Chan, Siew Foong; Macaskill, Petra; Lewicka, Mary; Clarke, Judith; Weisberg, Edith; Barratt, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess which of three triage strategies for women with borderline abnormal cervical smear results in the best psychosocial outcomes. Design Pragmatic, non-blinded, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 18 family planning clinics across Australia, covering both urban and rural areas, between January 2004 and October 2006. Participants Women aged 16-70 years (n=314) who attended routine cervical screening and received a borderline cervical smear. Interventions Patients ...

  5. Accuracy of bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot assay to diagnose smear-negative tuberculosis: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhenzhen; Qin, Wenzhe; Li, Lei; WU, QIN; Chen, Xuerong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While the bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot assay (BAL-ELISPOT) shows promise for diagnosing smear-negative tuberculosis, its accuracy remains controversial. We meta-analyzed the available evidence to obtain a clearer understanding of the diagnostic accuracy. Methods: Studies of the diagnostic performance of ELI-SPOT on smear-negative tuberculosis were identified through systematic searches of the PubMed and EMBASE databases. Pooled data on sensitivity, specificity and ...

  6. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F;

    2014-01-01

    identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female......OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from...

  7. Pap Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very common sexually transmitted viral infection. An HPV DNA test may be done along with a Pap test ... dependent on age, concurrent use of the HPV DNA test , and risk factors (see Screening: Cervical Cancer (Young ...

  8. Effect of various chemical agents used in gingival retraction systems on smear layer: Scanning electron microscope study

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    Krishna Shivraj Lahoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical agents used for gingival retraction affects the smear layer. Aim: To determine the effect of three different chemical agents used for gingival retraction systems on smear layer. Materials and Methods: Four human premolars were prepared using air-rotor with air-water spray to receive full crown restoration. Three of them were treated with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min, 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min, and expasyl for 2 min, respectively. One sample was left untreated. Then, the tooth specimens were rinsed with tap water to remove any residue of test materials. All the samples (treated and untreated were processed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Processed samples were examined under SEM at ×2400 to evaluate the effect of chemical agents on smear layer. Results: SEM examination revealed that 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min produced no alteration to smear layer followed by minimum alteration by expasyl for 2 min and complete removal of smear layer with etching of dentin with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min. Conclusion: 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and expasyl are kind to smear layer.

  9. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies. METHODS: Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit. RESULTS: Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  10. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  11. Destaining of Diff-Quik stained cytologic smears is not necessary for the detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization

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    Weisheng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangement analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is one of the standard molecular tests for targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma. However, insufficient cell block cellularity may impede molecular testing. A recent study showed that Diff-Quik (DQ stained cytology smear is suitable for ALK by FISH. Aims: The aim of our study was to observe the impact of destaining intervals on the quality of FISH signals and determine if DQ smears without destaining would allow FISH analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five DQ smears from 27 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed for ALK gene rearrangement by FISH. Twenty three DQ smears were destained for different intervals, including 30 s (13 cases, 1 min (6 cases, or 2 min (4 cases. Twelve DQ smears were not subjected to destaining. For further validation, FISH signals in 8 smears and 6 cell blocks were compared with the paired destained DQ smears. The signal quality was semi-quantified and analyzed with Chi-squared test. Results: Of the total 27 selected cases, three (11% were positive for ALK gene rearrangement, whereas 24 (89% were negative. FISH signal was satisfactory in all DQ smears. There was no significant difference in the quality of signal among smears with different destaining intervals (P = 0.55 or between smears with and without destaining (P = 0.41. DQ smears without destaining showed identical FISH results and similar or better signals as compared with paired destained smears and cell blocks in all cases. Conclusions: Duration of destaining intervals does not impact the quality of FISH signal on DQ smears. Destaining of DQ smears is not necessary for ALK by FISH.

  12. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  13. Rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacteriosis in smear-negative clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R.A. Leite

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary and other forms of tuberculosis (TB can be fatal, particularly in HIV-infected patients. Hence, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification, which are both rapid and of high specificity and sensitivity, are now widely used and recommended for laboratories that diagnose TB. In the present study, diagnostic methods based on mycobacterial DNA amplification were evaluated in comparative trials alongside tradicional bacterial methods, using negative smear samples from patients with clinically-suspected TB (sputum samples from 25 patients with suspected pulmonary TB, urine samples from two patients with suspected renal TB and cerebrospinal fluid samples from one patient with suspected meningeal TB. A specificity of 100% was achieved with DNA amplification methods and tradicional culture/identification methods, in relation to clinical findings and treatment results. For the smear-negative sputa, conventional PCR for M. tuberculosis was positive in 62% of suspected lung TB case, showing the same sensitivity as bacterial identification. Both techniques failed in the detection of extra-pulmonary samples. Nested PCR showed, after species-specific amplification, a sensitivity of 100% for M. avium and 85% for M. tuberculosis. For extra-pulmonary smear-negative samples, only Nested PCR detected M. tuberculosis and all cases were confirmed clinically. Nested PCR, in which two-step amplification reactions are performed, can identify the two most important mycobacteria in human pathology quickly and directly from clinical spicimens. Keywords: tuberculosis; M. avium; Nested PCR; Smearnegative specimens

  14. Development of an automatic smear sampler and a polymer film for surface radioactive contamination assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of the surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to the various kinds of error according to the sampling person and needs much time and effort in the sampling and assay. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed. It improved efficiency for assay work of surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. Also, Solid scintillation proximity membranes were prepared for measuring the amount of radioactive contamination in laboratories contaminated by the low energy beta-ray emitter, such as 3H and 14C. Polysulfone scintillation proximity membranes were prepared by impregnating Cerium Activated Yttrium Silicate (CAYS), an inorganic fluor, in a membrane structure. The inorganic fluor-impregnated membranes were applied to detect the radioactive surface contamination. The preparation of membranes was divided into two processes. A supporting polymer film was made of casting solutions consisting of polysulfone and solvent, their cast film being solidified by vacuum evaporation. CAYS-dispersed polymer solutions were cast over the first, solidified polymer films and coagulated either by evaporating solvent in the solution with non-solvent in a coagulation bath. The prepared membranes had two distinguished, but tightly attached, double layers : one is the supporting layer of dense polymer film and the other results revealed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radioactive contamination with reliable counting ability. For enhancement of pick-up and measurement efficiency, the membrane was prepared with the condition of different membrane solidification. The scintillation produced by interaction with radiation and CAYS was measured with photomultiplier tube. The test results showed that the prepared membranes

  15. Atypical glandular cells in conventional cervical smears: Incidence and follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knolle Ulrich

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical glandular cells on cervical smears are often associated with clinically significant uterine lesions. The frequency and accuracy of AGC-NOS (i.e. atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified diagnoses, regardless of the gland cell type or the degree of suspicion, and their outcome were investigated. Methods From January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1999 a total of 261 patients had an AGC-NOS diagnosis made by conventional cervical Papanicolaou smear interpretation representing 0.05% of all Pap-smears analyzed at the national level. 191 (73.2% patients had a subsequent histological examination, 8 samples were not representative by origin and were excluded. Results Out of 183 AGC-NOS diagnosed, 56.3% (103/183 were associated with tissue-proven precancerous and/or cancerous lesions, 44% being of endocervical and 56% of endometrial origin. 75% of all AGC-patients were asymptomatic. 66.7% (6/9 of the patients with subsequent invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma (AC and 56% (28/50 of those patients with invasive endometrial AC were without clinical symptoms. 3 patients out of 9 with an invasive endocervical AC were 35 years of age or less. 10.1% and 12.3% of all 'new' tissue-proven invasive endocervical or endometrial AC respectively recorded by the national Morphologic Tumour Registry (MTR were first identified by a cytological AGC-NOS diagnosis. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of the cytological AGC-category even in the absence of a precise origin or cell type specification. 56% of the AGC-diagnoses being associated with significant cancerous or precancerous conditions, a complete and careful evaluation is required.

  16. Variations in helminth faecal egg counts in Kato-Katz thick smears and their implications in assessing infection status with Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Nega; Medhin, Girmay; Erko, Birhanu; Smith, Tara; Gedamu, Selamawitt; Bereded, Dereje; Moore, Rashida; Habte, Endashaw; Redda, Abraham; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Examination of stool specimens by Kato-Katz (K-K) thick smears is the standard method recommended by the WHO for field diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis. However, there is increasing concern that this technique has low diagnostic sensitivity. In 326 study subjects, we compared the diagnostic yield of examining one, three or five Kato-Katz thick smears prepared from one stool specimen using 41.7 mg templates. In a subset of 169 subjects who had no demonstrable Schistosoma mansoni eggs in their first three Kato-Katz thick smears, we assessed the comparative advantage of examining an additional three Kato-Katz thick smears from another stool specimen, taken four weeks later, to that of cumulative yield obtained by examining all five Kato-Katz thick smears derived from the first stool specimen. For all helminth infections, single Kato-Katz thick smear-based prevalence estimates were significantly lower than those obtained from triplet or quintet Kato-Katz thick smears. Prevalence of S. mansoni infection based on single, triplet and quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen were 31.3%, 45.7% and 52.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimate of S. mansoni based on quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from the first day stool specimens was not different from cumulative estimate obtained with two triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from two stool specimens, 52.1% and 52.8%, respectively. In conclusion, either examination of quintet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen using 41.7 mg template or initial triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool specimen, and if these are negative, followed by examination of additional triplet Kato-Katz thick smears from subsequent day stool specimen can adequately assess individuals for infection status with S. mansoni. PMID:15533288

  17. Spatio-temporal analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs. However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia.A retrospective space-time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB. Scan statistics, Global Moran's I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi* statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings.A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001, with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001, with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012.The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control strategies for the geographic areas

  18. Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadi-Mood N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears

  19. Gravitational collapse of the shells with the smeared gravitational source in noncommutative geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, John J.; Park, Chanyong

    2010-03-01

    We study the formation of the (noncommutative) Schwarzschild black hole from collapsing shell of the generalized matters containing polytropic and Chaplygin gas. We show that this collapsing shell depending on various parameters forms either a black hole or a naked singular shell with the help of the pressure. Furthermore, by considering the smeared gravitational sources, we investigate the noncommutative black holes formation. Though this mild noncommutative correction of matters cannot ultimately resolve the emergence of the naked singularity, we show that in some parameter region the collapsing shell evolves to a noncommutative black hole before becoming a naked singular shell.

  20. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  1. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  2. Prevalence of Malaria from Blood Smears Examination: A Seven-Year Retrospective Study from Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Ferede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where an estimated 68% of the population lives in malarious areas. Studying its prevalence is necessary to implement effective control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine seven-year slide positive rate of malaria. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted at Metema Hospital from September 2006 to August 2012. Seven-year malaria cases data had been collected from laboratory registration book. Results. A total of 55,833 patients were examined for malaria; of these, 9486 (17% study subjects were positive for malaria. The predominant Plasmodium species detected was P. falciparum (8602 (90.7% followed by P. vivax (852 (9%. A slide positive rate of malaria within the last seven years (2006–2012 was almost constant with slight fluctuation. The age groups of 5–14 years old were highly affected by malariainfection (1375 (20.1%, followed by 15–29 years old (3986 (18.5%. High slide positive rate of malaria occurred during spring (September–November, followed by summer (June–August. Conclusion. Slide positive rate of malaria was high in study area. Therefore, health planners and administrators should give intensive health education for the community.

  3. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at.% burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low melting points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  4. Effect of the smear layer in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Arslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the smear layer influences the removal of calcium hydroxide from the root canal with manual or rotary instruments. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 48 freshly extracted single-rooted maxillary incisors were prepared to apical size 40 (n=40 and finally irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (group A, or ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA followed by sodium hypo chlorite (group B. 20 teeth were assigned to each group, while the remaining eight teeth served as positive and negative controls. Each group was divided into two subgroups of 10 teeth (subgroup I - calcium hydroxide was removed with master apical file; subgroup II - with profile file; and, in all removal procedures, citric acid was used for irrigation. The percentage of calcium hydroxide-[Ca(OH [Ca(OH 2 ] coated surface area was calculated by image processing analysis. Results: Considering the root canal as a whole, the removal of Ca(OH 2 from the dentinal walls in group B showed significantly better results (P<0.05 as compared to group A. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the smear layer is important in the removal of calcium hydroxide.

  5. The Effect of Fragaria vesca Extract on Smear Layer Removal: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Razavi, Sayed Alireza; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful endodontic treatment depends on elimination of the microorganisms through chemomechanical debridement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) extract (FVE) on the removal of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: In this analytical-observational study, 40 extracted mandibular and maxillary human teeth were selected. After canal preparation with standard step-back technique, the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the irrigation solution: saline (negative control), 5.25% NaOCl+EDTA (positive control), FVE and FVE+EDTA. The teeth were split longitudinally so that scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs could be taken to evaluate the amount of remnant SL in coronal, middle and apical thirds. The data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found among the groups (P<0.001). The use of NaOCl+EDTA was the most effective regimen for removing the SL followed by FVE+EDTA. FVE alone was significantly more effective than saline (P<0.001). Conclusion: FVE with and without EDTA could effectively remove the smear layer; however, compared to NaOCl group it was less effective. PMID:26526069

  6. Comparative evaluation of bone marrow aspirate particle smears, imprints and biopsy sections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwal B

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative evaluation of bone marrow aspirate particle smears, imprints and biopsy sections was done on 30 haematological problems. Core needle biopsy of the bone marrow is a safe and useful procedure. It is a valuable diagnostic aid for measurement of marrow cellularity, metastatic tumours and fibrosis. It should not be taken as a substitute for examination of the marrow by aspiration smear but is a complementary procedure which affords several advantages. Bone marrow biopsy was of maximum utility in myelofibrosis which was diagnosed on biopsy alone. There were three additional cases with normal bone marrow aspiration in which specific diagnosis could only be made from bone marrow biopsy sections. New methodologies i.e. plastic embedding and semi thin sections of undecalcified bone marrow, can be expected to improve the cytological details of tissue obtained by biopsy. Imprint preparations obtained from biopsy can be useful in patients of malignancy but we have found them to be of limited value except in cases of dry tap.

  7. The clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: a population based cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Tadesse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001 spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.

  8. Cytopatholologic features of gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation of the brain in squash smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Katsuki, Naomi; Bando, Kenji; Miyai, Yumi; Funamoto, Yasunobu; Haba, Reiji

    2009-12-01

    Gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation (GSPNED) is an extremely rare neoplasm. A case is presented here in which squash smears of a left temporal lobe tumor in a 76-year-old male demonstrated two distinct and easily recognizable cellular populations, i.e., densely hyperchromatic cells of a primitive nature in a fibrillary background and pleomorphic spindle-shaped cells. Occasional pseudo-rosette formations and nuclear cannibalism suggestive of neuroendocrine differentiation were also found. A cytologic diagnosis of a malignant tumor was suggested, and histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Reticulin stain highlighted increased intercellular collagen and reticulin deposition within the spindled regions, whereas nodules with primitive cells were reticulin-poor. There was a diffuse and strong reactivity to neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and CD56 immunostains. A stain for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein demonstrated a subset of tumor cells including elongated cytoplasmic processes. The spindled component was positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, whereas the primitive-appearing tumor cells were negative. The diagnosis of GSPNED was confirmed based on cytopathologic, histopathological and immunohistochemical results. The cytomorphologic features of this distinctive tumor are illustrated, and the adjunctival value of squash smears for frozen-section diagnosis is also discussed. This is the first presentation of a cytopathologic analysis that provides an important clue to an accurate diagnosis of GSPNED.

  9. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar prisoners, North West Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zelalem Addis; Emebet Adem; Abebe Alemu; Wubet Birhan; Biniam Mathewos; Belaynesh Tachebele; Yegnasew Takele

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence and risk factors of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis amongGondar town prisoners,NorthWestEthiopia.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted fromFebruary toJuly,2008 inGondarPrison.Prisoners with cough duration of more than two weeks were involved in the study by giving three sputum samples and filling the questionnaires prepared for risk factor assessment.Acid fast staining technique was employed to detect the presence of theMycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in the sputum samples.Data was analyzed usingSPSS version13 computer software and presented in table.Chi-square test was used to assess associations and aP-value less than0.05 was taken as significant.Results:A total of384 prisoners,349 male and35 females, with a mean age of33.3 years were involved in the study.The prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among those prisoners with cough duration of more than two weeks was8.59%.Only the length of imprisonment had a significant association(χ²=18.82,P-value<0.0001) with the prevalence of tuberculosis. Conclusions:This study indicated that tuberculosis among prisoners with cough duration of more than two weeks inGondar prison is very high.ThereforePeriodic screening of the prisoners and screening of newly introduced prisoners should be practiced so as to minimize the burden of tuberculosis in prisoners.

  10. Vacuum Energy Density Fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir States via Smeared Quantum Fields and Point Separation

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, N G; Phillips, Nicholas. G.

    2000-01-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universe, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life `time-machines'. For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the var...

  11. Effect of sealers on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without smear layer removal: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhamb Swaty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present study involved the in vitro comparison of root reinforcing abilities of two sealers, i.e., Ketac-Endo and Acroseal, in endodontically treated teeth in the presence and absence of smear layer. Materials and Methods : Fifty teeth were taken and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth with faults were discarded and a total of 36 teeth were used for study. The samples were biomechanically prepared using step-back technique. In 10 teeth, the smear layer was preserved using sodium hypochlorite. Smear layers were removed from 10 teeth using 17% EDTA, and in another 10 samples, the smear layers were eliminated using 17% EGTA. The remaining samples served as controls. Samples were obturated with sealers using the lateral condensation technique. Ketac-Endo (3M is a glass ionomer based root canal sealer, and Acroseal (Septodont sealers were used. The teeth were then tested by using an Instron testing machine. Results : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. Other factors as the amount of tooth structure remaining, the agents used for the removal of smear layer and instrumentation techniques may alter the tooth resistance to fracture. Conclusion : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal.

  12. Processing of long-stored archival cervical smears for human papillomavirus detection by the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roda Husman, A M; Snijders, P J; Stel, H V; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Walboomers, J M

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of a freeze-thaw method, a proteinase K/Tween 20 lysis method and a guanidinium isothiocyanate/silica beads method for DNA extraction from fixed and Papanicolaou-stained cells from the cervical cancer cell line Siha was measured by beta-globin polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GTC/silica beads method, which appeared superior, revealed a human papillomavirus (HPV) general primer-mediated PCR sensitivity of 50-500 copies of HPV 16 per sample using dilutions of fixed and stained Siha cells. Application to archival cervical smears (n = 116) revealed that the yield and size of amplifiable DNA decreases with storage time. The longer the storage time, the more repetitions of the whole procedure, including the lysis step, were required to extract sufficient amplifiable DNA. In this way, an overall beta-globin PCR positivity for 98% of the smears was reached. Further analysis revealed that a maximum size of 200 bp could be amplified from smears stored for up to 9 years. The method was validated by demonstrating by PCR the same HPV types in archival smears and corresponding cervical biopsies of cervical cancer patients. In conclusion, the GTC/silica beads method appears suitable to process archival cervical smears for HPV detection by PCR. provided that stepwise adjustments are made until beta-globin PCR positivity is obtained and primers are chosen which amplify a maximum of about 200 bp.

  13. Cost Effectiveness of DOTS and Non-DOTS Strategies for Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, short course) and non-DOTS strategies for smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Beijing was evaluated. Cost calculation was based on the expenses of drugs, chest X-ray films, sputum smears and cultures for the patients. Effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in two aspects: direct benefits to the patients treated and indirect benefits to the others through reduced transmission of tuberculosis; disability adjusted life of year (DALY) was used as an index. The results showed that one DALY could be saved with 45.7 Yuan by DOTS and 471.4 Yuan by non-DOTS. DOTS is a good control strategy for smear-positive tuberculosis.

  14. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff λcut. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeVcut<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  15. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  16. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and we obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the six- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law holds for the noncommutative black hole whose Hawking temperature is within a specific range, but fails for one whose the Hawking temperature is beyond this range. (orig.)

  17. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and we obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the six- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law holds for the noncommutative black hole whose Hawking temperature is within a specific range, but fails for one whose the Hawking temperature is beyond this range.

  18. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Yan-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the 6- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law maintains for the noncommutative black hole with the Hawking temperature within a specific range, but fails with the Hawking temperature beyond this range.

  19. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yan-Gang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); CERN, PH-TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Xu, Zhen-Ming [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-15

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and we obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the six- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law holds for the noncommutative black hole whose Hawking temperature is within a specific range, but fails for one whose the Hawking temperature is beyond this range. (orig.)

  20. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  1. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  2. Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty dentin tubes were prepared from bovine incisors. After removal the smear layer, the specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, the smear layer was reformed. Test solutions were used as the irrigants in study roups as follows: group 1: 5.25% NaOCl; group 2: 17% EDTA; group 3: NaOCl+EDTA; group 4: Lime juice; group 5: ethanolic rind extract of C.aurantifolia; group 6: 96% ethanol. Dentin chips were collected from inner and outer layers of dentinal walls and optical density was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests.Results: In outer layer of dentin, the efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. Also Lime juice was less effective than EDTA, NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. In inner layer of dentin, Lime juice was significantly less effective than NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. The efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05.Conclusion: In the presence of smear layer, the antimicrobial activity of Lime juice was less than that of NaOCl but the efficacy of rind extract was similar to that of NaOCl.

  3. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  4. Smearing technique for vibration analysis of simply supported cross-stiffened and doubly curved thin rectangular shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Plates stiffened with ribs can be modeled as equivalent homogeneous isotropic or orthotropic plates. Modeling such an equivalent smeared plate numerically, say, with the finite element method requires far less computer resources than modeling the complete stiffened plate. This may be important when...... as well as forced responses from simulations based on the smeared theory with results from experiments with a doubly curved cross-stiffened shell. Moreover, natural frequencies of cross-stiffened panels determined by finite element simulations that include the exact cross-sectional geometries of panels...

  5. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Daner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcal (GBS infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear.

  6. Knowledge and practice of breast self examination and Pap smear screening among a group of electronics women workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, H L; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Zainiyah, S Y

    2003-08-01

    A total of 486 Malaysian women electronics workers participated in a study of reproductive health knowledge and cancer screening. The practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) was found to be related to educational attainment; while ever having had a Pap smear was found to be related to being older than 30 years old, being ever married, living with family or relatives, and not staying in hostels. Knowledge on reproductive health was found to be higher for older women, married women, living with family or relatives, not staying in hostels, ever having done BSE and ever having had a Pap smear. PMID:14750370

  7. COBAS® TaqMan® MTB, smear positivity grade and MGIT culture; correlation analyses of three methods for bacillary quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Kato, Tomoko; Takaki, Akiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) MTB (TaqMan MTB), the mycobacterial smear positivity grade, and the time to detection (TTD) in the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). For 57 sputum samples, significant correlations were observed between the Ct value, the smear positivity grade, and the MGIT TTD (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient: r(s) = -0.940, P real-time PCR system, for diagnostic samples.

  8. Maternal peripheral blood level of IL-10 as a marker for inflammatory placental malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Mutabingwa Theonest K; Kurtis Jonathan D; Fried Michal; Muehlenbachs Atis; Kabyemela Edward R; Duffy Patrick E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM) is an important cause of maternal and foetal mortality in tropical areas, and severe sequelae and mortality are related to inflammation in the placenta. Diagnosis is difficult because PM is often asymptomatic, peripheral blood smear examination detects parasitemia as few as half of PM cases, and no peripheral markers have been validated for placental inflammation. Methods In a cohort of Tanzanian parturients, PM was determined by placental blood smea...

  9. Trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybara (Hidrochaeris hidrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Muñoz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the morphological and biometric characteristics of Trypanosoma isolated from 50 capybaras animals, raised in captivity in the Peruvian Amazon. Trypanosoma was found in 14 blood samples using the microhaematocrit, wide drop, and Giemsa-stain methods and T. evansi was identified through morphological details in all 14 positive samples (the subterminal kinetoplast, the developed undulating membrane, and a long free flagellum were used for the identification of the agent.

  10. Two-Color Schrodinger Functional with Six-Flavors of Stout-Smeared Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, Gennady

    2012-01-01

    We study the Schr\\"odinger functional running coupling in the SU(2) gauge theory with six-flavors of massless fermions. The aim is to determine whether the above theory has an infrared fixed point (IRFP). We use the standard Wilson gauge action and the stout-smeared Wilson fermion action. Here we present a determination of the critical mass as a function of the bare coupling and a preliminary study of the phase diagram of this lattice action. We also find preliminary indication that this theory has no IRFP. While this conclusion is not yet definite, we also show that with this approach we will be able to take a proper continuum limit and clearly determine the status of this theory with a reasonable amount of computer time.

  11. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  12. On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larranaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the behavior of a new general class of rotating regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the existence of a fundamental minimal length cures the well-known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation, since we find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero, so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole whose mass and size depends on the value of the fundamental length and on the rotation parameter of the black hole. We also study the geodesic structure in these spacetimes and calculate the shadows that these black holes produce.

  13. Role of intraoperative squash smear cytology as a diagnostic modality in lipoma of quadrigeminal cistern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadrigeminal lipoma is a rare tumor that has been categorized as developmental malformation rather than a hamartoma or true neoplasm, due to its origin from abnormal persistence and mal-differentiation of meninx primitiva during the development of the subarachnoid cisterns. Reported admixture of adipose tissue with heterotopic elements also supports a developmental origin. Quadrigeminal lipomas are frequently asymptomatic and detected incidentally. Though a favorable clinical course is usually expected, recurrences may occur due to partial removal of lesions in close relation to vital structure. We describe the role of intraoperative squash smear cytology as a diagnostic aid in quadrigeminal cistern lipoma and an alternative to frozen sections that are technically difficult to obtain due to presence of lobules of fibro-adipose tissue. With radiological correlation, squash cytology can be an economical method for intraoperative diagnosis, pending subsequent histopathological confirmation.

  14. Introduction of T-DNA into Watermelon by Stigma Smeared Method and Its Molecular Marker Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shuang-wu; BAO Wen-feng; WANG Ji-ming; SHANG Jian-li; WANG Xiao-jun

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to introduce T-DNA into watermelon for its molecular marker research. [Method] Based on the method of foreign DNA introduced to Arabidopsis thaliana via dipping flowers, the stigma smear was used to transfer T-DNA into watermelon and its molecular marker research was carried out. [ Result] The ideal transformed species was ZXG01078 for the highest fruit setting rate and the most deviant seedlings. The best concentration of kanamycin for treating watermelon seeds was 500 -700 mg/L with differences among the species. The best position was spire leaf or young leaf and the best concentration of kanamycin for treating the watermelon leaf was 4 000 -8 000 mg/L with no significant difference among species. The steadily variation appearing of growing pointless and conjoined twin seedlings indicated that the normal growth had been interfered by foreign DNA in the progeny. [ Conclusion] This study had provided basis for the further research on watermelon.

  15. Diagnostic value of an abnormal smear in non-pregnant women. Evaluation of positive smear from the surface of the portio obtained by the cottonswab method or by the dry wooden Ayre spatula and the relevance of positive smear from the endocervix and/or from the surface of the portio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, L; Højgaard, L L; Højgaard, K;

    1990-01-01

    During a 3-4 year period, 324 women with a positive smear were registered consecutively and prospectively and divided into two groups according to the design of the investigation. In one group the smear was taken with an Ayre spatula and in the other group with a cotton swab. The purpose of this ...... and correlated both with the histological findings by colposcopically directed punch-biopsies and endocervical curettings and with the final histological diagnosis obtained by punch-biopsy, conization or hysterectomy....

  16. Survival and Predictors of Death after Successful Treatment among Smear Positive Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB can affect patients′ life even after successful treatment. In this study, we aimed to determine the survival rate of patients with smear positive TB after successful treatment and identify the predictors of mortality. Methods: This was a prospective study. The source of data was the TB registry system in Iran and 964 patients were eligible for the study. The life table was used to determine the annual survival rate. Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier and were compared using the log-rank test. In order to determine the predictors of survival, four models of Cox regression, exponential, Weibull and log-logistic fitted and finally exponential model with minimum akaike information criteria and Bayesian information criterion values were selected. Then, variables with significant levels <0.2 in univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate model. Hazard ratios with a confidence interval of 95% were used to measure the association. Results: A total of 149 patients (15.5% died during the follow-up period. The median of survival time after successful treatment was 10.5 years and survival probability for 11 years after successful treatment was 70%. Furthermore, previous TB treatment, high age, suffering from kidney failure and cancer were predictors of mortality after successful treatment. Conclusions: This study showed that positive smear pulmonary tuberculosis even after successful treatment has an adverse effect on the patients′ survival and leads to a decrease in their survival rate in the long run. Furthermore, individuals with a history of previous TB treatment had much lower survival rates.

  17. A Case Report of Pulmonary Thromboembolism with Sputum Smear Positive Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keramat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tubercu-losis (MT. Rare cases of pulmonary thromboembolism along pulmonary or extra pulmonary TB were reported during the first weeks of anti-tuberculosis therapy. Case Report: A 28-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of ankles pain, fever, noc-turnal sweating, dyspnea and productive coughs. Patchy consolidations were seen on her chest x-ray and three sputum positive acid-fast bacillus (AFB smears were reported in her investigations. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis drugs and her clinical condition was improving while at the eight day of the treatment, the patient conditions suddenly deterio-rated and suffered from severe dyspnea, chest pain and haemoptysis. Moreover, sinus tachy-cardia with T waves inversion in precordial leads (V1-V3 were seen on the electrocardio-gram. Diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism was confirmed on computed tomography contrast angiography. In addition, echocardiography and color Doppler sonography of the lower extremities were normal. There was no evidence for hypercoagolopathy impairments in the patient. The patient was treated with warfarin and anti-tuberculosis drugs for six months, and she was completely cured and became smear negative at the end of the therapy. Conclusion: As a result, although pulmonary thromboembolism is a rare complication of TB it should be considered in the patient with TB particularly during the first weeks of anti-TB treatment when respiratory symptoms exacerbations occur. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (3: 245-250

  18. Vacuum energy density fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir states via smeared quantum fields and point separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.

  19. Hematology of Wild Caught Hoplobatrachus rugulosus in Northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suthirote MEESAWAT; Noppadon KITANA; Jirarach KITANA

    2016-01-01

    The rice field frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus is an important anuran species found in wetlands throughout Thailand. At present, the hematological parameters of wild populations are unknown. Therefore, hematological and morphological characteristics of peripheral blood cells of wild-caught H. rugulosus were examined. Thirty-three adult frogs (17 male and 16 female frogs) were collected from a natural population in Nan Province, northern Thailand during the wet season of 2014. Blood samples were analyzed by packed cell volume (PCV) and blood cell counts from hemocytometer and Giemsa-stained blood smears. The mean PCV of male frogs (30.70% ± 6.07%) was significantly higher than that of the female frogs (25.09% ± 4.85%). The mean number of lymphocytes and neutrophils also showed significant sex-related differences. Moreover, the morphometric analysis of blood cells revealed dimensions as follows:erythrocytes (17.96 ± 1.44 µm length × 11.50 ± 1.09 µm width), immature erythrocytes (14.91 ± 2.20 µm diameter), thrombocytes (13.93 ± 3.14 µm length × 7.05 ± 1.31 µm width), lymphocytes (11.01 ± 2.69 µm diameter), monocytes (12.04 ± 2.40 µm diameter), neutrophils (12.58 ± 2.08 µm diameter), basophils (13.60 ± 2.17 µm diameter) and eosinophils (12.33 ± 2.95 µm diameter). Overall, the hematological parameters obtained in this study could be regarded as the first report and a crucial baseline data of wild H. rugulosus in Thailand that can be used for monitoring the health status of this anuran.

  20. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  1. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  2. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify t...... other previously applied intelligent approaches....

  3. An in vitro study to determine the sealing ability of sealers with and without smear layer removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhamb Swaty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Objectives: The objective of this in vitro study is to compare the sealing ability of Ketac-Endo and Acroseal. Materials and Methods: Seventy teeth were selected and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were cleaned and shaped, and they were divided into five different groups. Group1: 20 teeth in which the smear layer was left intact using sodium hypochlorite. Group 2: 20 teeth in which the smear layer was removed using 17% EDTA. Group 3: 20 teeth in which the smear layer was removed using 17% EGTA. These groups (1, 2, and 3 were further subdivided into two subgroups (a and b by obturation utilizing lateral condensation with Gutta-percha and Acroseal (subgroup "a" or Ketac-Endo (subgroup "b".The subgroups contained 10 teeth each. Group 4: 5 teeth that were instrumented but not obturated. Group 5:5 teeth that were neither instrumented nor obturated. The specimens were immersed in methylene blue dye, and microleakage was assessed using a stereomicroscope. Results: The data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance and student′s t-test. Conclusion: 17% EGTA is a better and potent alternative to 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. Acroseal sealer has less microleakage as compared with Ketac-Endo. Sealing ability of Acroseal sealer is better when it is used in conjunction with 17% EGTA.

  4. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M.; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrat

  5. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05 with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62. Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, Isolated from Munster, a French Smear-Ripened Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile Mu292, which was originally isolated from the surface of Munster, a French smear-ripened cheese. This genome investigation will improve our knowledge on the molecular determinants potentially involved in the adaptation of this strain during the Munster-type cheese manufacturing process. PMID:27445372

  7. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Materials and Methods: Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Results: Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Conclusions: Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. Recommendation: There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  8. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and human papillomavirus and its relation to screening in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smears, and human papilloma virus in relation to their cervical cancer screening behavior. This hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 200 women: 100 women screened in the last three years and 100 non-screened women who attended a hospital located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, between September 2008 and February 2009. Women at the hospital were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of women's knowledge about Pap smears to screening behavior, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the women who had been screened, 49% compared to 73% of those not screened had inadequate knowledge about Pap smears (P = 0.001), and 47% of screened and 30% of non-screened women reported that they had ever heard about human papilloma virus (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, having adequate knowledge about Pap smears (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.4-4.8) having health insurance (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-6.4) and being married (odds ratio: 1.8 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-3.4) were the factors related to being screened in the previous three years. Knowledge was related to screening. Comprehensive educational approaches may enhance screening for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:21391162

  9. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Efficacy of Two Irrigants Used with Self-Adjusting File System on Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç Şen, Özgür; Kaya, Sadullah; Er, Özgür; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical instrumentation of root canals produces a smear layer that adversely affects the root canal seal. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of MTAD and citric acid solutions used with self-adjusting file (SAF) system on smear layer. Twenty-three single-rooted human teeth were used for the study. Canals were instrumented manually up to a number 20 K file size. SAF was used to prepare the root canals. The following groups were studied: Group 1: MTAD + 5.25% NaOCl, Group 2: 20% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl, and Group 3: Control (5.25% NaOCl). All roots were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds was evaluated using a five-score evaluation system. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. In the coronal third, Group 2 exhibited the best results and was statistically different froms the other groups (P 0.05). The solutions used in Group 1 and 2 could effectively remove smear layer in most of the specimens. However, citric acid was more effective than MTAD in the three thirds of the canal.

  11. Constraints on the sealing capacity of faults with clay smears from discrete element models validated by laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheege, J.H.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Orlic, B.; Giger, S.B.; Clennell, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of hydrocarbon column heights in structural traps critically depends on proper analysis of the sealing capacity of faults. Entrainment of clay in fault zones in upper crustal levels may lead to the development of continuous clay smears that dramatically increase the sealing capacity of fa

  12. Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Beraki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC and in situ hybridization (ISH of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas. There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark, and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France. Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4% was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post

  13. Photodynamic inactivation of contaminated blood with Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Thaila Q.; Inada, Natalia M.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Blanco, Kate C.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    The presence of bacteria in the bloodstream can trigger a serious systemic inflammation and lead to sepsis that cause septic shock and death. Studies have shown an increase in the incidence of sepsis over the years and it is mainly due to the increased resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, since these drugs are still sold and used improperly. The bacterial contamination of blood is also a risk to blood transfusions. Thus, bacteria inactivation in blood is being studied in order to increase the security of the blood supply. The purpose of this study was to decontaminate the blood using the photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Human blood samples in the presence of Photogem® were illuminated at an intensity of 30 mW/cm2, and light doses of 10 and 15 J/cm2. Blood counts were carried out for the quantitative evaluation and blood smears were prepared for qualitative and morphological evaluation by microscopy. The results showed normal viability values for the blood cells analyzed. The light doses showed minimal morphological changes in the membrane of red blood cells, but the irradiation in the presence of the photosensitizer caused hemolysis in red blood cells at the higher concentrations of the photosensitizer. Experiments with Staphylococcus aureus, one of the responsible of sepsis, showed 7 logs10 of photodynamic inactivation with 50 μg/mL and 15 J/cm2 and 1 log10 of this microorganism in a co-culture with blood.

  14. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  15. Theileria parva: effects of irradiation on a culture of parasitized bovine lymphoid cells. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, A.D.; Brown, C.G.D.; Stagg, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Aliquots of a culture of Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoid cells were irradiated at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 rads. The short-term effects of irradiation were evaluated on examination of Giemsa-stained smears and on autoradiography of cells labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Irradiation inhibited cell division but parasite division did not appear to be inhibited and macroschizont nuclear particles increased in number, frequently to several hundred per schizont. There was no evidence of an increased percentage switch from macro- to microschizont. Apparently viable cells were still present in all cultures 4 days after irradiation.

  16. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  17. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls.

  18. A comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with apple vinegar and sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Táccio de Miranda Candeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the removal of smear layer from the middle and apical root thirds after use of different irrigating solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty roots of permanent human teeth had their canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10, according to the irrigating solution: apple vinegar (group A, apple vinegar finished with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (group B, 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl finished with 17% EDTA (group C and saline (group D - control. After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were cleaved longitudinally and their middle and apical thirds were examined by SEM at ×1,000 magnification. Two calibrated examiners (kappa=0.92 analyzed the SEM micrographs qualitatively attributing scores that indicated the efficacy of the solutions in removing the smear layer from the surface of the dentin tubules (1 - poor, 2 - good and 3 - excellent. Data from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test, while the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the middle and apical thirds of the canals within the same group (a=0.05. RESULTS: The middle third presented less amount of smear layer than the apical third, regardless of the irrigant. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.0402 among the groups in the middle third. In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373. CONCLUSION: Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant.

  19. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  20. Transient Appearance of Blasts in Peripheral Smear in Paediatric Patient with Acute Aleukemic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Vaghasiya Viren L; Parikh Hina S; Patel Divyesh V; Taviad Dilip S

    2012-01-01

    Acute leukemia can present as leukemic blast in peripheral blood & bone marrow or in some cases in only in bone marrow. Here we present unique case of paediatric acute leukaemia which shows blast cells in peripheral blood transiently and without any definitive treatment blast cell disappear from peripheral blood. So diagnosis made previously was questioned, but later on when bone marrow examination was performed it turn out to be acute leukaemia. We haven’t found any reference o...

  1. Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from buccal epithelial cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Halfon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860 have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC, dried blood spots (DBS, and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. METHODS: Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL. Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days. RESULTS: There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies. These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals.

  2. Blood / Money

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Marilyn Strathern has argued that "nature" in Euro-American culture has appeared as constraint; it has figured the givens of existence on which human artifice is seen to construct "society" or "culture."(5) Among those givens is the notion that human beings are naturally individuals. And blood, too, images individuality: "The very thought of blood, individual blood, touches the deepest feelings in man about life and death" ([RIchard Titmuss] 16.) Transfusion medicine, then, draws on a series ...

  3. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  4. Comparing Siliceous Productivity Proxies Along the California Margin During Pliocene Warmth: Smear Slides vs. Biogenic Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, V.; Dekens, P. S.; Addison, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The early Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma) is the most recent time in Earth history when CO2 levels were similar to today, yet model outputs show average global atmospheric temperatures were 3-4˚C warmer. Given the similar climate boundary conditions in the Pliocene and today (CO2, continental positions, ocean circulation), the Pliocene is the best analogue for future climate in the paleo-record. Proxy studies reveal Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST) along the California margin were 3-9˚C warmer than today. The modern California margin is highly productive, driven by strong seasonal upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water. If the thermocline and nutricline were coupled during the Pliocene as they are today, warmer SSTs would imply lower nutrient concentrations and reduced productivity. Yet previously published oceanic records do not show a clear relationship between SST and productivity. Alkenone mass accumulation rates (MAR), organic carbon, and biogenic silica show sustained levels of productivity in the Pliocene even as SST was cooling at ODP Site 1022 (40.0˚N, 125.5˚W, depth 1925 m). However, smear slide analysis suggests that diatom MAR decreased during the Pliocene. Because diatoms are the dominant silica-based primary producer, diatom MAR and biogenic silica analyses should display similar variations. The apparent difference between the two proxy records may be due to preservational effects, such as silica dissolution in the sedimentary pore waters and fragmentation of diatom frustules, resulting in reduced diatom MARs, whereas the fragments and non-diatom siliceous producers all contribute to the biogenic silica values. We present smear slide and biogenic silica analyses as records of diatom productivity at the more southerly ODP Site 1016 (34.0˚N, 122.0˚W, depth 3835 m), and compare it to existing data from ODP Site 1022. In the modern ocean, diatoms dominate California margin phytoplankton under high nutrient upwelling conditions; thus changes in the

  5. Smearing of mass accretion rate variation by viscous processes in accretion disks in compact binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of

  6. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  7. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  8. Smearing of mass accretion rate variation by viscous processes in accretion disks in compact binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arindam

    2016-01-01

    Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. By the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays needs not reflect the true variation of the rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale also to spread around a mean value. In HMXBs, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller & thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the LMXBs. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a full knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term RXTE/ASM(1.5-12 keV) & Swift/BAT(15-50keV) data to look for such effects & to infer what the...

  9. Comparison of predicted far-field temperatures for discrete and smeared heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental concern in the design of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the response of the host rock to the emplacement of heat-generating waste. The thermal perturbation of the rock mass has implications regarding the structural hydrologic, and geochemical performance of the potential repository. The phenomenological coupling of many of these performance aspects makes repository thermal modeling a difficult task. For many of the more complex, coupled models, it is often necessary to reduce the geometry of the potential repository to a smeared heat-source approximation. Such simplifications have impacts on induced thermal profiles that in turn may influence other predicted responses through one- or two-way thermal couplings. The effect of waste emplacement layout on host-rock thermal response was chosen as the primary emphasis of this study. Using a consistent set of modeling and input assumptions, far-field thermal response predictions were made for discrete-source as well as plate source approximations of the repository geometry. Input values used in the simulations are consistent with a design-basis areal power density (APD) of 80 kW/acre as would be achieved assuming a 2010 emplacement start date, a levelized receipt schedule, and a limitation on available area as published in previous design studies. It was found that edge effects resulting from general repository layout have a significant influence on the shapes and extents of isothermal profiles, and should be accounted for in far-field modeling efforts

  10. Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

  11. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritski Afrânio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs and chest X-rays were used for constructing logistic regression and classification and regression tree models. From the logistic regression, we generated a clinical and radiological prediction score. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the model's performance in both generation and validation samples. Results It was possible to generate predictive models for SNPT with sensitivity ranging from 64% to 71% and specificity ranging from 58% to 76%. Conclusion The results suggest that those models might be useful as screening tools for estimating the risk of SNPT, optimizing the utilization of more expensive tests, and avoiding costs of unnecessary anti-tuberculosis treatment. Those models might be cost-effective tools in a health care network with hierarchical distribution of scarce resources.

  12. Modeling Aggregation of Ionic Surfactants Using a Smeared Charge Approximation in Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Runfang; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2015-09-01

    Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, we explore the specifics of micellization in the solutions of anionic and cationic surfactants and their mixtures. Anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) are chosen as characteristic examples. Coarse-grained models of the surfactants are constructed and parameterized using a combination of atomistic molecular simulation and infinite dilution activity coefficient calibration. Electrostatic interactions of charged beads are treated using a smeared charge approximation: the surfactant heads and dissociated counterions are modeled as beads with charges distributed around the bead center in an implicit dielectric medium. The proposed models semiquantitatively describe self-assembly in solutions of SDS and CTAB at various surfactant concentrations and molarities of added electrolyte. In particular, the model predicts a decline in the free surfactant concentration with the increase of the total surfactant loading, as well as characteristic aggregation transitions in single-component surfactant solutions caused by the addition of salt. The calculated values of the critical micelle concentration reasonably agree with experimental observations. Modeling of catanionic SDS-CTAB mixtures show consecutive transitions to worm-like micelles and then to vesicles caused by the addition of CTAB to micellar solution of SDS. PMID:26241704

  13. Management of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear and colposcopy in pregnancy: an evidenced-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, A C; Birsner, M L; Fader, A N

    2012-04-01

    Women diagnosed with abnormal Papanicolau smears or cervical abnormalities during pregnancy present a challenge to health care providers, as conventional management guidelines appropriate for the non-pregnant population may be contraindicated. The physiologic effects of pregnancy that may result in greater difficulty with the colposcopic examination include increased cervical mucus production that may obscure visualization, cervical hyperemia, gland prominence, and eversion of the columnar epithelium. The squamo-columnar junction may also be difficult to visualize in early pregnancy, but will often evert as the pregnancy continues. Because of these changes, cervical dysplasia may have a more prominent appearance in the gravid patient. Therefore, colposcopy should be performed by a skilled examiner with expertise in the cervical changes of pregnancy. The primary goal of colposcopy during pregnancy is to exclude the presence of invasive cancer, and thus, many cervical lesions may be followed with serial cytology and colposcopy during pregnancy or by deferring further colposcopic examination until the postpartum period. Cervical biopsy should be avoided unless a malignancy is suspected and endocervical sampling is contraindicated. Herein, we present a contemporary, evidence-based review of the colposcopic examination and guidelines for triaging and evaluating abnormal cervical cytology and lesions that are diagnosed during pregnancy.

  14. van Hove Singularities and Spectral Smearing in High Temperature Superconducting H3S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yundi; Pickett, Warren E.

    The superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide at Tc=200 K observed by Drozdov and collaborators at pressures around 200 GPa is simple bcc Im 3 m H3S reopens questions about what is achievable in high Tc. The various ''extremes'' that are involved - pressure, implying extreme reduction of volume, extremely high H phonon energy scale around 1400K, extremely high temperature for a superconductor - necessitate a close look at new issues raised by these characteristics in relation to high Tc. We have applied first principles methods to analyze the H3S electronic structure, particularly the van Hove singularities (vHs) and the effect of sulfur. Focusing on the two closely spaced vHs near the Fermi level that give rise to the impressively sharp peak in the density of states, the implications of strong coupling Migdal-Eliashberg theory are assessed. The electron spectral density smearing due to virtual phonon emission and absorption, as done in earlier days for A15 superconductors, must be included explicitly to obtain accurate theoretical predictions and a correct understanding. Means for increasing Tc in H3S-like materials will be mentioned. NSF DMR Grant 1207622.

  15. Van Hove singularities and spectral smearing in high-temperature superconducting H3S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Yundi; Pickett, Warren E.

    2016-03-01

    The superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide at Tc=200 K observed by Drozdov and collaborators at pressures around 200 GPa is simple bcc I m 3 ¯m H3S from a combination of theoretical and experimental confirmation. The various "extremes" that are involved—high pressure implying extreme reduction of volume, extremely high H phonon energy scale around 1400 K, extremely high temperature for a superconductor—necessitates a close look at new issues raised by these characteristics in relation to high Tc itself. First principles methods are applied to analyze the H3S electronic structure, beginning with the effect of sulfur and then focusing on the origin and implications of the two van Hove singularities (vHs) providing an impressive peak in the density of states near the Fermi energy. Implications arising from strong coupling Migdal-Eliashberg theory are studied. It becomes evident that electron spectral density smearing due to virtual phonon emission and absorption must be accounted for in a correct understanding of this unusual material and to obtain accurate theoretical predictions. Means for increasing Tc in H3S -like materials are noted.

  16. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  17. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  18. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  19. [Postmortem diagnosis of tropical malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S; Schröter, A; Bratzke, H; Brade, V

    1995-01-01

    Thirteen days after returning from a four week holiday in Kenya a 35-year-old man consulted his doctor complaining of feeling unwell. The doctor diagnosed influenza and gave him a sickness certificate for three days. Because the patient did not reappear at his workplace a search was made and he was found dead in his flat seven days after seeing his doctor. A medicolegal autopsy was performed two days after the estimated time of death. There was marked swelling of liver and spleen together with jaundice and "dirty grey" colouration of the viscera. Samples of heart blood and spleen puncture material were taken. Giemsa stained preparations (ordinary and thick blood smears) revealed numerous objects 1.2 to 1.5 microns in size with indistinct reddish blue staining, some of them arranged in rosettes reminiscent of schizonts. A few of them contained pigment. In material from the spleen there were masses of blackish-brown pigment. The malaria immunofluorescence test performed on serum gave a weakly positive titre of 1:40. The findings were considered enough to support a diagnosis of fulminant falciparum malaria, and this was confirmed by histological changes in various organs, notably the typical capillary blockages in the brain. Because of the popularity of long-haul tourism, cases of imported malaria are increasingly frequent and, in view of the insidiously progressive course of the disease, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis. In cases of unexplained death, if there is any suspicion of malaria, blood should always be taken for appropriate investigations, in addition to blocks for histological examination. PMID:7821199

  20. Research progress on human babesiosis%人巴贝虫病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 张仪

    2014-01-01

    巴贝虫病是巴贝虫在红细胞内寄生导致的一种人畜共患寄生虫病.人巴贝虫病主要由田鼠巴贝虫(Babesia microti)、B.duncani、分歧巴贝虫(B.divergens)、B.venatorum等引起,病例呈世界性分布.其传播方式有蜱虫叮咬、输血及母婴传播等.患病症状与疟疾相似,典型的临床症状表现为发热、肌痛、贫血、血红蛋白尿、黄疸等,其严重程度主要取决于自身免疫状况和感染巴贝虫的种类.巴贝虫病常见的诊断方法为涂片染色法、动物接种法、血清学检测法以及分子生物学检测法.%Babesiosis,caused by infection with intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia,is an emerging zoonosis in human.The major species involved in human cases are Babesiamicroti 、B.duncani、B.divergens 、B.venatorum.The three infection routes in human are tick biting,blood transfusion and vertical transmission.Clinical manifestations of babesiosis are similar to acute malaria,including fever,malaise,anemia,hemoglobinuria and jaundice.The severity of babesiosis depends primarily on the immune status of the patient and Babesia species.The major diagnostic techniques of babesiosis include Giemsa-stained examination of thin blood smears,inoculation of susceptible animals with whole blood,serodiagnostic test and DNA amplification by PCR.

  1. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  2. Efficacy of various root canal irrigants on removal of smear layer in the primary root canals after hand instrumentation: A scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this in-vitro study is to determine the efficacy of various irrigants in removing the smear layer in primary teeth root canals after hand instrumentation. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of 30 human primary incisors which were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction horizontally. The specimens were divided randomly into four experimental and one control group having six teeth each and each group was treated with the specific irrigant. 5.25% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl + 10% EDTA, 6% citric acid, 2% chlorhexidine, saline (control were the irrigants evaluated for efficacy in removal of smear layer. The specimens were split along the longitudinal axis using a chisel after placing superficial grooves in cementum not extending to the root canal. The exposed surface was subjected to scanning electron microscopic analysis to reveal the efficacy of irrigants in removal of smear layer. The representative areas were evaluated twice at 15 days interval by a single evaluator. The scale for the smear layer removal by Rome et al was modified and used in the present study. Results: The pictures from the scanning electron microscopy showed that among the tested irrigants, citric acid has the best efficacy to remove the smear layer without altering the normal dentinal structures, which was supported by the lowest mean smear scores. The pictures from the 10%EDTA + 5.25% sodium hypochlorite group showed that even though it removed the smear layer, it adversely affected the dentine structure. SEM pictures of the other groups like sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine revealed that these irrigants does not have the capacity to remove the smear layer in primary teeth. Conclusions: The results of the present study clearly indicate the superior efficacy of 6% citric acid than the other tested irrigants on removing the smear layer in primary teeth root canals.

  3. Advanced Image Analysis based system for Automatic Detection of Malarial Parasite in Blood Images Using SUSAN Approach

    OpenAIRE

    JIGYASHA SONI

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious global health problem, and rapid, accurate diagnosis is required to control the disease. An image processing algorithm to automate the diagnosis of malaria in blood images is developed in this project. The image classification system is designed to positively identify malaria parasites present in thin blood smears, and differentiate the species of malaria. I have implemented a new approach to low-level image processing - SUSAN (Smallest Univalue Segment assimilating Nucle...

  4. Comparison of histopathological analysis, culture and polymerase chain reaction assays to detect mucormycosis in biopsy and blood specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Badiee; Amir Arastefar; Hadis Jafarian

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to compare direct microscopic examination with culture and PCR for the diagnosis of Mucorales infection in blood and tissue specimens. Material and Methods Blood samples and tissue specimens were obtained from 28 patients (total 58 samples) with suspected invasive fungal infection and cultured on proper media. Direct smear of tissue samples was done with potassium hydroxide, hematoxylin and eosin, and methenamine silver staining. DNA extract...

  5. The rate of sputum smear-positive tuberculosis after treatment default in a high-burden setting: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian M Marx

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: High rates of recurrent tuberculosis after successful treatment have been reported from different high burden settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the rate of smear-positive tuberculosis after treatment default. In particular, it is not known whether or not treatment defaulters continue to be or become again smear-positive and thus pose a potential for transmission of infection to others. OBJECTIVE: To investigate, in a high tuberculosis burden setting, the rate of re-treatment for smear-positive tuberculosis among cases defaulting from standardized treatment compared to successfully treated cases. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study among smear-positive tuberculosis cases treated between 1996 and 2008 in two urban communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Episodes of re-treatment for smear-positive tuberculosis were ascertained via probabilistic record linkage. Survival analysis and Poisson regression were used to compare the rate of smear-positive tuberculosis after treatment default to that after successful treatment. RESULTS: A total of 2,136 smear-positive tuberculosis cases were included in the study. After treatment default, the rate of re-treatment for smear-positive tuberculosis was 6.86 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.59-8.41 per 100 person-years compared to 2.09 (95% CI: 1.81-2.41 after cure (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR]: 3.97; 95% CI: 3.00-5.26. Among defaulters, the rate was inversely associated with treatment duration and sputum conversion prior to defaulting. Smear grade at start of the index treatment episode (Smear3+: aHR 1.61; 95%CI 1.11-2.33 was independently associated with smear-positive tuberculosis re-treatment, regardless of treatment outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-burden setting, there is a high rate of subsequent smear-positive tuberculosis after treatment default. Treatment defaulters are therefore likely to contribute to the pool of infectious source cases in the community. Our

  6. Citologia de Tzanck: redescobrindo uma antiga ferramenta diagnóstica Tzanck smears: an old but useful diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Mignac Cumming Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A citologia de Tzanck consiste em método simples e confiável para o diagnóstico de dermatoses virais, parasitárias, autoimunes e tumorais. Para exemplificar o emprego do teste de Tzanck em lesões vésico-bolhosas, um caso de pênfigo vulgar é descrito, cuja citologia e imunofluorescência direta, utilizando-se esfregaço coletado de lesão oral, confirmaram o diagnóstico de forma rápida e fácil.Tzanck smears can be used for the diagnosis of cutaneous infections, autoimmune disorders and cutaneous tumors. To exemplify its use, we report a case of a female patient with pemphigus vulgaris whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive direct immunofluorescence and conventional cytology using smears obtained by scraping the cheek mucosa.

  7. Impact of Different Methodologies on the Detection of Point Mutations in Routine Air-dried Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, C; Münz, S; Krogdahl, A;

    2013-01-01

    promising approach for molecular FNA diagnostics. The objective of this methodological study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS mutations from routine air-dried thyroid FNA smears, and to find an optimal method for detecting these mutations in FNA samples. DNA...... was extracted from 110 routine air-dried FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. The presence of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS mutations was assessed by real-time PCRs and high resolution melting analysis, and/or pyrosequencing in comparison to real-time PCRs...... using hybridization probes and fluorescence melting curve analysis. The high-resolution melting-PCRs revealed a significantly lower number of PCR failures and questionable results, and detected more mutations than the PCRs using hybridization probes. The number of PCR failures ranging from 14...

  8. Genotype-independent association between profound vitamin D deficiency and delayed sputum smear conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Junaid, Kashaf; Rehman, Abdul; Saeed, Tahir; Jolliffe, David A.; Wood, Kristie; Martineau, Adrian R

    2015-01-01

    Background Both vitamin D deficiency and genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been reported to associate with delayed response to intensive-phase therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Studies investigating the influence of genetic variants in vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1) on vitamin D status and response to antituberculous therapy are lacking. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study in 260 patients initiating treatment for smear-positiv...

  9. Numerical study of large-N phase transition of smeared Wilson loops in 4D pure YM theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmayer, Robert; Neuberger, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    In Euclidean four-dimensional SU(N) pure gauge theory, eigenvalue distributions of Wilson loop parallel transport matrices around closed spacetime curves show non-analytic behavior (a 'large-N phase transition') at a critical size of the curve. We focus mainly on an observable composed of traces of the Wilson loop operator in all totally antisymmetric representations, which is regularized with the help of smearing. By studying sequences of square Wilson loops on a hypercubic lattice with stan...

  10. First isolation of Brevibacterium sp. pigments in the rind of an industrial red-smear-ripened soft cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Galaup, Patrick; Sutthiwong, Nuthathai; Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Valla, Alain; Caro, Yanis; Fouillaud, Mireille; Guérard, Fabienne; Dufossé, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience The smear-ripened soft cheeses are characterised by a surface orange-red-brown colour, which has a microbial origin. For a long time, this colouration was mainly imputed to Brevibacterium linens. However, the latest published works, based on molecular biology, have shown a minor role for this bacterium. This study shows the results obtained with an industrial cheese named Vieux-Pané, which is characterised by the presence of carotenoids from Brevibacterium linens gro...

  11. Effect of aquatine endodontic cleanser on smear layer removal in the root canals of ex vivo human teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Faustino Garcia; Peter E. Murray; Franklin Garcia-Godoy; Kenneth N. Namerow

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the root canal cleanliness and smear layer removal effectiveness of Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser (Aquatine EC) when used as an endodontic irrigating solution in comparison with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five human teeth were randomly allocated to five treatment groups; the pulp chamber was accessed, cleaned, and shaped by using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation to an ISO size #40. The ...

  12. The quality of sputum smear microscopy in public-private mix directly observed treatment laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaw Manalebh

    Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Chemotherapy (PPM-DOTS strategy for tuberculosis (TB control program. Quality of sputum smear microscopy has paramount importance for tuberculosis control program in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy in 37 Public-Private Mix laboratories in West Amhara, Ethiopia. The three external quality assessment methods (onsite evaluation, panel testing and blind rechecking were employed. Onsite assessment revealed that 67.6% of PPM-DOTS laboratories were below the standard physical space (5 X 6 m2. The average monthly workload per laboratory technician was 19.5 (SD±2.9 slides with 12.8% positivity rate. The quality of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB staining reagents was sub-standard. The overall agreement for blind rechecking of 1,123 AFB slides was 99.4% (Kappa = 0.97. Reading of 370 AFB panel slides showed 3.5% false reading (Kappa = 0.92. Moreover, the consistency of reading scanty bacilli slides was lower (93% compared to 1+, 2+ and 3+ bacilli. Based on blind rechecking and panel testing results, PPM-DOTS site laboratories showed good agreement with the reference laboratory. Physical space and qualities of AFB reagents would be areas of intervention to sustain the quality of sputum smear microscopy. Therefore, regular external quality assessment and provision of basic laboratory supplies for TB diagnosis would be the way forward to improve the quality of sputum smear microscopy services in PPM-DOTS laboratories.

  13. Smear layer removal capacity of disinfectant solutions used with and without EDTA for the irrigation of canals: a SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana Carolina Silveira Cardoso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to carry out a scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis of the cleaning qualities and smear layer removal from root canal walls, instrumented and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl, 2.0% chlorhexidine and saline solutions. Fifty extracted teeth were used in this study. All teeth were radiographed to determine the existence of a single canal. The crowns were cut at the cervical limit and the root canals were instrumented with K-type files up to size 45. During root canal preparation, irrigations were made with the different solutions being evaluated: Group 1: 2.5% NaOCl (10 roots; Group 2: 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA for 2 minute (10 roots; Group 3: 2.0% chlorhexidine (10 roots; Group 4: 2.0% chlorhexidine and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes (10 roots; Group 5: saline solution (5 roots; Group 6: saline solution and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes (5 roots. After instrumentation, the canals were irrigated with each one of the solutions and the roots were cut in the buccolingual direction for SEM analysis, at the cervical, middle and apical thirds, to ascertain the presence or absence of smear layer and debris. SEM analysis was performed by three calibrated examiners and scores were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test at the significance level of p = 5%. Results showed that the use of 17% EDTA decreased the smear layer significantly (p < 0.05 for all evaluated solutions in all thirds. When EDTA was not used, a significantly higher quantity of smear layer on the apical third was observed only in the NaOCl groups. The use of 17% EDTA was significant for debris removal except for the chlorhexidine groups. The following conclusion could be drawn: the use of 17% EDTA was necessary to enhance cleanness of the root canals.

  14. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Abdullah; Michael O’Rorke; Liam Murray; Tin Tin Su

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary school...

  15. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  16. CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Felding, C; Skouby, S O;

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) gra...... in their cervical smears at 12 months' follow-up was identical in the two groups, supporting the hypothesis that HPV is a persistent infection during which the virus is widespread in the vaginal epithelium.......In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade...... I were randomized to either a treatment or a control group. The cervical swabs were obtained every 3 months in both groups and examined for HPV type 16 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After a follow-up period of 12 months no significant differences were found between the laser treatment...

  17. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolau′s smear and its utilization among female, final year undergraduates in Durban, South Africa

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    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to find association and the significant predictor for doing Pap smear test. Results: Over half (53.3% of the participants had heard about cervical cancer and its detection method. More than half (60% and over a third (37.8% of the participants knew about human papilloma virus (HPV and multiple sexual partner respectively as risk factors for cervical cancer. More than half (55.3% indicated that they were not aware if cervical cancer can be prevented. Majority (76.7% knew that Papanicolau′s (Pap smear test is used for detection or prevention of cervical cancer. Among those who were sexually active and knew about Pap smear test 79.3% did not do the test mainly because of personal factors such as fear of the procedure, or were not ill. Conclusions: Level of awareness regarding cervical cancer and its detection method was low among these female students. The university management should focus on developing policies on health education and promotion to prevent transmission of the HPV.

  18. Effects of Storage at Room and Refrigerator Temperatures on Dogs Blood Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    JETMIRA ABESHI; ELENICA DIMCO; GERTA DHAMO; ERINDA LIKA; ENKELEDA OZUNI

    2014-01-01

    Blood should be analyzed immediately after collection. However the delay in its analysis may be unavoidable if the samples are taken from farms away from labs or, when samples are collected at the end of week. The purpose of this study consists in comparison of the CBC results in dogs and morphological changes observed in blood smears, stored at room temperature (22° C) and in refrigerator (4°C). The blood was collected with EDTA from 11 clinically healthy dogs, and was analyzed, immediately ...

  19. CORRELATION OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY WITH BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE AND BRUSH SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN PULMONARY LESIONS

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    Surabhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL and Brush Cytology are important diagnostic tools for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. Considering the limitations of these procedures correlation of these cytological techniques may help in improving accuracy and increasing the diagnostic yield. AIM: To determine the role of FNAC, Brush and BAL Cytology in pulmonary lesions and to correlate the efficacy of FNAC with Brush and BAL Cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 78 patients with radiologically demonstrable pulmonary lesions in the department of pathology and Dr ML Chest Hospital, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur over a period from nov2011-july2013. The cases selected had to give consent for the procedure. Bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brush sample were taken and FNAC was done in the cases. RESULTS: In present study 78 cases of pulmonary lesions were subjected to FNAC and/ or Bronchoalveolar lavage and brush cytology. Among them 49 cases were selected in which all three procedures were done. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting lung tumors by FNAC was 96.29% and 95.45% which was more than that of BAL cytology (84.61%, 91.30% and Brush cytology (81.48%, 95.45%. FNA correlates with Brush and BAL cytology in 78.57% of malignant lesions. Among malignant lesions 84.61% of BAL and Brush cytology correlates with FNA for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. FNA correlates with 66.67% of brush and 83.37% of BAL fluid cytology for diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. BAL and Brush both correlates with FNA in 83.33% cases of small cell carcinoma. Overall 85.71% of BAL and 82.14% of brush smear cytology correlates with FNA cytology for diagnosis of lung cancers. CONCLUSIONS: FNA, BAL and Brush cytology provide a high yield for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. BAL fluid and brush cytology correlated well with FNAC for diagnosis of lung cancers.

  20. Clinical implications and histological correlation of atypical glandular cells found in cervicovaginal smears

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    Beliza Loos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atypical glandular cells (AGC are carriers of insufficient nuclear abnormalities for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, but exceed the criteria for classification as reactive glandular cells. This is an uncommon diagnosis, which may be associated with neoplastic lesions. Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of primary cytological diagnosis of AGC through correlation with results of subsequent cyto-histologic examination. Materials and methods: 10 years retrospective study based on cervical cytologic results indicating AGC, classified as "possibly non-neoplastic" or "cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion". It was performed cyto-histopathological correlation in cases that were submitted to subsequent histopathological examination up to two years after cervical cytology analysis. Results: AGC were reported in 380 (0.06% exams, providing 160 cases with subsequent biopsy. 85 (53.1% of these, presented benign changes and 75 (46.9% neoplastic lesions. From 114 "possibly non-neoplastic" cytological results, 71 (62.3% had benign histological changes, and 43 (37.7% neoplastic lesions, corresponding to a negative predictive value (NPV of 62.3%. In contrast, among the 46 AGC "cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion" results, 14 (30.4% presented benign changes and 32 (69.6% neoplastic lesions (positive predictive value [PPV] = 69.6%. Discussion: The high rate of cancer associated with the diagnosis of AGC reassures the importance of recognizing these atypical cells in pap smears. The classification of "possibly non-neoplastic" and "cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion" may suggest the origin of cytological changes. Conclusion: Our results reinforce the importance of adequate follow-up of patients with AGC diagnosis on cervical cytology.

  1. LSIL/ASC-H (LSIL-H in Cervicovaginal Smear: Histopathological Outcomes and Clinical Significance

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    Ecmel IŞIK KAYGUSUZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Conventional Pap smears exhibiting unequivocal features of ‘low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (LSIL are occasionally mixed with some cells suspicious for, but not diagnostic of ‘high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (HSIL on daily routine. The 2001 Bethesda System does not address the significance of such cytological entities. We have referred to these changes in our laboratory as ‘LSIL, atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL' (LSIL/ASC-H. In this study, we aimed to compare the cytology and biopsy results of LSIL/ ASC-H to LSIL, ASC-H and HSIL.Material and Method: Out of 37884 cases which were evaluated between 2005-2009 in our laboratory, cases interpreted as LSIL, LSIL/ ASC-H, HSIL and ASC-H were reevaluated and 153 cases for which biopsy materials were available were selected.Results: The rate of histological CIN2 or worse associated with LSIL/ ASC-H (45% was between the rates of LSIL (10% and HSIL (65%, but not significantly different from ASC-H (50%. However, LSIL/ ASC-H was more frequently associated with a definitive histological diagnosis of any CIN2 than ASC-H (30% vs. 8%.Conclusion: Based on our results, we recommend LSIL/ASC-H to be added to Bethesda System, and Pap test cases of LSIL/ASC-H may need to be clinically followed-up in a manner similar to ASC-H, i.e., with colposcopy for all patients.

  2. Optimizing Mycobacterial Culture in Smear-Negative, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Tuberculosis Cases.

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    N A Ismail

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a significant public health problem and the diagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals is challenging. The use of mycobacterial culture remains an important complementary tool and optimizing it has important benefits. We sought to determine the effect of an increase in the number of specimens evaluated, addition of nutritional supplementation to the culture medium, sputum appearance and volume on diagnostic yield and time to detection of pulmonary TB among smear-negative, HIV-infected adults.In this prospective study conducted at the Tshwane District Hospital and Academic TB Laboratory, Pretoria, South Africa we collected three sputum specimens an hour apart from presumptive TB cases at an antiretroviral treatment site. We analysed specimens from 236 patients. Specimen appearance and volume were recorded. All specimens were processed for culture using both standard and supplemented media.A single specimen identified 79% of PTB cases using standard media; the second and third specimens added 12.5% and 8.3% respectively. Media supplementation, sputum appearance and specimen volume had no effect on culture yield or contamination rates. The mean time to detection was reduced from 19.8 days in standard cultures to 11.8 days in nutrient supplemented cultures (p = 0.002. For every 1 ml increase in sputum volume, time to detection was decreased by a factor of 0.797 (p = 0.011.Use of an inexpensive culture supplement substantially reduced time to detection and could contribute to reducing treatment delay among HIV-infected cases.

  3. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  4. Cervical Pap smear study and detection of abnormal epithelial lesions and determination of its accuracy by cytohistological correlation in patients of tertiary care teaching hospital in central India

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    Garima Malpani

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Pap smear is a cost effective and sensitive screening method for detection of cancerous, pre-cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of cervix. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2312-2316

  5. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  6. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of donor blood. Many communities have a blood bank where healthy people can donate blood. This blood ... need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  8. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  9. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Print A A A ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  10. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  11. Usefulness of quantitative buffy coat blood parasite detection system in diagnosis of malaria

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    Pinto M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid test for diagnosis of malaria based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged blood samples in a microhematocrit tube (QBC was compared with thick and thin peripheral blood smears in 2274 samples. Malaria was diagnosed in 239 (10.5% patients by Leishman′s staining technique and QBC method. The QBC method allowed detection of an additional 89 (3.9% cases. Thus the prevalence rate of malaria during the study was 14.4%. In 1946 patients who were negative by the QBC technique, the Leishman′s stained smears did not provide any help in malaria diagnosis. Analysis of the relative quantity of parasites in the specimens, in the QBC method, revealed that 80 out of 89 QBC positive but smear negative cases, had a very low parasite number (less than 10 parasites per QBC field. Although QBC method was superior to the smear for malarial parasite detection, species identification was not possible in 26 (7.9% cases by this technique. In 95.7% (n = 314 QBC positive cases, the buffy coat in the QBC tube appeared pigmented (gray to black. The colour of the buffy coat was therefore considered by us as a predictor of positivity and could be taken as an indicator for a careful and more prolonged search for the parasites. Thus, the QBC technique has its advantages in terms of speed, sensitivity and ease, especially in an endemic area as ours, where the level of parasitaemia is low and more than 70 to 80 smears need to be examined per day. However, the age old Romanowsky stains still appear superior for species identification.

  12. Prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk Ghanaian newborns: a cross-sectional study

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    Enweronu-Laryea Christabel C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%. Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2% newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (≤50 per microlitre. In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12% cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.

  13. A game-based crowdsourcing platform for rapidly training middle and high school students to perform biomedical image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve; Woo, Min-jae; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Eunso; Ki, Sojung; Shao, Lei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    We developed an easy-to-use and widely accessible crowd-sourcing tool for rapidly training humans to perform biomedical image diagnostic tasks and demonstrated this platform's ability on middle and high school students in South Korea to diagnose malaria infected red-blood-cells (RBCs) using Giemsa-stained thin blood smears imaged under light microscopes. We previously used the same platform (i.e., BioGames) to crowd-source diagnostics of individual RBC images, marking them as malaria positive (infected), negative (uninfected), or questionable (insufficient information for a reliable diagnosis). Using a custom-developed statistical framework, we combined the diagnoses from both expert diagnosticians and the minimally trained human crowd to generate a gold standard library of malaria-infection labels for RBCs. Using this library of labels, we developed a web-based training and educational toolset that provides a quantified score for diagnosticians/users to compare their performance against their peers and view misdiagnosed cells. We have since demonstrated the ability of this platform to quickly train humans without prior training to reach high diagnostic accuracy as compared to expert diagnosticians. Our initial trial group of 55 middle and high school students has collectively played more than 170 hours, each demonstrating significant improvements after only 3 hours of training games, with diagnostic scores that match expert diagnosticians'. Next, through a national-scale educational outreach program in South Korea we recruited >1660 students who demonstrated a similar performance level after 5 hours of training. We plan to further demonstrate this tool's effectiveness for other diagnostic tasks involving image labeling and aim to provide an easily-accessible and quickly adaptable framework for online training of new diagnosticians.

  14. "Candidatus Borrelia kalaharica" Detected from a Febrile Traveller Returning to Germany from Vacation in Southern Africa.

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    Volker Fingerle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 26 year-old female patient presented to the Tropical Medicine outpatient unit of the Ludwig Maximilians-University in Munich with febrile illness after returning from Southern Africa, where she contracted a bite by a large mite-like arthropod, most likely a soft-tick. Spirochetes were detected in Giemsa stained blood smears and treatment was started with doxycycline for suspected tick-borne relapsing fever. The patient eventually recovered after developing a slight Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction during therapy. PCR reactions performed from EDTA-blood revealed a 16S rRNA sequence with 99.4% similarity to both, Borrelia duttonii, and B. parkeri. Further sequences obtained from the flagellin gene (flaB demonstrated genetic distances of 0.066 and 0.097 to B. parkeri and B. duttonii, respectively. Fragments of the uvrA gene revealed genetic distance of 0.086 to B. hermsii in genetic analysis and only distant relations with classic Old World relapsing fever species. This revealed the presence of a novel species of tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes that we propose to name "Candidatus Borrelia kalaharica", as it was contracted from an arthropod bite in the Kalahari Desert belonging to both, Botswana and Namibia, a region where to our knowledge no relapsing fever has been described so far. Interestingly, the novel species shows more homology to New World relapsing fever Borrelia such as B. parkeri or B. hermsii than to known Old World species such as B. duttonii or B. crocidurae.

  15. Predictors for MTB Culture-Positivity among HIV-Infected Smear-Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda: Application of New Tuberculosis Diagnostic Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nakiyingi, Lydia; Bareng A S Nonyane; Ssengooba, Willy; Bruce J Kirenga; Nakanjako, Damalie; Lubega, Gloria; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Moses L Joloba; Ellner, Jerry J.; Susan E Dorman; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The existing World Health Organization diagnostic algorithms for smear-negative TB perform poorly in HIV-infected individuals. New TB diagnostics such as urine TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) could improve the accuracy and reduce delays in TB diagnosis in HIV-infected smear-negative presumptive TB. We sought to determine predictors for MTB culture-positivity among these patients. Methods This study was nested into a prospective evaluation of HIV-infected outpatients and inpatients clini...

  16. Correlation between tuberculin skin test and IGRAs with risk factors for the spread of infection in close contacts with sputum smear positive in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Latorre, Irene; Altet-Gómez, Neus; Jiménez-Fuentes, María Ángeles; Milà, Celia; Solsona, Jordi; Seminario, Maria Asunción; Cantos, Adela; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Domínguez, José

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the tuberculin skin test (TST) and in vitro interferon-gamma released assays (IGRAs) with risk factors for the spread of infection in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) contacts. Methods We recruited prospective contacts with smear positive pulmonary TB cases. We looked at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other conditions of immunosuppression, presence of BCG vaccination and the degree of exposure to...

  17. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  18. The added value of peripheral blood cell morphology in the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases--part 2: illustrative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potasman, I; Prokocimer, M

    2008-11-01

    The previous review dealt with the diagnostic yield of peripheral blood smear examination with regard to diagnosis of infectious diseases. In addition to the clinical data, it can provide information of major clinical significance. At times, it can even replace additional, costly and time-consuming diagnostic modalities. The following clinical vignettes, which are discussed briefly, support these arguments. PMID:19103816

  19. Sodium Hypochlorite Sedimentation Technique: A Simple Way to Enhance Sensitivity of Ziehl-Neelsen Stain in Diagnosis of Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Peerapur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the looming global HIV pandemic, the problem of tuberculosis tiptoes as a perpetual companion. Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis which pose substantially a challenge for diagnosis, hoots this combination into noxious health problem. There is, therefore, an urgent need to establish more sensitive, safe and fairly rapid methodologies that could confirm diagnosis particularly in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Aim: This study was carried out to establish whether, 3.5% sodium hypochlorite overnight sedimentation method improves the sensitivity of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN stain in samples declared as smear negative. Material and Methods: A total of 605 direct ZN smear negative sputum specimens were examined after concentration with 3.5% sodium hypochlorite overnight sedimentation method. Results: Forty one (6.77% samples were found to be positive when smears were repeated after performing sodium hypochlorite sedimentation technique. Sensitivity and specificity of this method was found to be 76.31% and 97.88% respectively. Conclusion: 3.5% Sodium hypochlorite sedimentation technique has the potential to improve the diagnosis in tuberculosis in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases especially in resource poor countries.

  20. Cytohistological correlation and accuracy of the pap smear test in diagnosis of cervical lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study from Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Naik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common causes of mortality among women.Early detection can be done by Papanicolaou (Papsmear test - a simplest, safe, cost effective and non invasive procedure. The main objective of this study was to categorize Pap smears for cytohistologicalexamination as well as clinically correlate to analyze sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Pap smear. Methods In this prospective study 417 Pap smears performed, cytohistological correlation was done in 104 cases because patients had undergone both Pap smear and cervical biopsy.Detailed history was taken and clinical examination was done. Pap smear sample was collected from cervix and reporting was made according to Bethesda 2001 classification.Cytological findings were correlated with histopathology. Results Overall concordance rate was 60.7%. Concordance rate for malignancy was 100%, for inflammatory lesions 70.8% and for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 33.3%. Common age group presented for screening was40-50 years.Commonest clinical presentationwas bleeding per vaginum. Conclusion The study provides good cyto-histopathology correlation in detecting high grade lesions and malignancy. Although Pap smear sensitivity was low but can be increased by adequate sampling and avoiding technical errors.Bethesda system is strongly recommended for adequacy of sampling to minimize inconsistency.Regular screening should be advised to the patients for the early detection of cervical carcinoma.

  1. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Potassium Hydroxide Smear and Fungal Culture Relative to Clinical Assessment in the Evaluation of Tinea Pedis: A Pooled Analysis

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    Jacob Oren Levitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5% and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%, respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5% and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%. Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  2. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant. PMID:26249344

  3. A comparative evaluation of smear layer removal by using edta, etidronic acid, and maleic acid as root canal irrigants: An in vitro scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aby Kuruvilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of 17% EDTA, 18% etidronic acid, and 7% maleic acid in smear layer removal using scanning electron microscopic image analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty, freshly extracted mandibular premolars were used. The teeth were decoronated to obtain working length of 17mm and instrumentation up to 40 size (K file with 2.5% NaOCl irrigation between each file. The samples were divided into Groups I (17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, II (18% etidronic acid, and III (7% maleic acid containing 10 samples each. Longitudinal sectioning of the samples was done. Then the samples were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM at apical, middle, and coronal levels. The images were scored according to the criteria: 1. No smear layer, 2. moderate smear layer, and 3 heavy smear layer. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Mann-Whitney U test for individual comparisons. The level for significance was set at 0.05. Results: The present study showed that all the three experimental irrigants removed the smear layer from different tooth levels (coronal, middle, and apical. Final irrigation with 7% maleic acid is more efficient than 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid in the removal of smear layer from the apical third of root canal.

  4. Effect of different final irrigating solutions on smear layer removal in apical third of root canal: A scanning electron microscope study

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    Sayesh Vemuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the smear layer removal efficacy of different irrigating solutions at the apical third of the root canal. Materials and Methods: Forty human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were taken and decoronated to standardize the canal length to 14 mm. They were prepared by ProTaper rotary system to an apical preparation of file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10; saline (Group 1; negative control, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Group 2, BioPure MTAD (Group 3, and QMix 2 in 1 (Group 4. After final irrigation with tested irrigants, the teeth were split into two halves longitudinally and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM for the removal of smear layer. The SEM images were then analyzed for the amount of smear layer present using a three score system. Statistical Analysis: Data are analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Intergroup comparison of groups showed statistically significant difference in the smear layer removal efficacy of irrigants tested. QMix 2 in 1 is most effective in removal of smear layer when compared to other tested irrigants. Conclusion: QMix 2 in 1 is the most effective final irrigating solution for smear layer removal.

  5. Peripheral blood lymphocyte appearance in a case of I cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, W. van der; Jakobs, B; Bocca, G.; Smeitink, J.; Schuurmans, S.; de Keijzer, M H

    2001-01-01

    In general, peripheral blood smears are performed to obtain information with regard to various morphological features as an aid in the diagnosis of infection or malignancy. This report presents a patient with I cell disease (inclusion cell disease), a fatal lysosomal storage disorder caused by a defect in an enzyme responsible for the transfer of mannose-6-phosphate ligands to precursor lysosomal enzymes. As a consequence, most lysosomal enzymes are transported outside the cell instead of bei...

  6. Evaluation of in-house PCR for diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakiyingi Lydia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs have offered hope for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. However, their efficiency with smear-negative samples has not been widely studied in low income settings. Here, we evaluated in-house PCR assay for diagnosis of smear-negative TB using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture as the baseline test. Two hundred and five pulmonary TB (PTB suspects with smear-negative sputum samples, admitted on a short stay emergency ward at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled. Two smear-negative sputum samples were obtained from each PTB suspect and processed simultaneously for identification of MTBC using in-house PCR and LJ culture. Results Seventy two PTB suspects (35%, 72/205 were LJ culture positive while 128 (62.4%, 128/205 were PCR-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of in-house PCR for diagnosis of smear-negative PTB were 75% (95% CI 62.6-85.0 and 35.9% (95% CI 27.2-45.3, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 39% (95% CI 30.4-48.2 and 72.4% (95% CI 59.1-83.3, respectively, while the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.17 (95% CI 0.96-1.42 and 0.70 (95% CI 0.43-1.14, respectively. One hundred and seventeen LJ culture-negative suspects (75 PCR-positive and 42 PCR-negative were enrolled for follow-up at 2 months. Of the PCR-positive suspects, 45 (60%, 45/75 were still alive, of whom 29 (64.4%, 29/45 returned for the follow-up visit; 15 (20%, 15/75 suspects died while another 15 (20%, 15/75 were lost to follow-up. Of the 42 PCR-negative suspects, 22 (52.4%, 22/42 were still alive, of whom 16 (72.7%, 16/22 returned for follow-up; 11 (26.2%, 11/42 died while nine (21.4%, 9/42 were lost to follow-up. Overall, more PCR-positive suspects were diagnosed with PTB during follow-up visits but the difference was not statistically significant (27.6%, 8/29 vs. 25%, 4/16, p = 0.9239. Furthermore, mortality was higher for the PCR-negative suspects but the

  7. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to infections including those we develop from our vaccinations (such as poliovirus antibodies, which are made by ... the Transfusion Medicine Unit, Blood Bank, and Stem Cell Storage Facility University of Rochester Medical ... and health educators who are available by phone Monday through Friday, 9 am to 9 pm ( ...

  8. Clinicoepidemiologic pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis and molecular characterization of its causative agent in Hajjah governorate, northwest of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Khatri, Mishri Lal; Mukred, Abdualdaim M; Kassem, Hala A; El Sawaf, Bahira M; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-11-01

    The clinicoepidemiologic profile of 143 cases (93 males and 50 females) with cutaneous leishmaniasis from 18 villages of Hajjah governorate, Yemen was studied. Dry-type lesions were seen in 98.6% and wet-type lesions in 1.4% of patients. Lesions were localized in all cases with different morphological patterns. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slit smears revealed amastigotes in 74.1% of patients with dry-type lesions and 0% in patients with wet-type lesions. The burden of the parasites in the lesions was high indicating active transmission of the disease. Most cases were from villages with moderate altitude range (8001-1600m). All age groups were affected, but most cases were seen in ages from 5 to 15 years. Leishmania species identification was done for all cases by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The biopsic material was scraped from both Giemsa-stained and methanol-fixed smears. The molecular characterization of Leishmania species revealed Leishmania tropica as the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hajjah, Yemen. The risk factors associated with the transmission of the disease and recommendations for improving case detection were discussed. PMID:27515810

  9. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  10. Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Gene Xpert in Smear-Negative and Sputum-Scarce Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To measure the diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) gene Xpert (Xpert MTB/RIF assay), to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance and compare it with that of mycobacterial cultures in a suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, from December 2012 to August 2013. Methodology: BAL specimens of 93 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis with smear-negative or sputumscarce disease, who presented to the Department of Pulmonology, FFH, Rawalpindi were inducted. A smear-negative case was one in whom three consecutive early morning sputum samples did not reveal acid fast bacilli when examined by microscopy with Zeihl Nelson (ZN) stain. Patients who had sputum amount less than 1 ml were defined to have sputumscarce disease. The same was evaluated with ZN stain, gene Xpert and mycobacterial cultures. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using culture as the gold standard. Results: The frequency of positive mycobacterial cultures was 85 (91.4%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of BAL gene Xpert to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 91.86%, 71.42%, 97.53% and 41.66% respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.33% and 100% to detect rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Bronchoalveolar lavage gene Xpert had a superior diagnostic yield in patients with either smear-negative or sputum-scarce pulmonary tuberculosis. Hence a positive Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. (author)

  11. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Melese

    Full Text Available Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB. However, external quality assurance (EQA services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking.The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP. A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN. The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV of the readings of microscopic centers.We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I, the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs. In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively.Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals' capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued support.

  12. Cervical cancer screening in Turkey: a community-based experience after 60 years of pap smear usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhindi, Hakan; Nazlican, Ersin; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in females in the World with around 500,000 new cases occurring annually, but the first in the developing countries with a high mortality if not diagnosed early. Papanicolau (Pap) smear is a cheap, easy-to-apply and widely accepted test which has been long used to detect cervical cancer at very early stages. However, despite being available for nearly 60 years, the test can hardly be considered to have become successfully applied in many communities. We aimed in this study to present the results of a screening survey for cervical cancer which targeted a women population aged between 35 and 40 living in a semi-rural area in the province of Hatay, located in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey, with specific aims of increasing early diagnosis, education and raising population awareness about cancers. This community-based descriptive study covered 512 women between 35 and 40 years of age living at Armutlu with a mean age of 37.6±1.7. Gynecologic examinations revealed cervical erosion in 8 (1.6%), vaginitis in 193 (37.7%) and normal findings in 311 (60.7%); pathological evaluation reports of the smears were negative in 290 (56.6%), inflammation in 218 (42.6%) and ASC-US in 4 (0.8%), according to the 2001 Bethesda classification. It can be concluded that Pap smear test - proven to be a very valuable test at the clinical level- should also be widely used at the community level to detect cervical cancer at very early stages to reduce both the mortality and morbidity among healthy people. The need for continuous community-based cervical cancer screening programs is strongly suggested.

  13. Effects of ultrasonically activated irrigants with or without surfactant on smear layer removal after post space preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Turker, Sevinc Aktemur; Yilmaz, Zeliha; Ozcelik, Bahar; Gorduysus, Melahat; Altundasar, Emre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different NaOCl and EDTA formulations with/without ultrasonic use on smear layer removal and root canal surface characteristics after post space preparation. Study design: After post space preparations, forty-six teeth were subjected to different post space irrigation regimes; G1, 17% EDTA; G2, 17% EDTA+Ultrasonic activation; G3, EDTA-T; G4, EDTA-T+Ultrasonic activation; G5, NaOCl; G6, NaOCl+Ultrasonic activation. Specimens were ...

  14. Correlation of Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid for screening of premalignant and malignant lesion of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Singh

    2015-09-01

    Results: The present study was conducted over a period of 6 months among 212 patients age of 18-60 years screened. Positive results obtained from cytology were 26, VIA was positive in 28 women. Cervical biopsy was done in 34 women who had positive results by either test. Histology in 31 cases was suggestive of cervical intraepithelial carcinoma (CIN. Conclusions: VIA, though less specific has comparable sensitivity to Pap smear and may be used as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. In combination both the tests have a higher predictive accuracy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2382-2385

  15. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  16. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  17. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  18. Five-Year Assessment of Time of Sputum Smears Conversion and Outcome and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis Patients in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemah Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate risk factors which influence sputum smear conversion, outcome, and trends of conversion of sputum smear during 5 years and compare outcomes in patients with different regimens. Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, all patients with sputum smear positive tuberculosis were evaluated for comorbidities and demographic, microbiological, and therapeutic data and outcome. Smear examinations were performed at the beginning, at 2 months for CAT I, at 3 months for CAT II, at the end of second month of maintenance phase, and at the end of treatment. Results. This study enrolled 211 sputum smear positive patients, but 189 patients who completed the intensive phase of treatment were evaluated. Sputum smear of 158 patients converted at the end of intensive phase (83.6. Univariate analysis indicated that the risk of a persistent positive smear at the end of intensive phase was greater in diabetic patients ((odds 4.038, 95% CI 1.123–14.516 P=0.033, and also a 3+bacillary load had risk of 2.933-fold ((95% CI 1.278–6.732 P=0.011. Overall rate of unfavorable outcome was 20.9%. Factors associated with unfavorable outcome were age (P value 0.000, male gender (P value 0.027, diabetes (P value 0.000, and delayed conversion of sputum at the end of intensive phase (P value 0.000. Outcome for different regimens was not different significantly. Two specimens were isoniazid resistant. Conclusions. We suggest supervised treatment and care for diabetic patients and those with higher bacillary load. Paying attention to early diagnosis of tuberculosis in the elderly to reduce poor outcome and further measures to prevent transfer-out could improve the success rate.

  19. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaikuad, Apirat, E-mail: apirat.chaikuad@sgc.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Knapp, Stefan [University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Building N240 Room 3.03, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Delft, Frank von, E-mail: apirat.chaikuad@sgc.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-28

    An alternative strategy for PEG sampling is suggested through the use of four newly defined PEG smears to enhance chemical space in reduced screens with a benefit towards protein crystallization. The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant.

  20. Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-04-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary.