Sample records for giblets

  1. Detection of Escherichia albertii from chicken meat and giblets.

    Maeda, Eriko; Murakami, Koichi; Sera, Nobuyuki; Ito, Kenitiro; Fujimoto, Shuji


    Escherichia albertii occasionally causes food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans; however, little is known about the vehicle of transmission. To screen retail chicken products for the presence of E. albertii, 104 retail chicken products were investigated. Portions of enrichment cultures that were PCR-positive for E. albertii (n=3) were sub-cultured on agar medium. Only 2 strains obtained from 2 chicken giblet samples were identified as E. albertii by multi locus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 1 strain was resistant to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole. Both strains harbored the virulence genes cdt and eae. This study is the first description of E. albertii isolation from retail food, suggesting that chicken products are a potential vehicle of E. albertii transmission.

  2. Determination of Moisture Levels, Protein and Water Absorption of Chicken Giblets

    D Scaratti


    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed at evaluating the levels of moisture, protein, water to protein ratio, and water absorption during chilling of chicken giblets (heart, liver, and gizzard to set legal limits of water absorption during this process. The survey was conducted in the southern Brazil, the largest broiler-producing region of this country. Giblets (heart, liver, and gizzard were collected fresh from the processing line after evisceration and at the exit of the chiller after the immersion process from two processing plants. One of the plants (PP1 processes small chickens (1,100g live weight and PP2 processes chickens with 2,800g live weight. In total, 448 samples were collected. Laboratory tests were performed in duplicate for each parameter measured. The results show that moisture levels of fresh giblets were higher in the gizzard, followed by the liver and the heart, whereas in chilled giblets, the gizzard still maintained the highest moisture level, but was followed by the heart and then the liver. Both in fresh and chilled samples, the liver presented the highest protein content, followed by the gizzard and the heart. Water to protein ratios were higher in chilled than in fresh samples, and was highest in the heart, followed by the gizzard and the liver. After immersion in the chiller, the heart presented the highest water absorption rate (6.59%, which was significantly higher compared with those of the liver (4.16% and the gizzard (4.51%. Considering that the water absorption rates obtained both in fresh and chilled chicken giblets were below 8.00%, the following upper limits of water absorption are suggested for chicken giblet processing in Brazil: 7.0% for the heart, and 5.0% for the gizzard and the liver.

  3. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets

    Doaa M Abd El-Aziz


    Objective: To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. Methods:One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR amplification of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. Results:S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40%and 48%in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. Conclusions:The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Turkey Carcasses and Giblets in Meknès-Morocco

    A. El Allaoui


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and the serotypes involved the virulence gene (InvA and SpvC of Salmonella isolates recovered from the raw meat and giblets (liver and gizzard of the turkey in various outlets in the Moroccan market. From November 2011 to November 2012 a total of 192 samples of turkey meat (included 48 breasts, 48 legs, 48 gizzards and 48 livers were collected every ten days from retail outlets in Meknès. Of these, 48 were from popular market, 48 from artisanal slaughterhouses, 48 from poulterers’shops and 48 from a supermarket at Meknes, Morocco. Of the total of 192 samples examined, 24.5% (47/192 were contaminated with Salmonella. Out of the total 48 samples analysed from popular market, 19 (40.42% proved to be Salmonella positive whereas from 48 samples obtained from traditional slaughterhouses and 48 from poulterers’shops 14 (29.87% and 8 (17% contained Salmonella, respectively. Compared to other outlets, a low level of Salmonella contamination was found in samples obtained from Supermarket 6 (12.7%. Among the 47 Salmonella isolates, 6 different serotypes were identified of which S. Saintpaul (46.8% was the most frequent, followed by S. Agona (17% and S. Kentucky (17%, S. Typhimurium (8.5%, S. Infantis (6.3% and S. Bredeney (4.2%.The high level of contamination, especially in popular market and artisanal slaughterhouses of turkey meat and giblets with Salmonella observed in this paper indicates the need for an improvement in the microbiological quality of retail turkey. Examination of Salmonella for invA gene was detected in all the strains (n=47, only three isolates were positive for the gene SpvC: S. Agona, S. Kentucky and S. Infantis.

  5. Estimation of Lead and Cadmium residual levels in chicken giblets at retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt

    Soad A. Ismail


    Full Text Available Lead (Pb and Cadmium (Cd are environmental contaminants of food which have deleterious cumulative effect on human health. Using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were estimated in 60 samples of chicken giblets comprising of broiler livers, gizzards and hearts collected randomly from retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt. The greatest Pb concentrations were found in liver samples (0.8762 ± 0.2089 ppm, whereas gizzard samples contain 0.3186 ± 0.1462 ppm and lowest levels of Pb were detected in heart samples 0.1733 ± 0.06777 ppm. Cd deposited in liver samples reached 0.040714 ± 0.0290 ppm; however gizzard and heart samples contain negligible Cd concentrations (0.0041 ± 0.0028 and 0.0036 ± 0.008 ppm, respectively. These data interpreted that Pb residual concentration, particularly in chicken liver sold in Ismailia city, is more than the permissible limit (0.5 ppm in the Codex Alimentarius international food standards and thus may be hazardous to human consumption and more serious inspection procedures should be applied by the veterinary authorities therein.

  6. Occurrence, genetic characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from chicken meat and giblets.

    Abd-Elghany, S M; Sallam, K I; Abd-Elkhalek, A; Tamura, T


    SUMMARY This study was undertaken to survey the presence of Salmonella in 200 chicken samples collected from Mansoura, Egypt. Salmonella was detected in 16% (8/50), 28% (14/50), 32% (16/50) and 60% (30/50) of whole chicken carcasses, drumsticks, livers and gizzards, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 34% (68/200) among all samples. One hundred and sixty-six isolates were identified biochemically as Salmonella, and confirmed genetically by PCR, based on the presence of invA and stn genes. The spvC gene, however, was detected in only 25.3% (42/166) of the isolates. Isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Enteritidis (37.3%), S. Typhimurium (30.1%), S. Kentucky (10.8%), S. Muenster (8.4%), S. Virchow (4.8%), S. Anatum (4.8%), S. Haifa (1.2%), and four were non-typable. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of the Salmonella isolates revealed that 100% were resistant to each of erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin, while 98.8%, 96.4%, 95.2%, and 91.6% were resistant to nalidixic acid, sulphamethoxazole, oxytetracycline, and ampicillin, respectively. Multidrug resistance was evident for 92.8% of the isolates. The high contamination level of chicken meat with multidrug-resistant Salmonella can constitute a problem for public health.

  7. in Debre Zeit and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    care worldwide. ... eighty Salmonella strains isolated from chicken carcass and giblets (liver, gizzard and ... multiple antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella for human infections and suggest the ... feeds in intensive animal husbandry systems, ... indicated the presence of a high level of ..... healthy broiler chickens after slaughter.

  8. Browse Title Index

    Items 51 - 100 of 683 ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. ... resistance to Salmonellae isolated from retail raw chicken meat and giblets in Ethiopia, Abstract .... Vol 61, No 4 (2013), Blood Parasites of Semi-Domesticated and Wild ...

  9. Effect of storage temperaturas on growth and survival of Escherichia coli 0157: H7 inoculated in foods from a neotropical environment

    María Laura Arias


    Full Text Available Escherichia coli 0157: H7 has emerged as a new pathogen and is found worldwide. We studied the effect of several storage temperatures on the survival of this bacterium in common foods from a neotropical environment (Costa Rica because at least seven clinical cases have been reported from the country, and no epidemiological link or probable food association has been described. High (106- 108 CFU/ml and low (104-106 CFU/ml populations of E. coli were inoculated (three replications in ground meat, chopped cabbage, chicken giblets and pasteurized milk and incubated at 0, 6 and 12 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h. Vegetables and milk were also stored at 22 °C for the sarne periods.The E. coli 0157: H7 enumeration was done according to the methodology describes in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Populations of E. coli 0157: H7 showed either an increasing or decreasing trend, according to temperature, time or food base. Our data indicate that E. coli 0157: H7 is capable of surviving and growing in meat, cabbage, milk and chicken giblets; food items commonly consunied by Costa Ricans.Escherichia coli 0157, H7 ha emergido como un nuevo patógeno y se encuentra mundialmente. En Costa Rica, por lo menos ha informado de siete casos clínicos, y no se ha encontrado un lazo epidemiológico o asociación con alimentos. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas de almacenamiento sobre la sobrevivencia de esta bacteria en alimentos de uso común. Una población alta de E. Coli (106- 108 UFC/ml y una baja (104-106 UFC/ml fueron inoculadas (tres réplicas en carne picada, repollo picado, vísceras de pollo y leche pasteurizada e incubadas a 0, 6 y 1 °C por 24, 48 y 72 h. Los vegetales y la leche también fueron incubados a 22 °C por los mismos períodos. La enumeración de E. Coli 0157: H7 se realizó de acuerdo a la metodología descrita en el Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Las poblaciones de E. coli mostraron

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis in chicken growth hormone gene and its associations with growth and carcass traits

    YAN Bingxue; DENG Xuemei; FEI Jing; HU Xiaoxiang; WU Changxin; LI Ning


    In this experiment, F2 chicken derived from Broilers crossing to Silky are used to study the effect of growth hormone gene on growth and carcass traits. The partial gene is amplified by two pairs of primers, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) is detected by the technique of PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), and then confirmed by DNA sequencing. The mutations are found in intron 3 and intron 4 respectively, and can be clarified by digestion with EcoRⅤand MspⅠ. The results of least square analysis indicate that the gene has significant association with some carcass traits, such as breast muscle weight, breast muscle rate, abdominal fat rate, and has no association with other growth and carcass traits, such as live weight, carcass weight, eviscerated yield with giblet, eviscerated yield, leg muscle weight, heart weight, liver weight, abdominal fat weight, chest angle width, head and neck weight, shank and claw weight, wing weight, muscular stomach weight, glandular stomach weight, ovary or testicular weight, shank girth, small intestine length, 1-week body weight, 6-week body weight, 12-week body weight, etc. These results demonstrate that GH gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting the growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  11. Carcass Physical Features of Malagasy Chicken: Indigenous Race and Starbro Strain

    Hantanirina I


    Full Text Available This study aims to compare anatomies of Madagascar chickens (indigenous race and Starbro strain. With 8,262 individuals of either indigenous races or Starbro strain chickens raised in a suburban environment, the weights of different pieces of cut as well as the live weights before slaughter were determined. Results showed that breast development presents a positive linear relationship with thigh development for Starbro strain chickens (fast growing broiler while the relationship between the two traits is negative for the indigenous races (slow growing chicken. Giblet proportions are similar between these two types of chicken. We found that slaughtering at 1,750g live weight (age 120 to 185 days is profitable for indigenous race chickens (meat yield = 40.16%, breast yield = 18.10%, thigh yield = 20.15% and abdominal fat yield = 1.90%. For the Starbro strain, ideal weight at slaughter is 1,300-1,450 g, corresponding to 49 to 61 days of age (meat yield = 39.63%, breast yield = 17.85%, thigh yield = 20.27% and abdominal fat yield = 1.51%. The physical features of the cuts are similar between indigenous races and Starbro strain chickens.

  12. Nutritive value of full-fat sunflower seeds in broiler diets.

    Selvaraj, R K; Purushothaman, M R


    A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and inclusion level of sunflower seed (SFS) in broiler diets. SFS contained 38.7% ether extract (EE), 16.9% CP, 14.9% crude fiber (CF), 3.5% ash, 0.57% lysine, and 0.46% methionine (89.2% DM basis). The AME (kcal/ kg) content of SFS in roosters was 5,225 and in broilers at 4, 18, and 35 d of age was 3,493, 5,132, and 5,162, respectively. The CP, EE, and CF digestibilities were 80.4, 71.2, and 11.4%, respectively. In an isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet containing SFS at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%, SFS up to 20% did not affect weight gain and feed consumption, but the feed conversion ratio was improved (P density lipoprotein cholesterol content, muscle cholesterol content, dressing percentage, liver weight, and giblet weight (as % live weight) were comparable among all treatment groups. Abdominal fat was increased in birds fed 20% SFS. Percentage skin was decreased in broilers fed > or = 10% SFS.


    Peter Haščík


    Full Text Available A present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of bee pollen extract on meat performance of Ross 308 broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old Ross chicks were involved in experiment. Chickens were divided into 2 groups, an experimental group (E and a control group (C. No added supplement was given to the control group, while the experimental group was given the feed mixture supplemented with bee pollen in an amount of 400, during the whole fattening period. Data of live body weight, carcass weight, giblets weight and carcass yield were determined at 42 days of the age. The supplementation of bee pollen increased final body weight of broilers by 68.5 g. Each of investigated parameters of meat performance in experimental group was higher to that in control group, although the difference among the groups was not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The addition of bee pollen at dose 400 in the feed mixture indicates the slight effect on meat performance of chickens which can be beneficial for fattening of broiler chickens.

  14. Use of certain herbal preparations in broiler feeds - A review

    Ramya Putturu


    Full Text Available The importance and use of herbal remedies (turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera etc. has been reviewed systematically. Turmeric (curcumin, acts as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial agent and protect liver against a variety of toxicants. Tulsi (eugenol have anticancer properties, reduced blood glucose levels, total cholesterol levels and promotes immune system function. Amla, richest source of vitamin-c and it's active tannoid principles have antimicrobial, antidiabetics, anticarcinogenic properties and enhances immune property. Aloe vera contains phytochemicals (Saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols, which is an indication of cosmetic and medicinal value. Turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera preparations increased the body weight gain, feed efficiency and decreased the feed intake. These preparations decreased the mortality rates and the cost of feed has been decreased from 6.2% to 13.5%. They have reduced the fat accumulation, increased dressing percentage, liver weight, spleen weight and whole giblet weights. Significant reduction of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and increased the humoral response against RD vaccine. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 172-179

  15. Comparison of antibiotic supplementation versus a yeast-based prebiotic on the cecal microbiome of commercial broilers.

    Park, Si Hong; Lee, Sang In; Kim, Sun Ae; Christensen, Karen; Ricke, Steven C


    Prebiotics are defined as fermentable food ingredients that selectively stimulate beneficial bacteria in the lower gastrointestinal tract of the host. The purpose of this study was to assess growth performance of broilers and the cecal microbial populations of an antibiotic, BMD50, supplemented birds compared to broiler chickens fed the prebiotic, Biolex® MB40. Weight response data including feed conversion ratios (FCR), carcasses without giblets (WOG), wing, skin, white meat were collected during processing. Extracted DNA from cecal contents was utilized for microbiome analysis via an Illumina Miseq. In conclusion, white meat yield of Biolex® MB40 supplemented group exhibited significant improvement compared to both negative control (NC) and BMD50 supplemented groups. In addition, antibiotic significantly decreased level of Lactobacillus in 2 wk compared to other groups. A significantly higher percentage of Campylobacter was observed from the 4 wk old birds treated with antibiotic BMD50 compared to the NC and prebiotic group. Retention of broiler performance and improvement of white meat yield suggest that the prebiotic MB40 appears to be a potential alternative to replace the antibiotic growth promoter.

  16. Effect of Different Ca and P Level on Early Growth of Fast-growth Lines of Wulong Goose

    WANG Bao-wei; ZHANG Min-gai; LI Wen-li; LIU Guang-lei; JIA Xiao-hui; WU Xiao-ping; YANG Shu-ling


    Two hundred and eighty-eight Wulong geese of fast-growth lines were selected to be fattened respectively in netting bed, then divided into eight groups with three replications in each group. The diets contained different contents of Ca and P to determine the best level for the early growth of Wulong goose. The result suggested that, during the early period, the proportion of Ca and NPP (non-Phytate Phosnhorus) had significant influence on its growth (P<0.05), when the dietary level of Ca was 0.65% and NPP was 0.30% (the proportion of Ca and NPP was 2.17:1), the liveweight gain was higher,so were the eviscerated ratio and eviscerated weight with giblet ratio, feed/gain (F/G) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity at four weeks were lower. The Wulong goose grew well at the proportion between 1.88:1 and 2.50: 1, and grew worst at 1.38:1.

  17. Performance of free-range chickens reared in production modules enriched with shade net and perches

    MJB Santos


    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment in a free-range chicken production system on live performance as a function of microclimate, physiological parameters, and performance parameters. Four production modules were divided into four pens with 10 birds each, totaling 60 birds. The following treatments were applied: access to a paddock (TEST, access to a paddock with perches (PER, access to a paddock with artificial shade (SHA, and access to the paddock with perches and artificial shade (PESH. The PESH production module presented the best globe temperature (Tbg,ºC and enthalpy (h, kJ/kg, and thereby, the best thermal environmental conditions, which ensured the longest permanence time of the birds in the paddock. The SHA and PESH modules promoted the lowest respiratory rate and shank and comb temperatures. Live performance was influenced by the presence of environmental enrichment (modules SHA and PESH, with the highest live weight (LW and weight gain (WG and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR and metabolizable energy intake (MEI. Parts yield, such as giblets, were not influenced by production modules, except for PESH, which promoted higher offal weight. In general, chickens reared in enriched production modules presented greatest performance and comfort results and were considered close to optimal rearing conditions.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor 2 as a candidate gene influencing growth and carcass traits and its bialleleic expression in chicken

    WANG; Genyu; YAN; Bingxue; DENG; Xuemei; LI; Changlü; HU; X


    We have identified DNA polymorphisms in the gene of insulin-like growth factor 2 by PCR-SSCP in a resource population, which was generated by Silky reciprocally crossing to Broilers. A C→G mutation was detected in the exon 2 (at position 71) by sequencing. This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found to be associated with production traits. Chicken with BB genotype showed more chest angle width but less 3 week body weight and glandular stomach weight than chicken with AA genotype (P<0.05); while the heterozygote (AB genotype) chicken had more abdominal fat weight, eviscerated yield with giblet than AA homozygote chicken. Further analysis showed that there were different genetic effects on some traits between heterozygote AB (paternal allele given first) and heterozygote BA: chickens with genotype BA had more birth weight and breast weight but less abdominal fat weight than chickens with genotype AB (P<0.05), which could be hypothetically contributed by genome imprinting. Therefore, Silky chickens were selected for production of heterozygotes to confirm whether IGF2 locus was imprinting. Progeny from heterozygote × homozygote reciprocal cross was assayed for expression after the genotype was determined. The transcription of IGF2 was detected by RT-PCR-SSCP. IGF2 gene was expressed bialleleically in 1-day-old neonatal liver and 90-day-old liver, kidney, heart, and muscle of both heterozygote AB and BA chickens. Therefore, IGF2 was not an imprinting gene in chicken. The different genetic effects between the heterozygote AB and BA remain to be elucidated.

  19. Comparison of sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella on whole broiler carcasses purchased from retail outlets.

    Simmons, M; Fletcher, D L; Berrang, M E; Cason, J A


    An experiment was conducted to compare the effectiveness levels of two methods in recovering Salmonella from the same carcass. One hundred fresh whole broiler chickens were purchased from retail outlets over a 5-week period (20 carcasses per week). After carcasses had been aseptically removed from the packages and giblets had been removed, the carcasses were placed in sterile bags containing 400 ml of 1% buffered peptone water, the bags were shaken for 60 s, and a 30-ml aliquot was removed and incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C (aliquot sample). Then, an additional 130 ml of 1% buffered peptone water was immediately added to the bag with the carcass (bringing the volume to 500 ml), the bag was reshaken, and the carcass and rinse were incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C (whole-carcass enrichment sample). Following incubation, 0.5-ml samples for the two methods were placed into 10 ml of Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth and into 10 ml of tetrathionate (Hajna) broth and incubated at 42 degrees C for 24 h. Each broth was then streaked onto BG Sulfa agar and modified lysine iron agar and incubated for 24 h at 35 degrees C. Suspected Salmonella colonies were inoculated onto triple sugar iron and lysine iron agar slants and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Presumptive positive results were confirmed by Poly O and Poly H agglutination tests. Over the 5-week period, 13% of the aliquot samples tested positive for Salmonella, compared with 38% of the whole-carcass enrichment samples from the same carcasses. Recovery rates ranged from 0 of 20 samples to 4 of 20 samples for aliquot method and from 4 of 20 samples to 10 of 20 samples for the whole-carcass enrichment method over the 5-week period. These results indicate that when small numbers of Salmonella are expected, the sampling method has a major influence on the identification of Salmonella-positive carcasses.

  20. Effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails

    Hujaz Tariq


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 120-day-old Japanese quails, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz. T1-control, T2-0.5% A. vera, T3-0.5% clove, and T4-(0.25% A. vera + 0.25% clove powder, each having three replications consisting of ten Japanese quails. The birds in control group (T1 were fed no supplement whereas in treatments T2-T4 birds were supplemented with A. vera leaf powder, clove, and mixture of both (powdered form at 0.5, 0.5, and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. After 7 days of brooding, a feeding trial of 35 days was conducted. On 35th day of trial birds were sacrificed and dressing percentage, cut up parts, organ weight, processing losses and carcass meat composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick were recorded. Blood samples were collected on the same day and serum was separated to evaluate serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Results: It showed significantly (p0.05 differences were observed in giblet weight, other cut up parts and composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles in all the treatment groups. Serum ALT and AST did not vary significantly among different treatment groups. Conclusion: A. vera and clove supplementation improved the dressing percentage and breast weight without adversely affecting the meat composition and serum enzymes. Thus, these can be used as a growth promoter in Japanese quails.

  1. Atractividad de diferentes cebos sobre Trógidos (Coleoptera en el Bosque Autóctono "El Espinal", Río Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina Attractivity of different Baits on Trogids (Coleoptera in the Autochthonous Forest "El Espinal", Río Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina

    Rodrigo S. Gómez


    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio para determinar la atractividad de cebos sobre las especies de Trogidae presentes en el Bosque Autóctono "El Espinal" en la ciudad de Río Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina. Se usaron trampas de caída cebadas con carne de vacuno (3, carne de porcino (3, menudo de pollo (3, excremento humano (3, excremento de perro (3 y trampas testigo (sin cebo (3 sumando un total de 18. Se recolectaron cuatro especies de Trogidae: Omorgus suberosus (Fabricius, Polynoncus aeger (Guérin-Meneville, Polynoncus gemmingeri (Harold y Polynoncus pilularius (Germar, que mostraron una preferencia hacia los menudos en descomposición de pollo y carne de cerdo seguido por excremento de perro; sugiriendo un comportamiento necrofágico-coprofágico con una tendencia a la necrofagia. Adicionalmente se utilizaron trampas de luz capturándose ejemplares de Omorgus ciliatus (Blanchard.A study to determine the food attractivity of baits on the species of Trogidae present in the Autochthonous Forest El Espinal in Río Cuarto City (Córdoba, Argentina was performed. Pitfall traps baited with beef (3, pork (3, chicken giblets (3, human excrement (3, dog excrement (3 and witness traps (without bait (3 were used, making up a total of 18 traps. Four species of Trogidae were collected Omorgus suberosus (Fabricius, Polynoncus aeger (Guérin-Meneville, Polynoncus gemmingeri (Harold and Polynoncus pilularius (Germar, which showed a preference for decomposing meat, especially chicken and pork, followed by dog excrement. Thus suggesting a necrophagous-coprophagous behavior with a tendency to the necrophagy. In an additional sampling light traps were used; Omorgus ciliatus (Blanchard was collected in these.

  2. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    Gourav Sharma


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I, paddy straw (Group II, pine leaves (Group III, and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV, each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994 requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.


    Peter Haščík


    Full Text Available Influence of propolis extract on meat performance of chickens’ hybrid combination Hubbard JV was evaluated in this experiment. The feed mixture has been made without addition antibiotic preparation and coccidiostats. However, propolis extract was added to the feed mixtures of experimental groups during the whole fattening period in followed amounts: 150 mg kg-1 (1st experimental group – E1 and 450 mg kg-1 (2nd experimental group – E2. Fattening lasted 42 days. Live body weight increased by 7.63 g in E1 and by 14.13 g in E2 compared with control group (1507.37 g. Carcass body weight was higher in experimental groups (1022.37 g – E1 and 1019.75 g – E2 compared with control group (1005.12 g. The weight of giblets was lower in experimental groups (117.79 g – E1 and 117.16 g – E2 compared with control group (119.06 g. The carcass yield of chickens was higher in E1 (75.27% compared with control group (74.92%, Carcass yield of chickens was higher in E1 (75.27% compared with control group (74.92% but E2 (74.76% was lowest. and there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 among the groups. Propolis extract did not influence the meat performance. Slight increase of live body, resp. of carcass body weight at the end of fattening can have a positive effect on the overall economics of chicken meat production.Based on the results, propolis extract is available supplement for chickens fattening.

  4. Study on inclusion of probiotic, prebiotic and its combination in broiler diet and their effect on carcass characteristics and economics of commercial broilers

    M. A. Saiyed


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In today era, broiler industry facing a problem of price hiking of feed of broiler, also in competitive era there should be lower feed cost, lower feed conversion ratio, low feed consumption yet good body weight at marketable age. Materials and Methods: Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=200 were distributed randomly into 5 dietary treatment groups viz. control (T1, probiotic in the feed @ 100 g/tonne of feed (T2, prebiotic in the feed @ 500 g/tonne of feed (T3, probiotic + prebiotic @ 100 g/tonne and 500 g/tonne of feed, respectively (T4 and probiotic + prebiotic @ 50 g/tonne and 250 g/tonne of feed (T5. The growth of broilers and dressing weight along with the weight of giblet (liver without gall bladder, gizzard without serous layer, and heart without pericardium, Kidney, Abdominal fat, Length of Intestine and dressing percentage were measured. Economics in terms of Return Over Feed Cost (ROFC and European Performance Efficiency Index (EPEI was calculated. Results: Among all carcass traits, dressing percentage, abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat percentage (as a percentage of dressed weight were recorded significant (p<0.05 difference among different treatment groups. The income from selling of the birds was significantly (p<0.05 higher in all treatment groups than the control group but there was a non-significant difference between supplemented groups. Feed cost during whole experimental period was significantly (p<0.05 lower in synbiotic supplemented groups (T4 and T5 than other groups. ROFC of all treatment group found significantly (p<0.05 higher than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the diet supplemented with synbiotic (100% level was most efficient in terms of EPEI and synbiotic (50% level in terms of ROFC. Hence, as feed supplement, synbiotic has a beneficial effect over probiotic and prebiotic when used alone.

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

    Darshana B. Bhaisare


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  6. Effects of intermittent lighting on broiler growth performance, slaughter performance, serum biochemical parameters and tibia parameters

    Haiming Yang


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent lighting (IL on broiler growth and slaughter performance as well as serum biochemical and tibia parameters. Two hundred and eighty 7-d-old Ross 308 broilers were selected and reared from 8 to 42 d under IL photoperiods of either 2 hours of light:2 hours of dark (2L:2D or 4 hours of light:4 hours of dark (4L:4D, or under continuous lighting (CL. On day 42, body weight of broilers raised in the 4L:4D photoperiod was significantly increased compared to those reared in the 2L:2D photoperiod. The average daily feed intake (ADFI of broilers in IL was significantly less than broilers in CL. The feed conversion of broilers raised in the 4L:4D photoperiod was significantly more efficient than broilers in CL. The intestinal tract weight was greater in birds raised in the 4L:4D photoperiod compared to birds in CL. Similarly, the eviscerated yield with giblet and eviscerated carcass weights in birds reared in the 4L:4D photoperiod were significantly higher than corresponding weights observed in broilers raised in CL. Serum total protein concentration was distinctly higher in birds raised in the 4L:4D photoperiod than that in the 2L:2D photoperiod. In addition, the bone elastic modulus of birds reared in the 4L:4D photoperiod was greater than measurements observed in the 2L:2D photoperiod. Accordingly, we concluded that the 4L:4D photoperiodic lighting schedule was superior to both the 2L:2D photoperiod and CL in broiler production.

  7. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

    PB Faria


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  8. The Optimal Level of Cottonseed Meal in Diets of Meat Ducks during Different Growth Phases Based on Slaughter Performance%基于屠宰性能探讨不同生长阶段肉鸭饲粮棉籽粕的适宜水平

    曾秋凤; 柏鹏; 刘冠男; 王建萍; 张克英; 丁雪梅; 白世平; 罗玉衡


    This paper included two experiments which were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cot-tonseed meal ( CSM) level on slaughter performance of meat ducks during different growth phases, and to ex-plore the optimal dietary CSM level based on slaughter performance. Experiments 1 and 2 were all used the sin-gle factor experimental design. The dietary CSM levels in experiment 1 were 0, 8.28%, 16.56%, 24.83% and 33.11%, respectively; the dietary CSM levels in experiment 2 were 0, 5. 83%, 11. 60%, 17. 50% and 23.30%, respectively. In experiment 1, ducks fed test diets during 1 to 21 days of age, and then fed corn-soy-bean meal diets without CSM during 22 to 35 days of age. In experiment 2, ducks fed a normal diet without CSM during 1 to 14 days of age, and then fed test diets during 15 to 35 days of age. At 35 days of age, one duck per replicate was slaughtered in each experiment to determine the slaughter performance. The results showed as follows: 1) in experiment 1, the eviscerated with giblet yield and eviscerated yield of ducks in-creased in a linear manner with the increasing of dietary CSM level (P<0.05), but the abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat yield of ducks in 16.56% CSM group were significant lower than those in other groups ( P<0.05) . 2) In experiment 2, dietary CSM level had linearly and quadratic effects on the live weight, eviscerated with giblet weight, eviscerated weight and breast meat weight of ducks with the increasing of dietary CSM level ( P<0.05) , and had a quadratic effect on the carcass weight ( P<0.05) . The live weight, eviscerated with gib-let weight, eviscerated weight, breast meat weight and breast meat yield of ducks in 23.30% CSM group were significant lower than those in other groups ( P<0. 05 ) . 3 ) The optimal dietary CSM level was 7. 51% to 14.78% of ducks based on different slaughter indexes. These results suggest that meat ducks aged from 1 to 21 days fed the diet containing 33.11% CSM which formulated based on

  9. Effect of dietary supplement of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth performance and carcass trait of Vanaraja chicken

    Punita Kumari


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, performance index (PI, and carcass characteristics in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 42 days on Vanaraja strain of broiler birds. Different dietary supplement such as sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal and coriander seed meal were used in the basal diet. All day-old 150 male chicks were individually weighed and distributed into five groups having 30 birds in each. Each group was further sub-divided into triplicates having 10 birds in each. Group T1served as control and rest groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 as treatment groups. Birds in T1 group were fed basal ration only, however, T2 , T3, T4 and T5 groups were fed basal ration mixed with 2.5% sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal, and coriander seed meal individually, respectively. Results: Broilers supplemented with herbs/spices showed improvement in growth attributes and carcass characteristics. Broilers fed with herbs at the rate of 2.5% had higher feed intake except sugar beet and coriander seed meal fed group. The body weight and weight gain was also significantly (p0.05 affected. Average giblet percentage of all supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05 higher than control and was found to be highest in neem leaf meal fed group. Average by-product percentage was found to be highest in linseed fed group. Conclusion: Various herbs such as sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander seed meals affected the growth performance, and carcass trait showed positive inclination toward supplemented groups in broilers. The exact mode of action of these herbs/spices is still not clear, however, one or more numbers of active compounds present in these supplements may be responsible.

  10. Effect of ascorbic acid or increasing metabolizable energy level with or without supplementation of some essential amino acids on productive and physiological traits of slow-growing chicks exposed to chronic heat stress.

    Attia, Y A; Hassan, R A; Tag El-Din, A E; Abou-Shehema, B M


    Four hundred and twenty, 21-day-old slow-growing chicks were divided randomly into seven treatments, each containing five replicates. Each replicate was kept in a 1 × 1-m floor pen. One treatment was kept under thermo-neutral conditions in a semi-open house and fed a corn-soybean meal diet (positive control). The other six groups were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS) at 38 °C and 60% RH for 4 h from 12:00 to 16:00 pm for three successive days per week. Chicks in CHS treatments were fed a corn-soybean meal diet without (negative control) or with increasing metabolizable energy (ME) level by oil supplementation alone, or also with increasing some essential amino acids (EAA) such as methionine (Met), methionine and lysine (Met+Lys) or methionine, lysine and arginine (Met+Lys+Arg) or supplemented with 250 mg of ascorbic acid (AA)/kg. CHS impaired (p < 0.05) growth performance, increased plasma triglycerides and total serum Ca while decreasing (p < 0.05) plasma glucose and total serum protein. Meanwhile 250 mg AA/kg diet or an increasing ME without or with some EAA partially alleviated (p < 0.0001) the negative effect of CHS on growth while increasing (p < 0.05) feed intake and improving (p < 0.05) feed:gain ratio (F:G) and crude protein (CP) digestibility (p < 0.05). AA or increasing ME with or without EAA increased (p < 0.05) percentage dressing, liver and giblets to those of the positive control. AA or increasing ME with or without EAA partially alleviated the negative effect of CHS on blood pH, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hgb), total serum protein and total Ca, plasma glucose and triglyceride, rectal temperature and respiration rate. Increasing ME level improved chickens' tolerance to CHS without a significant difference from those supplemented with AA. However, increasing Met, Lys and Arg concentration did not improve performance over that recorded with increasing ME level alone. Under CHS, 250 mg AA/kg diet or increasing ME level by addition of 3

  11. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S


    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  12. Effect of chick weight on performance and carcass yield of broilers Influência do peso inicial sobre o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça e cortes de frangos de corte

    L.J.C. Lara


    Full Text Available The influence of weight classes (light, medium and heavy of Ross chicks on performance and carcass yield and main cuts, was studied using a completely randomized design with six replicates of 30 males and 30 females each. The chicks were fed on the same diets during the growing period (1-43 days. The live weight, feed intake, feed:weight gain ratio, viability, carcass yield and main cuts (breast, whole leg, wing and back and percentages of giblets (gizzard, liver, heart and guts were analyzed. The heavy weight class chicks were heavier (P0.05. The males showed higher carcass yield than the females of medium and heavy weight classes chicks. The whole leg yield of heavy weight class chicks was higher than the medium weight class chicks (PEstudou-se a influência do peso de pintos da linhagem Ross sobre o desempenho de 1 a 43 dias de idade e sobre os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes nobres. Pintos das categorias de peso leve, média e pesada foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em seis repetições de 30 machos e 30 fêmeas cada. As rações utilizadas foram as mesmas para todos os tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o peso vivo, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes (peito, coxa, asa e dorso e a porcentagem de vísceras (moela, coração, fígado e intestinos. As aves da categoria pesada apresentaram maior peso (P0,05. Quanto ao rendimento de carcaça, os machos foram superiores às fêmeas nas categorias média e pesada. O rendimento de coxa mais sobrecoxa na categoria pesada foi maior do que na categoria média (P<0,05. Os tratamentos influenciaram o peso corporal, o consumo de ração, os rendimentos de carcaça e coxa mais sobrecoxa e não influenciaram a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, o rendimento de peito e a porcentagem de vísceras.

  13. Epidemiological Survey of Renal Calculi in Adult Yao Population in Guangxi%广西瑶族成年人肾结石流行病学调查

    汤宗源; 江顺建; 李江; 李秀清; 钟明涛; 黄日波; 李萍; 邹爱俐


    ,dietary condition and history of diseases. Renal calculus was diagnosed by renal ultrasound. Univariate analyses and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were conducted on the influencing factors for renal calculi. Results Among 3 475 subjects,418 were diagnosed with renal calculi with a prevalence rate of 12. 0% (418 / 3 475). The prevalence rate of renal calculi was significantly different( P <0. 05)among populations with different genders,ages,occupations,education degrees,marital status,yearly income and BMI. The prevalence of renal calculus was significantly different( P < 0. 05) among subjects with regard to smoking or not, alcohol consumption,the source of drinking water,drinking before sleep or not,drinking water being boiled or not and the frequency of eating fresh green vegetables,bean products,persimmon and animal giblets. The prevalence of renal calculus was also significantly different(P < 0. 05) among subjects as regards the history of gall stone,nephritis and urinary calculi. The multivariate Logistic regression analyses showed that age,gender,occupation,education degree,yearly income,the source of drinking water,drinking water being boiled or not,the intake of persimmon,fresh green vegetables,bean products and animal giblets,history of nephritis and the family history of urinary stone were influencing factors( P < 0. 05) for renal calculi. Conclusion The prevalence of renal calculi in adult Yao people in Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County is relatively higher and is related with diet and other various factors. The precaution of renal calculi should be carried out with the high risk factors as the focus.

  14. Apparent Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of 11 Kinds of Fresh Ingredients in Blue Foxes%蓝狐对11种鲜饲料原料中干物质和粗蛋白质表观消化率的研究

    孙伟丽; 李光玉; 刘凤华; 鲍坤; 钟伟; 常忠娟; 刘佰阳


    To measure the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of different in gredients for blue foxes, one hundred and twenty healthy male blue foxes in replacement period with similar body weight and age, were selected and randomly divided into 12 groups of 10 each. The ingredients with bet ter palatability (trash fish, chicken carcasses, egg, beef, and chicken) were measured the digestibility of DM and CP in blue foxes by the method of feeding directly, while the ingredients with common palatability (bitter ling, silver carp, chicken giblets, chicken liver, cow liver and yellow croaker) were measured by a difference method. The results showed that; 1) The apparent digestibility of DM in ingredients measured by the method of feeding directly had a significant difference (P 0.05), and the apparent digestibility of DM in trash fish, chicken carcasses, egg in the shell, beef and chicken were 84.39% , 87.24% , 61.14% , 94.64% and 88.12% , respectively; the ap parent digestibility of CP in those feedstuffs were 94.60% , 91.19% , 91.24% , 97.25% and 96. 69% , re spectively. 2) The apparent digestibility of DM and CP in ingredients measured by the difference method had a significant difference (P <0. 05), and the apparent digestibility of DM in bitterling, silver carp, chicken gib lets, cow liver, chicken liver and yellow croaker were 70.39% , 59.82% , 71.63% , 70. 56% , 79.17% and 75. 27% , respectively; the apparent digestibility of CP in those feedstuffs were 83. 06% , 77.28% , 89.88% , 68. 26% , 75. 58% , 69.13% and 94.60% , respectively. In conclusion, blue foxes have good digestive abili ty to the experimental ingredients, and the trash fish, chicken carcasses, egg, beef, chicken, bitterling and chicken giblets are of high quality protein ingredients for blue foxes. Moreover, for silver carp, chicken liver, cow liver and yellow croaker, their proper supplemental proportions in diets of blue foxes depend on their palat ability , nutrients

  15. 唐山地区孕妇营养知识、态度及行为调查%Investigation on know ledge, attitude, and practice of pregnant women to nutrition in Tangshan area

    李鸥; 李娟; 范扶民; 刘智慧; 王海秋; 马冬


    Objective: To investigate know ledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of pregnant women to nutrition in Tangshan area, and provide a scientific basis for maternal and fetal nutrition health care work. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate 300 pregnant women from Tangshan area. Results: KAP level of pregnant women in Tangshan area to nutrition was overall general, the mean awareness rate of gestational nutritional knowledge was only 52. 2% , the frequencies of intake of milk, eggs, beans, aquatic products, animal giblets, and nuts among pregnant women were low, the supplementation of nutrients lacked scientific guidance; educational level and occupation of pregnant women were main influencing factors of nutritional KAP, which were positively correlated with KAP; the main routes for pregnant women to obtain nutritional knowledge were medical workers (69. 7% ) , popular science books ( 59. 2% ) , and relatives (57. 1% ) ; they hoped to get nutritional knowledge from medical workers, nutritionists, and professional books. Conclusion: To promote maternal and infantile health, the measures include enhancing education publicity of nutritional knowledge, playing the part of medical workers and nutritionists in nutritional education and publicity, and directing reasonable diet.%目的:调查唐山地区孕妇的营养知识、态度及行为,为孕妇及胎儿营养保健工作提供科学依据.方法:采用问卷调查法对唐山地区300名孕妇进行调查.结果:该地区孕妇的营养KAP水平一般,孕期营养知识的平均知晓率仅为52.2%,营养态度较好,孕妇对奶类、蛋类、豆类、水产品、动物内脏和坚果类摄入频率仍显不足,营养素的补充缺乏科学指导;孕妇文化程度和职业是影响营养KAP的主要因素,与KAP之间呈正相关性;孕妇获得营养知识的主要途径是医护人员(69.7%)、科普书籍(59.2%)和亲戚长辈(57.1%),希望获取的途径是通过医护人员、

  16. Effects of Different Chicory and Formula Feed Ratios in Dietary on Slaughter Traits and Muscle Quality of Geese%日粮中菊苣添加比例对鹅屠宰性能和肉品质的影响研究

    张家宏; 韩光明; 马谈斌; 毕建花; 寇祥明; 王守红; 金银根; 唐鹤军; 盖玉芳


    研究日粮中菊苣的添加量对扬州鹅屠宰性能、肉品质、氨基酸和脂肪酸组成的影响,确定鹅对菊苣的最大耐受度.结果显示:在菊苣与饲料的比例为12:1组中鹅的全净膛率显著低于对照组(P<0.05),但是腿肌率显著高于对照组(P<0.05),各组中屠体重、屠宰率、半净膛率、胸肌率、翅膀率、腹脂率均无显著差异;日粮中菊苣的比例增加,显著提高了鹅胸肌和腿肌的水分含量和肉色(P<0.05),显著提高胸肌的脂肪含量(P<0.05),显著降低胸肌中蛋白质含量(P<0.05);菊苣添加过量有致使胸肌和腿肌中氨基酸含量下降的趋势,尤其是组氨酸含量在12∶1组中都显著低于其它组(P<0.05);日粮中菊苣添加比例增加,显著提高胸肌中多不饱和脂肪酸含量(P<0.05),腿肌中多不饱和脂肪酸组成差异不显著,无论胸肌还是腿肌,亚麻酸的含量都得到了显著的提高(P<0.05),其中在胸肌中的提高幅度较大.结果说明,菊苣过量添加对扬州鹅的屠宰性能影响较小,但是会影响鹅肉品质、脂肪酸和氨基酸组成.日粮中菊苣添加量越多,鹅肉中的亚麻酸含量越高.%The aim of this study is to examine the effects of different chicory and formula feed ratios in the dietary on the slaughter traits, muscle quality, aniino acid, and fatty acid composition of Yangzhou geese, and determine the maximum tolerance to the added chicory. The results were as follows; in 12: 1 (the ratio of chicory to formula feed in the dietary) group, the goose eviscerated rate was significantly lower than that in the control group (P <0.05) , but the leg muscle rate was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The carcass weight, slaughter rate, eviscerated yield with giblet, brisket rate, wing rate and abdominal fat rate in each group had no significant difference. Along with the increase of chicory proportion in the diet, the moisture content and muscle

  17. Nível de proteína bruta para codornas de corte durante o período de crescimento Crude protein level for meat type quail during the growing period

    G.S.S. Corrêa


    peito e peso e rendimento de fígado das fêmeas foram maiores que os dos machos. As exigências de proteína bruta estimada para o máximo ganho de peso de machos e fêmeas de codornas de corte, do nascimento ao 21º e do nascimento ao 42º dia de idade são 30,65% e 29,81%, respectivamente. A exigência para pesos de carcaça e peito é de 33,0% de proteína bruta da dieta.The crude protein requirements for EV2 quail meat type genetic group during the growing period were estimated in a completely randomized experimental design, using 288 quails of both sex, six levels of crude protein (23, 25, 27, 29, 31 and 33% and four replicates of 12 quails per experimental unit. Body weight (g, weight gain (g, feed intake (g and feed:weight gain ratio (g/g were recorded in each period (from hatch to 21 days and from hatch to 42 days of age. At 42 days of age, four quails were randomly sampled from each experimental unit (two males and two females and slaughtered to record weights and yields of carcass, main cuts (thigh and breast edible giblets (liver, gizzard and heart and abdominal fat. Quadratic effects of crude protein level on body weight, weight gain and feed intake from hatch to 21 days of age, with maximum performances estimated for quails fed 30.64; 30.65 and 29.02% crude protein diets, respectively. Feed:weight gain ratio during this period showed a linear response in function of protein level of diet. Quadratic effect of protein level on body weight at 42 days of age was observed, with maximum performances estimated for quails fed 29.93 crude protein diets, while weight gain showed a linear response. Quadratic effects of crude protein level on weight gain and feed intake were also observed, with estimated maximum for quails fed 29.81 and 29.11% crude protein diets, respectively while body weight and carcass and breast weights were linearly affected. Higher performance were observed for quails fed diets with the highest protein level. A significant crude protein level x