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Sample records for giardia lamblia inactivation

  1. Comparison of Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cyst inactivation by ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, G R; Black, E K; Labatiuk, C W; Gyürék, L; Belosevic, M

    1993-11-01

    Inactivation of Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cysts was compared by using an ozone demand-free 0.05 M phosphate buffer in bench-scale batch reactors at 22 degrees C. Ozone was added to each trial from a concentrated stock solution for contact times of 2 and 5 min. The viability of the control and treated cysts was evaluated by using the C3H/HeN mouse and Mongolian gerbil models for G. muris and G. lamblia, respectively. The resistance of G. lamblia to ozone was not significantly different from that of G. muris under the study conditions, contrary to previously reported data that suggested G. lamblia was significantly more sensitive to ozone than G. muris was. The simple Ct value for 2 log unit inactivation of G. lamblia was 2.4 times higher than the Ct value recommended by the Surface Water Treatment Rule.

  2. The effect of UV light on the inactivation of Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cysts as determined by animal infectivity assay (P-2951-01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi, Alexander A; Meyer, Ernest A; Wallis, Peter M; Chou, Connie I; Meyer, Barbara P; Ramalingam, Shivaji; Coffey, Bradley M

    2002-04-01

    This study measured the effect of germicidal ultraviolet (UV) light on Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris cysts, as determined by their infectivity in Mongolian gerbils and CD-1 mice, respectively. Reduction of cyst infectivity due to UV exposure was quantified by applying most probable number techniques. Controlled bench-scale, collimated-beam tests exposed cysts suspended in filtered natural water to light from a low-pressure UV lamp. Both G. lamblia and G. muris cysts showed similar sensitivity to UV light. At 3 mJ/cm2, a dose 10-fold lower than what large-scale UV reactors may be designed to provide, > 2-log10 (99 percent) inactivation was observed. These results, combined with previously published data showing other protozoa and bacteria have similar, high sensitivity to UV light, establish that UV disinfection of drinking water is controlled by viruses which may require over 10-fold more UV dose for the same level of control.

  3. Inactivation of Giardia muris cysts by free chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, J G; Rubin, A J; Sproul, O J

    1987-01-01

    The chlorine resistance of cysts of the flagellate protozoan Giardia muris was examined. This organism, which is pathogenic to mice, is being considered as a model for the inactivation of the human pathogen Giardia lamblia. Excystation was used as the criterion for cyst viability. Experiments were performed at pH 5, 7, and 9 at 25 degrees C and pH 7 at 5 degrees C. Survival curves were "stepladder"-shaped, but concentration-time data generally conformed to Watson's Law. Chlorine was most effe...

  4. Azasterols impair Giardia lamblia proliferation and induces encystation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Claudia; Attias, Marcia; Urbina, Julio; Gilbert, Ian; Magaraci, Filippo; Souza, Wanderley de

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors on growth and fine structure of Giardia lamblia P1 strain cultures were analyzed. Azasterols demonstrated high efficacy in killing cells. The IC 50 values for 22,26-azasterol and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol were 7 μM and 170 nM, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that azasterols induced changes in G. lamblia ultrastructure. The most significant alterations were: (a) considerable increase of the size of the peripheral vesicles, which are part of the parasite endosomal-lysosomal system; (b) appearance of autophagosomal structures; and (c) induction of differentiation, followed by an abnormal enlargement of encystation secretory vesicles. We propose that azasterols are effective chemotherapeutic drugs against Giardia lamblia in vitro and may have another target in cells besides sterol biosynthesis

  5. Giardia lamblia infections in children in Ghana | Anim-Baidoo | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: prevalence of G. lamblia infections in diarrhea and non-diarrhea children were 5.8% and 5% respectively (P>0.5). Sequence data confirmed Giardia lamblia assemblage B as the predominant genotype in both diarrhoea and non-diarrhoea cases. There was no significant association of G. lamblia infection with any ...

  6. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is ...

  7. Ultrastructural observations on giardiasis in a mouse model. II. Endosymbiosis and organelle distribution in Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia.

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    Nemanic, P C; Owen, R L; Stevens, D P; Mueller, J C

    1979-08-01

    Ultrastructural observations of Giardia muris in a mouse model revealed endosymbiotic microbes not previously reported in Giardia. Endosymbionts 240--360 nm wide, 600--1,400 nm long, and with an internal structure similar to that of bacilli were not seen entering Giardia but were found and appeared to divide within Giardia. No evidence was found of digestion of the endosymbionts by the giardia host in either the trophozoite or the cyst form. Endosymbionts were concentrated centrally around the nuclear area and were uncommon in peripheral feeding regions. The same cellular organelles seen in G. muris were found in Giardia lamblia from human jejunal biopsy material, but no endosymbionts were identified in G. lamblia trophozoites from the seven patients examined. Endosymbionts within Giardia may be found to alter trophozoite pathogenicity, metabolism, range of infectivity, antigenic surface characteristics, and host specificity, as they do in other protozoa.

  8. T-cell-dependent control of acute Giardia lamblia infections in mice.

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    Singer, S M; Nash, T E

    2000-01-01

    We have studied immune mechanisms responsible for control of acute Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris infections in adult mice. Association of chronic G. lamblia infection with hypogammaglobulinemia and experimental infections of mice with G. muris have led to the hypothesis that antibodies are required to control these infections. We directly tested this hypothesis by infecting B-cell-deficient mice with either G. lamblia or G. muris. Both wild-type mice and B-cell-deficient mice eliminated the vast majority of parasites between 1 and 2 weeks postinfection with G. lamblia. G. muris was also eliminated in both wild-type and B-cell-deficient mice. In contrast, T-cell-deficient and scid mice failed to control G. lamblia infections, as has been shown previously for G. muris. Treatment of wild-type or B-cell-deficient mice with antibodies to CD4 also prevented elimination of G. lamblia, confirming a role for T cells in controlling infections. By infecting mice deficient in either alphabeta- or gammadelta-T-cell receptor (TCR)-expressing T cells, we show that the alphabeta-TCR-expressing T cells are required to control parasites but that the gammadelta-TCR-expressing T cells are not. Finally, infections in mice deficient in production of gamma interferon or interleukin 4 (IL-4) and mice deficient in responding to IL-4 and IL-13 revealed that neither the Th1 nor the Th2 subset is absolutely required for protection from G. lamblia. We conclude that a T-cell-dependent mechanism is essential for controlling acute Giardia infections and that this mechanism is independent of antibody and B cells.

  9. Effect of Chlorine on Giardia lamblia Cyst Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jarroll, Edward L.; Bingham, Alan K.; Meyer, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of chlorine concentration on Giardia lamblia cyst viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of Giardia cysts to undergo excystation was used as the criterion of viability. The experimental variables employed included temperature (25, 15, and 5°C), pH (6, 7, and 8), chlorine-cyst contact time (10, 30, and 60 min), and chlorine concentration (1 to 8 mg/liter). In the pH range studied, cyst survival generally was observed to increase as buffer pH increased. Water...

  10. A real-time RT-PCR method to detect viable Giardia lamblia cysts in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Robert H; Gilliam, Amy O; Robles, Liza D; Jakubowski, Walter; Slifko, Theresa R

    2011-05-01

    Currently, USEPA Method 1623 is the standard assay used for simultaneous detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in various water matrices. However, the method is unable to distinguish between species, genotype, or to assess viability. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to address the shortcomings of USEPA Method 1623 by developing a novel molecular-based method that can assess viability of Giardia cysts in environmental waters and identify genotypes that pose a human health threat (assemblage groups A and B). Primers and TaqMan(®) probes were designed to target the beta-giardin gene in order to discriminate among species and assemblages. Viability was determined by detection of de-novo mRNA synthesis after heat induction. The beta-giardin primer/probe sets were able to detect and differentiate between Giardia lamblia assemblages A and B, and did not detect Giardia muris (mouse species) or G. lamblia assemblages C, D, E and F (non-human), with the exception of Probe A which did detect G. lamblia assemblage F DNA. Additionally, DNA or cDNA of other waterborne organisms were not detected, suggesting that the method is specific to Giardia assemblages. Assay applicability was demonstrated by detection of viable G. lamblia cysts in spiked (assemblage B) and unspiked (assemblage A and B) reclaimed water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia isolates from humans in China and Korea using ribosomal DNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, T S; Park, S J; Hwang, U W; Yang, H W; Lee, K W; Min, D Y; Rim, H J; Wang, Y; Zheng, F

    2000-08-01

    Genetic characterization of a total of 15 Giardia lamblia isolates, 8 from Anhui Province, China (all from purified cysts) and 7 from Seoul, Korea (2 from axenic cultures and 5 from purified cysts), was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of a 295-bp region near the 5' end of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (eukaryotic 16S rDNA). Phylogenetic analyses were subsequently conducted using sequence data obtained in this study, as well as sequences published from other Giardia isolates. The maximum parsimony method revealed that G. lamblia isolates from humans in China and Korea are divided into 2 major lineages, assemblages A and B. All 7 Korean isolates were grouped into assemblage A, whereas 4 Chinese isolates were grouped into assemblage A and 4 into assemblage B. Two Giardia microti isolates and 2 dog-derived Giardia isolates also grouped into assemblage B, whereas Giardia ardeae and Giardia muris were unique.

  12. Molecular identification of Giardia lamblia isolates from adult human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoa that infects the intestinal tract of a wide range of mammalian hosts, including both wild and domestic animals as well as humans. Two genotypes A and B are commonly reported among humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of G.

  13. An In Vitro Evaluation of Ozonized Organic Extra-Virgin Olive Oil on Giardia Lamblia Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Nazar, Najmeh Sadat; Eslamirad, Zahra; Sarmadian, Hossein; Ghasemikhah, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite that has been reported all over the world. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil on the cyst of G. lamblia . The olive oil was ozonized based on international standards and confirmed by the world health organization (WHO) at various times in a generator. The ozone concentration of olive oil was adjusted at 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 mg/g based on ozone absorption. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from heavily infected stool samples and the sucrose gradient flotation technique. Five groups of triple tubes containing Giardia cysts were exposed to olive oil with 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 ozone concentrations, and the sixth and seventh groups were exposed to non-ozonized olive oil and normal saline, respectively. The tubes were placed at room temperature, and every four hours, the mortality of the Giardia cysts was assessed. The results showed that the first five groups' mortality rate of Giardia cysts reached 100% in 100 hours. An increasing concentration of ozone in olive oil leads to an increase in the mortality rate of Giardia cysts. The results showed a significant difference in the mean time of the mortality in all the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the higher fatality effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil (Ozonized Olive Oil = OZO) was proved in comparison with metronidazole in vitro. We concluded that ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil was a growth inhibitor of Giardia cysts, and concerning its compatibility with a biological system, it is recommended for further clinical trials.

  14. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

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    Guimarães Semíramis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  15. A comparison of the Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst transcriptome using microarrays

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    Widmer Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with many protists, Giardia lamblia has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Most research on the molecular biology of Giardia parasites has focused on trophozoites and the processes of excystation and encystation, whereas cysts have attracted less interest. The striking morphological differences between the dormant cyst and the rapidly dividing and motile trophozoite implies profound changes in the metabolism as the parasite encysts in the host's intestine and excysts upon ingestion by a new host. Results To investigate the magnitude of the transcriptional changes occurring during the G. lamblia life cycle we compared the transcriptome of G. lamblia trophozoites and cysts using single-color oligonucleotide microarrays. Cysts were found to possess a much smaller transcriptome, both in terms of mRNA diversity and abundance. Genes encoding proteins related to ribosomal functions are highly over-represented. The comparison of the transcriptome of cysts generated in culture or extracted from feces revealed little overlap, raising the possibility of significant biological differences between the two types of cysts. Conclusions The comparison of the G. lamblia cyst and trophozoite transcriptome showed that transcripts of most genes are present at a lower level in cysts. This global view of the cyst and trophozoite transcriptome complements studies focused on the expression of selected genes during trophozoite multiplication, encystation and excystation.

  16. Intestinal mucus protects Giardia lamblia from killing by human milk.

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    Zenian, A J; Gillin, F D

    1987-02-01

    We have previously shown that nonimmune human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro. Killing requires a bile salt and the activity of the milk bile salt-stimulated lipase. We now show that human small-intestinal mucus protects trophozoites from killing by milk. Parasite survival increased with mucus concentration, but protection was overcome during longer incubation times or with greater milk concentrations. Trophozoites preincubated with mucus and then washed were not protected. Protective activity was associated with non-mucin CsCl density gradient fractions. Moreover, it was heat-stable, non-dialyzable, and non-lipid. Whereas whole mucus inhibited milk lipolytic activity, protective mucus fractions did not inhibit the enzyme. Furthermore, mucus partially protected G. lamblia trophozoites against the toxicity of oleic acid, a fatty acid which is released from milk triglycerides by lipase. These studies show that mucus protects G. lamblia both by inhibiting lipase activity and by decreasing the toxicity of products of lipolysis. The ability of mucus to protect G. lamblia from toxic lipolytic products may help to promote intestinal colonization by this parasite.

  17. Genomic minimalism in the early diverging intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Hilary G; McArthur, Andrew G; Gillin, Frances D; Aley, Stephen B; Adam, Rodney D; Olsen, Gary J; Best, Aaron A; Cande, W Zacheus; Chen, Feng; Cipriano, Michael J; Davids, Barbara J; Dawson, Scott C; Elmendorf, Heidi G; Hehl, Adrian B; Holder, Michael E; Huse, Susan M; Kim, Ulandt U; Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Manning, Gerard; Nigam, Anuranjini; Nixon, Julie E J; Palm, Daniel; Passamaneck, Nora E; Prabhu, Anjali; Reich, Claudia I; Reiner, David S; Samuelson, John; Svard, Staffan G; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2007-09-28

    The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect Giardia's requirement for a complex signal transduction network for coordinating differentiation. Lateral gene transfer from bacterial and archaeal donors has shaped Giardia's genome, and previously unknown gene families, for example, cysteine-rich structural proteins, have been discovered. Unexpectedly, the genome shows little evidence of heterozygosity, supporting recent speculations that this organism is sexual. This genome sequence will not only be valuable for investigating the evolution of eukaryotes, but will also be applied to the search for new therapeutics for this parasite.

  18. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

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    Hanevik Kurt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

  19. Genetic Variation of Giardia lamblia Isolates from Food-handlers in Kashan, Central Iran

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    Hossein HOOSHYAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on genotyping study of human isolates of Giardia lamblia; humans are mainly infected by two assemblages A and B. The present study was carried out to determine the sub-assemblages of G. lamblia isolated from food handlers referred to Kashan health centers, central Iran, 2015.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 3653 stool samples collected from food-handlers that annually refer to health center for getting a health certification and examined microscopically for G. lamblia cyst. Totally, 44 isolates were selected from 47 Giardia positive samples. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method. After freeze-thaw cycles, genomic DNA was extracted using QIAamp Stool Mini kit. A single step PCR-RFLP method was used to amplify a 458bp fragment at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh locus, restriction enzymes BspLI and RsaI were used for distinguish between genotypes A and B and their subgroups.Results: Of 44 isolates, 24(54.5% were sub-assemblage AII, 9(20.5% group B including 7(15.9% BIII and 2(4.6% BIV sub-assemblage and 11(25% isolates showed a mixed pattern of AII and B. Sub-assemblage AI was not detected in this study.Conclusion: The higher rate of sub-assemblage AII demonstrated an anthroponotic origin of the infection so infected food-handlers could directly transmit this protozoan to consumers via contaminated food and water. For finding of pattern of transmission and distribution of Giardia assemblages and sub-assemblage, more studies in human and animal population in different regions are necessary.

  20. Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Eglal I; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda

    2014-11-01

    Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L. acidophilus (P106) and L. plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3 ± 4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L. acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved thatfive doses of L. acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L. acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing

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    P.D. Fernandes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine. Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites. This effect was inhibited (>90% by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml. Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP and sodium nitroprusside (SNP in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively. A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1, did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM. The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM. These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

  2. Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana.

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    Nkrumah, Bernard; Nguah, Samuel Blay

    2011-08-22

    Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years) with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%). Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p < 0.001). Five (4.3%) of the 118 positive stool samples had mixed parasites infection. Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples

  3. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

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    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A., E-mail: merritt@u.washington.edu [Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa, (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine.

  4. Batch solar disinfection inactivates oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in drinking water.

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    McGuigan, K G; Méndez-Hermida, F; Castro-Hermida, J A; Ares-Mazás, E; Kehoe, S C; Boyle, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Meyer, B P; Ramalingham, S; Meyer, E A

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether batch solar disinfection (SODIS) can be used to inactivate oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in experimentally contaminated water. Suspensions of oocysts and cysts were exposed to simulated global solar irradiation of 830 W m(-2) for different exposure times at a constant temperature of 40 degrees C. Infectivity tests were carried out using CD-1 suckling mice in the Cryptosporidium experiments and newly weaned CD-1 mice in the Giardia experiments. Exposure times of > or =10 h (total optical dose c. 30 kJ) rendered C. parvum oocysts noninfective. Giardia muris cysts were rendered completely noninfective within 4 h (total optical dose >12 kJ). Scanning electron microscopy and viability (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole/propidium iodide fluorogenic dyes and excystation) studies on oocysts of C. parvum suggest that inactivation is caused by damage to the oocyst wall. Results show that cysts of G. muris and oocysts of C. parvum are rendered completely noninfective after batch SODIS exposures of 4 and 10 h (respectively) and is also likely to be effective against waterborne cysts of Giardia lamblia. These results demonstrate that SODIS is an appropriate household water treatment technology for use as an emergency intervention in aftermath of natural or man-made disasters against not only bacterial but also protozoan pathogens.

  5. Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil

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    Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Figueredo, Maria Cristina; Frade, Amanda Farage; Kudó, Mônica Eriko; Silva Filho, Manoel Gomes; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2001-01-01

    Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito.We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination ...

  6. Detection of a Giardia lamblia coproantigen by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil Avaliação do ProSpeT Giardia ensaio em microplaca na detecção de coproantígenos de Giardia lamblia, em fezes de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

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    Míriam Oliveira e ROCHA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that fecal examination to detect Giardia lamblia cysts or trophozoites produces a high percentage of false-negative results. A commercially available immunoenzymatic assay (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay, Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS to detect G. lamblia specific coproantigen was evaluated for the first time in Brazil. A total of 90 specimens were tested. Each specimen was first tested as unpreserved stool, and then it was preserved in 10% Formalin to be tested 2 months later. The assay was able to identify all the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 100.0% by visual or spectrophotometric examination in the unpreserved specimens and was negative in 57 of the 60 patients without G. lamblia (specificity = 95.0%. The assay identified 27 of the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 90.0% and was negative in 59 of the 60 negatives (specificity = 98.3% in the preserved stools according to both readings. A marked difference was observed in the optical densities in both groups, preserved and unpreserved stools, when the G. lamblia-positive specimens were compared to the negative or positive for other intestinal parasites than G. lamblia. The assay seems a good alternative for giardiasis diagnosis, especially when the fecal examination was repeatedly negative and the patient presents giardiasislike symptoms.O diagnóstico da giardíase através da pesquisa de trofozoítos ou cistos do parasita nas fezes apresenta uma elevada percentagem de resultados falso-negativos. No presente trabalho foi feita, pela primeira vez no Brasil, uma avaliação do ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca (Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS, utilizando amostras fecais de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Um total de 90 amostras fecais foram testadas, primeiramente como fezes frescas e, então, preservadas em formalina 10%, para um novo teste 2 meses após. Com as amostras frescas, o ensaio imunoenzimático, através de leitura visual ou no espectrofotômetro, foi capaz de

  7. Dietary lipids containing gangliosides reduce Giardia muris infection in vivo and survival of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro.

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    Suh, M; Belosevic, M; Clandinin, M T

    2004-06-01

    We examined whether a ganglioside supplemented diet affected the course of Giardia muris infection in mice and survival of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro. Female CD-1 mice were fed 1 of 5 experimental diets: standard lab chow as a control diet; semi-synthetic diets containing 20% (w/w) triglyceride based on the fat composition of a conventional infant formula; triglyceride diet; triglyceride diet containing a low level of ganglioside (0.1% w/w); and triglyceride diet containing a high level of ganglioside (1.0% w/w of diet). After 2 weeks of feeding, mice were inoculated with G. muris by gastric intubation and fed the experimental diets during the course of the infection. Cysts released in the faeces and trophozoites present in the small intestine were enumerated at various times post-infection. The average cyst output and the number of trophozoites during the course of the infection in mice fed ganglioside-containing diet were found to be significantly lower (3-log10 reduction) compared to animals fed control diets. The results of in vitro growth studies indicated that gangliosides may be directly toxic to the parasites. Thus, gangliosides have a protective effect against G. muris infection in vivo and affect the survival of G. lamblia trophozoites in vitro.

  8. Development of a rapid HRM genotyping method for detection of dog-derived Giardia lamblia.

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    Tan, Liping; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Zheng, Guochao; Hu, Wei; Song, Meiran; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic flagellate protozoan in the intestine of human and many mammals including dogs. To assess a threat of dog-derived G. lamblia to humans, the common dog-derived G. lamblia assemblages A, C, and D were genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) technology. According to β-giardin gene sequence, the qPCR-HRM primers BG5 and BG7 were designed. A series of experiments on the stability, sensitivity, and accuracy of the HRM method were also tested. Results showed that the primers BG5 and BG7 could distinguish among three assemblages A, C, and D, which Tm value differences were about 1 °C to each other. The melting curves of intra-assay reproducibility were almost coincided, and those of inter-assay reproducibility were much the same shape. The lowest detection concentration was about 5 × 10(-6)-ng/μL sample. The genotyping results from 21 G. lamblia samples by the HRM method were in complete accordance with sequencing results. It is concluded that the HRM genotyping method is rapid, stable, specific, highly sensitive, and suitable for clinical detection and molecular epidemiological survey of dog-derived G. lamblia.

  9. An atypical proprotein convertase in Giardia lamblia differentiation.

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    Davids, B J; Gilbert, M A; Liu, Q; Reiner, D S; Smith, A J; Lauwaet, T; Lee, C; McArthur, A G; Gillin, F D

    2011-02-01

    Proteolytic activity is important in the lifecycles of parasites and their interactions with hosts. Cysteine proteases have been best studied in Giardia, but other protease classes have been implicated in growth and/or differentiation. In this study, we employed bioinformatics to reveal the complete set of putative proteases in the Giardia genome. We identified 73 peptidase homologs distributed over 5 catalytic classes in the genome. Serial analysis of gene expression of the G. lamblia lifecycle found thirteen protease genes with significant transcriptional variation over the lifecycle, with only one serine protease transcript upregulated late in encystation. The translated gene sequence of this encystation-specific transcript was most similar to eukaryotic subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPC), although the typical catalytic triad was not identified. Epitope-tagged gSPC protein expressed in Giardia under its own promoter was upregulated during encystation with highest expression in cysts and it localized to encystation-specific secretory vesicles (ESV). Total gSPC from encysting cells produced proteolysis in gelatin gels that co-migrated with the epitope-tagged protease in immunoblots. Immuno-purified gSPC also had gelatinase activity. To test whether endogenous gSPC activity is involved in differentiation, trophozoites and cysts were exposed to the specific serine proteinase inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF). After 21 h encystation, a significant decrease in ESV was observed with 1mM AEBSF and by 42 h the number of cysts was significantly reduced, but trophozoite growth was not inhibited. Concurrently, levels of cyst wall proteins 1 and 2, and AU1-tagged gSPC protein itself were decreased. Excystation of G. muris cysts was also significantly reduced in the presence of AEBSF. These results support the idea that serine protease activity is essential for Giardia encystation and excystation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B

  10. ESTIMATION OF GIARDIA CT VALUES AT HIGH PH FOR THE SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULE

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    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency currently recommends Ct (disinfectant concentration multiplied by the exposure time) values to achieve required levels of inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts by different disinfectants including free chlorine. Current guidance covers ina...

  11. Detection and molecular characterisation of Giardia lamblia genotypes in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBakri, Ali; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Potgieter, Natasha; Odeh, Ra'ed Abu

    2014-08-01

    No data are available on Giardia lamblia genotypes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to identify G. lamblia from DNA extracted from human stool samples to gain information on its prevalence and to perform molecular analysis on isolates collected from expatriates from different localities residing in Sharjah, UAE. In total, 111 healthy expatriates residing in Sharjah were screened for G. lamblia using nested PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu-rRNA) gene. Positive samples were genotyped using a nested PCR amplifying the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene to differentiate between the two human assemblages (A and B). A subset of the PCR products (n=23) were sequenced and their phylogenetic relationships were determined. Of the 111 participants, 67 (60.4%) were identified as positive for the ssu-rRNA gene. When genotyped for the tpi gene, 18.9% (21/111) were of assemblage A, 17.1% (19/111) belonged to assemblage B and 5.4% (6/111) showed patterns compatible with mixed infections. A strong correlation between the presence of diarrhoea and assemblage B was observed (χ(2)=10.553; p=0.001). Moreover, an association was also observed between mixed infections (A+B) and diarrhoea (χ(2)=8.899; p=0.003). No correlation between age, gender and geographic origin of the infected individual was noted. Phylogenetic analysis showed three clusters for the tpi gene. No relationship between the clusters and the origin of samples was noted. This study is the first to determine the infection rate and genotypic composition of Giardia in Sharjah, UAE. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. An ancient spliceosomal intron in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a of Giardia lamblia

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    Gray Michael W

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only one spliceosomal-type intron has previously been identified in the unicellular eukaryotic parasite, Giardia lamblia (a diplomonad. This intron is only 35 nucleotides in length and is unusual in possessing a non-canonical 5' intron boundary sequence, CT, instead of GT. Results We have identified a second spliceosomal-type intron in G. lamblia, in the ribosomal protein L7a gene (Rpl7a, that possesses a canonical GT 5' intron boundary sequence. A comparison of the two known Giardia intron sequences revealed extensive nucleotide identity at both the 5' and 3' intron boundaries, similar to the conserved sequence motifs recently identified at the boundaries of spliceosomal-type introns in Trichomonas vaginalis (a parabasalid. Based on these observations, we searched the partial G. lamblia genome sequence for these conserved features and identified a third spliceosomal intron, in an unassigned open reading frame. Our comprehensive analysis of the Rpl7a intron in other eukaryotic taxa demonstrates that it is evolutionarily conserved and is an ancient eukaryotic intron. Conclusion An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and properties of the Rpl7a intron suggests its utility as a phylogenetic marker to evaluate particular eukaryotic groupings. Additionally, analysis of the G. lamblia introns has provided further insight into some of the conserved and unique features possessed by the recently identified spliceosomal introns in related organisms such as T. vaginalis and Carpediemonas membranifera.

  13. Curcumin alters the cytoskeleton and microtubule organization on trophozoites of Giardia lamblia.

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    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Filiberto; Palomo-Ligas, Lissethe; Hernández-Hernández, José Manuel; Pérez-Rangel, Armando; Aguayo-Ortiz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Castillo, Rafael; González-Pozos, Sirenia; Cortés-Zárate, Rafael; Ramírez-Herrera, Mario Alberto; Mendoza-Magaña, María Luisa; Castillo-Romero, Araceli

    2017-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is a worldwide protozoan responsible for a significant number of intestinal infections. There are several drugs for the treatment of giardiasis, but they often cause side effects. Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has antigiardial activity; however, the molecular target and mechanism of antiproliferative activity are not clear. The effects of curcumin on cellular microtubules have been widely investigated. Since tubulin is the most abundant protein in the cytoskeleton of Giardia, to elucidate whether curcumin has activity against the microtubules of this parasite, we treated trophozoites with curcumin and the cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Curcumin inhibited Giardia proliferation and adhesion in a time-concentration-dependent mode. The higher inhibitory concentrations of curcumin (3 and 15μM) disrupted the cytoskeletal structures of trophozoites; the damage was evident on the ventral disk, flagella and in the caudal region, also the membrane was affected. The immunofluorescence images showed altered distribution of tubulin staining on ventral disk and flagella. Additionally, we found that curcumin caused a clear reduction of tubulin expression. By docking analysis and molecular dynamics we showed that curcumin has a high probability to bind at the interface of the tubulin dimer close to the vinblastine binding site. All the data presented indicate that curcumin may inhibit Giardia proliferation by perturbing microtubules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Association Between Giardia lamblia and Endemic Pediatric Diarrhea in Developing Countries

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    Muhsen, Khitam; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis examining the association between diarrhea in young children in nonindustrialized settings and Giardia lamblia infection. Eligible were case/control and longitudinal studies that defined the outcome as acute or persistent (>14 days) diarrhea, adjusted for confounders and lasting for at least 1 year. Data on G. lamblia detection (mainly in stools) from diarrhea patients and controls without diarrhea were abstracted. Random effects model meta-analysis obtained pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twelve nonindustrialized-setting acute pediatric diarrhea studies met the meta-analysis inclusion criteria. Random-effects model meta-analysis of combined results (9774 acute diarrhea cases and 8766 controls) yielded a pooled OR of 0.60 (95% CI, .38–.94; P = .03), indicating that G. lamblia was not associated with acute diarrhea. However, limited data suggest that initial Giardia infections in early infancy may be positively associated with diarrhea. Meta-analysis of 5 persistent diarrhea studies showed a pooled OR of 3.18 (95% CI, 1.50–6.76; P diarrhea in children in developing countries. PMID:23169940

  15. Human milk containing specific secretory IgA inhibits binding of Giardia lamblia to nylon and glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, H K; Ganguly, N K; Mahajan, R C

    1991-06-01

    The effects of human milk, containing specific secretory IgA, on the adherence of Giardia lamblia trophozoites in the presence and in the absence of intestinal mucus in vitro were studied. It was found that the trophozoites treated with breast milk, containing specific secretory IgA to G. lamblia, showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.01) in adherence to nylon fibre columns and glass surfaces than did trophozoites treated with milk containing no SIgA antibodies. The adherence to glass surfaces was significantly more (p less than 0.01) in the presence of intestinal mucus than when the mucus was absent. Milk that did not contain specific secretory SIgA to G. lamblia did not decrease the adherence to glass surfaces either in the presence or in the absence of mucus. The fluorescence study revealed the binding of specific secretory IgA on the trophozoite surface. The results suggest that binding of SIgA antibodies in milk to G. lamblia trophozoites inhibits parasite adherence, thus protecting against this infection in breast-fed babies.

  16. Giardia lamblia: identification of molecules that contribute to direct mast cell activation.

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    Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Gomez-García, Argelia; Matadamas-Martínez, Félix; Alvarado-Torres, Juan A; Meza-Cervantez, Patricia; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián

    2018-06-02

    Mast cells play a central role in the early clearance of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. In a previous study, we reported that G. lamblia live trophozoites or trophozoite-derived total soluble extract induced direct activation (IgE-independent) of mast cells and release of IL-6 and TNF-α. To identify the Giardia molecules and the mast cell receptors involved in this activation, trophozoite-derived total soluble proteins separated into three fractions (F1-F3) were evaluated for its ability to activate mast cells in vitro. F2 activated mast cells in a greater extent than F1 and F3. Furthermore, F2 induced the release of IL-6 and TNF-α by mast cells. TLR2 and TLR4 expression increased slightly after mast cell stimulation with either F2 or total soluble extract; however, these receptors were not involved in F2 or total soluble extract-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Proteins present in F2 as unique and high-intensity bands identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, include molecules with important biological activities such as enolase and arginine deiminase (ADI). Recombinant ADI and enolase were tested for their ability to activate mast cells, but only ADI induced a significant release of IL-6 and TNF-α. ADI product, citrulline but not ammonium, also induced mast cell release of TNF-α. Interestingly, recombinant ADI still stimulated the secretion of TNF-α by mast cells in a arginine-free medium, although in a lower extend that in the presence of arginine, indicating that either ADI itself can stimulate mast cells or through its metabolic product, citrulline.

  17. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia in Water Samples from Jeddah and Makkah Cities

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    Haytham Ahmed Zakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium is one of the causes of diarrhoea throughout the world.  A total of 161 and 84 samples were collected from Jeddah and Makkah cities, respectively.  Each sample was concentrated by double centrifugation and the sediment was examined as a wet smear and after staining with Trichrome and Kinyoun stains.  The results showed that 56 (35% and 1 (0.62 % samples of Jeddah were positive for the oocyst of Cryptosporidium and cyst of Giardia, whereas only 21 (25% and 2 (2.4 % samples of Makkah showed positivity for oocysts and cyst of these parasites. Overall Cryptosporidium contamination in bottled water and water from filling stations was 6.8% and 17.4%, respectively. Maximum contamination for Cryptosporidium was recorded in tap water which was 51% and 25% in Jeddah and Makkah, respectively.

  18. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach.

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    Williams, Christopher W; Elmendorf, Heidi G

    2011-11-29

    RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously

  19. Genome-wide computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in the deep-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia.

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    Zhang, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Dong-Liang; Tian, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Hong; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2009-10-01

    Using a combined computational program, we identified 50 potential microRNAs (miRNAs) in Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive unicellular eukaryotes. These miRNAs are unique to G. lamblia and no homologues have been found in other organisms; miRNAs, currently known in other species, were not found in G. lamblia. This suggests that miRNA biogenesis and miRNA-mediated gene regulation pathway may evolve independently, especially in evolutionarily distant lineages. A majority (43) of the predicted miRNAs are located at one single locus; however, some miRNAs have two or more copies in the genome. Among the 58 miRNA genes, 28 are located in the intergenic regions whereas 30 are present in the anti-sense strands of the protein-coding sequences. Five predicted miRNAs are expressed in G. lamblia trophozoite cells evidenced by expressed sequence tags or RT-PCR. Thirty-seven identified miRNAs may target 50 protein-coding genes, including seven variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs). Our findings provide a clue that miRNA-mediated gene regulation may exist in the early stage of eukaryotic evolution, suggesting that it is an important regulation system ubiquitous in eukaryotes.

  20. The role of free-ranging, captive, and domestic birds of Western Poland in environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna C; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Tamang, Leena; Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Zduniak, Piotr; Solarczyk, Piotr; Nowosad, Andrzej; Nowosad, Piotr

    2009-04-01

    As Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia can be disseminated in the environment by avian hosts, a total of 499 fecal dropping from 308 free-ranging, 90 captive, and 101 domestic birds were tested by conventional, immunological, and molecular techniques for these human enteropathogens. Twenty-six (5.2%) tested positive for G. lamblia cysts and 19 (3.8%) for C. parvum oocysts. A bird total of 23 (7.5%) free-ranging, two (2.2%) captive, and one (0.1%) domestic tested positive for cysts, whereas 18 (5.8%) free-ranging, one (1.1%) captive, and zero livestock birds tested positive for oocysts. G. lamblia cysts and C. parvum oocysts were found significantly more frequently in fecal droppings of free-ranging aquatic birds than in birds not normally associated with water. No specimen tested positive for both pathogens simultaneously. Aquatic birds represent an important epidemiologic link in water-associated transmission cycles of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and play a significant role in environmental contamination of aquatic habitats with these anthropozoonotic pathogens.

  1. Modeling long-term host cell-Giardia lamblia interactions in an in vitro co-culture system.

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    Bridget S Fisher

    Full Text Available Globally, there are greater than 700,000 deaths per year associated with diarrheal disease. The flagellated intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, is one of the most common intestinal pathogens in both humans and animals throughout the world. While attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium, Giardia induces epithelial cell apoptosis, disrupts tight junctions, and increases intestinal permeability. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of giardiasis, including the role lamina propria immune cells, such as macrophages, play in parasite control or clearance are poorly understood. Thus far, one of the major obstacles in ascertaining the mechanisms of Giardia pathology is the lack of a functionally relevant model for the long-term study of the parasite in vitro. Here we report on the development of an in vitro co-culture model which maintains the basolateral-apical architecture of the small intestine and allows for long-term survival of the parasite. Using transwell inserts, Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and IC-21 macrophages are co-cultured in the presence of Giardia trophozoites. Using the developed model, we show that Giardia trophozoites survive over 21 days and proliferate in a combination media of Caco-2 cell and Giardia medium. Giardia induces apoptosis of epithelial cells through caspase-3 activation and macrophages do not abrogate this response. Additionally, macrophages induce Caco-2 cells to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines, GRO and IL-8, a response abolished by Giardia indicating parasite induced suppression of the host immune response. The co-culture model provides additional complexity and information when compared to a single-cell model. This model will be a valuable tool for answering long-standing questions on host-parasite biology that may lead to discovery of new therapeutic interventions.

  2. Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea.

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    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Antikainen, Jenni; Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Kantele, Anu

    2017-09-01

    In developing countries, diarrhoea is the most common cause of death for children under five years of age, with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica as the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Traditional microscopy for stool parasites has poor sensitivity and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools. A real-time multiplex PCR method with internal inhibition control was developed for detecting Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum and Entamoeba histolytica directly from stool specimens. Applicability to dried samples was checked by comparing with fresh ones in a small test material. Finally, the assay was applied to dried specimens collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. The PCR's analytical sensitivity limit was 0.1 ng/ml for G. lamblia DNA, 0.01 ng/ml for E. histolytica DNA and 0.1 ng/ml for Cryptosporidium sp. In the test material, the assay performed similarly with fresh and dried stools. Of the 52 Guinea-Bissauan samples, local microscopy revealed a parasite in 15%, while PCR detected 62% positive for at least one parasite: 44% of the dried samples had Giardia, 23% Cryptosporidium and 0% E. histolytica. Our new multiplex real-time PCR for protozoa presents a sensitive method applicable to dried samples. As proof of concept, it worked well on stools collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. It provides an epidemiological tool for analysing dried specimens from regions poor in resources.

  3. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

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    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  4. Cross-modulation of pathogen-specific pathways enhances malnutrition during enteric co-infection with Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

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    Bartelt, Luther A; Bolick, David T; Mayneris-Perxachs, Jordi; Kolling, Glynis L; Medlock, Gregory L; Zaenker, Edna I; Donowitz, Jeffery; Thomas-Beckett, Rose Viguna; Rogala, Allison; Carroll, Ian M; Singer, Steven M; Papin, Jason; Swann, Jonathan R; Guerrant, Richard L

    2017-07-01

    Diverse enteropathogen exposures associate with childhood malnutrition. To elucidate mechanistic pathways whereby enteric microbes interact during malnutrition, we used protein deficiency in mice to develop a new model of co-enteropathogen enteropathy. Focusing on common enteropathogens in malnourished children, Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), we provide new insights into intersecting pathogen-specific mechanisms that enhance malnutrition. We show for the first time that during protein malnutrition, the intestinal microbiota permits persistent Giardia colonization and simultaneously contributes to growth impairment. Despite signals of intestinal injury, such as IL1α, Giardia-infected mice lack pro-inflammatory intestinal responses, similar to endemic pediatric Giardia infections. Rather, Giardia perturbs microbial host co-metabolites of proteolysis during growth impairment, whereas host nicotinamide utilization adaptations that correspond with growth recovery increase. EAEC promotes intestinal inflammation and markers of myeloid cell activation. During co-infection, intestinal inflammatory signaling and cellular recruitment responses to EAEC are preserved together with a Giardia-mediated diminishment in myeloid cell activation. Conversely, EAEC extinguishes markers of host energy expenditure regulatory responses to Giardia, as host metabolic adaptations appear exhausted. Integrating immunologic and metabolic profiles during co-pathogen infection and malnutrition, we develop a working mechanistic model of how cumulative diet-induced and pathogen-triggered microbial perturbations result in an increasingly wasted host.

  5. The detection of Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia cysts by immunofluorescence in animal tissues and fecal samples subjected to cycles of freezing and thawing.

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    Erlandsen, S L; Sherlock, L A; Bemrick, W J

    1990-04-01

    The effects of freezing and thawing on the detection of selected Giardia spp. cysts were investigated using immunofluorescence, bright field microscopy, and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Giardia muris cysts were obtained from either animal carcasses, fecal pellets, or isolated cyst preparations, whereas Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from fecal samples. These samples were stained using an immunofluorescence technique after 1-3 freezing (-16 C) and thawing (20 C) cycles. Cysts were detected successfully by immunofluorescence in all samples. However, in those samples subjected to freeze-thawing, the cyst walls often became distorted and then were not detectable by bright field microscopy. Low voltage SEM demonstrated that the filaments in the distorted cyst wall underwent rearrangements of interfilament spacing. Quantitation of cyst recovery after freezing and thawing demonstrated that a substantial loss occurred after 1 cycle of alternating temperature when low concentrations of cysts were used, but not with high concentrations of cysts. Cyst recovery, after 3 freezing and thawing cycles, was dramatically lowered irrespective of the initial cyst concentration. These results demonstrated that immunofluorescence was an effective technique for the detection of Giardia spp. cysts in frozen samples and would suggest that freezing and thawing of fecal samples could prevent the detection of cysts when only bright field microscopy was employed.

  6. A Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Three Zoonotic Parasites Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia Assemblage A

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    Wei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum, and Giardia lamblia assemblage A are common intestinal parasites of dogs and cats; they can also infect humans, causing parasitic zoonoses. In this study, a multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous identification and detection of those three zoonotic parasites. Three pairs of specific primers were designed based on ITS sequence of A. ceylanicum and A. caninum and TPI gene of G. lamblia available in the GenBank. The multiplex PCR reaction system was established by optimizing the reaction condition, and a series of tests on the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical application were also conducted. Results showed that three target fragments were amplified specifically; the detection limit was 10 eggs for both A. ceylanicum and A. caninum, 72 pg DNA for G. lamblia. Of 112 clinical fecal samples, 34.8% and 17.8% samples were positive for A. caninum and A. ceylanicum, respectively, while only 2.7% samples were positive for G. lamblia assemblage A. It is concluded that the established multiplex PCR assay is a convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and high-efficiency method for molecular detection and epidemiological investigation of three zoonotic parasites.

  7. Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo D. Luján

    2006-01-01

    Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan po...

  8. Performance and Health Risk Assessment of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Individual Water Purifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-26

    G.T., 1983. Effect of Resin Disinfectants-I3 and –I5 on Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 46(5), 965-969...UV doses. The EPA collected UV inactivation research data conducted over the past 50 years for adenovirus, Giardia lamblia, Giardia muris , and... Giardia cysts. One study showed CTs ranging from 1.7-17.6 mg-min/L necessary for 2-log Giardia muris cyst inactivation (reference 23). The SWTR

  9. Comparative analysis of the 5S rRNA and its associated proteins reveals unique primitive rather than parasitic features in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Mei; Sun, Jun; Xin, De-Dong; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2012-01-01

    5S rRNA is a highly conserved ribosomal component. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA and its associated proteins (5S rRNA system) have become very well understood. Giardia lamblia was thought by some researchers to be the most primitive extant eukaryote while others considered it a highly evolved parasite. Previous reports have indicated that some aspects of its 5S rRNA system are simpler than that of common eukaryotes. We here explore whether this is true to its entire system, and whether this simplicity is a primitive or parasitic feature. By collecting and confirming pre-existing data and identifying new data, we obtained almost complete datasets of the system of three isolates of G. lamblia, two other parasitic excavates (Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma cruzi), and one free-living one (Naegleria gruberi). After comprehensively comparing each aspect of the system among these excavates and also with those of archaea and common eukaryotes, we found all the three Giardia isolates to harbor a same simplified 5S rRNA system, which is not only much simpler than that of common eukaryotes but also the simplest one among those of these excavates, and is surprisingly very similar to that of archaea; we also found among these excavates the system in parasitic species is not necessarily simpler than that in free-living species, conversely, the system of free-living species is even simpler in some respects than those of parasitic ones. The simplicity of Giardia 5S rRNA system should be considered a primitive rather than parasitically-degenerated feature. Therefore, Giardia 5S rRNA system might be a primitive system that is intermediate between that of archaea and the common eukaryotic model system, and it may reflect the evolutionary history of the eukaryotic 5S rRNA system from the archaeal form. Our results also imply G. lamblia might be a primitive eukaryote with secondary parasitically-degenerated features.

  10. Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças da região de Araraquara-SP

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, José Gustavo Donato [UNESP

    2005-01-01

    O protozoário Giardia lamblia foi escolhido como tema de estudo, por ser um enteroparasita de prevalência significativa no mundo inteiro. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram estudar a reprodutibilidade diagnóstica dos métodos Direto, Faust e cols., COPROTEST e Hematoxilina Férrica, bem como descrever a presença da Giardia lamblia, segundo a associação com algumas características da população de estudo como: grupo etário, gênero e distribuição dos casos segundo a variação sazonal nos meses em qu...

  11. Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo D. Luján

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the parasite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune

  12. Crystal structures of carbamate kinase from Giardia lamblia bound with citric acid and AMP-PNP.

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    Kap Lim

    Full Text Available The parasite Giardia lamblia utilizes the L-arginine dihydrolase pathway to generate ATP from L-arginine. Carbamate kinase (CK catalyzes the last step in this pathway, converting ADP and carbamoyl phosphate to ATP and ammonium carbamate. Because the L-arginine pathway is essential for G. lamblia survival and absent in high eukaryotes including humans, the enzyme is a potential target for drug development. We have determined two crystal structures of G. lamblia CK (glCK with bound ligands. One structure, in complex with a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, adenosine 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP, was determined at 2.6 Å resolution. The second structure, in complex with citric acid bound in the postulated carbamoyl phosphate binding site, was determined in two slightly different states at 2.1 and 2.4 Å resolution. These structures reveal conformational flexibility of an auxiliary domain (amino acid residues 123-170, which exhibits open or closed conformations or structural disorder, depending on the bound ligand. The structures also reveal a smaller conformational change in a region associated the AMP-PNP adenine binding site. The protein residues involved in binding, together with a model of the transition state, suggest that catalysis follows an in-line, predominantly dissociative, phosphotransfer reaction mechanism, and that closure of the flexible auxiliary domain is required to protect the transition state from bulk solvent.

  13. Detection and genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J; Stenger, David A

    2004-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and discriminating between E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, G. lamblia assemblages A and B, and C. parvum types 1 and 2 in a single assay. Unique hybridization patterns for each selected protozoan were generated by amplifying six to eight diagnostic sequences/organism by multiplex PCR; fluorescent labeling of the amplicons via primer extension; and subsequent hybridization to a set of genus-, species-, and subtype-specific covalently immobilized oligonucleotide probes. The profile-based specificity of this methodology not only permitted for the unequivocal identification of the six targeted species and subtypes, but also demonstrated its potential in identifying related species such as Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium muris. In addition, sensitivity assays demonstrated lower detection limits of five trophozoites of G. lamblia. Taken together, the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray-based approach suggest that this methodology may provide a promising tool to detect and genotype protozoa from clinical and environmental samples.

  14. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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    Marit G Tellevik

    Full Text Available Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.We performed an unmatched case-control study among children 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8. Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012.Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.

  15. Clinical and microbiological features of dientamoebiasis in patients suspected of suffering from a parasitic gastrointestinal illness: a comparison of Dientamoeba fragilis and Giardia lamblia infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; Peek, Ron; Souayah, Hichem; Dediste, Anne; Buset, Michel; Scheen, Robert; Retore, Patricia; Zissis, Georges; van Gool, Tom

    2006-01-01

    To describe the clinical and microbiological features of Dientamoeba fragilis and Giardia lamblia infected patients, and to analyze the genetic variation of D. fragilis strains. For a period of two years, all stool samples collected from patients suspected of having a parasitic gastrointestinal

  16. In vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and -pyrimidines, individually and in combination with albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Olvera, Stephanía; Salgado-Zamora, Héctor; Jiménez-Cardoso, Enedina; Campos-Aldrete, Maria-Elena; Pérez-González, Cuauhtémoc; Ben Hadda, Taibi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a major diarrheal disease found throughout the world, the causative agent being the flagellate protozoan Giardia intestinalis. Infection is more common in children than in adults. The appearance of drug resistance has complicated the treatment of several parasitic diseases, including giardiasis. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to make an in vitro evaluation of the antigiardia response of synthetic derivatives 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines 1 and -pyrimidines 2 against trophozoites of Giardia lamblia WB, in comparison with the reference drug, albendazole. Additionally, the synergistic action of albendazole in combination with each of the most active 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines was also assessed. Based on the IC50 values obtained, the best anti-Giardia activity was provided by the 3-hydroxymethyl-4-fluorophenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivative 2c and the corresponding imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine with the p-tolyl substituent 2d, followed by 2a and 2b. These four compounds showed effectiveness at a concentration similar to that of albendazole. Regarding synergism, the IC50 of the combination of albendazole with 2a, 2b or 2c gave the best anti-Giardia action, showing greater efficacy than albendazole alone. Hence, G. lamblia WB showed high susceptibility to some 2-aryl-3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a] pyrimidines, which acted synergistically when used in combination with albendazole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in Feces of Diarrheal Patient at Puskesmas Jatinangor, September–November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komathi Palani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhea is one of the main public health problems occurring in West Java. One of the affected areas is Subdistrict Jatinangor. Inappropriate management of sanitation facilities around Jatinangor area causes contamination of water. Cikeruh River is one of the water sources in Jatinangor Area, from which people obtain water for daily activities. Water borne illness due to poor sanitation condition can lead to parasitic infection such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum which can cause a prolonged diarrhea. There has not been any study done regarding the presence of parasitical infection causing diarrhea around Jatinangor. Methods: In order to identify the parasitic infection, a descriptive study was carried out on 16 fecal samples collected from diarrheal patient who visited Puskesmas Jatinangor from September–November 2012. The parasites were checked by using wet mount method Results: The parasites found were Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, but none of Giardia lamblia. There were also other findings such as Iodamoeba butschlii and Entamoeba coli. Conclusion: Positive findings of Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum in diarrhea patients is most probably due to contaminated water and food. Measures need to be done to improve sanitary condition in Cikeruh River to prevent diarrhea.

  18. Identification of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in Feces of Diarrheal Patient at Puskesmas Jatinangor, September–November 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Komathi Palani; Lia Faridah; Uun Sumardi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is one of the main public health problems occurring in West Java. One of the affected areas is Subdistrict Jatinangor. Inappropriate management of sanitation facilities around Jatinangor area causes contamination of water. Cikeruh River is one of the water sources in Jatinangor Area, from which people obtain water for daily activities. Water borne illness due to poor sanitation condition can lead to parasitic infection such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cr...

  19. Stem-Loop RT-qPCR as an Efficient Tool for the Detection and Quantification of Small RNAs in Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Marcial-Quino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR is a molecular technique used for identification and quantification of individual small RNAs in cells. In this work, we used a Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-based design to detect—in a rapid, sensitive, specific, and reproducible way—the small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA GlsR17 and its derived miRNA (miR2 of Giardia lamblia using a stem-loop RT-qPCR approach. Both small RNAs could be isolated from both total RNA and small RNA samples. Identification of the two small RNAs was carried out by sequencing the PCR-amplified small RNA products upon ligation into the pJET1.2/blunt vector. GlsR17 is constitutively expressed during the 72 h cultures of trophozoites, while the mature miR2 is present in 2-fold higher abundance during the first 48 h than at 72 h. Because it has been suggested that miRNAs in G. lamblia have an important role in the regulation of gene expression, the use of the stem-loop RT-qPCR method could be valuable for the study of miRNAs of G. lamblia. This methodology will be a powerful tool for studying gene regulation in G. lamblia, and will help to better understand the features and functions of these regulatory molecules and how they work within the RNA interference (RNAi pathway in G. lamblia.

  20. Stem-Loop RT-qPCR as an Efficient Tool for the Detection and Quantification of Small RNAs in Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Fierro, Francisco; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Rufino-González, Yadira; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a molecular technique used for identification and quantification of individual small RNAs in cells. In this work, we used a Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL)-based design to detect—in a rapid, sensitive, specific, and reproducible way—the small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) GlsR17 and its derived miRNA (miR2) of Giardia lamblia using a stem-loop RT-qPCR approach. Both small RNAs could be isolated from both total RNA and small RNA samples. Identification of the two small RNAs was carried out by sequencing the PCR-amplified small RNA products upon ligation into the pJET1.2/blunt vector. GlsR17 is constitutively expressed during the 72 h cultures of trophozoites, while the mature miR2 is present in 2-fold higher abundance during the first 48 h than at 72 h. Because it has been suggested that miRNAs in G. lamblia have an important role in the regulation of gene expression, the use of the stem-loop RT-qPCR method could be valuable for the study of miRNAs of G. lamblia. This methodology will be a powerful tool for studying gene regulation in G. lamblia, and will help to better understand the features and functions of these regulatory molecules and how they work within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in G. lamblia. PMID:27999395

  1. Comparative characterisation of two nitroreductases from Giardia lamblia as potential activators of nitro compounds

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    Joachim Müller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, a diarrhoeal disease affecting humans and various animal species. Nitro drugs such as the nitroimidazole metronidazole and the nitrothiazolide nitazoxanide are used for treatment of giardiasis. Nitroreductases such as GlNR1 and GlNR2 may play a role in activation or inactivation of these drugs. The aim of this work is to characterise these two enyzmes using functional assays. For respective analyses recombinant analogues from GlNR1 and GlNR2 were produced in Escherichia coli. E. coli expressing GlNR1 and GlNR2 alone or together were grown in the presence of nitro compounds. Furthermore, pull-down assays were performed using HA-tagged GlNR1 and GlNR2 as baits. As expected, E. coli expressing GlNR1 were more susceptible to metronidazole under aerobic and semi-aerobic and to nitazoxanide under semi-aerobic growth conditions whereas E. coli expressing GlNR2 were susceptible to neither drug. Interestingly, expression of both nitroreductases gave the same results as expression of GlNR2 alone. In functional assays, both nitroreductases had their strongest activities on the quinone menadione (vitamin K3 and FAD, but reduction of nitro compounds including the nitro drugs metronidazole and nitazoxanide was clearly detected. Full reduction of 7-nitrocoumarin to 7-aminocoumarin was preferentially achieved with GlNR2. Pull-down assays revealed that GlNR1 and GlNR2 interacted in vivo forming a multienzyme complex. These findings suggest that both nitroreductases are multifunctional. Their main biological role may reside in the reduction of vitamin K analogues and FAD. Activation by GlNR1 or inactivation by GlNR2 of nitro drugs may be the consequence of a secondary enzymatic activity either yielding (GlNR1 or eliminating (GlNR2 toxic intermediates after reduction of these compounds.

  2. Identification of variant-specific surface proteins in Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropolo, Andrea S; Saura, Alicia; Carranza, Pedro G; Lujan, Hugo D

    2005-08-01

    Giardia lamblia undergoes antigenic variation, a process that might allow the parasite to evade the host's immune response and adapt to different environments. Here we show that Giardia muris, a related species that naturally infects rodents, possesses multiple variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) and expresses VSPs on its surface, suggesting that it undergoes antigenic variation similar to that of G. lamblia.

  3. Identification of Variant-Specific Surface Proteins in Giardia muris Trophozoites

    OpenAIRE

    Ropolo, Andrea S.; Saura, Alicia; Carranza, Pedro G.; Lujan, Hugo D.

    2005-01-01

    Giardia lamblia undergoes antigenic variation, a process that might allow the parasite to evade the host's immune response and adapt to different environments. Here we show that Giardia muris, a related species that naturally infects rodents, possesses multiple variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) and expresses VSPs on its surface, suggesting that it undergoes antigenic variation similar to that of G. lamblia.

  4. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria Luísa; Sousa, Maria C; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 were studied by FISH and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated MAbs. Eighteen percent of the fecal samples parasitologically positive for G. lamblia presented viable and nonviable cysts, and 5% of those positive for Cryptosporidium spp. presented viable and nonviable oocysts. Of the 18 water supply samples analyzed, 6 (33%) presented Giardia spp. viable and nonviable cysts and 2 (11%) presented viable and nonviable Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. G. lamblia identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene in the fecal and water samples found positive by FISH and FITC-conjugated MAbs. C. parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified, by PCR and sequencing of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene, in seven and one water samples, respectively. Our results confirm that this technique enables simultaneous visualization, species-specific identification, and viability determination of the organisms present in human fecal and water supply samples.

  5. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bashyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia and colon (E. histolytica causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  6. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Bharat; Li, Linfeng; Bains, Trpta; Debnath, Anjan; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2017-08-01

    Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  7. Effect of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts compared with metronidazole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Delfan, B; Pournia, Y; Rashidipour, M

    2016-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the common causes of worldwide diarrhea in children. Appropriate medicinal treatment for giardiasis is available but there are some evidences of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy, and unpleasant side effects. In order to reach a more natural drug with suitable efficacy and the lowest side effects, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica , and Allium sativum on G. lamblia cysts were evaluated in vitro, as well as antigiardial effect of the extracts was compared with metronidazole as the drug of choice. 2 and 5 mg of the plants extracts and powder of metronidazole 250 mg pills were added to 1 ml of G. lamblia cysts suspension (containing 5,000 cyst/ml normal saline), and the percentages of bioavailability of G. lamblia cysts were examined at the 2nd and 4th h after exposure and in 4 and 37 °C temperatures using eosin 0.1 % and a haemocytometer. The data were analyzed by multiway ANOVA test, Tukey's test, and the SPSS software, version 18. The examinations demonstrated that olive leaf extract had the most fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (37.90 ± 7.01 %), followed by the extract of S. khuzestanica (32.52 ± 9.07 %). Metronidazole 250 mg pills had relatively effective fatality rate on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (28.75 ± 10.30 %), whereas A. sativum (garlic) had the lowest fatality effect on G. lamblia cysts in vitro (22.65 ± 10.47 %). With respect to higher fatality effect of olive leaf and S. khuzestanica extracts compared with metronidazole in vitro, these plants can be used as suitable candidates to make new antigiardial drugs with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiasis in children.

  8. Bax function in the absence of mitochondria in the primitive protozoan Giardia lamblia.

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    Adrian B Hehl

    Full Text Available Bax-induced permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and release of cytochrome c are key events in apoptosis. Although Bax can compromise mitochondria in primitive unicellular organisms that lack a classical apoptotic machinery, it is still unclear if Bax alone is sufficient for this, or whether additional mitochondrial components are required. The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia is one of the earliest branching eukaryotes and harbors highly degenerated mitochondrial remnant organelles (mitosomes that lack a genome. Here we tested whether human Bax expressed in Giardia can be used to ablate mitosomes. We demonstrate that these organelles are neither targeted, nor compromised, by Bax. However, specialized compartments of the regulated secretory pathway are completely ablated by Bax. As a consequence, maturing cyst wall proteins that are sorted into these organelles are released into the cytoplasm, causing a developmental arrest and cell death. Interestingly, this ectopic cargo release is dependent on the carboxy-terminal 22 amino acids of Bax, and can be prevented by the Bax-inhibiting peptide Ku70. A C-terminally truncated Bax variant still localizes to secretory organelles, but is unable to permeabilize these membranes, uncoupling membrane targeting and cargo release. Even though mitosomes are too diverged to be recognized by Bax, off-target membrane permeabilization appears to be conserved and leads to cell death completely independently of mitochondria.

  9. Giardia: Illness & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 683. Hill DR. Giardia lamblia . In: Gillespie SH, Pearson RD, eds. Principles and practice of clinical parasitology. ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  10. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to confirm and expand the current database for the inactivation of Giardia spp. using ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Initially, previous research that used in vitro excystation as the indicator for UV effectiveness was confirmed. Later, the in vitro excys...

  11. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVEIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...

  12. Hydrologic and Vegetative Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate Microspheres in Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type (“pure” versus “environmental”) on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality. PMID:23315738

  13. Ciclo zoonótico rural de Giardia lamblia en dos campos lecheros de General Mansilla, Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Nora Beatriz; Basualdo Farjat, Juan Ángel; Minvielle, Marta Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia es el protozoo productor de diarrea diagnosticado con más frecuencia en todo el mundo. La giardiosis es una infección cosmopolita de tipo zoonótico cuya prevalencia varía de 2% en países industrializados al 70% en países en desarrollo (Eligio-García y col. 2008). En Argentina, esta parasitosis muestra una prevalencia variable de 6% a 36% dependiendo de las condiciones sanitarias de cada región y de los hábitos de higiene personal (Minvielle y col. 2004; Basualdo y col. 2007; S...

  14. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  15. [Knowledge, perceptions and practice of dermatologists with respect to Giardia lamblia infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Hernández, Tania; Almannoni, Saleh Ali; Rodríguez, Maria Elena; Sánchez Valdés, Lizet; Pupo, Deisy Martín; Manzur Katrib, Julián; Fonte Galindo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    to ascertain the level of knowledge, the perceptions and practice of dermatologists in the City of Havana with respect to Giardia lamblia infection. with prior informed consent given by the dermatologists from the City of Havana, 50 dermatologists- a number very close to the universe of these experts in the province- were administered a survey of their knowledge, perceptions and practice about this parasitosis. The survey was prepared in 4 phases; that is, interviews to physicians on diagnosis, treatment and control of giardiasis; drafting of a preliminary questionnaire based on the interview results; submission of this instruments to the experts, and finally its validation through its application to a small group of physicians. it was evinced that the dermatologists in the City of Havana had poor knowledge about giardiasis, particularly its cutaneous manifestations (out of 19 questions on cognitive aspects, the correct answer mean was 10,18), inadequate perceptions on this disease and practice was not good. with the aim of mitigating these difficulties, some academic intervention is needed to make emphasis on the formative aspects related to parasitic diseases in general and giardiasis in particular

  16. Molecular characterization of Giardia lamblia in children less than 5 years of age with diarrhoea attending the Bengo General Hospital, Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparinho, Carolina; Ferreira, Filipa S; Mayer, António Carlos; Mirante, Maria Clara; Vaz Nery, Susana; Santos-Reis, Ana; Portugal-Calisto, Daniela; Brito, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Giardia lamblia is a pathogenic intestinal protozoan with high prevalence in developing countries, especially among children. Molecular characterization has revealed the existence of eight assemblages, with A and B being more commonly described in human infections. Despite its importance, to our knowledge this is the first published molecular analysis of G. lamblia assemblages in Angola. Methods The present study aimed to identify the assemblages of G. lamblia in children with acute diarrhoea presenting at the Bengo General Hospital, Angola. A stool sample was collected and microscopy and immunochromatographic tests were used. DNA was extracted and assemblage determination was performed through amplification of the gene fragment ssu-rRNA (175 bp) and β-giardin (511 bp) through polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Results Of the 16 stool samples screened, 12 were successfully sequenced. Eleven isolates were assigned to assemblage B and one to assemblage A. Subassemblage determination was not possible for assemblage B, while the single isolate assigned to assemblage A was identified as belonging to subassemblage A3. Conclusion This study provides information about G. lamblia assemblages in Bengo Province, Angola and may contribute as a first step in understanding the molecular epidemiology of this protozoan in the country. GenBank accession numbers for the ssur-RNA gene: MF479750, MF479751, MF479752, MF479753, MF479754, MF479755, MF479756, MF479757, MF479758, MF479759, MF479760, MF479761. GenBank accession numbers for the β-giardin gene: MF565378, MF565379, MF565380, MF565381. PMID:29438541

  17. Ultraviolet Light Disinfection in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    adenovirus, Giardia lamblia, Giardia muris , and Cryptosporidium parvum. Adenovirus was evaluated because it is considered the most resistant to...7 reproduce cannot infect and are thereby inactivated. Subsequently, when evaluating UV disinfection capability, Giardia cyst and...0.25 to 20 NTU resulted in a 0.8-log and 0.5-log decrease in inactivation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia , respectively (reference 3). The type of

  18. Giardia and Vilem Dusan Lambl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2014), e2686 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : History of Science * Giardia lamblia * Infectious disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  19. Click Chemistry-Facilitated Structural Diversification of Nitrothiazoles, Nitrofurans, and Nitropyrroles Enhances Antimicrobial Activity against Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Jung; Korthals, Keith A.; Li, Suhua; Le, Christine; Kalisiak, Jarosław; Sharpless, K. Barry; Fokin, Valery V.; Miyamoto, Yukiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giardia lamblia is an important and ubiquitous cause of diarrheal disease. The primary agents in the treatment of giardiasis are nitroheterocyclic drugs, particularly the imidazoles metronidazole and tinidazole and the thiazole nitazoxanide. Although these drugs are generally effective, treatment failures occur in up to 20% of cases, and resistance has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. Prior work had suggested that side chain modifications of the imidazole core can lead to new effective 5-nitroimidazole drugs that can combat nitro drug resistance, but the full potential of nitroheterocycles other than imidazole to yield effective new antigiardial agents has not been explored. Here, we generated derivatives of two clinically utilized nitroheterocycles, nitrothiazole and nitrofuran, as well as a third heterocycle, nitropyrrole, which is related to nitroimidazole but has not been systematically investigated as an antimicrobial drug scaffold. Click chemistry was employed to synthesize 442 novel nitroheterocyclic compounds with extensive side chain modifications. Screening of this library against representative G. lamblia strains showed a wide spectrum of in vitro activities, with many of the compounds exhibiting superior activity relative to reference drugs and several showing >100-fold increase in potency and the ability to overcome existing forms of metronidazole resistance. The majority of new compounds displayed no cytotoxicity against human cells, and several compounds were orally active against murine giardiasis in vivo. These findings provide additional impetus for the systematic development of nitroheterocyclic compounds with nonimidazole cores as alternative and improved agents for the treatment of giardiasis and potentially other infectious agents. PMID:28396548

  20. Click Chemistry-Facilitated Structural Diversification of Nitrothiazoles, Nitrofurans, and Nitropyrroles Enhances Antimicrobial Activity against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Jung; Korthals, Keith A; Li, Suhua; Le, Christine; Kalisiak, Jarosław; Sharpless, K Barry; Fokin, Valery V; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Giardia lamblia is an important and ubiquitous cause of diarrheal disease. The primary agents in the treatment of giardiasis are nitroheterocyclic drugs, particularly the imidazoles metronidazole and tinidazole and the thiazole nitazoxanide. Although these drugs are generally effective, treatment failures occur in up to 20% of cases, and resistance has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro Prior work had suggested that side chain modifications of the imidazole core can lead to new effective 5-nitroimidazole drugs that can combat nitro drug resistance, but the full potential of nitroheterocycles other than imidazole to yield effective new antigiardial agents has not been explored. Here, we generated derivatives of two clinically utilized nitroheterocycles, nitrothiazole and nitrofuran, as well as a third heterocycle, nitropyrrole, which is related to nitroimidazole but has not been systematically investigated as an antimicrobial drug scaffold. Click chemistry was employed to synthesize 442 novel nitroheterocyclic compounds with extensive side chain modifications. Screening of this library against representative G. lamblia strains showed a wide spectrum of in vitro activities, with many of the compounds exhibiting superior activity relative to reference drugs and several showing >100-fold increase in potency and the ability to overcome existing forms of metronidazole resistance. The majority of new compounds displayed no cytotoxicity against human cells, and several compounds were orally active against murine giardiasis in vivo These findings provide additional impetus for the systematic development of nitroheterocyclic compounds with nonimidazole cores as alternative and improved agents for the treatment of giardiasis and potentially other infectious agents. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Swierczewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination.

  2. UTILIDAD TERAPÉUTICA DEL ALBENDAZOL EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE NIÑOS INFECTADOS CON Giardia lamblia I THERAPEUTIC USEFULNESS OF ALBENDAZOLE IN THE TREATMENT OF INFECTED CHILDREN WITH Giardia lambli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYRA RISCO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with 22 parasitized school children with Giardia lamblia to verify the therapeutic usefulness of albendazole (400 mg single dose for 5 days. After treating the children post-treatment controls were made at 7, 15 and 21 days by clinical examination and parasitological methods (direct examination, Kato and spontaneous sedimentation. The overall rate of parasitological cure was 44.4% (8/18 consisting of 8 children in whom the parasite was eradicated after treatment. This analysis excluded 4 of the treated children because they had missed one or more post-treatment controls. Of these 18 children, 72.2% (13 children had clinical manifestations suggestive of infection with G. lamblia before receiving the drug; after completion of treatment only two school children (11.1% had clinical manifestations. However, the difference was not statistically significant (X 2 = 0.5098 d.f. = 1. Two (11.1% of the children who received albendazole had adverse effects (bitter taste and abdominal pain. In conclusion, the study group and due to its low parasitological cure rate, albendazole does not seem to be a drug of choice and use should be reserved in proven cases of resistance to metronidazole or when there is intolerance to this drug.

  3. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic

  4. The proteasome of the differently-diverged eukaryote Giardia lamblia and its role in remodeling of the microtubule-based cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Atrayee; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2017-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease giardiasis, against which only a limited number of drugs are currently available. Increasing reports of resistance to these drugs makes it necessary to identify new cellular targets for designing the next generation of anti-giardial drugs. Towards this goal, therapeutic agents that target the parasitic cellular machinery involved in the functioning of the unique microtubule-based cytoskeleton of the Giardia trophozoites are likely to be effective as microtubule function is not only important for the survival of trophozoites within the host, but also their extensive remodeling is necessary during the transition from trophozoites to cysts. Thus, drugs that affect microtubule remodeling have the potential to not only kill the disease-causing trophozoites, but also inhibit transmission of cysts in the community. Recent studies in other model organisms have indicated that the proteasome plays an integral role in the formation and remodeling of the microtubule-based cytoskeleton. This review draws attention to the various processes by which the giardial proteasome may impact the functioning of its microtubule cytoskeleton and highlights the possible differences of the parasitic proteasome and some of other cellular machinery involved in microtubule remodeling, compared to that of the higher eukaryotic host.

  5. Mucosal delivery of a transmission-blocking DNA vaccine encoding Giardia lamblia CWP2 by Salmonella typhimurium bactofection vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahid, Aws; Faubert, Gaétan

    2007-12-05

    In this study, we investigated the use of Salmonella typhimurium (STM1 strain) as a bactofection vehicle to deliver a transmission-blocking DNA vaccine (TBDV) plasmid to the intestinal immune system. The gene encoding the full length cyst wall protein-2 (CWP2) from Giardia lamblia was subcloned into the pCDNA3 mammalian expression vector and stably introduced into S. typhimurium STM1. Eight-week-old female BALB/c mice were orally immunized every 2 weeks, for a total of three immunizations. Vaccinated and control mice were sacrificed 1 week following the last injection. Administration of the DNA vaccine led to the production of CWP2-specific cellular immune responses characterized by a mixed Th1/Th2 response. Using ELISA, antigen-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal secretions. Moreover, analysis of sera demonstrated that the DNA immunization also stimulated the production of CWP2-specific IgG antibodies that were mainly of the IgG2a isotype. Finally, challenge infection with live Giardia muris cysts revealed that mice receiving the CWP2-encoding DNA vaccine were able to reduce cyst shedding by approximately 60% compared to control mice. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the development of parasite transmission-blocking immunity at the intestinal level following the administration of a mucosal DNA vaccine delivered by S. typhimurium STM1.

  6. Effect of initial microbial density on inactivation of Giardia muris by ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Charles N; Kaymak, Baris

    2003-07-01

    Inactivation of microorganisms by disinfectants frequently shows non-linear behavior on a semilogarithmic plot of log survival ratio versus time. A number of models have been developed to depict these deviations from Chick's Law. Some of the models predict that the log survival ratio (at a particular disinfectant dose and contact time, even in absence of demand) would be a function of the initial concentration of microorganisms (N(0)), while other models do not predict such an effect. The effect of N(0) on the survival ratio has not been deliberately tested. This work examined the inactivation of Giardia muris by ozone in batch systems, deliberately varying the disinfectant dose and N(0). It was found that the models predicting a dependency of survival on N(0) gave a better description to the data than models that did not predict such a dependency. Hence there is an apparent decrease in disinfection efficiency of ozone against Giardia muris (at pH 8 and 15 degrees C) as the initial microorganism concentration decreases. This phenomena should be taken into account by both disinfection researchers and by process design engineers.

  7. Comparação de quatro métodos laboratoriais para diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em fezes de crianças residentes em Belém, Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Figueredo,Maria Cristina; Frade,Amanda Farage; Kudó,Mônica Eriko; Silva Filho,Manoel Gomes; Póvoa,Marinete Marins

    2001-01-01

    Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito.

  8. Modeling Cryptosporidium spp. Oocyst Inactivation in Bubble-Diffuser Ozone Contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    requirements for Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) and viruses under the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR). Minimum CT requirements include relatively...parvum and C. muris ) oocysts in ozone bubble-diffuser contactors. The model is calibrated with semi-batch kinetic data, verified with pilot-scale

  9. Selective condensation drives partitioning and sequential secretion of cyst wall proteins in differentiating Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Konrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlled secretion of a protective extracellular matrix is required for transmission of the infective stage of a large number of protozoan and metazoan parasites. Differentiating trophozoites of the highly minimized protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia secrete the proteinaceous portion of the cyst wall material (CWM consisting of three paralogous cyst wall proteins (CWP1-3 via organelles termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs. Phylogenetic and molecular data indicate that Diplomonads have lost a classical Golgi during reductive evolution. However, neogenesis of ESVs in encysting Giardia trophozoites transiently provides basic Golgi functions by accumulating presorted CWM exported from the ER for maturation. Based on this "minimal Golgi" hypothesis we predicted maturation of ESVs to a trans Golgi-like stage, which would manifest as a sorting event before regulated secretion of the CWM. Here we show that proteolytic processing of pro-CWP2 in maturing ESVs coincides with partitioning of CWM into two fractions, which are sorted and secreted sequentially with different kinetics. This novel sorting function leads to rapid assembly of a structurally defined outer cyst wall, followed by slow secretion of the remaining components. Using live cell microscopy we find direct evidence for condensed core formation in maturing ESVs. Core formation suggests that a mechanism controlled by phase transitions of the CWM from fluid to condensed and back likely drives CWM partitioning and makes sorting and sequential secretion possible. Blocking of CWP2 processing by a protease inhibitor leads to mis-sorting of a CWP2 reporter. Nevertheless, partitioning and sequential secretion of two portions of the CWM are unaffected in these cells. Although these cysts have a normal appearance they are not water resistant and therefore not infective. Our findings suggest that sequential assembly is a basic architectural principle of protective wall formation and requires

  10. Giardia muris infection in mice is associated with a protective interleukin 17A response and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Dreesen (Leentje); L. Bosscher (Lisette); K.J. Grit (Kor); B. Staels (Bart); E.W. Lubberts (Erik); E. Bauge (Eric); P. Geldhof (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia) is one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in mammals, including humans. In the current study, a Giardia muris-mouse model was used to analyze cytokine transcription patterns and histological changes in intestinal

  11. Development of species-specific rDNA probes for Giardia by multiple fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with immunocytochemical identification of cyst wall antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Stanley L; Jarroll, Edward; Wallis, Peter; van Keulen, Harry

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we describe the development of fluorescent oligonucleotide probes to variable regions in the small subunit of 16S rRNA in three distinct Giardia species. Sense and antisense probes (17-22 mer) to variable regions 1, 3, and 8 were labeled with digoxygenin or selected fluorochomes (FluorX, Cy3, or Cy5). Optimal results were obtained with fluorochome-labeled oligonucleotides for detection of rRNA in Giardia cysts. Specificity of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was shown using RNase digestion and high stringency to diminish the hybridization signal, and oligonucleotide probes for rRNA in Giardia lamblia, Giardia muris, and Giardia ardeae were shown to specifically stain rRNA only within cysts or trophozoites of those species. The fluorescent oligonucleotide specific for rRNA in human isolates of Giardia was positive for ten different strains. A method for simultaneous FISH detection of cysts using fluorescent antibody (genotype marker) and two oligonucleotide probes (species marker) permitted visualization of G. lamblia and G. muris cysts in the same preparation. Testing of an environmental water sample revealed the presence of FISH-positive G. lamblia cysts with a specific rDNA probe for rRNA, while negative cysts were presumed to be of animal or bird origin.

  12. MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  13. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao

  14. Synthesis and Electrochemistry of 2-Ethenyl and 2-Ethanyl Derivatives of 5-Nitroimidazole and Antimicrobial Activity against Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Tripp, Jonathan C.; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Kalisiak, Jaroslaw; Hruz, Petr; Andersen, Yolanda S.; Brown, Sabrina E.; Kangas, Karina; Arzu, Leo V.; Davids, Barbara J.; Gillin, Frances D.; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Upcroft, Peter; Fokin, Valery V.; Smith, Diane K.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Eckmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Infections with the diarrheagenic pathogen, Giardia lamblia, are commonly treated with the 5-nitroimidazole (5-NI) metronidazole (Mz), and yet treatment failures and Mz resistance occur. Using a panel of new 2-ethenyl and 2-ethanyl 5-NI derivatives, we found that compounds with a saturated bridge between the 5-NI core and a pendant ring system exhibited only modestly increased antigiardial activity and could not overcome Mz resistance. By contrast, olefins with a conjugated bridge connecting the core and a substituted phenyl or heterocyclic ring showed greatly increased antigiardial activity without toxicity, and several overcame Mz resistance and were more effective than Mz in a murine giardiasis model. Determination of the half-wave potential of the initial one-electron transfer by cyclic voltammetry revealed that easier redox activation correlated with greater antigiardial activity and capacity to overcome Mz resistance. These studies show the potential of combining systematic synthetic approaches with biological and electrochemical evaluations in developing improved 5-NI drugs. PMID:19480409

  15. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less

  16. Host-Parasite Interactions in Individuals with Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Result in Higher Frequency of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuza Rodrigues Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2 were analyzed using two parasitological methods. Enteroparasites or commensals frequency in diabetics was 64%. Diabetics infected with up to six species of intestinal parasites or commensals were found. Frequencies of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia were higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The lower frequency of A. lumbricoides found in type 1 diabetes may be related to a strong Th2 response to parasites. Autoimmune response developed in type 1 diabetic individuals characterized by the production of Th1 cytokines could explain low frequency of G. lamblia. High frequency of parasites found in type 2 diabetes emphasizes the importance of periodic parasitological examinations in these individuals.

  17. Iodine Disinfection in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Effect of Resin Disinfectants-I3 and –I5 on Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 46(5), 965-969. 24. AWWA... Giardia or Cryptosporidium). Iodine-using IWPDs meeting these standards are considered effective against disease causing bacteria, viruses, and...CT = 65 mg-min/L) for a 2-log inactivation of E. histolytica cysts (references 9 and 10). Another study using Giardia cysts showed CT’s up to 3

  18. Mecanismos específicos de patogenicidade de protozoários de mucosa: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia e Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Brum Vieira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica e Giardia lamblia são protozoários que podem parasitar a mucosa intestinal, causando principalmente diarreia. Trichomonas vaginalis coloniza a mucosa vaginal causando tricomonose, a doença sexualmente transmissível não viral mais comum no mundo. Embora coletivamente estes parasitos infectem mais de um bilhão de pessoas a cada ano, seus mecanismos de patogenicidade ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Assim, esta revisão reúne os principais mecanismos envolvidos na patogenicidade destes protozoários, bem como os fatores do microambiente que podem interferir no sucesso da colonização. A patogênese da E. histolytica envolve adesão, lise, fagocitose de células epiteliais e bactérias, invasão tecidual por ação de enzimas e evasão da resposta imune do hospedeiro. A lectina Gal/GalNAc, os amebaporos e as cisteína proteases são as principais moléculas envolvidas nesses processos. O estabelecimento da giardiose depende de diversos mecanismos patogênicos e de virulência desenvolvidos pela G. lamblia, tais como as moléculas envolvidas na adesão, encistamento e variação antigênica. Para o sucesso da colonização da mucosa vaginal, o T. vaginalis expressa moléculas como as adesinas de superfície, lipofosfoglicanos e galectina, envolvidas na adesão às células epiteliais vaginais e alteração da expressão gênica, tanto do parasito como do hospedeiro.

  19. A report on a case of Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Pudasaini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGiardia is caused by protozoa, Giardia lamblia. It is one of the most common causes of water born or food born diarrhea and it has a worldwide distribution. The prevalence is approximately 20-30% in developing countries. Giardia duodenalis is the most commonly reported intestinal protozoan in humans mainly affecting children. The infection is usually associated with malabsorption, weight loss and growth retardation.We report a case of four years old boy who presented with diarrhea and malabsorption for last 2 years. Its clinical presentation and histopathological diagnosis on duodenal biopsy is discussed.

  20. Enquistación in vitro de Giardia lamblia: análisis por electroforesis bidimensional de proteínas expresadas diferencialmente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Hernández

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción in vitro del ciclo de vida de Giardia lamblia es un excelente instrumento para el estudio de la biología molecular del parásito. El presente trabajo pretende contribuir al desarrollo de algunas técnicas por las cuales se puede definir mejor un modelo de diferenciación celular del parásito. El estudio presenta un protocolo de enquistación in vitro y establece un método para el aislamiento y la purificación de los quistes producidos, cuyas características morfológicas, por microscopía de luz, coinciden con las de los quistes obtenidos in vivo. Se estudió el mapa de las proteínas de G. lamblia por medio de electroforesis bidimensional de alta resolución y de electroforesis en una dimensión. Estos estudios mostraron que la mayoría de las proteínas del parásito son de carácter ácido. Se amplió, con base en ese resultado, la resolución de la región ácida por medio de un isoelectroenfoque de pH 4-7 en la primera dimensión. Se encontraron diferencias en la expresión de las proteínas durante el proceso de enquistación. Se obtuvieron, además, imágenes por microscopía de luz y electrónica de transmisión que permitieron observar morfológica y ultraestructuralmente las células producidas durante el proceso de la enquistación.

  1. (ELISA) kit for diagnosis copro-antigens of Giardia lamblia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... methods based on antigen scanning of parasites such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ... samples. To design this method, a pure antibody against parasite as well as an antibody conjugated to a ..... school children in Santiago, Chile by capture ELISA for the detection of fecal Giardia ...

  2. Persistent G. lamblia impairs growth in a murine malnutrition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Luther A; Roche, James; Kolling, Glynis; Bolick, David; Noronha, Francisco; Naylor, Caitlin; Hoffman, Paul; Warren, Cirle; Singer, Steven; Guerrant, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Giardia lamblia infections are nearly universal among children in low-income countries and are syndemic with the triumvirate of malnutrition, diarrhea, and developmental growth delays. Amidst the morass of early childhood enteropathogen exposures in these populations, G. lamblia–specific associations with persistent diarrhea, cognitive deficits, stunting, and nutrient deficiencies have demonstrated conflicting results, placing endemic pediatric giardiasis in a state of equipoise. Many infections in endemic settings appear to be asymptomatic/ subclinical, further contributing to uncertainty regarding a causal link between G. lamblia infection and developmental delay. We used G. lamblia H3 cyst infection in a weaned mouse model of malnutrition to demonstrate that persistent giardiasis leads to epithelial cell apoptosis and crypt hyperplasia. Infection was associated with a Th2-biased inflammatory response and impaired growth. Malnutrition accentuated the severity of these growth decrements. Faltering malnourished mice exhibited impaired compensatory responses following infection and demonstrated an absence of crypt hyperplasia and subsequently blunted villus architecture. Concomitantly, severe malnutrition prevented increases in B220+ cells in the lamina propria as well as mucosal Il4 and Il5 mRNA in response to infection. These findings add insight into the potential role of G. lamblia as a "stunting" pathogen and suggest that, similarly, malnourished children may be at increased risk of G. lamblia– potentiated growth decrements.

  3. Central importance of immunoglobulin A in host defense against Giardia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, T Dianne; Housley, Michael P; Boes, Marianne; Chen, Jianzhu; Kagnoff, Martin F; Gillin, Frances D; Eckmann, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The protozoan pathogen Giardia is an important cause of parasitic diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen of the small intestine, suggesting that effective host defenses must act luminally. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies are presumed to be important for controlling Giardia infection, but direct evidence for this function is lacking. B-cell-independent effector mechanisms also exist and may be equally important for antigiardial host defense. To determine the importance of the immunoglobulin isotypes that are transported into the intestinal lumen, IgA and IgM, for antigiardial host defense, we infected gene-targeted mice lacking IgA-expressing B-cells, IgM-secreting B-cells, or all B-cells as controls with Giardia muris or Giardia lamblia GS/M-83-H7. We found that IgA-deficient mice could not eradicate either G. muris or G. lamblia infection, demonstrating that IgA is required for their clearance. Furthermore, although neither B-cell-deficient nor IgA-deficient mice could clear G. muris infections, IgA-deficient mice controlled infection significantly better than B-cell-deficient mice, suggesting the existence of B-cell-dependent but IgA-independent antigiardial defenses. In contrast, mice deficient for secreted IgM antibodies cleared G. muris infection normally, indicating that they have no unique functions in antigiardial host defense. These data, together with the finding that B-cell-deficient mice have some, albeit limited, residual capacity to control G. muris infection, show that IgA-dependent host defenses are central for eradicating Giardia spp. Moreover, B-cell-dependent but IgA-independent and B-cell-independent antigiardial host defenses exist but are less important for controlling infection.

  4. Nucleic acid stains as indicators of Giardia muris viability following cyst inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi-Kilani, R; Gyürék, L L; Millard, P J; Finch, G R; Belosevic, M

    1996-06-01

    A reliable viability assay for Giardia is required for the development of disinfection process design criteria and pathogen monitoring by water treatment utilities. Surveys of single-staining nucleic acid dyes (stain dead parasites only), and double-staining vital dye kits from Molecular Probes (stain live and dead parasites) were conducted to assess the viability of untreated, heat-killed, and chemically inactivated Giardia muris cysts. Nucleic acid staining results were compared to those of in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Nucleic acid stain, designated as SYTO-9, was considered the best among the single-staining dyes for its ability to stain dead cysts brightly and its relatively slow decay rate of visible light emission following DNA binding. SYTO-9 staining was correlated to animal infectivity. A Live/Dead BacLight was found to be the better of 2 double-staining viability kits tested. Logarithmic survival ratios based on SYTO-9 and Live/Dead BacLight were compared to excystation and infectivity results for G. muris cysts exposed to ozone or free chlorine. The results indicate that SYTO-9 and Live/Dead BacLight staining is stable following treatment of cysts with chemical disinfectants.

  5. Comparison of animal infectivity and excystation as measures of Giardia muris cyst inactivation by chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, J C; Rice, E W; Schaefer, F W

    1985-01-01

    In this study, in vitro excystation and mouse infectivity were compared as methods for quantitatively determining the viability of Giardia muris cysts before and after exposure to free residual chlorine. The mouse infectivity results show that very few cysts (1 to 15) constitute an infectious dose. The results of the inactivation studies indicate that in vitro excystation is an adequate indication of G. muris cyst infectivity for the host and can be used to determine the effects of disinfecta...

  6. Antiparasitic activity of diallyl trisulfide (Dasuansu) on human and animal pathogenic protozoa (Trypanosoma sp., Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Z R; Burri, C; Menzinger, M; Kaminsky, R

    1994-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and one of its major components, allicin, have been known to have antibacterial and antifungal activity for a long time. Diallyl trisulfide is a chemically stable final transformation product of allicin which was synthesized in 1981 in China and used for treatment of bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections in man. The activity of diallyl trisulfide was investigated in several important protozoan parasites in vitro. The IC50 (concentration which inhibits metabolism or growth of parasites by 50%) for Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T.b. rhodesiense, T.b. gambiense, T. evansi, T. congolense and T. equiperdum was in the range of 0.8-5.5 micrograms/ml. IC50 values were 59 micrograms/ml for Entamoeba histolytica and 14 micrograms/ml for Giardia lamblia. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated on two fibroblast cell lines (MASEF, Mastomys natalensis embryo fibroblast and HEFL-12, human embryo fibroblast) in vitro. The maximum tolerated concentration for both cell lines was 25 micrograms/ml. The results indicate that the compound has potential to be used for treatment of several human and animal parasitic diseases.

  7. [Experimental model of activated Lamblia (Giardia) muris infection in albino mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irikov, O A; Kovalenko, F P

    2007-01-01

    Experimental L. muris infection was reproduced in 100% of the intact albino mice intragastrically given levomycin in an average total dose of 15.88-34.84 or 0.88-1.02 g/kg for 18-34 days. With levomycin administration, the intensity of giardiasis was 1121.6-8540.1 (mean 4830.9) thousand L. muris trophozoites per animal. The total number of trophozoites per animal decreased to 302.2-3481.4 (mean 1546.4) thousand and 28.1-324.0 (mean 109.4) thousand specimens 5-8 and 11-13 days after discontinuation of the antibiotic, respectively. The maximum number of L. muris trophozoites was observed in the proximal and middle portions of the murine small intestine during and after the administration oflevomycin. The highest isolation of cysts was seen 12-14 days after the initiation of administration of the antibiotic. Following 8-10 days of terminations of a course of levomycin therapy the native smear of animal feces showed no Lamblia cysts. In mice with activated infection, the isolation rate of Lamblia cysts was directly related to the intensity of intestinal infection with trophozoites of the parasite.

  8. Identification of Giardia lamblia and the human infectious-species of Cryptosporidium in drinking water resources in Western Saudi Arabia by nested-PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawash, Y; Ghonaim, M; Hussein, Y; Alhazmi, A; Alturkistani, A

    2015-06-01

    The presence of Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in drinking water represents a major public health problem. This study was the first report concerned with the occurrence of these protozoa in drinking water in Saudi Arabia. The study was undertaken in Al-Taif, a high altitude region, Western Saudi Arabia. Eight underground wells water, six desalinated water and five domestic brands of bottled water samples, 10 liter each, were monthly collected between May 2013 and April 2014. All samples (n = 228), were processed using an automated wash/elution station (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.). Genomic DNA was directly isolated and purified from samples concentrates with QIAamp® Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen). The target protozoan DNA sequences were amplified using two previously published nested-PCR protocols. Of all the analyzed water, 31 samples (≈14%) were found contaminated with the target protozoa. Giardia lamblia was detected in ≈10% (7/72) of desalinated water and in ≈9% (9/96) of wells water. On the other hand, Cryptosporidium was identified in ≈8% (8/72) of desalinated water and in ≈7% (7/96) of wells water. All bottled water samples (n = 60) were (oo)cysts-free. Protozoan (oo)cysts were more frequently identified in water samples collected in the spring than in other seasons. The methodology established in our study proved sensitive, cost-effective and is amenable for future automation or semi-automation. For better understanding of the current situation that represent an important health threat to the local inhabitants, further studies concerned with (oo)cyst viability, infectivity, concentration and genotype identification are recommended.

  9. Localizing Proteins in Fixed Giardia lamblia and Live Cultured Mammalian Cells by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Skalli, Omar; Estraño, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with a construct encoding a protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein tag allows live cell studies of the subcellular localization of that protein and the monitoring in real time of its trafficking. Immunostaining methods for confocal fluorescence microscopy are also faster and less involved than those for EM allowing rapid optimization of the antibody dilution needed and a determination of whether protein antigenicity is maintained under fixation conditions used for EM immunogold labeling. This chapter details a method to determine by confocal fluorescence microscopy the intracellular localization of a protein by transfecting the organism of interest, in this case Giardia lamblia, with the cDNA encoding the protein of interest and then processing these organisms for double label immunofluorescence staining after chemical fixation. Also presented is a method to identify the organelle targeting information in the presequence of a precursor protein, in this case the presequence of the precursor to the Euglena light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II precursor (pLHCPII), using live cell imaging of mammalian COS7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding a pLHCPII presequence fluorescent protein fusion and stained with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes.

  10. Structure-activity studies of dicationically substituted bis-benzimidazoles against Giardia lamblia: correlation of antigiardial activity with DNA binding affinity and giardial topoisomerase II inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C A; Dykstra, C C; Naiman, N A; Cory, M; Fairley, T A; Tidwell, R R

    1993-01-01

    Nine dicationically substituted bis-benzimidazoles were examined for their in vitro activities against Giardia lamblia WB (ATCC 30957). The potential mechanisms of action of these compounds were evaluated by investigating the relationship among in vitro antigiardial activity and the affinity of the molecules for DNA and their ability to inhibit the activity of giardial topoisomerase II. Each compound demonstrated antigiardial activity, as measured by assessing the incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine by giardial trophozoites exposed to the test agents. Three compounds exhibited excellent in vitro antigiardial activities, with 50% inhibitory concentrations which compared very favorably with those of two currently used drugs, quinacrine HCl and metronidazole. Putative mechanisms of action for these compounds were suggested by the strong correlation observed among in vitro antigiardial activity and the affinity of the molecules for natural and synthetic DNA and their ability to inhibit the relaxation activity of giardial topoisomerase II. A strong correlation between the DNA binding affinity of these compounds and their inhibition of giardial topoisomerase II activity was also observed. Images PMID:8109934

  11. A systematic review of the effects of Iranian pharmaceutical plant extracts on Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a systematic review regarding anti-Giardia effect of different Iranian plant extracts used in vivo and in vitro on cysts and trophozoites. Many reports indicated that most of plant extracts used as anti-Giardia were obtained from Liliaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Myrtaceae. These extracts included different fractions such as aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform extracts as well as Soxhlet extraction of juice or essence. The findings of this review showed that hydroalcoholic extract of asafoetida, Chenopodium botrys, and chloroformic extract of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium have the maximum effect (100% efficacy on in vitro application against Giardia. However, the highest in vivo effect of 100% therapeutic significance was recorded for the extract of Allium sativum at 80 mg/mL concentration. Given the plant species richness of Iran in terms of herbal medicines with fewer side effects, it can be a good alternative to chemical drugs used to treat giardiasis.

  12. Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserue, Hans-Anton; Füchslin, Hans Peter; Egli, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an important waterborne pathogen and is among the most common intestinal parasites of humans worldwide. Its fecal-oral transmission leads to the presence of cysts of this pathogen in the environment, and so far, quantitative rapid screening methods are not available for various matrices, such as surface waters, wastewater, or food. Thus, it is necessary to establish methods that enable reliable rapid detection of a single cyst in 10 to 100 liters of drinking water. Conventional detection relies on cyst concentration, isolation, and confirmation by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM), resulting in low recoveries and high detection limits. Many different immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedures have been developed for separation and cyst purification, so far with variable but high losses of cysts. A method was developed that requires less than 100 min and consists of filtration, resuspension, IMS, and flow cytometric (FCM) detection. MACS MicroBeads were used for IMS, and a reliable flow cytometric detection approach was established employing 3 different parameters for discrimination from background signals, i.e., green and red fluorescence (resulting from the distinct pattern emitted by the fluorescein dye) and sideward scatter for size discrimination. With spiked samples, recoveries exceeding 90% were obtained, and false-positive results were never encountered for negative samples. Additionally, the method was applicable to naturally occurring cysts in wastewater and has the potential to be automated. PMID:21685159

  13. Assessment of Iodine-treated Filter Media for Removal and Inactivation of MS2 Bacteriophase Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    adding chloramine - T to similar concentrations of K131I in water achieved fast and efficient incorporation of the small amount of 131I into human...Triiodide Demand-Type Disinfectant . Appl Environ Microbiol 44, 1370–1373. Foarde, K. K. and James, T . H. (2001) Determine the efficacy of antimicrobial...Fina, G. T . (1983) Effect of Resin disinfectants I3 and I5 on Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia. Appl Environ Microbiol 46, 965–969. Marchin, G. L

  14. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.

  15. Modellering van de verwijdering van Cryptosporidium parvum,Giardia lamblia en enterovirussen in spaarbekkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratsak CH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    De protozoa Cryptosporidium en Giardia hebben de laatste decennia in de Verenigde Staten en in Groot-Brittannie een aanzienlijk aantal grote en kleine epidemieen van maag-darminfecties via drinkwater veroorzaakt. Wiskundige modellen kunnen worden gebruikt om de verwijdering van pathogene

  16. Evaluation of fenbendazole for treatment of Giardia infection in cats concurrently infected with Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Carey L; Radecki, Steven V; Lappin, Michael R

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether fenbendazole effectively eliminates Giardia organisms from chronically infected cats that have a concurrent Cryptosporidium parvum infection. 16 clinically normal cats. Eight cats with chronic concurrent Giardia and C parvum infections received fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 5 days (treatment-group cats). Feces from each cat were collected and processed 3 days weekly for 23 days after treatment. By use of an immunofluorescent assay for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts and C parvum oocysts, organism numbers were counted and scored. Fecal results from treatment-group cats were compared with those of 8 untreated cats with Giardia infection but no C parvum infection (control-group cats). Four of 8 treatment-group cats had consistently negative results for Giardia infection after treatment. These 4 cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts prior to treatment and consistently negative results after treatment. One treatment-group cat had positive results for cysts on all fecal samples, and 3 treatment-group cats had 1 to 3 negative results and then resumed shedding large numbers of cysts; each of these cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts. When compared with control-group cats, treatment-group cats shed less Giardia cysts during week 1 after treatment but not during week 2. Administration of fenbendazole decreases Giardia cyst shedding to less than detectable numbers in some cats. In our study, persistent C parvum infection may have been associated with failure of fenbendazole to eliminate Giardia infection.

  17. Occurrence and genotype characterization of Giardia duodenalis in goat kids from the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Antonio; Foronda, Pilar; González, Jorge F; Guedes, Aránzazu; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Molina, José M; Valladares, Basilio

    2008-06-14

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is a wide-spread intestinal protozoa of both humans and animals. Although giardiosis in goat is commonly asymptomatic, young kids may bear an enteric disease associated with persistent diarrhoea and delayed weight gain. In the present study we have analysed the occurrence of Giardia in 315 young goat kids (2-6 months old) from Gran Canaria Island (Spain) through visualization of faecal cysts. The identification of genotypes of G. duodenalis among the farms was attained by nested PCR of the triophosphate isomerase (TPI) and single PCR of beta-giardin genes and subsequent sequencing. Positive samples were found in 42.2% of the animals and 95.5% of the farms. Goat faecal specimens were positive for only livestock-associated G. duodenalis assemblage E genotype for both TPI and beta-giardin genes. The genetic analysis of these two loci revealed the presence of different haplotypes among the farms included in the survey and high homology with homologous genes from cattle and sheep. Altogether, the data presented here provide additional information to the prevalence and genetic characterization of Giardia isolates. The absence of assemblages A and B in this study suggests that zoonotic transmission of Giardia from goats could be of low epidemiological significance, although these findings should be validated in studies including other geographical areas, age groups and larger number of samples.

  18. [Investigation on contamination of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water in Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi-Xian, N I; Ming-Xue, S; Xiang-Zhen, X U; Xiao-Ting, W; Yang, D; Xiao-Lin, J

    2017-05-17

    Objective To know the contamination status of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for producing hygiene and safety drinking water. Methods A total of 28 water plants of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province were selected, and the source water (10 L), chlorinated water (100 L) and tap water (100 L) were collected separately in each site. The water samples were then treated by filtration, washing, centrifuging concentration, immune magnetic separation, and immunofluorescent assay, to detect the numbers of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Results Totally 84 samples from 13 cities were collected, including 28 source water, 28 chlorinated water and 28 tap water samples. Among the chlorinated water and tap water samples, no Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were found. However, Giardia cysts were detected in 3 (10.71%, 3/28) source water samples (Yancheng, Lianyungang, Changzhou cities), with the density of 1 cyst/10 L of all. Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in 3 (10.71%, 3/28) source water samples (Nanjing, Zhenjiang, Yangzhou cities), with the density of 1 oocyst/10 L of all. Conclusions The source water in partial areas of Jiangsu Province has been contaminated by Giardia and Cryptosporidium . To ensure the safety of drinking, the regulation of source water and surveillance of drinking water should be strengthened.

  19. Giardia muris trophozoite antigenic targets for mouse intestinal IgA antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, M F; Vergara, J A

    1994-02-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize Giardia muris trophozoite proteins that are targets for intestinal anti-trophozoite IgA in G. muris-infected mice. Intestinal secretions were obtained from immunocompetent BALB/c mice that had been infected with G. muris cysts 4-5 weeks previously and from control uninfected BALB/c mice. Flow cytometry of G. muris trophozoites that had been incubated with intestinal secretions and with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-mouse IgA showed that anti-trophozoite IgA was present in intestinal secretions obtained from infected BALB/c mice. By immunoblotting on G. muris trophozoite proteins separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, this IgA recognized at least one trophozoite protein of molecular mass of approximately 80 kDa. The 80-kDa G. muris protein(s) has a molecular mass similar to that described for cysteine-rich surface proteins of the human parasite Giardia lamblia.

  20. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gil Ruiz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios

  1. Inactivation of microorganisms in treated municipal wastewater and biosolids by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Increasing growth of the world's population, waste minimization policies and agricultural needs make the recycling of domestic wastewater quite a desirable practice. Factors like environmental and public health risks must be taken into account when considering treated wastewater for field irrigation and biosolids for land application. Pathogens present in wastewater and biosolids may remain active after treatment and there is always a great risk of transmission of infections via consuming crop and vegetables. Therefore it is very important to treat domestic wastewater properly before using it as an irrigation water and as a fertilizer. The work reported herein represents an evaluation of the variations in the population densities of below indicated pathogens monitored during a one year study in Ankara Central Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, and the efficiency of gamma irradiation for the inactivation of these important waterborne pathogens. Parasitological investigation Treated wastewater and biosolids - Cryptosporidium sp. - Giardia lamblia - Entamoeba histolytica - Cyclospora cayetanensis - Helminth ova Bacteriological investigation Treated wastewater - Total coliforms - Salmonella sp. - Fecal streptococci - Enterococcus sp. Biosolids - Fecal coliforms - Salmonella sp. (Includes 12 tables, 16 figures)

  2. Detection of small number of Giardia in biological materials prepared from stray dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailikia, Leila; Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Shayan, Parviz; Amininia, Narges

    2017-12-20

    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoa with intermittent and low shedding especially in dogs, and the detection of Giardia is accompanied with problems such as sampling and diagnostic method. The objective of this study was to detection of Giardia in biological materials with low number of parasite using parasitological and molecular methods, and also to determine whether the examined stray dogs harbor known zoonotic genotype of Giardia. For this aim 85 fecal and duodenal samples were studied from which 1 was positive by Trichrome staining of stool, 4 were positive by staining of duodenal samples. The nested PCR analysis with primers derived from 18 SrRNA showed that the specific PCR product could be amplified in 4 stool and 4 duodenal samples. All positive samples in staining analysis were also positive in nested PCR. No amplification could be observed by nested PCR with primers derived from β giardin gene due to the single copy of gene. Interestingly, the extracted DNA from old fixed stained Giardia positive smears could be also amplified with primers derived from 18SrRNA gene. The sequence analysis of nested PCR products showed that they belong to the genotype D. In conclusion, it is to denote that the Trichrome or Giemsa methods were not suitable for the detection of small number of this parasite in stool and the nested PCR with primers derived from 18S rRNA gene can replace the traditional methods successfully. For detection of Giardia in stool, primers derived from β giardin will not be recommended.

  3. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Cotton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host’s immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed.

  4. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 5. Infectious Organisms of Military Concern Associated with Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks, and Recommendations for Establishing Related Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    influence duration, incidence, and severity of giardiasis.44 Acquired resistance in mice to Giardia muris has been demonstrated. 4 2 ’ 4 5 Human milk...ntaamoeba histoletica ........ ....................... 65 Giardia lamblia ............. ......................... 66 Summary- Ri•k-Assessment Results...Concentration in the Environment ......... .................. .. 227 References ................. ............................ .. 228 2. Giardia lamblia

  5. Disinfection and regrowth potential of bacillus subtilis spores by ozone, ultraviolet rays and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Yeon; Lee, O Mi; Kim, Tae Hun; Lee, Myun Joo; Yu, Seung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Chlorination has been the most commonly adopted disinfection process for the treatment of drinking water. However, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts were not treated effectively by the common chlorine-based disinfectants. Additionally the regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms is associated with hygienic and aesthetic problems for the consumers of drinking water. Study on alternative disinfection processes such as ozone, UV-C, VUV and gamma irradiation were conducted. Bacillus subtilis spores have been used as a surrogate microorganism for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cyst. Inactivation efficiency by ozone was from 30% to 96% within the range of 5 min to 120 min exposures. Inactivation efficiencies by UV-C and VUV were 95.18%, 95.07% at 30 sec, respectively. Inactivation efficiency at gamma irradiation dose of 2 kGy was 99.4%. Microbial regrowths after ozone, UV-C, VUV and gamma irradiation disinfections were also evaluated for 4 days. Bacillus subtilis spores after ozone treatment for 120 min exposure at the rate of 1.68 mg {center_dot} min{sup -1} showed 96.02% disinfection efficiency and significant microbial regrowth. Bacillus subtilis spores after UV-C (99.25% disinfection efficiency) and VUV (99.67% disinfection efficiency) treatments for 5 min showed gradual regrowth. However, inactivation efficiency of gamma irradiation at dose of 1 kGy was 98.8% and the disinfected sample showed no microbial regrowth for 4 days. Therefore, gamma irradiation is the most effective process for the disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms such as oocysts of protozoan parasites among four disinfection process.

  6. Disinfection and regrowth potential of bacillus subtilis spores by ozone, ultraviolet rays and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Yeon; Lee, O Mi; Kim, Tae Hun; Lee, Myun Joo; Yu, Seung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Chlorination has been the most commonly adopted disinfection process for the treatment of drinking water. However, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts were not treated effectively by the common chlorine-based disinfectants. Additionally the regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms is associated with hygienic and aesthetic problems for the consumers of drinking water. Study on alternative disinfection processes such as ozone, UV-C, VUV and gamma irradiation were conducted. Bacillus subtilis spores have been used as a surrogate microorganism for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cyst. Inactivation efficiency by ozone was from 30% to 96% within the range of 5 min to 120 min exposures. Inactivation efficiencies by UV-C and VUV were 95.18%, 95.07% at 30 sec, respectively. Inactivation efficiency at gamma irradiation dose of 2 kGy was 99.4%. Microbial regrowths after ozone, UV-C, VUV and gamma irradiation disinfections were also evaluated for 4 days. Bacillus subtilis spores after ozone treatment for 120 min exposure at the rate of 1.68 mg · min -1 showed 96.02% disinfection efficiency and significant microbial regrowth. Bacillus subtilis spores after UV-C (99.25% disinfection efficiency) and VUV (99.67% disinfection efficiency) treatments for 5 min showed gradual regrowth. However, inactivation efficiency of gamma irradiation at dose of 1 kGy was 98.8% and the disinfected sample showed no microbial regrowth for 4 days. Therefore, gamma irradiation is the most effective process for the disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms such as oocysts of protozoan parasites among four disinfection process

  7. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The pulsed light inactivation of veterinary relevant microbial biofilms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia attach to biofilms in large numbers (100-1000 oo/cysts) in as little as 72 hours. Pulsed light successfully inactivated all test species (Listeria, Salmonella, Bacillus, Escherichia) in planktonic and biofilm form with an increase in inactivation for every increase in UV dose.

  9. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  10. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Fidel Ángel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  11. Giardia duodenalis infection reduces granulocyte infiltration in an in vivo model of bacterial toxin-induced colitis and attenuates inflammation in human intestinal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Cotton

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn's disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time

  12. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Barbara J; Palm, J E Daniel; Housley, Michael P; Smith, Jennifer R; Andersen, Yolanda S; Martin, Martin G; Hendrickson, Barbara A; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Svärd, Staffan G; Gillin, Frances D; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-11-01

    The polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) is conserved in mammals and has an avian homologue, suggesting evolutionarily important functions in vertebrates. It transports multimeric IgA and IgM across polarized epithelia and is highly expressed in the intestine, yet little direct evidence exists for its importance in defense against common enteric pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that pIgR can play a critical role in intestinal defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia, a leading cause of diarrheal disease. The receptor was essential for the eradication of Giardia when high luminal IgA levels were required. Clearance of Giardia muris, in which IgA plays a dominant role, was severely compromised in pIgR-deficient mice despite significant fecal IgA output at 10% of normal levels. In contrast, eradication of the human strain Giardia lamblia GS/M, for which adaptive immunity is less IgA dependent in mice, was unaffected by pIgR deficiency, indicating that pIgR had no physiologic role when lower luminal IgA levels were sufficient for parasite elimination. Immune IgA was greatly increased in the serum of pIgR-deficient mice, conferred passive protection against Giardia, and recognized several conserved giardial Ags, including ornithine carbamoyltransferase, arginine deiminase, alpha-enolase, and alpha- and beta-giardins, that are also detected in human giardiasis. Corroborative observations were made in mice lacking the J chain, which is required for pIgR-dependent transepithelial IgA transport. These results, together with prior data on pIgR-mediated immune neutralization of luminal cholera toxin, suggest that pIgR is essential in intestinal defense against pathogenic microbes with high-level and persistent luminal presence.

  13. Division of Giardia isolates from humans into two genetically distinct assemblages by electrophoretic analysis of enzymes encoded at 27 loci and comparison with Giardia muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, G; Andrews, R H; Ey, P L; Chilton, N B

    1995-07-01

    Giardia that infect humans are known to be heterogeneous but they are assigned currently to a single species, Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia). The genetic differences that exist within G. intestinalis have not yet been assessed quantitatively and neither have they been compared in magnitude with those that exist between G. intestinalis and species that are morphologically similar (G. duodenalis) or morphologically distinct (e.g. G. muris). In this study, 60 Australian isolates of G. intestinalis were analysed electrophoretically at 27 enzyme loci and compared with G. muris and a feline isolate of G. duodenalis. Isolates of G. intestinalis were distinct genetically from both G. muris (approximately 80% fixed allelic differences) and the feline G. duodenalis isolate (approximately 75% fixed allelic differences). The G. intestinalis isolates were extremely heterogeneous but they fell into 2 major genetic assemblages, separated by fixed allelic differences at approximately 60% of loci examined. The magnitude of the genetic differences between the G. intestinalis assemblages approached the level that distinguished the G. duodenalis isolate from the morphologically distinct G. muris. This raises important questions about the evolutionary relationships of the assemblages with Homo sapiens, the possibility of ancient or contemporary transmission from animal hosts to humans and the biogeographical origins of the two clusters.

  14. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  15. Debaryomyces hansenii: A Model System for Marine Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    bisexualts and Ochromonas danica (Gunderson et al. 1987), Prorocerarum micans (Herzog and Maroteaux, 1986), Crypthecodinium cohnii and Saccocystis muris ...Dicdyostelium discoideum(McCaroll et al. 1983), Physarum polycephatun (Johansen et al. 1988), Giardia lamblia (Sogin et al. 1989), Suijflobus...Physanum polycephalum , Giardia lamblia , and .ulfolobu soljbnicus used as outgroups). The relationships of the ciliates, the apicomplexans, and the

  16. Unique phylogenetic position of Diplomonadida based on the complete small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence of Giardia ardeae, G. muris, G. duodenalis and Hexamita sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, H; Gutell, R R; Gates, M A; Campbell, S R; Erlandsen, S L; Jarroll, E L; Kulda, J; Meyer, E A

    1993-01-01

    Complete small-subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) coding region sequences were determined for two species of the intestinal parasite Giardia: G. ardeae and G. muris, both belonging to the order Diplomonadida, and a free-living member of this order, Hexamita sp. These sequences were compared to published SSU-rDNA sequences from a third member of the genus Giardia, G. duodenalis (often called G. intestinalis or G. lamblia) and various representative organisms from other taxa. Of the three Giardia sequences analyzed, the SSU-rRNA from G. muris is the smallest (1432 bases as compared to 1435 and 1453 for G. ardeae and G. duodenalis, respectively) and has the lowest G+C content (58.9%). The Hexamita SSU-rRNA is the largest in this group, containing 1550 bases. Because the sizes of the SSU-rRNA are prokaryotic rather than typically eukaryotic, the secondary structures of the SSU-rRNAs were constructed. These structures show a number of typically eukaryotic signature sequences. Sequence alignments based on constraints imposed by secondary structure were used for construction of a phylogenetic tree for these four taxa. The results show that of the four diplomonads represented, the Giardia species form a distinct group. The other diplomonad Hexamita and the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix appear to be distinct from Giardia.

  17. Changes in intestinal fluid and mucosal immune responses to cholera toxin in Giardia muris infection and binding of cholera toxin to Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungström, I; Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A M; Ferrante, A

    1985-10-01

    The effect of Giardia muris infection on the diarrheal response and gut mucosal antibody response to cholera toxin was examined in mice. The results obtained showed that the fluid accumulation in intestinal loops exposed to cholera toxin was increased in mice infected with a low number (5 X 10(4) ) of G. muris cysts compared with the response in noninfected mice. This effect was associated with a marked reduction in absorption of oral rehydration fluid from the intestine. In contrast, mice infected with a high dose (2 X 10(5) ) of cysts showed a marked decrease in fluid accumulation in response to the toxin. This decrease might be related to the finding that both G. muris and Giardia lamblia trophozoites can bind significant amounts of cholera toxin. Evidence is presented which suggests that the gut mucosal antibody response, mainly immunoglobulin A but also immunoglobulin G, to an immunization course with perorally administered cholera toxin was depressed in mice infected with G. muris. The reduction in antibody levels was particularly evident when the primary immunization was made very early after infection. The serum antitoxin antibodies to the oral immunization with cholera toxin were, however, not affected. Likewise, the delayed-type hypersensitivity response against sheep erythrocytes in animals primed subcutaneously with sheep erythrocytes was not modified during the course of G. muris infection.

  18. Developmental changes in the adhesive disk during Giardia differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Daniel; Weiland, Malin; McArthur, Andrew G; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Cipriano, Michael J; Birkeland, Shanda R; Pacocha, Sarah E; Davids, Barbara; Gillin, Frances; Linder, Ewert; Svärd, Staffan

    2005-06-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite infecting the upper mammalian small intestine. Infection relies upon the ability of the parasite to attach to the intestine via a unique cytoskeletal organelle, the ventral disk. We determined the composition and structure of the disk throughout the life cycle of the parasite and identified a new disk protein, SALP-1. SALP-1 is an immunodominant protein related to striated fiber-assemblin (SFA). The disk is disassembled during encystation and stored as four fragments in the immobile cyst. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) showed that the mRNA levels of the disk proteins decreased in encystation but two-dimensional protein gels showed that the protein levels were more constant. The parasite emerges without a functional disk but the four disk fragments are quickly reassembled into two new disks on the dividing, early excysting form. Thus, disk proteins are stored within the cyst, ready to be used in the rapid steps of excystation.

  19. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites

    OpenAIRE

    Sogayar,Maria Inês L.; Gregório,Elisa Aparecida

    1989-01-01

    Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the dis...

  20. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogayar, M I; Gregório, E A

    1989-01-01

    Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the distal extremity of the lateral flange is short and thick and the marginal plate does not penetrate into the distal extremity of the flange. In the Giardia muris group, the ventro-lateral flange is well developed and narrow and the marginal plate penetrates the distal extremity of the flange. The osmiophilic lamella, which accompanies the dorsal surface of the marginal plate is seen only in the Giardia muris group.

  1. Cloning and restriction enzyme mapping of ribosomal DNA of Giardia duodenalis, Giardia ardeae and Giardia muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, H; Campbell, S R; Erlandsen, S L; Jarroll, E L

    1991-06-01

    In an attempt to study Giardia at the DNA sequence level, the rRNA genes of three species, Giardia duodenalis, Giardia ardeae and Giardia muris were cloned and restriction enzyme maps were constructed. The rDNA repeats of these Giardia show completely different restriction enzyme recognition patterns. The size of the rDNA repeat ranges from approximately 5.6 kb in G. duodenalis to 7.6 kb in both G. muris and G. ardeae. These size differences are mainly attributable to the variation in length of the spacer. Minor differences exist among these Giardia in the sizes of their small subunit rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer between small and large subunit rRNA. The genetic maps were constructed by sequence analysis of the DNA around the 5' and 3' ends of the mature rRNA genes and between the rRNA covering the 5.8S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer. Comparison of the 5.8S rDNA and 3' end of large subunit rDNA from these three Giardia species showed considerable sequence variation, but the rDNA sequences of G. duodenalis and G. ardeae appear more closely related to each other than to G. muris.

  2. Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups: ultrastructural differences between the trophozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês L. Sogayar

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Trophozoites of the Giardia muris group from hamsters, domestic rats and mice and of the Giardia duodenalis group from hamsters and domestic rats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The basic ultrastructure of the trophozoites was similar. Differences were shown in the morphology of the ventrolateral flange of the trophozoites of Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis groups. Marginal plates are less developed in the species of the Giardia duodenalis group. In this group, the distal extremity of the lateral flange is short and thick and the marginal plate does not penetrate into the distal extremity of the flange. In the Giardia muris group, the ventro-lateral flange is well developed and narrow and the marginal plate penetrates the distal extremity of the flange. The osmiophilic lamella, which accompanies the dorsal surface of the marginal plate is seen only in the Giardia muris group.

  3. Study of sequential disinfection for the inactivation of protozoa and indicator microorganisms in wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Corrêa Medeiros

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sewage disinfection has the primary objective of inactivating pathogenic organisms to prevent the dissemination of waterborne diseases. This study analyzed individual disinfection, with chlorine and ultraviolet radiation, and sequential disinfection (chlorine-UV radiation. The tests were conducted with anaerobic effluent in batch, in laboratory scale, with two dosages of chlorine (10 and 20 mg L-1 and UV (2.5 and 6.1 Wh m-3. In addition, to guarantee the presence of cysts in the tests, 104 cysts per liter of Giardia spp. were inoculated. The resistance order was as follows: E. coli = Total Coliforms < Clostridium perfringens < Giardia spp.. Furthermore, synergistic effects reached 0.06 to 1.42 log of inactivation in sequential disinfection for both the most resistant microorganisms.

  4. Immunological aspects of Giardia infections

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    Heyworth Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-specific and invariant proteins. Nitric oxide (NO appears to contribute to host clearance of Giardia trophozoites. Arginine is a precursor of NO and is metabolised by Giardia trophozoites, possibly reducing its availability for generation of NO by the host. Work with mice suggests that T lymphocytes and interleukin-6 (IL-6 contribute to clearance of Giardia infection via mechanisms independent of antibodies.

  5. Immunological aspects of Giardia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-specific) and invariant proteins. Nitric oxide (NO) appears to contribute to host clearance of Giardia trophozoites. Arginine is a precursor of NO and is metabolised by Giardia trophozoites, possibly reducing its availability for generation of NO by the host. Work with mice suggests that T lymphocytes and interleukin-6 (IL-6) contribute to clearance of Giardia infection via mechanisms independent of antibodies. © M.F. Heyworth, published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  6. Immunological aspects of Giardia infections

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-spe...

  7. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue 10 Years After Giardia Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litleskare, Sverre; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Hanevik, Kurt; Langeland, Nina; Wensaas, Knut-Arne

    2018-03-06

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complication that can follow gastrointestinal infection, but it is not clear if patients also develop chronic fatigue. We investigated the prevalence and odds ratio of IBS and chronic fatigue 10 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia, compared with a control cohort, and changes in prevalence over time. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 1252 laboratory-confirmed cases of giardiasis (exposed), which developed in Bergen, Norway in 2004. Statistics Norway provided us with information from 2504 unexposed individuals from Bergen, matched by age and sex (controls). Questionnaires were mailed to participants 3, 6, and 10 years after the outbreak. Results from the 3- and 6-year follow-up analyses have been published previously. We report the 10-year data and changes in prevalence among time points, determined by logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. The prevalence of IBS 10 years after the outbreak was 43% (n = 248) among 576 exposed individuals and 14% (n = 94) among 685 controls (adjusted odds ratio for development of IBS in exposed individuals, 4.74; 95% CI, 3.61-6.23). At this time point, the prevalence of chronic fatigue was 26% (n = 153) among 587 exposed individuals and 11% (n = 73) among 692 controls (adjusted odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.22-4.08). The prevalence of IBS among exposed persons did not change significantly from 6 years after infection (40%) to 10 years after infection (43%; adjusted odds ratio for the change 1.03; 95% CI, 0.87-1.22). However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased from 31% at 6 years after infection to 26% at 10 years after infection (adjusted odds ratio for the change 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90). The prevalence of IBS did not change significantly from 6 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia infection in Norway to 10 years after. However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased significantly from 6 to 10 years afterward. IBS and chronic fatigue were

  8. Novel lineages of Giardia intestinalis identified by genetic analysis of organisms isolated from dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monis, P T; Andrews, R H; Mayrhofer, G; Mackrill, J; Kulda, J; Isaac-Renton, J L; Ey, P L

    1998-01-01

    Infection of suckling mice with Giardia trophozoites recovered from the intestines of 11 dogs autopsied in Central and Southern Australia in each case produced an established isolate. In contrast, only 1 isolate was obtained by inoculation of faecal cysts. The organisms grew poorly in comparison with isolates from humans or non-canine animal hosts. Light microscopy revealed that the trophozoites had median bodies with the 'claw hammer' appearance typical of G. intestinalis (syn. G. duodenalis, G. lamblia) but that they differed in shape and nuclear morphology from axenic isolates of human or canine origin. Allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data representing 26 loci and phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences obtained from DNA amplified from the glutamate dehydrogenase locus showed that the 11 isolates examined from Australian dogs were genetically distinct from all isolates of G. intestinalis that have been established previously from humans and animals, and also from G. muris. Both analytical methods placed 10 of the Australian canine isolates into a unique genetic lineage (designated Assemblage C) and the eleventh into a deep-rooted second branch (designated Assemblage D), each well separated from the 2 lineages (Assemblages A and B) of G. intestinalis that encompass all the genotypes known to infect humans. In contrast, 4 axenic isolates derived from dogs in Canada and Europe (the only other isolates to have been established from dogs) have genotypes characteristic of genetic Assemblages A or B. The findings indicate that the novel Giardia identified in these rural Australian dogs have a restricted host range, possibly confined to canine species. The poor success rate in establishing Giardia from dogs in vitro suggests, further, that similar genotypes may predominate as canine parasites world-wide. The absence of such organisms among isolates of Giardia that have been established from humans by propagation in suckling mice indicates that they are

  9. Studies of Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-05

    isoenzyme analysis of 19 axenic strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in Mexico . Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 83 : 644-646...antibody studies with agents of Varicella and Herpes Zoster propagated in vitro. Proe. Soc. Exptl. BioI. Med . 86 :7 89-794. Woo, P. and G.S. Panayi

  10. Long-Term Survival of Enteric Microorganisms in Frozen Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    sewage.............31 Table 12. Percentage of cysts of Giardia muris recovered after one and three cycles of freezing and thawing...of Giardia muris and Giardia lamblia that had been subjected to one to three cycles of freezing at –16°C and thawing at 20°C. Examination Long-Term... Giardia muris recovered after one and three cycles of freezing and thawing. (From Erlandsen et al. 1990.)a Number of freeze–thaw cycles Initial

  11. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States. The parasites are found in backcountry streams and lakes but also in municipal water supplies, swimming pools, whirlpool spas and wells. Giardia infection can be transmitted through food and person-to-person contact. Giardia ...

  12. Giardia muris infection in mice is associated with a protective interleukin 17A response and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Leentje; De Bosscher, Karolien; Grit, Grietje; Staels, Bart; Lubberts, Erik; Bauge, Eric; Geldhof, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia) is one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in mammals, including humans. In the current study, a Giardia muris-mouse model was used to analyze cytokine transcription patterns and histological changes in intestinal tissue at different time points during infection in C57BL/6 mice. Since earlier work revealed the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in Giardia-infected calves, a second aim was to investigate the potential activation of PPARs in the intestines of infected mice. The most important observation in all mice was a strong upregulation of il17a starting around 1 week postinfection. The significance of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) in orchestrating a protective immune response was further demonstrated in an infection trial or experiment using IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) knockout (KO) mice: whereas in wild-type (WT) mice, cyst secretion dropped significantly after 3 weeks of infection, the IL-17RA KO mice were unable to clear the infection. Analysis of the intestinal response further indicated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) induction soon after the initial contact with the parasite, as characterized by the transcriptional upregulation of ppara itself and several downstream target genes such as pltp and cpt1. Overall, PPARα did not seem to have any influence on the immune response against G. muris, since PPARα KO animals expressed il-17a and could clear the infection similar to WT controls. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time the importance of IL-17 production in the clearance of a G. muris infection together with an early induction of PPARα. The effect of the latter, however, is still unclear. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. An Interactome-Centered Protein Discovery Approach Reveals Novel Components Involved in Mitosome Function and Homeostasis in Giardia lamblia.

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    Samuel Rout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis. Live cell imaging revealed a highly immobilized array of 30-40 physically distinct mitosome organelles in trophozoites. We provide direct evidence for the single giardial dynamin-related protein as a contributor to mitosomal morphogenesis and homeostasis. To overcome inherent limitations that have hitherto severely hampered the characterization of these unique organelles we applied a novel interaction-based proteome discovery strategy using forward and reverse protein co-immunoprecipitation. This allowed generation of organelle proteome data strictly in a protein-protein interaction context. We built an initial Tom40-centered outer membrane interactome by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, identifying small GTPases, factors with dual mitosome and endoplasmic reticulum (ER distribution, as well as novel matrix proteins. Through iterative expansion of this protein-protein interaction network, we were able to i significantly extend this interaction-based mitosomal proteome to include other membrane-associated proteins with possible roles in mitosome morphogenesis and connection to other subcellular compartments, and ii identify novel matrix proteins which may shed light on mitosome-associated metabolic functions other than Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Functional analysis also revealed conceptual conservation of protein

  14. Ghrelin and melatonin as biomarkers in patients with giardiasis

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    Saleem Khteer Al-Hadraawy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Giardia is the most frequently reported intestinal parasite worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the ghrelin, melatonin, glucose and cholesterol concentration in male patients infected with Giardia lamblia. We enrolled 66 patients with Giardiasis and the control groups consisted of healthy subjects (n = 30. The results demonstrated that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in ghrelin levels, while the melatonin, glucose and cholesterol levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05 in giardiasis patients as compared to the healthy group. The obtained results suggest that ghrelin and melatonin could serve as biomarkers in patients infected with G. lamblia.

  15. Epidemiology of equine Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, L; Herd, R P

    1994-01-01

    Prevalence and infection patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in horses were studied by a direct immunofluorescence staining method. Faecal examinations of 222 horses of different age groups revealed Cryptosporidium infection rates of 15-31% in 66 foals surveyed in central Ohio, southern Ohio and central Kentucky, USA. Only 1 of 39 weanlings, 0 of 46 yearlings, and 0 of 71 mares were positive. Giardia infection was found in all age groups, although the infection rates for foals were higher (17-35%). Chronological study of infection in 35 foals showed that foals started to excrete Cryptosporidium oocysts between 4 and 19 weeks and Giardia cysts between 2 and 22 weeks of age. The cumulative infection rates of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in foals were each 71%. Some foals were concurrently infected with both parasites and excretion of oocysts or cysts was intermittent and long-lasting. The longest duration of excretion was 14 weeks for Cryptosporidium and 16 weeks for Giardia. Excretion of Cryptosporidium oocysts stopped before weaning, while excretion of Giardia cysts continued thereafter. Infected foals were considered the major source of Cryptosporidium infection in foals, whereas infected mares were deemed the major source of Giardia infection in foals. The high infection rate of Giardia in nursing mares suggested a periparturient relaxation of immunity. The results indicated that Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections are common in horses.

  16. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vermicularis Entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba coli Giardia lamblia Endolimax nana Dientamoeba fragilis Iodamoeba... Diphyllobothrium latum Cryptosporidium sp. Plasmodium falciparum (3) For laboratories specified in paragraph (a)(1...

  17. [Chonic diarrhea and malabsorption due to common variable immunodeficiency, gastrectomy and giardiasis infection: a difficult nutritional management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-López, M E; González-molero, I; Ramírez-Plaza, C P; Soriguer, F; Olveira, G

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Surgery is the only potentially curative therapy, although the adverse effects of surgery are common and considerable. Common variable immunodeficiency is in many cases cause of gastrointestinal system problems such as chronic diarrhea caused by infestation with giardia lamblia, nodular lymphoid hiperplasia ad loss of villi leading frequently to malapsortion and malnutrition. Nutritional deficiencies due to malapsorption (postgastrectomy and secondary to loss of villi, giardiasis and common variable inmunodeficiency) are common. We present the case of a patient with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy with common variable hipogammaglobulinemia and chronic infestation by giardia lamblia, with serious diarrhea resistant to treatment and malabsorption.

  18. High-resolution electron microscopic evidence for the filamentous structure of the cyst wall in Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, S L; Bemrick, W J; Pawley, J

    1989-10-01

    High-resolution morphological studies of the cyst wall of Giardia spp. were performed using low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cyst wall was composed of membranous and filamentous layers. The membranous layer consisted of an inner and an outer cyst membrane separated by a thin layer of cytoplasm. The filamentous layer contained individual filaments that ranged from 7 to 20 nm in diameter when measured by LVSEM, formed a dense meshwork with branches or interconnections, and were occasionally arranged on the surface in whorled patterns. Cysts of Giardia muris from mice, Giardia duodenalis from dogs, pigs, voles, beavers, muskrats, and humans, and Giardia psittaci from a bird (parakeet), possessed an essentially identical wall composed of filaments. Inducement of excystation in viable Giardia cysts produced a dramatic increase in the interfilament spacing over an entire cyst, but none was observed in heat-killed or chemically fixed control cysts. These results demonstrated that the cyst wall of Giardia spp. was composed of a complex arrangement of filaments, presumably formed during the process of encystment.

  19. Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Antikainen, Jenni

    2017-01-01

    and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools. Methods: A real-time multiplex PCR method with internal inhibition control...... microscopy revealed a parasite in 15%, while PCR detected 62% positive for at least one parasite: 44% of the dried samples had Giardia, 23% Cryptosporidium and 0% E. histolytica. Conclusions: Our new multiplex real-time PCR for protozoa presents a sensitive method applicable to dried samples. As proof...

  20. Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais na cidade de Eirunepé, Amazonas Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in the city of Eirunepé, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fernández Araujo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, amostras de fezes de 413 pacientes e encontrada positividade em 266 (64,4% dos seguintes parasitas: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,6%; Trichuris trichiura (18,6%; Ancilostomídeos(9,9%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1%, Enterobius vermiculares (0,5%, e Entamoeba histolytica (13,3% e Giardia lamblia (1%.Samples of 413 patient were analyzed and positivity was found in 64.4% (266 of the exams. The intestinal parasites most prevalent were: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.6%; Trichuris trichiura (18.6%; Ancylostomides (9.9%; Strongyloides stercoralis (1%, Enterobius vermiculares (0,5%; Entamoeba histolytica (13.3% and Giardia lamblia (1%. The presence of varied degrees of anemia were detected in 39.8% of the exams.

  1. TLR2−/− Mice Display Decreased Severity of Giardiasis via Enhanced Proinflammatory Cytokines Production Dependent on AKT Signal Pathway

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    Xin Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia infection is one of the most common causes of waterborne diarrheal disease in a wide array of mammalian hosts, including humans globally. Although numerous studies have indicated that adaptive immune responses are important for Giardia defense, however, whether the host innate immune system such as TLRs recognizes Giardia remains poorly understood. TLR2 plays a crucial role in pathogen recognition, innate immunity activation, and the eventual pathogen elimination. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR2 as a non-protective inflammatory response on controlling the severity of giardiasis. RT-PCR analysis suggested that TLR2 expression was increased in vitro. We demonstrated that Giardia lamblia-induced cytokines expression by the activation of p38 and ERK pathways via TLR2. Interestingly, the expression of IL-12 p40, TNF-α, and IL-6, but not IFN-γ, was enhanced in TLR2-blocked and TLR2−/− mouse macrophages exposed to G. lamblia trophozoites compared with wild-type (WT mouse macrophages. Further analysis demonstrated that G. lamblia trophozoites reduced cytokines secretion by activating AKT pathway in WT mouse macrophages. Immunohistochemical staining in G. lamblia cysts infected TLR2−/− and WT mice showed that TLR2 was highly expressed in duodenum in infected WT mice. Also, infected TLR2−/− and AKT-blocked mice showed an increased production of IL-12 p40 and IFN-γ compared with infected WT mice at the early stage during infection. Interestingly, infected TLR2−/− and AKT-blocked mice displayed a decreased parasite burden, an increased weight gain rate, and short parasite persistence. Histological morphometry showed shortened villus length, hyperplastic crypt and decreased ratio of villus height/crypt depth in infected WT mice compared with in infected TLR2−/− and AKT-blocked mice. Together, our results suggested that TLR2 deficiency leads to alleviation of giardiasis and reduction of parasite burden through

  2. Giardia & Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Qual. 1999;28(6):1991-1996. DeRegnier DP, Cole L, Schupp DG, Erlandsen SL. Viability of Giardia ... updated: July 21, 2015 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and ...

  3. Inquérito parasitológico na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Parasitological survey at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednir Salata

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da prevalência de parasitas intestinais realizado em 370 indivíduos residentes na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, permitiu verificar que 41,62% encontravam-se infestados por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Foram encontrados os seguintes parasitas: Entamoeba histolytica 0,54%, E. coli 6,21%, I. butschlii 0,27%, Giardia lamblia 9,72%, Ancylostomidae 5,94%, Strongyloides stercoralis 6,75%, Trichuris trichiura 17,29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7,56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3,78%, Hymenolepis nana 5,40% e Taenia sp. 1,62%. Apresentam-se dados sobre a distribuição dos parasitas em relação à idade e ao sexo dos indivíduos. O atributo cor não permite maiores considerações por serem os não brancos significantemente pouco numerosos. Dos indivíduos examinados, 25,67% apresentavam apenas uma espécie de parasita e entre as associações parasitárias mais freqüentes encontramos as de Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris trichiura e Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.A parasitological survey among 370 persons was carried out at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil. It was found that 41.62% of the examinated persons were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. The parasite's prevalence was: Entamoeba hystolytica 0.54%, E. coli 6.21%, I. butschlii 0.27%, Giardia lamblia 9.72%, Ancylostomidae 5.94%, Strongyloide stercoralis 6.75%, Trichuris trichiura 17.29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7.56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3.78%, Hymenolepis nana 5.40% e Taenia sp. 1.62%. Tables are presented showing the distribution of the parasites according to age and sex. Race was not considered because the number of "not white" was significantly low. Of the examinated persons, 25.67% were infected with only one species of parasite and the parasitic associations most frequently found were Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris tricriura and Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.

  4. Hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Mrinmoy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of illness and death in developing countries and the second commonest cause of death due to infectious diseases among children under five in such countries. Parasites, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens, are important causes of diarrhoea. However, parasitic infections are sometimes overlooked, leading after a period of time to an uncertain aetiology. In this paper we report the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in and around Kolkata. Findings A hospital-based laboratory surveillance study was conducted among the patients admitted between November 2007 and October 2008 to the Infectious Diseases (ID Hospital (Population = 1103 with diarrhoeal complaints. Of the 1103 samples collected, 147 were positive for Giardia lamblia, 84 for Cryptosporidium sp. and 51 for Entamoeba histolytica. For all these parasites there was a high rate of mixed infection with common enteric viruses and bacteria such as Rotavirus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella sp. There were also cases of co-infection with all other diarrheogenic pathogens. The age group ≥ 5 years had the highest prevalence of parasites whereas the age group >5 – 10 years was predominantly infected with Giardia lamblia (p =10 – 20 years could also be considered at risk for G. lamblia (p = 0.009; OR = 2.231; 95% CI = 1.223 – 4.067. Month-wise occurrence data showed an endemic presence of G. lamblia whereas Cryptosporidium sp. and E. histolytica occurred sporadically. The GIS study revealed that parasites were more prevalent in areas such as Tangra, Tiljala and Rajarhat, which are mainly slum areas. Because most of the population surveyed was in the lower income group, consumption of contaminated water and food could be the major underlying cause of parasitic infestations. Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and distribution of three important intestinal

  5. Molecular characterization of Giardia psittaci by multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Makino, Ikuko; Kojima, Atsushi

    2012-12-01

    Multilocus sequence analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), elongation factor 1 alpha (ef1α), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and beta giardin (β-giardin) were performed on Giardia psittaci isolates from three Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates) and four Barred parakeets (Bolborhynchus lineola) kept in individual households or imported from overseas. Nucleotide differences and phylogenetic analyses at four loci indicate the distinction of G. psittaci from the other known Giardia species: Giardia muris, Giardia microti, Giardia ardeae, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages. Furthermore, G. psittaci was related more closely to G. duodenalis than to the other known Giardia species, except for G. microti. Conflicting signals regarded as "double peaks" were found at the same nucleotide positions of the ef1α in all isolates. However, the sequences of the other three loci, including gdh and β-giardin, which are known to be highly variable, from all isolates were also mutually identical at every locus. They showed no double peaks. These results suggest that double peaks found in the ef1α sequences are caused not by mixed infection with genetically different G. psittaci isolates but by allelic sequence heterogeneity (ASH), which is observed in diplomonad lineages including G. duodenalis. No sequence difference was found in any G. psittaci isolates at the gdh and β-giardin, suggesting that G. psittaci is indeed not more diverse genetically than other Giardia species. This report is the first to provide evidence related to the genetic characteristics of G. psittaci obtained using multilocus sequence analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Shigella and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... species, Vibrio cholera, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Aeromonas species), enteroparasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (adenovirus, Norwalk virus, and rotavirus) (5). Among the bacterial causative agents,. Salmonella and Shigella remain the major.

  7. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  8. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  9. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S

    2001-01-01

    In community-based studies conducted from 1991 to 1997 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, stool specimens from children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoea were routinely examined for enteric parasites. Cryptosporidium parvum, found in 7.7% of 4,922 samples, was the second most common parasite......, exceeded only by Giardia lamblia which was found in 14.8% of the samples. The highest prevalence of cryptosporidium was found in children aged 6-11 months, whereas the prevalence of other enteric parasites increased with age. Cryptosporidiosis showed a marked seasonal variation, with peak prevalences found...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  10. Intestinal parasitism in the United States: update on a continuing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, K D; Lundgren, R G; Juranek, D D; Roberts, J M; Spencer, H C

    1994-06-01

    To document patterns of intestinal parasitism in the United States, we analyzed results of 216,275 stool specimens examined by the state diagnostic laboratories in 1987; parasites were found in 20.0%. Percentages were highest for protozoans: Giardia lamblia (7.2%), Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (4.2% each), Blastocystis hominis (2.6%), and Entamoeba histolytica (0.9%). The most commonly identified helminths were nematodes: hookworm (1.5%), Trichuris trichiura (1.2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%). Identifications of G. lamblia increased broadly from the 4.0% average found in 1979, with 40 states reporting increases and seven reporting decreases. Seasonally, Giardia identifications increased in the summer and fall, especially in the Midwest. Nine states reported hookworms in more than 2% of specimens; none were states with indigenous transmission. We analyzed similar, but abbreviated, data for 1991; parasites were found in 19.7% of the 178,786 specimens and Giardia was found in 5.6%. States reporting percentages of Giardia identification in the highest quartile for both 1987 and 1991 were located in the Midwest or in the Northwest. Cryptosporidium was identified in both the 1987 and 1991 surveys; it had not been identified in a previous survey. For each year, Cryptosporidium was reported from 25 states across the country (for both years in 17 states). We conclude that intestinal parasitism should not be overlooked as a cause of gastrointestinal illness in the United States and that the prevalence of Giardia may be increasing.

  11. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriadou Isaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans.

  12. Recognition of a 30,000 MW antigen of Giardia muris trophozoites by intestinal IgA from Giardia-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, M F; Pappo, J

    1990-08-01

    The principal aims of this work were (i) to identify the molecular weight (MW) of Giardia muris trophozoite antigens that are recognized by IgA in small intestinal secretions from G. muris-infected mice, and (ii) to determine whether mouse intestinal Giardia-specific IgA is directed against trophozoite surfaces. BALB/c mice were infected with G. muris cysts, and intestinal secretions were harvested from these mice at various times after the start of Giardia infection, and from uninfected mice. Flow cytometry showed that intestinal IgA from G. muris-infected mice, but not from uninfected mice, became bound to trophozoite surfaces in vitro. Western blotting of trophozoite proteins with mouse intestinal secretions showed that IgA from Giardia-infected mice reacted specifically with a broad protein band of approximately 30,000 MW. This finding suggests that one or more trophozoite proteins of approximately 30,000 MW are targets for intestinal antibody in mice infected with G. muris.

  13. Giardia: General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lives in the intestines and is passed in feces (poop). Once outside the body, Giardia can sometimes survive ... changing tables, diaper pails, or toys) that contain feces (poop) from an infected person or animal Drinking ...

  14. Giardiasis in Bergen. Outbreak and clinical consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Wensaas, Knut-Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background Giardia lamblia is a common cause of waterborne disease. It is endemic in many parts of the world, especially where sanitation is poor, but in Europe and North America it is most often encountered in outbreaks following contamination of drinking water. The first registered outbreak of giardiasis affecting a large community in Norway happened in Bergen in the autumn of 2004. The reservoir “Svartediket” was the source, and the water probably held Giardia cysts for s...

  15. Protective Role of Commiphora molmol Extract against Liver and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2016; 15 (1): 65-72 ... aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, cholesterol and triglycerides showed a ... rabbits and Giardia lamblia infection in rats [11]. ... [12], antigastric ulcer and cytoprotective effects ... temperature and humidity, fed with commercial.

  16. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  17. Giardia-specific cellular immune responses in post-giardiasis chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Kurt; Kristoffersen, Einar; Mørch, Kristine; Rye, Kristin Paulsen; Sørnes, Steinar; Svärd, Staffan; Bruserud, Øystein; Langeland, Nina

    2017-01-28

    The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific anti-Giardia cellular immunity in cases that developed CFS after Giardia infection compared to cases that recovered well. Patients reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study three years after a Giardia outbreak were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS and idiopathic chronic fatigue. Giardia specific immune responses were evaluated in 39 of these patients by proliferation assay, T cell activation and cytokine release analysis. 20 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls. Patients were clinically classified into CFS (n = 15), idiopathic chronic fatigue (n = 5), fatigue from other causes (n = 9) and recovered from fatigue (n = 10). There were statistically significant antigen specific differences between these Giardia exposed groups and unexposed controls. However, we did not find differences between the Giardia exposed fatigue classification groups with regard to CD4 T cell activation, proliferation or cytokine levels in 6 days cultured PBMCs. Interestingly, sCD40L was increased in patients with PI-CFS and other persons with fatigue after Giardia infection compared to the non-fatigued group, and correlated well with fatigue levels at the time of sampling. Our data show antigen specific cellular immune responses in the groups previously exposed to Giardia and increased sCD40L in fatigued patients.

  18. Protozoal enteric infections among expatriates in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Ljungström, I.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, incidence, and symptoms of infections with Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, we followed 251 expatriates in Bangladesh over a 1-year period. Microscopic examination of fecal specimens was performed upon enrollment, at 3-month intervals, and during episodes

  19. Identification of Zoonotic Genotypes of Giardia duodenalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprong, H.; Cacciò, S.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B

    2009-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect......, through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of seven groups (assemblages A to G) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals, but the role of animals......, mixtures of genotypes in individual isolates were repeatedly observed. Possible explanations are the uptake of genetically different Giardia cysts by a host, or subsequent infection of an already infected host, likely without overt symptoms, with a different Giardia species, which may cause disease. Other...

  20. A new species of Giardia Künstler, 1882 (Sarcomastigophora: Hexamitidae) in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhangxia; Shao, Jingru; Xue, Min; Ye, Qingqing; Chen, Bing; Qin, Yan; Wen, Jianfan

    2018-03-20

    Giardia spp. are flagellated protozoan parasites that infect humans and many other vertebrates worldwide. Currently seven species of Giardia are considered valid. Here, we report a new species, Giardia cricetidarum n. sp. in hamsters. Trophozoites of G. cricetidarum n. sp. are pear-shaped with four pairs of flagella and measure on average 14 μm (range 12-18 μm) in length and 10 μm (range 8-12 μm) in width. The trophozoites of the new species are generally larger and stouter than those of most of the other Giardia spp. and exhibit the lowest length/width ratio (c.1.40) of all recognized Giardia species. Cysts of G. cricetidarum n. sp. are ovoid and measure on average 11 μm (range 9-12 μm) in length and 10 μm (range 8-10 μm) in width and are indistinguishable from the cysts of other Giardia species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on beta-giardin, small subunit rRNA, and elongation factor-1 alpha loci all demonstrated that G. cricetidarum n. sp. is genetically distinct from all currently accepted Giardia spp. Investigation of the host range indicated that the new species was only found in hamsters (including Phodopus sungorus, P. campbelli and Mesocricetus auratus), while all the other described mammal-parasitizing species (G. muris, G. microti and G. intestinalis) each infect multiple hosts. Cross-transmission studies further demonstrated the apparent host specificity of G. cricetidarum n. sp. as it only infected hamsters. Trophozoites were found in high numbers in hamster intestines (5 × 10 5 - 5 × 10 6 ) and was rarely detected co-infecting with other Giardia spp. in the common hamster, suggesting it has some advantages in parasitizing hamsters. This study has identified a new species of Giardia, which appears to be specific to hamsters, and together with the three other mammal-parasitizing Giardia species with different host ranges, may be able to be used as a model system for the study of evolutionary divergence of host parasitism strategies in

  1. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 9 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular identification of Giardia lamblia isolates from adult human cases in southwest of Iran · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Elham Sadat Roointan, Abdollah Rafiei, Ali Reza Samarbaf-Zadeh, Ali Akbar Shayesteh, Ahmad Shamsizadeh, Mahdi ...

  2. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, Naela A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Xiao, Lihua; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2013-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan in Yemen with infection rates ranging from 18% to 27%. To date, there has been no genotyping study to provide a better understanding of the transmission dynamic. This study was conducted to genotype and subtype G. duodenalis in Yemen. Stool samples were collected from 503 Yemeni outpatients between 1 and 80 years old, including 219 males and 284 females. Giardia cysts were detected via microscopy after the formal-ether concentration. Genotyping of Giardia was carried out using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16s rRNA and b-giardin genes. Of the 89 microscopy-positive Giardia samples, 65 were successfully sequenced, of which 66% (43 of 65) were identified as G. duodenalis assemblage A and 34% (22 of 65) as assemblage B. Further subtyping analysis based on b-giardin gene identified the presence of subtypes A2 and A3, which belong to the anthroponotic sub-assemblage AII. Data of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission played a potential role in the transmission of giardiasis in the community. However, further genotyping and subtyping studies of specimens from humans and animals living in the same households are needed for a more definitive understanding of giardiasis transmission in Yemen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intravascular detection of Giardia trophozoites in naturally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shewy K.A.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available During routine transmission electron microscopic (TEM examination of mice naturally infected with Giardia muris, an intense infection with Giardia trophozoites was demonstrated within intestinal and renal tissues. Examination of randomly taken sections from these heavily infected tissues revealed marked deep affection with mixed pathology. Duodenal sections were found loaded with Giardia trophozoites in intimate contact with necrotic gut cells. Some of these trophozoites were detected within central lacteal of damaged villi and nearby blood vessels. Interestingly, and for the first time to be demonstrated, morphologically identical G. muris trophozoite was detected in a renal blood vessel. An intense cellular immune reaction was obviously demonstrated with remarkable interaction between giant macrophages and the trophozoites particulates. Involvement of deep tissues by Giardia trophozoites and their presence within vascular channels could open up questions about the possible invasive and disseminative behavior of G. muris, particularly in heavily and naturally infected hosts.

  4. Chlorine Dioxide Disinfection in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    CTs ranging from 1.7-17.6 mg-min/L necessary for 2-log Giardia muris cyst inactivation (reference 23). The SWTR provides the following CT values...reference 3). A comparison of CTs required for a 2-log inactivation for E. Coli bacteria, Poliovirus 1, and Giardia cysts showed Giardia cysts were 2-5...Cryptosporidium oocysts are the most resistant, being 8-16 times more resistant than Giardia cysts (reference 5). Chlorine dioxide’s general disinfection

  5. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  6. Intestinal Parasites among Foreign Junior Staff of King Khalid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli were the only protozoa identified. Those found positive ... Employers of this category of workers in food and vegetable industries, must ensure they are regularly screened and if found to be infected, promptly treated to interrupt transmission of these parasites to the community. Nigerian ...

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute giardiasis: historic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt; Mørch, Kristine; Eide, Geir Egil; Rortveit, Guri

    2012-02-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, but there is limited knowledge about the long-term complications. To estimate the relative risk of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute giardiasis. Controlled historic cohort study with 3 years' follow-up. Data collected by mailed questionnaire. Waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in the city of Bergen, Norway. 817 patients exposed to Giardia lamblia infection verified by detection of cysts in stool samples and 1128 matched controls. IBS and chronic fatigue. The prevalence of IBS in the exposed group was 46.1%, compared with 14.0% in the control group, and the adjusted RR=3.4 (95% CI 2.9 to 3.8). Chronic fatigue was reported by 46.1% of the exposed group and 12.0% of the controls, the adjusted RR was 4.0 (95% CI 3.5 to 4.5). IBS and chronic fatigue were associated and the RR for the exposed group of having a combination of the two outcomes was 6.8 (95% CI 5.3 to 8.5). The RR was also increased for having just one of the two syndromes, 1.8 for IBS (95% CI 1.4 to 2.3) and 2.2 for chronic fatigue (95% CI 1.7 to 2.8). Infection with Giardia lamblia in a non-endemic area was associated with a high prevalence of IBS and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute illness, and the risk was significantly higher than in the control group. This shows that the potential consequences of giardiasis are more serious than previously known. Further studies are needed, especially in areas where giardiasis is endemic.

  8. Impact of fouling on UV effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykstra, T.S.; Chauret, C.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years ultraviolet light has gained in popularity as an attractive disinfection alternative due to its ability to inactivate bacteria and viruses. UV light has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia with a very low potential for the formation of harmful disinfection by-products. Previous studies have reported that particulate material present in the water can act to reduce the exposure of UV light to the receiving waters and that the interference of organic particles can serve to protect bacteria and viruses from intended disinfection. Disinfection capacity can also be reduced by organics in the source water that can accumulate on the surface of quartz sleeves. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of a medium pressure UV light, at drinking water treatment levels, to inactivate MS 2 bacteriophage after a quartz tube has been fouled with organic rich source water for a 12- week period. To this end the inactivation of MS 2 was determined under clean and fouled conditions, in the presence and absence of humic rich water. The effect of lamp age on inactivation was also investigated. The results suggest that organic fouling of a quartz tube has a significant impact on the disinfection capacity of a medium pressure UV lamp. The presence of organics in the source water also plays a significant role in reducing the capacity of UV for bacterial and viral disinfection. Lamp age also seems to have some effect on the efficiency of UV disinfection. (author)

  9. Enteroparasitic occurrence in fecal samples analyzed at the University of Western São Paulo-UNOESTE clinical laboratory, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil Ocorrência de enteroparasitas em amostras fecais analisadas no Laboratório Clínico da UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Toshiko Tashima

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the enteroparasitic occurrence in children from 0 to 12 years old consulted at the University of western São Paulo Clinical Laboratory, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil, in relation to the socioeconomic profile of the attended children. Stool samples were examined and a questionnaire was applied with the objective of knowing the patient's age, sex, medical attendance, characteristic of the habitation, provisioning of water, dejection and domestic waste fates, use of footwear and clinical signs. The software EPI INFO 6 (Version 6.04b was used for the elaboration of the data bank structure and analysis after previous data codification. Among 1,000 children analyzed, as many as 21.3% presented some kind of parasite. The most frequent protozoan was Giardia lamblia (7.3% followed by Entamoeba coli (3.9%. The most frequent helminth was Enterobius vermicularis (1.9% followed by Hymenolepis nana (0.5%. The most frequent protozoan association was Giardia lamblia / Entamoeba coli (0.9%.O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a ocorrência de enteroparasitoses em crianças de 0 a 12 anos de Presidente Prudente - SP por meio de exames parasitológicos, associada ao perfil sócio-econômico da população. Um questionário foi aplicado com o objetivo de conhecer as seguintes variáveis: idade do paciente, sexo, tipo de assistência médica, características da habitação, abastecimento de água, destino dos dejetos, do lixo, uso de calçados e sinais clínicos. Para a elaboração da estrutura de banco de dados e sua análise, utilizou-se o programa EPI INFO 6 (Versão 6.04b após pré-codificação dos dados. Das 1.000 amostras estudadas, 78,7% das crianças não apresentaram parasitas e 21,3% apresentaram alguma espécie de parasita. O protozoário mais freqüente foi Giardia lamblia (7,3% seguido de Entamoeba coli (3,9%. Os helmintos mais freqüentes foram Enterobius vermicularis (1,9%, seguido de Hymenolepis nana (0,5%. A associa

  10. Prevalência e aspectos epidemiológicos da giardíase em creches no município de Aracaju, SE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the giardiasis prevalence was done in children from 2 till 5 years old who frequented two day nurseries ("A " and "B ". Its relation with some epidemiological aspects through the realization of parasitological exams of stool and an inquiry applied to mothers. Inday nursery "A " with a higth standard of life, 20 (66.6% of 30 inquired children were parasitised and all the children in day nursery "B" had some enteroparasite. Giardia lamblia wasfound in 15 (50% of the children-in better standart of life and in 19 (63.3% of the children with a lower one. The ingesting of vegetables was the only allied factor to the high degree of giardiasis, in day nursery "A ". The day nursery "B " suffered influences from other aspects: no potable water in the residences, the inappropriate destiny of the garbage, the ingesting of vegetables habit and collective bedroom. The adequate sanitation and the existence of domestic animals were not related to parasitism by Giardia lamblia.Foi feito um levantamento da prevalência de giardíase entre crianças na faixa etária de 2 a 5 anos que frequentam duas creches ("A " e "B '' e sua relação com alguns aspectos epidemia lógicos, através da realização de exames parasitológicos de fezes e de inquérito familiar aplicado às mães. Na creche "A ", com padrão sócio-econômico elevado, 20 (66,6% das 30 crianças pesquisadas apresentavam-se parasitadas e na creche "B " todas possuíam algum enteroparasita. Giardia lamblia foi encontrada em 15 (50,0% das crianças da creche com melhor nível sócio-econômico e em 19 (63,3 %das crianças com nívelmais baixo. O hábito de ingerir hortaliças foi o único fator aliado ao alto grau de giardíase na creche "A A creche "B" sofreu influência de outros aspectos: água não potávelnas residências, destino inadequado do lixo, hábito de ingerir hortaliças e dormitório coletivo. O destino inadequado dos dejetos e a existência de animais domésticos n

  11. Detecção de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas na água e nas hortaliças consumidas em comunidades escolares de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil Detection enteroparasites transmissible forms in water and raw vegetables consumed in pre-schools from Sorocaba, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria De Petrini da Silva Coelho

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de formas transmissíveis de enteroparasitas em água e em hortaliças consumidas cruas, no período de agosto de 1997 a julho de 1998. A água foi submetida à filtração em membranas de celulose. A água da lavagem destas membranas foi submetido ao método de Faust. As hortaliças in natura e lavada foram lavadas e a água submetida ao método de sedimentação. Uma escola não apresentou contaminação; duas tiveram todos os materiais contaminados; quatro, 2 materiais contaminados e três, 1 material contaminado. A água apresentou índice de 0,7% de contaminação (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis e ancilostomídeos; a hortaliça in natura, 3,9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, ancilostomídeos, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia e a lavada, 1,3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides e Giardia lamblia. As hortaliças e a água são veiculadoras de enteroparasitas. A forma larval foi a mais presente. A hortaliça in naturaapresentou maior contaminação que a lavada. A lavagem não garantiu a ausência dessas formas em hortaliças.Water and raw vegetables consumed in ten nursery schools were evaluated for the presence of transmissible forms of enteroparasites. The water was submitted to filtration through membranes. The washed membrane water was submitted to the Faust method. The in natura and washed vegetables were washed and the water analyzed by the sedimentation method. Contamination was not detected in one school; in two schools, all the materials were contaminated; in four schools, two items were contaminated and in three, one material presented contamination. The water presented a contamination index of 0.7% contamination (Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ancylostomatidae; the vegetables in natura, 3.9% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ancylostomatidae, Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia and the washed samples 1.3% (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides and

  12. Evolução da prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em escolares em Caxias do Sul, RS Evolution of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Caxias do Sul, RS

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    Rita Maria Callegari Basso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatos da prevalência das parasitoses intestinais no Brasil são pontuais e têm sido descritos em diferentes populações, tornando difícil um diagnóstico abrangente. Visando estudar a variação em 35 anos da prevalência de enteroparasitoses em escolares de Caxias do Sul, RS, foram avaliados 9.787 exames parasitológicos de fezes realizados por centrífugo-sedimentação. Resultaram positivas 5.655 (58% amostras sendo mais prevalente a infestação por Ascaris lumbricoides (47%, Trichuris trichiura (36%, Enterobius vermicularis (8% e os protozoários: Giardia lamblia (24% e Entamoeba coli (20%. A prevalência geral diminuiu de 89% para 37%, com um decréscimo médio de 1,4% ao ano. Houve redução na prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides de 61 para 26% e de Trichuris trichiura de 38 a 18%. Para Giardia lamblia não houve alteração significativa. A prevalência de Entamoeba coli cresceu de 29 a 46%. Os decréscimos obtidos na prevalência dos helmintos são provavelmente devidos às melhorias da infra-estrutura e às ações formativas desenvolvidas nas escolas.Reports on the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Brazil have been local in nature, with descriptions of different populations, which makes comprehensive diagnosis difficult. With the aim of studying the variation in the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, over a 35-year period, 9,787 parasitological stool tests that had been performed using centrifugal sedimentation were evaluated. There were positive results from 5,655 samples (58%, and the most prevalent infestations were of Ascaris lumbricoides (47%, Trichuris trichiura (36%, Enterobius vermicularis (8% and the protozoa Giardia lamblia (24% and Entamoeba coli (20%. The overall prevalence diminished from 89% to 37%, indicating an average decrease of 1.4% per year. Reductions in prevalence were observed for Ascaris lumbricoides (61 to 26% and Trichuris trichiura (38

  13. 144__Olukosi_drinking wate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    and Giardia lamblia; nutrients (fertilizers), dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic and so on) and dissolved organics (WHO, 2011). The demand for drinking water in Kaduna state is supplied by ground water sources such as wells and boreholes, tap water in areas where it is available, packaged water and ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onyido, AE. Vol 6, No 2 (2008) - Articles Arthropod-Associated Skin Diseases among Occupants of Five Designated Junior Staffs\\' Quarters in Owerri and Enugu, Nigeria Abstract · Vol 29, No 2 (2008) - Articles Prevalence of Giardia lamblia cyst; its detection in water bodies and relationship with environmental factors in ...

  15. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Liana F; Fox, Samantha; Peck, Sarah; Power, Michelle L

    2017-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites. Molecular tools were used to investigate the prevalence and diversity of two protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in Tasmanian devils. A comparison of parasite prevalence between wild and captive Tasmanian devils showed that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were significantly more prevalent in wild devils (p Giardia was identified in 24.1% of wild devils but only 0.82% of captive devils. Molecular analysis identified the presence of novel genotypes of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The novel Cryptosporidium genotype was 98.1% similar at the 18S rDNA to Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum) with additional samples identified as C. fayeri, C. muris, and C. galli. Two novel Giardia genotypes, TD genotype 1 and TD genotype 2, were similar to G. duodenalis from dogs (94.4%) and a Giardia assemblage A isolate from humans (86.9%). Giardia duodenalis BIV, a zoonotic genotype of Giardia, was also identified in a single captive Tasmanian devil. These findings suggest that conservation management may be altering host-parasite interactions in the Tasmanian devil, and the presence of G. duodenalis BIV in a captive devil points to possible human-devil parasite transmission.

  16. [Experimental infection of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) by Colombian isolates of Giardia duodenalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Adriana; Duque, Sofía; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2005-09-01

    Natural and experimental Giardia infections have been reported from bovines, equines, goats, canines, felines and rodents such as mice, rats and gerbils. The latter have provided successful animal models for Giardia duodenalis and Giardia muris experimental infections. The gerbil model was used to establish the pattern of infection of Colombian Giardia human isolates. Giardia cysts were obtained from stool specimens of symptomatic giardiasis patients by means of sucrose-percoll gradients. Animal inoculation was performed by gastric intubation and injection with 5 x 10(3) Giardia cysts. The course of infection was established by counting cysts every day and trophozoites weekly throughout a period of 30 days. The pattern of cyst excretion was found to be intermittent. Cysts were released during the second and third weeks of infection but not during the first or fourth weeks. The mean minimal number of cysts released per 2-hr collection period was 79 and the mean maximum number was 17,943. Colonization of the small intestine by trophozoites was observed with a mean number ranging from 15,000 to 6,577,778 trophozoites/ml. Gerbils inoculated with G. duodenalis isolates obtained from geographical areas outside Colombia resolved the infection between 86 and 114 days after infection, whereas gerbils infected with Colombian G. duodenalis isolates resolved the infection at 30 days. The gerbil proved to be a good animal model for experimental infection with Colombian isolates of G. duodenalis. Experimental Giardia infection of gerbils permit a sufficient yield of cysts and trophozoites to be used as antigens for the immunization of other animals and to obtain Giardia antibodies that could be used for Giardia antigen detection assays in stool specimens.

  17. Occurrence and distribution of Giardia species in wild rodents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Yosra A; Spierling, Nastasja G; Schmidt, Sabrina; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Reil, Daniela; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer G; Aebischer, Toni; Klotz, Christian

    2018-03-27

    Giardiasis is an important gastrointestinal parasitic disease in humans and other mammals caused by the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. This species complex is represented by genetically distinct groups (assemblages A-H) with varying zoonotic potential and host preferences. Wild rodents can harbor potentially zoonotic assemblages A and B, and the rodent-specific assemblage G. Other Giardia spp. found in these animals are Giardia muris and Giardia microti. For the latter, only limited information on genetic typing is available. It has been speculated that wild rodents might represent an important reservoir for parasites causing human giardiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Giardia spp. and assemblage types in wild rodents from different study sites in Germany. Screening of 577 wild rodents of the genera Apodemus, Microtus and Myodes, sampled at eleven study sites in Germany, revealed a high overall Giardia prevalence. Giardia species determination at the SSU rDNA gene locus revealed that Apodemus mice, depending on species, were predominantly infected with one of two distinct G. muris sequence types. Giardia microti was the predominant parasite species found in voles of the genera Microtus and Myodes. Only a few animals were positive for potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis. Subtyping at the beta-giardin (bg) and glutamine dehydrogenase (gdh) genes strongly supported the existence of different phylogenetic subgroups of G. microti that are preferentially harbored by distinct host species. The present study highlights the preference of G. muris for Apodemus, and G. microti for Microtus and Myodes hosts and argues for a very low prevalence of zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in wild rodents in Germany. It also provides evidence that G. muris and G. microti subdivide into several phylogenetically distinguishable subgroups, each of which appears to be preferentially harbored by species of a particular rodent host genus

  18. Comparison of the levels of intra-specific genetic variation within Giardia muris and Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R H; Monis, P T; Ey, P L; Mayrhofer, G

    1998-08-01

    The extent of intra-specific genetic variation between isolates of Giardia muris was assessed by allozyme electrophoresis. Additionally, the levels of allozymic variation detected within G. muris were compared with those observed between members of the two major assemblages of the morphologically distinct species Giardia intestinalis. Four isolates of G. muris were analysed. Three (Ad-120, -150, -151) were isolated from mice in Australia, while the fourth (R-T) was isolated from a golden hamster in North America. The 11 isolates of G. intestinalis (Ad-1, -12, -2, -62, representing genetic Groups I and II of Assemblage A and BAH-12, BRIS/87/HEPU/694, Ad-19, -22, -28, -45, -52, representing genetic Groups III and IV of Assemblage B) were from humans in Australia. Intra-specific genetic variation was detected between G. muris isolates at four of the 23 enzyme loci examined. Similar levels of variation were found within the genetic groups that comprise Assemblages A and B of G. intestinalis. These levels of intra-specific variation are similar to those observed within other morphologically-distinct species of protozoan parasites. We suggest that the magnitude of the genetic differences detected within G. muris provides an indication of the range of genetic variation within other species of Giardia and that this can be used as a model to delineate morphologically similar but genetically distinct (cryptic) species within this genus.

  19. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

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    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  20. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1 : 100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFcε-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFcε-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the

  1. Performance of microscopy and ELISA for diagnosing Giardia duodenalis infection in different pediatric groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Renata K N R; Pacheco, Flávia T F; Martins, Adson S; Menezes, Joelma F; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Ribeiro, Tereza C M; Mattos, Ângela P; Oliveira, Ricardo R; Soares, Neci M; Teixeira, Márcia C A

    2016-12-01

    Techniques for Giardia diagnosis based on microscopy are usually applied as routine laboratory testing; however, they typically exhibit low sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate Giardia duodenalis and other intestinal parasitic infections in different pediatric groups, with an emphasis on the comparison of Giardia diagnostic techniques. Feces from 824 children from different groups (diarrheic, malnourished, with cancer and from day care) were examined by microscopy and ELISA for Giardia, Cryptosporidium sp. and Entamoeba histolytica coproantigen detection. Giardia-positive samples from day-care children, identified by either microscopy or ELISA, were further tested by PCR targeting of the β-giardin and Gdh genes. Statistically significant differences (Psp. in diarrheic and malnourished groups; infections by Entamoeba histolytica were found only in children with diarrhea. Considering positivity for Giardia by at least one method, ELISA was found to be more sensitive than microscopy (97% versus 55%). To examine discrepancies among the diagnostic methods, 71 Giardia-positive stool samples from day-care children were tested by PCR; of these, DNA was amplified from 51 samples (77.4%). Concordance of positivity between microscopy and ELISA was found for 48 samples, with 43 confirmed by PCR. Parasite DNA was amplified from eleven of the 20 Giardia samples (55%) identified only by ELISA. This study shows the higher sensitivity of ELISA over microscopy for Giardia diagnosis when a single sample is analyzed and emphasizes the need for methods based on coproantigen detection to identify this parasite in diarrheic fecal samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy

  3. Giardia in a selected population of dogs and cats in Germany - diagnostics, coinfections and assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M F; Rupp, P; Pietsch, M; Kaspar, A; Beelitz, P

    2018-01-15

    Infections with the zoonotic endoparasite Giardia duodenalis are widely spread among dogs and cats worldwide. Since the question whether the infection might be transmitted from domestic animals to their owners is still an important topic, a reliable detection of patent Giardia infections and the determination of the associated Giardia assemblages is of major concern. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of Giardia infections in dogs and cats living in Germany using different diagnostic tests and to identify the Giardia assemblages of infected animals. Furthermore, a possible correlation of coinfections with other endoparasites was analysed. All samples were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), merthiolate-iodine-formalin concentration technique (MIFC) and zinc chloride flotation. ELISA-positive samples were additionally screened with a direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Faecal DNA was extracted from all Giardia cyst-positive samples and used for multilocus sequence typing with nested PCRs targeting the following gene loci: SSU rRNA (SSU), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi). Samples from dogs and cats tested positive for Giardia coproantigen (ELISA) in 30.6% and 17.9%, respectively. The MIFC technique revealed Giardia cysts in 33.9% of canine and in 34.6% of feline ELISA-positive samples, while using IFA, cysts were present in 90.4% of canine and in 76.9% of feline ELISA-positive samples. Coinfections with other endoparasites besides Giardia were found in both dogs and cats, yet a statistically significant correlation could solely be drawn for the canine samples. The success rate of the different PCR protocols varied between 23.1% (tpi) and 91.3% (SSU) for dogs and between 25.0% (gdh) and 90.0% (SSU) for cats. Dog-specific Giardia assemblages C and D were detected in 42 and 55 canine isolates, respectively. The cat-specific Giardia assemblage F was detected in 14 feline isolates

  4. Parasitismo intestinal en niños de círculos infantiles en un municipio

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    María del Carmen Hernández Alfaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el parasitismo intestinal representa un importante problema de salud mundial por su alta prevalencia y distribución universal. Constituye una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en lactantes y niños de todo el orbe. Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de las principales especies parasitarias intestinales en círculos infantiles del municipio La Palma. Método: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal, durante los meses de octubre y noviembre 2012, en el que se estudiaron 495 niños asistentes a los seis círculos infantiles del municipio La Palma. Fueron recolectadas por cada niño, 3 muestras fecales frescas, en días alternos, las que se procesaron con los métodos coproparasitológicos de examen directo y técnica de concentración de Ritchie- Willis. Resultados: el 48,3% de la muestra estaba parasitada, con una mayor prevalencia en el quinto año de vida (58,8%, predominó el sexo masculino (54,8%. Las especies más frecuentes fueron Giardia lamblia (38,1%, Entamoeba histolytica (30,1% y Enterobius vermicularis (19,2%. El poliparasitismo se apreció (12,2% de los niños, la asociación de parásitos muestra a Giardia lamblia en tres combinaciones. Junto al Enterobius vermicularis (37,2 %, con Entamoeba histolytica/E dispar (33,3 % y los tres a la vez (29,4%. Conclusiones: aproximadamente la mitad de los niños estudiados se encontraban parasitados, estos resultados fueron más frecuentes a partir del cuarto año de vida, con una mayor prevalencia en el sexo masculino en todas las especies parasitarias, predominado las infecciones por protozoarios, con mayor frecuencia Giardia lamblia y asociaciones de parásitos en varios casos.

  5. Biocidal Efficacy of a Flocculating Emergency Water Purification Tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    size filters (Millipore, Bedford, Mass.). A 2-g waters were challenged with 107 Giardia muris cysts per liter portion of the recovered floc was...of Giardia muris cyst inactivation by lower microbial counts. Although CF tablets will remove some 1chlorine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 5O-1 15-1117...removed poliovirus type I from water at low temperatures genie dye as measures of Giardia muris cyst inactivation by ozone. even at high pH

  6. Enteropatógenos associados com diarréia infantil (< 5 anos de idade em amostra da população da área metropolitana de Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil Enteropathogens associated with diarrheal disease in infants (< 5 years old in a population sample in Greater Metropolitan Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Jaqueline Schnack

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a presença de enteropatógenos em 94 casos de diarréia e 45 casos-controle em crianças de 0 a 5 anos de idade, atendidas no Centro de Saúde Municipal de Criciúma, Santa Catarina. Entre os parasitos isolados, o Cryptosporidium (85,1% foi o mais freqüente, seguido pela Entamoeba histolytica (56,4% e a Giardia lamblia (4,3%. Quatro amostras apresentaram Escherichia coli enteropatogênica (4,3%. A Samonella e a Shiguella não foram detectadas em nenhuma amostra. Somente um caso foi positivo para o rotavírus (1,1%.Enteropathogens were investigated in 94 children with diarrhea and 45 age-matched controls, 0 to 5 years old, attending an outpatient unit in Criciúma, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Cryptosporidium (85.1% topped the list of parasite isolates, followed by Entamoeba histolytica (56.4% and Giardia lamblia (4.3%. Four samples contained enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (4.3%. Samonella and Shiguella were not detected. Only one sample contained rotavirus (1.1%.

  7. Plants and chemical constituents with giardicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M.M. Amaral

    Full Text Available Intestinal infection caused by Giardia lamblia represents a serious public health problem, with increased rates of prevalence in numerous countries. Increased resistance of the parasite and the side-effects of the reference drugs employed in the treatment of giardiasis make necessary to seek new therapeutic agents. Natural products, especially of plant origin, represent excellent starting point for research. The objective of this study is to review the literature on plant extracts, fractions and chemical constituents whose giardicidal activity has been investigated in vitro. The review describes 153 (one hundred and fifty-three plant species from 69 (sixty-nine families that were evaluated for their giardicidal activity. The geographical distribution of the plant species, the part used, preparation, strain of Giardia lamblia tested and the results obtained by the authors are also given. One hundred and one compounds isolated from plant species, classified by chemical class, are presented. Recent aspects of research on natural products of plant origin employed in the treatment of giardiasis are also discussed.

  8. Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis assemblage E from goat kids in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alamgir Hossain; Sohana Akter Mina; Lolo Wal Marzan; Mohammad Asif Imran Khan Emon; Rasel Das; AMAM Zonaed Siddiki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To molecularly characterize Giardia in goat kids to elucidate the possible zoonotic hazards in Bangladesh and find out the role of Giardia protozoan parasite as a source of human infection. Methods: Fecal samples of 100 goat kids were genotyped by nested PCR amplification of β-giardin gene fragment followed by sequencing and analysis. Results: The total prevalence of Giardia in goat kids was 3% (3/100) and the infection is more widespread in younger (P = 0.36), Bl...

  9. DETECTION OF GIARDIA IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS BY IMMUNO-PCR AMPLIFICATION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic DNA was extracted either directly from Giardia muris cysts seeded into environmental surface waters or from cysts isolated by immunomagnetic beads (IMB}. A 0.171-kbp segment of the giardin gene was PCR-amplified following "direct extraction" of Giardia DNA from seeded Cah...

  10. First record of Giardia assemblage D infection in farmed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides

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    Piotr Solarczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Giardia genotypes was investigated in 18 raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides and 80 red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes on one farm. To demonstrate Giardia cysts, fresh and trichrome stained smears were microscopically screened. Two molecular markers were used for Giardia genotyping: a fragment of the beta-giardin gene and a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. All faecal samples obtained from red foxes were negative. Giardia cysts were identified only in 2 of the 18 raccoon dogs. The result of genotyping and phylogenetic analysis showed that the G. duodenalis from both raccoon dogs belonged to the D assemblage. This finding of a new animal reservoir of G. duodenalis canids-specific genotypes is important in order to eliminate the risk of infecting other animals bred for fur. Further molecular analyses of Giardia isolates in raccoon dogs are required. The present study represents the first contribution to knowledge of G. duodenalis genotypes in raccoon dogs.

  11. Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-06-01

    Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes.

  12. Drug susceptibility testing in microaerophilic parasites: Cysteine strongly affects the effectivities of metronidazole and auranofin, a novel and promising antimicrobial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leitsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Metronidazole is the most often prescribed drug but also other drugs are in use, and novel drugs with improved characteristics are constantly being developed. One of these novel drugs is auranofin, originally an antirheumatic which has been relabelled for the treatment of parasitic infections. Drug effectivity is arguably the most important criterion for its applicability and is commonly assessed in susceptibility assays using in vitro cultures of a given pathogen. However, drug susceptibility assays can be strongly affected by certain compounds in the growth media. In the case of microaerophilic parasites, cysteine which is added in large amounts as an antioxidant is an obvious candidate because it is highly reactive and known to modulate the toxicity of metronidazole in several microaerophilic parasites.In this study, it was attempted to reduce cysteine concentrations as far as possible without affecting parasite viability by performing drug susceptibility assays under strictly anaerobic conditions in an anaerobic cabinet. Indeed, T. vaginalis and E. histolytica could be grown without any cysteine added and the cysteine concentration necessary to maintain G. lamblia could be reduced to 20%. Susceptibilities to metronidazole were found to be clearly reduced in the presence of cysteine. With auranofin the protective effect of cysteine was extreme, providing protection to concentrations up to 100-fold higher as observed in the absence of cysteine. With three other drugs tested, albendazole, furazolidone and nitazoxanide, all in use against G. lamblia, the effect of cysteine was less pronounced. Oxygen was found to have a less marked impact on metronidazole and auranofin than cysteine but bovine bile which is standardly used in growth media for G

  13. Differences in staining intensities affect reported occurrences and concentrations of Giardia spp. in surface drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderisio, K A; Villegas, L F; Ware, M W; McDonald, L A; Xiao, L; Villegas, E N

    2017-12-01

    USEPA Method 1623, or its equivalent, is currently used to monitor for protozoan contamination of surface drinking water sources worldwide. At least three approved staining kits used for detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia are commercially available. This study focuses on understanding the differences among staining kits used for Method 1623. Merifluor and EasyStain labelling kits were used to monitor Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst densities in New York City's raw surface water sources. In the year following a change to the approved staining kits for use with Method 1623, an anomaly was noted in the occurrence of Giardia cysts in New York City's raw surface water. Specifically, Merifluor-stained samples had higher Giardia cyst densities as compared with those stained with EasyStain. Side by side comparison revealed significantly lower fluorescence intensities of Giardia muris as compared with Giardia duodenalis cysts when labelled with EasyStain. This study showed very poor fluorescence intensity signals by EasyStain on G. muris cysts resulting in lower cyst counts, while Merifluor, with its broader Giardia cyst staining specificity, resulted in higher cyst counts, when using Methods 1623. These results suggest that detected Giardia cyst concentrations are dependent on the staining kits used, which can result in a more or less conservative estimation of occurrences and densities of zoonotic Giardia cysts by detecting a broader range of Giardia species/Assemblages. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies

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    Sofía Duque-Beltrán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate. One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%; specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%; positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%; and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%. This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

  16. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Pitkänen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria. Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies.

  17. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

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    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  18. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  19. Risk assessment of Giardia in rivers of southern China based on continuous monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei An; Dongqing Zhang; Shumin Xiao; Jianwei Yu; Min Yang

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and risks of Giardia in China have been unclear to date,which has made it difficult to properly manage source water as well as to create reasonable drinking water standards.The levels of Giardia in river networks of several cities in Zhejiang Province,China were found to be in the range of 0-5 oocysts/10 L in the rainy season in 2008.The mortality due to Giardia infection for people in this region was calculated to be from 0 to 1.95 × 10-s persons using a conditional probability equation.Based on multiple unboiled water intake routes,the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to Giardia infection for people who consumed conventionally treated water was 0.625 (95% CI:0.137-2.05) per 105 persons,with the symptom of hospitalization making the highest contribution to total DALYs (0.56 per 105 persons; 95% CI:0.122-1.84).The DALYs decreased to 0.425 (95% CI:0.137-2.05) per 105 persons per year for those consuming water treated with advanced technology.These values were lower than the acceptable risk (1.97 × 10-5 DALYs per year).This study revealed the risk of Giardia infection to the people in river networks of Zhejiang Province for the first time,and provides a method to evaluate the risk of Giardia infection.The results are useful for the modification of drinking water quality standards based on cost-benefit analysis.

  20. Genotyping and subtyping of Giardia and Cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Wang, R; Zhao, W; Qi, M; Zhao, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Liu, A

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans.

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

  2. Post-translational glutamylation and tyrosination in tubulin of tritrichomonads and the diplomonad Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, A K; Sundermann, C A; Estridge, B H

    2002-01-01

    Glutamylated and tyrosinated tubulin were localized in Giardia intestinalis and selected trichomonads of the Tritrichomonadinae subfamily, using specific monoclonal antibodies directed at each of the post-translational modifications. Analysis was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Although trichomonad tubulins remained unlabeled by anti-tyrosine tubulin (TUB-1A2), the presence of the glutamylation motif (GT 335) was confirmed and found to differ in distribution among tritrichomonads. Tritrichomonas muris was most heavily labeled with GT 335, while T. foetus was the least so. Like trichomonads, Giardia was unreactive to anti-tyrosine tubulin; however, the GT 335 antibody produced marked fluorescence in Giardia trophozoites. This study is the first to report immunofluorescent localization of tubulin glutamylation in Giardia and confirms previously reported mass spectrometry data.

  3. O depósito subungueal como disseminador e enteroparasitos

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    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Demonstramos, no depósito subungueal de 130 crianças residentes no bairro de Nova Descoberta, Natal - RN, a presença de ovos ou cistos de enteroparasitos, tais como: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichocephalus trichiurus, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostomidae, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica e Giardia lamblia. Ao lado da demonstração dos referidos parasitos, fizemos a correlação entre a incidência parasitária e as espécies encontradas no resíduo que se forma sob as unhas. Dos enteroparasitos encontrados, parece ser esta a primeira referência a ovos de ancilostomídeos no depósito subungueal. Dos 130 exames realizados 16 mostraram-se positivos, com uma percentagem de 12,30%.In the deposit under the finger nails of 130 children living at Nova Descoberta suburb, Natal - RN, the presence of eggs or cysts enteroparasites such as: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichocephalus trichiurus, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostomidae, Entamoeba histolytica e Giardia lamblia was detected. Besides the demonstration of the abovementioned parasites, a correlation between the parasite incidence and the species found in the residue acumulated under the finger nails was tried.

  4. Avaliação da relação entre parasitoses intestinais e fatores de risco para o HIV em pacientes com AIDS Evaluation of the relatioship between of intestinal parasitoses and risk factors for HIV infection in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal em 200 pacientes portadores da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS na cidade de São Paulo, a fim de verificar se a presença de enteroparasitas está associada aos diversos fatores de risco para a infecção pelo HIV. Verificou-se que a diarréia foi mais freqüente no grupo que apresentou parasitose intestinal, sendo a diferença altamente significante (p We conducted a cohort survey on 200 AIDS patients in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, to verify if the presence of enteroparasites is associated with the various risk factors for HIV infection. Diarrhea was significantly more frequent in the group of patients presenting enteroparasitosis (p < 0.00001. Giardia lamblia, found in 32 (16% cases, was the most prevalent parasite. The presence of parasites in the stool samples was not significantly associated with risk factors for HIV infection, mainly when considering Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum (p = 0.99 and 0.69, respectively. The controversy found in the literature indicates that additional studies should be done in the different geographical regions of the country.

  5. Intravascular detection of Giardia trophozoites in naturally infected mice. An electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shewy, K A; Eid, R A

    2003-06-01

    During routine transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination of mice naturally infected with Giardia muris, an intense infection with Giardia trophozoites was demonstrated within intestinal and renal tissues. Examination of randomly taken sections from these heavily infected tissues revealed marked deep affection with mixed pathology. Duodenal sections were found loaded with Giardia trophozoites in intimate contact with necrotic gut cells. Some of these trophozoites were detected within central lacteal of damaged villi and nearby blood vessels. Interestingly, and for the first time to be demonstrated, morphologically identical G. muris trophozoite was detected in a renal blood vessel. An intense cellular immune reaction was obviously demonstrated with remarkable interaction between giant macrophages and the trophozoites particulates. Involvement of deep tissues by Giardia trophozoites and their presence within vascular channels could open up questions about the possible invasive and disseminative behavior of G. muris, particularly in heavily and naturally infected hosts.

  6. Low risk for transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from dogs to humans in rural Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated Giardia as prevalent in both humans and dogs worldwide and have postulated the occurrence of anthroponotic, zoonotic and animal-specific cycles of transmission, which may be geographically and regionally unique in its epidemiology.......: Overall, just over 2% of dogs harboured potentially zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis in the studied communities and hence pose a minimal zoonotic risk for the transmission of Giardia to humans.......BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated Giardia as prevalent in both humans and dogs worldwide and have postulated the occurrence of anthroponotic, zoonotic and animal-specific cycles of transmission, which may be geographically and regionally unique in its epidemiology....... The aim of this study was to utilise molecular tools to determine the prevalence and compare genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting humans and dogs living in a previously identified Giardia-endemic village in rural Cambodia in order to ascertain zoonotic transmission risk. FINDINGS: The prevalence of G...

  7. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos; Lima, Danielle Dos; da Silva, Edson Moura; Moreira, André Lucas de Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Amaral, Rodrigo de; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-09-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Giardia sp. cysts were identified by means of the centrifugal-flotation technique in zinc sulfate solution. Subsequently, all samples were submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. The overall frequency of infection was 15.55% (86/553) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 9.04% (50/553) for Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in samples from 5 species: neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (15.28%), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (41.66%), Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (9.67%), Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (16.03%), and Antillean manatee T. manatus (13.79%). Giardia sp. was identified in L. longicaudis (9.23%), P. brasiliensis (29.16%), pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (100%), dwarf sperm whale K. sima (25%), S. guianensis (9.67%), T. inunguis (3.81%), and T. manatus (10.34%). This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in L. longicaudis, P. brasiliensis, and S. guianensis, while the occurrence of Giardia sp., in addition to the 2 otter species, was also identified in manatees, thus extending the number of hosts susceptible to these parasitic agents.

  8. Identification of zoonotic genotypes of Giardia duodenalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Sprong

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect, through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of seven groups (assemblages A to G which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals, but the role of animals in the epidemiology of human infection is still unclear, despite the fact that the zoonotic potential of Giardia was recognised by the WHO some 30 years ago. Here, we performed an extensive genetic characterization of 978 human and 1440 animal isolates, which together comprise 3886 sequences from 4 genetic loci. The data were assembled into a molecular epidemiological database developed by a European network of public and veterinary health Institutions. Genotyping was performed at different levels of resolution (single and multiple loci on the same dataset. The zoonotic potential of both assemblages A and B is evident when studied at the level of assemblages, sub-assemblages, and even at each single locus. However, when genotypes are defined using a multi-locus sequence typing scheme, only 2 multi-locus genotypes (MLG of assemblage A and none of assemblage B appear to have a zoonotic potential. Surprisingly, mixtures of genotypes in individual isolates were repeatedly observed. Possible explanations are the uptake of genetically different Giardia cysts by a host, or subsequent infection of an already infected host, likely without overt symptoms, with a different Giardia species, which may cause disease. Other explanations for mixed genotypes, particularly for assemblage B, are substantial allelic sequence heterogeneity and/or genetic recombination. Although the

  9. Ubiquitination dynamics in the early-branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Carlos A; Chaparro, Jenny; Soffientini, Paolo; Polo, Simona; Wasserman, Moises

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitination is a highly dynamic and versatile posttranslational modification that regulates protein function, stability, and interactions. To investigate the roles of ubiquitination in a primitive eukaryotic lineage, we utilized the early-branching eukaryote Giardia intestinalis. Using a combination of biochemical, immunofluorescence-based, and proteomics approaches, we assessed the ubiquitination status during the process of differentiation in Giardia. We observed that different types of ubiquitin modifications present specific cellular and temporal distribution throughout the Giardia life cycle from trophozoites to cyst maturation. Ubiquitin signal was detected in the wall of mature cysts, and enzymes implicated in cyst wall biogenesis were identified as substrates for ubiquitination. Interestingly, inhibition of proteasome activity did not affect trophozoite replication and differentiation, while it caused a decrease in cyst viability, arguing for proteasome involvement in cyst wall maturation. Using a proteomics approach, we identified around 200 high-confidence ubiquitinated candidates that vary their ubiquitination status during differentiation. Our results indicate that ubiquitination is critical for several cellular processes in this primitive eukaryote. PMID:23613346

  10. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Halvor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60% out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.

  11. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in Brazilian captive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Maria Júlia Rodrigues; Cury, Márcia Cristina; Santín, Mónica

    2017-02-01

    A total of 85 fecal samples from captive birds collected from October 2013 to September 2014 in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were evaluated for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia by PCR. Of these, three birds were found positive for E. bieneusi (3.5%), two for Cryptosporidium (2.3%), and one for Giardia (1.2%). Two genotypes of E. bieneusi were detected by nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS region, genotypes D and Peru 6 in a swan goose and in two rock pigeons, respectively. For Cryptosporidium and Giardia, nucleotide sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA identified Cryptosporidium baileyi and Duck genotype in a swan goose and a mandarin duck, respectively, and Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in a toco toucon. Our results demonstrate that human-pathogenic E. bieneusi genotypes D and Peru6 and G. duodenalis assemblage A are present in captive birds in Brazil, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination.

  12. Ethanol and Isopropanol in Concentrations Present in Hand Sanitizers Sharply Reduce Excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and Eliminate Oral Infectivity of Giardia Cysts in Gerbils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. PMID:26282413

  13. Studies on the prevalence of giardia cysts and cryptosporidium oocysts in South-African water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available per sample and the number of positive samples. Almost 50% of sewage samples studied contained Giardia cysts and 30% contained both Giardia cysts and Cryptosporium oocysts. Treatment of sewage resulted in a reduction in the percentage of samples...

  14. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  15. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  16. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O 2 # sm b ullet# - ) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR Gi ) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T final ) with Fe 3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK a = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR Gi reacts with O 2 # sm b ullet# - with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k 1 = 1.0 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T 1 ; this in turn rapidly decays to the T final state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR Gi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  17. Different profile of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections among patients with diarrhoea according to age attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jose M; Rodríguez-Valero, Natalia; Tisiano, Gabriel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Fruttero, Enza; Reyes, Francisco; Górgolas, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of intestinal parasitic diseases with age and gender in patients with diarrhea attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia in the period 2007-2012. A total of 32,191 stool examination was performed in patients who presented with diarrhea. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in the present study was 26.5%. Predominant parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (15.0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.0%). The median of age of diarrheal patients with Hymenolepis species, Schistosoma mansoni and G. lamblia was significantly lower (5 y., 10.5 y., and 18 y., respectively; pintestinal parasite and the profile of intestinal parasitic infections is influenced by age.

  18. A comparison of Giardia microti and Spironucleus muris cysts in the vole: an immunocytochemical, light, and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschka, M M; Erlandsen, S L; Bemrick, W J; Schupp, D G; Feely, D E

    1988-06-01

    We have shown that cysts of the genus Spironucleus share many common morphological features with Giardia cysts including: 2-4 nuclei, flagellar axonemes, a distinct cyst wall, and they even display the same immunostaining as Giardia cysts when labeled with antibodies specific for Giardia cyst wall. A direct comparison of Spironucleus muris and Giardia microti cysts have revealed that cysts of S. muris are significantly smaller than cysts of G. miroti. At the ultrastructural level, the cyst walls are similar in fibrillar appearance, but the width of the S. muris cyst wall is significantly less than that of G. microti. The cysts of S. muris also differ from G. microti in that they contain a striated rootlet fiber, flagellar sheath, and numerous glycogen rosettes. Characteristic features of Giardia include the adhesive disc and median body. Although the cysts of Spironucleus and Giardia are similar in appearance, these unique morphological features can be used to distinguish between the 2 protozoa and should be employed in the detection of Giardia cysts in water samples.

  19. Emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia door landbouwhuisdieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijven JF; Bruin HAM de; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    1999-01-01

    Het hier gepresenteerde deelonderzoek richt zich op de relatieve bijdrage van verschillende populaties landbouwhuisdieren via mest en afvalwater aan de totale emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia in Nederland. Vleeskalveren vormen per jaar in Nederland via hun mest een grote emissiebron van

  20. Protection of mice against Giardia muris infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, I C; Mitchell, G F

    1979-01-01

    Strains of mice showing relatively rapid (BALB/c) and defective (C3H/He) spontaneous elimination of Giardia muris displayed marked differences in the degree of resistance to infection induced by prior injection of trophozoites in Freund complete adjuvant. PMID:468385

  1. Current status and future trends in Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Ahmad, R A; Smith, H V

    2008-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal diseases of humans worldwide, and are included in the World Health Organisation's 'Neglected Diseases Initiative'. Cryptosporidium and Giardia occur commonly in Malaysian human and non-human populations, but their impact on disease, morbidity and cost of illness is not known. The commonness of contributions from human (STW effluents, indiscriminate defaecation) and non-human (calving, lambing, muck spreading, slurry spraying, pasturing/grazing of domestic animals, infected wild animals) hosts indicate that many Malaysian environments, particularly water and soil, are sufficiently contaminated to act as potential vehicles for the transmission of disease. To gain insight into the morbidity and mortality caused by human cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, they should be included into differential diagnoses, and routine laboratory testing should be performed and (as for many infectious diseases) reported to a centralised public health agency. To understand transmission routes and the significance of environmental contamination better will require further multidisciplinary approaches and shared resources, including raising national perceptions of the parasitological quality of drinking water. Here, the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia should be an integral part of the water quality requirement. A multidisciplinary approach among public health professionals in the water industry and other relevant health- and environment-associated agencies is also required in order to determine the significance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination of Malaysian drinking water. Lastly, adoption of validated methods to determine the species, genotype and subgenotype of Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in Malaysia will assist in developing effective risk assessment, management and communication models.

  2. Identification of Giardia species and Giardia duodenalis assemblages by sequence analysis of the 5.8S rDNA gene and internal transcribed spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciò, Simone M; Beck, Relja; Almeida, Andre; Bajer, Anna; Pozio, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    PCR assays have been developed mainly to assist investigations into the epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis, the only species in the Giardia genus having zoonotic potential. However, a reliable identification of all species is of practical importance, particularly when water samples and samples from wild animals are investigated. The aim of the present work was to genotype Giardia species and G. duodenalis assemblages using as a target the region spanning the 5.8S gene and the 2 flanking internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal gene. Primers were designed to match strongly conserved regions in the 3' end of the small subunit and in the 5' end of the large subunit ribosomal genes. The corresponding region (about 310 bp) was amplified from 49 isolates of both human and animal origin, representing all G. duodenalis assemblages as well as G. muris and G. microti. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that G. ardeae, G. muris, G. microti as well as the 7 G. duodenalis assemblages can be easily distinguished. Since the major subgroups within the zoonotic assemblages A and B can be identified by sequence analysis, this assay is also informative for molecular epidemiological studies.

  3. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2012-06-08

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points

  4. Saliva and sera IgA and IgG in Egyptian Giardia-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M; Halawa, Eman Fawzy; Moussa, Hanaa M Ezzat; Rabia, Ibrahim; Abu-Zekry, Maha

    2012-08-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal infection of wide distribution that is more prevalent in childhood. Easy and rapid diagnosis of giardiasis is essential for reduction of this infection. This cross-sectional study included 62 children in which collection of saliva, stool and serum samples was performed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was evaluated to detect IgA and IgG responses in both saliva and serum samples. Twenty-two children were positive for Giardia duodenalis infection by direct examination of faecal specimens, 20 non-infected and 20 infected with other parasites. Salivary and serum IgA and IgG responses against G. duodenalis infection were significantly higher in Giardia parasitized than non-Giardia parasitized children (p < 0.001). This concludes that specific salivary IgA may serve as a diagnostic tool and specific salivary IgG as a screening tool in monitoring the exposure of various populations to Giardia duodenalis. The advantage of salivary assays over serum immunoglobulin assay is being easy and non-invasive in sampling technique which is important especially for young children.

  5. Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. In the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Mota, Lúcio Tadeu; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cysts of Giardia spp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in waters of the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil. Samples of river and spring water and of treated water were filtered and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio). Of 21 samples, 7 from each locality, 3 (3/7, 42.8%) from a river were positive for Giardia (mean concentration 2.57 cysts/L), and 1 (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). From springs, 1 sample (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). One sample (1/7, 14.3%) from treated water was positive for both, with 4 oocysts/L and 2 cysts/L. Giardia was the more frequent protozoan present.

  6. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, N.C.; Sehgal, A.K.; Chnuttani, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57 Co-vitamin B 12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B 12 was unimpaired. (author)

  7. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis cause diarrheal infections in humans and other vertebrate animals globally and are considered to be of great public health importance. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis infections among patients attending ...

  8. [Occurrence of Giardia species and genotypes in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Giardia is the most common intestinal protozoan parasite found in humans and animals worldwide. Although it has been known for three hundred years, the nomenclature, taxonomy, host specificity, and pathogenicity of Giardia still arouse numerous controversies and ambiguities. Giardia is classified into six species, that are characterised by various ranges of hosts. The most dubious species is G. intestinalis, which includes a dozen or so genotypes, and only two of them (genotype A and B) have wide ranges of hosts, including humans. Moreover, in some genotype assemblages of G. intestinalis certain subgenotypes were distinguished and it was proven that in the same host species various subgenotypes of this parasite may occur. Bearing in mind the significant genetic heterogeneity of G. intestinalis and the fact that various genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are characterised by the broad or narrow host specificity, the data concerning the frequency of giardiosis occurrence are insufficient. It is necessary to use molecular biology techniques in order to define the genotype and/or the subgenotype of G. intestinalis that are found in humans and in certain animal species. Furthermore, since more and more pieces of evidence connected with a possibility of the sexual recombination of Giardia are gathered, it is unknown if genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are stable in time. The aim of this thesis was to define the frequency of Giardia occurrence in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, to identify species and genotypes of Giardia that occur in humans and animals, as well as to obtain an axenic culture of the chosen isolates of Giardia from animals and to compare the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment obtained from the DNA isolated from cysts and trophozoites in order to check if the axenisation of G. intestinalis leads to the selection of genotypes or if Giardia genotypes are stable in time. Altogether, 2183 faecal samples were examined for

  9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  10. STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUBSTRATE BINDING AND STEREOSELECTIVITY OF GIARDIA FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATE ALDOLASE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Andrey; Li, Zhimin; Li, Ling; Kulakova, Liudmila; Pal, Lipika R.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    Giardia lamblia fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA)1 is a member of the Class II zinc-dependent aldolase family that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). In addition to the active site zinc, the catalytic apparatus of FBPA employs an aspartic acid, Asp83 in the G. lamblia enzyme, which when replaced by an alanine residue renders the enzyme inactive. A comparison of the crystal structures of the D83A FBPA in complex with FBP and of the wild-type FBPA in the unbound state revealed a substrate induced conformational transition of loops in the vicinity of the active site and a shift in the location of Zn2+. Upon FBP binding, the Zn2+ shifts up to 4.6 Å towards the catalytic Asp83, which brings the metal within coordination distance to the Asp83 carboxylate group. In addition, the structure of wild-type FBPA was determined in complex with the competitive inhibitor D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate (TBP), a FBP stereoisomer. In this structure, the zinc binds in a site close to that previously seen in the structure of FBPA in complex with phosphoglycolohydroxamate, an analog of the postulated DHAP ene-diolate intermediate. Together, the ensemble of structures suggests that the zinc mobility is necessary to orient the Asp83 side chain and to polarize the substrate for proton transfer from the FBP C(4) hydroxyl group to the Asp83 carboxyl group. In the absence of FBP, the alternative zinc position is too remote for coordinating the Asp83. We propose a modification of the catalytic mechanism that incorporates the novel features observed in the FBPA/FBP structure. The mechanism invokes coordination and co-planarity of the Zn2+ with the FBP’s O-C(3)-C(4)-O concomitant with coordination of Asp83 carboxylic group. Catalysis is accompanied by movement of Zn2+ to a site co-planar with the O-C(2)-C(3)-O of the DHAP. glFBPA exhibit strict substrate specificity towards FBP and

  11. Method to enumerate oocysts of cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briancesco, R.; Bonadonna, L.

    2000-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been recognized as etiological agents of gastrointestinal illness in humans with severe consequences on children and immunocompromised individuals. Water seems to be vehicle of infection. In last years many efforts have been done to evaluate a method to enumerate oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia in waters. Throughout filtration and concentration steps, the two procedures proposed allow to enumerate oocysts and cysts belonging to the two genera of protozoa [it

  12. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during Giardia encystment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Jarroll, E.L.; Macechko, P.T.; Steimle, P.A.; Bulik, D.; Karr, C.D.; Keulen, Harry van; Paget, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis trophozoites encyst when they are exposed to bile. During encystment, events related to the inducible synthesis of a novel N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer, occur. Within the first 6 h of encystment, mRNA for glucosamine 6-P isomerase (GPI), the first inducible

  13. Parasitismo intestinal en manipuladores de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Nicolás Gómez Vital

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal representa un significativo problema en la salud mundial. Se realiza un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo en manipuladores de alimentos de los principales centros de elaboración de la ciudad de Santa Clara, provincia Villa Clara, durante 1998. Los enteroparásitos patógenos encontrados por orden de frecuencia fueron la Giardia lamblia y la Entamoeba hitolytica; detectados por método directo y de ritchie para dichos parásitos. La técnica de kato katz fue más eficaz para el diagnóstico de los geohelmintos. Se resalta la función del personal médico en centros de trabajo.Intestinal parasitism is a significant problem for world health. An epidemiological and descriptive study was conducted among food handlers at the main centers of elaboration in the city of Santa Clara, Villa Clara province, during 1998. The pathogenic enteroparasites found by order of frequency were Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba hitolytica, which were detected by using Ritchie's and direct method for such parasites. The Katokatz's technique was more efficient for the diagnosis of geohelminth. It was underlined the function of the medical team at the working centers.

  14. Parasitismo intestinal en círculos infantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gómez Vital

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 1 113 niños asistentes a 5 círculos infantiles del municipio de Santa Clara, Villa Clara; con el propósito de analizar la incidencia de parasitismo intestinal. Se les procesaron las muestras de heces fecales mediante 3 métodos coproparasitológicos; demostrándose que el 42,2 % de la muestra estaba parasitada. Las especies más frecuentes fueron la Giardia lamblia, el Enterobius vermicularis y la Entamoeba histolytica, con asociaciones de parásitos en varios casos. Estos son más frecuentes a partir del tercer año de vida. Se resalta la influencia positiva del médico y enfermera de la familia en estas instituciones.1 113 children attending 5 day cae centers in Santa Clara, Villa Clara, were studied aimed at analyzing the incidence of intestinal parasitism. Faeces samples were processed by 3 coproparasitological methods and it was proved that 42.2 % of the samples had parasites. The most frequent species found were Giardia lamblia, enterobius vernmicularis and Entamoeba histolytica with associations of parasites in several cases. These are commoner from the third year of life on. The positive influence of the family physician and nurse in these institutions are stressed.

  15. Incidence of and risks associated with Giardia infections in herds on dairy farms in the New York City Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaaf Stephanie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Giardia infections in dairy herds on farms in the New York City Watershed region and to evaluate risk factors associated with infections. Because co-infections of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common in this population, we also evaluated the effect of herd infection status on Giardia infections. Methods Farms were grouped into three cohorts based on their prior infection status with Giardia and/or Cryptosporidium spp. The sampling plan included collecting fecal samples from all calves below 30 days of age and proportional sampling of calves, young stock, and adults. A total of 10,672 fecal samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of Giardia cysts using zinc sulfate flotation. Herds enrolled in the study were sampled seasonally for a study period of two years. The probability of shedding cysts past a certain age and the factors that influenced the likelihood of shedding were evaluated using survival analysis. Linear regression was used to evaluate factors that were associated with the intensity of shedding. Results The majority of Giardia infections occurred in calves within their first 180 days of age, with the most number of calves shedding Giardia cysts between 11 and 20 days of age. The incidence of shedding of Giardia cysts ranged from 0.0004 per animal day for cattle in the low risk cohort to 0.0011 per animal day for cattle in the high risk cohort. The likelihood of shedding was influenced by the prior infection status of the herd and the season of collection. Infected animals shed on average 9,658 cysts/gram and the intensity of shedding Giardia cysts varied significantly with the age (p Conclusion Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the New York City watershed, particularly in calves less than 6 months of age. Seasonality may be an important factor in the perpetuation of infections based on changes in management practices

  16. Factors promoting in vitro excystation of Giardia muris cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, F W; Rice, E W; Hoff, J C

    1984-01-01

    Giardia muris cysts, isolated from mouse faeces, excysted routinely at levels greater than 90%, when induced in 1X Hanks' supplemented with 17 mM glutathione, 29 mM L-cysteine-HCl, and 50 mM NaHCO3 for 30 minutes at 35 degrees C, followed by washing and suspension in trypsin-Tyrode's solution at pH 8.0. Although trypsin was not required in this final step, it enhanced the escape of the trophozoites from their cysts. G. muris excystation was dependent upon the length of the induction period, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and temperature. Optimal induction conditions for excystation were: an induction period of 5 to 30 min; pH of 2; 120 mV oxidation-reduction potential; and a temperature around 35 degrees C. A gradual decline in excystation occurred as pH and oxidation-reduction potential were changed to 7 and 57 mV, respectively. There was a pronounced increase in excystation percentages with increasing temperatures between 0 and 37 degrees C. At 40 degrees C and above, the G. muris cysts showed signs of inactivation. The thermal death point of G. muris cysts was determined to be about 54 degrees C. G. muris cysts showed no polarity; however, the tail or posterior trophozoite portion always emerged through one end of the cyst first. Cytokinensis began within the first hour after excystation. This method always produced extremely active, normal-looking G. muris trophozoites.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species and Giardia duodenalis from Symptomatic Cambodian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E.; Elwin, Kristin; Phot, Nget; Seng, Chanthou; Mao, Saroeun; Suy, Kuong; Kumar, Varun; Nader, Johanna; Bousfield, Rachel; Perera, Sanuki; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Parry, Christopher M.; Chalmers, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498) of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498) with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18.9% (94/498) by microscopy and 27.7% (138/498) by molecular tests; 82% of the positive samples (by either method) were from children aged 1–10 years. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most common species of Cryptosporidium, detected in 13 (34.2%) samples, followed by Cryptosporidium meleagridis in 9 (23.7%), Cryptosporidium parvum in 8 (21.1%), Cryptosporidium canis in 5 (13.2%), and Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample each. Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the GP60 gene: C. hominis IaA16R6 and C. parvum IIeA7G1 were the most abundant subtypes. Giardia duodenalis was typed using a multiplex real-time PCR targeting assemblages A and B. Assemblage B (106; 76.8% of all Giardia positive samples) was most common followed by A (12.3%) and mixed infections (5.1%). Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium were malnutrition (AOR 9.63, 95% CI 1.67–55.46), chronic medical diagnoses (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.79–11.34) and the presence of birds in the household (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16–7.73); specifically C. hominis (p = 0.03) and C. meleagridis (p<0.001) were associated with the presence of birds. The use of soap was protective against Giardia infection (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58–0.95). Conclusions/Significance This is the first report to describe the different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Cambodian children. The variety of Cryptosporidium species detected indicates both

  18. Emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia door landbouwhuisdieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijven JF; Bruin HAM de; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the relative contributions of the pathogenic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia by manure of farm animals in The Netherlands to the total yearly environmental load was studied. Manure of veal calves forms a very large source of Cryptosporidium (1.5 m 10 square 16 oocysts per year)

  19. Common coinfections of Giardia intestinalis and Helicobacter pylori in non-symptomatic Ugandan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Ankarklev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis and the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori are well known for their high prevalences in human hosts worldwide. The prevalence of both organisms is known to peak in densely populated, low resource settings and children are infected early in life. Different Giardia genotypes/assemblages have been associated with different symptoms and H. pylori with induction of cancer. Despite this, not much data are available from sub-Saharan Africa with regards to the prevalence of different G. intestinalis assemblages and their potential association with H. pylori infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from 427 apparently healthy children, 0-12 years of age, living in urban Kampala, Uganda were analyzed for the presence of H. pylori and G. intestinalis. G. intestinalis was found in 86 (20.1% out of the children and children age 1<5 years had the highest rates of colonization. H. pylori was found in 189 (44.3% out of the 427 children and there was a 3-fold higher risk of concomitant G. intestinalis and H. pylori infections compared to non-concomitant G. intestinalis infection, OR = 2.9 (1.7-4.8. No significant association was found in the studied population with regard to the presence of Giardia and gender, type of toilet, source of drinking water or type of housing. A panel of 45 G. intestinalis positive samples was further analyzed using multi-locus genotyping (MLG on three loci, combined with assemblage-specific analyses. Giardia MLG analysis yielded a total of five assemblage AII, 25 assemblage B, and four mixed assemblage infections. The assemblage B isolates were highly genetically variable but no significant association was found between Giardia assemblage type and H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that Giardia assemblage B dominates in children in Kampala, Uganda and that the presence of H. pylori is an associated risk factor for G

  20. Predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and associated variables in children at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital, Peru

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    Heber Silva-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the type and frequency of predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and their associated characteristics in children treated at Hospital Regional Lambayeque (HRL - Peru. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in 70 fecal samples between March and May 2015. These samples were studied by coproculture and immunochromatography for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, while enteroparasites were sought by direct microscopic examination, Kinyoun staining method and ELISA for the detection of coproantigens (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Leukocyte count and chemical tests (Benedict, Thevenon and Sudan III were also performed for the functional study of the diarrheal disease. Results: In 48.6% of the samples, the infectious etiology of diarrhea was detected, prevailing the parasitic cause (25.8%, followed by the bacterial (17.1% and viral (5.8% ones. The most common enteropathogens were G. lamblia (18.6% and Salmonella enteritidis (10.0%. An association between greater than 100 fecal leukocytes per field and the bacterial etiology (p=0.027 was observed, while less than 10 fecal leukocytes per field (p=0.002 and a positive Sudam III test (p=0.003 were associated with the parasitic etiology. Conclusions: In more than half of the samples (51.4% the infectious etiology of diarrhea could not be proven, whereas Giardia lamblia was the most frequent cause of diarrhea in the studied population. However, it is necessary to implement more sensitive and specific techniques for the detection of a greater range of enteropathogens with which to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  1. The Military Efficacy of Individual Water Purification Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    criteria. ’t *.;as a.Lso serv ea that the KPF units grew opportunistic Pseudomonas sp . on the oroduct water side of the filters, which could have a...small pathogenic protozoan cysts such as Cryptospor-dium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba coli, from water over the effective use life of the...of heterotrophic bacteria such as Pseudoronas sP , Flavobacterium Sp , and other potentially harmfui organisms inside of the units. Enteric viruses are

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites....... The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12...

  3. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    /148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study......Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites...

  4. Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic dogs and cats in Wroclaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, Jolanta; Bajzert, Joanna; Gorczykowski, Michał; Kantyka, Magdalena; Podkowik, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Giardia duodenalis (G. intestinalis) is a common protozoan causing gastrointestinal disorders in many species of mammals. The genus of Giardia has high molecular diversity. Dogs and cats, in addition to their typical infection with assemblages C, D and F, may be a reservoir of zoonotic assemblages (A and B). The aim of this study was a genetic characteristic of Giardia isolates of dogs and cats from the area of Wroclaw (Poland). A total of 128 and 33 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analyzed by routine coprological methods. The animals were diagnosed on the presence of G. duodenalis antigens in faeces soluble with the use of SNAP Giardia (IDEXX Laboratories) immunosorbent assay. 27 DNA isolates of Giardia were subjected to molecular identification (PCR-RFLP). The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 21.1% (27/128) in dogs and 15.1% (5/33) in cats. In dogs, C assemblage was present in 18 (81%) positive stool samples, D assemblage in 2 (9%) samples, B assemblage present in one (4.5%), and mixed assemblages (C and D) occurred in one (4.5%) sample. F assemblage was found in 4 (80%) cats' positive stool samples and A assemblage occurred in one case (20%). Confirmation of the presence of A and B zoonotic assemblages suggests that infected pets can be a threat to human health. This study describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D assemblages in dogs in Poland.

  5. High occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes 1-3 and Giardia intestinalis assemblage B among patients in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Joakim; Granlund, Margareta; Samuelsson, Linn; Koskiniemi, Satu; Edebro, Helén; Evengård, Birgitta

    2016-06-29

    Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy. Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Dientamoeba fragilis was used. Blastocystis subtypes were determined by a conventional PCR followed by partial sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene. Genetic assemblages of Giardia were determined by PCR with assemblage specific primers. Intestinal parasites were detected in 85 % of the 174 participants, with two or more parasites present in 56 %. Blastocystis sp. and Giardia intestinalis were the most common parasites, identified by PCR in 61 and 53 % of the stool samples respectively, but no correlation between carriage of Blastocystis and Giardia was found. The Blastocystis subtype distribution was ST1 34.0 %, ST2 26.4 %, ST3 25.5 %, ST7 0.9 %, and 13.2 % were positive only by qPCR (non-typable). The Giardia genetic assemblages identified were A 6.5 %, B 85 %, A + B 4.3 %, and non-typable 4.3 %. The detection rate with microscopy was substantially lower than with PCR, 20 % for Blastocystis and 13.8 % for Giardia. The prevalence of Blastocystis increased significantly with age while Giardia was most prevalent in children two to five years old. No correlation between diarrhoea and the identification of Giardia, Blastocystis, or their respective genetic subtypes could be shown and, as a possible indication of parasite load, the mean cycle threshold values in the qPCR for Giardia were equal in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic patients. Carriage of intestinal parasites was very

  6. Studies on the resistance/reactivation of Giardia muris cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts exposed to medium-pressure ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosevic, M; Craik, S A; Stafford, J L; Neumann, N F; Kruithof, J; Smith, D W

    2001-10-16

    The ex vivo and in vivo reactivation of Giardia muris cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts after exposure to different doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation was determined using animal infectivity. The infectivity of UV-treated parasites stored for 1-4 days (G. muris) or 1-17 days (C. parvum) at room temperature in the dark was similar to that of organisms administered immediately after UV treatment, indicating that the parasites did not reactivate ex vivo. In contrast, we observed in vivo reactivation of G. muris in three of seven independent animal infectivity experiments, when parasites were treated with relatively low doses of medium-pressure UV (muris cysts and C. parvum oocysts exposed to medium-pressure UV doses of 60 mJ/cm(2) or higher did not exhibit resistance to and/or reactivation following treatment. This suggests that when appropriate doses of UV are used, significant and permanent inactivation of these parasites may be achieved.

  7. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys (Procolobus kirkii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John J; Atencia, Rebeca; Midtgaard, Fred; Robertson, Lucy J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in primates and determine their zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential. Direct immunofluorescence was used to identify Giardia and Cryptosporidium from faecal samples. PCR and DNA sequencing was performed on positive results. Giardia cysts were identified from 5.5% (5/90) of captive chimpanzees and 0% (0/11) of captive mandrills in the Republic of Congo; 0% (0/10) of captive chimpanzees in Norway; and 0% of faecal samples (n = 49) from wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys. Two Giardia positive samples were also positive on PCR, and sequencing revealed identical isolates of Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the samples. In these primate groups, in which interactions with humans and human environments are quite substantial, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are rare pathogens. In chimpanzees, Giardia may have a zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Relationship between protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A, and parasitoses in children living in Brasília Relação entre desnutrição energético-protéica, vitamina A, e parasitoses em crianças vivendo em Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is still controversial whether intestinal parasitic infections can influence the nutritional status of children. The relationship between protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A and parasitic infections was evaluated in 124 children. The food intake estimated by recall method was generally low and poor. Seventy five percent of the children were infected with intestinal parasites. The mean±SD weight-for-age and height-for-age Z-score were skewed one standard deviation to the left, when compared to normal standards. An association was found between protein-energy malnutrition and Giardia lamblia, but not with Ascaris lumbricoides or Hymenolepis nana infection. Only Giardia-infected children had a decreased weight-for-age and weight-for-height Z-score. Hypovitaminosis A was a major nutritional problem, but no relationship between this deficiency and parasitic infection was found. Our data indicate that low and poor food intake were the major cause of protein-energy malnutrition among the children, and except for Giardia, this was not influenced by parasitic infections.É controverso se parasitismo intestinal interfere no estado nutricional. A relação entre desnutrição energético-protéica, vitamina A e parasitoses intestinais foi avaliada em 124 crianças. A ingestão alimentar estimada pelo método recordatório mostrou-se deficiente em quantidade e qualidade. Setenta e cinco porcento das crianças estavam parasitadas. A média±DP do Z-escore do peso-para-idade e altura-para-idade da população estudada desviou-se aproximadamente um DP para a esquerda em relação aos padrões normais. Encontrou-se associação entre desnutrição energético-protéica e parasitismo por Giardia lamblia, mas não por Ascaris lumbricoides ou Hymenolepis nana. Somente crianças infectadas por Giardia mostraram deficiência do peso-para-idade e peso-para-altura avaliado pelo Z-escore. Hipovitaminose A foi um importante problema nutricional, mas não houve

  9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes and subtypes in raw and treated water in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, M L; Xiao, L; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2009-06-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of diarrhoeal illness reported worldwide are mostly associated with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Their presence in aquatic systems makes it essential to develop preventive strategies for water and food safety. This study was undertaken to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a total of 175 water samples, including raw and treated water from both surface and ground sources in Portugal. The samples were processed according to USEPA Method 1623 for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, followed by detection of oocysts/cysts by immunofluorecence (IFA) microscopy, PCR-based techniques were done on all water samples collected. Out of 175 samples, 81 (46.3%) were positive for Cryptosporidium and 67 (38.3%) for Giardia by IFA. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis genotypes were identified by PCR in 37 (21.7%) and 9 (5.1%) water samples, respectively. C. parvum was the most common species (78.9%), followed by C. hominis (13.2%), C. andersoni (5.3%), and C. muris (2.6%). Subtype IdA15 was identified in all C. hominis-positive water samples. Subtyping revealed the presence of C. parvum subtypes IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1 and IIdA17G1. Giardia duodenalis subtype A1 was identified. The results of the present study suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were widely distributed in source water and treated water in Portugal. Moreover, the results obtained indicate a high occurrence of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium genotypes and subtypes in raw and treated water samples. Thus, water can be a potential vehicle in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis, and giardiasis of humans and animals in Portugal.

  10. Determination of the level of parasitic infection (Cryptosporidium and Giardia of the vegetables marketed in Ilam city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyad Avazpoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infected with intestinal parasites is one of the most important health and economical problems, which could have different effects, such as diarrheal diseases or death associated. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in the vegetable marketed in Ilam city. Methods: This study was performed on 280 samples of fresh vegetables and lettuce in Ilam. The samples were taken at the level of 500 grams from the places where vegetables and lettuce are sold. Micro liters of each sample was placed on the slide using automatic micropipette, and Logel and Zyl-Nelson stainings were performed in order to identify Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Results: From 200 samples, 54 samples were contaminated to Cryptosporidium oocyte and 13 samples to Giardia cysts. From 80 lettuce samples also 32 samples were contaminated to Cryptosporidium oocyte, and 6 samples contaminated to Giardia cysts. The results showed that the overall infection was 37%. Infection with Giardia cysts was 6.8% and infection with Cryptosporidium oocyte was 30.7%, and Cryptosporidium infection rates in vegetables and lettuce were different. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: As a result of this research it is determined that the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Ilam vegetables is significantly higher, and the contamination of lettuce is far greater. Therefore, authorities should be more attentive to the field of education and the control of parasitic diseases.

  11. Eliminatie van virussen, Cryptosporidium en Giardia door drinkwaterzuiveringsprocessen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema GJ; Theunissen J; MGB

    1996-01-01

    A study on the removal efficiency of drinking water treatment processes for viruses and protozoa (Cryptosporidium/Giardia). The description is based on the best available Dutch and, if data on the Dutch situation are absent, international research data. The approach is valid for well-designed and

  12. Antigiardial activity of glycoproteins and glycopeptides from Ziziphus honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Seif Eldin A; Kabashi, Ahmed S; Koko, Waleed S; Azim, M Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Natural honey contains an array of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycopeptides. Size-exclusion chromatography fractionated Ziziphus honey proteins into five peaks with molecular masses in the range from 10 to >200 kDa. The fractionated proteins exhibited in vitro activities against Giardia lamblia with IC50 values ≤ 25 μg/mL. Results indicated that honey proteins were more active as antiprotozoal agents than metronidazole. This study indicated the potential of honey proteins and peptides as novel antigiardial agents.

  13. Characterization of telomeres and telomerase from the single-celled eukaryote Giardia intestinalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzlíková, M.; Fulnečková, Jana; Weisz, F.; Sýkorová, Eva; Nohýnková, E.; Tůmová, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 211, JAN 2017 (2017), s. 31-38 ISSN 0166-6851 Grant - others:Grantová agentura ČR - GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/1248 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : trypanosoma-brucei * parasitic protozoa * 2 nuclei * lamblia * evolution * rna * organization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2016

  14. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Alava, North of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Guillermo A. [Livestock Laboratory, Regional Government of Alava, Ctra. de Azua 4, 01520 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Carabin, Helene [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, 801 Northeast 13th Street, Room 309, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Goni, Pilar [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arriola, Larraitz [Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Division of Guipuzcoa, Basque Government, Av. Navarra 4, 2013 San Sebastian (Spain); Robinson, Guy [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Crespo, Juan C. [Sub-direction of Public Health of Alava, Department of Health, Basque Government, Avda. Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Clavel, Antonio [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chalmers, Rachel M. [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Carmena, David, E-mail: d.carmena@imperial.ac.uk [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Alava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Alava.

  15. Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

  16. Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis assemblage E from goat kids in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alamgir Hossain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To molecularly characterize Giardia in goat kids to elucidate the possible zoonotic hazards in Bangladesh and find out the role of Giardia protozoan parasite as a source of human infection. Methods: Fecal samples of 100 goat kids were genotyped by nested PCR amplification of β-giardin gene fragment followed by sequencing and analysis. Results: The total prevalence of Giardia in goat kids was 3% (3/100 and the infection is more widespread in younger (P = 0.36, Black Bengal breed (P = 0.81 and female goat kids (P = 0.58. Further analysis ofβ-giardin gene locus has shown that the gene clustered in assemblage E rather than assemblages A and B. Conclusions: The present study suggests the low zoonotic transmission frequency from the goat kids and and giardiasis has least epidemiological significance to humans. Further study on this field is prerequisite in terms of broad geographical areas, age groups, sex and evaluation of zoonotic significance along with genetic diversity in other host species as well.

  17. Selecting PCR for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, G. N.; Hoegh, S. V.; Skov, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Microscopy of stool samples is a labour-intensive and inaccurate technique for detection of intestinal parasites causing diarrhoea and replacement by PCR is attractive. Almost all cases of diarrhoea induced by parasites over a nine-year period in our laboratory were due to Giardia lamblia......, Cryptosporidium species, or Entamoeba histolytica detected by microscopy. We evaluated and selected in-house singleplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays for these pathogens in 99 stool samples from patients suspected of having intestinal parasitosis tested by microscopy. The strategy included a genus-specific PCR...... assay for C. parvum and C. hominis, with subsequent identification by a PCR that distinguishes between the two species. G. lamblia was detected in five and C. parvum in one out of 68 microscopy-negative samples. The performance of the in-house RT-PCR assays was compared to three commercially available...

  18. Human waterborne parasites in zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from the Shannon River drainage area, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Conn, David Bruce; Lucy, Frances; Minchin, Dan; Tamang, Leena; Moura, Lacy N S; DaSilva, Alexandre J

    2004-08-01

    Zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from throughout the Shannon River drainage area in Ireland were tested for the anthropozoonotic waterborne parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, by the multiplexed combined direct immunofluorescent antibody and fluorescent in situ hybridization method, and PCR. Parasite transmission stages were found at 75% of sites, with the highest mean concentration of 16, nine, and eight C. parvum oocysts, G. lamblia cysts, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores/mussel, respectively. On average eight Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores/mussel were recovered at any selected site. Approximately 80% of all parasites were viable and thus capable of initiating human infection. The Shannon River is polluted with serious emerging human waterborne pathogens including C. parvum, against which no therapy exists. Zebra mussels can recover and concentrate environmentally derived pathogens and can be used for the sanitary assessment of water quality.

  19. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities. PMID:25366301

  20. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous communities in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Nasr, Nabil N; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A L; Surin, Johari

    2014-11-04

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤ 12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities.

  1. Cryptosporidium and Giardia: new challenges to the water industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Gerriet Jan

    1999-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis have emerged as significant waterborne pathogens over the past decades. Many outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recorded,primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom.Chapter 1 gives an

  2. First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that G...

  3. Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obala, A A; Simiyu, C J; Odhiambo, D O; Nanyu, V; Chege, P; Downing, R; Mwaliko, E; Mwangi, A W; Menya, D; Chelagat, D; Nyamogoba, H D N; Ayuo, P O; O'Meara, W P; Twagirumukiza, M; Vandenbroek, D; Otsyula, B B O; de Maeseneer, J

    2013-01-01

    Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS) area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. Direct saline and formal-ether-sedimentation techniques were used to process the specimens. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A prevalence of 52.3% (417/797) was obtained with the male child slightly more infected than the female (53.5% versus 51%), but this was not significant (χ (2) = 0.482, P > 0.05). Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most common pathogenic IPIs with a prevalence of 26.1% (208/797) and 11.2% (89/797), respectively. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797), 3.8% (30/797), and 0.13% (1/797) for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Conclusions. Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica were the most prevalent pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while STHs were less common. Community-based health promotion techniques are recommended for controlling these parasites.

  4. Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Obala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. Direct saline and formal-ether-sedimentation techniques were used to process the specimens. Descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. A prevalence of 52.3% (417/797 was obtained with the male child slightly more infected than the female (53.5% versus 51%, but this was not significant (χ2=0.482, P>0.05. Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most common pathogenic IPIs with a prevalence of 26.1% (208/797 and 11.2% (89/797, respectively. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs were less common with a prevalence of 4.8% (38/797, 3.8% (30/797, and 0.13% (1/797 for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, and Trichuris trichiura, respectively. Conclusions. Giardia lamblia and E. histolytica were the most prevalent pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while STHs were less common. Community-based health promotion techniques are recommended for controlling these parasites.

  5. Subclinical Enteric Parasitic Infections and Growth Faltering in Infants in São Tomé, Africa: A Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Marisol; Seixas, Jorge; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Alves, Marta

    2018-01-01

    The associations between enteric pathogenic parasites and growth in infants in São Tomé were explored using a refined anthropometric approach to recognize early growth faltering. A birth cohort study was conducted with follow-up to 24 months of age. Microscopic examination for protozoa and soil-transmitted helminths was performed. Anthropometric assessments included: z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), weight (WAVZ) and length velocities (LAVZ), length-for-age difference (LAD), and wasting and stunting risk (≤−1 SD). Generalized additive mixed effects regression models were used to explore the associations between anthropometric parameters and enteric parasitic infections and cofactors. A total of 475 infants were enrolled, and 282 completed the study. The great majority of infants were asymptomatic. Giardia lamblia was detected in 35.1% of infants in at least one stool sample, helminths in 30.4%, and Cryptosporidium spp. in 14.7%. Giardia lamblia and helminth infections were significantly associated with mean decreases of 0.10 in LAZ and 0.32 in LAD, and of 0.16 in LAZ and 0.48 in LAD, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was significantly associated with a mean decrease of 0.43 in WAVZ and 0.55 in LAVZ. The underestimated association between subclinical parasitic enteric infections and mild growth faltering in infants should be addressed in public health policies. PMID:29621166

  6. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidum spp. and Giardia spp. in environmental samples in Hanam province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram Thuy; Traub, Rebecca J.; Pham, Phuc Duc

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites that cause human diarrheal disease worldwide. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence and concentrations of these protozoa in environmental samples in Hanam, Vietnam and to assess potential contamination sources using molecular...... Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 25.4% and 35.0% of samples analyzed, respectively. In water, a higher percentage of Cryptosporidium spp. (41.7%; 43/103) contamination was observed compared to that of Giardia spp. 28.2% (29/103). Both Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were found...... contaminating vegetables at the same level, at 15.4% (4/26) each. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium in samples ranged from 10 to 1900 oocysts per 100 ml water or 100 g vegetable/composted waste sample with a median number of 100 oocysts per 100 ml/g. The concentration of Giardia cysts ranged from 10 to 1836 per...

  7. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in beef cows in southern Ontario and in beef calves in southern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Tim A; Olson, Merle E; Fletch, Andy; Wetzstein, Merv; Entz, Toby

    2005-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999, fecal samples were collected from 669 beef cows on 39 farms located within 10 counties of Ontario. Overall prevalences of Giardia, Cryptosporidium muris, and Cryptosporidium parvum in cows were 8.7%, 10.6%, and 18.4%, respectively. Of the 39 farms sampled, Giardia was detected on 64%, Cr. muris on 72%, and Cr. parvum on 90%. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 28% of the cows in 1998 and in 5.2% in 1999. Differences between the 2 y were attributed to sampling during calving in 1998 and during gestation in 1999. In 1998, Giardia, Cr. muris, and Cr. parvum were detected in herds provided with municipal water. In 1998, 193 calves were sampled from 10 farms, representing 4 watersheds, in British Columbia. Thirty-six percent of the calves exhibited signs of diarrhea. Overall prevalences of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in calves were 36% and 13%, respectively. There was evidence that calves with Giardia were more likely to develop scours. Restricting cattle from surface water during periods of high shedding may reduce watershed contamination.

  8. Consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA in detection of Giardia in stool specimen among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Torabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA for determination of Giadia in stool specimen. Method: Study population consisted of children with any clinical symptoms of Giardia infestation since last two weeks. Fresh stool specimen was collected from each child. The stools specimens were assessed by two methods of direct microscopic examination and ELISA.The degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA was calculated by Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results: In this study, 124 children with age range 2-12 years were investigated. A total of 64 (61.7% and 79 (65.7% of children had Giardia by direct stool exam and ELISA test respectively. There was association between frequency of constipation and Giardia infection (P=0.036. The Cohen's kappa coefficient calculated for degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA showed κ=0.756 (P<0.001. Conclusions: The frequency of Giardia infection in symptomatic children was high and there was high agreement rate between ELISA and direct stool smear.

  9. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kolehmainen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity...... zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs...

  10. Diseminación de enteroparasitos por Calliphoridae (Insecta, Diptera Disemination of enteroparasites by Calliphoridae (Insecta, Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Mariluis

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available It is establish the dissemination enteroparasite by Calliphoridae in a district situated around by Federal Capital of Argentina. The species implicated in this dispersal are: Phaenicia sericata (meigen, 1826; Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830; Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, 1818 and Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819. Fifty two flies was studies, thirty four (65% to belong at the family Calliphoridae. Of this thirteen (38% have eggs of taeniid and cysts of Entamoeba coli (Grassi, 1879 and Giardia lamblia Styles, 1915.

  11. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present study aimed to investigate prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugees visiting Central Health Unit (CHU), Kot ... are common among Afghan refugees and serious preventive measures should be implemented to promote the safety and healthy lifestyle of these people.

  12. Molecular systematics of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monis, P T; Andrews, R H; Mayrhofer, G; Ey, P L

    1999-09-01

    The long-standing controversy regarding whether Giardia intestinalis is a single species prevalent in both human and animal hosts or a species complex consisting of morphologically similar organisms that differ in host range and other biotypic characteristics is an issue with important medical, veterinary, and environmental management implications. In the past decade, highly distinct genotypes (some apparently confined to particular host groups) have been identified by genetic analysis of samples isolated from different host species. The aim of this study was to undertake a phylogenetic analysis of G. intestinalis that were representative of all known major genetic groups and compare them with other Giardia species, viz. G. ardeae, G. muris, and G. microti. Segments from four "housekeeping" genes (specifying glutamate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, elongation factor 1 alpha, and 18S ribosomal RNA) were examined by analysis of 0.48-0.69-kb nucleotide sequences determined from DNA amplified in polymerase chain reactions from each locus. In addition, isolates were compared by allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data obtained for 21 enzymes representing 23 gene loci. The results obtained from these independent techniques and different loci were essentially congruous. Analyses using G. ardeae and/or G. muris as outgroups supported the monophyly of G. intestinalis and also showed that this species includes genotypes that represent at least seven deeply rooted lineages, herein designated assemblages A-G. Inclusion of G. microti in the analysis of 18S rRNA sequence data demonstrated the monophyly of Giardia with the same median body morphology but did not support the monophyly of G. intestinalis, instead placing G. microti within G. intestinalis. The findings support the hypothesis that G. intestinalis is a species complex and suggest that G. microti is a member of this complex.

  13. Intestinal infection with Giardia spp. reduces epithelial barrier function in a myosin light chain kinase-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kevin G-E; Meddings, Jonathon B; Kirk, David R; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Buret, André G

    2002-10-01

    Giardiasis causes malabsorptive diarrhea, and symptoms can be present in the absence of any significant morphologic injury to the intestinal mucosa. The effects of giardiasis on epithelial permeability in vivo remain unknown, and the role of T cells and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in altered intestinal barrier function is unclear. This study was conducted to determine whether Giardia spp. alters intestinal permeability in vivo, to assess whether these abnormalities are dependent on T cells, and to assess the role of MLCK in altered epithelial barrier function. Immunocompetent and isogenic athymic mice were inoculated with axenic Giardia muris trophozoites or sterile vehicle (control), then assessed for trophozoite colonization and gastrointestinal permeability. Mechanistic studies using nontransformed human duodenal epithelial monolayers (SCBN) determined the effects of Giardia on myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, transepithelial fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran fluxes, cytoskeletal F-actin, tight junctional zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and MLCK. Giardia infection caused a significant increase in small intestinal, but not gastric or colonic, permeability that correlated with trophozoite colonization in both immunocompetent and athymic mice. In vitro, Giardia increased permeability and phosphorylation of MLC and reorganized F-actin and ZO-1. These alterations were abolished with an MLCK inhibitor. Disruption of small intestinal barrier function is T cell independent, disappears on parasite clearance, and correlates with reorganization of cytoskeletal F-actin and tight junctional ZO-1 in an MLCK-dependent fashion.

  14. Efficacy of Flocculating and Other Emergency Water Purification Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    challenge agent was Giardia muris cysts (10,11,12). Water temperatures were 5 °C, 15 °C and 25 °C. Chemical Agent Challenge The challengjng chemical...Aquapure water purification tablets for inactivation of Giardia muris cysts. Final Technical Report, W1360701503201. Environmental Ass=iates LTD, 1185...Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. c. 20460. 27 39. Jackson, T.F.H.G. 1988. A report of the effect of Chlorfloc treabrent on Giardia muris cysts

  15. Cytokines, antibodies and histopathological profiles during Giardia infection and VSP-based vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradell, Marianela C; Gargantini, Pablo R; Saura, Alicia; Oms, Sergio R; Rupil, Lucía L; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim; Luján, Hugo D

    2018-03-19

    Giardiasis is one of the most common human intestinal diseases worldwide. Several experimental animals have been used to evaluate Giardia infections, with gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) being the most valuable model due to their high susceptibility to Giardia infection, abundant shedding of cysts, and pathophysiological alterations and signs of disease similar to those observed in humans. Here we report cytokine and antibody profiles both during the course of Giardia infection in gerbils and after immunization with a novel oral vaccine comprising a mixture of purified Variant-specific Surface Proteins (VSPs). Transcript levels of representative cytokines of different immune profiles as well as macro- and micro-tissue alterations were assessed in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens. During infection, cytokine responses showed a biphasic profile: an early induction of Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF), Th17 (IL-17) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, together with intestinal alterations typical of inflammation, followed by a shift toward a predominant Th2 (IL-5) response, likely associated with a counter-regulatory mechanism. Conversely, immunization with an oral vaccine comprising the entire repertoire of VSPs specifically showed high levels of IL-17, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-5, without obvious signs of inflammation. Both immunized and infected animals developed local (intestinal S-IgA) and systemic (serum IgG) humoral immune responses against VSPs; however, only infected animals showed evident signs of giardiasis. This is the first comprehensive report of cytokine expression and anti- Giardia antibody production during infection and VSP vaccination in gerbils, a reliable model of the human disease. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in farmers and their ruminant livestock from the Coastal Savannah zone of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Sylvia Afriyie; Yang, Rongchang; Robertson, Ian; Ayi, Irene; Ryan, Una

    2017-11-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoea in developing countries including Ghana, however, nothing is known about the species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in farmers and their ruminant livestock in this country. A total of 925 faecal samples from humans (n=95), cattle (n=328), sheep (n=217) and goats (n=285), were screened for Cryptosporidium and Giardia by quantitative PCR (qPCR) at the 18S rRNA and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci respectively. Cryptosporidium positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S and 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci amplicons. Giardia positives were typed at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta-giardin (bg) and gdh loci. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by qPCR was 8.4% and 10.5% in humans, 26.5% and 8.5% in cattle, 34.1% and 12.9% in sheep, and 33.3% and 12.3% in goat faecal samples, respectively. G. duodenalis assemblages A and B were detected in humans and assemblage E was detected in livestock. Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species identified in humans; C. andersoni, C. bovis, C. ryanae and C. ubiquitum were identified in cattle; C. xiaoi, C. ubiquitum and C. bovis in sheep; and C. xiaoi, C. baileyi and C. parvum in goats. This is the first molecular study of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in livestock in Ghana. The identification of zoonotic species and the identification of C. parvum subtype IIcA5G3q in livestock, which has previously been identified in children in Ghana, suggests potential zoonotic transmission. Further studies on larger numbers of human and animal samples, and on younger livestock are required to better understand the epidemiology and transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Ghana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and domestic cattle in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Woutrina A; Cranfield, Michael R; Ramer, Jan; Hassell, James; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K

    2014-01-01

    Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are critically endangered primates surviving in two isolated populations in protected areas within the Virunga Massif of Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. Mountain gorillas face intense ecologic pressures due to their proximity to humans. Human communities outside the national parks, and numerous human activities within the national parks (including research, tourism, illegal hunting, and anti-poaching patrols), lead to a high degree of contact between mountain gorillas and wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. To assess the pathogen transmission potential between wildlife and livestock, feces of mountain gorillas, forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in Rwanda were examined for the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia was found in 9% of mountain gorillas, 6% of cattle, and 2% of forest buffalo. Our study represents the first report of Giardia prevalence in forest buffalo. Cryptosporidium-like particles were also observed in all three species. Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates identified zoonotic genotype assemblage B in the gorilla samples and assemblage E in the cattle samples. Significant spatial clustering of Giardia-positive samples was observed in one sector of the park. Although we did not find evidence for transmission of protozoa from forest buffalo to mountain gorillas, the genotypes of Giardia samples isolated from gorillas have been reported in humans, suggesting that the importance of humans in this ecosystem should be more closely evaluated.

  18. Estimating Cryptosporidium and Giardia disease burdens for children drinking untreated groundwater in a rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Smith, Woutrina A; Jenkins, Marion W

    2018-01-01

    In many low-income settings, despite improvements in sanitation and hygiene, groundwater sources used for drinking may be contaminated with enteric pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which remain important causes of childhood morbidity. In this study, we examined the contribution of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia found in groundwater sources used for drinking to the total burden of diarrheal disease among children cause (i.e., all fecal-oral enteric pathogens and exposure pathways) child diarrhea prevalence rates observed in the study population during two monsoon seasons (2012 and 2013). We used site specific and regional studies to inform assumptions about the human pathogenicity of the Cryptosporidium and Giardia species present in local groundwater. In all three human pathogenicity scenarios evaluated, the mean daily risk of Cryptosporidium or Giardia infection (0.06-1.53%), far exceeded the tolerable daily risk of infection from drinking water in the US (water was as high as 6.5% or as low as cause diarrhea disease burden measured in children causing diarrhea than did Giardia. Diarrhea prevalence estimates for waterborne Cryptosporidium infection appeared to be most sensitive to assumptions about the probability of infection from ingesting a single parasite (i.e. the rate parameter in dose-response model), while Giardia infection was most sensitive to assumptions about the viability of parasites detected in groundwater samples. Protozoa in groundwater drinking sources in rural India, even at low concentrations, especially for Cryptosporidium, may account for a significant portion of child diarrhea morbidity in settings were tubewells are used for drinking water and should be more systematically monitored. Preventing diarrheal disease burdens in Puri District and similar settings will benefit from ensuring water is microbiologically safe for consumption and consistent and effective household water treatment is practiced.

  19. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Álava, North of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, Guillermo A.; Carabin, Hélène; Goñi, Pilar; Arriola, Larraitz; Robinson, Guy; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C.; Clavel, Antonio; Chalmers, Rachel M.; Carmena, David

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Álava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%–2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%–5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%–9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%–6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Álava.

  20. Inactivation of Caliciviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Nims

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. The caliciviruses are susceptible to wet heat inactivation at temperatures in excess of 60 °C with contact times of 30 min or greater, to UV-C inactivation at fluence ≥30 mJ/cm2, to high pressure processing >200 MPa for >5 min at 4 °C, and to certain photodynamic inactivation approaches. The enteric caliciviruses (e.g.; noroviruses display resistance to inactivation by low pH, while the non-enteric species (e.g.; feline calicivirus are much more susceptible. The caliciviruses are inactivated by a variety of chemicals, including alcohols, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, and β-propiolactone. As with inactivation of viruses in general, inactivation of caliciviruses by the various approaches may be matrix-, temperature-, and/or contact time-dependent. The susceptibilities of the caliciviruses to the various physical and chemical inactivation approaches are generally similar to those displayed by other small, non-enveloped viruses, with the exception that the parvoviruses and circoviruses may require higher temperatures for inactivation, while these families appear to be more susceptible to UV-C inactivation than are the caliciviruses.

  1. Estimating Cryptosporidium and Giardia disease burdens for children drinking untreated groundwater in a rural population in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles E Daniels

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many low-income settings, despite improvements in sanitation and hygiene, groundwater sources used for drinking may be contaminated with enteric pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which remain important causes of childhood morbidity. In this study, we examined the contribution of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia found in groundwater sources used for drinking to the total burden of diarrheal disease among children < 5 in rural India.We studied a population of 3,385 children < 5 years of age in 100 communities of Puri District, Odisha, India. We developed a coupled quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR population model based on observed levels of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in improved groundwater sources used for drinking and compared the QMRA-SIR estimates with independently measured all-cause (i.e., all fecal-oral enteric pathogens and exposure pathways child diarrhea prevalence rates observed in the study population during two monsoon seasons (2012 and 2013. We used site specific and regional studies to inform assumptions about the human pathogenicity of the Cryptosporidium and Giardia species present in local groundwater. In all three human pathogenicity scenarios evaluated, the mean daily risk of Cryptosporidium or Giardia infection (0.06-1.53%, far exceeded the tolerable daily risk of infection from drinking water in the US (< 0.0001%. Depending on which protozoa species were present, median estimates of daily child diarrhea prevalence due to either Cryptosporidium or Giardia infection from drinking water was as high as 6.5% or as low as < 1% and accounted for at least 2.9% and as much as 65.8% of the all-cause diarrhea disease burden measured in children < 5 during the study period. Cryptosporidium tended to account for a greater share of estimated waterborne protozoa infections causing diarrhea than did Giardia. Diarrhea prevalence estimates for waterborne

  2. Interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) as a central regulator of the protective immune response against Giardia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paerewijck, O. (Oonagh); Maertens, B. (Brecht); L. Dreesen (Leentje); Van Meulder, F. (Frederik); Peelaers, I. (Iris); Ratman, D. (Dariusz); Li, R.W. (Robert W.); E.W. Lubberts (Erik); K. De Bosscher; P. Geldhof (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe protozoan parasite Giardia is a highly prevalent intestinal pathogen with a wide host range. Data obtained in mice, cattle and humans revealed the importance of IL-17A in the development of a protective immune response against Giardia. The aim of this study was to further unravel the

  3. An audit of Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in Scottish National Health Service Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C L; Currie, S; Pollock, K; Smith-Palmer, A; Jones, B L

    2017-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals through the ingestion of infective faeces. Whereas Cryptosporidium species can be acquired locally or through foreign travel, there is the mis-conception that giardiasis is considered to be largely travel-associated, which results in differences in laboratory testing algorithms. In order to determine the level of variation in testing criteria and detection methods between diagnostic laboratories for both pathogens across Scotland, an audit was performed. Twenty Scottish diagnostic microbiology laboratories were invited to participate with questions on sample acceptance criteria, testing methods, testing rates and future plans for pathogen detection. Reponses were received from 19 of the 20 laboratories representing each of the 14 territorial Health Boards. Detection methods varied between laboratories with the majority performing microscopy, one using a lateral flow immunochromatographic antigen assay, another using a manually washed plate-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and one laboratory trialling a plate-based EIA automated with an EIA plate washer. Whereas all laboratories except one screened every stool for Cryptosporidium species, an important finding was that significant variation in the testing algorithm for detecting Giardia was noted with only four laboratories testing all diagnostic stools. The most common criteria were 'travel history' (11 laboratories) and/or 'when requested' (14 laboratories). Despite only a small proportion of stools being examined in 15 laboratories for Giardia (2%-18% of the total number of stools submitted), of interest is the finding that a higher positivity rate was observed for Giardia than Cryptosporidium in 10 of these 15 laboratories. These findings highlight that the underreporting of Giardia in Scotland is likely based on current selection and testing algorithms.

  4. Purification of Giardia muris cysts by velocity sedimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sauch, J F

    1984-01-01

    Giardia muris cysts were separated from fecal contaminants in primary isolates by unit gravity velocity sedimentation. Crude isolates obtained by centrifugation over 1.0 M sucrose were overlaid onto a Percoll density gradient, 1.01 to 1.03 g/ml. G. muris cysts were well separated from faster-sedimenting fecal debris and slower-sedimenting Spironucleus muris and bacteria in 1.5 h.

  5. Determinación de enfermedades parasitarias en población infantil de primer a cuarto grado de educación primaria en un ejido del sur de sonora

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela de Los Ángeles Díaz Reyes; Fonseca Ximena Felipe Ortega; Mario César Velderrain Díaz; Dulce María Urías Estrella; Elena Román Mendívil.

    2014-01-01

    La parasitosis intestinal constituye un problema de salud pública en México, siendo la población infantil la más afectada (9). En el estado de Sonora, se han realizado estudios que ubican la prevalencia de infecciones por microorganismos como Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 20, 10 y 19% respectivamente, con una situación de poliparasitismo en 18% de los casos (6). El hacinamiento, la escasez del agua potable y la carencia de drenaje, constituyen los mayores factores de rie...

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after giardia infection: a controlled prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Kurt; Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Mørch, Kristine; Langeland, Nina

    2014-11-15

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue may follow acute infections. This study aimed to estimate the persistence, prevalence, and risk of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after Giardia infection. We performed a controlled prospective study of a cohort of 1252 individuals who had laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection during a waterborne outbreak in 2004. In total, 748 cohort cases (exposed) and 878 matched controls responded to a postal questionnaire 6 years later (in 2010). Responses were compared to data from the same cohort 3 years before (in 2007). The prevalences of irritable bowel syndrome (39.4%) by Rome III criteria and chronic fatigue (30.8%) in the exposed group 6 years after giardiasis were significantly elevated compared with controls, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.9) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3-3.4), respectively. In the exposed group, the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome decreased by 6.7% (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, .77-.93]), whereas the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased by 15.3% from 3 to 6 years after Giardia infection (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, .62-.77]). Giardia exposure was a significant risk factor for persistence of both conditions, and increasing age was a risk factor for persisting chronic fatigue. Giardia infection in a nonendemic setting is associated with an increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years later. The prevalences of both conditions decrease over time, indicating that this intestinal protozoan parasite may elicit very long-term, but slowly self-limiting, complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea exposed to varied levels of human interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany C. Delport

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea, genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271 in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19. These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

  8. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) exposed to varied levels of human interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delport, Tiffany C; Asher, Amy J; Beaumont, Linda J; Webster, Koa N; Harcourt, Robert G; Power, Michelle L

    2014-12-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271) in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19). These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

  9. Investigation into Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalve mollusks farmed in Sardinia region and destined for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Tedde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites transmitted by fecal-oral ingestion of (oocysts, and are responsible for enteritis in several animal species and humans worldwide. These (oocysts can survive for over a year in aquatic environments and can accumulate in bivalve mollusks, which filter large volumes of water. The aim of this study is to evaluate the natural occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in different specimens of edible bivalves mollusks from farming sites of the western and north-eastern coasts of Sardinia. From April 2011 to February 2012, 1095 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis and 240 of Crassostrea gigas were sampled from Olbia and Oristano gulf and San Teodoro pond. Hepatopancreas and gills, including the labial palp, were examined for oocysts and cysts after pooling and homogenisation using different techniques: i staining for light and fluorescence microscopy; ii direct immunofluorescence (IF Merifluor® test Cryptosporidium/ Giardia (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA; and iii molecular procedures. However, in the context under study, all mollusks examined with the three main diagnostic techniques were negative for both parasites pointing out the hypothetically low zoonotic risk related to Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalves, especially Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas.

  10. Molecular epidemiology and multilocus sequence analysis of potentially zoonotic Giardia spp. from humans and dogs in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mellesia F; Cadogan, Paul; Eytle, Sarah; Copeland, Sonia; Walochnik, Julia; Lindo, John F

    2017-01-01

    Giardia spp. are the causative agents of intestinal infections in a wide variety of mammals including humans and companion animals. Dogs may be reservoirs of zoonotic Giardia spp.; however, the potential for transmission between dogs and humans in Jamaica has not been studied. Conventional PCR was used to screen 285 human and 225 dog stool samples for Giardia targeting the SSU rDNA gene followed by multilocus sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes. Prevalence of human infections based on PCR was 6.7 % (19/285) and canine infections 19.6 % (44/225). Nested PCR conducted on all 63 positive samples revealed the exclusive presence of assemblage A in both humans and dogs. Sub-assemblage A-II was responsible for 79.0 % (15/19) and 70.5 % (31/44) of the infections in humans and dogs, respectively, while sub-assemblage A-I was identified at a rate of 15.8 % (3/19) and 29.5 % (13/44) in humans and dogs, respectively. The predominance of a single circulating assemblage among both humans and dogs in Jamaica suggests possible zoonotic transmission of Giardia infections.

  11. Giardia co-infection promotes the secretion of antimicrobial peptides beta-defensin 2 and trefoil factor 3 and attenuates attaching and effacing bacteria-induced intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, Anna; Motta, Jean-Paul; Cotton, James A; Feener, Troy; Oyeyemi, Ayodele; Vallance, Bruce A; Wallace, John L; Buret, Andre G

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of polymicrobial gastrointestinal infections and their effects on host biology remains incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Concomitant infections with Giardia and other gastrointestinal pathogens commonly occur. In countries with poor sanitation, Giardia infection has been associated with decreased incidence of diarrheal disease and fever, and reduced serum inflammatory markers release, via mechanisms that remain obscure. This study analyzed Giardia spp. co-infections with attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens, and assessed whether and how the presence of Giardia modulates host responses to A/E enteropathogens, and alters intestinal disease outcome. In mice infected with the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, co-infection with Giardia muris significantly attenuated weight loss, macro- and microscopic signs of colitis, bacterial colonization and translocation, while concurrently enhancing the production and secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mouse β-defensin 3 and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). Co-infection of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) monolayers with G. duodenalis trophozoites and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) enhanced the production of the AMPs human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and TFF3; this effect was inhibited with treatment of G. duodenalis with cysteine protease inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggest that Giardia infections are capable of reducing enteropathogen-induced colitis while increasing production of host AMPs. Additional studies also demonstrated that Giardia was able to directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These results reveal novel mechanisms whereby Giardia may protect against gastrointestinal disease induced by a co-infecting A/E enteropathogen. Our findings shed new light on how microbial-microbial interactions in the gut may protect a host during concomitant infections.

  12. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVIATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to confirm and expand the current database for the inactiviation of Giardia spp. using ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The path taken was to confirm earlier UV research that used excystation as the indication of viability. In this study, an in vitro excyst...

  13. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes. PMID:22053856

  14. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowei S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes.

  15. Risk assessment of Giardia from a full scale MBR sewage treatment plant caused by membrane integrity failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Zhimin; An, Wei; Xiao, Shumin; Yuan, Hongying; Zhang, Dongqing; Yang, Min

    2015-04-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are highly efficient at intercepting particles and microbes and have become an important technology for wastewater reclamation. However, many pathogens can accumulate in activated sludge due to the long residence time usually adopted in MBR, and thus may pose health risks when membrane integrity problems occur. This study presents data from a survey on the occurrence of water-borne Giardia pathogens in reclaimed water from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant with MBR experiencing membrane integrity failure, and assessed the associated risk for green space irrigation. Due to membrane integrity failure, the MBR effluent turbidity varied between 0.23 and 1.90 NTU over a period of eight months. Though this turbidity level still met reclaimed water quality standards (≤5 NTU), Giardia were detected at concentrations of 0.3 to 95 cysts/10 L, with a close correlation between effluent turbidity and Giardia concentration. All β-giardin gene sequences of Giardia in the WWTP influents were genotyped as Assemblages A and B, both of which are known to infect humans. An exponential dose-response model was applied to assess the risk of infection by Giardia. The risk in the MBR effluent with chlorination was 9.83×10(-3), higher than the acceptable annual risk of 1.0×10(-4). This study suggested that membrane integrity is very important for keeping a low pathogen level, and multiple barriers are needed to ensure the biological safety of MBR effluent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Purification of Giardia muris cysts by velocity sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauch, J F

    1984-01-01

    Giardia muris cysts were separated from fecal contaminants in primary isolates by unit gravity velocity sedimentation. Crude isolates obtained by centrifugation over 1.0 M sucrose were overlaid onto a Percoll density gradient, 1.01 to 1.03 g/ml. G. muris cysts were well separated from faster-sedimenting fecal debris and slower-sedimenting Spironucleus muris and bacteria in 1.5 h. PMID:6486790

  17. Estudos epidemiológicos entre grupos indígenas de Rondônia III: . Parasitoses intestinais nas populações dos vales dos rios Guaporé e Mamoré

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ventura Santos

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados 639 exames parasitológicos das fezes na população indígena dos vales dos rios Guaporé e Mamoré, no Estado de Rondônia, constituída predominantemente por índios Pacaas-Novos e outros grupos populacionalmente menores (Massacá, Ajuru, Canoé, Jabuti, Mequém, Tupari e Macurap. Os resultados foram os seguintes: Ascaris lumbricoides (21,3%, Trichuris trichiura (1,6%, ancilostomídeos (12,2%, Strongyloides stercoralis (3,9%, Enterobius vermicularis (2,0%, Hymenolepis nana (0,3%, Capillaria sp. (0,2%, Giardia lamblia (12,7% e Entamoeba hystolitica (8,8%. Os dados obtidos são comparados com os de outros autores que realizaram inquéritos semelhantes em outras áreas indígenas da Amazônia.This paper reports the results of parasitological studies of stools carried among the amerindian population of the Guaporé and Mamoré river valleys, in the State of Rondônia, Brazil The population is constituted mainly of Pacaas-Novos indians and other smaller groups (Massacá, Ajuru, Canoé, Jabuti, Mequém, Tupari and Macurap. The following species were found: Ascaris lumbricoides (21,3%, Trichuris trichiura (1,6%Ancilostomidae (12,2%, Strongyloides stercoralis (3,9%, Enterobius vermicularis (2,0%, Hymenolepis nana (0,3%, Capillaria sp. (0,2%, Giardia lamblia (12,7% and Entamoeba hystolitica (8,8%. The results are discussed and compared with those obtained by other authors among different Amazonian groups.

  18. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3% subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7% samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%, Blastocystis hominis (1.4%, Entamoeba coli (0.9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.5%, Trichuris trichiura (0.5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3% amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7% amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%, Blastocystis hominis (1,4%, Entamoeba coli (0,9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%, Endolimax nana (0,5%, Trichuris trichiura (0,5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%.

  19. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Urbano Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP and to ii purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8 when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7. As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively. Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2 were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1 was positive (12.5%. The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i a concentração pelo

  20. Changing Patterns of Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Cambodian Children: 2006–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Put Chhat; Soeng, Sona; Sun, Sopheary; Lee, Sue J.; Parry, Christopher M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Stoesser, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    We studied gastrointestinal parasites in symptomatic Cambodian children attending a provincial hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia between 2006 and 2011. A total of 16 372 faecal samples were examined by direct microscopy. Parasites were detected in 3121 (19.1%) samples and most common were Giardia lamblia (8.0% of samples; 47.6% disease episodes), hookworm (5.1%; 30.3%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.6%; 15.6%). The proportion of infected children increased, and the number of disease episodes effectively treated with a single dose of mebendazole decreased, over the 5-year period. PMID:22723077

  1. The secondary structure of large-subunit rRNA divergent domains, a marker for protist evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenaers, G; Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J

    1988-01-01

    The secondary structure of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA (24-26S rRNA) has been studied with emphasis on comparative analysis of the folding patterns of the divergent domains in the available protist sequences, that is Prorocentrum micans (dinoflagellate), Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (yeast......), Tetrahymena thermophila (ciliate), Physarum polycephalum and Dictyostelium discoideum (slime moulds), Crithidia fasciculata and Giardia lamblia (parasitic flagellates). The folding for the D3, D7a and D10 divergent domains has been refined and a consensus model for the protist 24-26S rRNA structure...

  2. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.

  3. ANTIPROTOZOAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF ELAEODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM (CELASTRACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Mézquita, Carolina; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Leon-Déniz, Lorena V; Gamboa-León, Rubí; Arjona-Ruiz, Carely; Tun-Garrido, Juan; Mirón-López, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease, amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis represent a serious health problem in Latin America. The drugs employed to treat these illnesses produce important side effects and resistant strains have appeared. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Elaeodendron trichotomum , a celastraceus, that is used in Mexico as an anti-infective in febrile-type diseases. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Elaeodendron trichotomum were tested against Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Trichomonas vaginalis , and Trypanosoma cruzi . A quantitative HPLC analysis of pristimerin and tingenone was performed. The dichloromethane extract of roots was active against E. histolytica , G. lamblia , T. vaginalis , and T. cruzi , at IC50's of 0.80, 0.44, 0.46, and 2.68 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of tingenone (3.84%) and pristimerin (0.14%). The dichloromethane extract of the roots bark showed significant activity against all screened protozoa.

  4. Exogenous cytokines released by spleen and Peyer's patch cells removed from mice infected with Giardia muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamiatun, K; Faubert, G M

    1998-01-01

    The role that T and B lymphocytes play in the clearance of Giardia muris in the mouse model is well known, but the cytokines produced by CD4+ T cells in response to Giardia antigenic stimulation are unknown. In this study, we have determined how Giardia trophozoite antigenic crude extract and T cell mitogens can trigger the production of cytokines by Peyer's patch and spleen cells removed from infected animals. When Giardia trophozoite proteins were used to challenge the cells in vitro, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma were not detected in the culture supernatant. When the cells were challenged with Con-A, all three cytokines were released in vitro. However, the level of each cytokine released by the spleen or Peyer's patch cells varied with the latent, acute and elimination phases of the infection. The high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 released by Peyer's patch cells confirm the importance of IgA in the control of the infection. However, we propose that the relative success of G. muris in completing its life cycle in a primary infection might be due, in part, to the stimulation of a Th2-type response (IL-4, IL-5). A stronger Th1 response (IFN-gamma) may lead to a better control of the primary infection.

  5. Prevalence and Multilocus Genotyping Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Scorza, A Valeria; Reif, John S; Ballweber, Lora R; Lappin, Michael R; Salman, Mo D

    2017-05-10

    The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA), PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70), and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA). Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg), and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium -positive samples and 21 Giardia -positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis . Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.

  6. Prevalence and Multilocus Genotyping Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahatchai Tangtrongsup

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA, PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70, and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA. Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh, beta-giardin (bg, and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium-positive samples and 21 Giardia-positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.

  7. Comparative analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct microscopy for the diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis in fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Giardiasis is one of the most common nonviral infections causing diarrheal illness worldwide. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we evaluated the RIDASCREEN ® Giardia kit for detection of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples and compared the results with direct microscopy. Materials and methods: A total of 360 fecal samples were collected. They were then processed by wet film, iodine preparation and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit to determine the presence of Giardia trophozoites and cysts. Statistical analysis was performed by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy. Results and Conclusion: Of the 360 cases, 17.2% samples were positive for Giardia by direct microscopy and 23.6% were found to be positive by ELISA (sensitivity ~97%, but specificity was ~92% only. Because of less specificity, we need to perform ELISA in congruence with direct microscopy, etc. Further studies need to be performed on a larger sample size using other molecular tests in order to get more accurate estimations.

  8. Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reasoner, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

  9. Review of cryptosporidium and giardia in the eastern part of Europe, 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plutzer, Judit; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reviews the current knowledge and understanding of Cryptosporidium spp. an d Giardia spp. in humans, animals and the environment in 10 countries in the eastern part of Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Serbia...... and Slovenia. Methods: Published scientific papers and conference proceedings from the international and local literature, official national health service reports, national databases and doctoral theses in local languages were reviewed to provide an extensive overview on the epidemiology, diagnostics...... and research on these pathogens, as well as analyse knowledge gaps and areas for further research. Results: Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were found to be common in eastern Europe, but the results from different countries are difficult to compare because of variations in reporting practices...

  10. Het rendement van de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Schijven JF; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Nederlandse waterleidingbedrijven zijn verplicht om te berekenen of als gevolg van consumptie van drinkwater infectie met Cryptosporidium of Giardia kan optreden. De kans hierop moet kleiner dan een infectie per 10000 personen per jaar zijn. De berekening (risicoanalyse) wordt gebaseerd op de

  11. A comparative study of the disinfection efficacy of H2O2/ferrate and UV/H2O2/ferrate processes on inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by response surface methodology for modeling and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Atiyeh Rajabi; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Mahvi, Amirhossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Aslani, Hassan; Nabizadeh, Ramin

    2018-04-03

    Although chlorination can inactivate most of the microorganisms in water but protozoan parasites like C. parvum oocysts and Giardia cysts can resist against it. Therefore, many researches have been conducted to find a novel method for water disinfection. Present study evaluated the synergistic effect of H2O2 and ferrate followed by UV radiation to inactivate Bacillus subtilis spores as surrogate microorganisms. Response surface methodology(RSM) was employed for the optimization for UV/H2O2/ferrate and H2O2/ferrate processes. By using central composite design(CCD), the effect of three main parameters including time, hydrogen peroxide, and ferrate concentrations was examined on process performance. The results showed that the combination of UV, H2O2 and ferrate was the most effective disinfection process in compare with when H2O2 and ferrate were used. This study indicated that by UV/H2O2/ferrate, about 5.2 log reductions of B. subtilis spores was inactivated at 9299 mg/l of H2O2 and 0.4 mg/l of ferrate concentrations after 57 min of contact time which was the optimum condition, but H2O2/ferrate can inactivate B. subtilis spores about 4.7 logs compare to the other process. Therefore, the results of this research demonstrated that UV/H2O2 /ferrate process is a promising process for spore inactivation and water disinfection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Petros, Beyene

    2013-09-08

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common causes of protozoan diarrhea that lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle, and to assess the potential risk of zoonotic transmission. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2009 in Girar Jarso and Dera Districts of North Shewa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A total of 768 stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount with saline and formalin ether concentration methods. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method was used for the detection of Cryptosporidium species. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 15. Out of 384 children examined, 53 (13.8%) and 28 (7.3%) were positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections, respectively. Similarly, of the total 384 cattle examined, 9 (2.3%) were positive for Giardia duodenalis and 30 (7.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium infection. The prevalence of giardiasis was significantly higher among children who had close contact with cattle 33 (18.7%) compared to children who had no contact with cattle 20 (9.6%) (P < 0.05). Higher number of Cryptosporidium infection was also recorded in children who had close contact with cattle 15 (8.5%). Difference in prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis among children was not statistically significant between males and females. On the other hand, difference in the prevalence of giardiasis among children was statistically significant between age groups. Higher prevalence of Giardia duodenalis infection detected among children was significantly associated with contact with cattle and manure that the children had. Further analysis using molecular techniques is needed to explain the existence of zoonotic transmission in the study area.

  13. Draft genome sequencing of giardia intestinalis assemblage B isolate GS: is human giardiasis caused by two different species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Franzén

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage of the assemblage B isolate GS, the only Giardia isolate successfully used to experimentally infect animals and humans. The two genomes show 77% nucleotide and 78% amino-acid identity in protein coding regions. Comparative analysis identified 28 unique GS and 3 unique WB protein coding genes, and the variable surface protein (VSP repertoires of the two isolates are completely different. The promoters of several enzymes involved in the synthesis of the cyst-wall lack binding sites for encystation-specific transcription factors in GS. Several synteny-breaks were detected and verified. The tetraploid GS genome shows higher levels of overall allelic sequence polymorphism (0.5 versus <0.01% in WB. The genomic differences between WB and GS may explain some of the observed biological and clinical differences between the two isolates, and it suggests that assemblage A and B Giardia can be two different species.

  14. Lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patches of Giardia muris-infected mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, D R

    1990-01-01

    Gastrointestinal immune events in giardiasis are important in controlling infection. In this study, Peyer's patch lymphocytes from mice infected with Giardia muris developed specific, proliferative responses to G. muris antigen. This proliferation correlated with clearance of infection. Further understanding of the gut immune response will be helpful in developing immunoprophylactic strategies in the control of giardiasis.

  15. Effect of Piper betle on Giardia intestinalis infection in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecková, R.; Doležal, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin; Nurcahyo, W.; Foitová, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 184, JAN (2018), s. 39-45 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antigiardial activity * Drug of choice * Giardia intestinalis * Natural antiparasitics * Parasites * Piper betle Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2016

  16. Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cats from Bogota (Colombia) and genotyping of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Vecino, Jesús A Cortés; Dubey, J P; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-11-05

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cats from Bogota (Colombia) was determined from fecal specimens and scrapings of duodenal and ileal mucosa screened by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype(s) present. Of 46 cats, 6 (13%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, 5 (11%) were infected with C. felis and one (2%) with C. muris. Three (6.5%) cats were infected with Giardia duodenalis Assemblage F. Eight (17%) cats were infected with four genotypes of E. bieneusi: genotype D-like (9%), K (4%), Peru 10 (2%), and Peru 5 (2%). This is the first report on the presence of zoonotic species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in cats in Colombia.

  17. Prevalencia de protozoos intestinales en 79 niños de 2 a 5 años de edad de un hogar infantil estatal en Circasia, Quindío Prevalence of intestinal Protozoa in79 Children 2 to 5 years old from a state nursery in Circasia, Quindío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Andrés Arias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los parásitos intestinales se consideran un problema de salud pública en los países en desarrollo y afecta a individuos de todas las edades y sexos, pero se presentan, sobre todo, en los primeros años de vida. En la actualidad, entre las parasitosis más reportadas para el departamento del Quindío se encuentra la giardiasis, producida por Giardia intestinalis (G. duodenalis o G. lamblia, y la blastocistocis, producida por Blastocystis sp. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de protozoos intestinales en 79 niños con edades comprendidas entre los 2 y 5 años, de un hogar infantil en el municipio de Circasia, Quindío. Materiales y métodos: Se recolectaron tres muestras de heces en 79 niños con previo consentimiento del tutor legal. Las muestras fueron sometidas al análisis de laboratorio por examen directo macroscópico y microscópico, utilizando lugol al 1%, solución salina al 0,83%, solución salina-eosina y la técnica de concentración de Ritchie o formol-éter. Resultados: Para los tres muestras, los parásitos con potencial patógeno tuvieron las siguientes prevalencias: Blastocystis sp., 49,4%, 57% y 64,6%; G. lamblia, 16,5%, 22,8% y 15,2 %; complejo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 5,1%, 5,1% y 1,3%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Este estudio muestra la elevada prevalencia de parásitos protozoarios, y Blastocystis sp. fue el más prevalente. Durante el seguimiento se detectó reinfestación de los niños que participaron en el estudio.Introduction: Intestinal parasites are a public health problem in developing countries, and they affect individuals of all ages and sexes; nevertheless they are frequent in early childhood. At present, the most reported intestinal parasite conditions in Quindío are giardiasis, caused by Giardia intestinalis (G. lamblia or G.duodenalis, and blastocystosis caused by Blastocystis sp. Objective: The objective is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children 2 to 5 years

  18. Potential role of beavers (Castor fiber in contamination of water in the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland with protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland. Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m. The samples were examined for the presence of (oocysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6% and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%. Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oocysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1% whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%. Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates and B (8 isolates. In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oocysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for

  19. Evidence for the bacterial origin of genes encoding fermentation enzymes of the amitochondriate protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, B; Mai, Z; Caplivski, D; Ghosh, S; de la Vega, H; Graf, T; Samuelson, J

    1997-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an amitochondriate protozoan parasite with numerous bacterium-like fermentation enzymes including the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), ferredoxin (FD), and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE). The goal of this study was to determine whether the genes encoding these cytosolic E. histolytica fermentation enzymes might derive from a bacterium by horizontal transfer, as has previously been suggested for E. histolytica genes encoding heat shock protein 60, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. In this study, the E. histolytica por gene and the adhE gene of a second amitochondriate protozoan parasite, Giardia lamblia, were sequenced, and their phylogenetic positions were estimated in relation to POR, ADHE, and FD cloned from eukaryotic and eubacterial organisms. The E. histolytica por gene encodes a 1,620-amino-acid peptide that contained conserved iron-sulfur- and thiamine pyrophosphate-binding sites. The predicted E. histolytica POR showed fewer positional identities to the POR of G. lamblia (34%) than to the POR of the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (49%), the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (44%), and the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (46%), which targets its POR to anaerobic organelles called hydrogenosomes. Maximum-likelihood, neighbor-joining, and parsimony analyses also suggested as less likely E. histolytica POR sharing more recent common ancestry with G. lamblia POR than with POR of bacteria and the T. vaginalis hydrogenosome. The G. lamblia adhE encodes an 888-amino-acid fusion peptide with an aldehyde dehydrogenase at its amino half and an iron-dependent (class 3) ADH at its carboxy half. The predicted G. lamblia ADHE showed extensive positional identities to ADHE of Escherichia coli (49%), Clostridium acetobutylicum (44%), and E. histolytica (43%) and lesser identities to the class 3 ADH of eubacteria and yeast (19 to 36%). Phylogenetic analyses inferred a closer relationship of the E

  20. Enteroparasitas e Capillaria SP entre o grupo Surui, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia Enteroparasites and Capillaria SP found in indians of the Surui group, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Coimbra Júnior

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta dados de enteroparasitas encontradas em índios da comunidade tribal de Suruí, em Rondônia, na Região Amazônica do Brasil. As seguintes espécies foram encontradas: Ascaris lumbricoides (53,3%, Ancilostomidae (43,3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33,3%, Taenia sp. (5,8%, Trichuris trichiura (5,0%, Hymenolepis nana (4,1%, Giardia lamblia (3,3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0,8% e Enterobius vermicularis (0,1%. O encontro de Capillaria sp. nas fezes de dois individuos é discutido.In this paper data on enteroparasites found in indians of the Surui tribal community in Rondônia, Amazon Region of Brazil, are presented. The following species were detected: Ascaris lumbricoides (53.3%, Ancylostomidae (43.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33.3%, Taenia sp. (5.8%, Trichuris trichiura (5.0%, Hymenolepis nana (4.1%, Giardia lambia (3.3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0.8% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.1%.

  1. Relationships between the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium and physicochemical properties of marine waters of the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana-Ordorica, Dalia; Mena, Kristina; Valdez-Torres, Jose B; Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Leon-Felix, Josefina; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2010-12-01

    Untreated sewage has adversely affected the quality of marine recreational waters worldwide. Exposure to marine recreational water with poor microbial quality may pose a threat to bathers. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of physicochemical parameters on Cryptosporidium and Giardia presence in marine recreational water of Sinaloa, Mexico, by Logistic Regression Analyses. Thirty-two 10-litre water samples were collected from two tourist beaches, Altata and Mazatlan, between November 2006 and May 2007. Water samples were processed by the EPA 1623 method and pH, temperature, salinity and turbidity were also determined. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 71 and 57% of the samples collected from Altata, respectively. In Mazatlan, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found in 83 and 72% of the samples, respectively. The overall concentration of Cryptosporidium ranged from 150 to 2,050 oocysts/10 L with an average of 581 oocysts/10 L and Giardia ranged from 10 to 300 cysts/10 L with an average of 73 cysts/10 L. The occurrence of both parasites increased in water with decreasing temperatures and increasing turbidity of the water.

  2. Biological and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolates from five hydrographical basins in northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, André; Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, João; Magalhães, Elisabete Silva; Castro, António; Viana Da Costa, Alexandra; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

    2010-06-01

    To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and beta-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal.

  3. Intestinal IgA responses to Giardia muris in mice depleted of helper T lymphocytes and in immunocompetent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, M F

    1989-04-01

    Immunocompetent mice infected with Giardia muris generate an intestinal antibody response to this parasite and clear G. muris infection. Previous work has shown that G. muris infection is prolonged in mice that have been depleted of helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes by treatment with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the murine CD4 antigen. The aim of the present study was to compare the intestinal anti-Giardia antibody response in immunocompetent mice and in mice depleted of helper T (Th) lymphocytes by treatment with anti-CD4 mAb. Immunocompetent mice generated an IgA response to G. muris, as judged by the presence of IgA on Giardia trophozoites harvested from the intestine of these animals more than 10 days after the start of the infection. The anti-Giardia IgA response was impaired in mice depleted of Th lymphocytes, as judged by virtual absence of immunofluorescent staining of trophozoites from these animals for surface-bound IgA. Clearance of G. muris infection was impaired by treatment of mice with anti-CD4 mAb. The results suggest that Th (CD4+) lymphocytes are important for the generation of a local IgA response against G. muris trophozoites in the mouse intestine and that IgA anti-trophozoite antibody may contribute to the clearance of G. muris from the intestine of immunocompetent mice.

  4. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  5. Post epidemic giardiasis and gastrointestinal symptoms among preschool children in Bergen, Norway. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Geir E

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A surprisingly low number of children became ill with giardiasis during the large waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia in Bergen, Norway during autumn 2004. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of giardiasis among exposed children one year after an outbreak and compare faecal carriage of Giardia and abdominal symptoms among exposed versus unexposed children one year after the epidemic. Methods Children between 1 and 6 years old were recruited from the local health care centres in Bergen municipality in the period between June 2005 and January 2006. One faecal sample per child was collected and examined for presence of Giardia with a rapid immunoassay antigen test, and parents were asked to answer a questionnaire. A total of 513 children participated, 378 in the group exposed to contaminated water, and 135 in the in the group not exposed. Results In the exposed group eleven children had been treated for giardiasis during the epidemic and none in the unexposed group. Giardia positive faecal tests were found in six children, all in the exposed group, but the difference between the groups did not reach statistical significance. All six Giardia positive children were asymptomatic. No differences were found between the groups regarding demographic data, nausea, vomiting, different odour from stools and eructation. However, the reported scores of abdominal symptoms (diarrhoea, bloating and stomach ache during the last year were higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed group. Conclusions A low prevalence of asymptomatic Giardia infection (1.7% was found among exposed children around one year after the epidemic (1.2% overall prevalence in the study. In the present setting, pre-school children were therefore unlikely to be an important reservoir for continued transmission in the general population.

  6. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  7. Detection of pathogenic micro-organisms on children's hands and toys during play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bastidas, T; Castro-del Campo, N; Mena, K D; Castro-del Campo, N; León-Félix, J; Gerba, C P; Chaidez, C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if the children's leisure activities impact the presence of pathogens on their hands and toys. To assess the microbiological hazard in playground areas, a pilot study that included 12 children was conducted. We then conducted an intervention study; children's hands and toys were washed before playing. Faecal coliforms, pathogenic bacteria and Giardia lamblia were quantified by membrane filtration, selective media and flotation techniques, respectively; rotavirus, hepatitis A and rhinovirus by RT-PCR. Pilot study results revealed faecal contamination on children's hands and toys after playing on sidewalks and in public parks. Pathogenic bacteria, hepatitis A and G. lamblia on children's hands were also found. In the intervention study, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were found on children's hands at concentrations up to 2·5 × 10(4) and 1 × 10(4) CFU hands(-1), respectively. E. coli and Kl. pneumoniae were detected on toys (2·4 × 10(3) and 2·7 × 10(4) CFU toy(-1), respectively). Salmonella spp, Serratia spp and G. lamblia cysts were also present on toys. Children's play activities influence microbial presence on hands and toys; the transfer seems to occur in both ways. Control strategy needs to be implemented to protect children from infectious diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in well water from a native community of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama-Carmona, Ana Paola; Gortáres-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Álvarez-Valencia, Luis Humberto; Castro-Espinoza, Luciano; Balderas-Cortés, José de Jesús; Mondaca-Fernández, Iram; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Meza-Montenegro, María Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are gastrointestinal disease-causing organisms transmitted by the fecal-oral route, zoonotic and prevalent in all socioeconomic segments with greater emphasis in rural communities. The goal of this study was to assess the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis of Potam dwellers consuming drinking water from communal well water. To achieve the goal, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was carried out as follows: (a) identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water samples by information collection rule method, (b) assessment of exposure to healthy Potam residents, (c) dose-response modelling, and (d) risk characterization using an exponential model. All well water samples tested were positive for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The QMRA results indicate a mean of annual risks of 99:100 (0.99) for cryptosporidiosis and 1:1 (1.0) for giardiasis. The outcome of the present study may drive decision-makers to establish an educational and treatment program to reduce the incidence of parasite-borne intestinal infection in the Potam community, and to conduct risk analysis programs in other similar rural communities in Mexico.

  9. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeic patients in the Qikiqtani Region, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the prevalences of infection with the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in humans appear to be relatively high in the Canadian North, their transmission patterns are poorly understood. Objective: To determine the detection rate and the molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeic patients in the Qikiqtani (Baffin Island Region of Nunavut, Canada, in order to better understand the burden of illness and the potential mechanisms of transmission. Study design/methods: Diarrhoeal stool specimens (n=108 submitted to the Qikiqtani General Hospital for clinical testing were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis using epifluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analyses were performed on PCR-positive specimens to determine the species, genotypes and sub-genotypes of the parasites. Results: Cryptosporidium was detected in 15.7% of the diarrhoeic patients, while Giardia was detected in 4.6%. DNA sequencing of a fragment of the small subunit rRNA gene indicated that all of the Cryptosporidium amplicons had a 100% homology to C. parvum, and a gp60 assay showed that all aligned with C. parvum sub-genotype IIa. Microsatellite analysis revealed 3 cases of sub-genotype IIaA15G2R1, 2 of IIaA15G1R and 1 case each of sub-genotypes IIaA16G1R1 and IIaA15R1. For Giardia, results based on the amplification of both the 16S rRNA gene and the gdh gene were generally in agreement, and both DNA sequencing and RFLP demonstrated the presence of the G. duodenalis Assemblage B genotype. Conclusions: Both C. parvum and G. duodenalis Assemblage B were present in human diarrhoeal stool specimens from Nunavut, which was suggestive of zoonotic transmission, although human-to-human transmission cannot be ruled out. To fully understand the public health significance of the

  10. Parasites of free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) from Belize and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitazkova, Sylvia K; Wade, Susan E

    2006-11-01

    Parasites are important members of the ecological web within which an animal lives, and can be used as indicators of ecosystem health. However, few baseline parasitological data are available for free-ranging animals, particularly for the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra). In this study a total of 283 fecal samples were collected from 50 individually identified A. pigra during 2003 and 2004 and examined for parasites. The samples were processed using standard quantitative centrifugation concentration techniques, with sugar and zinc sulfate used as flotation media. The slides were examined using bright-field and phase microscopy. Antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect protozoa. Four parasites were detected: 1) Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae), 2) Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae), 3) Giardia sp. (Hexamitidae), and 4) Entamoeba sp. (Endamoebidae). Controrchis biliophilus was detected in 80% (wet season) and 81% (dry season) of the A. pigra samples; Trypanoxyuris minutus was detected in 8% (wet season) and 27% (dry season) of samples; and Giardia sp. was detected in 40% (wet season) and 27% (dry season) of samples. For the first time, DNA from Giardia sp.-positive fecal samples was extracted from A. pigra. Alouatta pigra individuals that lived near human settlements in Belize were infected with Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis) Assemblages A and B. These results suggest that G. duodenalis is transmitted from people and/or domestic animals to A. pigra. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Inactivation Data.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set is a spreadsheet that contains results of inactivation experiments that were conducted to to determine the effectiveness of chlorine in inactivating B....

  12. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in Van Regional Training and Research Hospital: A four-year monitoring

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    Yasemin Bayram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determinethe frequency rates of Giardia and E.histolytica/E.dispar and their distribution by years as well as agegroups and gender distribution during a four-year period.Materials and methods: A total of 9911 stool samplessent to our laboratory between January 2008 and December2011 were tested for parasites. Native-Lugol and formolethyl acetate sedimentation methods were utilized formicroscopic identification of Entamoeba sp. and Giardiatrophozoites and cysts in fresh stool samples. Additionally,trichrome staining was performed in stool sampleswhere the distinctive diagnosis could not be confirmed.Results: From a total of 9911 stool samples analyzedduring the study, 4.7% were positive for Giardia and 6.2%were positive for Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar.Of Giardia-positive patients 57% were male and 43%female. Similarly, 56% of Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoebadispar positive patients were male and 44% werefemale. Both parasites’ higher frequency rates seen inmale groups were found statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: It is seen that intestinal protozoon infectionsare still present as an important public health problemin our region. In order to prevent this problem, personalhygiene and sanitation rules education for community aswell as infrastructure improvements are necessary.Key words: Giardia, Entemoeba histolytica/ Entemoeba dispar, prevalence

  13. Comparison of ELISA, nested PCR and sequencing and a novel qPCR for detection of Giardia isolates from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Yang, Rongchang; Hatmal, Ma'mon; Yassin, Yasmeen; Mharib, Taghrid; Mukbel, Rami; Mahmoud, Sameer Alhaj; Al-Shudifat, Abdel-Ellah; Ryan, Una

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in human patients in Jordan and all previous studies have used direct microscopy, which lacks sensitivity. The present study developed a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay at the β-giardin (bg) locus and evaluated its use as a frontline test for the diagnosis of giardiasis in comparison with a commercially available ELISA using nested PCR and sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus (gdh nPCR) as the gold standard. A total of 96 human faecal samples were collected from 96 patients suffering from diarrhoea from 5 regions of Jordan and were screened using the ELISA and qPCR. The analytical specificity of the bg qPCR assay revealed no cross-reactions with other genera and detected all the Giardia isolates tested. Analytical sensitivity was 1 Giardia cyst per μl of DNA extract. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 64.6%. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the bg qPCR was 89.9% and 82.9% respectively compared to 76.5 and 68.0% for the ELISA. This study is the first to compare three different methods (ELISA, bg qPCR, nested PCR and sequencing at the gdh locus) to diagnose Jordanian patients suffering from giardiasis and to analyze their demographic data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, A D; Smith, W A; Shapiro, K; Melli, A; Conrad, P A

    2014-12-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are of public health importance, with recognized transmission through recreational waters. Therefore, both can contaminate marine waters and shellfish, with potential to infect marine mammals in nearshore ecosystems. A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mussels located at two distinct coastal areas in California, namely, (i) land runoff plume sites and (ii) locations near sea lion haul-out sites, as well as in feces of California sea lions (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) by the use of direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection methods and PCR with sequence analysis. In this study, 961 individual mussel hemolymph samples, 54 aliquots of pooled mussel tissue, and 303 CSL fecal samples were screened. Giardia duodenalis assemblages B and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near two land runoff plume sites (Santa Rosa Creek and Carmel River), and assemblages C and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near a sea lion haul-out site (White Rock). These results suggest that mussels are being contaminated by protozoa carried in terrestrial runoff and/or shed in the feces of CSL. Furthermore, low numbers of oocysts and cysts morphologically similar to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, were detected in CSL fecal samples, suggesting that CSL could be a source and a host of protozoan parasites in coastal environments. The results of this study showed that Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from the feces of terrestrial animals and CSL can contaminate mussels and coastal environments. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Prevalência de parasitismo intestinal nas aldeias indígenas da tribo Tembé, Amazônia Oriental Brasileira

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    Miranda Rogério dos Anjos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a prevalência de enteroparasitismo nas aldeias Tembé, foi realizado um inquérito coproparasitológico em toda a população (93 índios, em dezembro de 1996. Os parasitos mais freqüentes foram ancilostomídeos (29,0%, Ascaris lumbricoides (34,4%, Entamoeba histolytica (12,9% e Giardia lamblia (4,3%. As maiores prevalências de ancilostomídeos e A. lumbricoides foram observadas na aldeia Turé-Mariquita, enquanto que as de E. histolytica e G. lamblia na Acará-Mirim. Não foi observada diferença significativa sob ponto de vista prático entre a média de idade dos índios parasitados e a dos não parasitados. Sexo esteve relacionado apenas a freqüência de ancilostomídeos, bem maior no sexo masculino. Desse modo, a prevalência de enteroparasitas ainda se encontra elevada para alguns agentes, sugerindo que as medidas de atenção devem ser imediatamente incrementadas a fim de se obterem resultados mais positivos no combate ao enteroparasitismo.

  16. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in food matrices: high pressure processing, photodynamic inactivation and pressure-assisted photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A.; Couceiro, J.; Bonifácio, D.; Martins, C.; Almeida, A.; Neves, M. G. P. M. S.; Faustino, M. A. F.; Saraiva, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Traditional food processing methods frequently depend on the application of high temperature. However, heat may cause undesirable changes in food properties and often has a negative impact on nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics. Therefore, reducing the microbial load without compromising the desirable properties of food products is still a technological challenge. High-pressure processing (HPP) can be classified as a cold pasteurization technique, since it is a non-thermal food preservation method that uses hydrostatic pressure to inactivate spoilage microorganisms. At the same time, it increases shelf life and retains the original features of food. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is also regarded as promising approach for the decontamination of food matrices. In this case, the inactivation of bacterial cells is achieved by the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygens species (ROS) produced from the combined interaction of a photosensitizer molecule, light and oxygen. This short review examines some recent developments on the application of HPP and PDI with food-grade photosensitizers for the inactivation of listeriae, taken as a food pathogen model. The results of a proof-of-concept trial of the use of high-pressure as a coadjutant to increase the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacterial endospores is also addressed.

  17. Axenic isolation of viable Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, K D; Buret, A; Olson, M E

    1991-06-01

    Large numbers of viable Giardia muris trophozoites were isolated from the duodenum of experimentally infected mice 6 days after inoculation with 1,000 G. muris cysts. A series of shaking, incubation, and washing steps in the presence of the broad-spectrum antibiotic piperacillin readily provided 4.9 +/- 1.5 x 10(5) G. muris trophozoites per mouse, free of detectable contaminant organisms. Anaerobic and microaerophilic culturing and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated axenic status and high purity of the isolates. The viability of trophozoites was 98 +/- 2%. Application of this technique should permit novel immunological and epidemiological analyses of G. muris infection and biochemical investigations of this protozoan parasite.

  18. Anti-giardial therapeutic potential of dichloromethane extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyab, Ahmad K; Yones, Doaa A; Ibraheim, Zedan Z; Hassan, Tasneem M

    2016-07-01

    Giardiosis is one of the common parasitic diarrhoea in humans, especially in children, worldwide. Many drugs are used for its treatment, but there is evidence of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy and unpleasant side effects. Natural products are good candidates for discovering more effective anti-giardial compounds. This study evaluated the activity of extracts of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa (curcumin) against Giardia lamblia in vitro and in vivo. Giardia cyst suspension was prepared from children faecal specimens. For the in vitro experiment, 1, 10 and 50 mg⁄mL dichloromethane extracts of ginger and curcumin separately were incubated with Giardia cysts for 5, 10, 30 and 60 min. The viability was distinguished by 0.1 % eosin and a haemocytometer. For the in vivo experiments, Balb/c mice were infected with Giardia cyst suspension containing 10,000 cysts/mL. Infected mice were administered 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ginger and curcumin extracts separately for 7 days post-infection. The effectiveness of the extracts was evaluated by faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts and histopathological examination of the small intestine. In vitro ginger extract had a higher significant effect on cyst viability than curcumin, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo ginger (more effective) and curcumin extracts significantly treated infected mice, and this was evidenced by the faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts reduction, in addition to evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damages induced by Giardia infection. Z. officinale and C. longa extracts may represent effective and natural therapeutic alternatives with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiosis.

  19. Comportamiento de la infección experimental por aislamientos colombianos de Giardia duodenalis en el modelo animal del gerbo (Meriones unguiculatus.

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    Adriana Arévalo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se han informado infecciones naturales y experimentales con Giardia sp. en bovinos, equinos, caprinos, caninos, felinos y roedores como ratones, ratas y gerbos; estos últimos son el modelo más adecuado para estudios de la infección por Giardia duodenalis y Giardia muris. Objetivo. Establecer el comportamiento de la infección con aislamientos colombianos de Giardia duodenalis en el modelo animal del gerbo. Materiales y métodos. Se purificaron mediante gradientes de sacarosa y percoll quistes del parásito obtenidos a partir de heces de pacientes sintomáticos infectados. La inoculación a los animales se realizó mediante sonda gástrica con 5x103 quistes. El curso de la infección se estableció mediante recuento diario de quistes y semanal de trofozoítos durante treinta días. Resultados. La eliminación de quistes presentó un patrón intermitente de excreción, con ausencia en la primera y cuarta semanas de infección, y presencia constante durante la segunda y tercera semanas, en número variable con promedio mínimo de 79 y máximo de 17.943 quistes liberados en heces recolectadas en un período de dos horas. Se observó colonización de los trofozoítos en el intestino delgado, en número que osciló entre 15.000 y 6'577.778 trofozoítos por ml. Conclusiones. En gerbos infectados con aislamientos de Giardia duodenalis circulantes en otras regiones geográficas, la resolución natural de la infección oscila entre 86 y 114 días mientras que los gerbos infectados con aislamientos colombianos del parásito la resuelven al día 30. El gerbo constituye un modelo animal adecuado para la infección con aislamientos colombianos de G. duodenalis. La infección experimental por Giardia en gerbo permite obtener quistes y trofozoítos del parásito en cantidades suficientes con la finalidad de ser utilizados como antígenos para la inmunización de animales y para la obtención de anticuerpos que puedan utilizarse para la detecci

  20. Antibody response to Giardia muris trophozoites in mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, M F

    1986-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia muris colonizes the mouse small intestinal lumen. This parasite is cleared immunologically from the intestine of normal mice. In contrast, T-lymphocyte-deficient (nude) mice have an impaired immunological response to G. muris and become chronically infected. In the present study, trophozoites were harvested from the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and nude mice and examined for surface-bound mouse immunoglobulins by immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, but not IgM, were detected on trophozoites obtained from BALB/c mice, from day 10 of the infection onwards. Trophozoites from nude mice showed very little evidence of surface-bound mouse immunoglobulin at any time during the 5-week period immediately following infection of these animals with G. muris cysts. Intestinal G. muris infection was cleared by the BALB/c mice but not by the nude animals. The data suggest that parasite-specific IgA and IgG bind to G. muris trophozoites in the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Intestinal antibodies that bind to trophozoite surfaces are likely to play an important part in the clearance of G. muris infection by immunocompetent mice. The inability of nude mice to clear this infection at a normal rate is likely to be due to impairment of Giardia-specific intestinal antibody production.

  1. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts in the Oreto River (Sicily, Southern Italy

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    Maria Antonella Di Benedetto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The presence of Giardia was investigated along the Oreto river between January 2008 and May 2009 with the aim of understanding the source of contamination by molecular typing of cysts.

    Methods: A total of 38 water samples (10 collected from the river mouth, 24 from the whole Oreto basin and 4 sewage samples from the Monreale treatment plant were processed. In addition, 22 faecal samples of livestock living close to the Oreto area, were analyzed. The presence of Giardia was determined by immunofluorescence assay and their genetic characterization was achieved by a nested PCR assay targeting the triosephosphate isomerase gene.

    Results: All water samples from the river mouth were positive for Giardia, even if the concentration of cysts fluctuated considerably among sampling occasions. Our investigation showed that the Vadduneddu and Altofonte torrents, two influents of the river, were the principal sources of contamination. Moreover, the genotypes of Vadduneddu torrent were the same as those detected in human wastewater taken from the activated sludge plant of Monreale city. Assemblages A and B were found in water samples with a predominance of Assemblage A, subtype AII. Assemblage E was only found in a single calf isolate.

    Conclusions: The data show that the high cyst counts regularly detected in the Oreto river are due to contamination with wastewater of human origin. This finding is relevant for public health, particularly because river water is used for agricultural purposes.

  2. Deconjugated bile salts produced by extracellular bile-salt hydrolase-like activities from the probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 inhibit Giardia duodenalis in vitro growth

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    Marie-Agnès Travers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardiasis, currently considered a neglected disease, is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis and is widely spread in human as well as domestic and wild animals. The lack of appropriate medications and the spread of resistant parasite strains urgently call for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Host microbiota or certain probiotic strains have the capacity to provide some protection against giardiasis. By combining biological and biochemical approaches, we have been able to decipher a molecular mechanism used by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to prevent Giardia growth in vitro. We provide evidence that the supernatant of this strain contains active principle(s not directly toxic to Giardia but able to convert non-toxic components of bile into components highly toxic to Giardia. By using bile acid profiling, these components were identified as deconjugated bile-salts. A bacterial bile-salt-hydrolase of commercial origin was able to mimic the properties of the supernatant. Mass spectrometric analysis of the bacterial supernatant identified two of the three bile-salt-hydrolases encoded in the genome of this probiotic strain. These observations document a possible mechanism by which L. johnsonii La1, by secreting or releasing BSH-like activity(ies in the vicinity of replicating Giardia in an environment where bile is present and abundant, can fight this parasite. This discovery has both fundamental and applied outcomes to fight giardiasis, based on local delivery of deconjugated bile salts, enzyme deconjugation of bile components, or natural or recombinant probiotic strains that secrete or release such deconjugating activities in a compartment where both bile salts and Giardia are present.

  3. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Monica; Dargatz, David; Fayer, Ronald

    2012-02-10

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves on cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6-18 months of age) from 49 operations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize recovery of cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each of the 819 specimens. The presence of G. duodenalis was determined by nested PCR of a fragment of the SSU rRNA gene. All positive PCR products were subjected to sequence analysis. The overall sample level prevalence of Giardia was 33.5% with prevalence ranging from 0 to 100% among operations. The highest within herd prevalence of infected beef calves was found in one cow-calf operation from the South region (100%), followed by a cow-calf operation from the West region (90%), and three cow-calf operations from the Midwest region (87.5, 85, and 85%). Giardia was not detected in samples from 7 operations including 5 cow-calf operations from the South region, and 1 cow-calf operation each from the Midwest and West regions. Molecular analysis of the Giardia-positive samples identified assemblage E (or E-like) in 31.7% of all samples (260/819) and assemblage A in 1.2% (10/819). A mixed infection with assemblages A and E was observed in four calves from an operation in Midwest region. The potentially zoonotic assemblage A was detected in specimens from four operations in Midwest region. These findings indicate that most G. duodenalis found in weaned beef calves was assemblage E which represents no known zoonotic threat. However, the presence of assemblage A in a small number of animals poses a potential risk of infection to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Clearance of Giardia muris infection in mice deficient in natural killer cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth, M F; Kung, J E; Eriksson, E C

    1986-01-01

    Immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice and beige mice (which are deficient in natural killer cells) were infected with Giardia muris. Both types of mice cleared G. muris infection at similar rates. This observation suggests that clearance of G. muris parasites from the mouse intestine is not mediated by natural killer cells.

  5. A novel high-resolution multilocus sequence typing of Giardia intestinalis Assemblage A isolates reveals zoonotic transmission, clonal outbreaks and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankarklev, Johan; Lebbad, Marianne; Einarsson, Elin; Franzén, Oscar; Ahola, Harri; Troell, Karin; Svärd, Staffan G

    2018-06-01

    Molecular epidemiology and genotyping studies of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis have proven difficult due to multiple factors, such as low discriminatory power in the commonly used genotyping loci, which has hampered molecular analyses of outbreak sources, zoonotic transmission and virulence types. Here we have focused on assemblage A Giardia and developed a high-resolution assemblage-specific multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. Analyses of sequenced G. intestinalis assemblage A genomes from different sub-assemblages identified a set of six genetic loci with high genetic variability. DNA samples from both humans (n = 44) and animals (n = 18) that harbored Giardia assemblage A infections, were PCR amplified (557-700 bp products) and sequenced at the six novel genetic loci. Bioinformatic analyses showed five to ten-fold higher levels of polymorphic sites than what was previously found among assemblage A samples using the classic genotyping loci. Phylogenetically, a division of two major clusters in assemblage A became apparent, separating samples of human and animal origin. A subset of human samples (n = 9) from a documented Giardia outbreak in a Swedish day-care center, showed full complementarity at nine genetic loci (the six new and the standard BG, TPI and GDH loci), strongly suggesting one source of infection. Furthermore, three samples of human origin displayed MLST profiles that were phylogenetically more closely related to MLST profiles from animal derived samples, suggesting zoonotic transmission. These new genotyping loci enabled us to detect events of recombination between different assemblage A isolates but also between assemblage A and E isolates. In summary, we present a novel and expanded MLST strategy with significantly improved sensitivity for molecular analyses of virulence types, zoonotic potential and source tracking for assemblage A Giardia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A study on protozoan infections (Giardia, Entamoeba, Isoapora and Cryptosporidium in stray dogs in Ilam province

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    S Kakekhani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important protozoan parastites that caused diarrhea in human and animals. In the present study, fecal samples were collected fresh, directly from the rectum of 112 stray dogs in Ilam province. Giardia and Entamoeba were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the trichrome and iodine staining technique andCryptosporidium  oocysts  were  concentrated  by  using  the  formalin  ether  sedimentation  method  followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Of 112 stray dogs, protozoan infections were detected from feces of 46 dogs (41.07% that Giardia infection was detected from feces of 21 dogs (18.75%, Isospora 17 (15.17%, Cryptosporidium 8 (7.14% and synchronization infection to 2 protozoan in 9 dogs (8.03% and to 3 protozoan in 3 (2.67%. In the present study not observed to Entamoeba. No statistically significant differences in prevalence of protozoan parasites occurred between female (34.21 % and male (55.5 % stray dogs (p>0/05. But statistically significant differences in prevalence occurred between 1≥0 and 0 ≥1 stray dogs (p>0/05. So that stray dogs of Ilam province can cause infection of human water and food sources.

  7. Avaliação da esquistossomose e de outras parasitoses intestinais, em escolares do município de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil Evaluation of the schistosomiasis and others intestinal parasitosis in the school children of Bambuí county, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Roberto Sena Rocha

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar a prevalência das parasitoses em escolares de Bambuí, através de exames coprológicos (direto e Kato-Katz e reavaliar os criadouros de moluscos descritos no município. Dos 2.901 escolares examinados, 20,1% estavam parasitados, sendo que Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Ascaris lumbricoides e ancilostomídeos foram os parasitas mais freqüentes, com prevalências de 6,2%, 6,2%, 4,8% e 1,4%, respectivamente. Os ancilostomídeos foram significativamente mais freqüentes na zona rural e nos alunos com mais de 14 anos, enquanto a prevalência da E. coli foi maior na zona urbana e a G. lamblia mais freqüente na faixa etária de 0-6 anos. Somente três crianças eliminavam ovos de Schistosoma mansoni. O único hospedeiro intermediário encontrado foi a Biomphalaria glabrata e nenhuma delas estava eliminando cercárias de S. mansoni . Comparando-se estes dados a de levantamentos realizados anteriormente no município, observou-se uma queda na prevalência de todos os parasitas. Algumas hipóteses para tentar explicar esta queda são discutidas tais como: processo intenso de urbanização e a melhoria das condições sócio-sanitárias do município.This work was carried out with the purpose of determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses in the school children of Bambuí, through parasitological examinations (direct and Kato-Katz methods and reevaluating the snails' breeding places described in the county. Of the 2,091 school children examined, 20.1% had at least one parasitic infection. Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm are the most frequent parasites, with a prevalence of 6.2%, 6.2%, 4.8% and 1.4%, respectively. The hookworms were significantly more frequent among students from the rural area and in those aged over 14 years, while the prevalence of E. coli was greater in the urban area and the G. lamblia was more frequent in children under 6 years old. Only three

  8. Terminalia ferdinandiana extracts as inhibitors of Giardia duodenalis proliferation: a new treatment for giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, P; Matthews, B; McDonnell, P A; Cock, I E

    2015-07-01

    Giardisis is a debilitating disease caused by gastrointestinal parasites of the genus Giardia. High-antioxidant T. ferdinandiana fruit extracts were investigated for the ability to block Giardia duodenalis growth. Methanolic and aqueous extracts had the most potent growth inhibitory activity (IC50 values of approximately 700 and 140 μg/ml, respectively). Ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts also inhibited G. duodenalis growth, albeit with lower potency. The hexane extract was completely devoid of G. duodenalis growth inhibitory activity. All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia fransiscana bioassay. Nontargeted HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectroscopy (with screening against three compound databases) putatively identified 17 compounds in all of the inhibitory extracts but not in the inactive hexane extract. The low toxicity of the Terminalia ferdinandiana fruit extracts and their potent G. duodenalis growth inhibitory bioactivity indicate their potential as medicinal agents in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  9. Relative susceptibility of Giardia muris trophozoites to killing by mouse antibodies of different isotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, M F

    1992-02-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the ability of mouse IgA, IgG, and IgM anti-Giardia antibodies to kill Giardia muris trophozoites in the presence and absence of complement. Using a 2-color flow cytometry assay, binding of antibody to trophozoites was assessed with fluorescein-conjugated anti-mouse immunoglobulin, and percentages of killed trophozoites were quantified by staining with propidium iodide. Trophozoites were killed in the presence of complement by IgG3 and IgM anti-trophozoite monoclonal antibodies. Anti-trophozoite IgA, obtained from the intestinal lumen of G. muris-infected BALB/c mice, became bound to trophozoites in vitro but did not kill these organisms in the presence or absence of complement. The results suggest that clearance of G. muris infection by intestinal IgA directed against G. muris trophozoites does not involve antibody-dependent killing of trophozoites in the intestinal lumen.

  10. Giardia survey in live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals in four regions in the southwest region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria Inês L. Sogayar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a survey on Giardia in the live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals was perfomed in four regions of state of the São Paulo, Brazil, with special attention to the parasitism of Rattus rattus rattus by Giardia. This species was found infected in all studied sites: Botucatu (15.4%, Conchas (28.5%, Itaporanga (38.7% and São Roque (100 %. Two new hosts and their frequency of infection were described for Giardia in Nectomys squamipes, an aquatic rodent and in Bolomys lasiurus, a forest rodent (100 % and 14.3 %, respectively. Both G. muris and G. duodenalis groups were found in scrapings of intestinal mucosa of those rodents. Mixed infection was observed in some animals. It is important to emphasize the infection by G. duodenalis in the black rat as this species lives as a comensal with man and in N. squamipes as it may contaminate small streams used for domestic consumption. Therefore, further investigation will be necessary to elucidate the potential of these rodents to act as reservoirs of Giardia for man.

  11. A La autoantigen homologue is required for the internal ribosome entry site mediated translation of giardiavirus.

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    Srinivas Garlapati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Translation of Giardiavirus (GLV mRNA is initiated at an internal ribosome entry site (IRES in the viral transcript. The IRES localizes to a downstream portion of 5' untranslated region (UTR and a part of the early downstream coding region of the transcript. Recent studies indicated that the IRES does not require a pre-initiation complex to initiate translation but may directly recruit the small ribosome subunit with the help of a number of trans-activating protein factors. A La autoantigen homologue in the viral host Giardia lamblia, GlLa, was proposed as one of the potential trans-activating factors based on its specific binding to GLV-IRES in vitro. In this study, we further elucidated the functional role of GlLa in GLV-IRES mediated translation in Giardia by knocking down GlLa with antisense morpholino oligo, which resulted in a reduction of GLV-IRES activity by 40%. An over-expression of GlLa in Giardia moderately stimulated GLV-IRES activity by 20%. A yeast inhibitory RNA (IRNA, known to bind mammalian and yeast La autoantigen and inhibit Poliovirus and Hepatitis C virus IRES activities in vitro and in vivo, was also found to bind to GlLa protein in vitro and inhibited GLV-IRES function in vivo. The C-terminal domain of La autoantigen interferes with the dimerization of La and inhibits its function. An over-expression of the C-terminal domain (200-348aa of GlLa in Giardia showed a dominant-negative effect on GLV-IRES activity, suggesting a potential inhibition of GlLa dimerization. HA tagged GlLa protein was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of Giardia, thus supporting a primary role of GlLa in translation initiation in Giardiavirus.

  12. Reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Fecal Indicators by Bardenpho Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Moriyama, Hitoha; Haramoto, Eiji; Kitajima, Masaaki; Sherchan, Samendra; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2018-06-19

    Increased demand for water reuse and reclamation accentuates the importance for optimal wastewater treatment to limit protozoa in effluents. Two wastewater treatment plants utilizing advanced Bardenpho were investigated over a 12-month period to determine the incidence and reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and fecal indicators. Results were compared to facilities that previously operated in the same geographical area. Protozoa (oo)cysts were concentrated using an electronegative filter and subsequently detected by fluorescent microscopy and/or PCR methods. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were frequently detected in raw sewage, but Cyclospora was not detected in any wastewater samples. Facilities with Bardenpho treatment exhibited higher removals of (oo)cysts than facilities utilizing activated sludge or trickling filters. This was likely due to Bardenpho systems having increased solid wasting rates; however, this mechanism cannot be confirmed as sludge samples were not analyzed. Use of dissolved-air-flotation instead of sedimentation tanks did not result in more efficient removal of (oo)cysts. Concentrations of protozoa were compared with each other, Escherichia coli, somatic coliphage, and viruses (pepper mild mottle virus, Aichi virus 1, adenovirus, and polyomaviruses JC and BK). Although significant correlations were rare, somatic coliphage showed the highest potential as an indicator for the abundance of protozoa in wastewaters.

  13. Novel structural components of the ventral disc and lateral crest in Giardia intestinalis.

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    Kari D Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is a ubiquitous parasitic protist that is the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most common protozoan diarrheal diseases in the world. Giardia trophozoites attach to the intestinal epithelium using a specialized and elaborate microtubule structure, the ventral disc. Surrounding the ventral disc is a less characterized putatively contractile structure, the lateral crest, which forms a continuous perimeter seal with the substrate. A better understanding of ventral disc and lateral crest structure, conformational dynamics, and biogenesis is critical for understanding the mechanism of giardial attachment to the host. To determine the components comprising the ventral disc and lateral crest, we used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins in a preparation of isolated ventral discs. Candidate disc-associated proteins, or DAPs, were GFP-tagged using a ligation-independent high-throughput cloning method. Based on disc localization, we identified eighteen novel DAPs, which more than doubles the number of known disc-associated proteins. Ten of the novel DAPs are associated with the lateral crest or outer edge of the disc, and are the first confirmed components of this structure. Using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP with representative novel DAP::GFP strains we found that the newly identified DAPs tested did not recover after photobleaching and are therefore structural components of the ventral disc or lateral crest. Functional analyses of the novel DAPs will be central toward understanding the mechanism of ventral disc-mediated attachment and the mechanism of disc biogenesis during cell division. Since attachment of Giardia to the intestine via the ventral disc is essential for pathogenesis, it is possible that some proteins comprising the disc could be potential drug targets if their loss or disruption interfered with disc biogenesis or function, preventing attachment.

  14. Detection of Giardia intestinalis in water samples collected from natural water reservoirs and wells in northern and north-eastern Poland using LAMP, real-time PCR and nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-10-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite, transmitted to humans and animals by the faecal-oral route, mainly through contaminated water and food. Knowledge about the distribution of this parasite in surface water in Poland is fragmentary and incomplete. Accordingly, 36 environmental water samples taken from surface water reservoirs and wells were collected in Pomerania and Warmia-Masuria provinces, Poland. The 50 L samples were filtered and subsequently analysed with three molecular detection methods: loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and nested PCR. Of the samples examined, Giardia DNA was found in 15 (42%) samples with the use of LAMP; in 12 (33%) of these samples, Giardia DNA from this parasite was also detected using real-time PCR; and in 9 (25%) using nested PCR. Sequencing of selected positive samples confirmed that the PCR products were fragments of the Giardia intestinalis small subunit rRNA gene. Genotyping using multiplex real-time PCR indicated the presence of assemblages A and B, with the latter predominating. The results indicate that surface water in Poland, as well as water taken from surface wells, may be a source of Giardia strains which are potentially pathogenic for humans. It was also demonstrated that LAMP assay is more sensitive than the other two molecular assays.

  15. Detection of giardine gene in local isolates of Giardia duodenalis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, I; Teoh, K Y; Wan, K L; Rahmah, M; Normaznah, Y; Rohani, A

    2005-12-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhoea and malabsorption in children. The parasite also infects AIDS patients with a weak immune system. A study was carried out on six local isolates of Giardia duodenalis (110, 7304, 6304, M007, 2002 and 6307) from faeces of Orang Asli patients admitted to the Gombak Hospital. WB, a reference pathogenic strain from human and G. muris from a wild mouse, were commercially obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). All the isolates were cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 medium. Two sets of primers were used for the techniques: primers LP1 and RP1 and primers LP2 and RP2. The sets of primers amplified giardine gene of 171 bp and 218 bp in sizes respectively. The study showed that the two sets of primers could detect G. duodenalis to the genus and species level specifically.

  16. Enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas em Uberlândia (Minas Gerais, Brasil Enteroparasitoses in food handlers in public schools

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    Carlos Henrique A. de Rezende

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se ao controle das enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas de primeiro grau de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, a partir de estudo prospectivo baseado em inquérito parasitológico. Foram acompanhados 264 indivíduos de 57 escolas, com três coletas de fezes (C, sendo C1 em setembro de 1989, C2 em abril de 1990 e C3 em setembro de 1990. Entre os participantes 259 eram do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com idades entre 20 e 66 anos. As 792 amostras de fezes foram conservadas em formol a 10% e analisadas pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer. A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais foi de 17, 10 e 10% para C1, C2, e C3, respectivamente. Em C1 detectou-se: Giardia lamblia (8%, ancilostomídeos (6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (3%, Entamoeba histolytica, (2%, Strongyloides stercoralis, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia sp. e Trichuris trichiura (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C2 detectou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (2%, A. lumbricoides (1%, S. stercoralis, H. nana, Taenia sp., Enterobius vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C3 observou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (3%, A. lumbricoides (2%, S. stercoralis e E. vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Os indivíduos infectados receberam tratamento específico após o diagnóstico em cada coleta. Recomendamos a implantação de vigilância epidemiológica através do exame parasitológico periódico, tratamento específico e treinamento sobre manejo higiênico de alimentos e higiene pessoal para todos os manipuladores de alimentos.A prospective study based on a parasitologic survey was carried out with a view toward controlling enteroparasitoses in food handlers who work in public primary schools in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study subjects were 264 individuals from 57 schools, from whom three fecal samples (C were collected: C1 in September 1989, C2 in April 1990, and C3 in September 1990. The participants were predominantly female (259 women

  17. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luciana Urbano; Bonatti, Taís Rondello; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2004-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i) concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP) and to ii) purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM) and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8) when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7). As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively). Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2) were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1) was positive (12.5%). The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.

  18. Skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Sho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ohgane, Jun; Hattori, Naka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Shiota, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    In female mammals, dosage compensation for X-linked genes is accomplished by inactivation of one of two X chromosomes. The X-inactivation ratio (a percentage of the cells with inactivated maternal X chromosomes in the whole cells) is skewed as a consequence of various genetic mutations, and has been observed in a number of X-linked disorders. We previously reported that phenotypically normal full-term cloned mouse fetuses had loci with inappropriate DNA methylation. Thus, cloned mice are excellent models to study abnormal epigenetic events in mammalian development. In the present study, we analyzed X-inactivation ratios in adult female cloned mice (B6C3F1). Kidneys of eight naturally produced controls and 11 cloned mice were analyzed. Although variations in X-inactivation ratio among the mice were observed in both groups, the distributions were significantly different (Ansary-Bradley test, P < 0.01). In particular, 2 of 11 cloned mice showed skewed X-inactivation ratios (19.2% and 86.8%). Similarly, in intestine, 1 of 10 cloned mice had a skewed ratio (75.7%). Skewed X-inactivation was observed to various degrees in different tissues of different individuals, suggesting that skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice is the result of secondary cell selection in combination with stochastic distortion of primary choice. The present study is the first demonstration that skewed X-inactivation occurs in cloned animals. This finding is important for understanding both nuclear transfer technology and etiology of X-linked disorders

  19. Free radical inactivation of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudina, Ivana; Jovanovic, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Reactivities of free radical oxidants, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and Cl 3 COO radical and a reductant, CO2-anion radical, with trypsin and reactive protein components were determined by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions at pH 7, 20 0 C. Highly reactive free radicals, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical, react with trypsin at diffusion controlled rates. Moderately reactive trichloroperoxy radical, k(Cl 3 COO radical + trypsin) preferentially oxidizes histidine residues. The efficiency of inactivation of trypsin by free radicals is inversely proportional to their reactivity. The yields of inactivation of trypsin by radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical are low, G(inactivation) = 0.6-0.8, which corresponds to ∼ 10% of the initially produced radicals. In contrast, Cl 3 COO radical inactivates trypsin with ∼ 50% efficiency, i.e. G(inactivation) = 3.2. (author)

  20. Giardiasis intestinal: estudio de 60 pacientes Intestinal giardiasis: study of 60 patients

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    Nuris Rodríguez Vargas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investiga, en un período de tiempo de 6 meses, a 60 pacientes en edades comprendidas entre 1 y 14 años. Los pacientes provenían del área de salud del Policlínico «19 de Abril» y acudieron a consulta por presentar vómitos y dolor abdominal de forma aislada o conjunta. Se analizaron variables como la edad y el sexo y se realizaron estudios relacionados con la búsqueda de enfermedades enterales por parásitos protozoarios, específicamente ocasionadas por Giardias lamblia. Para ello se indicó estudio parasitológico de las heces, estudio parasitológico del contenido duodenal mediante intubación, examen radiológico contrastado de esófago, estómago y duodeno y análisis de la inmunidad humoral. El mayor número de niños estaba en el grupo de 1 a 4 años (28 pacientes y le siguieron en frecuencia los de 5 a 8 años (20 niños. Predominó el sexo masculino con un total de 38 pacientes. El hallazgo de Giardias lamblia en las heces recién emitidas se registró en más de la mitad de los casos (33 pacientes, mientras que el estudio duodenal fue positivo en 45 pacientes, lo cual evidencia un mayor valor diagnóstico en el análisis del aspirado duodenal. Los resultados de la radiografía de estómago y duodeno detectaron 41 casos de duodenitis, lo cual corroboró los hallazgos de la exploración física. En 43 pacientes se pudo realizar un estudio de inmunoelectroforesis y 29 de ellos presentaron disminución de la IgA.

  1. Amebiasis intestinal Intestinal amebiasis

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    JULIO CÉSAR GÓMEZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le permiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar, ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad.Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex pathogenic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica, and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar, have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

  2. Enteroparasitoses em escolares do Distrito de Martinésia, Uberlândia, MG: um estudo piloto

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    Carla Borges Ferreira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em estudantes do Distrito de Martinésia, município de Uberlândia (MG. Foram examinadas 103 crianças, no período de setembro a novembro de 1995, segundo o método de Lutz ou Hoffman, Pons & Janer. O coeficiente geral de prevalência foi de 22,3% e os índices de infecção mais elevados foram observados no grupo etário 8 a 9 anos (34,8%, nos moradores da vila (30,0% e no sexo feminino (26,9%. Helmintoses e protozooses apresentaram taxas de prevalência similares (10,7% e 12,6%, respectivamente. Giardia lamblia foi o único protozoário parasito verificado e apenas um caso de poliparasitismo foi encontrado. Conclui-se que a prevalência de enteroparasitoses no grupo estudado é menor do que o esperado para uma comunidade rural, o que é, provavelmente, uma conseqüência das boas condições sanitárias presentes naquele distrito.This work evaluates the occurence of intestinal parasites in the students of the Martinesia district, Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais State. A total of 103 children were examined, from september to november 1995, according to Lutz or Hoffman, Pons and Janer method. The overall prevalence rate was 22.3% and the highest indices of infection were observed in 8-9 age group (34.8%, in village dwellers (30.0% and in females (26.9%. Helminthosis and protozoosis showed similar prevalence rates (10.7% and 12.6%, respectively. Giardia lamblia was the unique protozoan parasite verified and only one case of poliparasitism was found. We concluded that: the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the studied group is lower than expectations for a rural community, what is, probably, a consequence of the good sanitary conditions presenting in that district.

  3. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected and Non-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Region, West-Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  4. The presence of Giardia intestinalis in donkeys, Equus asinus, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Fu-Kai; Li, Fa-Cai; Hou, Jun-Ling; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-01-03

    Giardia intestinalis is one of the most important zoonotic enteric parasites. As no information regarding prevalence and genotype of G. intestinalis in donkeys (Equus asinus) in China is available, 181 faecal samples from 48 donkeys from Jilin Province, from 104 from Shandong Province and from 29 from Liaoning Province were examined between May and December 2015. Twenty-eight (15.47%) out of 181 donkey samples were tested G. intestinalis-positive by nested amplification of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. The prevalence in different regional groups varied from 10.42 to 18.27%. The prevalence in adult and young donkeys was 14.29 and 22.92%, respectively. Otherwise, the prevalence was 11.69% in summer and 18.27% in winter. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relation to region or age group. Sequence analysis of the tpi, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and beta giardin (bg) loci identified 4, 1 and 3 subtypes of assemblage B, respectively. Moreover, four novel multilocus genotypes (MLGs novel-1 to novel-4) were identified in assemblage B. This first report of G. intestinalis in donkeys in China indicates that further studies of nation-wide molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution of Giardia in donkeys are warranted. Effective strategies should be implemented to control G. intestinalis infection in donkeys, other animals and humans.

  5. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Shahroud, Semnan

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    Saeid Nazemi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of healthy vegetables, the present study was conducted to determine parasitic infection of vegetable consumed in Shahroud.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 92 samples of various vegetables collected from 16 vegetable growing farms and 1 vegetable process workshop. Results: Sixty two percent of tested vegetables lacked parasites and the highest amount of parasites observed (34.78% was related to Giardia lamblia. A significant relationship was observed between parasite and having toilets in the farms as well as the extent of farms.Conclusion: safety of fertilizers consumed by farms and healthy fruits can have an effective role in reducing the parasitic infections.

  6. Genetic diversity within the morphological species Giardia intestinalis and its relationship to host origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monis, Paul T; Andrews, Ross H; Mayrhofer, Graham; Ey, Peter L

    2003-05-01

    A genetic analysis of Giardia intestinalis, a parasitic protozoan species that is ubiquitous in mammals worldwide, was undertaken using organisms derived from a variety of mammalian hosts in different geographical locations. The test panel of 53 Giardia isolates comprised 48 samples of G. intestinalis, including representatives of all known genetic subgroups, plus an isolate of G. ardeae and four isolates of G. muris. The isolates were compared by allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data obtained for 21 cytosolic enzymes, representing 23 gene loci. Neighbour Joining analysis of the allelic profiles supported the monophyly of G. intestinalis but showed that the species encompasses a rich population substructure. Seven major clusters were evident within G. intestinalis, corresponding to lineages designated previously as genetic assemblages A-G. Some genotypes, e.g. those defining assemblage A, are found in divergent host species and may be zoonotic. However other genotypes, e.g. those defining assemblages C-G, appear to be confined to particular hosts or host groups. The findings reinforce other evidence that G. intestinalis, which was defined on the basis of morphological criteria only, is a species complex.

  7. Análisis bibliométrico de la literatura científica sobre epidemiología de Giardia en Argentina (1995-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Nora Beatriz; Grenóvero, María Silvia; Bertucci, Evangelina; Basualdo Farjat, Juan A.; Basualdo Farjat, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Las publicaciones sobre la epidemiología de Giardia en humanos de Argentina se hallan dispersas en numerosas fuentes de información, lo que dificulta su acceso y visibilidad para la comunidad científica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un análisis bibliométrico cuantitativo de la producción científica sobre Giardia en humanos de Argentina durante el período 1995-2014. El volumen de publicaciones científicas hallado fue igual a 112 (36 artículos, 73 comunicaciones y 3 tesis). La distr...

  8. Radiobiological inactivation of Epstein-Barr virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, E.; Heston, L.; Grogan, E.; Miller, G.

    1978-01-01

    Lymphocyte transforming properties of B95-8 strain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are very sensitive to inactivation by either uv or x irradiation. No dose of irradiation increases the transforming capacity of EBV. The x-ray dose needed for inactivation of EBV transformation (dose that results in 37% survival, 60,000 rads) is similar to the dose required for inactivation of plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 1 (Fischer strain). Although herpes simplex virus is more sensitive than EBV to uv irradiation, this difference is most likely due to differences in the kinetics or mechanisms of repair of uv damage to the two viruses. The results lead to the hypothesis that a large part, or perhaps all, of the EBV genome is in some way needed to initiate transformation. The abilities of EBV to stimulate host cell DNA synthesis, to induce nuclear antigen, and to immortalize are inactivated in parallel. All clones of marmoset cells transformed by irradiated virus produce extracellular transforming virus. These findings suggest that the abilities of the virus to transform and to replicate complete progeny are inactivated together. The amounts of uv and x irradiation that inactivate transformation by B95-8 virus are less than the dose needed to inactivate early antigen induction by the nontransforming P 3 HR-1 strain of EBV. Based on radiobiological inactivation, 10 to 50% of the genome is needed for early antigen induction

  9. Severity of Giardia infection associated with post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after

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    Rortveit Guri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high rate of post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in Bergen, Norway in 2004 has previously been reported. The aim of this report was to identify risk factors associated with such manifestations. Methods All laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis (n = 1262 during the outbreak in Bergen in 2004 received a postal questionnaire two years after. Degree of post-infectious abdominal symptoms and fatigue, as well as previous abdominal problems, was recorded. In the statistical analyses number of treatment courses, treatment refractory infection, delayed education and sick leave were used as indices of protracted and severe Giardia infection. Age, gender, previous abdominal problems and symptoms during infection were also analysed as possible risk factors. Simple and multiple ordinal logistic regression models were used for the analyses. Results The response rate was 81% (1017/1262, 64% were women and median age was 31 years (range 3-93, compared to 61% women and 30 years (range 2-93 among all 1262 cases. Factors in multiple regression analysis significantly associated with abdominal symptoms two years after infection were: More than one treatment course, treatment refractory infection, delayed education, bloating and female gender. Abdominal problems prior to Giardia infection were not associated with post-infectious abdominal symptoms. More than one treatment course, delayed education, sick leave more than 2 weeks, and malaise at the time of infection, were significantly associated with fatigue in the multiple regression analysis, as were increasing age and previous abdominal problems. Conclusion Protracted and severe giardiasis seemed to be a risk factor for post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after clearing the Giardia infection.

  10. Phagocytosis of Giardia muris by macrophages in Peyer's patch epithelium in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, R L; Allen, C L; Stevens, D P

    1981-01-01

    No mechanism for the initiation of immunological clearance of Giardia from the mammalian intestinal tract has been identified. In normal and nude mice experimentally infected with G. muris, we examined antigen-sampling epithelium over Peyer's patch follicles by electron microscopy for evidence of interaction between G. muris and lymphoid cells. Invading G. muris were found in the epithelium near dying or desquamating columnar cells. Macrophages beneath the basal lamina extended pseudopods int...

  11. Field testing of a fenbendazole treatment combined with hygienic and management measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2006-12-20

    The need of a combination of animal treatment and environmental measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves between the age of 1 and 6 months was emphasized and evaluated. Ten commercial farms with a total of 94 calves suffering from chronic diarrhea, ill thriving and impaired growth, were included in two subsequent studies. The first study indicated that treatment of all animals with fenbendazole at 15 mg/kg during 3 consecutive days combined with environmental measures on the final day of treatment, which were either removal of bedding, thorough cleaning and ammonia 10% disinfection or relocation of the treated animals to a Giardia free environment, resulted in a total reduction in cyst excretion for at least 2 weeks. In the second study, the immunofluorescence assay (Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia; Meridian Diagnostics Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) was used quantitatively and confirmed that the combination of treatment and environmental measures resulted in a total reduction of cyst excretion during 2 weeks and in a significant (Por=98.0%) reduction of the cyst excretion until at least 4 weeks after treatment. Furthermore, there was a noticeable improvement of the clinical symptoms in all animals towards day 28 after treatment and 4 months after treatment health in all calves was normal.

  12. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic features observed on the secondary structures of Giardia SSU rRNAs and its phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui Wook

    2007-04-01

    Phylogenetic position of a diplomonad protist Giardia, a principle cause of diarrhea, among eukaryotes has been vigorously debated so far. Through the comparisons of primary and secondary structures of SSU rRNAs of G. intestinalis, G. microti, G. ardeae, and G. muris, I found two major indel regions (a 6-nt indel and a 22-26-nt indel), which correspond to the helix 10 of the V2 region and helices E23-8 to E23-9 of the V4 region, respectively. As generally shown in eukaryotes, G. intestinalis and G. microti have commonly a relatively longer helix 10 (a 7-bp stem and a 4-nt loop), and also the eukaryote-specific helices E23-6 to E23-9. On the other hand, G. muris and G. ardeae have a shorter helix 10: a 2-bp stem and a 6-nt loop in G. ardeae and a 3-bp stem and a 6-nt loop in G. muris. In the V4, they have a single long helix (like the P23-1 helix in prokaryotes) instead of the helices E23-6 to E23-9. Among the four Giardia species, co-appearance of prokaryote- and eukaryote-typical features might be significant evidence to suggest that Giardia (Archezoa) is a living fossil showing an "intermediate stage" during the evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes.

  13. Interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) as a central regulator of the protective immune response against Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerewijck, Oonagh; Maertens, Brecht; Dreesen, Leentje; Van Meulder, Frederik; Peelaers, Iris; Ratman, Dariusz; Li, Robert W; Lubberts, Erik; De Bosscher, Karolien; Geldhof, Peter

    2017-08-17

    The protozoan parasite Giardia is a highly prevalent intestinal pathogen with a wide host range. Data obtained in mice, cattle and humans revealed the importance of IL-17A in the development of a protective immune response against Giardia. The aim of this study was to further unravel the protective effector mechanisms triggered by IL-17A following G. muris infection in mice, by an RNA-sequencing approach. C57BL/6 WT and C57BL/6 IL-17RA KO mice were orally infected with G. muris cysts. Three weeks post infection, intestinal tissue samples were collected for RNA-sequencing, with samples from uninfected C57BL/6 WT and C57BL/6 IL-17RA KO animals serving as negative controls. Differential expression analysis showed that G. muris infection evoked the transcriptional upregulation of a wide array of genes, mainly in animals with competent IL-17RA signaling. IL-17RA signaling induced the production of various antimicrobial peptides, such as angiogenin 4 and α- and β-defensins and regulated complement activation through mannose-binding lectin 2. The expression of the receptor that regulates the secretion of IgA into the intestinal lumen, the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, was also dependent on IL-17RA signaling. Interestingly, the transcriptome data showed for the first time the involvement of the circadian clock in the host response following Giardia infection.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jeanbaptiste.burnet@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Université de Liège (ULg), Department of Environmental Sciences and Management, 165 avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium); Penny, Christian, E-mail: penny@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Ogorzaly, Leslie, E-mail: ogorzaly@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Cauchie, Henry-Michel, E-mail: cauchie@lippmann.lu [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2014-02-01

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10{sup 9} and 10{sup 10} (oo)cysts.d{sup −1}, respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log{sub 10} removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (oo)cysts.d{sup −1}) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: Implications for monitoring and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Penny, Christian; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Cauchie, Henry-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10 9 and 10 10 (oo)cysts.d −1 , respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log 10 removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10 6 to 10 7 (oo)cysts.d −1 ) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here

  16. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with Giardia duodenalis recombinant cyst wall protein inhibits shedding of cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, R; Nakagaki, K; Lee, P; Abdul-Wahid, A; Faubert, G M

    2003-10-01

    The process of encystation is a key step in the Giardia duodenalis life cycle that allows this intestinal protozoan to survive between hosts during person-to-person, animal-to-person, waterborne, or food-borne transmission. The release of cysts from infected persons and animals is the main contributing factor to contamination of the environment. Genes coding for cyst wall proteins (CWPs), which could be used for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine, have been cloned. Since the immunogenicity of recombinant Giardia CWP is unknown, we have investigated the immunogenicity of recombinant CWP2 (rCWP2) and its efficacy in interfering with the phenomenon of encystation taking place in the small bowels of BALB/c mice vaccinated with the recombinant protein. Here we report that the immunization of BALB/c mice with rCWP2 stimulated the immune system in a manner comparable to that for a live infection with Giardia muris cysts. Fecal and serum anti-rCWP2 immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were detected in the immunized mice. In addition, anti-rCWP2 IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the serum. mRNAs coding for Th1 and Th2 types of cytokines were detected in spleen and Peyer's patch cells from immunized mice. When the vaccinated mice were challenged with live cysts, the animals shed fewer cysts. We conclude that rCWP2 is a possible candidate antigen for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine.

  17. Antiprotozoal activities of benzimidazoles and correlations with beta-tubulin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, S K; Gordon, V R; McLaughlin, G L; Edlind, T D

    1994-01-01

    Benzimidazoles have been widely used since the 1960s as anthelmintic agents in veterinary and human medicine and as antifungal agents in agriculture. More recently, selected benzimidazole derivatives were shown to be active in vitro against two protozoan parasites, Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia, and clinical studies with AIDS patients have suggested that microsporidia are susceptible as well. Here, we first present in vitro susceptibility data for T. vaginalis and G. lamblia using an expanded set of benzimidazole derivatives. Both parasites were highly susceptible to four derivatives, including mebendazole, flubendazole, and fenbendazole (50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.005 to 0.16 microgram/ml). These derivatives also had lethal activity that was time dependent: 90% of T. vaginalis cells failed to recover following a 20-h exposure to mebendazole at 0.17 microgram/ml. G. lamblia, but not T. vaginalis, was highly susceptible to five additional derivatives. Next, we examined in vitro activity of benzimidazoles against additional protozoan parasites: little or no activity was observed against Entamoeba histolytica, Leishmania major, and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Since the microtubule protein beta-tubulin has been identified as the benzimidazole target in helminths and fungi, potential correlations between benzimidazole activity and beta-tubulin sequence were examined. This analysis included partial sequences (residues 108 to 259) from the organisms mentioned above, as well as the microsporidia Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon cuniculi and the sporozoan Cryptosporidium parvum. beta-tubulin residues Glu-198 and, in particular, Phe-200 are strong predictors of benzimidazole susceptibility; both are present in Encephalitozoon spp. but absent in C. parvum. PMID:7811023

  18. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments.

  19. Monitoring of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Czech drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejs, P; Ditrich, O; Machula, T; Kalousková, N; Puzová, G

    2000-01-01

    In Czech raw water sources for drinking water supply, Cryptosporidium was found in numbers from 0 to 7400 per 100 liters and Giardia from 0 to 485 per 100 liters. The summer floods of 1997 probably brought the highest numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts into one of the reservoirs sampled; since then these numbers decreased steadily. A relatively high number of Cryptosporidium oocysts was found in one sample of treated water. Repeated sampling demonstrated that this was a sporadic event. The reason for the presence of Cryptosporidium in a sample of treated drinking-water is unclear and requires further study.

  20. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × time reaction ) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, E a , induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (COD Mn ) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and COD Mn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/
    Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro; Régis Adriel Zanette; Camila Belmonte Oliveira; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples w...

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recycled waters used for irrigation and first description of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. muris in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Biba, Anastasia; Mavridou, Athena; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present the first time findings regarding the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in sewage waters and the first molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species in Greece. Biological treatment plants from three regions in Greece have been investigated. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was by modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast (MZN-AF) and by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts, whereas nested PCR based on the SSU rDNA assay was used for molecular detection of Cryptosporidium followed by sequencing for the genetic characterization of the species. In total, 73 samples (37 raw sewage samples and 38 of treated water samples) were collected and analyzed. Of the 73 water samples, 4 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and staining, 12 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by nested PCR; 9 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT. We showed that Cryptosporidium cysts are found both in the input and the discharge of the biological treatment plants. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene resulted in the determination of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris Greek isolates. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in wastewaters and the first molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in Greek environments. As the treated water is used for irrigation, or it is discharged into the sea, our findings indicate that biological treatment facilities constitute a possible risk for public health because the related species are prevalent in humans; the results invite for further epidemiological investigations to evaluate the real public health risk in Greece.

  3. Genome and transcriptome studies of the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Franzén, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis are two human pathogens and protozoan parasites responsible for the diseases Chagas disease and giardiasis, respectively. Both diseases cause su ering and illness in several million individuals. The former disease occurs primarily in South America and Central America, and the latter disease occurs worldwide. Current therapeutics are toxic and lack e cacy, and potential vaccines are far from the market. Increased knowledge about the bio...

  4. A PCR procedure for the detection of Giardia intestinalis cysts and Escherichia coli in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Martinez, M L; Olmos-Ortiz, L M; Barajas-Mendiola, M A; Giono Cerezo, S; Avila, E E; Cuellar-Mata, P

    2015-06-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a pathogen associated with foodborne outbreaks and Escherichia coli is commonly used as a marker of faecal contamination. Implementation of routine identification methods of G. intestinalis is difficult for the analysis of vegetables and the microbiological detection of E. coli requires several days. This study proposes a PCR-based assay for the detection of E. coli and G. intestinalis cysts using crude DNA isolated from artificially contaminated lettuce. The G. intestinalis and E. coli PCR assays targeted the β-giardin and uidA genes, respectively, and were 100% specific. Forty lettuces from local markets were analysed by both PCR and light microscopy and no cysts were detected, the calculated detection limit was 20 cysts per gram of lettuce; however, by PCR, E. coli was detected in eight of ten randomly selected samples of lettuce. These data highlight the need to validate procedures for routine quality assurance. These PCR-based assays can be employed as alternative methods for the detection of G. intestinalis and E. coli and have the potential to allow for the automation and simultaneous detection of protozoa and bacterial pathogens in multiple samples. Significance and impact of the study: There are few studies for Giardia intestinalis detection in food because methods for its identification are difficult for routine implementation. Here, we developed a PCR-based method as an alternative to the direct observation of cysts in lettuce by light microscopy. Additionally, Escherichia coli was detected by PCR and the sanitary quality of lettuce was evaluated using molecular and standard microbiological methods. Using PCR, the detection probability of Giardia cysts inoculated onto samples of lettuce was improved compared to light microscopy, with the advantage of easy automation. These methods may be employed to perform timely and affordable detection of foodborne pathogens. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in feces and water and the associated exposure factors on dairy farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Dos Santos Toledo

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in animal feces and drinking water on dairy farms and to identify a possible relation between the exposure factors and the presence of these parasites. Fecal samples from cattle and humans and water samples were collected on dairy farms in Paraná, Brazil. Analysis of (oocysts in the feces was performed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining and centrifugal flotation in zinc sulfate. Test-positive samples were subjected to nested PCR amplification of the 18SSU ribosomal RNA gene for identification of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and of the gp60 gene for subtyping of Cryptosporidium. Microbiological analysis of water was carried out by the multiple-tube method and by means of a chromogenic substrate, and parasitological analysis was performed on 31 samples by direct immunofluorescence and nested PCR of the genes mentioned above. Identification of the species of Cryptosporidium was performed by sequencing and PCR with analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was higher in calves than in adults. Among the samples of cattle feces, Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in 41 (64%, C. ryanae in eight (12.5%, C. bovis in four (6.3%, C. andersoni in five (7.8%, and a mixed infection in 20 samples (31.3%. These parasites were not identified in the samples of human feces. Thermotolerant coliform bacteria were identified in 25 samples of water (45.5%. Giardia duodenalis and C. parvum were identified in three water samples. The gp60 gene analysis of C. parvum isolates revealed the presence of two strains (IIaA20G1R1 and IIaA17G2R2 in the fecal samples and one (IIaA17G2R1 in the water samples. The presence of coliforms was associated with the water source, structure and degradation of springs, rain, and turbidity. The prevalence of protozoa was higher in calves up to six months of age. C. parvum and G

  6. Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis in Ecuador by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Atherton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis present in a human population living in a northern Ecuadorian rain forest. All Giardia positive samples (based on an ELISA assay were analysed using a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay that targets the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh gene; those amplified were subsequently genotyped using NlaIV and RsaI enzymes. The gdh gene was successfully amplified in 74 of 154 ELISA positive samples; 69 of the 74 samples were subsequently genotyped. Of these 69 samples, 42 (61% were classified as assemblage B (26 as BIII and 16 as BIV, 22 (32% as assemblage A (3 as AI and 19 as AII and five (7% as mixed AII and BIII types. In this study site we observe similar diversity in genotypes to other regions in Latin America, though in contrast to some previous studies, we found similar levels of diarrheal symptoms in those individuals infected with assemblage B compared with those infected with assemblage A.

  7. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  8. Tuberculose e parasitismo intestinal em população indígena na Amazônia brasileira Tuberculosis y parasitismo intestinal en población indígena en el Amazonas Brasilero Tuberculosis and intestinal parasitism among indigenous people in the Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Neves Bóia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi estimar as freqüências de tuberculose e parasitoses intestinais na em comunidades indígenas da localidade de Iauareté (AM, em 2001. Estudo transversal (n=333 visando à obtenção de dados demográficos e amostras biológicas para exames de escarro e fezes. Dentre os 43 sintomáticos respiratórios, seis foram positivos na pesquisa de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no escarro. As parasitoses intestinais apresentaram freqüência significativamente maior entre a população Hüpda do que entre os índios que habitam os demais bairros (37,5% vs. 19,3% para Ascaris lumbricoides, 32,4% vs. 16,3% para Trichuris trichiura, 75% vs. 19,3% para ancilostomídeos, 75% vs. 35,4% para Entamoeba histolyticaD dispar e 33,3% vs. 10,7% para Giardia lamblia. Conclui-se que a tuberculose e o parasitismo intestinal são freqüentes nessas comunidades, exigindo medidas de controle e melhorias na assistência à saúde.El objetivo del estudio fue estimar las frecuencias de tuberculosis y parasitosis intestinales en las comunidades indígenas de la localidad de Iauareté (Norte de Brasil, en 2001. Estudio transversal (n=333 intentando obtener datos demográficos y muestras biológicas para examenes de esputo y heces. Entre los 43 sintomáticos respiratorios, seis fueron positivos en la pesquisa de bacilos alcohol-ácido resistentes en el esputo. Las parasitosis intestinales presentaron frecuencia significativamente mayor entre la población Hüpda que entre los indios que habitan las demás localidades (37,5% vs. 19,3% para Ascaris lumbricoides, 32,4% vs. 16,3% para Trichuris trichiura, 75% vs. 19,3% para ancilostomídeos, 75% vs. 35,4% para Entamoeba histolytica/dispar y 33,3% vs. 10,7% para Giardia lamblia. Se concluyó que la tuberculosis y el parasitismo intestinal son frecuentes en esas comunidades, exigiendo medidas de control y mejorías en la asistencia a la salud.The objective of the survey was to estimate the frequencies of

  9. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a drinking water resource: implications for monitoring and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Penny, Christian; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Cauchie, Henry-Michel

    2014-02-15

    Because of their significant public health impact, waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been monitored in surface water in order to assess microbial quality of water bodies used for drinking water production and/or for recreational purposes. In this context, sampling strategy is of key importance and should be representative enough to appropriately assess the related microbial risk. This, however, requires sound knowledge on the behaviour of both pathogens in water. In the present study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was explored in the rural Upper-Sûre watershed used for drinking water production in Luxembourg. By subdividing it into three compartments including (i) sub-catchments, (ii) the Sûre River fed by the sub-catchments and (iii) the Upper-Sûre reservoir fed by the Sûre River, parasite distribution was assessed using sampling designs adapted to the hydro-dynamic characteristics of the respective compartments. Results highlighted the high spatial and temporal variability in parasite distribution at watershed scale, as well as the prevalence of Giardia over Cryptosporidium. Besides land use features and catchment characteristics, hydro-climatology appeared to be a major driver of parasite behaviour in the watershed. It introduced a seasonal trend in their occurrence, highest densities being detected during the wet season. Peaks of contamination triggered out by rainfall-induced runoff were further observed in the three compartments. In the Sûre River, Cryptosporidium and Giardia fluxes peaked at 10(9) and 10(10) (oo)cysts.d(-1), respectively, and were discharged into the drinking water reservoir, where they underwent a 2 to 3 log10 removal rate. Despite this, parasite fluxes entering the drinking water treatment plant were still high (10(6) to 10(7) (oo)cysts.d(-1)) and stressed on the need for improved watershed management upstream the water treatment barrier. The catchment-wide analysis described here

  10. Multilocus typing of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from non-human primates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md Robiul; Zhang, Sumei; Jian, Fuchun; Li, Jiacheng; Zhou, Chunxiang; Zhang, Longxian; Sun, Mingfei; Yang, Guangyou; Zou, Fengcai; Dong, Haiju; Li, Jian; Rume, Farzana Islam; Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Ning, Changshen; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-11-01

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. However, molecular characterisation of these pathogens from NHPs remains scarce. In this study, 2,660 specimens from 26 NHP species in China were examined and characterised by PCR amplification of 18S rRNA, 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) and 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene loci for Cryptosporidium; and 1,386 of the specimens by ssrRNA, triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene loci for Giardia. Cryptosporidium was detected in 0.7% (19/2660) specimens of four NHP species including rhesus macaques (0.7%), cynomolgus monkeys (1.0%), slow lorises (10.0%) and Francois' leaf monkeys (6.7%), belonging to Cryptosporidium hominis (14/19) and Cryptosporidium muris (5/19). Two C. hominis gp60 subtypes, IbA12G3 and IiA17 were observed. Based on the tpi locus, G. duodenalis was identified in 2.2% (30/1,386) of specimens including 2.1% in rhesus macaques, 33.3% in Japanese macaques, 16.7% in Assam macaques, 0.7% in white-headed langurs, 1.6% in cynomolgus monkeys and 16.7% in olive baboons. Sequence analysis of the three targets indicated that all of the Giardia-positive specimens belonged to the zoonotic assemblage B. Highest sequence polymorphism was observed at the tpi locus, including 11 subtypes: three known and eight new ones. Phylogenetic analysis of the subtypes showed that most of them were close to the so-called subtype BIV. Intragenotypic variations at the gdh locus revealed six types of sequences (three known and three new), all of which belonged to so-called subtype BIV. Three specimens had co-infection with C. hominis (IbA12G3) and G. duodenalis (BIV). The presence of zoonotic genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in NHPs suggests that these animals can potentially contribute to the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. All rights

  11. Perceived food intolerance and irritable bowel syndrome in a population 3 years after a giardiasis-outbreak: a historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litleskare, Sverre; Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Eide, Geir Egil; Hanevik, Kurt; Kahrs, Gudrun Elise; Langeland, Nina; Rortveit, Guri

    2015-11-19

    Studies have shown an increased prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) after acute gastroenteritis. Food as a precipitating and perpetuating factor in IBS has gained recent interest, but food intolerance following gastroenteritis is less investigated. The aims of this study were firstly, to compare perceived food intolerance in a group previously exposed to Giardia lamblia with a control group; secondly, to explore the relation with IBS status; and thirdly, to investigate associations with content of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) in foods reported. This is a historical cohort study with mailed questionnaire to 1252 Giardia exposed and a control cohort matched by gender and age. Differences between groups were investigated using bivariate and multivariate analyses. The questionnaire response rate in the exposed group was 65.3 % (817/1252) and in the control group 31.4 % (1128/3598). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for perceived food intolerance for the exposed group was 2.00 with 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.65 to 2.42, as compared with the control group. Perceived intolerance for dairy products was the most frequently reported intolerance, with an adjusted OR for the exposed of 1.95 (95 % CI: 1.51 to 2.51). Perceived intolerance for fatty foods, vegetables, fruit, cereals and alcohol was also significantly higher in the exposed group. The groups did not differ in perceived intolerance to spicy foods, coffee or soda. The association between exposure to Giardia infection and perceived food intolerance differed between the IBS group and the no-IBS group, but IBS was not a significant effect modifier for the association. Perceived intolerance for high FODMAP foods (adjusted OR 1.91) and low FODMAP foods (adjusted OR 1.55) was significantly associated with exposure status. Exposure to Giardia infection was associated with perceived food intolerance 3 years after giardiasis. IBS status did not alter the

  12. Survey of the Occurrence and Human Infective Potential of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in Wastewater and Different Surface Water Sources of Western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Kálmán; Morar, Adriana; Ilie, Marius S; Plutzer, Judit; Imre, Mirela; Emil, Tîrziu; Herbei, Mihai V; Dărăbuș, Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    From the group of parasitic protozoa, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common pathogens spread in surface water sources, representing a continuous threat to public health and water authorities. The aim of this survey was to assess the occurrence and human infective potential of these pathogens in treated wastewaters and different surface water sources. A total of 76 western Romanian water bodies in four counties (Arad, Bihor, Caraș-Severin and Timiș) were investigated, including the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (n = 11) and brooks (n = 19), irrigation channels (n = 8), lakes (n = 16), and ponds (n = 22). Water samples were collected through polyester microfiber filtration. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated using immunomagnetic separation, according to the US EPA 1623 method, followed by their identification and counting by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. All samples were screened through PCR-based techniques targeting the gdh gene for Giardia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene for Cryptosporidium spp., followed by sequencing of the positive results. Cryptosporidium-positive samples were subtyped based on sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Giardia spp. was found in all tested water types with a cumulative detection rate of 90.1% in wastewaters, 26.3% in brooks, 37.5% in irrigation channels, 31.2% in lakes, and 36.4% in ponds. Except for ponds, all monitored water bodies harbored the Giardia duodenalis AII subassemblage with human infective potential. In addition, the ruminant origin assemblage E was widely distributed, and the domestic/wild canid-specific assemblage D was also recorded in a pond. Three (27.3%) wastewater samples were Cryptosporidium positive, and the identified species was the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum, with IIaA15G2R1 (n = 2) and IIdA18G1 subtypes. The results highlight that this threat to the public health must be brought to the attention of epidemiologists, health officials

  13. Protection against diarrhea associated with Giardia intestinalis is lost with Multi-Nutrient Supplementation: A Study in Tanzanian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.; Mank, T.; Ottenhof, M.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Mbugi, E.V.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Asymptomatic carriage of Giardia intestinalis is highly prevalent among children in developing countries, and evidence regarding its role as a diarrhea-causing agent in these settings is controversial. Impaired linear growth and cognition have been associated with giardiasis, presumably

  14. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...... and cysts ((oo-) cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011 to June 2012) in piglets (n=152), starter pigs (n=234), fatteners (n=230) and sows (n=240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (Oo-) cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium...

  15. (Influence of environmental factors on the spread of lambliasis in collectivities of small children)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, E.; Munteanu, I.; Csueroes, V.

    1980-01-01

    In 1977, coproparazitological examinations, prophylactic and therapeutical studies were carried on 225 children in 14 day nurseries and homes in Cluj-Napoca; 21.57% of children suffered from intestinal parasitosis, giardiasis being found in 92.13% of the infested children. The high incidence of giardiasis led the authors to investigate the hygienic level of the environment. The high frequency of enterobacteriaceae opportunists (77.59%), identified on the hands of the personnel and on certain objects manipulated by the children, pointed to fecal pollution and poor sanitary conditions. The contaminated objects are sources of propagation of Giardia lamblia cysts. The increased incidence of giardiasis and of enterobacteriaceae opportunists in the environment were found both in the communities with many children and in those with few children.

  16. Detection of intestinal protozoa in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHardy, Ian H; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Humphries, Romney M

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa.

  17. O depósito subungueal como disseminador e enteroparasitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Demonstramos, no depósito subungueal de 130 crianças residentes no bairro de Nova Descoberta, Natal - RN, a presença de ovos ou cistos de enteroparasitos, tais como: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichocephalus trichiurus, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostomidae, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica e Giardia lamblia. Ao lado da demonstração dos referidos parasitos, fizemos a correlação entre a incidência parasitária e as espécies encontradas no resíduo que se forma sob as unhas. Dos enteroparasitos encontrados, parece ser esta a primeira referência a ovos de ancilostomídeos no depósito subungueal. Dos 130 exames realizados 16 mostraram-se positivos, com uma percentagem de 12,30%.

  18. Evidence of heterozygosity and recombinant alleles in single cysts of Giardia duodenalis

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Juliana Martins; Silva, Sheila Oliveira; Santos, Valdir Azevedo dos; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Ferreira, Helena Lage; Keid, Lara Borges; Gregori, Fábio; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Giardia duodenalis is divided into eight assemblages (named A to H). Isolates of assemblage A are divided into four sub-assemblages (AI, AII, AIII and AIV). While isolates of sub-assemblage AII are almost exclusively detected in human hosts, isolates of assemblage B are encountered in a multitude of animal hosts and humans. Here, we isolated single cysts of G. duodenalis from a human stool sample and found that one of them had overlaps of assemblage AII and B alleles and an unexpecte...

  19. Bile-Salt-Hydrolases from the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 Mediate Anti-giardial Activity in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Allain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis is the protozoan parasite responsible for giardiasis, the most common and widely spread intestinal parasitic disease worldwide, affecting both humans and animals. After cysts ingestion (through either contaminated food or water, Giardia excysts in the upper intestinal tract to release replicating trophozoites that are responsible for the production of symptoms. In the gut, Giardia cohabits with the host's microbiota, and several studies have revealed the importance of this gut ecosystem and/or some probiotic bacteria in providing protection against G. duodenalis infection through mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Recent findings suggest that Bile-Salt-Hydrolase (BSH-like activities from the probiotic strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 may contribute to the anti-giardial activity displayed by this strain. Here, we cloned and expressed each of the three bsh genes present in the L. johnsonii La1 genome to study their enzymatic and biological properties. While BSH47 and BSH56 were expressed as recombinant active enzymes, no significant enzymatic activity was detected with BSH12. In vitro assays allowed determining the substrate specificities of both BSH47 and BSH56, which were different. Modeling of these BSHs indicated a strong conservation of their 3-D structures despite low conservation of their primary structures. Both recombinant enzymes were able to mediate anti-giardial biological activity against Giardia trophozoites in vitro. Moreover, BSH47 exerted significant anti-giardial effects when tested in a murine model of giardiasis. These results shed new light on the mechanism, whereby active BSH derived from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 may yield anti-giardial effects in vitro and in vivo. These findings pave the way toward novel approaches for the treatment of this widely spread but neglected infectious disease, both in human and in veterinary medicine.

  20. Determinación de enfermedades parasitarias en población infantil de primer a cuarto grado de educación primaria en un ejido del sur de sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Los Ángeles Díaz Reyes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La parasitosis intestinal constituye un problema de salud pública en México, siendo la población infantil la más afectada (9. En el estado de Sonora, se han realizado estudios que ubican la prevalencia de infecciones por microorganismos como Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 20, 10 y 19% respectivamente, con una situación de poliparasitismo en 18% de los casos (6. El hacinamiento, la escasez del agua potable y la carencia de drenaje, constituyen los mayores factores de riesgo para contraer este tipo de enfermedad (1. Como parte de un proyecto de Servicio Social de la Carrera de Químico Biólogo de la Universidad de Sonora, Unidad Regional Sur, se realizó un muestreo coproparasitoscópico en 52 niños de entre Primer y Cuarto grado de educación Primaria, en una población ejidal del sur del estado, con el fin de detectar casos positivos y canalizarlos para su atención. Se registraron 40 casos positivos para parasitosis, representando un 76.9% de la muestra, los principales microorganismos detectados durante el estudio fueron G. lamblia, E. histolityca, E. coli y E. nana, encontrándolos de manera aislada o en algunas muestras en asociaciones multiparasitarias.

  1. Indigenous traditional medicine: in vitro anti-giardial activity of plants used in the treatment of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Tasca, Tiana

    2009-06-01

    The ethnopharmacology for treatment of parasitic infections facilitates and directs the search for new chemical entities. In this direction, this study evaluated the cytotoxicity in vitro, against trophozoites of Giardia lamblia, of aqueous extracts of leaves Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., barks of Eugenia uniflora L., aerial parts of Foeniculum vulgare Miller, and barks of Psidium guajava L. These plants are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea by the indigenous population Mbyá-Guarani, located at the Lomba do Pinheiro, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The in vitro susceptibility qualitative analysis of G. lamblia to aqueous extracts was performed in serial dilutions from 2.5 to 0.02 mg/mL. Results revealed the minimal inhibitory concentrations: 0.313 mg/mL for A. satureioides and E. uniflora, 0.02 mg/mL for P. guajava, and F. vulgare did not present any cytotoxic effect. Quantitative assays of viable trophozoites, showed that A. satureioides presented the highest cytotoxic effect (93.5%), followed by P. guajava (82.2%), and E. uniflora (67.3%). Indigenous Guarani use mainly A. satureioides for the treatment of diarrhea, revealing the conformity with results obtained in vitro. Bioguided assays are necessary to identify the compounds responsible for the activity of the aqueous extract of A. satureioides.

  2. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases and Schistosomiasis in Preschool Age Children in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga South District, Kirinyaga County, and Their Potential Effect on Physical Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH, schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information. Both intestinal helminth and protozoan infections were detected, and, among the soil-transmitted helminth parasites, there were Ascaris lumbricoides (prevalence, 3%, Ancylostoma duodenale (<1%, and Trichuris trichiura (<1%. Other intestinal helminths were Hymenolepis nana (prevalence, 3.6% and Enterobius vermicularis (<1%. Schistosoma mansoni occurred at a prevalence of 5.5%. Interestingly, the protozoan, Giardia lamblia (prevalence, 14.7%, was the most common among the PSAC. Other protozoans were Entamoeba coli (3.9% and Entamoeba histolytica (<1. Anthropometric indices showed evidence of malnutrition. Intestinal parasites were associated with hand washing behavior, family size, water purification, and home location. These findings suggest that G. lamblia infection and malnutrition may be significant causes of ill health among the PSAC in Mwea, and, therefore, an intervention plan is needed.

  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoans among Schoolchildren in Suburban Areas near Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Song, Hyemi; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Cho, Seon; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-06-01

    Although intestinal protozoans are common etiologies of diarrhea, few studies have been conducted in Myanmar. This study planned to investigate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana among schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. We performed a cross-sectional survey among schoolchildren and their guardians from 7 primary schools in South Dagon and Hlaing Thar Yar districts, Yangon, Myanmar. Stool samples were observed with a microscope after concentration technique and iodine staining. Total 821 stool samples, including 556 from schoolchildren and 265 from guardians, were examined. The median age was 6 years old for schoolchildren and 36 years old for guardians. A 53.1% of the school children and 14.6 % of the guardians were males. The overall prevalence of each intestinal protozoan species was as follows: 3.4% (28/821) for G. lamblia; 3.5% (29/821) for E. coli; 1.2% (10/821) for E. histoytica, and 3.0% for E. nana. This study showed that intestinal protozoans are common in primary schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. Health interventions, such as hand washing education, improvement of sanitation, and establishment of water purification systems are urgently needed in this area.

  4. Giardia SP y su participación en las alteraciones nutricionales

    OpenAIRE

    Abril Garrido, Paola

    2016-01-01

    La Giardia es un protozoo flagelado y binucleado que infecta al hombre y a otros mamíferos. La transmisión se produce por la ingesta de quistes presentes en agua o alimentos. En el huésped el parásito reside normalmente en la parte proximal del intestino delgado donde absorbe alimentos. La infección puede producir irritación progresiva de la mucosa intestinal que desemboca en una enteropatía con malabsorción y diarrea crónica. Los síntomas más característicos son dolor epigástrico, flatulenci...

  5. Age-dependent decline and association with stunting of Giardia duodenalis infection among schoolchildren in rural Huye district, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Jakob; Staudacher, Olga; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean Marie; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection is highly prevalent and a cause of underweight in pre-school children in rural Rwanda. The present study aimed at assessing the age-pattern of Giardia infection and its manifestation in older children, i.e., during school age. Stool samples were collected from 622 schoolchildren at two schools in the Huye district of southern Rwanda (rural, 301; urban, 321) and subjected to G. duodenalis specific PCR assays. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with G. duodenalis infection were assessed. Of the 622 children (mean age, 10.4 years), 35.7% were infected with G. duodenalis (rural, 43.9%; urban, 28.0%; PRwanda, G. duodenalis prevalence among children declined throughout school-age. The data suggest that while lacking overt clinical manifestation at high endemicity, G. duodenalis infection is a common cause of stunting in schoolchildren. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction in fecal excretion of Giardia cysts: effect of cholestasis and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Stanley

    2005-12-01

    Bile is a major growth factor for the proliferation of Giardia spp. trophozoites in the small intestine and, at high concentrations, stimulates encystment of trophozoites. This report demonstrates that surgical cholestasis to interrupt the flow of bile from liver to intestine or the use of bile-binding resins in the diet can both dramatically decrease the fecal excretion of Giardia muris cysts. Cholestasis produced a 3 log reduction in excretion of G. muris cysts within 24 hr of surgery and a 4 log reduction after 3 days. Sham controls showed no difference in cyst excretion from presurgical control values. Two isocaloric diets were studied: a control diet (N) of Purina mouse chow containing 5% celufil and an experimental diet (CR) containing 5% cholestyramine, a resin that binds bile. Compared with the N diet, the CR diet was associated with reductions in cyst excretion of 3 logs within 1 day. Despite lowered excretion of G. muris cysts in mice fed the cholestyramine diet, the trophozoite recovery from the duodenum was similar with both diets. Cyclic feeding of the CR diet and the N diet at 3-day intervals produced significant oscillations (changes of 3-4 logs) in fecal cyst shedding. The significant reductions in fecal excretion of cysts observed with agents that bind bile suggests that diets capable of binding bile might be a therapeutic means to minimize the fecal excretion of cysts and thereby may help to reduce the risk of spreading giardiasis through fecal-oral contamination.

  7. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic inactivation (PDI has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  8. Jejunal brush border microvillous alterations in Giardia muris-infected mice: role of T lymphocytes and interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K G; Logan, M R; Klammer, G M; Teoh, D A; Buret, A G

    2000-06-01

    Intestinal colonization with the protozoan Giardia causes diffuse brush border microvillous alterations and disaccharidase deficiencies, which in turn are responsible for intestinal malabsorption and maldigestion. The role of T cells and/or cytokines in the pathogenesis of Giardia-induced microvillous injury remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the role of T cells and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the brush border pathophysiology of acute murine giardiasis in vivo. Athymic nude (nu(-)/nu(-)) CD-1 mice and isogenic immunocompetent (nu(+)/nu(+)) CD-1 mice (4 weeks old) received an axenic Giardia muris trophozoite inoculum or vehicle (control) via orogastric gavage. Weight gain and food intake were assessed daily. On day 6, segments of jejunum were assessed for parasite load, brush border ultrastructure, IL-6 content, maltase and sucrase activities, villus-crypt architecture, and intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) infiltration. Despite similar parasitic loads on day 6, infected immunocompetent animals, but not infected nude mice, showed a diffuse loss of brush border microvillous surface area, which was correlated with a significant reduction in maltase and sucrase activities and a decrease in jejunal IL-6 concentration. In both athymic control and infected mice, jejunal brush border surface area and disaccharidases were high, but levels of tissue IL-6 were low and comparable to the concentration measured in immunocompetent infected animals. In both immunocompetent and nude mice, infection caused a small but significant increase in the numbers of IELs. These findings suggest that the enterocyte brush border injury and malfunction seen in giardiasis is, at least in part, mediated by thymus-derived T lymphocytes and that suppressed jejunal IL-6 does not necessarily accompany microvillous shortening.

  9. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial Inactivation by Ultrasound Assisted Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, Jose; Ortuño, Carmen; Castillo-Zamudio, Rosa Isela; Mulet, Antonio

    A method combining supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and high power ultrasound (HPU) has been developed and tested for microbial/enzyme inactivation purposes, at different process conditions for both liquid and solid matrices. In culture media, using only SC-CO2, the inactivation rate of E. coli and S. cerevisiae increased with pressure and temperature; and the total inactivation (7-8 log-cycles) was attained after 25 and 140 min of SC-CO2 (350 bar, 36 °C) treatment, respectively. Using SC-CO2+HPU, the time for the total inactivation of both microorganisms was reduced to only 1-2 min, at any condition selected. The SC-CO2+HPU inactivation of both microorganisms was slower in juices (avg. 4.9 min) than in culture media (avg. 1.5 min). In solid samples (chicken, turkey ham and dry-cured pork cured ham) treated with SC-CO2 and SC-CO2+HPU, the inactivation rate of E. coli increased with temperature. The application of HPU to the SC-CO2 treatments accelerated the inactivation rate of E. coli and that effect was more pronounced in treatments with isotonic solution surrounding the solid food samples. The application of HPU enhanced the SC-CO2 inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms, generating a vigorous agitation that facilitated the CO2 solubilization and the mass transfer process. The cavitation generated by HPU could damage the cell walls accelerating the extraction of vital constituents and the microbial death. Thus, using the combined technique, reasonable industrial processing times and mild process conditions could be used which could result into a cost reduction and lead to the minimization in the food nutritional and organoleptic changes.

  11. Cell inactivation by heavy charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Cell and Molecular Biology Div.

    1992-06-01

    The inactivation of cells resulting in lethal or aberrant effects by charged particles is of growing interest. Charged particles at extremely high LET are capable of completely eliminating cell-type and cell-line differences in repair capacity. It is still not clear however whether the repair systems are inactivated, or merely that heavy-ion lesions are less repairable. Studies correlating the particle inactivation dose of radioresistant cells with intact DNA analyzed with pulse field gel electrophoresis and other techniques may be useful, but more experiments are also needed to assess the fidelity of repair. For particle irradiations between 40-100 keV/{mu}m there is however evidence for particle-induced activation of specific genes in mammalian cells, and certain repair processes in bacteria. New data are available on the inactivation of developmental processes in several systems including seeds, and cells of the nematode C. elegans. Future experimental and theoretical modeling research emphasis should focus on exploring particle-induced inactivation of endpoints assessing functionality and not just lethality, and on analyzing molecular damage and genetic effects arising in damage but non-inactivated survivors. The discrete nature of selective types of particle damage as a function of radiation quality indicates the value of accelerated ions as probes of normal and aberrant biological processes. Information obtained from molecular analyses of damage and repair must however be integrated into the context of cellular and tissue functions of the organism. (orig.).

  12. Estudio de la expresión de calmodulina y detección de posibles cambios en transducción de señales durante los procesos de diferenciación del parásito Giardia intestinalis / Study of calmodulin expression and detection of changes in signal transduction pathways during the differentiation processes of parasite Giardia intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Mora, Magda Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis es un parásito que infecta humanos. El proceso de exquistación es fundamental para que Giardia pueda infectar a un nuevo hospedero. Es un proceso biológico muy interesante, en donde la forma dormitante (quiste) detecta que las condiciones ambientales son las adecuadas para la reactivación celular. En este trabajo se estableció un método para la purificación de quistes del parásito, y se realizaron experimentos de exquistación. Se analizaron cambios en el patrón de fosfori...

  13. Evaluation of faecal sampling methods for the analysis of Giardia sp. in companion animals

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Rita Ruas dos

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Giardiosis is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution, responsible for gastrointestinal disease in both humans and animals. Transmitted by contaminated water and food, Giardia represents a risk to veterinary and public health. Because of its prevalence in companion animals, veterinarians and animal owners awareness of the importance of its identification and treatment in infected animals, made it an important part of th...

  14. Ultraviolet inactivation of papain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugher, J.F.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    Flash photolysis transient spectra (lambda > 250 nm) of aqueous papain showed that the initial products are the neutral tryptophan radical Trp (lambdasub(max) 510 nm), the tryptophan triplet state 3 Trp (lambdasub(max) 460 nm), the disulfide bridge electron adduct -SS - - (lambdasub(max) 420 nm) and the hydrated electron esub(aq) - . The -SS - - yield was not altered by nitrous oxide or air, indicating that the formation of this product does not involve electrons in the external medium. The original papain preparation was activated by irradiating under nitrogen. The action spectrum supports previous work attributing the low initial activity to blocking of cysteinyl site 25 with a mixed disulfide. Flask lamp irradiation in nitrogen led to activation at low starting activities and inactivation at higher starting activities, while only inactivation at the same quantum yield was observed with air saturation. The results are consistent with photoionization of an essential tryptophyl residue as the key inactivating step. (author)

  15. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Ruiz, J. A.; Gil Simón, P.; Aparicio Duque, R.; Mayor Jerez, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is...

  17. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in deer in Henan and Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianying; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zhang, Yiqi; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Jinfeng; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Wanyu; Zhang, Longxian

    2018-04-12

    Little is known about the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in deer in China. In this study, 662 fecal samples were collected from 11 farms in Henan and Jilin Provinces between July 2013 and August 2014, and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis with genotyping and subtyping methods. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were detected in 6.80% (45/662) and 1.21% (5/662) of samples, respectively. Six Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified based on the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene: C. parvum (n = 11); C. andersoni (n = 5); C. ubiquitum (n = 3); C. muris (n = 1); C. suis-like (n = 1); and Cryptosporidium deer genotype (n = 24). When five of the 11 C. parvum isolates were subtyped by sequencing the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, zoonotic subtypes IIaA15G2R2 (n = 4) and IIdA19G1 (n = 1) were found. According to a subtype analysis, three C. ubiquitum isolates belonged to XIIa subtype 2. In contrast, only assemblage E was detected in the five Giardia-positive samples with small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report C. andersoni, as well as C. parvum zoonotic subtypes IIaA15G2R2 and IIdA19G1 in cervids. These data, though limited, suggest that cervids may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Cervids in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic potential to humans, and more molecular epidemiological studies are required to clarify the prevalence and public health significance of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in cervids throughout China.

  18. The prevalence of Giardia infection in dogs and cats, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Halai, Kapil; Jeffreys, Danielle; Hunter, Paul R

    2015-01-30

    Giardia has a wide range of host species and is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals. Companion animals are able to transmit a range of zoonotic diseases to their owners including giardiasis, but the size of this risk is not well known. The aim of this study was to analyse giardiasis prevalence rates in dogs and cats worldwide using a systematic search approach. Meta-analysis enabled to describe associations between Giardia prevalence and various confounding factors. Pooled prevalence rates were 15.2% (95% CI 13.8-16.7%) for dogs and 12% (95% CI 9.2-15.3%) for cats. However, there was very high heterogeneity between studies. Meta-regression showed that the diagnostic method used had a major impact on reported prevalence with studies using ELISA, IFA and PCR reporting prevalence rates between 2.6 and 3.7 times greater than studies using microscopy. Conditional negative binomial regression found that symptomatic animals had higher prevalence rates ratios (PRR) than asymptomatic animals 1.61 (95% CI 1.33-1.94) in dogs and 1.94 (95% CI 1.47-2.56) in cats. Giardia was much more prevalent in young animals. For cats >6 months, PRR=0.47 (0.42-0.53) and in dogs of the same age group PRR=0.36 (0.32-0.41). Additionally, dogs kept as pets were less likely to be positive (PRR=0.56 (0.41-0.77)) but any difference in cats was not significant. Faecal excretion of Giardia is common in dogs and slightly less so in cats. However, the exact rates depend on the diagnostic method used, the age and origin of the animal. What risk such endemic colonisation poses to human health is still unclear as it will depend not only on prevalence rates but also on what assemblages are excreted and how people interact with their pets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunophenotyping in post-giardiasis functional gastrointestinal disease and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanevik Kurt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Giardia outbreak was associated with development of post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGID and chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS. Markers of immune dysfunction have given conflicting results in CFS and FGID patient populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a wide selection of markers of immune dysfunction in these two co-occurring post-infectious syndromes. Methods 48 patients, reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study, were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS (n=19 and idiopathic chronic fatigue (n=5 and Rome II criteria for FGIDs (n=54. 22 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results In peripheral blood we found significantly higher CD8 T-cell levels in PI-FGID, and significantly lower NK-cell levels in PI-CFS patients. Severity of abdominal and fatigue symptoms correlated negatively with NK-cell levels. A tendency towards lower T-cell CD26 expression in FGID was seen. Conclusion Patients with PI-CFS and/or PI-FGID 5 years after Giardia lamblia infection showed alterations in NK-cell and CD8-cell populations suggesting a possible immunological abnormality in these conditions. We found no significant changes in other markers examined in this well-defined group of PI-CFS and PI-FGID elicited by a gastrointestinal infection. Controlling for co-morbid conditions is important in evaluation of CFS-biomarkers.

  20. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biritiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98. Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro. Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê. Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um, Akodon montensis (três e Coendou villosus (dois, três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois e Marmosops incanus (um e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento.The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba, located in the

  1. Prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal en escolares de 6-11 año Prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Pérez Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 1 253 niños, como muestra representativa de la población infantil de 6-11 años de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta junio del 2011, para determinar la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en ellos. Se procesaron las pruebas de heces fecales mediante 2 métodos coproparasitológicos (directo y concentrado y se obtuvo que 37,8 % de los integrantes de la serie estaban parasitados. Predominaron los protozoarios (22,7 %, con mayor frecuencia de Giardia lamblia, el parasitismo en el grupo etario de 6-8 años (66,7 % y los escolares infectados que presentaban inadecuados hábitos higiénico-sanitarios, depósitos de residuales, agua de consumo y piso de la vivienda. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó que debieran incrementarse las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población y discutirse estos resultados con los decisores de salud de la provincia, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 253 children as a representative sample of children aged 6-11 years in the province of Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in them. Tests were processed by 2 stool parasitological methods (direct and concentrate and it was found that 37.8% of the members of the series were parasitized. Protozoa (22.7% with higher frequency of Giardia lamblia, parasitism in age group of 6-8 years(66.7% and infected schoolchildren, who had poor health and hygiene habits, waste deposits, water consumption and floor of the house predominated. To minimize this problem it was recommended to increase health education to the population and discuss these results with health decision makers in the province, in order to promote healthy habits and lifestyles.

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  3. The impact of improvement of water supply and sanitation facilities on diarrhea and intestinal parasites: a Brazilian experience with children in two low-income urban communities O impacto das medidas de melhoria do abastecimento de água e esgoto sobre a diarréia e parasitose intestinal: experiência brasileira com crianças de comunidades de baixa renda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Gross

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of 1986 the impact of the improvement of water supply and excreta disposal facilities on diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasitosis was studied in 254 children up to six years of age from two favelas (shanty towns of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The estimated incidence of diarrhea was 6.2 episodes/child year and the estimated period prevalence reached 31.0 episode days/ child/ year. The point prevalence of parasitosis was 70.7% (Ascaris lumbricoides: 55.4%, Trichuris trichiura: 19.6%, Giardia lamblia: 17.9%. The estimated prevalence of diarrhea decreased with improvement of water supply and sanitation facilities to 45% and 44% respectively, but no statistically significant impact was observed in the case of parasitosis. School education and weaning practice were found to be other important determinants of diarrhea.Em 1986 pesquisou-se, junto a 254 crianças de até 6 anos de idade, residentes em duas favelas de Belo Horizonte (Brasil, o impacto das medidas de melhoramento do abastecimento de água e esgoto na incidência de diarréia e parasitose intestinal. Até então, a incidência de diarréia era estimada em 6,2 casos por criança e ano, com uma duração predominante de 31,0 dias por caso/criança/ano. A taxa de difusão de parasitose alcançava 70,7% (Ascaris lumbricoides: 55,4%, Trichuris trichiura: 19,6%; Giardia lamblia: 17,9%. Após os melhoramentos no abastecimento de água e esgoto, a incidência de diarréia caiu para 45% e 44%, respectivamente. Quanto à parasitose, entretanto, não se constatou nenhum impacto estatisticamente significante. Também verificou-se que o grau de educação escolar e práticas de desmame são determinantes de grande importância na incidência de diarréia.

  4. Intestinal parasitoses and environmental factors in a rural population of Argentina, 2002-2003 Parasitosis intestinales y factores ambientales en una población rural de Argentina, 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Basualdo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 504 people and the degree of association between environmental variables and parasites found in population, soil and water in a rural area of Argentina during 2002-2003. A structured survey was used to evaluate the environmental variables and fecal-human, soil and water samples were analyzed. The prevalence of parasites was 45.4%. Most prevalent protozoa were Blastocystis hominis (27.2% and Giardia lamblia (6.9%, while the most prevalent helminth was Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%. The analyzed environmental variables showing association (p Hemos evaluado la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en 504 personas y el grado de asociación entre las variables ambientales y los parásitos intestinales hallados en la población, el suelo y el agua de una zona rural de Argentina durante 2002-2003. Se utilizó una encuesta estructurada para relevar las variables ambientales y se examinaron muestras fecales humanas, de agua y de suelo. La prevalencia parasitaria fue de 45,4%. Los protozoos prevalentes fueron Blastocystis hominis (27,2% y Giardia lamblia (6,9%, mientras que el helminto mas prevalente fue Ascaris lumbricoides (3,8%. Las variables ambientales analizadas que mostraron asociación (p < 0,05 con la presencia de parásitos en la población fueron: casa de cartón-chapa o de madera con piso de tierra, bomba de agua domiciliaria o comunitaria, canilla fuera de la casa o pública y pozo ciego o letrina. Elementos parasitarios fueron hallados en el 82,3% de las muestras de suelo y en el 84,2% de las muestras de agua. En ambas muestras fueron hallados parásitos que también se encontraron en las personas. En este trabajo hemos hallado deficientes condiciones sanitarias asociadas con la presencia de parásitos en las personas y hemos evidenciado que el suelo y el agua contaminada fueron la fuente de esos parasitos.

  5. Inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, O.E.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Kazantseva, V.A.; Gabrilevskaia, L.N.; Kodkind, G.K.H.

    The study of ozone inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage showed the presence in sewage of suspensions of organic origin and bacterial flora to influence the rate of inactivation. The inactivation rate of poliomyelitis virus in sewage free from organic suspension and bacterial flora was significantly higher than that in sewage containing such suspension and bacterial flora. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses was found not to depend upon the protein and salt composition and pH of sewage or strain appurtenance of viruses. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses directly depended upon the dose of ozone and time of contact with it. Differences in the resistance of different types of poliomyelitis virus, ECHO and Coxsackie viruses to the effect of ozone are likely exist. These differences are manifested within the range of relatively small doses of ozone. E. coli is more resistant to ozone than entero-viruses. The results of laboratory studies were used to choose the regimen of sanitation of urban sewage to be used in technological cycles of industrial enterprises.

  6. Cryptosporidium,Giardia, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis genetic variability: cryptic biological species or clonal near-clades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Tibayrenc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An abundant literature dealing with the population genetics and taxonomy of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Pneumocystis spp., and Cryptococcus spp., pathogens of high medical and veterinary relevance, has been produced in recent years. We have analyzed these data in the light of new population genetic concepts dealing with predominant clonal evolution (PCE recently proposed by us. In spite of the considerable phylogenetic diversity that exists among these pathogens, we have found striking similarities among them. The two main PCE features described by us, namely highly significant linkage disequilibrium and near-clading (stable phylogenetic clustering clouded by occasional recombination, are clearly observed in Cryptococcus and Giardia, and more limited indication of them is also present in Cryptosporidium and Pneumocystis. Moreover, in several cases, these features still obtain when the near-clades that subdivide the species are analyzed separately ("Russian doll pattern". Lastly, several sets of data undermine the notion that certain microbes form clonal lineages simply owing to a lack of opportunity to outcross due to low transmission rates leading to lack of multiclonal infections ("starving sex hypothesis". We propose that the divergent taxonomic and population genetic inferences advanced by various authors about these pathogens may not correspond to true evolutionary differences and could be, rather, the reflection of idiosyncratic practices among compartmentalized scientific communities. The PCE model provides an opportunity to revise the taxonomy and applied research dealing with these pathogens and others, such as viruses, bacteria, parasitic protozoa, and fungi.

  7. Mycobacteria inactivation using Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Gao, Ya; Branco, Alan; Eleftheriadou, Mary; Lemos, Bernardo; Nardell, Edward; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Airborne transmitted pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cause serious, often fatal infectious disease with enormous global health implications. Due to their unique cell wall and slow growth, mycobacteria are among the most resilient microbial forms. Herein we evaluate the ability of an emerging, chemical-free, nanotechnology-based method to inactivate M. parafortuitum (Mtb surrogate). This method is based on the transformation of atmospheric water vapor into engineered water nano-structures (EWNS) via electrospray. We demonstrate that the EWNS can interact with and inactivate airborne mycobacteria, reducing their concentration levels significantly. Additionally, EWNS can inactivate M. parafortuitum on surfaces eight times faster than the control. The mechanism of mycobacteria inactivation was also investigated in this study. It was demonstrated that the EWNS effectively deliver the reactive oxygen species, encapsulated during the electrospray process, to the bacteria oxidizing their cell membrane resulting into inactivation. Overall, this is a method with the potential to become an effective intervention technology in the battle against airborne infections. This study demonstrates the feasibility of mycobacterium inactivation in airborne form or on contact surfaces using electrospray activated water nano-structures. Given that the method is free of toxic chemicals, this might become an important tool in the prevention of mycobacterial infections, which are notoriously hard to treat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of zoonotic and livestock-specific assemblages of Giardia duodenalis in free-living wild lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Reboredo-Fernández

    Full Text Available Abstract Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic parasite that infects the gut of a wide range of vertebrates, including numerous wildlife species. However, little is known about this protozoan parasite in reptiles. Fecal samples from 31 wild lizards were collected in Galicia (northwest Spain and screened for the presence of Giardia by PCR amplification and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region in the ribosomal unit. This allowed detection of the parasite in 5 samples (16.1%, and enabled identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A2 in two samples of Iberian rock lizard (Iberolacerta monticola, G. duodenalis assemblage B in other two samples of I. monticola, and G. duodenalis assemblage E in one sample of Bocage’s wall lizard (Podarcis bocagei. The results obtained after PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU-rDNA gene confirmed the presence of G. duodenalis assemblage A in two samples of I. monticola. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in free-living lizards, although further studies are needed to distinguish between actual infection and mechanical dissemination of cysts. The detection of zoonotic and livestock-specific assemblages of G. duodenalis demonstrates the wide environmental contamination by this parasite, possibly due to human activities.

  9. Enteropathogens associated with diarrheal disease in infants of poor urban areas of Porto Velho, Rondônia: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlandi Patrícia Puccinelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and thirty cases of diarrhea and 43 age-matched controls, 0 to 5 years old, were studied in a pediatric outpatient unit from a poor peri urban area of Porto Velho, Rondônia. Eighty percent of diarrheal cases were observed in the groups under 2 years of age. Rotavirus (19.2% was the most frequent enteropathogen associated with diarrhea, followed by Shigella flexneri (6.15% and S. sonnei (1.5% and Salmonella sp. (6.9%. Four cases of E. coli enterotoxigenic infections (3.1%, E. coli enteropathogenic (EPEC(2.3% one case of E. coli enteroinvasive infection (0.8% and one case of Yersinia enterocolitica (0.8% were also identified. Mixed infections were frequent, associating rotavirus, EPEC and Salmonella sp. with Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.

  10. Occurrence of Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium sp. in wastewater samples from São Paulo State, Brazil, and Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Stanojlović, Francisco Miroslav; Aguiar, Bruna; Jara, Luis M; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Guerrero, Juana Arzola; Hachich, Elayse; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Dropa, Milena; Matté, Maria Helena; de Araújo, Ronalda Silva

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and at the entrance of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Lima, Peru. Samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. The genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization by nested PCR for Cryptosporidium and double nested PCR for Giardia, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. G. intestinalis was found in 63.6 % of the samples, and the human assemblages A and B were identified. Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 36.4 % of the samples, and the species were corresponding to Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium cuniculus, and Cryptosporidium muris. Results revealed the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis human pathogenic assemblages. Molecular tools highlight the importance to map the genetic diversity of these parasites, as well as to detect their epidemiological circulation pathway in the environment.

  11. [Parasitic zoonoses transmitted by drinking water. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, M; Gornik, V

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the parasitic zoonose organisms Giardia lamblia und Cryptosporidium spp. are among the most relevant pathogens of drinking water-associated disease outbreaks. These pathogens are transmitted via a fecal-oral route; in both cases the dose of infection is low. Apart from person-to-person or animal-to-person transmissions, the consumption of contaminated food and water are further modes of transmission. The disease is mainly characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. In industrialized countries, the prevalence rate of giardiasis is 2-5 % and of cryptosporidiosis 1-3%. Throughout the world, a large number of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with drinking water were published; in 2001 the first case in Germany was identified. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are detected in surface water and sporadically in unprotected groundwater. Use of these waters for drinking water abstraction makes high demands on the technology of the treatment process: because of the disinfectant resistance of the parasites, safe elimination methods are needed, which even at high contamination levels of source water guarantee safe drinking water. Further measures for prevention and control are implementation of the HACCP concept, which includes the whole chain of procedures of drinking water supply from catchment via treatment to tap and a quality management system.

  12. The effects of nitric oxide on the immune response during giardiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Rogério Pavanelli

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a free radical synthesized from L-arginine by different isoforms NO-synthases. NO possesses multiple and complex biological functions. NO is an important mediator of homeostasis, and changes in its generation or actions can contribute or not to pathological states. The knowledge of effects of NO has been not only important to our understanding of immune response, but also to new tools for research and treatment of various diseases. Knowing the importance of NO as inflammatory mediator in diverse infectious diseases, we decided to develop a revision that shows the participation/effect of this mediator in immune response induced against Giardia spp. Several studies already demonstrated the participation of NO with microbicidal and microbiostatic activity in giardiasis. On the other hand, some works report that Giardia spp. inhibit NO production by consuming the intermediate metabolite arginine. In fact, studies in vitro showed that G. lamblia infection of human intestinal epithelial cells had reduced NO production. This occurs due to limited offer of the crucial substrate arginine (essential aminoacid for NO production, consequently reducing NO production. Therefore, the balance between giardial arginine consumption and epithelial NO production could contribute to the variability of the duration and severity of infections by this ubiquitous parasite.

  13. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. [Kinetics of catalase inactivation induced by ultrasonic cavitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapovich, M V; Eremin, A N; Metelitsa, D I

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic patterns of sonication-induced inactivation of bovine liver catalase (CAT) were studied in buffer solutions (pH 4-11) within the temperature range from 36 to 55 degrees C. Solutions of CAT were exposed to low-frequency (20.8 kHz) ultrasound (specific power, 48-62 W/cm2). The kinetics of CAT inactivation was characterized by effective first-order rate constants (s-1) of total inactivation (kin), thermal inactivation (*kin), and ultrasonic inactivation (kin(us)). In all cases, the following inequality was valid: kin > *kin. The value of kin(us) increased with the ultrasound power (range, 48-62 W/cm2) and exhibited a strong dependence on pH of the medium. On increasing the initial concentration of CAT (0.4-4.0 nM), kin(us) decreased. The three rate constants were minimum within the range of pH 6.5-8; their values increased considerably at pH 9. At 36-55 degrees C, temperature dependence of kin(us) was characterized by an activation energy (Eact) of 19.7 kcal/mol, whereas the value of Eact for CAT thermoinactivation was equal to 44.2 kcal/mol. Bovine serum and human serum albumins (BSA and HSA, respectively) inhibited sonication-induced CAT inactivation; complete prevention was observed at concentrations above 2.5 micrograms/ml. Dimethyl formamide (DMFA), a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals (HO.), prevented sonication-induced CAT inactivation at 10% (kin and *kin increased with the content of DMFA at concentrations in excess of 3%). The results obtained indicate that free radicals generated in the field of ultrasonic cavitation play a decisive role in the inactivation of CAT, which takes place when its solutions are exposed to low-frequency ultrasound. However, the efficiency of CAT inactivation by the radicals is determined by (1) the degree of association between the enzyme molecules in the reaction medium and (2) the composition thereof.

  15. Cationic antimicrobial peptides inactivate Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cogliano, Manuel E.; Hollmann, Axel; Martinez, Melina; Semorile, Liliana; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Maffía, Paulo C.; Bentancor, Leticia V.

    2017-12-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: 1) direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, 2) cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and 3) inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure) specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  16. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Inactivate Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Del Cogliano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non-alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: (1 direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, (2 cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and (3 inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  17. Enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas em Uberlândia (Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique A. de Rezende

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se ao controle das enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas de primeiro grau de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, a partir de estudo prospectivo baseado em inquérito parasitológico. Foram acompanhados 264 indivíduos de 57 escolas, com três coletas de fezes (C, sendo C1 em setembro de 1989, C2 em abril de 1990 e C3 em setembro de 1990. Entre os participantes 259 eram do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com idades entre 20 e 66 anos. As 792 amostras de fezes foram conservadas em formol a 10% e analisadas pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer. A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais foi de 17, 10 e 10% para C1, C2, e C3, respectivamente. Em C1 detectou-se: Giardia lamblia (8%, ancilostomídeos (6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (3%, Entamoeba histolytica, (2%, Strongyloides stercoralis, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia sp. e Trichuris trichiura (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C2 detectou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (2%, A. lumbricoides (1%, S. stercoralis, H. nana, Taenia sp., Enterobius vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C3 observou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (3%, A. lumbricoides (2%, S. stercoralis e E. vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Os indivíduos infectados receberam tratamento específico após o diagnóstico em cada coleta. Recomendamos a implantação de vigilância epidemiológica através do exame parasitológico periódico, tratamento específico e treinamento sobre manejo higiênico de alimentos e higiene pessoal para todos os manipuladores de alimentos.

  18. Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Intestinal Protozoan Infections in Preschool-Aged Children in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Stoller, Nicole E; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Chanyalew, Melsew; Aragie, Solomon; Callahan, Kelly; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-04-01

    AbstractIntestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method. A total of 212 samples were collected from 255 randomly selected children. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm were 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-15.1), 1.4% (95% CI = 0-3.0), and 0% (95% CI = 0-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of the pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica / dispar were 10.4% (95% CI = 6.2-14.6) and 3.3% (95% CI = 0.09-5.7), respectively. Children with A. lumbricoides infections had lower height-for-age z -scores compared with those without, but were not more likely to have stunting. Compared with those without G. lamblia , children with G. lamblia infections had lower weight-for-age and weight-for-height z -scores and were more than five times as likely to meet the z -score definition for wasting (prevalence ratio = 5.42, 95% CI = 2.97-9.89). This article adds to a growing body of research on child growth and intestinal parasitic infections and has implications for their treatment and prevention in preschool-aged children.

  19. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in pigs in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Siwila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in pigs which were being raised in intensive management systems. Faecal samples were collected from pigs of all age groups from three different piggery units. Samples were collected directly from the rectum for piglets and weaners and from the floor within 2 min – 5 min of excretion for sows and boars. At the time of collection, faecal consistency was noted as being normal, pasty or diarrhoeic. Samples were analysed further using the Merifluor® Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence assay. All piggeries had at least one pig infected with either parasite. From a total 217 samples collected, 96 (44.2%; confidence interval [CI] = 37.6% – 50.9% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., whilst 26 (12%; CI = 7.6% – 16.3% had G. duodenalis parasites. Of all the pigs, 6.9% (15/217 harboured both parasites. With regard to Cryptosporidium spp. infection, statistically significant differences were observed amongst the three units (p = 0.001, whereas no significant differences were observed for G. duodenalis infection (p = 0.13. Prevalence was higher in weaners as compared to other pig classes for both parasites, with significant differences being observed for G. duodenalis infection (p = 0.013. There was, however, no difference in infection between male and female pigs for both parasites. Furthermore, most infections were asymptomatic. From the study results it was clear that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis infections were prevalent amongst pigs in the piggeries evaluated and, as such, may act as a source of infection for persons who come into contact with them.

  20. Bile Salt Hydrolase Activities: A Novel Target to Screen Anti-Giardia Lactobacilli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Allain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite responsible for giardiasis, a disease characterized by intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea and abdominal pain in a large number of mammal species. Giardiasis is one of the most common intestinal parasitic diseases in the world and thus a high veterinary, and public health concern. It is well-established that some probiotic bacteria may confer protection against this parasite in vitro and in vivo and we recently documented the implication of bile-salt hydrolase (BSH-like activities from strain La1 of Lactobacillus johnsonii as mediators of these effects in vitro. We showed that these activities were able to generate deconjugated bile salts that were toxic to the parasite. In the present study, a wide collection of lactobacilli strains from different ecological origins was screened to assay their anti-giardial effects. Our results revealed that the anti-parasitic effects of some of the strains tested were well-correlated with the expression of BSH-like activities. The two most active strains in vitro, La1 and Lactobacillus gasseri CNCM I-4884, were then tested for their capacity to influence G. duodenalis infection in a suckling mice model. Strikingly, only L. gasseri CNCM I-4884 strain was able to significantly antagonize parasite growth with a dramatic reduction of the trophozoites load in the small intestine. Moreover, this strain also significantly reduced the fecal excretion of Giardia cysts after 5 days of treatment, which could contribute to blocking the transmission of the parasite, in contrast of La1 where no effect was observed. This study represents a step toward the development of new prophylactic strategies to combat G. duodenalis infection in both humans and animals.

  1. Checking the detail in retail: Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on vegetables sold across different counters in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utaaker, Kjersti Selstad; Kumar, Anil; Joshi, Himanshu; Chaudhary, Suman; Robertson, Lucy J

    2017-12-18

    Fresh produce has been recognized as a vehicle of infection for protozoan parasites, particularly Cryptosporidium, and, to a lesser extent, Giardia. For both parasites, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have been documented. Although documented outbreaks tend to be from industrialized countries, contamination of fresh produce with these parasites is a global issue. In developing countries, infections with these parasites are often endemic in the community, and basic infrastructure and hygiene measures may be inadequate, thus the likelihood of contamination of fresh produce with these parasites may be higher. Realization of the importance of this transmission route comes against a backdrop of raw salads and more Western culinary habits gaining a foothold, and fresh produce being encouraged as part of the diet due to their associated health benefits. However, if consumption of uncooked fresh produce is going to increase its market sector in India, it is important that it is safe. In this study, various types of fresh produce obtained from three types of vendors in Chandigarh, a major city in Northern India, were analyzed for contamination with Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using a method that has been previously validated in inter-laboratory spiking experiments. A total of 284 samples of different fresh produce items were analyzed, obtained from the different retailers situated in different societal layers of the city. The overall prevalence of contamination of fresh produce with these parasites was just under 11%, with 6% of the vegetables contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 5% with Giardia cysts. Contaminated vegetables included turnip, cabbage, carrot, chili, coriander, cucumber, radishes, and tomatoes. Molecular analyses identified contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis of Assemblage A and Assemblage D, indicating that contamination from animals may be of relevance. Although the prevalence of contamination is

  2. Structure of suicide-inactivated β-hydroxydecanoyl-thioester dehydrase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, J.M.; Ho, C.K.; Li, W.B.; Townsend, C.A.; Salituro, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    β-Hydroxydecanoylthioester dehydrase, the key enzyme in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids under anaerobic conditions, equilibrates thioesters of (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, E-2-decenoic acid, and Z-3-decenoic acid. Dehydrase is irreversibly inactivated by the N-acetylcysteamine thioester of 3-decynoic acid (3-decynoyl-NAC), via dehydrase-catalyzed isomerization to 2,3-decadienoyl-NAC. To probe the relationship between normal catalysis and suicide inactivation, the structure of the inactivated enzyme has been studied. 3-[2- 13 C]Decynoyl-NAC was synthesized and incubated with dehydrase. 13 C NMR showed that attack of 2,3-decadienoyl-NAC by the active site histidine gives 3-histidinyl-3-decenoyl-NAC, which slowly rearranges to the more stable Δ 2 isomer. Model histidine-allene adducts have been made and characterized. Analysis of NMR data show that the C=C configuration of the decenoyl moiety of enzyme-bound inactivator is E. The suggestion that the mechanism of dehydrase inactivation parallels its normal mechanism of action is supported these findings

  3. Modelling and application of the inactivation of microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oğuzhan, P.; Yangılar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of consuming contaminated food with toxic microorganisms causing infections and consideration of food protection and new microbial inactivation methods are obligatory situations. Food microbiology is mainly related with unwanted microorganisms spoiling foods during processing and transporting stages and causing diseases. Determination of pathogen microorganisms is important for human health to define and prevent dangers and elongate shelf life. Inactivation of pathogen microorganisms can provide food security and reduce nutrient losses. Microbial inactivation which is using methods of food protection such as food safety and fresh. With this aim, various methods are used such as classical thermal processes (pasteurisation, sterilisation), pressured electrical field (PEF), ionised radiation, high pressure, ultrasonic waves and plasma sterilisation. Microbial inactivation modelling is a secure and effective method in food production. A new microbiological application can give useful results for risk assessment in food, inactivation of microorganisms and improvement of shelf life. Application and control methods should be developed and supported by scientific research and industrial applications

  4. Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Urbano dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo. As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL, 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV. Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise.In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo. The samples were collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL, 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL, and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

  5. Association between Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasites in an Añu indigenous community of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenmayor-Boscán, Alisbeth D; Hernández, Ileana M; Valero, Kutchynskaya J; Paz, América M; Sandrea, Lisette B; Rivero, Zulbey

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and enteroparasite infections are highly prevalent in populations with poor living conditions, like the Amerindian communities. Identifying associations between both types of infectious agents could help to detect shared risk factors or transmission routes in these minority ethnic groups. Therefore, the prevalence and association between Hp and enteroparasites were investigated in an indigenous community whose living conditions favor such infectious diseases. Seropositivity (anti-Hp-specific IgG) and active infection (stool antigen test), intestinal parasitosis (direct and concentrated coproparasitological test, methylene blue, and Kinyoun stains), and risk factors for fecal-oral transmission were determined in 167 children and 151 adults of the Añu indigenous community living at the Sinamaica Lagoon, in Venezuela. A high rate of Hp infection (seropositivity and active infection) and enteroparasitosis was evidenced, as expected. Some significant associations were detected: direct associations between Hp and polyparasitic infection, helminths, and protozoan (particularly in children); inverse association between Hp and Giardia lamblia. No shared epidemiological factors were identified for Hp and the detected intestinal parasites, probably due to overlapping factors. Direct associations detected support the participation of the fecal-oral route in the transmission of the involved infectious agents. Inverse relationship (Hp) and G. lamblia may suggest the existence of antagonistic interactions between them. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these associations.

  6. Association between parasitic infections and tuberculin skin test results in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Nathaniel S; Mizinduko, Mucho M; Barnett, Elizabeth D; White, Laura F; Hochberg, Natasha S

    Parasitic infections are known to modulate the immune response necessary for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We sought to investigate species-specific effects of parasite infection on M. tuberculosis infection. As part of the Refugee Health Assessment Program, stool examinations and tuberculin skin testing were performed on refugees seen at Boston Medical Center between 1995 and 2012. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and stool examination data were collected for 6669 refugees; 3349 (50.2%) were TST positive (≥10 mm). Among TST-positive subjects, 176 (5.3%) had helminth infections and 1149 (34.3%) protozoa. After adjusting for sex, age, and country of origin, helminth and protozoan infections were not associated with TST-positivity. When species-specific effects were examined, subjects infected with Trichuris trichiura and Giardia lamblia had reduced odds of TST-positivity (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.65 [95%CI 0.44-0.96; p = 0.03] and aOR 0.79 [95%CI 0.65-0.95, p = 0.01], respectively). Our findings suggest that T. trichiura and G. lamblia may provide protection against M. tuberculosis infection. This study adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that immune response modulation and susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection is parasite species-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of detergents from SDS-inactivated dextransucrase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husman, D.W.; Mayer, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Dextransucrase, which is rapidly inactivated by SDS, can be reactivated upon the addition of Triton X-100. Purification of the enzyme, in good yield and homogeneity, has been achieved by chromatography in the presence of SDS. The purified enzyme can be reactivated with Triton, but has large amounts of detergents. It was important to develop procedures for their removal. Density gradient centrifugation of SDS-inactivated or Triton-reactivated enzyme, treatment with Extracti-Gel D (Pierce) or chromatography on hydroxyl apatite (HA), have been examined for their effectiveness in providing detergent-free enzyme in good yield. Ultracentrifugation of SDS-inactivated protein provided limited recovery of active enzyme, but suggested that reactivation could be achieved by the simple removal of the detergent. While similar behavior was observed when the enzyme was eluted from Extracti-Gel, it was also shown that the limited recovery was a result of irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Recovery could be improved if the enzyme was collected in solutions containing Triton, which has been reported to be a stabilizer. Chromatography of SDS-inactivated enzyme on HA also yielded active enzyme. Good recovery was obtained when Triton-reactivated enzyme was employed in these studies. The degree of detergent removal was determined by utilizing radiolabelled SDS and Triton X-100

  8. Luciferase inactivation in the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, C A; Baldwin, T O

    1981-06-01

    Luciferase was rapidly inactivated in stationary-phase cultures of the wild type of the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, but was stable in stationary-phase cultures of mutants of V. harveyi that are nonluminous without exogenous aldehyde, termed the aldehyde-deficient mutants. The inactivation in the wild type was halted by cell lysis and was slowed or stopped by O2 deprivation or by addition of KCN and NaF or of chloramphenicol. If KCN and NaF or chloramphenicol were added to a culture before the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation did not occur. However, if these inhibitors were added after the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation continued for about 2 to 3 h before the inactivation process stopped. The onset of luciferase inactivation in early stationary-phase cultures of wild-type cell coincided with a slight drop in the intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) level from a relatively constant log-phase value of 20 pmol of ATP per microgram of soluble cell protein. Addition of KCN and NaF to a culture shortly after this drop in ATP caused a rapid decrease in the ATP level to about 4 pmol of ATP per microgram whereas chloramphenicol added at this same time caused a transient increase in ATP level to about 25 pmol/microgram. The aldehyde-deficient mutant (M17) showed a relatively constant log-phase ATP level identical with that of the wild-type cells, but rather than decreasing in early stationary phase, the ATP level increased to a value twice that in log-phase cells. We suggest that the inactivation of luciferase is dependent on the synthesis of some factor which is produced during stationary phase and is itself unstable, and whose synthesis is blocked by chloramphenicol or cyanide plus fluoride.

  9. Comparison of two different methods for inactivation of viruses in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, T.; Kamstrup, Søren; Kyvsgaard, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    enterovirus (PEV) was inactivated within 3 h, The inactivation with electron-beam irradiation resulted in almost linear curves in a semilogarithmic plot of virus titer versus irradiation dose, reflecting a first-order inactivation, The rate of inactivation was almost twice as fast in the liquid samples...

  10. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with 60 CO gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of 60 CO radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. The authors found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents

  11. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with 60 Co gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of 60 Co radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. We found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents

  12. A Modified EPA Method 1623 that Uses Tangential Flow Hollow-Fiber Ultrafiltration and Heat Dissociation Steps to Detect Waterborne Cryptosporidum and Giardia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes the use of a tangential flow hollow-fiber ultrafiltration sample concentration system and a heat dissociation as alternative steps for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporidium and Giardia species using EPA Method 1623.

  13. Photodynamic inactivation of foodborne bacteria by eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E; Dos Santos, A R; Fiori da Silva, A; Ribeiro, L H; Favero, M E; Campanerut-Sá, P A Z; de Freitas, C F; Caetano, W; Hioka, N; Mikcha, J M G

    2018-03-25

    The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of photodynamic inactivation mediated by eosin Y in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Bacteria (10 7 CFU per ml) were incubated with eosin Y at concentrations ranging from 0·1 to 10 μmol l -1 , irradiated by green LED (λ max 490-570 nm) for 5, 10 and 15 min and the cellular viability was determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was completely inactivated when treated with 10 μmol l -1 eosin Y for 10 min. Treatments reduced B. cereus and Salm. Typhimurium counts to 2·7 log CFU per ml and 1·7 log CFU per ml, respectively. Escherichia coli counts were slightly reduced. Staphylococcus aureus presented the highest sensitivity, being completely inactivated by eosin Y at 5 μmol l -1 and 5 min of illumination. The reduction of cellular viability of photoinactivated Staph. aureus was also demonstrated by flow cytometry and morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Eosin Y in combination with LED produced bacterial inactivation, being a potential candidate for photodynamic inactivation. This study evidenced the efficacy of photodynamic inactivation as a novel and promising alternative to bacterial control. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Mariñas, Benito J

    2007-07-15

    The inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine was characterized by two stages: an initial phase at a relatively fast rate followed by a slower second stage of pseudo first-order kinetics. The inactivation rate of each stage was approximately the same for all experiments performed at a certain condition of pH and temperature; however, variability was observed for the disinfectant exposure at which the transition between the two stages occurred. This variability was not a function of the initial disinfectant concentration, the initial bacterial density, or the bacterial stock. However, the transition to the second stage varied more significantly at high temperatures (30 degrees C), while lower variability was observed at lower temperatures (5 and 20 degrees C). Experiments conducted at pH values in the range of 6-9 revealed that the inactivation of M. avium was primarily due to hypochlorous acid, with little contribution from hypochlorite ion within this pH range. The inactivation kinetics was represented with a two-population model. The activation energies for the resulting pseudo first-order rate constants for the populations with fast and slow kinetics were 100.3 and 96.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The magnitude of these values suggested that for waters of relatively high pH and low temperatures, little inactivation of M. avium would be achieved within treatment plants, providing a seeding source for distribution systems.

  15. Inactivation of viruses in municipal effluent by chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hajenian, H. G.; Butler, M.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of pH and temperature on the efficiency of chlorine inactivation of two unrelated picornaviruses in a typical urban wastewater effluent was examined. Temperature, unlike pH, had relatively little effect on the rate of inactivation. The pH effect was complex and the two viruses differed. The f2 coliphage was more sensitive to chlorine at low pH, but at all values there was a threshold above which additional chlorine resulted in very rapid inactivation. The amount of chlorine requ...

  16. Giardia intestinalis and nutritional status in children participating in the complementary nutrition program, Antioquia, Colombia, May to October 2006 Giardia intestinalis e estado nutricional em crianças participantes do programa de nutrição complementar, melhoramento alimentar e nutricional da Antioquia (MANA - Instituto Colombiano de Bem-Estar Familiar (ICBF, Antióquia, Colombia, maio a outubro de 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. Botero-Garcés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis infection is prevalent throughout the world and widely distributed in developing countries. In general, children display serious consequences to their state of health, including slow height-weight development; therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the association between Giardia infection and the nutritional status of children who participate in the program of complementary feeding (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia (MANA - Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF. A cross-sectional study examining the association of giardiasis with nutritional status was conducted. A total of 2035 children aged eight months to six years-old were studied. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analysis of blood and stool samples. Analysis of the results showed that 27.6% of children were infected with G. intestinalis, while 8.1% and 1.9% were mildly and significantly underweight, respectively, and 14.1% presented stunting. Giardiasis was statistically identified as a strong predictor of stunting in this study population.A infecção pela Giardia intestinalis está amplamente distribuída no mundo apresentando a maior prevalência nos países em desenvolvimento. Em crianças, esta parasitose pode ter conseqüências graves no estado geral de saúde assim como no ganho de peso e estatura. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estabelecer a associação entre a infecção com Giardia e o estado nutricional das crianças beneficiárias do programa de complementação alimentar - MANA. Um estudo de corte no qual foram avaliadas 2035 crianças entre os oito meses e os seis anos de idade foi realizado. A informação foi obtida a partir de questionários estruturados, medições antropométricas e exame de fezes. Os resultados mostraram que 27,6% das crianças estavam infectadas com Giardia intestinalis, das quais 8,1% apresentaram desnutrição moderada

  17. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1979-07-01

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-80 0 C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  18. Enteroparasitoses em pré-escolares de comunidades favelizadas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Macedo Lêda Maria da

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência das enteroparasitoses foi verificada através de inquérito coproparasitológico realizado de março de 1990 a outubro de 1991, em 1.381 pré-escolares provenientes de quatro comunidades faveladas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Por meio da técnica de Blagg et al. (1955, foi encontrada uma positividade geral de 54,5. Os parasitos mais freqüentes foram Giardia lamblia e Ascaris lumbricoides, em cerca de 25,0% das crianças investigadas. Correlação estatisticamente significativa foi observada entre idade e positividade nas crianças menores de três anos. Sugerimos que tratamento antiparasitário e modificações ambientais sejam implementados para o controle das infecções parasitárias nesta população.

  19. Structure of TTHA1623, a novel metallo-β-lactamase superfamily protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Akihiro; Okada, Akitoshi; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nakagawa, Noriko; Ebihara, Akio; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structures of TTHA1623 from T. thermophilus HB8 in an iron-bound and a zinc-bound form have been determined to 2.8 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. TTHA1623 is a metallo-β-lactamase superfamily protein from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8. Homologues of TTHA1623 exist in a wide range of bacteria and archaea and one eukaryote, Giardia lamblia, but their function remains unknown. To analyze the structural properties of TTHA1623, the crystal structures of its iron-bound and zinc-bound forms have been determined to 2.8 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. TTHA1623 possesses an αββα-fold similar to that of other metallo-β-lactamase superfamily proteins with glyoxalase II-type metal coordination. However, TTHA1623 exhibits a putative substrate-binding pocket with a unique shape

  20. Cryptosporidium y blastocistis hominis como agentes patógenos en el síndrome diarréico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia I. Moncada

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En una comunidad de escasos recursos de Bogotá se tomaron muestras de heces de niños menores de diez años con diarrea y de niños sin diarrea. Las muestras del grupo de estudio y del grupo control resultaron negativas para el Cryptosporidium. Se encontraron positivas para Blastocistis hominis 17 muestras del grupo de estudio (8.3%. y 5 del grupo control (10.4%. Los síntomas predominantes fueron fiebre, dolor abdominal y pérdida del apetito. El B. hominis se asoció con la Escherichia coli, Salmonella campylobacter, E. histiolytica, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides y rotavírus. No se confirmó el papel que en los últimos años se le atribuye al Cryptosporidium y al B. hominis como agentes productores de diarrea.

  1. Inactivation of complement by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, H M; Finke, J H; Elgert, K D; Cambell, B J; Barrett, J T

    1979-07-01

    Zymosan depletion of serum complement in guinea pigs rendered them highly resistant to lesion by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom. Guinea pigs deficient in C4 of the complement system are as sensitive to the venom as normal guinea pigs. The injection of 35 micrograms of whole recluse venom intradermally into guinea pigs lowered their complement level by 35.7%. Brown recluse spider venom in concentrations as slight as 0.02 micrograms protein/ml can totally inactivate one CH50 of guinea pig complement in vitro. Bee, scorpion, and other spider venoms had no influence on the hemolytic titer of complement. Fractionation of recluse spider venom by Sephadex G-200 filtration separated the complement-inactivating property of the venom into three major regions which could be distinguished on the basis of heat stability as well as size. None was neutralized by antivenom. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of venom resolved the complement inactivators into five fractions. Complement inactivated by whole venom or the Sephadex fractions could be restored to hemolytic activity by supplements of fresh serum but not by heat-inactivated serum, pure C3, pure C5, or C3 and C5 in combination.

  2. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after