International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.
1976-01-01
Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)
Unconfined twist : a simple method to prepare ultrafine grained metallic materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Y. (Yonghao); Liao, Xiaozhou; Zhu, Y. T. (Yuntian Theodore)
2004-01-01
A new simple method - unconfined twist was employed to prepare ultrafine grained (UFG) Fe,wire. A coarse grained (CG) Fe wire with a diameter of 0.85 mm was fixed at one end, and twisted at the other end. After maximum twist before fracture, in the cross-sectional plane, concentrically deformed layers with a width of several micrometers formed surrounding the center axis of the wire. The near-surface deformed layers consist of lamella grains with a width in submicrometer range. In the longitudinal plane, deformed bands (with a width of several micrometers) formed uniformly, which were composed of lamella crystallites (with a width in submicrometer range). The tensile yield strength and ultimate strength of the twisted Fe wire are increased by about 150% and 100% compared with the values of its CG counterpart.
Formation of dust grains with impurities in red giant winds
Dominik, Carsten
1994-01-01
Among the several proposed carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIB's) are impurities in small dust grains, especially in iron oxide grains (Huffman 1977) and silicate grains (Huffman 1970). Most promising are single ion impurities since they can reproduce the observed band widths (Whittet 1992). These oxygen-rich grains are believed to originate mostly in the mass flows from red giants and in supernovae ejecta (e.g. Gehrz 1989). A question of considerable impact for the origin of DIB's is therefore, whether these grains are produced as mainly clean crystals or as some dirty materials. A formalism has been developed that allows tracking of the heterogeneous growth of a dust grain and its internal structure during the dust formation process. This formalism has been applied to the dust formation in the outflow from a red giant star.
Twist-writhe partitioning in a coarse-grained DNA minicircle model
Sayar, Mehmet; Avşaroǧlu, Barış; Kabakçıoǧlu, Alkan
2010-04-01
Here we present a systematic study of supercoil formation in DNA minicircles under varying linking number by using molecular-dynamics simulations of a two-bead coarse-grained model. Our model is designed with the purpose of simulating long chains without sacrificing the characteristic structural properties of the DNA molecule, such as its helicity, backbone directionality, and the presence of major and minor grooves. The model parameters are extracted directly from full-atomistic simulations of DNA oligomers via Boltzmann inversion; therefore, our results can be interpreted as an extrapolation of those simulations to presently inaccessible chain lengths and simulation times. Using this model, we measure the twist/writhe partitioning in DNA minicircles, in particular its dependence on the chain length and excess linking number. We observe an asymmetric supercoiling transition consistent with experiments. Our results suggest that the fraction of the linking number absorbed as twist and writhe is nontrivially dependent on chain length and excess linking number. Beyond the supercoiling transition, chains of the order of one persistence length carry equal amounts of twist and writhe. For longer chains, an increasing fraction of the linking number is absorbed by the writhe.
Grain-gas interaction in envelopes of red giants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maciel, W.J.
1976-01-01
A model for the ejection of the dust shell of red giant stars through the action of the stellar radiation pressure is developed. Being momentum-coupled to the gas, the dust shell can drive an effective mass loss. On the other hand, the grain injection rate into the interstellar space can be estimated [pt
Giant secondary grain growth in Cu films on sapphire
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David L. Miller
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Single crystal metal films on insulating substrates are attractive for microelectronics and other applications, but they are difficult to achieve on macroscopic length scales. The conventional approach to obtaining such films is epitaxial growth at high temperature using slow deposition in ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Here we describe a different approach that is both simpler to implement and produces superior results: sputter deposition at modest temperatures followed by annealing to induce secondary grain growth. We show that polycrystalline as-deposited Cu on α-Al2O3(0001 can be transformed into Cu(111 with centimeter-sized grains. Employing optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electron backscatter diffraction to characterize the films before and after annealing, we find a particular as-deposited grain structure that promotes the growth of giant grains upon annealing. To demonstrate one potential application of such films, we grow graphene by chemical vapor deposition on wafers of annealed Cu and obtain epitaxial graphene grains of 0.2 mm diameter.
El-Garaihy, W. H.; Fouad, D. M.; Salem, H. G.
2018-04-01
Multi-channel Spiral Twist Extrusion (MCSTE) is introduced as a novel severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique for producing superior mechanical properties associated with ultrafine grained structure in bulk metals and alloys. The MCSTE design is based on inserting a uniform square cross-sectioned billet within stacked disks that guarantee shear strain accumulation. In an attempt to validate the technique and evaluate its plastic deformation characteristics, a series of experiments were conducted. The influence of the number of MCSTE passes on the mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of AA1100 alloy were investigated. Four passes of MCSTE, at a relatively low twisting angle of 30 deg, resulted in increasing the strength and hardness coupled with retention of ductility. Metallographic observations indicated a significant grain size reduction of 72 pct after 4 passes of MCSTE compared with the as-received (AR) condition. Moreover, the structural uniformity increased with the number of passes, which was reflected in the hardness distribution from the peripheries to the center of the extrudates. The current study showed that the MCSTE technique could be an effective, adaptable SPD die design with a promising potential for industrial applications compared to its counterparts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Day, J.W.; Hall, D.H.; Hall, L.M.; Bennett, M.V.
1983-01-01
Autoradiographic and histochemical techniques have been used to characterize further the pharmacology of transmission at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse of the South American hatchetfish. [ 125 I]alpha-Bungarotoxin was applied to hatchetfish medullae and a standard autoradiographic procedure was carried out on 3- to 4-microns sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue. All Mauthner fiber giant synapses, as identified by light microscopic criteria, had closely associated silver grains. Labeling was blocked by d-tubocurarine. Glutaraldehyde-fixed slices of hatchetfish medulla were stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase; all giant synapses that could be identified in the light microscope showed heavy deposits of reaction product. Staining was blocked by diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, which inhibits both pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, but was not blocked by tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide, a specific pseudocholinesterase inhibitor. This evidence strongly supports the suggestion that the Mauthner fiber giant synapse is nicotinic cholinergic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Day, J.W.; Hall, D.H.; Hall, L.M.; Bennett, M.V.
1983-01-01
Autoradiographic and histochemical techniques have been used to characterize further the pharmacology of transmission at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse of the South American hatchetfish. [ 125 I]alpha-Bungarotoxin was applied to hatchetfish medullae and a standard autoradiographic procedure was carried out on 3- to 4-microns sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue. All Mauthner fiber giant synapses, as identified by light microscopic criteria, had closely associated silver grains. Labeling was blocked by d-tubocurarine. Glutaraldehyde-fixed slices of hatchetfish medulla were stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase; all giant synapses that could be identified in the light microscope showed heavy deposits of reaction product. Staining was blocked by diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, which inhibits both pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, but was not blocked by tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide, a specific pseudocholinesterase inhibitor. This evidence strongly supports the suggestion that the Mauthner fiber giant synapse is nicotinic cholinergic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Day, J.W.; Hall, D.H.; Hall, L.M.; Bennett, M.V.
1983-02-01
Autoradiographic and histochemical techniques have been used to characterize further the pharmacology of transmission at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse of the South American hatchetfish. (/sup 125/I)alpha-Bungarotoxin was applied to hatchetfish medullae and a standard autoradiographic procedure was carried out on 3- to 4-microns sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue. All Mauthner fiber giant synapses, as identified by light microscopic criteria, had closely associated silver grains. Labeling was blocked by d-tubocurarine. Glutaraldehyde-fixed slices of hatchetfish medulla were stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase; all giant synapses that could be identified in the light microscope showed heavy deposits of reaction product. Staining was blocked by diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, which inhibits both pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, but was not blocked by tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide, a specific pseudocholinesterase inhibitor. This evidence strongly supports the suggestion that the Mauthner fiber giant synapse is nicotinic cholinergic.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Day, J.W.; Hall, D.H.; Hall, L.M.; Bennett, M.V.
1983-02-01
Autoradiographic and histochemical techniques have been used to characterize further the pharmacology of transmission at the Mauthner fiber giant synapse of the South American hatchetfish. (/sup 125/I)alpha-Bungarotoxin was applied to hatchetfish medullae and a standard autoradiographic procedure was carried out on 3- to 4-microns sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue. All Mauthner fiber giant synapses, as identified by light microscopic criteria, had closely associated silver grains. Labeling was blocked by d-tubocurarine. Glutaraldehyde-fixed slices of hatchetfish medulla were stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase; all giant synapses that could be identified in the light microscope showed heavy deposits of reaction product. Staining was blocked by diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, which inhibits both pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, but was not blocked by tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide, a specific pseudocholinesterase inhibitor. This evidence strongly supports the suggestion that the Mauthner fiber giant synapse is nicotinic cholinergic.
The Twist Tensor Nuclear Norm for Video Completion.
Hu, Wenrui; Tao, Dacheng; Zhang, Wensheng; Xie, Yuan; Yang, Yehui
2017-12-01
In this paper, we propose a new low-rank tensor model based on the circulant algebra, namely, twist tensor nuclear norm (t-TNN). The twist tensor denotes a three-way tensor representation to laterally store 2-D data slices in order. On one hand, t-TNN convexly relaxes the tensor multirank of the twist tensor in the Fourier domain, which allows an efficient computation using fast Fourier transform. On the other, t-TNN is equal to the nuclear norm of block circulant matricization of the twist tensor in the original domain, which extends the traditional matrix nuclear norm in a block circulant way. We test the t-TNN model on a video completion application that aims to fill missing values and the experiment results validate its effectiveness, especially when dealing with video recorded by a nonstationary panning camera. The block circulant matricization of the twist tensor can be transformed into a circulant block representation with nuclear norm invariance. This representation, after transformation, exploits the horizontal translation relationship between the frames in a video, and endows the t-TNN model with a more powerful ability to reconstruct panning videos than the existing state-of-the-art low-rank models.
Electronic and atomic structures of KFe2Se2 grain boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, Wei; Liu, Da-Yong; Zeng, Zhi
2014-01-01
Highlights: •Twist grain boundary has lower grain-boundary energy. •Twist grain-boundary has similar electronic structure to that in crystal. •Charge and magnetic-moment fluctuations are large within tilt grain boundary. •Bi-collinear AFM is most stable even with existence of grain boundary. •Insulating Fe-vacancy phase is stable with existence of twist grain boundary. -- Abstract: The electronic and atomic structures of the twist and tilt grain boundaries (GB) of the iron-based superconductor KFe 2 Se 2 are studied based on the simulations of the first principles density functional theory. Our results have clarified that the Σ5[0 0 1] twist grain boundary of KFe 2 Se 2 with layered structure has the lower grain-boundary energy. The local structure and the main features of the basic electronic structure within the [0 0 1] twist grain-boundary region have small differences compared with those in KFe 2 Se 2 crystal. The large fluctuations of the charges and magnetic moments are found in the [0 0 1] tilt grain-boundary regions, especially the former are more prominent. The bi-collinear anti-ferromagnetic order is the most stable magnetic order even with grain boundaries in the bulk. The √(5)a×√(5)a superstructure of Fe-vacancies in K 2 Fe 4 Se 5 phase is intrinsically related to the coincident-site lattice of Σ5[0 0 1] twist grain boundary
Intermittent energy bursts and recurrent topological change of a twisting magnetic flux tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amo, Hiroyoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Kageyama, Akira.
1994-09-01
When continuously twisted, a magnetic flux tube suffers a large kink distortion in the middle part of the tube, like a knot-of-tension instability of a bundle of twisted rubber strings, and reconnection is triggered starting with the twisted field lines and quickly proceeding to the untwisted field lines at the twist-untwist boundary, whereby a giant burst-like energy release takes place. Subsequently, bursts occur intermittently and reconnection advances deeper into the untwisted region. Then, a companion pair of the linked twist-untwist flux tubes reconnect with each other to return to the original axisymmetric tube. The process is thus repeatable. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Weiren; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Premaratne, Malin; Huang, Yongjun; Wen, Guangjun
2013-01-01
We theoretically analyze the near-infrared properties of a chiral metamaterial constituting an array of twisted crosses and complementary crosses made of silver. Through rigorous full-wave numerical simulations, we demonstrate that this type of metamaterial exhibits wideband giant optical activity, with a polarization azimuth rotation angle reaching values as large as 1900 ∘ per wavelength. Owing to the negligible loss at optical frequencies in the dielectric (magnesium fluoride) making up the metamaterial, we observe negligible circular dichroism and low dispersion of the polarization azimuth rotation angle over a wide frequency band. We envision that this type of chiral metamaterial will find extensive applications in optical communication systems and biological sensing. (paper)
Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.
2012-01-01
Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the
Grain boundary motion and grain rotation in aluminum bicrystals: recent experiments and simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molodov, D A; Barrales-Mora, L A; Brandenburg, J-E
2015-01-01
The results of experimental and computational efforts over recent years to study the motion of geometrically different grain boundaries and grain rotation under various driving forces are briefly reviewed. Novel in-situ measuring techniques based on orientation contrast imaging and applied simulation techniques are described. The experimental results obtained on specially grown aluminum bicrystals are presented and discussed. Particularly, the faceting and migration behavior of low angle grain boundaries under the curvature force is addressed. In contrast to the pure tilt boundaries, which remained flat/faceted and immobile during annealing at elevated temperatures, mixed tilt-twist boundaries readily assumed a curved shape and steadily moved under the capillary force. Computational analysis revealed that this behavior is due to the inclinational anisotropy of grain boundary energy, which in turn depends on boundary geometry. The shape evolution and shrinkage kinetics of cylindrical grains with different tilt and mixed boundaries were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The mobility of low angle <100> boundaries with misorientation angles higher than 10°, obtained by both the experiments and simulations, was found not to differ from that of the high angle boundaries, but decreases essentially with further decrease of misorientation. The shape evolution of the embedded grains in simulations was found to relate directly to results of the energy computations. Further simulation results revealed that the shrinkage of grains with pure tilt boundaries is accompanied by grain rotation. In contrast, grains with the tilt-twist boundaries composed of dislocations with the mixed edge-screw character do not rotate during their shrinkage. Stress driven boundary migration in aluminium bicrystals was observed to be coupled to a tangential translation of the grains. The activation enthalpy of high angle boundary migration was found to vary non-monotonically with
Study of twist boundaries in aluminium. Structure and intergranular diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemuet, Daniel
1981-01-01
This research thesis addresses the study of grain boundaries in oriented crystals, and more particularly the systematic calculation of intergranular structures and energies of twist boundaries of <001> axis in aluminium, the determination of intergranular diffusion coefficients of zinc in a set of twist bi-crystals of same axis encompassing a whole range of disorientations, and the search for a correlation between these experimental results and calculated structures
Twisting short dsDNA with applied tension
Zoli, Marco
2018-02-01
The twisting deformation of mechanically stretched DNA molecules is studied by a coarse grained Hamiltonian model incorporating the fundamental interactions that stabilize the double helix and accounting for the radial and angular base pair fluctuations. The latter are all the more important at short length scales in which DNA fragments maintain an intrinsic flexibility. The presented computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible molecule conformations characterized by a specific average twist and determines the energetically most convenient helical twist by free energy minimization. As this is done for any external load, the method yields the characteristic twist-stretch profile of the molecule and also computes the changes in the macroscopic helix parameters i.e. average diameter and rise distance. It is predicted that short molecules under stretching should first over-twist and then untwist by increasing the external load. Moreover, applying a constant load and simulating a torsional strain which over-twists the helix, it is found that the average helix diameter shrinks while the molecule elongates, in agreement with the experimental trend observed in kilo-base long sequences. The quantitative relation between percent relative elongation and superhelical density at fixed load is derived. The proposed theoretical model and computational method offer a general approach to characterize specific DNA fragments and predict their macroscopic elastic response as a function of the effective potential parameters of the mesoscopic Hamiltonian.
Concurrent grain boundary motion and grain rotation under an applied stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorkaya, Tatiana; Molodov, Konstantin D.; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Gottstein, Guenter
2011-01-01
Simultaneous shear coupling and grain rotation were observed experimentally during grain boundary migration in high-purity Al bicrystals subjected to an external mechanical stress at elevated temperatures. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the structure of the investigated planar 18.2 o non-tilt grain boundary with a 20 o twist component. For characterization of the grain rotation after annealing under stress the bicrystal surface topography across the boundary was measured by atomic force microscopy. The temperature dependence of the boundary migration rate was measured and the migration activation energy determined.
Effects of channel blocking on information transmission and energy efficiency in squid giant axons.
Liu, Yujiang; Yue, Yuan; Yu, Yuguo; Liu, Liwei; Yu, Lianchun
2018-04-01
Action potentials are the information carriers of neural systems. The generation of action potentials involves the cooperative opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels. This process is metabolically expensive because the ions flowing through open channels need to be restored to maintain concentration gradients of these ions. Toxins like tetraethylammonium can block working ion channels, thus affecting the function and energy cost of neurons. In this paper, by computer simulation of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model, we studied the effects of channel blocking with toxins on the information transmission and energy efficiency in squid giant axons. We found that gradually blocking sodium channels will sequentially maximize the information transmission and energy efficiency of the axons, whereas moderate blocking of potassium channels will have little impact on the information transmission and will decrease the energy efficiency. Heavy blocking of potassium channels will cause self-sustained oscillation of membrane potentials. Simultaneously blocking sodium and potassium channels with the same ratio increases both information transmission and energy efficiency. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that information processing capacity and energy efficiency can be maximized by regulating the number of active ion channels, and this indicates a viable avenue for future experimentation.
Giant piezoelectric voltage coefficient in grain-oriented modified PbTiO3 material.
Yan, Yongke; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank
2016-10-11
A rapid surge in the research on piezoelectric sensors is occurring with the arrival of the Internet of Things. Single-phase oxide piezoelectric materials with giant piezoelectric voltage coefficient (g, induced voltage under applied stress) and high Curie temperature (T c ) are crucial towards providing desired performance for sensing, especially under harsh environmental conditions. Here, we report a grain-oriented (with 95% texture) modified PbTiO 3 ceramic that has a high T c (364 °C) and an extremely large g 33 (115 × 10 -3 Vm N -1 ) in comparison with other known single-phase oxide materials. Our results reveal that self-polarization due to grain orientation along the spontaneous polarization direction plays an important role in achieving large piezoelectric response in a domain motion-confined material. The phase field simulations confirm that the large piezoelectric voltage coefficient g 33 originates from maximized piezoelectric strain coefficient d 33 and minimized dielectric permittivity ɛ 33 in [001]-textured PbTiO 3 ceramics where domain wall motions are absent.
Twisted supersymmetry: Twisted symmetry versus renormalizability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimitrijevic, Marija; Nikolic, Biljana; Radovanovic, Voja
2011-01-01
We discuss a deformation of superspace based on a Hermitian twist. The twist implies a *-product that is noncommutative, Hermitian and finite when expanded in a power series of the deformation parameter. The Leibniz rule for the twisted supersymmetry transformations is deformed. A minimal deformation of the Wess-Zumino action is proposed and its renormalizability properties are discussed. There is no tadpole contribution, but the two-point function diverges. We speculate that the deformed Leibniz rule, or more generally the twisted symmetry, interferes with renormalizability properties of the model. We discuss different possibilities to render a renormalizable model.
Coarse-grained modeling of hybrid block copolymer system
Su, Yongrui
This thesis is comprised of three major projects of my research. In the first project, I proposed a nanoparticle model and combined it with the Theoretically Informed Coarse Grained (TICG) model for pure polymer systems and the grand canonical slip springs model developed in our group to build a new model for entangled nanocomposites. With Molecule Dynamics(MD) simulation, I studied the mechanic properties of the nanocomposites, for example the influence of nanoparticles size and volume fraction on entanglements, the diffusion of polymers and nanoparticles, and the influence of nanoparticles size and volume fraction on viscosity et al.. We found that the addition of small-size nanoparticles reduces the viscosity of the nanocomposites, which is in contrary to what Einstein predicted a century ago. However, when particle increases its size to micrometers the Einstein predictions is recovered. From our simulation, we believe that small-size nanoparticles can more effectively decrease the entanglements of nanocomposites than larger particles. The free volume effect introduced by small-size nanoparticles also helps decrease the viscosity of the whole system. In the second project, I combined the Ohta-Kawasaki (OK) model [3] and the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary Strategy(CMA-ES) to optimize the block copolymer blends self-assembly in the hole-shrink process. The aim is to predict the optimal composition and the optimal surface energy to direct the block copolymer blends self-assembly process in the confined hole. After optimization in the OK model, we calibrated the optimal results by the more reliable TICG model and got the same morphology. By comparing different optimization process, we found that the homopolymers which are comprised of the same monomers as either block of the block copolymer can form a perfect perforated hole and might have better performance than the pure block copolymer. While homopolymers which are comprised of a third-party monomers
Assessing the grain structure of highly X-ray absorbing metallic alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bormann, Therese [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Biomaterials Science Center; University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Muttenz (Switzerland). Inst. for Medical and Analytical Technologies; Beckmann, Felix [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Materials Research; Schinhammer, Michael [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Materials; Deyhle, Hans; Mueller, Bert [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Biomaterials Science Center; Wild, Michael de [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Muttenz (Switzerland). Inst. for Medical and Analytical Technologies
2014-07-15
Selective laser melting allows the fabrication of NiTi implants with pre-defined, complex shapes. The control of the process parameters regulates the arrangement of the granular microstructure of the NiTi alloy. We prepared specimens with elongated grains, which build a sound basis for diffraction contrast tomography experiments using synchrotron radiation and for electron backscatter diffraction measurements. Both approaches reveal the orientation and size of the individual grains within the specimen. Still, electron backscatter diffraction is confined to two-dimensional cross-sections while diffraction contrast tomography reveals these microstructural features in three dimensions. We demonstrate that the grains in the selective laser melted specimen, which are oriented along the building direction, do not exhibit a well-defined planar grain orientation but are twisted. These twisted grains give rise to diffraction spots observable for several degrees of specimen rotation simultaneously to the acquisition of tomography data. (orig.)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Forbes, A
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...
Continuous Static Gait with Twisting Trunk of a Metamorphic Quadruped Robot
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Zhang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The natural quadrupeds, such as geckos and lizards, often twist their trunks when moving. Conventional quadruped robots cannot perform the same motion due to equipping with a trunk which is a rigid body or at most consists of two blocks connected by passive joints. This paper proposes a metamorphic quadruped robot with a reconfigurable trunk which can implement active trunk motions, called MetaRobot I. The robot can imitate the natural quadrupeds to execute motion of trunk twisting. Benefiting from the twisting trunk, the stride length of this quadruped is increased comparing to that of conventional quadruped robots.In this paper a continuous static gait benefited from the twisting trunk performing the increased stride length is introduced. After that, the increased stride length relative to the trunk twisting will be analysed mathematically. Other points impacting the implementation of the increased stride length in the gait are investigated such as the upper limit of the stride length and the kinematic margin. The increased stride length in the gait will lead the increase of locomotion speed comparing with conventional quadruped robots, giving the extent that natural quadrupeds twisting their trunks when moving. The simulation and an experiment on the prototype are then carried out to illustrate the benefits on the stride length and locomotion speed brought by the twisting trunk to the quadruped robot.
Synthesis of few layer single crystal graphene grains on platinum by chemical vapour deposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Karamat
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The present competition of graphene electronics demands an efficient route which produces high quality and large area graphene. Chemical vapour deposition technique, where hydrocarbons dissociate in to active carbon species and form graphene layer on the desired metal catalyst via nucleation is considered as the most suitable method. In this study, single layer graphene with the presence of few layer single crystal graphene grains were grown on Pt foil via chemical vapour deposition. The higher growth temperature changes the surface morphology of the Pt foil so a delicate process of hydrogen bubbling was used to peel off graphene from Pt foil samples with the mechanical support of photoresist and further transferred to SiO2/Si substrates for analysis. Optical microscopy of the graphene transferred samples showed the regions of single layer along with different oriented graphene domains. Two type of interlayer stacking sequences, Bernal and twisted, were observed in the graphene grains. The presence of different stacking sequences in the graphene layers influence the electronic and optical properties; in Bernal stacking the band gap can be tunable and in twisted stacking the overall sheet resistance can be reduced. Grain boundaries of Pt provides low energy sites to the carbon species, therefore the nucleation of grains are more at the boundaries. The stacking order and the number of layers in grains were seen more clearly with scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed high quality graphene samples due to very small D peak. 2D Raman peak for single layer graphene showed full width half maximum (FWHM value of 30 cm−1. At points A, B and C, Bernal stacked grain showed FWHM values of 51.22, 58.45 and 64.72 cm−1, while twisted stacked grain showed the FWHM values of 27.26, 28.83 and 20.99 cm−1, respectively. FWHM values of 2D peak of Bernal stacked grain showed an increase of 20–30 cm−1 as compare to single layer graphene
Twist limits for late twisting double somersaults on trampoline.
Yeadon, M R; Hiley, M J
2017-06-14
An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that could be produced in the second somersault of a double somersault on trampoline using asymmetrical movements of the arms and hips. Lower bounds were placed on the durations of arm and hip angle changes based on performances of a world trampoline champion whose inertia parameters were used in the simulations. The limiting movements were identified as the largest possible odd number of half twists for forward somersaulting takeoffs and even number of half twists for backward takeoffs. Simulations of these two limiting movements were found using simulated annealing optimisation to produce the required amounts of somersault, tilt and twist at landing after a flight time of 2.0s. Additional optimisations were then run to seek solutions with the arms less adducted during the twisting phase. It was found that 3½ twists could be produced in the second somersault of a forward piked double somersault with arms abducted 8° from full adduction during the twisting phase and that three twists could be produced in the second somersault of a backward straight double somersault with arms fully adducted to the body. These two movements are at the limits of performance for elite trampolinists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
STARDUST FROM ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gail, H.-P.; Zhukovska, S. V.; Hoppe, P.; Trieloff, M.
2009-01-01
The formation of dust in the outflows of low- and intermediate-mass stars on the first giant branch and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is studied and the relative contributions of stars of different initial masses and metallicities to the interstellar medium (ISM) at the instant of solar system formation are derived. These predictions are compared with the characteristics of the parent stars of presolar dust grains found in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) inferred from their isotopic compositions. For this purpose, model calculations for dust condensation in stellar outflows are combined with synthetic models of stellar evolution on the first giant branch and AGB and an evolution model of the Milky Way for the solar neighborhood. The dust components considered are olivine, pyroxene, carbon, SiC, and iron. The corresponding dust production rates are derived for the solar vicinity. From these rates and taking into account dust destruction by supernova shocks in the ISM, the contributions to the inventory of presolar dust grains in the solar system are derived for stars of different initial masses and metallicities. It is shown that stars on the first giant branch and the early AGB are not expected to form dust, in accord with astronomical observations. Dust formation is concentrated in the last phase of evolution, the thermally pulsing AGB. Due to the limited lifetime of dust grains in the ISM only parent stars from a narrow range of metallicities are expected to contribute to the population of presolar dust grains. Silicate and silicon carbide dust grains are predicted to come from parent stars with metallicities not less than about Z ∼ 0.008 (0.6 x solar). This metallicity limit is higher than that inferred from presolar SiC grain isotope data. The population of presolar carbon dust grains is predicted to originate from a wider range of metallicities, down to Z ∼ 0.004. Masses of AGB stars that produce C-rich dust are in the range
A sandpile model of grain blocking and consequences for sediment dynamics in step-pool streams
Molnar, P.
2012-04-01
Coarse grains (cobbles to boulders) are set in motion in steep mountain streams by floods with sufficient energy to erode the particles locally and transport them downstream. During transport, grains are often blocked and form width-spannings structures called steps, separated by pools. The step-pool system is a transient, self-organizing and self-sustaining structure. The temporary storage of sediment in steps and the release of that sediment in avalanche-like pulses when steps collapse, leads to a complex nonlinear threshold-driven dynamics in sediment transport which has been observed in laboratory experiments (e.g., Zimmermann et al., 2010) and in the field (e.g., Turowski et al., 2011). The basic question in this paper is if the emergent statistical properties of sediment transport in step-pool systems may be linked to the transient state of the bed, i.e. sediment storage and morphology, and to the dynamics in sediment input. The hypothesis is that this state, in which sediment transporting events due to the collapse and rebuilding of steps of all sizes occur, is analogous to a critical state in self-organized open dissipative dynamical systems (Bak et al., 1988). To exlore the process of self-organization, a cellular automaton sandpile model is used to simulate the processes of grain blocking and hydraulically-driven step collapse in a 1-d channel. Particles are injected at the top of the channel and are allowed to travel downstream based on various local threshold rules, with the travel distance drawn from a chosen probability distribution. In sandpile modelling this is a simple 1-d limited non-local model, however it has been shown to have nontrivial dynamical behaviour (Kadanoff et al., 1989), and it captures the essence of stochastic sediment transport in step-pool systems. The numerical simulations are used to illustrate the differences between input and output sediment transport rates, mainly focussing on the magnification of intermittency and
Correlation Between Expression of Twist and Podoplanin in Ductal Breast Carcinoma.
Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Wojtyra, Patrycja; Biala, Martyna; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rys, Janusz; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Dziegiel, Piotr
2017-10-01
As a result of activation of transcription factors engaged in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as Twist, inhibition of epithelial markers and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers are observed. One of the specific markers of cancer-associated fibroblasts is podoplanin (PDPN) - a mucin-type membrane glycoprotein. The aim of this work was to study the localisation and intensity of expression of Twist and PDPN on the mRNA and protein level in cases of invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC), and its association with patients' clinico-pathological data. The study included archival material in a form of 80 paraffin IDC blocks and 11 IDC fragments frozen in liquid nitrogen. Immunohistochemical expression of Twist and PDPN was evaluated using light microscope and semiquantitative scale for evaluation of nuclear expression or immunoreactive scale (IRS) for evaluation of cytoplasmic expression. Material was isolated from frozen IDC fragments using laser micro-dissection (from cancer and stromal cells, separately) and was used to perform real-time PCR. Twist expression was higher in stromal cells in comparison to cancer cells. Analysis of patients' survival rate showed, that higher expression of Twist in cancer cells was associated with shorter overall survival time and shorter event-free survival time. The expression of PDPN was also higher in stromal cells in comparison with cancer cells. In addition, positive correlation was observed between expression of Twist and PDPN in stromal cells of IDC (r=0.267; p<0.05). The relationship between the higher expression of Twist in both cancer and stromal cells and shorter patients' survival indicates Twist as a potential useful prognostic marker in IDC. Positive correlation of Twist and PDPN expression may indicate the role of PDPN in EMT in IDC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Jinyuan; Xie, Erqing; Sun, Gengzhi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Zheng, Lianxi
2014-01-01
The dependences of twisting parameters on the electric and mechanical properties of twisted CNT fibers were systematically studied. Results from electric and mechanical measurements showed that twisting intensity is very effective to improve the electric and mechanical properties of CNT fibers. Further calculations combined with Raman results indicate that the twisting treatments, to a certain extent, can greatly enhance the strain transfer factors of the samples, which dominates the mechanical properties of CNT fibers. In addition, studies on the effect of twisting speeds suggested that lower twisting speed can lead to higher uniformity but lower performances in the electric and mechanical properties, higher twisting speed to higher Young’s modulus and higher conductance but lower uniformities. Ultra-strong uniform CNT fibers need to be prepared with a suitable twisting speed. (paper)
Study of the temperature dependence of giant magnetoresistance in metallic granular composite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju Sheng; Li, Z.-Y.
2002-01-01
The temperature dependence of the giant magnetoresistance of metallic granular composite is studied. It is considered that the composite contains both large magnetic grains with surface spin S' and small magnetic impurities. It is found that the decrease of surface spin S' of grain is the main cause of an almost linear decrease of giant magnetoresistance with the increase of temperature in high temperature range. The magnetic impurities, composed of several atoms, lead to an almost linear increase of the giant magnetoresistance with the decrease of temperature in low temperature range. Our calculations are in good agreement with recent experimental data for metallic nanogranular composites
SHOCKS AND A GIANT PLANET IN THE DISK ORBITING BP PISCIUM?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melis, C.; Zuckerman, B.; Gielen, C.; Chen, C. H.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok
2010-01-01
Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph data support the interpretation that BP Piscium, a gas and dust enshrouded star residing at high Galactic latitude, is a first-ascent giant rather than a classical T Tauri star. Our analysis suggests that BP Piscium's spectral energy distribution can be modeled as a disk with a gap that is opened by a giant planet. Modeling the rich mid-infrared emission line spectrum indicates that the solid-state emitting grains orbiting BP Piscium are primarily composed of ∼75 K crystalline, magnesium-rich olivine; ∼75 K crystalline, magnesium-rich pyroxene; ∼200 K amorphous, magnesium-rich pyroxene; and ∼200 K annealed silica (cristobalite). These dust grains are all sub-micron sized. The giant planet and gap model also naturally explains the location and mineralogy of the small dust grains in the disk. Disk shocks that result from disk-planet interaction generate the highly crystalline dust which is subsequently blown out of the disk mid-plane and into the disk atmosphere.
Genetic Analysis and Mapping of TWH Gene in Rice Twisted Hull Mutant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-bo LI
2009-03-01
Full Text Available A mutant with twisted hulls was found in a breeding population of rice (Oryza sativa L.. The mutant shows less grain weight and inferior grain quality in addition to twisted hulls. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene (temporarily designated as TWH. To map the TWH gene, an F2 population was generated by crossing the twh mutant to R725, an indica rice variety with normal hulls. For bulked segregant analysis, the bulk of mutant plants was prepared by mixing equal amount of plant tissue from 10 twisted-hull plants and the bulk of normal plants was obtained by pooling equal amount tissue of 10 normal-hull plants. Two hundred and seven pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers, which are distributed on 12 rice chromosomes, were used for polymorphism analysis of the parents and the two bulks. The TWH locus was initially mapped close to the SSR marker RM526 on chromosome 2. Therefore, further mapping was performed using 50 pairs of SSR primers around the marker RM526. The TWH was delimited between the SSR markers RM14128 and RM208 on the long arm of chromosome 2 at the genetic distances of 1.4 cM and 2.7 cM, respectively. These results provide the foundation for further fine mapping, cloning and functional analysis of the TWH gene.
Fatigue Behaviors of Materials Processed by Planar Twist Extrusion
Ebrahimi, Mahmoud
2017-12-01
Since the last decade, the fabrication of ultrafine grain and nanostructure metals and alloys has attracted much attention in the field of materials engineering. The present study aimed at experimentally investigating the fatigue properties that are of great importance in dynamic structures before and after the planar twist extrusion process for both commercially pure copper and 6061 aluminum alloy. The results indicated that the yield strength, tensile strength, hardness, and fatigue endurance of copper increased by about 398, 122, 198, and 183 pct, respectively, while they improved by about 429, 212, 227, and 148 pct, respectively, in aluminum alloy as compared to the initial conditions. The stress-strain curves displayed sizable reduction of strain hardening. Furthermore, grain-size correction factors based on the empirical results were introduced to include the effect of the grain-size effect on both low and high-cycle fatigue strengths of the material.
Friction spinning - Twist phenomena and the capability of influencing them
Lossen, Benjamin; Homberg, Werner
2016-10-01
The friction spinning process can be allocated to the incremental forming techniques. The process consists of process elements from both metal spinning and friction welding. The selective combination of process elements from these two processes results in the integration of friction sub-processes in a spinning process. This implies self-induced heat generation with the possibility of manufacturing functionally graded parts from tube and sheets. Compared with conventional spinning processes, this in-process heat treatment permits the extension of existing forming limits and also the production of more complex geometries. Furthermore, the defined adjustment of part properties like strength, grain size/orientation and surface conditions can be achieved through the appropriate process parameter settings and consequently by setting a specific temperature profile in combination with the degree of deformation. The results presented from tube forming start with an investigation into the resulting twist phenomena in flange processing. In this way, the influence of the main parameters, such as rotation speed, feed rate, forming paths and tool friction surface, and their effects on temperature, forces and finally the twist behavior are analyzed. Following this, the significant correlations with the parameters and a new process strategy are set out in order to visualize the possibility of achieving a defined grain texture orientation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graham, I.J.; Korsch, R.J.
1985-01-01
The Coffs Harbour Block, eastern Australia, includes a sequence of turbidity-current-deposited greywackes and argillites dominated by quartz-poor to quartz-intermediate, volcanic-lithic and feldspathic types. The rocks have a common provenance consisting of dacite with minor andesite and rhyolite, derived from a continental margin volcanic arc. Rb-Sr whole-rock dating of coarse-grained greywackes and argillites suggests that low-grade regional metamorphism (prehnite-pumpellyite to lowest greenschist facies) has completely equilibrated sediments of all grain sizes, giving an age of 318 +- 8 Ma. A subsequent metamorphism which produced thermal biotite on a regional scale over the southern part of the area, re-equilibrated only the fine-grained sediments 238 +- 5 Ma ago; the coarse-grained sediments were unaffected isotopically and still lie on the older isochron. The wide variations in sandstone petrographic modes imply that the older isochron represents neither the age of volcanism in the magmatic arc nor the age of sedimentation at the deposition site, but rather dates the time of earlier metamorphism. (orig.)
Twisted network programming essentials
Fettig, Abe
2005-01-01
Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s
ARE GIANT TORNADOES THE LEGS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Antolin, Patrick, E-mail: sven.wedemeyer@astro.uio.no [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2013-09-10
Observations in the 171 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional H{alpha} observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale.
ARE GIANT TORNADOES THE LEGS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick
2013-01-01
Observations in the 171 Å channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional Hα observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.
1992-01-01
This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface
Physical properties of the red giant envelopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maciel, W J [Instituto de Astronomia e Geofisico da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)
1978-12-01
In this work, several model envelopes are calculated for cool giant stars with mass loss due to the action of stellar radiation pressure on molecules and grains. Molecular profiles as well as average values of some physical parameters of the envelopes are obtained.
Development of aromatic giant-embryo rice by molecular marker-assisted selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHU Yingdong
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Aromatic rice is loved for its distinctive aroma when cooking and eating.In this research,aromatic normal-embryo rice and non-aromatic giant-embryo rice,"Shangshida No.5",both bred by our laboratory,were selected as the parents for the hybridization.We used conventional breeding techniques as well as fragrance gene marker-assisted selection to derive new aromatic giant-embryo rice "Shangshida No.8".By comparing the agronomic and yield characters of "Shangshida No.5" and "Shangshida No.8",the average of filled grains per panicle of "Shangshida No.5" exceeds "Shangshida No.8" very significantly,while the average of effective panicles of "Shangshida No.8" is slightly more than "Shangshida No.5".Also,in the weight of thousand grains "Shangshida No.8" is slightly heavier than "Shangshida No.5".Thus,their grain weights per plant are close,29.10 g and 28.92 g respectively.By comparing the traits of rice embryo,there is no significant difference in embryo weight and volume.Also,there is no significant difference in weight ratio and volume ratio of embryo.This research has laid a solid foundation for further market development and application of aromatic giant-embryo rice.
Physical properties of the red giant envelopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maciel, W.J.
1978-01-01
In this work, several model envelopes are calculated for cool giant stars with mass loss due to the action of stellar radiation pressure on molecules and grains. Molecular profiles as well as average values of some physical parameters of the envelopes are obtained [pt
Calorimetric Study of Phase Transitions Involving Twist-Grain-Boundary TGB{A} and TGB{C} Phases
Navailles, L.; Garland, C. W.; Nguyen, H. T.
1996-09-01
High-resolution calorimetry has been used to determine the heat capacity and latent heat associated with phase transitions in the homologous series of chiral liquid crystals nF_2BTFO_1M_7 [ 3-fluoro-4(1-methylheptyloxy)4'-(4''-alkoxy-2'', 3''-difluorobenzoyloxy)tolane] . These compounds exhibit smectic-C^* (SmC^*), twist-grain-boundary (TGBA for n=10, TGBC for n=11, 12) and cholesteric (N^*) phases. All the phase transitions are first order with small to moderate latent heats. There is a large rounded excess heat capacity peak in the N^* phase that is consistent with the predicted appearance of short-range TGB order (chiral line liquid character). This is analogous to the development of an Abrikosov flux vortex liquid in type-II superconductors. Both the n=11 and 12 homologs exhibit two closely spaced transitions in the region where a single TGBC - N^* transition was expected. This suggests the existence of two thermodynamically distinct TGBC phases. Des exprériences de calorimétrie haute résolution ont été réalisées pour déterminer les chaleurs spécifiques et les chaleurs latentes associées aux transitions de phase des homologues de la série crystal liquide nF_2BTFO_1M_7: 3-fluoro-4[1-methyl-heptyloxy]4'-(4''-alcoxy-2'', 3''-difluorobenzoyloxy)tolanes. Ces produits présentent la phase smectique C^* (SmC^*), les phases à torsion par joint de grain (TGBA pour n=10 et TGBC pour n=11, 12) et la phase cholestérique (N^*). Toutes les transitions de phase sont du premier ordre. La chaleur latente associée à ces transitions est faibles ou modérée. Nous observons, dans la phase N^*, un grand pic arrondi qui est en accord avec les prédictions de l'apparition d'un ordre TGB à courte distance (liquide de ligne de dislocation). Ce phénomène est l'analogue du liquide de vortex dans les supraconducteurs de type II. Les composés n=11 et 12 présentent, dans la région où nous attendions une transition TGBC - N^* unique, deux transitions sur un très faible
Twisted classical Poincare algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.
1993-11-01
We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)
Changes in the metallicity of gas giant planets due to pebble accretion
Humphries, R. J.; Nayakshin, S.
2018-06-01
We run numerical simulations to study the accretion of gas and dust grains on to gas giant planets embedded into massive protoplanetary discs. The outcome is found to depend on the disc cooling rate, planet mass, grain size, and irradiative feedback from the planet. If radiative cooling is efficient, planets accrete both gas and pebbles rapidly, open a gap, and usually become massive brown dwarfs. In the inefficient cooling case, gas is too hot to accrete on to the planet but pebble accretion continues and the planets migrate inward rapidly. Radiative feedback from the planet tends to suppress gas accretion. Our simulations predict that metal enrichment of planets by dust grain accretion inversely correlates with the final planet mass, in accordance with the observed trend in the inferred bulk composition of Solar system and exosolar giant planets. To account for observations, however, as many as ˜30-50 per cent of the dust mass should be in the form of large grains.
Generalised twisted partition functions
Petkova, V B
2001-01-01
We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.
Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins from the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Numerous younger thin quartz veins with somewhat similar orientation cut across the giant quartz .... Angular fragments of quartz are set in ... places along grain boundaries. ... Oxide values are in wt%, and trace element concentrations are.
Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim
2018-04-01
Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.
Dynamical simulation of structural multiplicity in grain boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majid, I.; Bristowe, P.D.
1987-06-01
Work on a computer simulation study of a low-energy high-angle boundary structure which is not periodic have been recently reported. This result is of interest since grain boundary structures are usually assumed to have a periodicity corresponding to the appropriate coincidence site lattice (CSL) and many experimental observations of the structure of grain boundaries performed using conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy, electron diffraction and x-ray diffraction appear to support this work. However, this work, using empirical interatomic pair potentials and the relaxation method of molecular statics, have simulated a Σ = 5 36.87 0 (001) twist boundary and found a low energy structure having a larger repeat cell than the CSL and is composed of two different types of structural unit that are randomly distributed in the boundary plane. This result, which has been termed the multiplicity of grain boundary structures, has also been found in the simulation of tilt boundaries. The multiplicity phenomenon is of special interest in twist boundaries since it is used as a structural model to explain the x-ray scattering from a Σ = 5 boundary in gold. These scattering patterns had previously remained unexplained using stable structures that had simple CSL periodicity. Also, the effect of having a multiple number of low energy structural units coexisting in the grain boundary is of more general interest since it implies that the boundary structures may be quasi-periodic and, in some circumstances, may even result in a roughening of the boundary plane. This paper extends this work by showing, using molecular dynamics, that a multiplicity of structural units can actually nucleate spontaneously in a high-angle grain boundary at finite temperatures
Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains
Zoli, Marco
2017-06-01
Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.
Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matlock, Peter
2005-01-01
The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra
TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling
Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori
2014-01-01
We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.
On the twist-2 and twist-3 contributions to the spin-dependent electroweak structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.
1997-01-01
The twist-2 and twist-3 contributions of the polarized deep-inelastic structure functions are calculated both for neutral and charged current interactions using the operator product expansion in lowest order in QCD. The relations between the different structure functions are determined. New integral relations are derived between the twist-2 contributions of the structure functions g 3 (x,Q 2 ) and g 5 (x,Q 2 ) and between combinations of the twist-3 contributions to the structure functions g 2 (x,Q 2 ) and g 3 (x,Q 2 ). The sum rules for polarized deep-inelastic scattering are discussed in detail. (orig.)
Twisted rudder for reducing fuel-oil consumption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung-Hun Kim
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Three twisted rudders fit for large container ships have been developed; 1 the Z-twisted rudder that is an asymmetry type taking into consideration incoming flow angles of the propeller slipstream, 2 the ZB-twisted rudder with a rudder bulb added onto the Z-twisted rudder, and 3 the ZB-F twisted rudder with a rudder fin attached to the ZB-twisted rudder. The twisted rudders have been designed computationally with the hydrodynamic characteristics in a self-propulsion condition in mind. The governing equation is the Navier-Stokes equations in an unsteady turbulent flow. The turbulence model applied is the Reynolds stress. The calculation was carried out in towing and self-propulsion conditions. The sliding mesh technique was employed to simulate the flow around the propeller. The speed performances of the ship with the twisted rudders were verified through model tests in a towing tank. The twisted versions showed greater performance driven by increased hull efficiency from less thrust deduction fraction and more effective wake fraction and decreased propeller rotating speed.
Partial twisting for scalar mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki
2014-01-01
The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given
Molecular Mechanisms Underlying γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Giant Embryo Rice Seeds.
Zhao, Guo-Chao; Xie, Mi-Xue; Wang, Ying-Cun; Li, Jian-Yue
2017-06-21
To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds, we analyzed the expression levels of GABA metabolism genes and contents of GABA and GABA metabolic intermediates in developing grains and germinated brown rice of giant embryo rice 'Shangshida No. 5' and normal embryo rice 'Chao2-10' respectively. In developing grains, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were accompanied with upregulation of gene transcripts and intermediate contents in the polyamine pathway and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts, as compared with those in 'Chao2-10'. In germinated brown rice, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were parallel with upregulation of OsGAD and polyamine pathway gene transcripts and Glu and polyamine pathway intermediate contents and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts. These results are the first to indicate that polyamine pathway and GABA catabolic genes play a crucial role in GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds.
Long time scale simulation of a grain boundary in copper
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, A.; Henkelman, G.; Schiøtz, Jakob
2009-01-01
A general, twisted and tilted, grain boundary in copper has been simulated using the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method to study the atomistic structure of the non-crystalline region and the mechanism of annealing events that occur at low temperature. The simulated time interval spanned 67 mu s...... was also observed. In the final low-energy configurations, the thickness of the region separating the crystalline grains corresponds to just one atomic layer, in good agreement with reported experimental observations. The simulated system consists of 1307 atoms and atomic interactions were described using...
Analysis list: Twist1 [Chip-atlas[Archive
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available Twist1 Embryo,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Tw...ist1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Twist1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Twist1.Neural.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Neural.gml ...
Modeling and control of active twist aircraft
Cramer, Nicholas Bryan
The Wright Brothers marked the beginning of powered flight in 1903 using an active twist mechanism as their means of controlling roll. As time passed due to advances in other technologies that transformed aviation the active twist mechanism was no longer used. With the recent advances in material science and manufacturability, the possibility of the practical use of active twist technologies has emerged. In this dissertation, the advantages and disadvantages of active twist techniques are investigated through the development of an aeroelastic modeling method intended for informing the designs of such technologies and wind tunnel testing to confirm the capabilities of the active twist technologies and validate the model. Control principles for the enabling structural technologies are also proposed while the potential gains of dynamic, active twist are analyzed.
Teaching Spatial Awareness for Better Twisting Somersaults.
Hennessy, Jeff T.
1985-01-01
The barani (front somersault with one-half twist) and the back somersault with one twist are basic foundation skills necessary for more advanced twisting maneuvers. Descriptions of these movements on a trampoline surface are offered. (DF)
Twist deformations of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, P.G.; Chakraborty, B.; Toppan, F., E-mail: pgcastro@cbpf.b, E-mail: biswajit@bose.res.i, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kuznetsova, Z., E-mail: zhanna.kuznetsova@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)
2009-07-01
The N-extended supersymmetric quantum mechanics is deformed via an abelian twist which preserves the super-Hopf algebra structure of its universal enveloping superalgebra. Two constructions are possible. For even N one can identify the 1D N-extended superalgebra with the fermionic Heisenberg algebra. Alternatively, supersymmetry generators can be realized as operators belonging to the Universal Enveloping Superalgebra of one bosonic and several fermionic oscillators. The deformed system is described in terms of twisted operators satisfying twist deformed (anti)commutators. The main differences between an abelian twist defined in terms of fermionic operators and an abelian twist defined in terms of bosonic operators are discussed. (author)
Ten helical twist angles of B-DNA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kabsch, W; Sander, C; Trifonov, E N
1982-01-01
On the assumption that the twist angles between adjacent base-pairs in the DNA molecule are additive a linear system of 40 equations was derived from experimental measurements of the total twist angles for different pieces of DNA of known sequences. This system of equations is found to be statistically consistent providing a solution for all ten possible twist angles of B-DNA by a least squares fitting procedure. Four of the calculated twist angles were not known before. The other six twist angles calculated are very close to the experimentally measured ones. The data used were obtained by the electrophoretic band-shift method, crystallography and nuclease digestion of DNA adsorbed to mica or Ca-phosphate surface. The validity of the principle of additivity of the twist angles implies that the angle between any particular two base-pairs is a function of only these base-pairs, independent of nearest neighbors.
Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aman-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.
2016-01-01
In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number q_e_f_f accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.
Electronic and Optical Properties of Twisted Bilayer Graphene
Huang, Shengqiang
The ability to isolate single atomic layers of van der Waals materials has led to renewed interest in the electronic and optical properties of these materials as they can be fundamentally different at the monolayer limit. Moreover, these 2D crystals can be assembled together layer by layer, with controllable sequence and orientation, to form artificial materials that exhibit new features that are not found in monolayers nor bulk. Twisted bilayer graphene is one such prototype system formed by two monolayer graphene layers placed on top of each other with a twist angle between their lattices, whose electronic band structure depends on the twist angle. This thesis presents the efforts to explore the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We first synthesize twisted bilayer graphene with various twist angles via chemical vapor deposition. Using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the twist angles are determined. The strength of the Raman G peak is sensitive to the electronic band structure of twisted bilayer graphene and therefore we use this peak to monitor changes upon doping. Our results demonstrate the ability to modify the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with doping. We also fabricate twisted bilayer graphene by controllable stacking of two graphene monolayers with a dry transfer technique. For twist angles smaller than one degree, many body interactions play an important role. It requires eight electrons per moire unit cell to fill up each band instead of four electrons in the case of a larger twist angle. For twist angles smaller than 0.4 degree, a network of domain walls separating AB and BA stacking regions forms, which are predicted to host topologically protected helical states. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, these states are confirmed to appear on the domain walls when inversion
Remarks on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zahn, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2006-04-15
We review recent results on twisted noncommutative quantum field theory by embedding it into a general framework for the quantization of systems with a twisted symmetry. We discuss commutation relations in this setting and show that the twisted structure is so rigid that it is hard to derive any predictions, unless one gives up general principles of quantum theory. It is also shown that the twisted structure is not responsible for the presence or absence of UV/IR-mixing, as claimed in the literature. (Orig.)
Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F
2016-12-01
The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending-twist coupling
Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Bergamini, Andrea; Ermanni, Paolo
2013-06-01
A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending-twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated.
Morphing wing structure with controllable twist based on adaptive bending–twist coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raither, Wolfram; Heymanns, Matthias; Ermanni, Paolo; Bergamini, Andrea
2013-01-01
A novel semi-passive morphing airfoil concept based on variable bending–twist coupling induced by adaptive shear center location and torsional stiffness is presented. Numerical parametric studies and upscaling show that the concept relying on smart materials permits effective twist control while offering the potential of being lightweight and energy efficient. By means of an experimental characterization of an adaptive beam and a scaled adaptive wing structure, effectiveness and producibility of the structural concept are demonstrated. (paper)
Conical twist fields and null polygonal Wilson loops
Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla A.; Doyon, Benjamin; Fioravanti, Davide
2018-06-01
Using an extension of the concept of twist field in QFT to space-time (external) symmetries, we study conical twist fields in two-dimensional integrable QFT. These create conical singularities of arbitrary excess angle. We show that, upon appropriate identification between the excess angle and the number of sheets, they have the same conformal dimension as branch-point twist fields commonly used to represent partition functions on Riemann surfaces, and that both fields have closely related form factors. However, we show that conical twist fields are truly different from branch-point twist fields. They generate different operator product expansions (short distance expansions) and form factor expansions (large distance expansions). In fact, we verify in free field theories, by re-summing form factors, that the conical twist fields operator product expansions are correctly reproduced. We propose that conical twist fields are the correct fields in order to understand null polygonal Wilson loops/gluon scattering amplitudes of planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.
Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Panagopoulos, H.; Stylianou, F.; Korzec, T.
2011-01-01
Perturbative and nonperturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the nonperturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial-vector operators. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing a corresponding to β=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. Subtraction of O(a 2 ) terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of these operators at 1-loop and up to O(a 2 ). The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI ' -MOM scheme, for both perturbative and nonperturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set by the inverse of the lattice spacing. In addition, they are translated to MS at 2 GeV using 3-loop perturbative results for the conversion factors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup, Thomas; Røgen, Peter
1997-01-01
is an invariant of ambient isotopy measuring the topological twist of the closed strip. We classify closed strips in euclidean 3-space by their knots and their twisting number. We prove that this classification exactly divides closed strips into isotopy classes. Using this classification we point out how some...
Tops as building blocks for G 2 manifolds
Braun, Andreas P.
2017-10-01
A large number of examples of compact G 2 manifolds, relevant to supersymmetric compactifications of M-Theory to four dimensions, can be constructed by forming a twisted connected sum of two building blocks times a circle. These building blocks, which are appropriate K3-fibred threefolds, are shown to have a natural and elegant construction in terms of tops, which parallels the construction of Calabi-Yau manifolds via reflexive polytopes. In particular, this enables us to prove combinatorial formulas for the Hodge numbers and other relevant topological data.
Transverse kink oscillations in the presence of twist
Terradas, J.; Goossens, M.
2012-12-01
Context. Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in coronal loops. The effects of magnetic twist on stable magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves is poorly understood because they are seldom studied for relevant cases. Aims: The goal of this work is to study the fingerprints of magnetic twist on stable transverse kink oscillations. Methods: We numerically calculated the eigenmodes of propagating and standing MHD waves for a model of a loop with magnetic twist. The azimuthal component of the magnetic field was assumed to be small in comparison to the longitudinal component. We did not consider resonantly damped modes or kink instabilities in our analysis. Results: For a nonconstant twist the frequencies of the MHD wave modes are split, which has important consequences for standing waves. This is different from the degenerated situation for equilibrium models with constant twist, which are characterised by an azimuthal component of the magnetic field that linearly increases with the radial coordinate. Conclusions: In the presence of twist standing kink solutions are characterised by a change in polarisation of the transverse displacement along the tube. For weak twist, and in the thin tube approximation, the frequency of standing modes is unaltered and the tube oscillates at the kink speed of the corresponding straight tube. The change in polarisation is linearly proportional to the degree of twist. This has implications with regard to observations of kink modes, since the detection of this variation in polarisation can be used as an indirect method to estimate the twist in oscillating loops.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villalobos Baillie, Orlando
1988-12-15
In the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) candidate theory of interquark forces, calculations involve summing the effects from many different possible quark/gluon interactions. In addition to the 'leading term' frequently used as the basis for QCD calculations, additional contributions — so-called 'higher twists' — are modulated by powers of kinematical factors. An illuminating international workshop to discuss higher twist QCD was held at the College de France, Paris, from 21-23 September.
DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.
2000-01-01
The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term
Processing mechanics of alternate twist ply (ATP) yarn technology
Elkhamy, Donia Said
Ply yarns are important in many textile manufacturing processes and various applications. The primary process used for producing ply yarns is cabling. The speed of cabling is limited to about 35m/min. With the world's increasing demands of ply yarn supply, cabling is incompatible with today's demand activated manufacturing strategies. The Alternate Twist Ply (ATP) yarn technology is a relatively new process for producing ply yarns with improved productivity and flexibility. This technology involves self plying of twisted singles yarn to produce ply yarn. The ATP process can run more than ten times faster than cabling. To implement the ATP process to produce ply yarns there are major quality issues; uniform Twist Profile and yarn Twist Efficiency. The goal of this thesis is to improve these issues through process modeling based on understanding the physics and processing mechanics of the ATP yarn system. In our study we determine the main parameters that control the yarn twist profile. Process modeling of the yarn twist across different process zones was done. A computational model was designed to predict the process parameters required to achieve a square wave twist profile. Twist efficiency, a measure of yarn torsional stability and bulk, is determined by the ratio of ply yarn twist to singles yarn twist. Response Surface Methodology was used to develop the processing window that can reproduce ATP yarns with high twist efficiency. Equilibrium conditions of tensions and torques acting on the yarns at the self ply point were analyzed and determined the pathway for achieving higher twist efficiency. Mechanistic modeling relating equilibrium conditions to the twist efficiency was developed. A static tester was designed to zoom into the self ply zone of the ATP yarn. A computer controlled, prototypic ATP machine was constructed and confirmed the mechanistic model results. Optimum parameters achieving maximum twist efficiency were determined in this study. The
Blocking of grain reorientation in self-doped alumina materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Menendez, J.L.; Ramirez-Rico, J.; Torrecillas, R.
2011-01-01
Alumina nanoparticles 10-20 nm in diameter were nucleated on alumina particles, 150 nm average diameter, by a colloidal route followed by calcination. It is shown that after sintering, the final grain size is up to 20% smaller due to the addition of the alumina nanoparticles. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis shows that whereas a correlation in the relative crystalline orientations between neighbouring grains exists in the pure materials, the addition of alumina nanoparticles results in a random crystalline orientation.
Twist operators in N=4 beta-deformed theory
de Leeuw, M.; Łukowski, T.
2010-01-01
In this paper we derive both the leading order finite size corrections for twist-2 and twist-3 operators and the next-to-leading order finite-size correction for twist-2 operators in beta-deformed SYM theory. The obtained results respect the principle of maximum transcendentality as well as
Higher twist contributions to deep-inelastic structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.
2008-07-01
We report on a recent extraction of the higher twist contributions to the deep inelastic structure functions F ep,ed 2 (x,Q 2 ) in the large x region. It is shown that the size of the extracted higher twist contributions is strongly correlated with the higher order corrections applied to the leading twist part. A gradual lowering of the higher twist contributions going from NLO to N 4 LO is observed, where in the latter case only the leading large x terms were considered. (orig.)
A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.
Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N
2007-10-01
The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Xuegang, Huang
2008-01-01
-based matching generally fall short in offering practical query accuracy guarantees. Our proposed framework, called SpaceTwist, rectifies these shortcomings for k nearest neighbor (kNN) queries. Starting with a location different from the user's actual location, nearest neighbors are retrieved incrementally...
Magnetization Modeling of Twisted Superconducting Filaments
Satiramatekul, T; Devred, Arnaud; Leroy, Daniel
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new Finite Element numerical method to analyze the coupling between twisted filaments in a superconducting multifilament composite wire. To avoid the large number of elements required by a 3D code, the proposed method makes use of the energy balance principle in a 2D code. The relationship between superconductor critical current density and local magnetic flux density is implemented in the program for the Bean and modified Kim models. The modeled wire is made up of six filaments twisted together and embedded in a lowresistivity matrix. Computations of magnetization cycle and of the electric field pattern have been performed for various twist pitch values in the case of a pure copper matrix. The results confirm that the maximum magnetization depends on the matrix conductivity, the superconductor critical current density, the applied field frequency, and the filament twist pitch. The simulations also lead to a practical criterion for wire design that can be used to assess whether or not th...
Giant polygons and mounds in the lowlands of Mars: signatures of an ancient ocean?
Oehler, Dorothy Z; Allen, Carlton C
2012-06-01
This paper presents the hypothesis that the well-known giant polygons and bright mounds of the martian lowlands may be related to a common process-a process of fluid expulsion that results from burial of fine-grained sediments beneath a body of water. Specifically, we hypothesize that giant polygons and mounds in Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae are analogous to kilometer-scale polygons and mud volcanoes in terrestrial, marine basins and that the co-occurrence of masses of these features in Chryse and Acidalia may be the signature of sedimentary processes in an ancient martian ocean. We base this hypothesis on recent data from both Earth and Mars. On Earth, 3-D seismic data illustrate kilometer-scale polygons that may be analogous to the giant polygons on Mars. The terrestrial polygons form in fine-grained sediments that have been deposited and buried in passive-margin, marine settings. These polygons are thought to result from compaction/dewatering, and they are commonly associated with fluid expulsion features, such as mud volcanoes. On Mars, in Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae, orbital data demonstrate that giant polygons and mounds have overlapping spatial distributions. There, each set of features occurs within a geological setting that is seemingly analogous to that of the terrestrial, kilometer-scale polygons (broad basin of deposition, predicted fine-grained sediments, and lack of significant horizontal stress). Regionally, the martian polygons and mounds both show a correlation to elevation, as if their formation were related to past water levels. Although these observations are based on older data with incomplete coverage, a similar correlation to elevation has been established in one local area studied in detail with newer higher-resolution data. Further mapping with the latest data sets should more clearly elucidate the relationship(s) of the polygons and mounds to elevation over the entire Chryse-Acidalia region and thereby provide more insight into this
Four-point functions with a twist
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bargheer, Till [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2017-01-15
We study the OPE of correlation functions of local operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The considered operators have an explicit spacetime dependence that is defined by twisting the translation generators with certain R-symmetry generators. We restrict to operators that carry a small number of excitations above the twisted BMN vacuum. The OPE limit of the four-point correlator is dominated by internal states with few magnons on top of the vacuum. The twisting directly couples all spacetime dependence of the correlator to these magnons. We analyze the OPE in detail, and single out the extremal states that have to cancel all double-trace contributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kingler, J.
1990-01-01
A Lund type Monte Carlo program (LUCIFER) is used to describe in perturbative QCD the pointlike component of the photon interacting on a hydrogen target. Kinematical and topological variables are developed to enhance higher twist events on the lowest order minimum twist background. The emphasis is laid on π ± , K ± higher twist mesons. (orig.)
Simulating QCD at the physical point with Nf=2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Rehim, A.; Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Univ. Nicosia; Burger, F.
2015-12-01
We present simulations of QCD using N f =2 dynamical Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with physical value of the pion mass and at one value of the lattice spacing. Such simulations at a∼0.09 fm became possible by adding the clover term to the action. While O(a) improvement is still guaranteed by Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist, the introduction of the clover term reduces O(a 2 ) cutoff effects related to isospin symmetry breaking. We give results for a set of phenomenologically interesting observables like pseudo-scalar masses and decay constants, quark masses and the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons. We mostly find remarkably good agreement with phenomenology, even though we cannot take the continuum and thermodynamic limits.
Twist-1 Up-Regulation in Carcinoma Correlates to Poor Survival
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alimujiang Wushou
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT facilitates tumor metastasis. Twist is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that modulates many target genes through E-box-responsive elements. There are two twist-like proteins, Twist-1 and Twist-2, sharing high structural homology in mammals. Twist-1 was found to be a key factor in the promotion of metastasis of cancer cells, and is known to induce EMT. Twist-1 participation in carcinoma progression and metastasis has been reported in a variety of tumors. However, controversy exists concerning the correlation between Twist-1 and prognostic value with respect to carcinoma. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine whether the expression of Twist-1 was associated with the prognosis of carcinoma patients. This analysis included 17 studies: four studies evaluated lung cancer, three evaluated head and neck cancer, two evaluated breast cancer, two evaluated esophageal cancer, two evaluated liver cancer and one each evaluated osteosarcoma, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancer. A total of 2006 patients were enrolled in these studies, and the median trial sample size was 118 patients. Twist-1 expression was associated with worse overall survival (OS at both 3 years (hazard ratio “HR” for death = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.86 to 2.45, p < 0.001 and 5 years (HR for death = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.76 to 2.29, p < 0.001. Expression of Twist-1 is associated with worse survival in carcinoma.
Euclidean supersymmetry, twisting and topological sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.; Lindstroem, U.; Santos, L. Melo dos; Zabzine, M.; Unge, R. von
2008-01-01
We discuss two dimensional N-extended supersymmetry in Euclidean signature and its R-symmetry. For N = 2, the R-symmetry is SO(2) x SO(1, 1), so that only an A-twist is possible. To formulate a B-twist, or to construct Euclidean N = 2 models with H-flux so that the target geometry is generalised Kahler, it is necessary to work with a complexification of the sigma models. These issues are related to the obstructions to the existence of non-trivial twisted chiral superfields in Euclidean superspace.
Dickens, Charles
2005-01-01
Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and
Duality and braiding in twisted quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riccardi, Mauro; Szabo, Richard J.
2008-01-01
We re-examine various issues surrounding the definition of twisted quantum field theories on flat noncommutative spaces. We propose an interpretation based on nonlocal commutative field redefinitions which clarifies previously observed properties such as the formal equivalence of Green's functions in the noncommutative and commutative theories, causality, and the absence of UV/IR mixing. We use these fields to define the functional integral formulation of twisted quantum field theory. We exploit techniques from braided tensor algebra to argue that the twisted Fock space states of these free fields obey conventional statistics. We support our claims with a detailed analysis of the modifications induced in the presence of background magnetic fields, which induces additional twists by magnetic translation operators and alters the effective noncommutative geometry seen by the twisted quantum fields. When two such field theories are dual to one another, we demonstrate that only our braided physical states are covariant under the duality
Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf Algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daszkiewicz, M.
2010-01-01
Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrated that their contraction limit τ → ∞ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces. (author)
TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wakimoto Hiroaki
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is
Blossier, BenoÃ®t.; Brinet, Mariane; Guichon, Pierre; Morénas, Vincent; Pène, Olivier; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2015-06-01
We present a precise nonperturbative determination of the renormalization constants in the mass independent RI'-MOM scheme. The lattice implementation uses the Iwasaki gauge action and four degenerate dynamical twisted-mass fermions. The gauge configurations are provided by the ETM Collaboration. Renormalization constants for scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial operators, as well as the quark propagator renormalization, are computed at three different values of the lattice spacing, two volumes and several twisted-mass parameters. The method we developed allows for a precise cross-check of the running, thanks to the particular proper treatment of hypercubic artifacts. Results for the twist-2 operator O44 are also presented.
ON THE NEED FOR DEEP-MIXING IN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS OF LOW MASS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busso, M.; Palmerini, S.; Maiorca, E.; Cristallo, S.; Abia, C.; Straniero, O.; Gallino, R.; Cognata, M. La
2010-01-01
The photospheres of low-mass red giants show CNO isotopic abundances that are not satisfactorily accounted for by canonical stellar models. The same is true for the measurements of these isotopes and of the 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio in presolar grains of circumstellar origin. Non-convective mixing, occurring during both red giant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stages, is the explanation commonly invoked to account for the above evidence. Recently, the need for such mixing phenomena on the AGB was questioned, and chemical anomalies usually attributed to them were suggested to be formed in earlier phases. We have therefore re-calculated extra-mixing effects in low-mass stars for both the RGB and AGB stages, in order to verify the above claims. Our results contradict them; we actually confirm that slow transport below the convective envelope occurs also on the AGB. This is required primarily by the oxygen isotopic mix and the 26 Al content of presolar oxide grains. Other pieces of evidence exist, in particular from the isotopic ratios of carbon stars of type N, or C(N), in the Galaxy and in the LMC, as well as of SiC grains of AGB origin. We further show that, when extra-mixing occurs in the RGB phases of Population I stars above about 1.2 M sun , this consumes 3 He in the envelope, probably preventing the occurrence of thermohaline diffusion on the AGB. Therefore, we argue that other extra-mixing mechanisms should be active in those final evolutionary phases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketov, S.V.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Parkes, A.J.
1993-12-01
The most general homogeneous monodromy conditions in N= 2 string theory are classified in terms of the conjugacy classes of the global symmetry group U(1, 1) x Z 2 . For classes which generate a discrete subgroup Γ, the corresponding target space backgrounds C 1,1 /Γ include half spaces, complex orbifolds and tori. We propose a generalization of the intercept formula to matrix-valued twists, and find massless physical states in a number of twisted cases. In particular, the sixteen Z 2 -twisted sectors of the N = 2 string are investigated, and the corresponding ground states are identified via bosonization and BRST cohomology. We find enough room for an extended multiplet of 'spacetime' supersymmetry, with the number of supersymmetries being dependent on global 'spacetime' topology. Unfortunately, world-sheet locality for the chiral vertex operators does not permit interactions for the massless 'spacetime' fermions; however possibly, an asymmetric GSO projection could evade this problem. (orig.)
Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of twisted trilayer graphene
Zuo, Wei-Jie; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Ma, Dong-Lin; Yin, Long-Jing; Sun, Gan; Zhang, Jun-Yang; Guan, Li-Yang; He, Lin
2018-01-01
Twist, as a simple and unique degree of freedom, could lead to enormous novel quantum phenomena in bilayer graphene. A small rotation angle introduces low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) approaching the Fermi level, which result in unusual correlated states in the bilayer graphene. It is reasonable to expect that the twist could also affect the electronic properties of few-layer graphene dramatically. However, such an issue has remained experimentally elusive. Here, by using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), we systematically studied a twisted trilayer graphene (TTG) with two different small twist angles between adjacent layers. Two sets of VHSs, originating from the two twist angles, were observed in the TTG, indicating that the TTG could be simply regarded as a combination of two different twisted bilayers of graphene. By using high-resolution STS, we observed a split of the VHSs and directly imaged the spatial symmetry breaking of electronic states around the VHSs. These results suggest that electron-electron interactions play an important role in affecting the electronic properties of graphene systems with low-energy VHSs.
Twisted boundary states in c=1 coset conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi
2003-01-01
We study the mutual consistency of twisted boundary conditions in the coset conformal field theory G/H. We calculate the overlap of the twisted boundary states of G/H with the untwisted ones, and show that the twisted boundary states are consistently defined in the charge-conjugation modular invariant. The overlap of the twisted boundary states is expressed by the branching functions of a twisted affine Lie algebra. As a check of our argument, we study the diagonal coset theory so(2n) 1 +so(2n) 1 /so(2n) 2 , which is equivalent to the orbifold S 1 /Z 2 at a particular radius. We construct the boundary states twisted by the automorphisms of the unextended Dynkin diagram of so(2n), and show their mutual consistency by identifying their counterpart in the orbifold. For the triality of so(8), the twisted states of the coset theory correspond to neither the Neumann nor the Dirichlet boundary states of the orbifold and yield conformal boundary states that preserve only the Virasoro algebra. (author)
Twisted covariant noncommutative self-dual gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.
2008-01-01
A twisted covariant formulation of noncommutative self-dual gravity is presented. The formulation for constructing twisted noncommutative Yang-Mills theories is used. It is shown that the noncommutative torsion is solved at any order of the θ expansion in terms of the tetrad and some extra fields of the theory. In the process the first order expansion in θ for the Plebanski action is explicitly obtained.
Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magee, T.; Shapiro, M.
2001-01-01
Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR
Mujika, Jon I; Formoso, Elena; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier
2006-08-03
We present an ab initio study of the acid hydrolysis of a highly twisted amide and a planar amide analogue. The aim of these studies is to investigate the effect that the twist of the amide bond has on the reaction barriers and mechanism of acid hydrolysis. Concerted and stepwise mechanisms were investigated using density functional theory and polarizable continuum model calculations. Remarkable differences were observed between the mechanism of twisted and planar amide, due mainly to the preference for N-protonation of the former and O-protonation of the latter. In addition, we were also able to determine that the hydrolytic mechanism of the twisted amide will be pH dependent. Thus, there is a preference for a stepwise mechanism with formation of an intermediate in the acid hydrolysis, whereas the neutral hydrolysis undergoes a concerted-type mechanism. There is a nice agreement between the characterized intermediate and available X-ray data and a good agreement with the kinetically estimated rate acceleration of hydrolysis with respect to analogous undistorted amide compounds. This work, along with previous ab initio calculations, describes a complex and rich chemistry for the hydrolysis of highly twisted amides as a function of pH. The theoretical data provided will allow for a better understanding of the available kinetic data of the rate acceleration of amides upon twisting and the relation of the observed rate acceleration with intrinsic differential reactivity upon loss of amide bond resonance.
A twisted generalization of Novikov-Poisson algebras
Yau, Donald
2010-01-01
Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras, which are twisted generalizations of Novikov-Poisson algebras, are studied. Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras are shown to be closed under tensor products and several kinds of twistings. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given under which Hom-Novikov-Poisson algebras give rise to Hom-Poisson algebras.
Jain, T.; Lin, H. K.; Lan, C. W.
2018-03-01
The development of grain structures during directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) plays a crucial role in the materials quality for silicon solar cells. Three dimensional (3D) modelling of the grain boundary (GB) interaction and evolution based on phase fields by considering anisotropic GB energy and mobility for mc-Si is carried out for the first time to elucidate the process. The energy and mobility of GBs are allowed to depend on misorientation and the GB plane. To examine the correctness of our method, the known the coincident site lattice (CSL) combinations such as (∑ a + ∑ b → ∑ a × b) or (∑ a + ∑ b → ∑ a / b) are verified. We frther discuss how to use the GB normal to characterize a ∑ 3 twin GB into a tilt or a twist one, and show the interaction between tilt and twist ∑ 3 twin GBs. Two experimental scenarios are considered for comparison and the results are in good agreement with the experiments as well as the theoretical predictions.
Isoscalar and isovector giant resonances in a self-consistent phonon coupling approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyutorovich, N.; Tselyaev, V. [Physical Faculty, St. Petersburg State University, RU-198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Speth, J., E-mail: J.Speth@fz-juelich.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Krewald, S.; Grümmer, F. [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Reinhard, P.-G. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2015-10-07
We present fully self-consistent calculations of isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole as well as isovector giant dipole resonances in heavy and light nuclei. The description is based on Skyrme energy-density functionals determining the static Hartree–Fock ground state and the excitation spectra within random-phase approximation (RPA) and RPA extended by including the quasiparticle-phonon coupling at the level of the time-blocking approximation (TBA). All matrix elements were derived consistently from the given energy-density functional and calculated without any approximation. As a new feature in these calculations, the single-particle continuum was included thus avoiding the artificial discretization usually implied in RPA and TBA. The step to include phonon coupling in TBA leads to small, but systematic, down shifts of the centroid energies of the giant resonances. These shifts are similar in size for all Skyrme parametrizations investigated here. After all, we demonstrate that one can find Skyrme parametrizations which deliver a good simultaneous reproduction of all three giant resonances within TBA.
Introduction to twisted conformal fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazama, Y.
1988-01-01
A pedagogical account is given of the recent developments in the theory of twisted conformal fields. Among other things, the main part of the lecture concerns the construction of the twist-emission vertex operator, which is a generalization of the fermion emission vertex in the superstring theory. Several different forms of the vertex are derived and their mutural relationships are clarified. In this paper, the authors include a brief survey of the history of the fermion emission vertex, as it offers a good perspective in which to appreciate the logical development
On the performance analysis of Savonius rotor with twisted blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha, U.K.; Rajkumar, M. Jaya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781 039 (India)
2006-09-15
The present investigation is aimed at exploring the feasibility of twisted bladed Savonius rotor for power generation. The twisted blade in a three-bladed rotor system has been tested in a low speed wind tunnel, and its performance has been compared with conventional semicircular blades (with twist angle of 0{sup o}). Performance analysis has been made on the basis of starting characteristics, static torque and rotational speed. Experimental evidence shows the potential of the twisted bladed rotor in terms of smooth running, higher efficiency and self-starting capability as compared to that of the conventional bladed rotor. Further experiments have been conducted in the same setup to optimize the twist angle. (author)
New look at the dynamics of twisted accretion disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatchett, S.P.; Begelman, M.C.; Sarazin, C.L.
1981-01-01
We reexamine the dynamic response of a thin, accretion disk to twisting torques, guided by the earlier analyses by Bardeen and Petterson. We make several corrections to this earlier work, and present a new version of the twist equations consistent with their physical assumptions. By describing the distortion of the disk in terms Cartesian direction cosines rather than the Euler angles used by the earlier authors, we are able to transform the twist equations from a pair of coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations to a single, linear, complex one. We write down formulae for the external twisting torques likley to be encountered in astrophysic, and we show that even with these driving torques our twist equation remains linear. We find exact, analytic solutions for steady state structure of a disk subject to Lense-Thirring torques by a nonaligned central Kerr black hole and also for the time-dependent problem of the structure of a slaved disk with its oscillating boundary conditions. Finally, we discuss the stability of disks against twisting modes and show that undriven disks and disks subject to time-independent driving torques are stable
Meng, Guangrong; Shi, Shicheng; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal
2018-01-17
Since the seminal studies by Pauling in 1930s, planarity has become the defining characteristic of the amide bond. Planarity of amides has central implications for the reactivity and chemical properties of amides of relevance to a range of chemical disciplines. While the vast majority of amides are planar, nonplanarity has a profound effect on the properties of the amide bond, with the most common method to restrict the amide bond relying on the incorporation of the amide function into a rigid cyclic ring system. In a major departure from this concept, here, we report the first class of acyclic twisted amides that can be prepared, reversibly, from common primary amides in a single, operationally trivial step. Di-tert-butoxycarbonylation of the amide nitrogen atom yields twisted amides in which the amide bond exhibits nearly perpendicular twist. Full structural characterization of a range of electronically diverse compounds from this new class of twisted amides is reported. Through reactivity studies we demonstrate unusual properties of the amide bond, wherein selective cleavage of the amide bond can be achieved by a judicious choice of the reaction conditions. Through computational studies we evaluate structural and energetic details pertaining to the amide bond deformation. The ability to selectively twist common primary amides, in a reversible manner, has important implications for the design and application of the amide bond nonplanarity in structural chemistry, biochemistry and organic synthesis.
Modal properties and stability of bend–twist coupled wind turbine blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. R. Stäblein
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Coupling between bending and twist has a significant influence on the aeroelastic response of wind turbine blades. The coupling can arise from the blade geometry (e.g. sweep, prebending, or deflection under load or from the anisotropic properties of the blade material. Bend–twist coupling can be utilized to reduce the fatigue loads of wind turbine blades. In this study the effects of material-based coupling on the aeroelastic modal properties and stability limits of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine are investigated. The modal properties are determined by means of eigenvalue analysis around a steady-state equilibrium using the aero-servo-elastic tool HAWCStab2 which has been extended by a beam element that allows for fully coupled cross-sectional properties. Bend–twist coupling is introduced in the cross-sectional stiffness matrix by means of coupling coefficients that introduce twist for flapwise (flap–twist coupling or edgewise (edge–twist coupling bending. Edge–twist coupling can increase or decrease the damping of the edgewise mode relative to the reference blade, depending on the operational condition of the turbine. Edge–twist to feather coupling for edgewise deflection towards the leading edge reduces the inflow speed at which the blade becomes unstable. Flap–twist to feather coupling for flapwise deflections towards the suction side increase the frequency and reduce damping of the flapwise mode. Flap–twist to stall reduces frequency and increases damping. The reduction of blade root flapwise and tower bottom fore–aft moments due to variations in mean wind speed of a flap–twist to feather blade are confirmed by frequency response functions.
Twisted sigma-model solitons on the quantum projective line
Landi, Giovanni
2018-04-01
On the configuration space of projections in a noncommutative algebra, and for an automorphism of the algebra, we use a twisted Hochschild cocycle for an action functional and a twisted cyclic cocycle for a topological term. The latter is Hochschild-cohomologous to the former and positivity in twisted Hochschild cohomology results into a lower bound for the action functional. While the equations for the critical points are rather involved, the use of the positivity and the bound by the topological term lead to self-duality equations (thus yielding twisted noncommutative sigma-model solitons, or instantons). We present explicit nontrivial solutions on the quantum projective line.
Milling properties of low temperature sintered zirconia blocks for dental use
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lan, Ting-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Hsiang [Department of Prosthodontics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80756, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80728, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ker-Kong [Department of Conservation, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80756, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80728, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80728, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, 80756, Taiwan (China); Lee, Huey-Er, E-mail: huerle@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Prosthodontics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80756, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80728, Taiwan (China)
2017-04-01
To investigate the milling properties of different yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) block materials by applying a dental computer numerical control (CNC) milling center. Low temperature sintering zirconia block denoted by KMUZ (experimental) with two commercial zirconia blocks for T block made in Taiwan and a G block made in Germany were compared for the milling properties. Seventy-two specimens were milled using the same CNC milling center, and properties were evaluated by measuring the weight loss (g), milling time (s), margin integrity (%) and broken diameter (μm). The crystalline phases contents were identified by X-ray diffraction and the microstructures of the sintering specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The mean milling time of G and KMUZ were significantly shorter than T (P < 0.05). The KMUZ samples exhibited the least weight loss among the three kinds of blocks (P < 0.05). The percentages of marginal integrity after milling were high in G and KMUZ but low in T (P < 0.05). The mean broken diameters were from 90 μm to 120 μm. The phase transformation of t-ZrO{sub 2} (KMUZ: 7.4%, G: 5.9%, T: 3.2%) to m-ZrO{sub 2} when facing the milling pressure in ZrO{sub 2} blocks was observed by XRD. The result of TEM microstructure of KMUZ revealed that Y and Si were soluble in grain boundaries. The results show that the milling properties of KMUZ were better than one commercial T and near the G. The hindered grain growth, as a result of the Y{sup 3+} content in the grain boundaries, also plays a role in promoting the abnormal grain growth of 3Y-TZP. - Highlights: • The phase transformation of t-ZrO{sub 2} to m-ZrO{sub 2} affects the milling properties. • The phase content of t-ZrO2 was 100% when sintering at 1350 °C for 2 h. • The Y{sup 3+} content in the grain boundaries that hinders grain growth. • The Y{sup 3+} content in boundaries also promotes the abnormal grain growth of 3Y-TZP.
Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank
2015-02-26
We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-xNa0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d33 ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160°C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180° domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectric materials.
Influence of grain size on the extraordinary Hall effect in magnetic granular alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granovsky, Alexander B.; Kalitsov, Alan V.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Kioussis, Nicholas
2003-01-01
A quantum statistical theory of the influence of grain size on the residual extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) in magnetic metal-insulator granular alloys is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the quasi-classical size-effect (QSE) can lead to similar behaviors of EHE in metal-metal and metal-insulator alloys. The possible dependences of EHE coefficient on the grain size and the role of the QSE in the giant EHE in nanocomposites are discussed
Influence of grain size on the extraordinary Hall effect in magnetic granular alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granovsky, Alexander B. E-mail: granov@magn.ru; Kalitsov, Alan V.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Kioussis, Nicholas
2003-03-01
A quantum statistical theory of the influence of grain size on the residual extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) in magnetic metal-insulator granular alloys is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the quasi-classical size-effect (QSE) can lead to similar behaviors of EHE in metal-metal and metal-insulator alloys. The possible dependences of EHE coefficient on the grain size and the role of the QSE in the giant EHE in nanocomposites are discussed.
A higher twist correction to heavy quark production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Gunion, J.F.; Soper, D.E.
1987-06-01
The leading twist prediction for heavy quark production and a model for a higher twist correction that may be important for charm production was discussed. The correction arises from the interaction of the charm quark with spectator quarks
Optical yarn assessment system for twist measurement in rotor-spun yarn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jhatial, R.A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the development of an optical yarn assessment system for evaluation of twist and structure of twisted yarn. The system comprises a yarn carriage unit, a video microscope and a personal computer. This system was used in conjunction with the well-known tracer fibre technique. This system enables digital images to be grabbed and continuous movies of the yarn to be recorded in order to facilitate the measurement of twist and the analysis of yarn structure. Yarn samples from polyester, viscose and cotton with 35 tex and 485 turns/meter were spun from the roving with 2.3% of black fibres on the SKF laboratory ring frame. In order to measure the twist in the rotor yarns with the optical yarn assessment system, a set of yarn samples from same fibres were spun on RU 14 rotor machine with 35 tex and 475 turns/meter. The twist was measured with the optical yarn assessment system and sixty tests of each sample were carried out on the Zweigle D301. It is clear from the results that there is consistency in the twist of ring-spun yarn measured by the optical yarn assessment system. However, the measured twist with the Zwiegle D301 is inconsistent in the different yarns. The difference in the mean twist measured with the optical twist measuring system and the double untwist-twist method was not significant at a 5% probability level when data was analyzed with t test by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). (author)
Level-rank duality of untwisted and twisted D-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naculich, Stephen G.; Schnitzer, Howard J.
2006-01-01
Level-rank duality of untwisted and twisted D-branes of WZW models is explored. We derive the relation between D0-brane charges of level-rank dual untwisted D-branes of su-bar (N) K and sp-bar (n) k , and of level-rank dual twisted D-branes of su-bar (2n+1) 2k+1 . The analysis of level-rank duality of twisted D-branes of su-bar (2n+1) 2k+1 is facilitated by their close relation to untwisted D-branes of sp-bar (n) k . We also demonstrate level-rank duality of the spectrum of an open string stretched between untwisted or twisted D-branes in each of these cases
Bound states on the lattice with partially twisted boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agadjanov, D.; Guo, F.-K.; Ríos, G.; Rusetsky, A.
2015-01-01
We propose a method to study the nature of exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant Z from lattice simulations. It is shown that, instead of studying the volume-dependence of the spectrum, one may investigate the dependence of the spectrum on the twisting angle, imposing twisted boundary conditions on the fermion fields on the lattice. In certain cases, e.g., the case of the DK bound state which is addressed in detail, it is demonstrated that the partial twisting is equivalent to the full twisting up to exponentially small corrections.
Monte Carlo simulations of segregation at [001] twist boundaries in a Pt(Au) alloy-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seki, A.; Seidman, D.N.; Oh, Y.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on a three dimensional plot of the density of Au atoms versus the position which coordinates for the (002) planes, immediately adjacent to the interface, for a θ = 5 degrees [001] twist boundary, suggests the presence of a hill-and-valley structure in the Au segregation behavior at 850 K. The valleys correspond to the regions of good atomic fit between the regions of misfit; the hills correspond to the cores of the pairs of orthogonal primary grain boundary dislocations. A model for the Monte Carlo simulations is developed that leads to a linear expression for S aver containing a core segregation factor (S core ). For this model S core a single Arrhenius plot and the Gibbs free binding energy of a Au atom to the cores of the primary grain boundary dislocations extracted; the binding enthalpy and entropy of segregation are 0.095 ±0.01 eV and K B (0.49 ± 0.19) respectively
OAM mode converter in twisted fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Cordeiro, Cristiano
2014-01-01
We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA.......We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA....
Twisting perturbed parafermions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.V. Belitsky
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The near-collinear expansion of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory at strong coupling is governed by the dynamics of stings propagating on the five sphere. The pentagon transitions in the operator product expansion which systematize the series get reformulated in terms of matrix elements of branch-point twist operators in the two-dimensional O(6 nonlinear sigma model. The facts that the latter is an asymptotically free field theory and that there exists no local realization of twist fields prevents one from explicit calculation of their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. This complication is bypassed making use of the equivalence of the sigma model to the infinite-level limit of WZNW models perturbed by current–current interactions, such that one can use conformal symmetry and conformal perturbation theory for systematic calculations. Presently, to set up the formalism, we consider the O(3 sigma model which is reformulated as perturbed parafermions.
Twisted Vanes Would Enhance Fuel/Air Mixing In Turbines
Nguyen, H. Lee; Micklow, Gerald J.; Dogra, Anju S.
1994-01-01
Computations of flow show performance of high-shear airblast fuel injector in gas-turbine engine enhanced by use of appropriately proportioned twisted (instead of flat) dome swirl vanes. Resultant more nearly uniform fuel/air mixture burns more efficiently, emitting smaller amounts of nitrogen oxides. Twisted-vane high-shear airblast injectors also incorporated into paint sprayers, providing advantages of low pressure drop characteristic of airblast injectors in general and finer atomization of advanced twisted-blade design.
Comparison of split double and triple twists in pair figure skating.
King, Deborah L; Smith, Sarah L; Brown, Michele R; McCrory, Jean L; Munkasy, Barry A; Scheirman, Gary I
2008-05-01
In this study, we compared the kinematic variables of the split triple twist with those of the split double twist to help coaches and scientists understand these landmark pair skating skills. High-speed video was taken during the pair short and free programmes at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics and the 2003 International Skating Union Grand Prix Finals. Three-dimensional analyses of 14 split double twists and 15 split triple twists from eleven pairs were completed. In spite of considerable variability in the performance variables among the pairs, the main difference between the split double twists and split triple twists was an increase in rotational rate. While eight of the eleven pairs relied primarily on an increased rotational rate to complete the split triple twist, three pairs employed a combined strategy of increased rotational rate and increased flight time due predominantly to delayed or lower catches. These results were similar to observations of jumps in singles skating for which the extra rotation is typically due to an increase in rotational velocity; increases in flight time come primarily from delayed landings as opposed to additional height during flight. Combining an increase in flight time and rotational rate may be a good strategy for completing the split triple twist in pair skating.
Blocking effects of human tau on squid giant synapse transmission and its prevention by T-817 MA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herman eMoreno
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Filamentous tau inclusions are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and related neurodegenerative tauopathies, but the molecular mechanisms involved in tau mediated changes in neuronal function and their possible effects on synaptic transmission are unknown. We have evaluated the effects of human tau protein injected directly into the presynaptic terminal axon of the squid giant synapse, which affords functional, structural, and biochemical analysis of its action on the synaptic release process. Indeed, we have found that at physiological concentrations recombinant human tau isoforms (h-tau 42 become phosphorylated, produce a rapid synaptic transmission block, and induce the formation of clusters of aggregated synaptic vesicles in the vicinity of the active zone. Presynaptic voltage clamp recordings demonstrate that h-tau does not modify the presynaptic calcium current amplitude or kinetics. Analysis of synaptic noise at the post-synaptic axon following pre-synaptic h-tau42 microinjection revealed an initial phase of increase spontaneous transmitter release followed by a marked reduction in noise. Finally, systemic administration of T-817MA, a proposed neuro-protective agent, rescued tau-induced synaptic abnormalities. Our results show novel mechanisms of h-tau42 mediated synaptic transmission failure and more importantly identify a potential therapeutic agent to treat/prevent tau-related neurotoxicity.
Blocking Effects of Human Tau on Squid Giant Synapse Transmission and Its Prevention by T-817 MA
Moreno, Herman; Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Brusco, Janaina; Avila, Jesus; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.
2011-01-01
Filamentous tau inclusions are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative tauopathies, but the molecular mechanisms involved in tau-mediated changes in neuronal function and their possible effects on synaptic transmission are unknown. We have evaluated the effects of human tau protein injected directly into the presynaptic terminal axon of the squid giant synapse, which affords functional, structural, and biochemical analysis of its action on the synaptic release process. Indeed, we have found that at physiological concentration recombinant human tau (h-tau42) becomes phosphorylated, produces a rapid synaptic transmission block, and induces the formation of clusters of aggregated synaptic vesicles in the vicinity of the active zone. Presynaptic voltage clamp recordings demonstrate that h-tau42 does not modify the presynaptic calcium current amplitude or kinetics. Analysis of synaptic noise at the post-synaptic axon following presynaptic h-tau42 microinjection revealed an initial phase of increase spontaneous transmitter release followed by a marked reduction in noise. Finally, systemic administration of T-817MA, a proposed neuro-protective agent, rescued tau-induced synaptic abnormalities. Our results show novel mechanisms of h-tau42 mediated synaptic transmission failure and identify a potential therapeutic agent to treat tau-related neurotoxicity. PMID:21629767
Phosphorylation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist in development and disease.
Xue, Gongda; Hemmings, Brian A
2012-02-01
The transcription factor Twist plays vital roles during embryonic development through regulating/controlling cell migration. However, postnatally, in normal physiological settings, Twist is either not expressed or inactivated. Increasing evidence shows a strong correlation between Twist reactivation and both cancer progression and malignancy, where the transcriptional activities of Twist support cancer cells to disseminate from primary tumours and subsequently establish a secondary tumour growth in distant organs. However, it is largely unclear how this signalling programme is reactivated or what signalling pathways regulate its activity. The present review discusses recent advances in Twist regulation and activity, with a focus on phosphorylation-dependent Twist activity, potential upstream kinases and the contribution of these factors in transducing biological signals from upstream signalling complexes. The recent advances in these areas have shed new light on how phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the Twist proteins promotes or suppresses Twist activity, leading to differential regulation of Twist transcriptional targets and thereby influencing cell fate.
Jeng, Toong Long; Shih, Yi Ju; Ho, Pei Tzu; Lai, Chia Chi; Lin, Yu Wen; Wang, Chang Sheng; Sung, Jih Min
2012-05-01
Rice embryo is concentrated with lipid, protein and some bioactive chemicals. Two rice mutants IR64-GE and TNG71-GE (M7 generation) were characterised by an enlarged embryo compared with their wild types. In the present study, distributions of protein, lipid, total phenolics, γ-oryzanol, tocols and some essential minerals in these two giant embryo mutants and their respective normal embryo wild types IR64 and TNG71 were compared. The embryo dry weights of giant embryo mutants IR64-GE and TNG71-GE were 0.92 and 1.32 mg per seed respectively. These values were higher than those of their respective normal embryo genotypes (0.50 and 0.62 mg per seed). Large variations in protein, lipid, phenolic, γ-oryzanol, tocol and minerals levels were found between mutant and wild-type pairs. The brown rice of TNG71-GE had higher total γ-oryzanol (average of 24% increase) and total tocol (average of 75% increase) levels than TNG71, IR64 and IR64-GE. The embryo and bran parts of giant embryo mutant TNG71-GE were found to be good sources of vitamin E and γ-oryzanol. Therefore it could be used to produce high-value by-products from milled embryo and bran parts and as a genetic resource for rice improvement programmes. TNG71-GE can also be used as a nutrient-fortified rice cultivar. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Further Generalisations of Twisted Gabidulin Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde, Johan Sebastian Heesemann; Sheekey, John
2017-01-01
We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes.......We present a new family of maximum rank distance (MRD) codes. The new class contains codes that are neither equivalent to a generalised Gabidulin nor to a twisted Gabidulin code, the only two known general constructions of linear MRD codes....
Geometry of the toroidal N-helix: optimal-packing and zero-twist
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob
2012-01-01
Two important geometrical properties of N-helix structures are influenced by bending. One is maximizing the volume fraction, which is called optimal-packing, and the other is having a vanishing strain-twist coupling, which is called zero-twist. Zero-twist helices rotate neither in one nor...... helix. General N-helices are discussed, as well as zero-twist helices for N > 1. The derived geometrical restrictions are gradually modified by changing the aspect ratio of the torus....
A method to estimate the necessary twist pitch in multi-filamentary superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindau, S; Magnusson, N; Taxt, H
2014-01-01
Twisting of multi-filamentary superconductors is an important step in the development of wires with AC losses at an acceptable level for AC applications. The necessary twist pitch depends on wire architecture, critical current density, matrix material, and external factors such as temperature, frequency and applied magnetic field. The development of an AC optimized MgB 2 superconductor would be facilitated by a fast method to set the requirements for the twist pitch. A problem often encountered when comparing wires with different twist pitches is the degradation in critical current occurring at small twist pitches due to mechanical deformation. In this work we propose to use a non-twisted conductor to estimate the influence of twisting on the AC losses. A long superconductor is cut into smaller lengths, each simulating one third of the twist pitch, and the AC losses due to applied magnetic fields are compared between samples of different lengths. With this method, the effect of reducing the size of the loop of the coupling currents is studied without changing the superconducting parameters. AC loss measurement results are presented for a round titanium matrix MgB 2 wire with simulated twist pitches between 9 mm and 87 mm.
New twist on artificial muscles.
Haines, Carter S; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Di, Jiangtao; Baughman, Ray H
2016-10-18
Lightweight artificial muscle fibers that can match the large tensile stroke of natural muscles have been elusive. In particular, low stroke, limited cycle life, and inefficient energy conversion have combined with high cost and hysteretic performance to restrict practical use. In recent years, a new class of artificial muscles, based on highly twisted fibers, has emerged that can deliver more than 2,000 J/kg of specific work during muscle contraction, compared with just 40 J/kg for natural muscle. Thermally actuated muscles made from ordinary polymer fibers can deliver long-life, hysteresis-free tensile strokes of more than 30% and torsional actuation capable of spinning a paddle at speeds of more than 100,000 rpm. In this perspective, we explore the mechanisms and potential applications of present twisted fiber muscles and the future opportunities and challenges for developing twisted muscles having improved cycle rates, efficiencies, and functionality. We also demonstrate artificial muscle sewing threads and textiles and coiled structures that exhibit nearly unlimited actuation strokes. In addition to robotics and prosthetics, future applications include smart textiles that change breathability in response to temperature and moisture and window shutters that automatically open and close to conserve energy.
Infrared spectroscopy of four carbon stars with 9.8 micron emission from silicate grains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, D.L.; Smith, V.V.; Hinkle, K.H.
1990-01-01
High-resolution K band and low resolution 4 micron spectra were obtained for four carbon stars showing IR emission by silicate grains. The results of the analysis of the K band spectra show that they are J-type stars. These results, together with published spectral classifications, show that all known carbon stars with a silicate emission feature are J-type stars. The 4 micron spectra are very similar to the spectra of classical J-type carbon stars, and do not show SiO bands that might come from a M giant companion. A binary model with a luminous M giant companion as a source of the silicate grain is rejected. It is proposed that the silicate grains formed from gas ejecta at or before the He-core flash, and that the flash initiates severe mixing, leading to the star's conversion to a J-type carbon star. The ejecta are stored in an accretion disk around a low mass unevolved companion. If it can be shown that the hypothesized accretion disk is stable and may be heated adequately, this binary model appears to account for these peculiar carbon stars. 41 refs
Isoscalar and isovector giant resonances in a self-consistent phonon coupling approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Lyutorovich
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We present fully self-consistent calculations of isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole as well as isovector giant dipole resonances in heavy and light nuclei. The description is based on Skyrme energy-density functionals determining the static Hartree–Fock ground state and the excitation spectra within random-phase approximation (RPA and RPA extended by including the quasiparticle-phonon coupling at the level of the time-blocking approximation (TBA. All matrix elements were derived consistently from the given energy-density functional and calculated without any approximation. As a new feature in these calculations, the single-particle continuum was included thus avoiding the artificial discretization usually implied in RPA and TBA. The step to include phonon coupling in TBA leads to small, but systematic, down shifts of the centroid energies of the giant resonances. These shifts are similar in size for all Skyrme parametrizations investigated here. After all, we demonstrate that one can find Skyrme parametrizations which deliver a good simultaneous reproduction of all three giant resonances within TBA.
Electrically Controllable Magnetism in Twisted Bilayer Graphene.
Gonzalez-Arraga, Luis A; Lado, J L; Guinea, Francisco; San-Jose, Pablo
2017-09-08
Twisted graphene bilayers develop highly localized states around AA-stacked regions for small twist angles. We show that interaction effects may induce either an antiferromagnetic or a ferromagnetic (FM) polarization of said regions, depending on the electrical bias between layers. Remarkably, FM-polarized AA regions under bias develop spiral magnetic ordering, with a relative 120° misalignment between neighboring regions due to a frustrated antiferromagnetic exchange. This remarkable spiral magnetism emerges naturally without the need of spin-orbit coupling, and competes with the more conventional lattice-antiferromagnetic instability, which interestingly develops at smaller bias under weaker interactions than in monolayer graphene, due to Fermi velocity suppression. This rich and electrically controllable magnetism could turn twisted bilayer graphene into an ideal system to study frustrated magnetism in two dimensions.
Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fedorov, Vladimir; Berggreen, Christian
2014-01-01
-twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling...
Moiré-related in-gap states in a twisted MoS2/graphite heterojunction
Lu, Chun-I
2017-07-21
This report presents a series of low-temperature (4.5 K) scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy experimental results on monolayer MoS2 deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite using chemical vapor deposition. To reveal the detailed connection between atomic morphology and conductivity in twisted MoS2/graphite heterojunctions, we employ high-sensitivity tunneling spectroscopy measurements by choosing a reduced tip-sample distance. We discern previously unobserved conductance peaks within the band gap range of MoS2, and by comparing the tunneling spectra from MoS2 grains of varying rotation with respect to the substrate, show that these features have small but non-negligible dependence on the moiré superstructure. Furthermore, within a single moiré supercell, atomically resolved tunneling spectroscopy measurements show that the spectra between the moiré high and low areas are also distinct. These in-gap states are shown to have an energy shift attributed to their local lattice strain, matching corresponding behavior of the conduction band edge, and we therefore infer that these features are intrinsic to the density of states, rather than experimental artifacts, and attribute them to the twisted stacking and local strain energy of the MoS2/graphite heterointerface.
Supersymmetric gauged double field theory: systematic derivation by virtue of twist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Wonyoung; Fernández-Melgarejo, J.J.; Jeon, Imtak; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2015-01-01
In a completely systematic and geometric way, we derive maximal and half-maximal supersymmetric gauged double field theories in lower than ten dimensions. To this end, we apply a simple twisting ansatz to the D=10 ungauged maximal and half-maximal supersymmetric double field theories constructed previously within the so-called semi-covariant formalism. The twisting ansatz may not satisfy the section condition. Nonetheless, all the features of the semi-covariant formalism, including its complete covariantizability, are still valid after the twist under alternative consistency conditions. The twist allows gaugings as supersymmetry preserving deformations of the D=10 untwisted theories after Scherk-Schwarz-type dimensional reductions. The maximal supersymmetric twist requires an extra condition to ensure both the Ramond-Ramond gauge symmetry and the 32 supersymmetries unbroken.
Migration mechanisms of a faceted grain boundary
Hadian, R.; Grabowski, B.; Finnis, M. W.; Neugebauer, J.
2018-04-01
We report molecular dynamics simulations and their analysis for a mixed tilt and twist grain boundary vicinal to the Σ 7 symmetric tilt boundary of the type {1 2 3 } in aluminum. When minimized in energy at 0 K , a grain boundary of this type exhibits nanofacets that contain kinks. We observe that at higher temperatures of migration simulations, given extended annealing times, it is energetically favorable for these nanofacets to coalesce into a large terrace-facet structure. Therefore, we initiate the simulations from such a structure and study as a function of applied driving force and temperature how the boundary migrates. We find the migration of a faceted boundary can be described in terms of the flow of steps. The migration is dominated at lower driving force by the collective motion of the steps incorporated in the facet, and at higher driving forces by the step detachment from the terrace-facet junction and propagation of steps across the terraces. The velocity of steps on terraces is faster than their velocity when incorporated in the facet, and very much faster than the velocity of the facet profile itself, which is almost stationary. A simple kinetic Monte Carlo model matches the broad kinematic features revealed by the molecular dynamics. Since the mechanisms seem likely to be very general on kinked grain-boundary planes, the step-flow description is a promising approach to more quantitative modeling of general grain boundaries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi Wai Yu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the interface between fine-grained and coarse-grained programmable logic in FPGAs. Specifically, it presents an empirical study that covers the location, pin arrangement, and interconnect between embedded floating point units (FPUs and the fine-grained logic fabric in FPGAs. It also studies this interface in FPGAs which contain both FPUs and embedded memories. The results show that (1 FPUs should have a square aspect ratio; (2 they should be positioned near the center of the FPGA; (3 their I/O pins should be arranged around all four sides of the FPU; (4 embedded memory should be located between the FPUs; and (5 connecting higher I/O density coarse-grained blocks increases the demand for routing resources. The hybrid FPGAs with embedded memory required 12% wider channels than the case where embedded memory is not used.
Nonlinear physics of twisted magnetic field lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Zensho
1998-01-01
Twisted magnetic field lines appear commonly in many different plasma systems, such as magnetic ropes created through interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, magnetic clouds in the solar wind, solar corona, galactic jets, accretion discs, as well as fusion plasma devices. In this paper, we study the topological characterization of twisted magnetic fields, nonlinear effect induced by the Lorentz back reaction, length-scale bounds, and statistical distributions. (author)
Observations on discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, Stephen R.
2005-01-01
I make a number of observations concerning discretization errors in twisted-mass lattice QCD that can be deduced by applying chiral perturbation theory including lattice artifacts. (1) The line along which the partially conserved axial current quark mass vanishes in the untwisted-mass-twisted-mass plane makes an angle to the twisted-mass axis which is a direct measure of O(a) terms in the chiral Lagrangian, and is found numerically to be large; (2) Numerical results for pionic quantities in the mass plane show the qualitative properties predicted by chiral perturbation theory, in particular, an asymmetry in slopes between positive and negative untwisted quark masses; (3) By extending the description of the 'Aoki regime' (where m q ∼a 2 Λ QCD 3 ) to next-to-leading order in chiral perturbation theory I show how the phase-transition lines and lines of maximal twist (using different definitions) extend into this region, and give predictions for the functional form of pionic quantities; (4) I argue that the recent claim that lattice artifacts at maximal twist have apparent infrared singularities in the chiral limit results from expanding about the incorrect vacuum state. Shifting to the correct vacuum (as can be done using chiral perturbation theory) the apparent singularities are summed into nonsingular, and furthermore predicted, forms. I further argue that there is no breakdown in the Symanzik expansion in powers of lattice spacing, and no barrier to simulating at maximal twist in the Aoki regime
Higher-twist correlations in polarized hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tangerman, R.D.
1996-01-01
In this thesis we studied the response of polarized hadrons to several high-energy probes, working in the framework of the field theoretic model. Emphasis is laid upon higher-twist effects such as quark transverse momentum. The inclusive DIS process is very well suited to study QCD. From general principles we were able to derive four positivity constraints on the structure functions without invoking the helicity formalism. The on-shell quark model is used to illustrate these constraints. Subseqeuently, we concentrated on the higher-twist structure function g 2 (x,Q 2 ). (orig./HSI)
Transcription factors zeb1, twist and snai1 in breast carcinoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soini, Ylermi; Tuhkanen, Hanna; Sironen, Reijo; Virtanen, Ismo; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Päivi; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti
2011-01-01
Epitheliomesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process where cancer cells attain fibroblastic features and are thus able to invade neighboring tissues. Transcriptional factors zeb1, snai1 and twist regulate EMT. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of zeb1, twist and snai1 in tumor and stromal compartments by in a large set of breast carcinomas. The results were compared with estrogen and progesterone receptor status, HER2 amplification, grade, histology, TNM status and survival of the patients. Nuclear expression for twist was seen in the epithelial tumor cell compartment in 3.6% and for snai1 in 3.1% of the cases while zeb1 was not detected at all in these areas. In contrast, the tumor stromal compartment showed nuclear zeb1 and twist expression in 75% and 52.4% of the cases, respectively. Although rare, nuclear expression of twist in the epithelial tumor cell compartment was associated with a poor outcome of the patients (p = 0.054 log rank, p = 0.013, Breslow, p = 0.025 Tarone-Ware). Expression of snai1, or expression of zeb1 or twist in the stromal compartment did not have any prognostic significance. Furthermore, none of these factors associated with the size of the tumors, nor with the presence of axillary or distant metastases. Expression of zeb1 and twist in the stromal compartment was positively associated with a positive estrogen or progesterone receptor status of the tumors. Stromal zeb1 expression was significantly lower in ductal in situ carcinomas than in invasive carcinomas (p = 0.020). Medullary carcinomas (p = 0.017) and mucinous carcinomas (p = 0.009) had a lower stromal expression of zeb1 than ductal carcinomas. Stromal twist expression was also lower in mucinous (p = 0.017) than in ductal carcinomas. Expression of transcriptional factors zeb1 and twist mainly occur in the stromal compartment of breast carcinomas, possibly representing two populations of cells; EMT transformed neoplastic cells and stromal fibroblastic cells
Conformal invariance and pion wave functions of nonleading twist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, V.M.; Filyanov, I.E.
1989-01-01
The restrictions are studied for the general structure of pion wave functions of twist 3 and twist 4 imposed by the conformal symmetry and the equations of motion. A systematic expansion of wave functions in the conformal spin is built and the first order corrections to asymptotic formulae are calculated by the QCD sum rule method. In particular, we have found a multiplicatively renormalizable contribution into the two-particle wave function of twist 4 which cannot be expanded in a finite set of Gegenbauer polynomials. 19 refs.; 5 figs
Dust ablation on the giant planets: Consequences for stratospheric photochemistry
Moses, Julianne I.; Poppe, Andrew R.
2017-11-01
Ablation of interplanetary dust supplies oxygen to the upper atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Using recent dynamical model predictions for the dust influx rates to the giant planets (Poppe et al., 2016), we calculate the ablation profiles and investigate the subsequent coupled oxygen-hydrocarbon neutral photochemistry in the stratospheres of these planets. We find that dust grains from the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt, Jupiter-family comets, and Oort-cloud comets supply an effective oxygen influx rate of 1.0-0.7+2.2 ×107 O atoms cm-2 s-1 to Jupiter, 7.4-5.1+16 ×104 cm-2 s-1 to Saturn, 8.9-6.1+19 ×104 cm-2 s-1 to Uranus, and 7.5-5.1+16 ×105 cm-2 s-1 to Neptune. The fate of the ablated oxygen depends in part on the molecular/atomic form of the initially delivered products, and on the altitude at which it was deposited. The dominant stratospheric products are CO, H2O, and CO2, which are relatively stable photochemically. Model-data comparisons suggest that interplanetary dust grains deliver an important component of the external oxygen to Jupiter and Uranus but fall far short of the amount needed to explain the CO abundance currently seen in the middle stratospheres of Saturn and Neptune. Our results are consistent with the theory that all of the giant planets have experienced large cometary impacts within the last few hundred years. Our results also suggest that the low background H2O abundance in Jupiter's stratosphere is indicative of effective conversion of meteoric oxygen to CO during or immediately after the ablation process - photochemistry alone cannot efficiently convert the H2O into CO on the giant planets.
Enhancement of turbulent flow heat transfer in a tube with modified twisted tapes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lei, Y.G.; Zhao, C.H.; Song, C.F. [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)
2012-12-15
Numerical simulations were performed to study the fluid flow and heat transfer in a tube with staggered twisted tapes with central holes. In the range of Reynolds numbers between 6000 and 28 000, the modified twisted tapes increased the Nusselt number by 76.2 {proportional_to} 149.7 % and the friction factor by 380.2 {proportional_to} 443.8 % compared to the smooth tube. Compared to the typical twisted tapes, the modified twisted tapes produced an acceleration flow through the triangle regions leading to the enhancement of heat transfer, and the holes in the modified tapes reduced the severe pressure loss. It was found that the modified twisted tapes decreased the friction factor by 8.0 {proportional_to} 16.1 % and enhanced the heat transfer by 34.1 {proportional_to} 46.8 % in comparison with the typical tapes. These results indicated that the performance ratio values of the tube with modified twisted tapes were higher than 1.0 in the range of Reynolds numbers studied. The computed performance ratios of the tube with modified twisted tapes were much higher than those of the tube with typical twisted tapes. This means that the integrated performance of the tube with staggered twisted tapes with central holes is superior to that of the tube with typical twisted tapes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Gauging the twisted Poincare symmetry as a noncommutative theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A.; Oksanen, M.; Zet, G.
2009-01-01
Einstein's theory of general relativity was formulated as a gauge theory of Lorentz symmetry by Utiyama in 1956, while the Einstein-Cartan gravitational theory was formulated by Kibble in 1961 as the gauge theory of Poincare transformations. In this framework, we propose a formulation of the gravitational theory on canonical noncommutative space-time by covariantly gauging the twisted Poincare symmetry, in order to fulfil the requirement of covariance under the general coordinate transformations, an essential ingredient of the theory of general relativity. It appears that the twisted Poincare symmetry cannot be gauged by generalizing the Abelian twist to a covariant non-Abelian twist, nor by introducing a more general covariant twist element. The advantages of such a formulation as well as the related problems are discussed and possible ways out are outlined.
Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiarappa, T.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I.; Scorzato, L.; Urbach, C.; Wenger, U.
2006-09-01
We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)
Iterative methods for overlap and twisted mass fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiarappa, T. [Univ. di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wetzorke, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Nagai, K.I. [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Papinutto, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Scorzato, L. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villazzano (Italy); Urbach, C. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Wenger, U. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2006-09-15
We present a comparison of a number of iterative solvers of linear systems of equations for obtaining the fermion propagator in lattice QCD. In particular, we consider chirally invariant overlap and chirally improved Wilson (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The comparison of both formulations of lattice QCD is performed at four fixed values of the pion mass between 230 MeV and 720 MeV. For overlap fermions we address adaptive precision and low mode preconditioning while for twisted mass fermions we discuss even/odd preconditioning. Taking the best available algorithms in each case we find that calculations with the overlap operator are by a factor of 30-120 more expensive than with the twisted mass operator. (orig.)
Template preparation of twisted nanoparticles of mesoporous silica
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kui Niu; Zhongbin Ni; Chengwu Fu; Tatsuo Kaneko; Mingqing Chen
2011-01-01
Optical isomers of N-lauroyl-L-(or-D-) alanine sodium salt {C12-L-(or-D-)AlaS} surfactants were used for the preparation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a twisted hexagonal rod-like morphology. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the temperature for template removal. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the surfactant solution with various compositions illustrated the formation and supramolecular assembly of protein-like molecular architecture leading to formation of twisted nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of these as-synthesized mesoporous silica confirmed that the twisted morphology of these nanoparticles was closely related to the supramolecular-assembled complex of amino acid surfactants.
Twisted entire cyclic cohomology, J-L-O cocycles and equivariant spectral triples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goswami, D.
2002-07-01
We study the 'quantized calculus' corresponding to the algebraic ideas related to 'twisted cyclic cohomology'. With very similar definitions and techniques, we define and study 'twisted entire cyclic cohomology' and the 'twisted Chern character' associated with an appropriate operator theoretic data called 'twisted spectral data', which consists of a spectral triple in the conventional sense of noncommutative geometry and an additional positive operator having some specified properties. Furthermore, it is shown that given a spectral triple (in the conventional sense) which is equivariant under the action of a compact matrix pseudogroup, it is possible to obtain a canonical twisted spectral data and hence the corresponding (twisted) Chern character, which will be invariant under the action of the pseudogroup, in contrast to the fact that the Chern character coming from the conventional noncommutative geometry need not be invariant under the above action. (author)
On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bei, Francesco; Waterstraat, Nils
2015-01-01
We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large
On the space of connections having non-trivial twisted harmonic spinors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bei, Francesco, E-mail: bei@math.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Waterstraat, Nils, E-mail: n.waterstraat@kent.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, Statistics & Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NF (United Kingdom)
2015-09-15
We consider Dirac operators on odd-dimensional compact spin manifolds which are twisted by a product bundle. We show that the space of connections on the twisting bundle which yields an invertible operator has infinitely many connected components if the untwisted Dirac operator is invertible and the dimension of the twisting bundle is sufficiently large.
Wilkie, W. Keats; Belvin, W. Keith; Park, K. C.
1996-01-01
A simple aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor blade incorporating embedded piezoelectric fiber composite, interdigitated electrode blade twist actuators is described. The analysis consists of a linear torsion and flapwise bending model coupled with a nonlinear ONERA based unsteady aerodynamics model. A modified Galerkin procedure is performed upon the rotor blade partial differential equations of motion to develop a system of ordinary differential equations suitable for dynamics simulation using numerical integration. The twist actuation responses for three conceptual fullscale blade designs with realistic constraints on blade mass are numerically evaluated using the analysis. Numerical results indicate that useful amplitudes of nonresonant elastic twist, on the order of one to two degrees, are achievable under one-g hovering flight conditions for interdigitated electrode poling configurations. Twist actuation for the interdigitated electrode blades is also compared with the twist actuation of a conventionally poled piezoelectric fiber composite blade. Elastic twist produced using the interdigitated electrode actuators was found to be four to five times larger than that obtained with the conventionally poled actuators.
Quadratic Twists of Rigid Calabi–Yau Threefolds Over
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gouvêa, Fernando Q.; Kiming, Ian; Yui, Noriko
2013-01-01
of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N). We show that quadratic twisting of a threefold corresponds to twisting the attached newform by quadratic characters and illustrate with a number of obvious and not so obvious examples. The question is motivated by the deeper question of which newforms of weight 4 on some Γ 0(N...
A Model of Silicate Grain Nucleation and Growth in Circumstellar Outflows
Paquette, John A.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Nuth, Joseph A., III
2011-01-01
Based on its abundance, high bond energy, and recent measurements of its vapor pressure SiO is a natural candidate for dust nucleation in circumstellar outflows around asymptotic giant branch stars. In this paper, we describe a model of the nucleation and growth of silicate dust in such outflows. The sensitivity of the model to varying choices of poorly constrained chemical parameters is explored, and the merits of using scaled rather than classical nucleation theory are briefly considered, An elaboration of the model that includes magnesium and iron as growth species is then presented and discussed. The composition of the bulk of the grains derived from the model is consistent with olivines and pyroxenes, but somewhat metal-rich grains and very small, nearly pure SiO grains are also produced,
The geometric Langlands twist in five and six dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas
2015-01-01
Abelian 6d (2,0) theory has SO(5) R symmetry. We twist this theory by identifying the R symmetry group with the SO(5) subgroup of the SO(1,5) Lorentz group. This twisted theory can be put on any five-manifold M, times R, while preserving one scalar supercharge. We subsequently assume the existence of one unit normalized Killing vector field on M, and we find a corresponding SO(4) twist that preserves two supercharges and is a generalization of the geometric Langlands twist of 4d SYM. We generalize the story to non-Abelian gauge group for the corresponding 5d SYM theories on M. We derive a vanishing theorem for BPS contact instantons by identifying the 6d potential energy and its BPS bound, in the 5d theory. To this end we need to perform a Wick rotation that complexifies the gauge field.
Higher-Twist Dynamics in Large Transverse Momentum Hadron Production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francois, Alero
2009-01-01
A scaling law analysis of the world data on inclusive large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions is carried out. A significant deviation from leading-twist perturbative QCD predictions at next-to-leading order is reported. The observed discrepancy is largest at high values of x # perpendicular# = 2p # perpendicular#/√s. In contrast, the production of prompt photons and jets exhibits the scaling behavior which is close to the conformal limit, in agreement with the leading-twist expectation. These results bring evidence for a non-negligible contribution of higher-twist processes in large-p # perpendicular# hadron production in hadronic collisions, where the hadron is produced directly in the hard subprocess rather than by gluon or quark jet fragmentation. Predictions for scaling exponents at RHIC and LHC are given, and it is suggested to trigger the isolated large-p # perpendicular# hadron production to enhance higher-twist processes.
Lyme carditis mimicking giant cell arteritis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krati Chauhan
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Presenting an interesting case of a patient who complained of myalgias, fatigue, headache, jaw claudication and scalp tenderness. Patient’s physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory findings showed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, bilateral temporal artery biopsy results were negative and first degree atrioventricular block was seen on electrocardiogram. Serology for Borrelia burgdorferi was positive; patient was diagnosed with Lyme carditis and treated with doxycycline. Lyme is a tick-borne, multi-system disease and occasionally its presentation may mimic giant cell arteritis. On follow-up there was complete resolution of symptoms and electrocardiogram findings.
Periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng Rong [Coll. of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Tech., Nanjing (China); Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Zhang Dongfeng [Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)
2010-05-15
In dynamical system theory, especially in many fields of applications from mechanics, Hamiltonian systems play an important role, since many related equations in mechanics can be written in an Hamiltonian form. In this paper, we study the existence of periodic solutions for a class of Hamiltonian systems. By applying the Galerkin approximation method together with a result of critical point theory, we establish the existence of periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions. Twist conditions play crucial roles in the study of periodic solutions for asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems. The lack of twist conditions brings some difficulty to the study. To the authors' knowledge, very little is known about the case, where twist conditions do not hold. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, M. B.
1998-01-01
Using seeding techniques to control the orientation of grains, we have been able to create a wide variety of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , grain boundaries. In addition to five domain samples with 90 degree[100] twist and tilt grain boundaries, we have now developed a method to produce grain boundaries in the same sample that have the misorientations θ[001] tilt, θ[100] tilt, and 90 degree ∼ θ[100], where the disorientation angle θ is fully controllable. We will demonstrate how these boundaries can be synthesized, give experimental evidence via polarized light microscopy and electron backscatter patterns (EBSP) that the intended grain boundaries were indeed formed, and discuss the importance of these boundaries in future grain boundary studies
Higher-Twist Distribution Amplitudes of the K Meson in QCD
Ball, P; Lenz, A; Ball, Patricia
2006-01-01
We present a systematic study of twist-3 and twist-4 light-cone distribution amplitudes of the K meson in QCD. The structure of SU(3)-breaking corrections is studied in detail. Non-perturbative input parameters are estimated from QCD sum rules and renormalons. As a by-product, we give a complete reanalysis of the twist-3 and -4 parameters of the pi-meson distribution amplitudes; some of the results differ from those usually quoted in the literature.
Cerclage handling for improved fracture treatment. A biomechanical study on the twisting procedure.
Wähnert, D; Lenz, M; Schlegel, U; Perren, S; Windolf, M
2011-01-01
Twisting is clinically the most frequently applied method for tightening and maintaining cerclage fixation. The twisting procedure is controversially discussed. Several factors during twisting affect the mechanical behaviour of the cerclage. This in vitro study investigated the influence of different parameters of the twisting procedure on the fixation strength of the cerclage in an experimental setup with centripetal force application. Cortical half shells of the femoral shaft were mounted on a testing fixture. 1.0 mm, 1.25 mm and 1.5 mm stainless ste- el wire cerclages as well as a 1.0mm cable cerclage were applied to the bone. Pretension of the cerclage during the installation was measured during the locking procedure. Subsequently, cyclic testing was performed up to failure. Higher pretension could be achieved with increasing wire diameter. However, with larger wire diameter the drop of pre- tension due to the bending and cutting the twist also increased. The cable cerclage showed the highest pretension after locking. Cerclages twisted under traction revealed significantly higher initial cerclage tension. Plastically deformed twists offered higher cerclage pretension compared to twists which were deformed in the elastic region of the material. Cutting the wire within the twist caused the highest loss of cerclage tension (44% initial tension) whereas only 11 % was lost when cutting the wire ends separately. The bending direction of the twist significantly influenced the cerclage pretension. 45% pretension was lost in forward bending of the twist, 53% in perpendicular bending and 90% in backward bending. Several parameters affect the quality of a cerclage fixation. Adequate installation of cerclage wires could markedly improve the clinical outcome of cerclage.
AKT-ions with a TWIST between EMT and MET.
Tang, Huifang; Massi, Daniela; Hemmings, Brian A; Mandalà, Mario; Hu, Zhengqiang; Wicki, Andreas; Xue, Gongda
2016-09-20
The transcription factor Twist is an important regulator of cranial suture during embryogenesis. Closure of the neural tube is achieved via Twist-triggered cellular transition from an epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype, a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by a remarkable increase in cell motility. In the absence of Twist activity, EMT and associated phenotypic changes in cell morphology and motility can also be induced, albeit moderately, by other transcription factor families, including Snail and Zeb. Aberrant EMT triggered by Twist in human mammary tumour cells was first reported to drive metastasis to the lung in a metastatic breast cancer model. Subsequent analysis of many types of carcinoma demonstrated overexpression of these unique EMT transcription factors, which statistically correlated with worse outcome, indicating their potential as biomarkers in the clinic. However, the mechanisms underlying their activation remain unclear. Interestingly, increasing evidence indicates they are selectively activated by distinct intracellular kinases, thereby acting as downstream effectors facilitating transduction of cytoplasmic signals into nucleus and reprogramming EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) transcription to control cell plasticity. Understanding these relationships and emerging data indicating differential phosphorylation of Twist leads to complex and even paradoxical functionalities, will be vital to unlocking their potential in clinical settings.
Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.
2018-04-01
Twisted-tape-induced swirl-flow heat transfer due to exponentially increasing heat inputs with various exponential periods ( Q = Q 0 exp(t/τ), τ = 6.04 to 23.07 s) and twisted-tape-induced pressure drop was systematically measured for various mass velocities ( G = 4115 to 13,656 kg/m2 s), inlet liquid temperatures ( T in = 285.88 to 299.09 K), and inlet pressures ( P in = 847.45 to 943.29 kPa) using an experimental water loop flow. Measurements were made over a 59.2-mm effective length and three sections (upper, middle, and lower positions), within which four potential taps were spot-welded onto the outer surface of a 6-mm-inner-diameter, 69.6-mm-heated length, 0.4-mm-thickness platinum circular test tube. Type SUS304 twisted tapes with a width w = 5.6 mm, a thickness δ T = 0.6 mm, a total length l = 372 mm, and twist ratios y = 2.39 and 4.45 were employed in this study. The RANS equations (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation) with a k-ɛ turbulence model for a circular tube 6 mm in diameter and 636 mm in length were numerically solved for heating of water with a heated section 6 mm in diameter and 70 mm in length using the CFD code, under the same conditions as the experimental ones and considering the temperature dependence of the thermo-physical properties concerned. The theoretical values of surface heat flux q on the circular tubes with twisted tapes with twist ratios y of 2.39 and 4.45 were found to be almost in agreement with the corresponding experimental values of heat flux q, with deviations of less than 30% for the range of temperature difference between the average heater inner surface temperature and the liquid bulk mean temperature ΔT L [ = T s,av - T L , T L = ( T in + T out )/2] considered in this study. The theoretical values of the local surface temperature T s , local average liquid temperature T f,av , and local liquid pressure drop ΔP x were found to be within almost 15% of the corresponding experimental ones. The thickness of the
'Twisted' strings and higher level Kac-Moody representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.
1989-01-01
Using an orbifold-like construction the twisted sector of a closed string moving on GxG (with G simply laced) is determined. A level-two G current operating there is constructed explicitly. The decomposition of the twisted sector into products between appropriate conformal and level-two G representations is given if 2 rank G-2 dim G/(2+g)<1. (orig.)
Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition by transactivation of Twist1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pei, Xin-Hong; Lv, Xin-Quan; Li, Hui-Xiang
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion. • Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. • Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition through transactivation of Twist1 expression. - Abstract: The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a highly conserved cellular program, plays an important role in normal embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Twist1, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, is overexpressed in breast cancer and contributes to metastasis by promoting EMT. In exploring the mechanism underlying the increased Twist1 in breast cancer cells, we found that the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 5(Sox5) is up-regulation in breast cancer cells and depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, depletion of Sox5 in breast cancer cells caused a dramatic decrease in Twist1 and chromosome immunoprecipitation assay showed that Sox5 can bind directly to the Twist1 promoter, suggesting that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. We further demonstrated that knockdown of Sox5 up-regulated epithelial phenotype cell biomarker (E-cadherin) and down-regulated mesenchymal phenotype cell biomarkers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Fibronectin 1), resulting in suppression of EMT. Our study suggests that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression and plays an important role in the regulation of breast cancer progression
Twisted spin Sutherland models from quantum Hamiltonian reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feher, L; Pusztai, B G
2008-01-01
Recent general results on Hamiltonian reductions under polar group actions are applied to study some reductions of the free particle governed by the Laplace-Beltrami operator of a compact, connected, simple Lie group. The reduced systems associated with arbitrary finite-dimensional irreducible representations of the group by using the symmetry induced by twisted conjugations are described in detail. These systems generically yield integrable Sutherland-type many-body models with spin, which are called twisted spin Sutherland models if the underlying twisted conjugations are built on non-trivial Dynkin diagram automorphisms. The spectra of these models can be calculated, in principle, by solving certain Clebsch-Gordan problems, and the result is presented for the models associated with the symmetric tensorial powers of the defining representation of SU(N)
Extension-twist coupling of composite circular tubes with application to tilt rotor blade design
Nixon, Mark W.
1987-01-01
This investigation was conducted to determine if twist deformation required for the design of full-scale extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blades can be achieved within material design limit loads, and to demonstrate the accuracy of a coupled-beam analysis in predicting twist deformations. Two extension-twist-coupled tilt-rotor blade designs were developed based on theoretically optimum aerodynamic twist distributions. The designs indicated a twist rate requirement of between .216 and .333 deg/in. Agreement between axial tests and analytical predictions was within 10 percent at design limit loads. Agreement between the torsion tests and predictions was within 11 percent.
PARTIAL ERUPTION OF A FILAMENT WITH TWISTING NON-UNIFORM FIELDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bi, Yi; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Xiang, Yongyuan; Cai, Yunfang; Liu, Weiwei
2015-01-01
The eruption of a filament in a kinklike fashion is often regarded as a signature of kink instability. However, the kink instability threshold for the filament’s magnetic structure is not widely understood. Using Hα observations from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present a partial eruptive filament. During the eruption, the filament thread appeared to split from its middle and to break out in a kinklike fashion. In this period, the remaining filament material stayed below and erupted without the kinking motion later on. The coronal magnetic field lines associated with the filament are obtained from nonlinear force-free field extrapolations using the twelve-minute-cadence vector magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We studied the extrapolated field lines passing through the magnetic dips which are in good agreement with the observed filament. The field lines are non-uniformly twisted and appear to be composed of two twisted flux ropes winding around each other. One of them has a higher twist than the other, and the flux rope with the higher twist has its dips aligned with the kinking eruptive thread at the beginning of its eruption. Before the eruption, moreover, the flux rope with the higher twist was found to expand with an approximately constant field twist. In addition, the helicity flux maps deduced from the HMI magnetograms show that some helicity is injected into the overlying magnetic arcade, but no significant helicity is injected into the flux ropes. Accordingly, we suggest that the highly twisted flux rope became kink unstable when the instability threshold declined with the expansion of the flux rope
The geometrical origin of the strain-twist coupling in double helices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kasper Olsen
2011-03-01
Full Text Available A simple geometrical explanation for the counterintuitive phenomenon when twist leads to extension in double helices is presented. The coupling between strain and twist is investigated using a tubular description. It is shown that the relation between strain and rotation is universal and depends only on the pitch angle. For pitch angles below 39.4° strain leads to further winding, while for larger pitch angles strain leads to unwinding. The zero-twist structure, with a pitch angle of 39.4°, is at the unique point between winding and unwinding and independent of the mechanical properties of the double helix. The existence of zero-twist structures, i.e. structures that display neither winding, nor unwinding under strain is discussed. Close-packed double helices are shown to extend rather than shorten when twisted. Numerical estimates of this elongation upon winding are given for DNA, chromatin, and RNA.
Dynamical twisted mass fermions with light quarks. Simulation and analysis details
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boucaud, P. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Dimopoulos, P. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Farchioni, F. [Muenster Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)
2008-03-15
In a recent paper (2007) we presented precise lattice QCD results of our European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). They were obtained by employing two mass-degenerate flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. In the present paper we give details on our simulations and the computation of physical observables. In particular, we discuss the problem of tuning to maximal twist, the techniques we have used to compute correlators and error estimates. In addition, we provide more information on the algorithm used, the autocorrelation times and scale determination, the evaluation of disconnected contributions and the description of our data by means of chiral perturbation theory formulae. (orig.)
Dynamical twisted mass fermions with light quarks. Simulation and analysis details
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucaud, P.; Dimopoulos, P.; Farchioni, F.
2008-03-01
In a recent paper (2007) we presented precise lattice QCD results of our European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC). They were obtained by employing two mass-degenerate flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. In the present paper we give details on our simulations and the computation of physical observables. In particular, we discuss the problem of tuning to maximal twist, the techniques we have used to compute correlators and error estimates. In addition, we provide more information on the algorithm used, the autocorrelation times and scale determination, the evaluation of disconnected contributions and the description of our data by means of chiral perturbation theory formulae. (orig.)
Composite material bend-twist coupling for wind turbine blade applications
Walsh, Justin M.
Current efforts in wind turbine blade design seek to employ bend-twist coupling of composite materials for passive power control by twisting blades to feather. Past efforts in this area of study have proved to be problematic, especially in formulation of the bend-twist coupling coefficient alpha. Kevlar/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy specimens were manufactured to study bend-twist coupling, from which numerical and analytical models could be verified. Finite element analysis was implemented to evaluate fiber orientation and material property effects on coupling magnitude. An analytical/empirical model was then derived to describe numerical results and serve as a replacement for the commonly used coupling coefficient alpha. Through the results from numerical and analytical models, a foundation for aeroelastic design of wind turbines blades utilizing biased composite materials is provided.
Flux Density through Guides with Microstructured Twisted Clad DB Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Baqir
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of flux density through a newly proposed twisted clad guide containing DB medium. The inner core and the outer clad sections are usual dielectrics, and the introduced twisted windings at the core-clad interface are treated under DB boundary conditions. The pitch angle of twist is supposed to greatly contribute towards the control over the dispersion characteristics of the guide. The eigenvalue equation for the guiding structure is deduced, and the analytical investigations are made to explore the propagation patterns of flux densities corresponding to the sustained low-order hybrid modes under the situation of varying pitch angles. The emphasis has been put on the effects due to the DB twisted pitch on the propagation of energy flux density through the guide.
Effect of Twisting and Stretching on Magneto Resistance and Spin Filtration in CNTs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anil Kumar Singh
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Spin-dependent quantum transport properties in twisted carbon nanotube and stretched carbon nanotube are calculated using density functional theory (DFT and non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF formulation. Twisting and stretching have no effect on spin transport in CNTs at low bias voltages. However, at high bias voltages the effects are significant. Stretching restricts any spin-up current in antiparallel configuration (APC, which results in higher magneto resistance (MR. Twisting allows spin-up current almost equivalent to the pristine CNT case, resulting in lower MR. High spin filtration is observed in PC and APC for pristine, stretched and twisted structures at all applied voltages. In APC, at low voltages spin filtration in stretched CNT is higher than in pristine and twisted ones, with pristine giving a higher spin filtration than twisted CNT.
Chirality-controlled spontaneous twisting of crystals due to thermal topochemical reaction.
Rai, Rishika; Krishnan, Baiju P; Sureshan, Kana M
2018-03-20
Crystals that show mechanical response against various stimuli are of great interest. These stimuli induce polymorphic transitions, isomerizations, or chemical reactions in the crystal and the strain generated between the daughter and parent domains is transcribed into mechanical response. We observed that the crystals of modified dipeptide LL (N 3 -l-Ala-l-Val-NHCH 2 C≡CH) undergo spontaneous twisting to form right-handed twisted crystals not only at room temperature but also at 0 °C over time. Using various spectroscopic techniques, we have established that the twisting is due to the spontaneous topochemical azide-alkyne cycloaddition (TAAC) reaction at room temperature or lower temperatures. The rate of twisting can be increased by heating, exploiting the faster kinetics of the TAAC reaction at higher temperatures. To address the role of molecular chirality in the direction of twisting the enantiomer of dipeptide LL, N 3 -d-Ala-d-Val-NHCH 2 C≡CH (DD), was synthesized and topochemical reactivity and mechanoresponse of its crystals were studied. We have found that dipeptide DD not only underwent TAAC reaction, giving 1,4-triazole-linked pseudopolypeptides of d-amino acids, but also underwent twisting with opposite handedness (left-handed twisting), establishing the role of molecular chirality in controlling the direction of mechanoresponse. This paper reports ( i ) a mechanical response due to a thermal reaction and ( ii ) a spontaneous mechanical response in crystals and ( iii ) explains the role of molecular chirality in the handedness of the macroscopic mechanical response.
Effect of grain boundaries on shock-induced phase transformation in iron bicrystals
Zhang, Xueyang; Wang, Kun; Zhu, Wenjun; Chen, Jun; Cai, Mengqiu; Xiao, Shifang; Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, Wangyu
2018-01-01
Non-equilibrium molecular-dynamic simulations with a modified analytic embedded-atom model potential have been performed to investigate the effect of three kinds of grain boundaries (GBs) on the martensitic transformation in iron bicrystals with three different GBs under shock loadings. Our results show that the phase transition was influenced by the GBs. All three GBs provide a nucleation site for the α → ɛ transformation in samples shock-loaded with up = 0.5 km/s, and in particular, the elastic wave can induce the phase transformation at Σ3 ⟨110⟩ twist GB, which indicates that the phase transformation can occur at Σ3 ⟨110⟩ twist GB with a much lower pressure. The effect of GBs on the stress assisted transformation (SAT) mechanisms is discussed. All variants nucleating at the vicinity of these GBs meet the maximum strain work (MSW) criterion. Moreover, all of the variants with the MSW nucleate at Σ5 ⟨001⟩ twist GB and Σ3 ⟨110⟩ tilt GB, but only part of them nucleate at Σ3 ⟨110⟩ twist GB. This is because the coincident planes between both sides of the GB would affect the slip process, which is the second stage of the martensitic transformation and influences the selection of variant. We also find that the martensitic transformation at the front end of the bicrystals would give rise to stress attenuation in samples shock-loaded with up = 0.6 km/s, which makes the GBs seem to be unfavorable to the martensitic transformation. Our findings have the potential to affect the interface engineering and material design under high pressure conditions.
On the twists of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes observed at 1 AU
Wang, Yuming; Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chi, Yutian
2016-10-01
Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are one kind of fundamental structures in the solar/space physics and involved in various eruption phenomena. Twist, characterizing how the magnetic field lines wind around a main axis, is an intrinsic property of MFRs, closely related to the magnetic free energy and stableness. Although the effect of the twist on the behavior of MFRs had been widely studied in observations, theory, modeling, and numerical simulations, it is still unclear how much amount of twist is carried by MFRs in the solar atmosphere and in heliosphere and what role the twist played in the eruptions of MFRs. Contrasting to the solar MFRs, there are lots of in situ measurements of magnetic clouds (MCs), the large-scale MFRs in interplanetary space, providing some important information of the twist of MFRs. Thus, starting from MCs, we investigate the twist of interplanetary MFRs with the aid of a velocity-modified uniform-twist force-free flux rope model. It is found that most of MCs can be roughly fitted by the model and nearly half of them can be fitted fairly well though the derived twist is probably overestimated by a factor of 2.5. By applying the model to 115 MCs observed at 1 AU, we find that (1) the twist angles of interplanetary MFRs generally follow a trend of about 0.6l/R radians, where l/R is the aspect ratio of a MFR, with a cutoff at about 12π radians AU-1, (2) most of them are significantly larger than 2.5π radians but well bounded by 2l/R radians, (3) strongly twisted magnetic field lines probably limit the expansion and size of MFRs, and (4) the magnetic field lines in the legs wind more tightly than those in the leading part of MFRs. These results not only advance our understanding of the properties and behavior of interplanetary MFRs but also shed light on the formation and eruption of MFRs in the solar atmosphere. A discussion about the twist and stableness of solar MFRs are therefore given.
Effects of grain-producing cover crops on rice grain yield in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adriano Stephan Nascente
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Besides providing benefits to the environment such as soil protection, release of nutrients, soil moisture maintenance, and weed control, cover crops can increase food production for grain production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of biomass and grain cover crops (and its respective effects on soil chemical and physical attributes, yield components, and grain yield of rice in Mozambique. The study was conducted in two sites located in the province of Cabo Delgado, in Mozambique. The experimental design was a randomized block in a 2 × 6 factorial, with four repetitions. Treatments were carried out in two locations (Cuaia and Nambaua with six cover crops: Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.; namarra bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet, velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens L., oloco beans (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., and fallow. Cover crops provided similar changes in chemical and physical properties of the soil. Lablab purpureus, Vigna unguiculata, and Mucuna pruriens produced the highest dry matter biomass. Vigna unguiculada produced the highest amount of grains. Rice grain yields were similar under all cover crops and higher in Cuaia than Nambaua.
Arutyunov, G.E.; de Leeuw, M.; van Tongeren, S.J.
2010-01-01
We study finite-size corrections to the magnon dispersion relation in three models which differ from string theory on AdS5 x S5 in their boundary conditions. Asymptotically, this is accomplished by twisting the transfer matrix in a way which manifestly preserves integrability. In model I all
Identification of an Extremely 180-Rich Presolar Silicate Grain in Acfer 094
Nguyen, A. N.; Messenger, S.
2009-01-01
Presolar silicate grains have been abundantly identified since their first discovery less than a decade ago [1,2,3]. The O isotopic compositions of both silicate and oxide stardust indicate the vast majority (>90%) condensed around Orich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Though both presolar phases have average sizes of 300 nm, grains larger than 1 m are extremely uncommon for presolar silicates. Thus, while numerous isotopic systems have been measured in presolar oxide grains [4], very few isotopic analyses for presolar silicates exist outside of O and Si [2,5]. And still, these measurements suffer from isotopic dilution with surrounding matrix material [6]. We conduct a search for presolar silicates in the primitive carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094 and in some cases obtain high spatial resolution, high precision isotopic ratios.
Finite element and analytical models for twisted and coiled actuator
Tang, Xintian; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Kai; Chen, Weishan; Zhao, Jianguo
2018-01-01
Twisted and coiled actuator (TCA) is a class of recently discovered artificial muscle, which is usually made by twisting and coiling polymer fibers into spring-like structures. It has been widely studied since discovery due to its impressive output characteristics and bright prospects. However, its mathematical models describing the actuation in response to the temperature are still not fully developed. It is known that the large tensile stroke is resulted from the untwisting of the twisted fiber when heated. Thus, the recovered torque during untwisting is a key parameter in the mathematical model. This paper presents a simplified model for the recovered torque of TCA. Finite element method is used for evaluating the thermal stress of the twisted fiber. Based on the results of the finite element analyses, the constitutive equations of twisted fibers are simplified to develop an analytic model of the recovered torque. Finally, the model of the recovered torque is used to predict the deformation of TCA under varying temperatures and validated against experimental results. This work will enhance our understanding of the deformation mechanism of TCAs, which will pave the way for the closed-loop position control.
New dualities and misleading anomaly matchings from outer-automorphism twists
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, Sridip; Song, Jaewon [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego,La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
2017-03-29
We study four-dimensional N=1,2 superconformal theories in class S obtained by compactifying the 6d N=(2,0) theory on a Riemann surface C with outer-automorphism twist lines. From the pair-of-pants decompositions of C, we find various dual descriptions for the same theory having distinct gauge groups. We show that the various configurations of the twist line give rise to dual descriptions for the identical theory. We compute the ’t Hooft anomaly coefficients and the superconformal indices to test dualities. Surprisingly, we find that the class S theories with twist lines wrapping 1-cycles of C have the identical ’t Hooft anomalies as the ones without the twist line, whereas the superconformal indices differ. This provides a large set of examples where the anomaly matching is insufficient to test dualities.
Leading twist moments of the neutron structure function F_2n
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. Osipenko; W. Melnitchouk; S. Simula; S. Kulagin; G. Ricco
2005-10-20
We perform a global analysis of neutron $F_2^n$ structure function data, obtained by combining proton and deuteron measurements over a large range of kinematics. From these data the lowest moments ($n \\leq 10$) of the leading twist neutron $F_2^n$ structure function are extracted. Particular attention is paid to nuclear effects in the deuteron, which become increasingly important for the higher moments. Our results for the nonsinglet, isovector $p - n$ combination of the leading twist moments are compared with those of available lattice simulations. We also determine the lowest few moments of the higher twist contributions, obtained by subtracting the leading twist from the total structure function, and analyze their isospin dependence.
Magnetar giant flares in multipolar magnetic fields. II. Flux rope eruptions with current sheets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Lei; Yu, Cong
2014-01-01
We propose a physical mechanism to explain giant flares and radio afterglows in terms of a magnetospheric model containing both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet (CS). With the appearance of a CS, we solve a mixed boundary value problem to get the magnetospheric field based on a domain decomposition method. We investigate properties of the equilibrium curve of the flux rope when the CS is present in background multipolar fields. In response to the variations at the magnetar surface, it quasi-statically evolves in stable equilibrium states. The loss of equilibrium occurs at a critical point and, beyond that point, it erupts catastrophically. New features show up when the CS is considered. In particular, we find two kinds of physical behaviors, i.e., catastrophic state transition and catastrophic escape. Magnetic energy would be released during state transitions. This released magnetic energy is sufficient to drive giant flares, and the flux rope would, therefore, go away from the magnetar quasi-statically, which is inconsistent with the radio afterglow. Fortunately, in the latter case, i.e., the catastrophic escape, the flux rope could escape the magnetar and go to infinity in a dynamical way. This is more consistent with radio afterglow observations of giant flares. We find that the minor radius of the flux rope has important implications for its eruption. Flux ropes with larger minor radii are more prone to erupt. We stress that the CS provides an ideal place for magnetic reconnection, which would further enhance the energy release during eruptions.
Shrink, twist, ripple and melt: Studies of frustrated liquid crystals
Fernsler, Jonathan G.
Complex structures can arise out of a simple system with more than one competing influence on its behavior. The protypical example of this is the two-dimensional triangular lattice Ising model. The ferromagnetic model has two simple degenerate ground states of all spins up or down, but the antiferromagnetic model is a frustrated system. Its geometry does not allow satisfaction of the antiferro condition everywhere, which produces complex ordered structures with dimerization of the spins [1]. Without frustration, the complex structures and phase behavior are lost. All of the topics discussed in this thesis concern smectic liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are perhaps uniquely adept at manifesting frustrated phases. Their combination of periodicity in one or more dimensions allows ordered structures, yet their fluid nature in remaining dimensions allows creation of defects and extraordinarily complex structures in ways that a normal crystal could not tolerate. Liquid crystals contain a huge menagerie of frustrated phases and effects including the polarization modulated [2], vortex lattice [3], twist grain boundary [4], and blue [5] phases, as well as frustrated structures such as cholesteric or SmC* helix unwinding [6], defect lattices in thin films [7], and bend melted grain boundary defects [8], arising from boundary conditions and field effects. In this thesis, we study four liquid crystal systems that show unusual phase behavior or complex structures, deriving from the effects of frustration. Frustration, despite some human prejudices against the word, leaves nature all the more interesting and beautiful.
A Transformation Called "Twist"
Hwang, Daniel
2010-01-01
The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…
Stability of coupled tearing and twisting modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzpatrick, R.
1994-03-01
A dispersion relation is derived for resistive modes of arbitrary parity in a tokamak plasma. At low mode amplitude, tearing and twisting modes which have nonideal MHD behavior at only one rational surface at a time in the plasma are decoupled via sheared rotation and diamagnetic flows. At higher amplitude, more unstable open-quote compound close-quote modes develop which have nonideal behavior simultaneously at many surfaces. Such modes possess tearing parity layers at some of the nonideal surfaces, and twisting parity layers at others, but mixed parity layers are generally disallowed. At low mode number, open-quote compound close-quote modes are likely to have tearing parity layers at all of the nonideal surfaces in a very low-β plasma, but twisting parity layers become more probable as the plasma β is increased. At high mode number, unstable twisting modes which exceed a critical amplitude drive conventional magnetic island chains on alternate rational surfaces, to form an interlocking structure in which the O-points and X-points of neighboring chains line up
Design optimization for active twist rotor blades
Mok, Ji Won
This dissertation introduces the process of optimizing active twist rotor blades in the presence of embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. Optimum design of active twist blades is a complex task, since it involves a rich design space with tightly coupled design variables. The study presents the development of an optimization framework for active helicopter rotor blade cross-sectional design. This optimization framework allows for exploring a rich and highly nonlinear design space in order to optimize the active twist rotor blades. Different analytical components are combined in the framework: cross-sectional analysis (UM/VABS), an automated mesh generator, a beam solver (DYMORE), a three-dimensional local strain recovery module, and a gradient based optimizer within MATLAB. Through the mathematical optimization problem, the static twist actuation performance of a blade is maximized while satisfying a series of blade constraints. These constraints are associated with locations of the center of gravity and elastic axis, blade mass per unit span, fundamental rotating blade frequencies, and the blade strength based on local three-dimensional strain fields under worst loading conditions. Through pre-processing, limitations of the proposed process have been studied. When limitations were detected, resolution strategies were proposed. These include mesh overlapping, element distortion, trailing edge tab modeling, electrode modeling and foam implementation of the mesh generator, and the initial point sensibility of the current optimization scheme. Examples demonstrate the effectiveness of this process. Optimization studies were performed on the NASA/Army/MIT ATR blade case. Even though that design was built and shown significant impact in vibration reduction, the proposed optimization process showed that the design could be improved significantly. The second example, based on a model scale of the AH-64D Apache blade, emphasized the capability of this framework to
Blocking Radial Diffusion in a Double-Waved Hamiltonian Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, Caroline G L; De Carvalho, R Egydio; Marcus, F A; Caldas, I L
2011-01-01
A non-twist Hamiltonian system perturbed by two waves with particular wave numbers can present Robust Tori, barriers created by the vanishing of the perturbing Hamiltonian at some defined positions. When Robust Tori exist, any trajectory in phase space passing close to them is blocked by emergent invariant curves that prevent the chaotic transport. We analyze the breaking up of the RT as well the transport dependence on the wave numbers and on the wave amplitudes. Moreover, we report the chaotic web formation in the phase space and how this pattern influences the transport.
κ-Minkowski spacetime as the result of Jordanian twist deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borowiec, A.; Pachol, A.
2009-01-01
Two one-parameter families of twists providing κ-Minkowski * product deformed spacetime are considered: Abelian and Jordanian. We compare the derivation of quantum Minkowski space from two perspectives. The first one is the Hopf module algebra point of view, which is strictly related with Drinfeld's twisting tensor technique. The other one relies on an appropriate extension of ''deformed realizations'' of nondeformed Lorentz algebra by the quantum Minkowski algebra. This extension turns out to be de Sitter Lie algebra. We show the way both approaches are related. The second path allows us to calculate deformed dispersion relations for toy models ensuing from different twist parameters. In the Abelian case, one recovers κ-Poincare dispersion relations having numerous applications in doubly special relativity. Jordanian twists provide a new type of dispersion relations which in the minimal case (related to Weyl-Poincare algebra) takes an energy-dependent linear mass deformation form.
Mirror symmetry for G{sub 2}-manifolds: twisted connected sums and dual tops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, Andreas P. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Zotto, Michele Del [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States)
2017-05-15
Recently, at least 50 million of novel examples of compact G{sub 2} holonomy manifolds have been constructed as twisted connected sums of asymptotically cylindrical Calabi-Yau threefolds. The purpose of this paper is to study mirror symmetry for compactifications of Type II superstrings in this context. We focus on G{sub 2} manifolds obtained from building blocks constructed from dual pairs of tops, which are the closest to toric CY hypersurfaces, and formulate the analogue of the Batyrev mirror map for this class of G{sub 2} holonomy manifolds, thus obtaining several millions of novel dual superstring backgrounds. In particular, this leads us to conjecture a plethora of novel exact dualities among the corresponding 2d N=1 sigma models.
Performance improvement of small-scale rotors by passive blade twist control
Lv, Peng; Prothin, Sebastien; Mohd Zawawi, Fazila; Bénard, Emmanuel; Morlier, Joseph; Moschetta, Jean-Marc
2015-01-01
A passive twist control is proposed as an adaptive way to maximize the overall efficiency of the small-scale rotor blade for multifunctional aircrafts. Incorporated into a database of airfoil characteristics, Blade Element Momentum Theory is implemented to obtain the blade optimum twist rates for hover and forward flight. In order to realize the required torsion of blade between hover and forward flight, glass/epoxy laminate blade is proposed based on Centrifugal Force Induced Twist concept. ...
Unique CCT repeats mediate transcription of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cell lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkuma, Mizue; Funato, Noriko; Higashihori, Norihisa; Murakami, Masanori; Ohyama, Kimie; Nakamura, Masataka
2007-01-01
TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays critical roles in embryo development, cancer metastasis and mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Little is known about transcriptional regulation of TWIST1 expression. Here we identified DNA sequences responsible for TWIST1 expression in mesenchymal lineage cell lines. Reporter assays with TWIST1 promoter mutants defined the -102 to -74 sequences that are essential for TWIST1 expression in human and mouse mesenchymal cell lines. Tandem repeats of CCT, but not putative CREB and NF-κB sites in the sequences substantially supported activity of the TWIST1 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that the DNA sequences with the CCT repeats formed complexes with nuclear factors, containing, at least, Sp1 and Sp3. These results suggest critical implication of the CCT repeats in association with Sp1 and Sp3 factors in sustaining expression of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cells
Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional.
Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke; Oufiero, Christopher E; Martin, Christopher H; McGee, Matthew D; Gamarra, Ashlee R; Lee, Johanna J; Wainwright, Peter C
2013-02-18
The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone.
Valve-aided twisted Savonius rotor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaya Rajkumar, M.; Saha, U.K.
2006-05-15
Accessories, such as end plates, deflecting plates, shielding and guide vanes, may increase the power of a Savonius rotor, but make the system structurally complex. In such cases, the rotor can develop a relatively large torque at small rotational speeds and is cheap to build, however it harnesses only a small fraction of the incident wind energy. Another proposition for increasing specific output is to place non-return valves inside the concave side of the blades. Such methods have been studied experimentally with a twisted-blade Thus improving a Savonius rotor's energy capture. This new concept has been named as the 'Valve-Aided Twisted Savonius'rotor. Tests were conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel to evaluate performance. This mechanism is found to be independent of flow direction, and shows potential for large machines. [Author].
Twisting failure of centrally loaded open-section columns in the elastic range
Kappus, Robert
1938-01-01
In the following report a complete theory of twisting failure by the energy method is developed, based on substantially the same assumptions as those employed by Wagner and Bleich. Problems treated in detail are: the stress and strain condition under St. Venant twist and in twist with axial constraint; the concept of shear center and the energy method for problems of elastic stability.
Exploring exotic states with twisted boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agadjanov, Dimitri
2017-01-01
he goal of this thesis is to develop methods to study the nature and properties of exotic hadrons from lattice simulations. The main focus lies in the application of twisted boundary conditions. The thesis consists of a general introduction and the collection of three papers, represented respectively in three chapters. The introduction of the thesis reviews the theoretical background, which is further used in the rest of the thesis. Further implementing partially twisted boundary conditions in the scalar sector of lattice QCD is studied. Then we develop a method to study the content of the exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant from lattice simulations, exploiting the dependence of the spectrum on the twisted boundary conditions. The final chapter deals with a novel method to study the multi-channel scattering problem in a finite volume, which is relevant for exotic states. Its key idea is to extract the complex hadron-hadron optical potential, avoiding the difficulties, associated with the solution of the multi-channel Luescher equation.
Exploring exotic states with twisted boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agadjanov, Dimitri
2017-09-11
he goal of this thesis is to develop methods to study the nature and properties of exotic hadrons from lattice simulations. The main focus lies in the application of twisted boundary conditions. The thesis consists of a general introduction and the collection of three papers, represented respectively in three chapters. The introduction of the thesis reviews the theoretical background, which is further used in the rest of the thesis. Further implementing partially twisted boundary conditions in the scalar sector of lattice QCD is studied. Then we develop a method to study the content of the exotic hadrons by determining the wave function renormalization constant from lattice simulations, exploiting the dependence of the spectrum on the twisted boundary conditions. The final chapter deals with a novel method to study the multi-channel scattering problem in a finite volume, which is relevant for exotic states. Its key idea is to extract the complex hadron-hadron optical potential, avoiding the difficulties, associated with the solution of the multi-channel Luescher equation.
Measurement of curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Wen; Quan Chenggen; Cho Jui Tay
2008-01-01
Measurement of curvature and twist is an important aspect in the study of object deformation. In recent years, several methods have been proposed to determine curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital shearography. Here we propose a novel method to determine the curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography and a complex phasor. A sine/cosine transformation method and two-dimensional short time Fourier transform are proposed subsequently to process the wrapped phase maps. It is shown that high-quality phase maps corresponding to curvature and twist can be obtained. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daijiro Fukuda
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Using diagrammatic pictures of tensor contractions, we consider a Hopf algebra (Aop⊗ℛλA** twisted by an element ℛλ∈A*⊗Aop corresponding to a Hopf algebra morphism λ:A→A. We show that this Hopf algebra is quasitriangular with the universal R-matrix coming from ℛλ when λ2=idA, generalizing the quantum double construction which corresponds to the case λ=idA.
Structural and electronic transformation in low-angle twisted bilayer graphene
Gargiulo, Fernando; Yazyev, Oleg V.
2018-01-01
Experiments on bilayer graphene unveiled a fascinating realization of stacking disorder where triangular domains with well-defined Bernal stacking are delimited by a hexagonal network of strain solitons. Here we show by means of numerical simulations that this is a consequence of a structural transformation of the moiré pattern inherent to twisted bilayer graphene taking place at twist angles θ below a crossover angle θ\\star=1.2\\circ . The transformation is governed by the interplay between the interlayer van der Waals interaction and the in-plane strain field, and is revealed by a change in the functional form of the twist energy density. This transformation unveils an electronic regime characteristic of vanishing twist angles in which the charge density converges, though not uniformly, to that of ideal bilayer graphene with Bernal stacking. On the other hand, the stacking domain boundaries form a distinct charge density pattern that provides the STM signature of the hexagonal solitonic network.
Innovation of Methods for Measurement and Modelling of Twisted Pair Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukas Cepa
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to optimize a measurement methodology for the most accurate broadband modelling of characteristic impedance and other parameters for twisted pairs. Measured values and theirs comparison is presented in this article. Automated measurement facility was implemented at the Department of telecommunication of Faculty of electrical engineering of Czech technical university in Prague. Measurement facility contains RF switches allowing measurements up to 300 MHz or 1GHz. Measured twisted pair’s parameters can be obtained by measurement but for purposes of fundamental characteristics modelling is useful to define functions that model the properties of the twisted pair. Its primary and secondary parameters depend mostly on the frequency. For twisted pair deployment, we are interested in a frequency band range from 1 MHz to 100 MHz.
Wilkie, William Keats
1997-12-01
An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain a soluti An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain amited additional piezoelectric material mass, it is shown that blade twist actuation approaches which exploit in-plane piezoelectric free-stain anisotropies are capable of producing amplitudes of oscillatory blade twisting sufficient for rotor vibration reduction applications. The second study examines the effectiveness of using embedded piezoelectric actuator laminae to alleviate vibratory loads due to retreating blade stall. A 10 to 15 percent improvement in dynamic stall limited forward flight speed, and a 5 percent improvement in stall limited rotor thrust were numerically demonstrated for the active twist rotor blade relative to a conventional blade design. The active twist blades are also demonstrated to be more susceptible than the conventional blades to dynamic stall induced vibratory loads when not operating with twist actuation. This is the result of designing the active twist blades with low torsional stiffness in order to maximize piezoelectric twist authority
Slip-spring model of entangled rod-coil block copolymers
Wang, Muzhou; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Olsen, Bradley D.
2015-03-01
Understanding the dynamics of rod-coil block copolymers is important for optimal design of functional nanostructured materials for organic electronics and biomaterials. Recently, we proposed a reptation theory of entangled rod-coil block copolymers, predicting the relaxation mechanisms of activated reptation and arm retraction that slow rod-coil dynamics relative to coil and rod homopolymers, respectively. In this work, we introduce a coarse-grained slip-spring model of rod-coil block copolymers to further explore these mechanisms. First, parameters of the coarse-grained model are tuned to match previous molecular dynamics simulation results for coils, rods, and block copolymers. For activated reptation, rod-coil copolymers are shown to disfavor configurations where the rod occupies curved portions of the entanglement tube of randomly varying curvature created by the coil ends. The effect of these barriers on diffusion is quantitatively captured by considering one-dimensional motion along an entanglement tube with a rough free energy potential. Finally, we analyze the crossover between the two mechanisms. The resulting dynamics from both mechanisms acting in combination is faster than from each one individually.
Effective potentials for twisted fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banach, R.
1981-01-01
Minus the density of the effective action, evaluated at the lowest eigenfunction of the (space-time) derivative part of the second (functional) derivative of the classical action, is proposed as a generalised definition of the effective potential, applicable to twisted as well as untwisted sectors of a field theory. The proposal is corroborated by several specific calculations in the twisted sector, namely phi 4 theory (real and complex) and wrong-sign-Gordon theory, in an Einstein cylinder, where the exact integrability of the static solutions confirms the effective potential predictions. Both models exhibit a phase transition, which the effective potential locates, and the one-loop quantum shift in the critical radius is computed for the real phi 4 model, being a universal result. Topological mass generation at the classical level is pointed out, and the exactness of the classical effective potential approximation for complex phi 4 is discussed. (author)
Quantum communication through a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose, S.; Jin, B.-Q.; Korepin, V.E.
2005-01-01
We investigate quantum communication between the sites of a spin ring with twisted boundary conditions. Such boundary conditions can be achieved by a magnetic flux through the ring. We find that a nonzero twist can improve communication through finite odd-numbered rings and enable high-fidelity multiparty quantum communication through spin rings (working near perfectly for rings of five and seven spins). We show that in certain cases, the twist results in the complete blockage of quantum-information flow to a certain site of the ring. This effect can be exploited to interface and entangle a flux qubit and a spin qubit without embedding the latter in a magnetic field
Peters, Andrew J.; Lawson, Richard A.; Nation, Benjamin D.; Ludovice, Peter J.; Henderson, Clifford L.
2016-01-01
State-of-the-art block copolymer (BCP)-directed self-assembly (DSA) methods still yield defect densities orders of magnitude higher than is necessary in semiconductor fabrication despite free-energy calculations that suggest equilibrium defect densities are much lower than is necessary for economic fabrication. This disparity suggests that the main problem may lie in the kinetics of defect removal. This work uses a coarse-grained model to study the rates, pathways, and dependencies of healing a common defect to give insight into the fundamental processes that control defect healing and give guidance on optimal process conditions for BCP-DSA. It is found that bulk simulations yield an exponential drop in defect heal rate above χN˜30. Thin films show no change in rate associated with the energy barrier below χN˜50, significantly higher than the χN values found previously for self-consistent field theory studies that neglect fluctuations. Above χN˜50, the simulations show an increase in energy barrier scaling with 1/2 to 1/3 of the bulk systems. This is because thin films always begin healing at the free interface or the BCP-underlayer interface, where the increased A-B contact area associated with the transition state is minimized, while the infinitely thick films cannot begin healing at an interface.
Wilkie, W. Keats; Park, K. C.
1996-01-01
A simple aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor blade incorporating embedded piezoelectric fiber composite, interdigitated electrode blade twist actuators is described. The analysis consist of a linear torsion and flapwise bending model coupled with a nonlinear ONERA based unsteady aerodynamics model. A modified Galerkin procedure is performed upon the rotor blade partial differential equations of motion to develop a system of ordinary differential equations suitable for numerical integration. The twist actuation responses for three conceptual full-scale blade designs with realistic constraints on blade mass are numerically evaluated using the analysis. Numerical results indicate that useful amplitudes of nonresonant elastic twist, on the order of one to two degrees, are achievable under one-g hovering flight conditions for interdigitated electrode poling configurations. Twist actuation for the interdigitated electrode blades is also compared with the twist actuation of a conventionally poled piezoelectric fiber composite blade. Elastic twist produced using the interdigitated electrode actuators was found to be four to five times larger than that obtained with the conventionally poled actuators.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phuoc T Tran
Full Text Available KRAS mutant lung cancers are generally refractory to chemotherapy as well targeted agents. To date, the identification of drugs to therapeutically inhibit K-RAS have been unsuccessful, suggesting that other approaches are required. We demonstrate in both a novel transgenic mutant Kras lung cancer mouse model and in human lung tumors that the inhibition of Twist1 restores a senescence program inducing the loss of a neoplastic phenotype. The Twist1 gene encodes for a transcription factor that is essential during embryogenesis. Twist1 has been suggested to play an important role during tumor progression. However, there is no in vivo evidence that Twist1 plays a role in autochthonous tumorigenesis. Through two novel transgenic mouse models, we show that Twist1 cooperates with Kras(G12D to markedly accelerate lung tumorigenesis by abrogating cellular senescence programs and promoting the progression from benign adenomas to adenocarcinomas. Moreover, the suppression of Twist1 to physiological levels is sufficient to cause Kras mutant lung tumors to undergo senescence and lose their neoplastic features. Finally, we analyzed more than 500 human tumors to demonstrate that TWIST1 is frequently overexpressed in primary human lung tumors. The suppression of TWIST1 in human lung cancer cells also induced cellular senescence. Hence, TWIST1 is a critical regulator of cellular senescence programs, and the suppression of TWIST1 in human tumors may be an effective example of pro-senescence therapy.
Geometrically exact nonlinear analysis of pre-twisted composite rotor blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li'na SHANG
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Modeling of pre-twisted composite rotor blades is very complicated not only because of the geometric non-linearity, but also because of the cross-sectional warping and the transverse shear deformation caused by the anisotropic material properties. In this paper, the geometrically exact nonlinear modeling of a generalized Timoshenko beam with arbitrary cross-sectional shape, generally anisotropic material behavior and large deflections has been presented based on Hodges’ method. The concept of decomposition of rotation tensor was used to express the strain in the beam. The variational asymptotic method was used to determine the arbitrary warping of the beam cross section. The generalized Timoshenko strain energy was derived from the equilibrium equations and the second-order asymptotically correct strain energy. The geometrically exact nonlinear equations of motion were established by Hamilton’s principle. The established modeling was used for the static and dynamic analysis of pre-twisted composite rotor blades, and the analytical results were validated based on experimental data. The influences of the transverse shear deformation on the pre-twisted composite rotor blade were investigated. The results indicate that the influences of the transverse shear deformation on the static deformation and the natural frequencies of the pre-twisted composite rotor blade are related to the length to chord ratio of the blade. Keywords: Geometrically exact, Nonlinear, Pre-twisted composite blade, Transverse shear deformation, Variational asymptotic, Warping
A twisted flux-tube model for solar prominences. I. General properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Priest, E.R.; Hood, A.W.; Anzer, U.
1989-01-01
It is proposed that a solar prominence consists of cool plasma supported in a large-scale curved and twisted magnetic flux tube. As long as the flux tube is untwisted, its curvature is concave toward the solar surface, and so it cannot support dense plasma against gravity. However, when it is twisted sufficiently, individual field lines may acquire a convex curvature near their summits and so provide support. Cool plasma then naturally tends to accumulate in such field line dips either by injection from below or by thermal condensation. As the tube is twisted up further or reconnection takes place below the prominence, one finds a transition from normal to inverse polarity. When the flux tube becomes too long or is twisted too much, it loses stability and its true magnetic geometry as an erupting prominence is revealed more clearly. 56 refs
Influence of grain size in the near-micrometre regime on the deformation microstructure in aluminium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le, G.M.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, N.; Liu, W.; Winther, G.; Huang, X.
2013-01-01
The effect of grain size on deformation microstructure formation in the near-micrometre grain size regime has been studied using samples of aluminium prepared using a spark plasma sintering technique. Samples in a fully recrystallized grain condition with average grain sizes ranging from 5.2 to 0.8 μm have been prepared using this technique. Examination in the transmission electron microscope of these samples after compression at room temperature to approximately 20% reduction reveals that grains larger than 7 μm are subdivided by cell block boundaries similar to those observed in coarse-grained samples, with a similar dependency on the crystallographic orientation of the grains. With decreasing grain size down to approx. 1 μm there is a gradual transition from cell block structures to cell structures. At even smaller grain sizes of down to approx. 0.5 μm the dominant features are dislocation bundles and random dislocations, although at a larger compressive strain of 30% dislocation rotation boundaries may also be found in the interior of grains of this size. A standard 〈1 1 0〉 fibre texture is found for all grain sizes, with a decreasing sharpness with decreasing grain size. The structural transitions with decreasing grain size are discussed based on the general principles of grain subdivision by deformation-induced dislocation boundaries and of low-energy dislocation structures as applied to the not hitherto explored near-micrometre grain size regime
Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
enhancement of heat transfer with twisted tape inserts as compared to plain ... studies for heat transfer and pressure drop of laminar flow in horizontal tubes ... flow in rectangular and square plain ducts and ducts with twisted-tape inserts .... presence of the insert in the pipe causes resistance to flow and increases turbulence.
On the minimum core mass for giant planet formation at wide separations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Youdin, Andrew N.
2014-01-01
In the core accretion hypothesis, giant planets form by gas accretion onto solid protoplanetary cores. The minimum (or critical) core mass to form a gas giant is typically quoted as 10 M ⊕ . The actual value depends on several factors: the location in the protoplanetary disk, atmospheric opacity, and the accretion rate of solids. Motivated by ongoing direct imaging searches for giant planets, this study investigates core mass requirements in the outer disk. To determine the fastest allowed rates of gas accretion, we consider solid cores that no longer accrete planetesimals, as this would heat the gaseous envelope. Our spherical, two-layer atmospheric cooling model includes an inner convective region and an outer radiative zone that matches onto the disk. We determine the minimum core mass for a giant planet to form within a typical disk lifetime of 3 Myr. The minimum core mass declines with disk radius, from ∼8.5 M ⊕ at 5 AU to ∼3.5 M ⊕ at 100 AU, with standard interstellar grain opacities. Lower temperatures in the outer disk explain this trend, while variations in disk density are less influential. At all distances, a lower dust opacity or higher mean molecular weight reduces the critical core mass. Our non-self-gravitating, analytic cooling model reveals that self-gravity significantly affects early atmospheric evolution, starting when the atmosphere is only ∼10% as massive as the core.
Gerbes over posets and twisted C*-dynamical systems
Vasselli, Ezio
2017-01-01
A base $\\Delta$ generating the topology of a space $M$ becomes a partially ordered set (poset), when ordered under inclusion of open subsets. Given a precosheaf over $\\Delta$ of fixed-point spaces (typically C*-algebras) under the action of a group $G$, in general one cannot find a precosheaf of $G$-spaces having it as fixed-point precosheaf. Rather one gets a gerbe over $\\Delta$, that is, a "twisted precosheaf" whose twisting is encoded by a cocycle with coefficients in a suitable 2-group. W...
Factorising the 3D topologically twisted index
Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro
2017-04-01
We explore the path integration — upon the contour of hermitian (non-auxliary) field configurations — of topologically twisted N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theory (TTCSM) on {S}_2 times a segment. In this way, we obtain the formula for the 3D topologically twisted index, first as a convolution of TTCSM on {S}_2 times halves of {S}_1 , second as TTCSM on {S}_2 times {S}_1 — with a puncture, — and third as TTCSM on {S}_2× {S}_1 . In contradistinction to the first two cases, in the third case, the vector multiplet auxiliary field D is constrained to be anti-hermitian.
Obstructions for twist star products
Bieliavsky, Pierre; Esposito, Chiara; Waldmann, Stefan; Weber, Thomas
2018-05-01
In this short note, we point out that not every star product is induced by a Drinfel'd twist by showing that not every Poisson structure is induced by a classical r-matrix. Examples include the higher genus symplectic Pretzel surfaces and the symplectic sphere S^2.
Optics of twisted nematic and supertwisted nematic liquid-crystal displays
Leenhouts, F.; Schadt, M.
1986-11-01
For the first time calculations of the off-state transmission of twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays (LCD's) are presented which exhibit twist angles greater than the conventional 90 °. The transmission has been calculated using a treatment introduced by Priestley. In addition, the CIE (Commission Internationale d'Eclairage) color coordinates were evaluated which, together with the brightness, determine the optical appearance of an LCD. The finite efficiency of the polarizers was taken into account. The results are compared with those obtained for conventional 90 ° twisted nematic LCD's. From the calculations follow the conditions required to obtain optimal contrast and steep electro-optical characteristics in 180 ° supertwisted LCD's designed for high information content applications.
miR-151-3p Targets TWIST1 to Repress Migration of Human Breast Cancer Cells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ting-Chih Yeh
Full Text Available TWIST1 is a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that contributes to cancer metastasis by promoting an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and repressing E-cadherin gene expression in breast cancer. In this study, we explored the potential role of miR-151 in TWIST1 expression and cancer properties in human breast cancer cells. We found that the human TWIST1 3'UTR contains a potential binging site for miR-151-3p at the putative target sequence 5'-CAGUCUAG-3'. Using a TWIST1-3'UTR luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that the target sequence within the TWIST1 3'UTR is required for miR-151-3p regulation of TWIST1 expression. Moreover, we found that ectopic expression of miR-151-3p by infection with adenoviruses expressing miR-151 significantly decreased TWIST1 expression, migration and invasion, but did not affect cell growth and tumorsphere formation of human breast cancer cells. In addition, overexpression of the protein coding region without the 3'UTR of TWIST1 reversed the repression of cell migration by miR-151-3p. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-151-3p increased TWIST1 expression, reduced E-cadherin expression, and enhanced cell migration. In conclusion, these results suggest that miR-151-3p directly regulates TWIST1 expression by targeting the TWIST1 3'UTR and thus repressing the migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells by enhancing E-cadherin expression. Our findings add to accumulating evidence that microRNAs are involved in breast cancer progression by modulating TWIST1 expression.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. SYED JAFAR
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance data for water flowing through the absorber tube fitted with two different twisted tape configurations in parabolic trough collector (PTC are presented. In the present work, a relative experimental study is carried out to investigate the performance of a PTC influenced by heat transfer through fluidabsorber wall mixing mechanism. The major findings of this experiment show that heat transport enhancement in the nail twisted tape collector perform significantly better than plain twisted tapes and also show that the smallest twisted tape ratio enhances the system performance remarkably maximizing the collector efficiency. The results suggest that the twisted tape and nail twisted tape would be a better option for high thermal energy collection in laminar region of the PTC system.
Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan
2014-01-01
It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)
A New Twisting Somersault: 513XD
Tong, William; Dullin, Holger R.
2017-12-01
We present the mathematical framework of an athlete modelled as a system of coupled rigid bodies to simulate platform and springboard diving. Euler's equations of motion are generalised to non-rigid bodies and are then used to innovate a new dive sequence that in principle can be performed by real-world athletes. We begin by assuming that shape changes are instantaneous so that the equations of motion simplify enough to be solved analytically, and then use this insight to present a new dive (513XD) consisting of 1.5 somersaults and five twists using realistic shape changes. Finally, we demonstrate the phenomenon of converting pure somersaulting motion into pure twisting motion by using a sequence of impulsive shape changes, which may have applications in other fields such as space aeronautics.
Hover Testing of the NASA/Army/MIT Active Twist Rotor Prototype Blade
Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, Sangloon
2000-01-01
Helicopter rotor individual blade control promises to provide a mechanism for increased rotor performance and reduced rotorcraft vibrations and noise. Active material methods, such as piezoelectrically actuated trailing-edge flaps and strain-induced rotor blade twisting, provide a means of accomplishing individual blade control without the need for hydraulic power in the rotating system. Recent studies have indicated that controlled strain induced blade twisting can be attained using piezoelectric active fiber composite technology. In order to validate these findings experimentally, a cooperative effort between NASA Langley Research Center, the Army Research Laboratory, and the MIT Active Materials and Structures Laboratory has been developed. As a result of this collaboration an aeroelastically-scaled active-twist model rotor blade has been designed and fabricated for testing in the heavy gas environment of the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The results of hover tests of the active-twist prototype blade are presented in this paper. Comparisons with applicable analytical predictions of active-twist frequency response in hovering flight are also presented.
From starproducts to Drinfeld-twists. Present and future applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, Florian
2008-01-01
Physics comes up with models that invoke noncommutative structures in configuration space. Such structures are dual to the deformed coalgebra sector of a represented symmetry algebra. In the mean time such deformations are performed in terms of the symmetry algebra itself via twists or quasitriangular structures. One might thus find oneself in the bad situation that the symmetry algebra is not large enough to provide the required twist that dually matches the noncommutative structure found. It thus has to remain in the unpleasant state of being without any notion of symmetry. We show how starproducts can be pushed to twists by introducing a larger algebra that accommodates any finite dimensional representation of a Lie-algebra. This new algebra is similar to a Heisenberg-algebra but in contrast to the latter can be enhanced to a Hopf-algebra. Some Examples are given. (author)
Giant right atrial aneurysm presenting as right heart failure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.S. Narain
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Idiopathic aneurysmal dilatations of the right atrium are rare anomalies. We report one such case of a young man presenting with fatigue, abdominal distension, pedal oedema, unremarkable cardiac examination except for raised jugular venous pressure, an electrocardiogram showing normal sinus rhythm with right bundle-branch block, and an radiograph of the chest showing cardiomegaly. The echocardiographic examination revealed a giant right atrium with low pressure tricuspid regurgitation. The computed tomography confirmed the findings of two-dimensional echocardiography. He was put on medical treatment and remained symptomatically controlled on follow-up.
Anomalous phase shift in a twisted quantum loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taira, Hisao; Shima, Hiroyuki
2010-01-01
The coherent motion of electrons in a twisted quantum ring is considered to explore the effect of torsion inherent to the ring. Internal torsion of the ring composed of helical atomic configuration yields a non-trivial quantum phase shift in the electrons' eigenstates. This torsion-induced phase shift causes novel kinds of persistent current flow and an Aharonov-Bohm-like conductance oscillation. The two phenomena can occur even when no magnetic flux penetrates inside the twisted ring, thus being in complete contrast with the counterparts observed in untwisted rings.
The geometrical origin of the strain-twist coupling in double helices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob
2011-01-01
A simple geometrical explanation for the counterintuitive phenomenon when twist leads to extension in double helices is presented. The coupling between strain and twist is investigated using a tubular description. It is shown that the relation between strain and rotation is universal and depends...
Waveguides with asymptotically diverging twisting
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krejčiřík, David
2015-01-01
Roč. 46, AUG (2015), s. 7-10 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguide * exploding twisting * Quasi-bounded * Quasi-cylindrical * discrete spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2015
Demonstration of an elastically coupled twist control concept for tilt rotor blade application
Lake, R. C.; Nixon, M. W.; Wilbur, M. L.; Singleton, J. D.; Mirick, P. H.
1994-01-01
The purpose of this Note is to present results from an analytic/experimental study that investigated the potential for passively changing blade twist through the use of extension-twist coupling. A set of composite model rotor blades was manufactured from existing blade molds for a low-twist metal helicopter rotor blade, with a view toward establishing a preliminary proof concept for extension-twist-coupled rotor blades. Data were obtained in hover for both a ballasted and unballasted blade configuration in sea-level atmospheric conditions. Test data were compared with results obtained from a geometrically nonlinear analysis of a detailed finite element model of the rotor blade developed in MSC/NASTRAN.
Particle image velocimetry measurements of 2-dimensional velocity field around twisted tape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo, E-mail: kes7741@snu.ac.kr
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Measurements of the flow field in a pipe with twisted tape were conducted by particle image velocimetry (PIV). • A novel matching index of refraction technique utilizing 3D printing and oil mixture was adopted to make the test section transparent. • Undistorted particle images were clearly captured in the presence of twisted tape. • 2D flow field in the pipe with twisted tape revealed the characteristic two-peak velocity profile. - Abstract: Twisted tape is a passive component used to enhance heat exchange in various devices. It induces swirl flow that increases the mixing of fluid. Thus, ITER selected the twisted tape as one of the candidates for turbulence promoting in the divertor cooling. Previous study was mainly focused on the thermohydraulic performance of the twisted tape. As detailed data on the velocity field around the twisted tape was insufficient, flow visualization study was performed to provide fundamental data on velocity field. To visualize the flow in a complex structure, novel matching index of refraction technique was used with 3-D printing and mixture of anise and mineral oil. This technique enables the camera to capture undistorted particle image for velocity field measurement. Velocity fields at Reynolds number 1370–9591 for 3 different measurement plane were obtained through particle image velocimetry. The 2-dimensional averaged velocity field data were obtained from 177 pair of instantaneous velocity fields. It reveals the characteristic two-peak flow motion in axial direction. In addition, the normalized velocity profiles were converged with increase of Reynolds numbers. Finally, the uncertainty of the result data was analyzed.
Formation of incoherent deformation twin boundaries in a coarse-grained Al-7Mg alloy
Jin, S. B.; Zhang, K.; Bjørge, R.; Tao, N. R.; Marthinsen, K.; Lu, K.; Li, Y. J.
2015-08-01
Deformation twinning has rarely been observed in coarse grained Al and its alloys except under some extreme conditions such as ultrahigh deformation strain or strain rates. Here, we report that a significant amount of Σ3 deformation twins could be generated in a coarse-grained Al-7 Mg alloy by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). A systematic investigation of the Σ3 boundaries shows that they are Σ3{112} type incoherent twin boundaries (ITBs). These ITBs have formed by gradual evolution from copious low-angle deformation bands through -twist Σ boundaries by lattice rotation. These findings provide an approach to generate deformation twin boundaries in high stacking fault energy metallic alloys. It is suggested that high solution content of Mg in the alloy and the special deformation mode of DPD played an important role in formation of the Σ and ITBs.
Thathia, Shabnam H.; Ferguson, Stuart; Gautrey, Hannah E.; van Otterdijk, Sanne D.; Hili, Michela; Rand, Vikki; Moorman, Anthony V.; Meyer, Stefan; Brown, Robert; Strathdee, Gordon
2012-01-01
Background Altered regulation of many transcription factors has been shown to be important in the development of leukemia. TWIST2 modulates the activity of a number of important transcription factors and is known to be a regulator of hematopoietic differentiation. Here, we investigated the significance of epigenetic regulation of TWIST2 in the control of cell growth and survival and in response to cytotoxic agents in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Design and Methods TWIST2 promoter methylation status was assessed quantitatively, by combined bisulfite and restriction analysis (COBRA) and pyrosequencing assays, in multiple types of leukemia and TWIST2 expression was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. The functional role of TWIST2 in cell proliferation, survival and response to chemotherapy was assessed in transient and stable expression systems. Results We found that TWIST2 was inactivated in more than 50% of cases of childhood and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia through promoter hypermethylation and that this epigenetic regulation was especially prevalent in RUNX1-ETV6-driven cases. Re-expression of TWIST2 in cell lines resulted in a dramatic reduction in cell growth and induction of apoptosis in the Reh cell line. Furthermore, re-expression of TWIST2 resulted in increased sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agents etoposide, daunorubicin and dexamethasone and TWIST2 hypermethylation was almost invariably found in relapsed adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (91% of samples hypermethylated). Conclusions This study suggests a dual role for epigenetic inactivation of TWIST2 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, initially through altering cell growth and survival properties and subsequently by increasing resistance to chemotherapy. PMID:22058208
Modal Properties and Stability of Bend-Twist Coupled Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stäblein, Alexander R.; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Verelst, David Robert
2017-01-01
a steady-state equilibrium using the aero-servo-elastic tool HAWCStab2 which has been extended by a beam element that allows for fully coupled cross-sectional properties. Bend-twist coupling is introduced in the cross-sectional stiffness matrix by means of coupling coefficients that introduce twist...
Study of Implosion of Twisted Nested Arrays at the Angara-5-1 Facility
Mitrofanov, K. N.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Gribov, A. N.
2018-01-01
Results are presented from experimental studies of the implosion of twisted nested arrays in which the wires of the outer and inner arrays are twisted about the array axis in opposite directions (clockwise and counterclockwise). Experiments with twisted arrays were carried out at the Angara-5-1 facility at currents of up to 4 MA. The currents through the arrays were switched either simultaneously or the current pulse through the outer array was delayed by 10-15 ns with the help of an anode spark gap. It is shown that, in such arrays, the currents flow along the inclined wires and, accordingly, there are both the azimuthal and axial components of the discharge current. The process of plasma implosion in twisted arrays depends substantially on the value of the axial (longitudinal) magnetic field generated inside the array by the azimuthal currents. Two-dimensional simulations of the magnetic field in twisted nested arrays were performed in the ( r, z) geometry with allowance for the skin effect in the discharge electrodes. It is shown that, depending on the geometry of the discharge electrodes, different configurations of the magnetic field can be implemented inside twisted nested arrays. The calculated magnetic configurations are compared with the results of measurements of the magnetic field inside such arrays. It is shown that the configuration of the axial magnetic field inside a twisted nested array depends substantially on the distribution of the azimuthal currents between the inner and outer arrays.
Realizations of κ-Minkowski space, Drinfeld twists, and related symmetry algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juric, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Theoretical Physics Division, Zagreb (Croatia)
2015-11-15
Realizations of κ-Minkowski space linear in momenta are studied for time-, space- and light-like deformations. We construct and classify all such linear realizations and express them in terms of the gl(n) generators. There are three one-parameter families of linear realizations for timelike and space-like deformations, while for light-like deformations, there are only four linear realizations. The relation between a deformed Heisenberg algebra, the star product, the coproduct of momenta, and the twist operator is presented. It is proved that for each linear realization there exists a Drinfeld twist satisfying normalization and cocycle conditions. κ-Deformed igl(n)-Hopf algebras are presented for all cases. The κ-Poincare-Weyl and κ-Poincare-Hopf algebras are discussed. The left-right dual κ-Minkowski algebra is constructed from the transposed twists. The corresponding realizations are nonlinear. All Drinfeld twists related to κ-Minkowski space are obtained from our construction. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)
Realizations of κ-Minkowski space, Drinfeld twists, and related symmetry algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juric, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel
2015-01-01
Realizations of κ-Minkowski space linear in momenta are studied for time-, space- and light-like deformations. We construct and classify all such linear realizations and express them in terms of the gl(n) generators. There are three one-parameter families of linear realizations for timelike and space-like deformations, while for light-like deformations, there are only four linear realizations. The relation between a deformed Heisenberg algebra, the star product, the coproduct of momenta, and the twist operator is presented. It is proved that for each linear realization there exists a Drinfeld twist satisfying normalization and cocycle conditions. κ-Deformed igl(n)-Hopf algebras are presented for all cases. The κ-Poincare-Weyl and κ-Poincare-Hopf algebras are discussed. The left-right dual κ-Minkowski algebra is constructed from the transposed twists. The corresponding realizations are nonlinear. All Drinfeld twists related to κ-Minkowski space are obtained from our construction. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)
Automatic O(a) improvement for twisted mass QCD in the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Sinya; Baer, Oliver
2006-01-01
In this paper we present a proof for automatic O(a) improvement in twisted mass lattice QCD at maximal twist, which uses only the symmetries of the leading part in the Symanzik effective action. In the process of the proof we clarify that the twist angle is dynamically determined by vacuum expectation values in the Symanzik theory. For maximal twist according to this definition, we show that scaling violations of all quantities which have nonzero values in the continuum limit are even in a. In addition, using Wilson chiral perturbation theory, we investigate this definition for maximal twist and compare it to other definitions which were already employed in actual simulations
Hydrolytic Degradation of Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-Polycaprolactone Worm Micelles
Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E.
2005-01-01
Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly (ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by poly...
The $SU(\\infty)$ twisted gradient flow running coupling
Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori
2015-01-01
We measure the running of the $SU(\\infty)$ 't Hooft coupling by performing a step scaling analysis of the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU($N$) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions. The computation relies on the conjecture that finite volume effects for SU(N) gauge theories defined on a 4-dimensional twisted torus are controlled by an effective size parameter $\\tilde l = l \\sqrt{N}$, with $l$ the torus period. We set the scale for the running coupling in terms of $\\tilde l$ and use the gradient flow to define a renormalized 't Hooft coupling $\\lambda(\\tilde l)$. In the TEK model, this idea allows the determination of the running of the coupling through a step scaling procedure that uses the rank of the group as a size parameter. The continuum renormalized coupling constant is extracted in the zero lattice spacing limit, which in the TEK model corresponds to the large $N$ limit taken at fixed value of $\\lambda(\\tilde l)$. The coupling constant is thus expected to coinc...
Twist effects in quantum vortices and phase defects
Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L.
2018-02-01
In this paper we show that twist, defined in terms of rotation of the phase associated with quantum vortices and other physical defects effectively deprived of internal structure, is a property that has observable effects in terms of induced axial flow. For this we consider quantum vortices governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) and perform a number of test cases to investigate and compare the effects of twist in two different contexts: (i) when this is artificially superimposed on an initially untwisted vortex ring; (ii) when it is naturally produced on the ring by the simultaneous presence of a central straight vortex. In the first case large amplitude perturbations quickly develop, generated by the unnatural setting of the initial condition that is not an analytical solution of the GPE. In the second case much milder perturbations emerge, signature of a genuine physical process. This scenario is confirmed by other test cases performed at higher twist values. Since the second setting corresponds to essential linking, these results provide new evidence of the influence of topology on physics.
THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF GIANT ARCS IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon
2011-01-01
We measure the redshift distribution of a sample of 28 giant arcs discovered as a part of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey. Gemini/GMOS-North spectroscopy provides precise redshifts for 24 arcs, and 'redshift desert' constrains for the remaining 4 arcs. This is a direct measurement of the redshift distribution of a uniformly selected sample of bright giant arcs, which is an observable that can be used to inform efforts to predict giant arc statistics. Our primary giant arc sample has a median redshift z = 1.821 and nearly two-thirds of the arcs, 64%, are sources at z ∼> 1.4, indicating that the population of background sources that are strongly lensed into bright giant arcs resides primarily at high redshift. We also analyze the distribution of redshifts for 19 secondary strongly lensed background sources that are not visually apparent in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging, but were identified in deeper follow-up imaging of the lensing cluster fields. Our redshift sample for the secondary sources is not spectroscopically complete, but combining it with our primary giant arc sample suggests that a large fraction of all background galaxies that are strongly lensed by foreground clusters reside at z ∼> 1.4. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that our well-selected, spectroscopically complete primary giant arc redshift sample can be reproduced with a model distribution that is constructed from a combination of results from studies of strong-lensing clusters in numerical simulations and observational constraints on the galaxy luminosity function.
Factorising the 3D topologically twisted index
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-04-20
We explore the path integration — upon the contour of hermitian (non-auxliary) field configurations — of topologically twisted N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theory (TTCSM) on S{sub 2} times a segment. In this way, we obtain the formula for the 3D topologically twisted index, first as a convolution of TTCSM on S{sub 2} times halves of S{sub 1}, second as TTCSM on S{sub 2} times S{sub 1} — with a puncture, — and third as TTCSM on S{sub 2}×S{sub 1}. In contradistinction to the first two cases, in the third case, the vector multiplet auxiliary field D is constrained to be anti-hermitian.
Leibniz algebroids, twistings and exceptional generalized geometry
Baraglia, D.
2012-05-01
We investigate a class of Leibniz algebroids which are invariant under diffeomorphisms and symmetries involving collections of closed forms. Under appropriate assumptions we arrive at a classification which in particular gives a construction starting from graded Lie algebras. In this case the Leibniz bracket is a derived bracket and there are higher derived brackets resulting in an L∞-structure. The algebroids can be twisted by a non-abelian cohomology class and we prove that the twisting class is described by a Maurer-Cartan equation. For compact manifolds we construct a Kuranishi moduli space of this equation which is shown to be affine algebraic. We explain how these results are related to exceptional generalized geometry.
On the twists of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes observed at 1 AU
Wang, Yuming; Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chi, Yutian
2016-01-01
Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are one kind of fundamental structures in the solar physics, and involved in various eruption phenomena. Twist, characterizing how the magnetic field lines wind around a main axis, is an intrinsic property of MFRs, closely related to the magnetic free energy and stableness. So far it is unclear how much amount of twist is carried by MFRs in the solar atmosphere and in heliosphere and what role the twist played in the eruptions of MFRs. Contrasting to the solar MFRs,...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland); Anikin, Igor V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - JINR, Joliot-Curie st., 6, Moskovskaya obl., 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Dmitry Yu [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Acad. Koptyug pr., 4, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)
2010-07-01
We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method is based on the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light-cone. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised {rho}-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy. (Phys.Lett.B682:413-418,2010 and Nucl.Phys.B828:1-68,2010.). (authors)
Chintapalli, Mahati; Le, Thao; Venkatesan, Naveen; Thelen, Jacob; Rojas, Adriana; Balsara, Nitash
Block copolymer electrolytes are promising materials for safe, long-lasting lithium batteries because of their favorable mechanical and ion transport properties. The morphology, phase behavior, and ionic conductivity of a block copolymer electrolyte, SEO mixed with LiTFSI was studied over a wide, previously unexplored salt concentration range using small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy, respectively. SEO exhibits a maximum in ionic conductivity at twice the salt concentration that PEO, the homopolymer analog of the ion-containing block, does. This finding is contrary to prior studies that examined a more limited range of salt concentrations. In SEO, the phase behavior of the PEO block and LiTFSI closely resembles the phase behavior of homopolymer PEO and LiTFSI. The grain size of the block copolymer morphology was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, and the ionic conductivity of SEO correlates with decreasing grain size. Structural effects impact the ionic conductivity-salt concentration relationship in block copolymer electrolytes. SEO: polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide); also PS-PEO LiTFSI: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.
1989-01-01
This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Nan; Davis, Andrew M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara; Savina, Michael R.
2014-01-01
We present postprocess asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models with different 13 C-pocket internal structures to better explain zirconium isotope measurements in mainstream presolar SiC grains by Nicolussi et al. and Barzyk et al. We show that higher-than-solar 92 Zr/ 94 Zr ratios can be predicted by adopting a 13 C-pocket with a flat 13 C profile, instead of the previous decreasing-with-depth 13 C profile. The improved agreement between grain data for zirconium isotopes and AGB models provides additional support for a recent proposal of a flat 13 C profile based on barium isotopes in mainstream SiC grains by Liu et al.
Inner Surface Chirality of Single-Handed Twisted Carbonaceous Tubular Nanoribbons.
Liu, Dan; Li, Baozong; Guo, Yongmin; Li, Yi; Yang, Yonggang
2015-11-01
Single-handed twisted 4,4'-biphenylene-bridged polybissilsesquioxane tubular nanoribbons and single-layered nanoribbons were prepared by tuning the water/ethanol volume ratio in the reaction mixture at pH = 11.6 through a supramolecular templating approach. The single-layered nanoribbons were formed by shrinking tubular nanoribbons after the removal of the templates. In addition, solvent-induced handedness inversion was achieved. The handedness of the polybissilsesquioxanes could be controlled by changing the ethanol/water volume ratio in the reaction mixture. After carbonization at 900 °C for 4.0 h and removal of silica, single-handed twisted carbonaceous tubular nanoribbons and single-layered nanoribbons with micropores in the walls were obtained. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicated that the carbon is predominantly amorphous. The circular dichroism spectra show that the twisted tubular nanoribbons exhibit optical activity, while the twisted single-layered nanoribbons do not. The results shown here indicate that chirality is transferred from the organic self-assemblies to the inner surfaces of the 4,4'-biphenylene-bridged polybissilsesquioxane tubular nanoribbons and subsequently to those of the carbonaceous tubular nanoribbons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Osserman and conformally Osserman manifolds with warped and twisted product structure
Brozos-Vazquez, M.; Garcia-Rio, E.; Vazquez-Lorenzo, R.
2008-01-01
We characterize Osserman and conformally Osserman Riemannian manifolds with the local structure of a warped product. By means of this approach we analyze the twisted product structure and obtain, as a consequence, that the only Osserman manifolds which can be written as a twisted product are those of constant curvature.
An improved hazard rate twisting approach for the statistic of the sum of subexponential variates
Rached, Nadhir B.; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul
2015-01-01
In this letter, we present an improved hazard rate twisting technique for the estimation of the probability that a sum of independent but not necessarily identically distributed subexponential Random Variables (RVs) exceeds a given threshold. Instead of twisting all the components in the summation, we propose to twist only the RVs which have the biggest impact on the right-tail of the sum distribution and keep the other RVs unchanged. A minmax approach is performed to determine the optimal twisting parameter which leads to an asymptotic optimality criterion. Moreover, we show through some selected simulation results that our proposed approach results in a variance reduction compared to the technique where all the components are twisted.
Effect of Magnetic Twist on Nonlinear Transverse Kink Oscillations of Line-tied Magnetic Flux Tubes
Terradas, J.; Magyar, N.; Van Doorsselaere, T.
2018-01-01
Magnetic twist is thought to play an important role in many structures of the solar atmosphere. One of the effects of twist is to modify the properties of the eigenmodes of magnetic tubes. In the linear regime standing kink solutions are characterized by a change in polarization of the transverse displacement along the twisted tube. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic twist affects the development of shear instabilities that appear at the tube boundary when it is oscillating laterally. These Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) are produced either by the jump in the azimuthal component of the velocity at the edge of the sharp boundary between the internal and external part of the tube or by the continuous small length scales produced by phase mixing when there is a smooth inhomogeneous layer. In this work the effect of twist is consistently investigated by solving the time-dependent problem including the process of energy transfer to the inhomogeneous layer. It is found that twist always delays the appearance of the shear instability, but for tubes with thin inhomogeneous layers the effect is relatively small for moderate values of twist. On the contrary, for tubes with thick layers, the effect of twist is much stronger. This can have some important implications regarding observations of transverse kink modes and the KHI itself.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagashima, Nobuo; Hayakawa, Masao; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Ando, Masami; Nakata, Kiyotomo
2009-01-01
In this study, micro-hardness tests and AFM observations were performed on SUS 316L low-carbon austenitic stainless steel pre-strained by cold rolling to investigate its deformation behavior. The following results were obtained. Despite the fact that the same plastic strain was applied, post-tensile test AFM showed narrower slip-band spacing in a reduction in area of 30% cold-rolled specimen than the unrolled specimen. Concentrated slip bands were observed near grain boundaries. These were presumably due to slip blocking at grain boundaries. SCC sensitivity increased at a hardness of 300 or higher, the frequency occurrence of a hardness of 300 or higher in the micro-hardness measurements was compared. The micro-hardness did not exceed 300 both within grains and at grain boundaries in the unrolled and up to a reduction in area of 20% cold-rolled specimens of before and after the tensile tests. Micro-hardness exceeding 300 was found to occur frequently in after tensile test specimens with a reduction in area of 30% or more, particularly at grain boundaries. It is suggested that the nonuniformity of deformation at grain boundaries plays an important role of IGSCC crack propagation mechanism of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel. (author)
The origin of current blocking in interfacial conduction in Sr-doped lanthanum gallates
Park, Hee Jung
2018-02-01
The grain boundary transport of lanthanum gallate has been studied with various doping concentrations, and the origins of blocking on the grain boundary are compared. La1-xSrxGaO3 samples (x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1) have been prepared and their bulk (grain) and grain boundary resistances been experimentally measured as a function of temperature (T: 200-550 °C) and oxygen partial pressure (Po2) using ac-impedance measurements. In addition, Hebb-Wagner polarization measurements have been conducted to investigate the electrical conductivity of minor charge carriers in the lanthanum gallates. The grain boundary resistance in the low-doped materials (x = 0.005 and 0.01) increases with increasing Po2 while in the highly-doped materials (x = 0.05, 0.1) it hardly depended on Po2. At lower concentrations conduction is mixed and at higher concentrations is found to be predominantly ionic conductivity. The space charge model successfully describes the mixed conduction at the grain boundary at low-doping, but does not explain the predominant ionic conductivity at high-doping. The origin of blocking at high-doping is explained by the crystallographic asymmetry of the grain boundary with respect to the bulk and/or Sr-segregation.
Rapid formation of gas giants, ice giants and super-Earths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boss, A P [DTM, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)], E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu
2008-08-15
Giant planets might have been formed by either of the two basic mechanisms, top-down (disk instability) or bottom-up (core accretion). The latter mechanism is the most generally accepted mechanism and it begins with the collisional accumulation of solid cores that may then accrete sufficient gas to become gas giants. The former mechanism is more heretical and begins with the gravitational instability of the protoplanetary disk gas, leading to the formation of self-gravitating protoplanets, within which the dust settles to form a solid core. The disk instability mechanism has been thought of primarily as a mechanism for the formation of gas giants, but if it occurs in a disk that is being photoevaporated by the ultraviolet radiation from nearby massive stars, then the outer gaseous protoplanets can be photoevaporated as well and stripped of their gaseous envelopes. The result would then be ice giants (cold super-Earths), such as the objects discovered recently by microlensing orbiting two presumed M dwarf stars. M dwarfs that form in regions of future high-mass star formation would be expected to produce cold super-Earths orbiting at distances of several astronomical units (AU) and beyond, while M dwarfs that form in regions of low-mass star formation would be expected to have gas giants at those distances. Given that most stars are born in the former rather than in the latter regions, M dwarfs should have significantly more super-Earths than gas giants on orbits of several AU or more.
Rapid formation of gas giants, ice giants and super-Earths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boss, A P
2008-01-01
Giant planets might have been formed by either of the two basic mechanisms, top-down (disk instability) or bottom-up (core accretion). The latter mechanism is the most generally accepted mechanism and it begins with the collisional accumulation of solid cores that may then accrete sufficient gas to become gas giants. The former mechanism is more heretical and begins with the gravitational instability of the protoplanetary disk gas, leading to the formation of self-gravitating protoplanets, within which the dust settles to form a solid core. The disk instability mechanism has been thought of primarily as a mechanism for the formation of gas giants, but if it occurs in a disk that is being photoevaporated by the ultraviolet radiation from nearby massive stars, then the outer gaseous protoplanets can be photoevaporated as well and stripped of their gaseous envelopes. The result would then be ice giants (cold super-Earths), such as the objects discovered recently by microlensing orbiting two presumed M dwarf stars. M dwarfs that form in regions of future high-mass star formation would be expected to produce cold super-Earths orbiting at distances of several astronomical units (AU) and beyond, while M dwarfs that form in regions of low-mass star formation would be expected to have gas giants at those distances. Given that most stars are born in the former rather than in the latter regions, M dwarfs should have significantly more super-Earths than gas giants on orbits of several AU or more
Fast Torsional Artificial Muscles from NiTi Twisted Yarns.
Mirvakili, Seyed M; Hunter, Ian W
2017-05-17
Torsional artificial muscles made of multiwalled carbon nanotube/niobium nanowire yarns have shown remarkable torsional speed and gravimetric torque. The muscle structure consists of a twisted yarn with half of its length infiltrated with a stimuli-responsive guest material such as paraffin wax. The volumetric expansion of the guest material creates the torsional actuation in the yarn. In the present work, we show that this type of actuation is not unique to wax-infiltrated carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWCNT) or niobium nanowire yarns and that twisted yarn of NiTi alloy fibers also produces fast torsional actuation. By gold-plating half the length of a NiTi twisted yarn and Joule heating it, we achieved a fully reversible torsional actuation of up to 16°/mm with peak torsional speed of 10 500 rpm and gravimetric torque of 8 N·m/kg. These results favorably compare to those of MWCNTs and niobium nanowire yarns.
Twisted vertex algebras, bicharacter construction and boson-fermion correspondences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anguelova, Iana I.
2013-01-01
The boson-fermion correspondences are an important phenomena on the intersection of several areas in mathematical physics: representation theory, vertex algebras and conformal field theory, integrable systems, number theory, cohomology. Two such correspondences are well known: the types A and B (and their super extensions). As a main result of this paper we present a new boson-fermion correspondence of type D-A. Further, we define a new concept of twisted vertex algebra of order N, which generalizes super vertex algebra. We develop the bicharacter construction which we use for constructing classes of examples of twisted vertex algebras, as well as for deriving formulas for the operator product expansions, analytic continuations, and normal ordered products. By using the underlying Hopf algebra structure we prove general bicharacter formulas for the vacuum expectation values for two important groups of examples. We show that the correspondences of types B, C, and D-A are isomorphisms of twisted vertex algebras
Probing the interlayer coupling of twisted bilayer MoS2 using photoluminescence spectroscopy.
Huang, Shengxi; Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Kong, Jing; Terrones, Humberto; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S
2014-10-08
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising material for optoelectronic devices due to its strong photoluminescence emission. In this work, the photoluminescence of twisted bilayer MoS2 is investigated, revealing a tunability of the interlayer coupling of bilayer MoS2. It is found that the photoluminescence intensity ratio of the trion and exciton reaches its maximum value for the twisted angle 0° or 60°, while for the twisted angle 30° or 90° the situation is the opposite. This is mainly attributed to the change of the trion binding energy. The first-principles density functional theory analysis further confirms the change of the interlayer coupling with the twisted angle, which interprets our experimental results.
Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...
Light hadrons from Nf=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions
Baron, R.; Blossier, B.; Boucaud, P.; Carbonell, J.; Deuzeman, A.; Drach, V.; Farchioni, F.; Gimenez, V.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K.; Michael, C.; Montvay, I.; Pallante, E.; Pène, O.; Reker, S.; Urbach, C.; Wagner, M.; Wenger, U.; Collaboration, for the ETM
2011-01-01
We present results of lattice QCD simulations with mass-degenerate up and down and mass-split strange and charm (Nf=2+1+1) dynamical quarks using Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. The tuning of the strange and charm quark masses is performed at three values of the lattice spacing a~0.06
On the Compton Twist-3 Asymmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korotkiyan, V.M.; Teryaev, O.V.
1994-01-01
The 'fermionic poles' contribution to the twist-3 single asymmetry in the gluon Compton process is calculated. The 'gluonic poles' existence seems to contradict the density matrix positivity. Qualitative predictions for the direct photon and jets asymmetries are presented. 13 refs., 2 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karine Pallier
Full Text Available Metastasis is a multistep process and the main cause of mortality in lung cancer patients. We previously showed that EGFR mutations were associated with a copy number gain at a locus encompassing the TWIST1 gene on chromosome 7. TWIST1 is a highly conserved developmental gene involved in embryogenesis that may be reactivated in cancers promoting both malignant conversion and cancer progression through an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible implication of TWIST1 reactivation on the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype in EGFR mutated lung cancer. We studied a series of consecutive lung adenocarcinoma from Caucasian non-smokers for which surgical frozen samples were available (n = 33 and showed that TWIST1 expression was linked to EGFR mutations (P<0.001, to low CDH1 expression (P<0.05 and low disease free survival (P = 0.044. To validate that TWIST1 is a driver of EMT in EGFR mutated lung cancer, we used five human lung cancer cell lines and demonstrated that EMT and the associated cell mobility were dependent upon TWIST1 expression in cells with EGFR mutation. Moreover a decrease of EGFR pathway stimulation through EGF retrieval or an inhibition of TWIST1 expression by small RNA technology reversed the phenomenon. Collectively, our in vivo and in vitro findings support that TWIST1 collaborates with the EGF pathway in promoting EMT in EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma and that large series of EGFR mutated lung cancer patients are needed to further define the prognostic role of TWIST1 reactivation in this subgroup.
High performance twisted and coiled soft actuator with spandex fiber for artificial muscles
Yang, Sang Yul; Cho, Kyeong Ho; Kim, Youngeun; Song, Min-Geun; Jung, Ho Sang; Yoo, Ji Wang; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-do; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk
2017-10-01
This paper reports the twisted and coiled soft actuator (abbreviated with STCA) with spandex fiber. The STCA exhibits higher actuation strain at lower temperature than the previous nylon twisted and coiled soft actuators (abbreviated with NTCAs). While NTCAs are fabricated using a twist-insertion process until coils are formed, a new method is developed to fabricate the STCA using the ultra-stretch of spandex, whereby the STCA is twisted again after the coil has been formed. A 6-gear-twist-insertion device that increases the stability and the fabrication speed is developed to fabricate the STCA. The superior performance exhibited by the STCA is due to the 14% contraction strain of the bare spandex (bare nylon: 4%) and the low spring constant of 0.0115 N mm-1. The maximum tensile actuation strain of STCA was 45% at 130 °C, and the maximum specific work was 1.523 kJ kg-1 at 130 °C. STCA could repeatedly actuate 100 times with a strain change of less than 0.4%.
IRONY IN CHARLES DICKEN'S OLIVER TWIST
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ika Kana Trisnawati
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the types of irony used by Charles Dickens in his notable early work, Oliver Twist, as well as the reasons the irony was chosen. As a figurative language, irony is utilized to express one’s complex feelings without truly saying them. In Oliver Twist, Dickens brought the readers some real social issues wrapped in dark, deep written expressions of irony uttered by the characters of his novel. Undoubtedly, the novel had left an impact to the British society at the time. The irony Dickens displayed here includes verbal, situational, and dramatic irony. His choice of irony made sense as he intended to criticize the English Poor Laws and to touch the public sentiment. He wanted to let the readers go beyond what was literally written and once they discovered what the truth was, they would eventually understand Dickens’ purposes.
Vincentz, Joshua W.; Firulli, Beth A.; Lin, Andrea; Spicer, Douglas B.; Howard, Marthe J.; Firulli, Anthony B.
2013-01-01
Neural crest cells are multipotent progenitor cells that can generate both ectodermal cell types, such as neurons, and mesodermal cell types, such as smooth muscle. The mechanisms controlling this cell fate choice are not known. The basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor Twist1 is expressed throughout the migratory and post-migratory cardiac neural crest. Twist1 ablation or mutation of the Twist-box causes differentiation of ectopic neuronal cells, which molecularly resemble sympathetic ganglia, in the cardiac outflow tract. Twist1 interacts with the pro-neural factor Sox10 via its Twist-box domain and binds to the Phox2b promoter to repress transcriptional activity. Mesodermal cardiac neural crest trans-differentiation into ectodermal sympathetic ganglia-like neurons is dependent upon Phox2b function. Ectopic Twist1 expression in neural crest precursors disrupts sympathetic neurogenesis. These data demonstrate that Twist1 functions in post-migratory neural crest cells to repress pro-neural factors and thereby regulate cell fate determination between ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. PMID:23555309
Higher twist effects in QCD description of light meson exclusive formfactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorskij, A.S.
1987-01-01
The general approach to a quantitative description of higher twist effects in hard exclusive processes in QCD is proposed. The consistent calculations in coordinate space and the choice of special gauges for quantum and classical gluon fields are essential ingradients of this method. The self consistent system of twist three wave functions for π-meson has been built
Wrinkles, loops, and topological defects in twisted ribbons
Chopin, Julien
Nature abounds with elastic ribbon like shapes including double-stranded semiflexible polymers, graphene and metal oxide nanoribbons which are examples of elongated elastic structures with a strongly anisotropic cross-section. Due to this specific geometry, it is far from trivial to anticipate if a ribbon should be considered as a flat flexible filament or a narrow thin plate. We thus perform an experiment in which a thin elastic ribbon is loaded using a twisting and traction device coupled with a micro X-ray computed tomography machine allowing a full 3D shape reconstruction. A wealth of morphological behaviors can be observed including wrinkled helicoids, curled and looped configurations, and faceted ribbons. In this talk, I will show that most morphologies can be understood using a far-from-threshold approach and simple scaling arguments. Further, we find that the various shapes can be organized in a phase diagram using the twist, the tension, and the geometry of the ribbon as control parameters. Finally, I will discuss the spontaneous formation of topological defects with negatively-signed Gaussian charge at large twist and small but finite stretch.
Fiber-Optic Sensors for Measurements of Torsion, Twist and Rotation: A Review.
Budinski, Vedran; Donlagic, Denis
2017-02-23
Optical measurement of mechanical parameters is gaining significant commercial interest in different industry sectors. Torsion, twist and rotation are among the very frequently measured mechanical parameters. Recently, twist/torsion/rotation sensors have become a topic of intense fiber-optic sensor research. Various sensing concepts have been reported. Many of those have different properties and performances, and many of them still need to be proven in out-of-the laboratory use. This paper provides an overview of basic approaches and a review of current state-of-the-art in fiber optic sensors for measurements of torsion, twist and/or rotation.Invited Paper.
Stability of short wavelength tearing and twisting modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waelbroeck, F.L.
1998-01-01
The stability and mutual interaction of tearing and twisting modes in a torus is governed by matrices that generalize the well-known Δ' stability index. The diagonal elements of these matrices determine the intrinsic stability of modes that reconnect the magnetic field at a single resonant surface. The off-diagonal elements indicate the strength of the coupling between the different modes. The author shows how the elements of these matrices can be evaluated, in the limit of short wavelength, from the free energy driving radially extended ballooning modes. The author applies the results by calculating the tearing and twisting Δ' for a model high-beta equilibrium with circular flux surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedrosa, R. P.; Abia, C.; Domínguez, I.; Palmerini, S.; Busso, M.; Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.; Plez, B.
2013-01-01
Isotopic ratios of C, N, Si, and trace heavy elements in presolar SiC grains from meteorites provide crucial constraints to nucleosynthesis. A long-debated issue is the origin of the so-called A+B grains, as of yet no stellar progenitor thus far has been clearly identified on observational grounds. We report the first spectroscopic measurements of 14 N/ 15 N ratios in Galactic carbon stars of different spectral types and show that J- and some SC-type stars might produce A+B grains, even for 15 N enrichments previously attributed to novae. We also show that most mainstream grains are compatible with the composition of N-type stars, but in some cases might also descend from SC stars. From a theoretical point of view, no astrophysical scenario can explain the C and N isotopic ratios of SC-, J-, and N-type carbon stars together, as well as those of many grains produced by them. This poses urgent questions to stellar physics.
Giant dielectric response in (Sr, Sb) codoped CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics: A novel approach
Pradhan, M. K.; Rao, T. Lakshmana; Karna, Lipsarani; Dash, S.
2018-04-01
The CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) remains as the best material for practical applications due to its high dielectric constant. To improve further the dielectric properties of CCTO to several orders in magnitude, a novel approach is adopted by codoping of Sr, Sb ions. The ceramic samples were fabricated by the conventional solid state route. The structure, morphology and detail dielectric properties were investigated systematically. All the samples crystalizes in a cubic symmetry with Im-3 space group. Sr substituted in Ca site can effectively suppress the grain growth, achieving a fine grained ceramic structure; however the grain size decreased slightly as Sb concentration increased further; whereas the dielectric permittivity of the ceramics increased drastically. The giant dielectric response was considered to be closely related with a reduction in the potential barrier height at grain boundaries (GBs) supported by the reduction in the activation energy for the conduction process.
Twist deformations leading to κ-Poincaré Hopf algebra and their application to physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurić, Tajron; Meljanac, Stjepan; Samsarov, Andjelo
2016-01-01
We consider two twist operators that lead to kappa-Poincaré Hopf algebra, the first being an Abelian one and the second corresponding to a light-like kappa-deformation of Poincaré algebra. The adventage of the second one is that it is expressed solely in terms of Poincaré generators. In contrast to this, the Abelian twist goes out of the boundaries of Poincaré algebra and runs into envelope of the general linear algebra. Some of the physical applications of these two different twist operators are considered. In particular, we use the Abelian twist to construct the statistics flip operator compatible with the action of deformed symmetry group. Furthermore, we use the light-like twist operator to define a star product and subsequently to formulate a free scalar field theory compatible with kappa-Poincaré Hopf algebra and appropriate for considering the interacting ϕ 4 scalar field model on kappa-deformed space. (paper)
Modeling and development of a twisting wing using inductively heated shape memory alloy actuators
Saunders, Robert N.; Hartl, Darren J.; Boyd, James G.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.
2015-04-01
Wing twisting has been shown to improve aircraft flight performance. The potential benefits of a twisting wing are often outweighed by the mass of the system required to twist the wing. Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators repeatedly demonstrate abilities and properties that are ideal for aerospace actuation systems. Recent advances have shown an SMA torsional actuator that can be manufactured and trained with the ability to generate large twisting deformations under substantial loading. The primary disadvantage of implementing large SMA actuators has been their slow actuation time compared to conventional actuators. However, inductive heating of an SMA actuator allows it to generate a full actuation cycle in just seconds rather than minutes while still . The aim of this work is to demonstrate an experimental wing being twisted to approximately 10 degrees by using an inductively heated SMA torsional actuator. This study also considers a 3-D electromagnetic thermo-mechanical model of the SMA-wing system and compare these results to experiments to demonstrate modeling capabilities.
Borel resummation of soft gluon radiation and higher twists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Joan; Ubiali, Maria
2006-01-01
We show that the well-known divergence of the perturbative expansion of resummed results for processes such as deep-inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan in the soft limit can be treated by Borel resummation. The divergence in the Borel inversion can be removed by the inclusion of suitable higher twist terms. This provides us with an alternative to the standard 'minimal prescription' for the asymptotic summation of the perturbative expansion, and it gives us some handle on the role of higher twist corrections in the soft resummation region
Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eguchi, Tohru; Hikami, Kazuhiro
2011-01-01
We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M 24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M 24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M 24 . In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.
Polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric, twisted-band structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Jagodnicka, Anna; Wasylczyk, Piotr, E-mail: pwasylcz@fuw.edu.pl [Photonic Nanostructure Facility, Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)
2015-11-23
We propose a concept for light polarization management: polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric microstructures. Numerical simulations of light propagation show that with an appropriately configured array of twisted bands, such structures may exhibit zero birefringence and at the same time diffract two circular polarizations with different efficiencies. Non-birefringent structures as thin as 3 μm have a significant difference in diffraction efficiency for left- and right-hand circular polarizations. We identify the structural parameters of such twisted-band matrices for optimum performance as circular polarizers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongqin Yu
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A novel and simple sensor based on fiber-optic modal interferometer fabricated by a segment of low elliptical hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber for simultaneous temperature and twist measurements is demonstrated. Meanwhile the sensor can also measure the twist angle and determine the twist direction simultaneously. The mode distribution of EHC-PBGF is demonstrated both in theory and experiments. There is an obvious difference of two transmission dips on the temperature and twist. The twist sensitivities of Dip 1 and Dip 2 are obtained to be −31.95 and −585.8 pm/(rad/m, respectively. The temperature sensitivities are 12.99 pm/°C for Dip 1 and 5.09 pm/°C for Dip 2, respectively. Two parameters of twist and temperature can be distinguished and measured simultaneously by using a sensing matrix. Meanwhile the structure is found to be weakly sensitive to the axial strain. It has the advantage of avoiding the crosstalk of strain in the applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Chang, Shin-Chen [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Tsay, Jyh-Shen, E-mail: jstsay@phy.ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yao, Yeong-Der [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)
2017-05-31
Highlights: • An antiferromagnetic grain model on exchange bias phenomena is proposed. • Grain size and grain density are considered. • For smaller grain size, the dependence of t{sub CoO} on T{sub B} showed a less pronounced variation. • An increased grain density is responsible for the enhancement in the exchange bias fields. - Abstract: The emergence and optimization of devices that can be applied to spintronics have attracted considerable interest, and both experimental and theoretical approaches have been used in studies of exchange bias phenomena. A survey of the literature indicates that great efforts have been devoted to improving exchange bias fields, while only limited attempts have been made to control the temperature dependence of exchange bias. In this study, the influence of antiferromagnetic grains on exchange bias phenomena in CoO/Co bilayers on a semiconductor surface was investigated. Based on an antiferromagnetic grain model, a correlation between grain size, grain density, blocking temperature, and the exchange bias field was established. For crystallites with a smaller median diameter, the dependence of the thickness of the CoO layer on blocking temperature showed a less pronounced variation. This is due to the larger thermal agitation of the atomic spin moments in the grain, which causes a weaker exchange coupling between atomic spin moments. The enhanced density of antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic pinning sites resulting from an increased grain density is responsible for the enhancement in the exchange bias fields. The results reported herein provide insights into our knowledge related to controlling the temperature dependence of exchange bias and related mechanisms.
Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.
Topological twist in four dimensions, R-duality and hyperinstantons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmi, D.; Fre, P.
1993-01-01
In this paper we continue the programme of topologically twisting N=2 theories in D=4, focusing on the coupling of vector multiplets to N=2 supergravity. We show that in the minimal case, namely when the special gometry prepotential F(X) is a quadratic polynomial, the theory has a so far unknown on-shell U(1) symmetry, that we name R-duality. R-duality is a generalization of the chiral-dual on-shell symmetry of N=2 pure supergravity and of the R-symmetry of N=2 super Yang-Mills theory. Thanks to this, the theory can be topologically twisted and topologically shifted, precisely as pure N=2 supergravity, to yield a natural coupling of topological gravity to topological Yang-Mills theory. The gauge-fixing condition that emerges from the twisting is the self-duality condition on the gauge field strength and on the spin connection. Hence our theory reduces to intersection theory in the moduli-space of gauge instantons living in gravitational instanton backgrounds. We remark that, for deep properties of the parent N=2 theory, the topological Yang-Mills theory we obtain by taking the flat space limit of our gravity-coupled lagrangian is different from the Donaldson theory constructed by Witten. Whether this difference is substantial and what its geometrical implications may be is yet to be seen. We also discuss the topological twist of the hypermultiplets leading to topological quaternionic sigma-models. The instantons of these models, named by us hyperinstantons, correspond to a notion of triholomorphic mappings discussed in the paper. In all cases the new ghost number is the sum of the old ghost number plus the R-duality charge. The observables described by the theory are briefly discussed. In conclusion, the topological twist of the complete N=2 theory defines intersection theory in the moduli-space of gauge instantons plus gravitational instantons plus hyperinstantons. This is possibly a new subject for further mathematical investigation. (orig.)
Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing
Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris
2018-05-01
The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance
Hardy Inequalities in Globally Twisted Waveguides
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Briet, Ph.; Hammedi, H.; Krejčiřík, David
2015-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 7 (2015), s. 939-958 ISSN 0377-9017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguides * twisted tubes * Dirichlet Laplacian * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015
One-dimensional structures behind twisted and untwisted superYang-Mills theory
Baulieu, Laurent
2011-01-01
We give a one-dimensional interpretation of the four-dimensional twisted N=1 superYang-Mills theory on a Kaehler manifold by performing an appropriate dimensional reduction. We prove the existence of a 6-generator superalgebra, which does not possess any invariant Lagrangian but contains two different subalgebras that determine the twisted and untwisted formulations of the N=1 superYang-Mills theory.
Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Liedberg
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.
Twisted mass, overlap and Creutz fermions. Cut-off effects at tree-level of perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cichy, K.; Kujawa, A.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.
2008-02-01
We study cutoff effects at tree-level of perturbation theory for maximally twisted mass Wilson, overlap and the recently proposed Creutz fermions. We demonstrate that all three kind of lattice fermions exhibit the expected O(a 2 ) scaling behaviour in the lattice spacing. In addition, the sizes of these cutoff effects are comparable for the three kinds of lattice fermions considered here. Furthermore, we analyze situations when twisted mass fermions are not exactly at maximal twist and when overlap fermions are studied in comparison to twisted mass fermions when the quark masses are not matched. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jouppila-Mättö, Anna; Närkiö-Mäkelä, Mervi; Soini, Ylermi; Pukkila, Matti; Sironen, Reijo; Tuhkanen, Hanna; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti
2011-01-01
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process in tumorigenesis since tumor cells attain fibroblast-like features enabling them to invade to surrounding tissue. Two transcription factors, TWIST and SNAI1, are fundamental in regulating EMT. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of TWIST and SNAI1 in 109 pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Tumors with intense stromal staining of TWIST relapsed more frequently (p = 0.04). Tumors with both positive TWIST and SNAI1 immunoreactivity in the stroma were at least Stage II (p = 0.05) and located more often in hypopharynx (p = 0.035). Tumors with negative immunostaining of TWIST and SNAI1 in the stromal compartment were smaller (T1-2) (p = 0.008), less advanced (SI-II) (p = 0.031) and located more often in the oropharynx (p = 0.007). Patients with negative SNAI1 and TWIST immunostaining in tumor stroma had a better 5-year disease-specific and overall survival (p = 0.037 and p = 0.014 respectively). TWIST and SNAI1 expression in stromal cells is associated with clinical and histopathological characteristics that indicate progressive disease. Negative expression of these EMT-promoting transcription factors predicts a better outcome
Kuiper Belt Dust Grains as a Source of Interplanetary Dust Particles
Liou, Jer-Chyi; Zook, Herbert A.; Dermott, Stanley F.
1996-01-01
The recent discovery of the so-called Kuiper belt objects has prompted the idea that these objects produce dust grains that may contribute significantly to the interplanetary dust population. In this paper, the orbital evolution of dust grains, of diameters 1 to 9 microns, that originate in the region of the Kuiper belt is studied by means of direct numerical integration. Gravitational forces of the Sun and planets, solar radiation pressure, as well as Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag are included. The interactions between charged dust grains and solar magnetic field are not considered in the model. Because of the effects of drag forces, small dust grains will spiral toward the Sun once they are released from their large parent bodies. This motion leads dust grains to pass by planets as well as encounter numerous mean motion resonances associated with planets. Our results show that about 80% of the Kuiper belt grains are ejected from the Solar System by the giant planets, while the remaining 20% of the grains evolve all the way to the Sun. Surprisingly, the latter dust grains have small orbital eccentricities and inclinations when they cross the orbit of the Earth. This makes them behave more like asteroidal than cometary-type dust particles. This also enhances their chances of being captured by the Earth and makes them a possible source of the collected interplanetary dust particles; in particular, they represent a possible source that brings primitive/organic materials from the outer Solar System to the Earth. When collisions with interstellar dust grains are considered, however, Kuiper belt dust grains around 9 microns appear likely to be collisionally shattered before they can evolve toward the inner part of the Solar System. The collision destruction can be applied to Kuiper belt grains up to about 50 microns. Therefore, Kuiper belt dust grains within this range may not be a significant part of the interplanetary dust complex in the inner Solar
Fiber-Optic Sensors for Measurements of Torsion, Twist and Rotation: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vedran Budinski
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Optical measurement of mechanical parameters is gaining significant commercial interest in different industry sectors. Torsion, twist and rotation are among the very frequently measured mechanical parameters. Recently, twist/torsion/rotation sensors have become a topic of intense fiber-optic sensor research. Various sensing concepts have been reported. Many of those have different properties and performances, and many of them still need to be proven in out-of-the laboratory use. This paper provides an overview of basic approaches and a review of current state-of-the-art in fiber optic sensors for measurements of torsion, twist and/or rotation.Invited Paper
Design and analysis of variable-twist tiltrotor blades using shape memory alloy hybrid composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jae-Sang; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Jung, Sung Nam; Lee, Myeong-Kyu
2011-01-01
The tiltrotor blade, or proprotor, acts as a rotor in the helicopter mode and as a propeller in the airplane mode. For a better performance, the proprotor should have different built-in twist distributions along the blade span, suitable for each operational mode. This paper proposes a new variable-twist proprotor concept that can adjust the built-in twist distribution for given flight modes. For a variable-twist control, the present proprotor adopts shape memory alloy hybrid composites (SMAHC) containing shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in the composite matrix. The proprotor of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) Smart Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV), which is based on the tiltrotor concept, is used as a baseline proprotor model. The cross-sectional properties of the variable-twist proprotor are designed to maintain the cross-sectional properties of the original proprotor as closely as possible. However, the torsion stiffness is significantly reduced to accommodate the variable-twist control. A nonlinear flexible multibody dynamic analysis is employed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the proprotor such as natural frequency and damping in the whirl flutter mode, the blade structural loads in a transition flight and the rotor performance in hover. The numerical results show that the present proprotor is designed to have a strong similarity to the baseline proprotor in dynamic and load characteristics. It is demonstrated that the present proprotor concept could be used to improve the hover performance adaptively when the variable-twist control using the SMAHC is applied appropriately
Design and analysis of variable-twist tiltrotor blades using shape memory alloy hybrid composites
Park, Jae-Sang; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Jung, Sung Nam; Lee, Myeong-Kyu
2011-01-01
The tiltrotor blade, or proprotor, acts as a rotor in the helicopter mode and as a propeller in the airplane mode. For a better performance, the proprotor should have different built-in twist distributions along the blade span, suitable for each operational mode. This paper proposes a new variable-twist proprotor concept that can adjust the built-in twist distribution for given flight modes. For a variable-twist control, the present proprotor adopts shape memory alloy hybrid composites (SMAHC) containing shape memory alloy (SMA) wires embedded in the composite matrix. The proprotor of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) Smart Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV), which is based on the tiltrotor concept, is used as a baseline proprotor model. The cross-sectional properties of the variable-twist proprotor are designed to maintain the cross-sectional properties of the original proprotor as closely as possible. However, the torsion stiffness is significantly reduced to accommodate the variable-twist control. A nonlinear flexible multibody dynamic analysis is employed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the proprotor such as natural frequency and damping in the whirl flutter mode, the blade structural loads in a transition flight and the rotor performance in hover. The numerical results show that the present proprotor is designed to have a strong similarity to the baseline proprotor in dynamic and load characteristics. It is demonstrated that the present proprotor concept could be used to improve the hover performance adaptively when the variable-twist control using the SMAHC is applied appropriately.
'Twisted tape sign': Its significance in recurrent sigmoid volvulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gopal, K.; Lim, Y.; Banerjee, B.
2005-01-01
Aim: Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in the elderly. Mild attacks of sigmoid volvulus may be more difficult to diagnose due to the lack of severity of symptoms which may resolve spontaneously only to recur after an interval. This study was a review of patients to assess the incidence of the 'twisted tape sign' and to evaluate the significance of its presence in cases of recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Methods and materials: A retrospective study over eight years revealed six cases of surgically confirmed recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Case records and barium enemas of all patients were reviewed. Results: Six patients were identified, including four men and two women, with a median age of 56 years. Diagnostic difficulties were encountered in four (67%) patients with a delay ranging between 10 and 37 months with a mean 17.3 months. Twisted tape sign was confirmed on all barium examinations retrospectively. Conclusion: Recognition of twisted tape sign on barium enema examination along with an appropriate clinical history would suggest a diagnosis of recurrent sigmoid volvulus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuji Koike
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry ALT in inclusive (light hadron production from proton–proton collisions, i.e., p↑p→→hX. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2 transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature, we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.
Calculations of higher twist distribution functions in the MIT bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Signal, A.I.
1997-01-01
We calculate all twist-2, -3 and -4 parton distribution functions involving two quark correlations using the wave function of the MIT bag model. The distributions are evolved up to experimental scales and combined to give the various nucleon structure functions. Comparisons with recent experimental data on higher twist structure functions at moderate values of Q 2 give good agreement with the calculated structure functions. (orig.)
One-dimensional structures behind twisted and untwisted super Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baulieu, Laurent [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland). Theoretical Div.; Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: baulieu@lpthe.jussieu.f, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2010-07-01
We give a one-dimensional interpretation of the four-dimensional twisted N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory on a Kaehler manifold by performing an appropriate dimensional reduction. We prove the existence of a 6-generator superalgebra, which does not possess any invariant Lagrangian but contains two different subalgebras that determine the twisted and untwisted formulations of the N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory. (author)
One-dimensional structures behind twisted and untwisted super Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baulieu, Laurent
2010-01-01
We give a one-dimensional interpretation of the four-dimensional twisted N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory on a Kaehler manifold by performing an appropriate dimensional reduction. We prove the existence of a 6-generator superalgebra, which does not possess any invariant Lagrangian but contains two different subalgebras that determine the twisted and untwisted formulations of the N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory. (author)
Overlap valence quarks on an twisted mass sea
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cichy, K. [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Drach, V.; Garcia-Ramos, E.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC
2010-12-15
We present the results of an investigation of a mixed action approach of overlap valence and maximally twisted mass sea quarks. Employing a particular matching condition on the pion mass, we analyze the continuum limit scaling of the pion decay constant and the role of chiral zero modes of the overlap operator in this process. We employ gauge field configurations generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with linear lattice size L ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 fm. The continuum limit is taken at a fixed value of L=1.3 fm, employing three values of the lattice spacing and two values of the pion mass constructed from sea quarks only. (orig.)
Twisted tachyon condensation in closed string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okawa, Yuji; Zwiebach, Barton
2004-01-01
We consider twisted tachyons on C/Z N orbifolds of bosonic closed string theory. It has been conjectured that these tachyonic instabilities correspond to decays of the orbifolds into flat space or into orbifolds with smaller deficit angles. We examine this conjecture using closed string field theory, with the string field truncated to low-level tachyons. We compute the tachyon potentials for C/Z 2 and C/Z 3 orbifolds and find critical points at depths that generate about 70% of the expected change in the deficit angle. We find that both twisted fields and untwisted modes localized near the apex of the cone acquire vacuum expectation values and contribute to the potential. (author)
Twisted Bilayer Graphene. Interlayer configuration and magnetotransport signatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Belke, Christopher; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hannover (Germany)
2017-11-15
Twisted Bilayer Graphene may be viewed as very first representative of the now booming class of artificially layered 2D materials. Consisting of two sheets from the same structure and atomic composition, its decisive degree of freedom lies in the rotation between crystallographic axes in the individual graphene monolayers. Geometrical consideration finds angle-dependent Moire patterns as well as commensurate superlattices of opposite sublattice exchange symmetry. Beyond the approach of rigidly interposed lattices, this review takes focus on the evolving topic of lattice corrugation and distortion in response to spatially varying lattice registry. The experimental approach to twisted bilayers requires a basic control over preparation techniques; important methods are summarized and extended on in the case of bilayers folded from monolayer graphene via AFM nanomachining. Central morphological parameters to the twisted bilayer, rotational mismatch and interlayer separation are studied in a broader base of samples. Finally, experimental evidence for a number of theoretically predicted, controversial electronic scenarios are reviewed; magnetotransport signatures are discussed in terms of Fermi velocity, van Hove singularities and Berry phase and assessed with respect to the underlying experimental conditions, thereby referring back to the initially considered variations in relaxed lattice structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Xinbao [National Energy R and D Center of Clean and High-Efficiency Fossil-Fired Power Generation Technology, Xi' an Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., Xi' an (China); Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an (China); Liu, Lin; Zhang, Jun [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an (China)
2015-08-15
Grain competitive growth of nickel-based single-crystal superalloys during directional solidification was investigated. A detailed characterization of bi-crystals' competitive growth was performed to explore the competitive grain evolution. It was found that high withdrawal rate improved the efficiency of grain competitive growth. The overgrowth rate was increased when the misorientation increased. Four patterns of grain competitive growth with differently oriented dispositions were characterized. The results indicated that the positive branching of the dendrites played a significant role in the competitive growth process. The effect of crystal orientation and heat flow on the competitive growth can be attributed to the blocking mechanism between the adjacent grains. (orig.)
Higher-twist effects in the B → π transition form factor from QCD light-cone sum rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khodjamirian, Alexander; Rusov, Aleksey [Universitaet Siegen (Germany). Fakultaet IV, Department Physik, Theoretische Physik 1 Walter-Flex-Strasse 3 57068 Siegen
2016-07-01
I report on the progress in calculating new higher-twist corrections to the QCD light-cone sum rule for the B → π transition form factor. First, the expansion of the massive heavy-quark propagator in the external gluonic field near the light-cone was extended to include new terms containing the gluon-field strength derivatives. The resulting analytical expressions for the twist-5 and twist-6 contributions to the correlation function were obtained in a factorized approximation, expressed via the product of the quark-condensate density and the lower-twist pion distribution amplitudes. The numerical analysis of new higher-twist effects is in progress.
Andelković, M.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.
2018-03-01
The in-plane dc conductivity of twisted bilayer graphene is calculated using an expansion of the real-space Kubo-Bastin conductivity in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. We investigate within a tight-binding approach the transport properties as a function of rotation angle, applied perpendicular electric field, and vacancy disorder. We find that for high-angle twists, the two layers are effectively decoupled, and the minimum conductivity at the Dirac point corresponds to double the value observed in monolayer graphene. This remains valid even in the presence of vacancies, hinting that chiral symmetry is still preserved. On the contrary, for low twist angles, the conductivity at the Dirac point depends on the twist angle and is not protected in the presence of disorder. Furthermore, for low angles and in the presence of an applied electric field, we find that the chiral boundary states emerging between AB and BA regions contribute to the dc conductivity, despite the appearance of localized states in the AA regions. The results agree qualitatively with recent transport experiments in low-angle twisted bilayer graphene.
Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)
2011-01-03
We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.
Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meljanac, Daniel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Materials Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Theoretical Physics, Zagreb (Croatia)
2017-12-15
Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincare-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ-Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ-Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)
Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutic, Danijel
2017-01-01
Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincare-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ-Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ-Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed. (orig.)
Families of vector-like deformations of relativistic quantum phase spaces, twists and symmetries
Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Pikutić, Danijel
2017-12-01
Families of vector-like deformed relativistic quantum phase spaces and corresponding realizations are analyzed. A method for a general construction of the star product is presented. The corresponding twist, expressed in terms of phase space coordinates, in the Hopf algebroid sense is presented. General linear realizations are considered and corresponding twists, in terms of momenta and Poincaré-Weyl generators or gl(n) generators are constructed and R-matrix is discussed. A classification of linear realizations leading to vector-like deformed phase spaces is given. There are three types of spaces: (i) commutative spaces, (ii) κ -Minkowski spaces and (iii) κ -Snyder spaces. The corresponding star products are (i) associative and commutative (but non-local), (ii) associative and non-commutative and (iii) non-associative and non-commutative, respectively. Twisted symmetry algebras are considered. Transposed twists and left-right dual algebras are presented. Finally, some physical applications are discussed.
Chiral tunneling in a twisted graphene bilayer.
He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin
2013-08-09
The perfect transmission in a graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in a Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in a twisted graphene bilayer show an adjustable probability of chiral tunneling for normal incidence: they can be changed from perfect tunneling to partial or perfect reflection, or vice versa, by controlling either the height of the barrier or the incident energy. As well as addressing basic physics about how the chiral fermions with different chiralities tunnel through a barrier, our results provide a facile route to tune the electronic properties of the twisted graphene bilayer.
Vacuum fluctuations of twisted fields in the space time of cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsas, G.E.A.
1990-01-01
A twisted scalar field conformally coupled to gravitation is used to calculate the vacuum stress-energy tensor in the background spacetime generated by an infinite straight gauge cosmic string. The result has an absolute numerical value close to the one obtained with a non-twisted conformal scalar field but their signals are opposite. (author) [pt
TiO2/water Nanofluid Heat Transfer in Heat Exchanger Equipped with Double Twisted-Tape Inserts
Eiamsa-ard, S.; Ketrain, R.; Chuwattanakul, V.
2018-05-01
Nowadays, heat transfer enhancement plays an important role in improving efficiency of heat transfer and thermal systems for numerous areas such as heat recovery processes, chemical reactors, air-conditioning/refrigeration system, food engineering, solar air/water heater, cooling of high power electronics etc. The present work presents the experimental results of the heat transfer enhancement of TiO2/water nanofluid in a heat exchanger tube fitted with double twisted tapes. The study covered twist ratios of twisted tapes (y/w) of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5) while the concentration of the nanofluid was kept constant at 0.05% by volume. Observations show that heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance increase as twist ratio (y/w) decreases. The use of the nanofluid in the tube equipped with the double twisted-tapes with the smallest twist ratio (y/w = 1.5) results in the increases of heat transfer rates and friction factor up to 224.8% and 8.98 times, respectively as compared to those of water. In addition, the experimental results performed that double twisted tapes induced dual swirling-flows which played an important role in improving fluid mixing and heat transfer enhancement. It is also observed that the TiO2/water nanofluid was responsible for low pressure loss behaviors.
The final measurements of the muon decay parameters from the TWIST experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayes, R
2013-01-01
The TWIST (TRIUMF Weak Interaction Symmetry Test) experiment probes the Lorentz structure of the weak interaction using muon decay. This structure has a very well defined form under the Standard Model (SM) which makes precise predictions for the shape of the decay positron spectrum with respect to momentum and angle. The shape of the spectrum may be described under some rather general assumptions using a set of decay parameters whose values according to the SM are ρ = δ = 3/4, η = 0, and ξ = 1. TWIST uses a large sample of muon decays in a large acceptance spectrometer to measure the decay parameters to an order of magnitude greater precision than previous measurements. This experiment saw its last year of data collection in 2007. As TWIST is a systematics dominated experiment, much effort has been spent on refinements of the estimates of the systematic uncertainties over previous TWIST results. These proceedings will discuss the measures taken to achieve the precision goal of parts in 10 4 , and the physics implications of the experiment.
Synthesis and structural determination of twisted MoS2 nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santiago, P.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P.; Ascencio, J.A.; Mendoza, D.; Perez-Alvarez, M.; Espinosa, A.; Reza-SanGerman, C.; Camacho-Bragado, G.A.; Jose-Yacaman, M.
2004-01-01
In the present work we report the synthesis of MoS 2 nanotubes with diameters greater than 10 nm using a template method. The length and properties of these nanotubes are a direct result of the preparation method. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to study the structure of these highly curved entities. Molecular dynamics simulations of MoS 2 nanotubes reveal that one of the stable forms of the nanotubes is a twisted one. The twisting of the nanotubes produces a characteristic contrast in the images, which is also studied using simulation methods. The analysis of the local contrast close to the perpendicular orientation shows geometrical arrays of dots in domain-like structures, which are demonstrated to be a product of the atomic overlapping of irregular curvatures in the nanotubes. The configuration of some of the experimentally obtained nanotubes is demonstrated to be twisted with a behavior suggesting partial plasticity. (orig.)
Output Feedback Control of Electro-Hydraulic Cylinder Drives using the Twisting Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.
2014-01-01
contributions in literature. This paper considers the twisting algorithm when applied directly for output feedback control, and with the design based on a reduced order model representation of an arbitrary valve driven hydraulic cylinder drive. The consequence of implementing such a controller with the well......This paper discusses the utilization of the so-called twisting algorithm when applied in output feedback position control schemes for electro-hydraulic cylinder drives. The twisting controller was the first second order sliding controller ever introduced, and can structure-wise be considered...... feedback controller may be successfully applied to hydraulic valve driven cylinder drives, with performance being on the level with a conventional surface based first order sliding mode controller....
Analysis of Twisting of Cellulose Nanofibrils in Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paavilainen, S.; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.
2011-01-01
We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to study the crystal structure of cellulose nanofibrils, whose sizes are comparable with the crystalline parts in commercial nanocellulose. The simulations show twisting, whose rate of relaxation is strongly temperature dependent. Meanwhile......, no significant bending or stretching of nanocellulose is discovered. Considerations of atomic-scale interaction patterns bring about that the twisting arises from hydrogen bonding within and between the chains in a fibril....
Tilting-Twisting-Rolling: a pen-based technique for compass geometric construction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fei LYU; Feng TIAN; Guozhong DAI; Hongan WANG
2017-01-01
This paper presents a new pen-based technique,Tilting-Twisting-Rolling,to support compass geometric construction.By leveraging the 3D orientation information and 3D rotation information of a pen,this technique allows smooth pen action to complete multi-step geometric construction without switching task states.Results from a user study show this Tilting-Twisting-Rolling technique can improve user performance and user experience in compass geometric construction.
Impact of higher twist terms on the analysis of scaling violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnett, R.M.
1979-09-01
A critical discussion is given of analyses of scaling violation in deep-inelastic scattering in the context of QCD. Several possible approaches are examined. Higher twist contributions are defined, and it is shown that they can have a crucial impact on tests of QCD. Higher twist terms can dramatically affect R = sigma/sub L//sigma/sub T/. QCD may be harder to test than previously realized. 17 references
Fiber-Optic Sensors for Measurements of Torsion, Twist and Rotation: A Review †
Budinski, Vedran; Donlagic, Denis
2017-01-01
Optical measurement of mechanical parameters is gaining significant commercial interest in different industry sectors. Torsion, twist and rotation are among the very frequently measured mechanical parameters. Recently, twist/torsion/rotation sensors have become a topic of intense fiber-optic sensor research. Various sensing concepts have been reported. Many of those have different properties and performances, and many of them still need to be proven in out-of-the laboratory use. This paper provides an overview of basic approaches and a review of current state-of-the-art in fiber optic sensors for measurements of torsion, twist and/or rotation. PMID:28241510
Bogoliubov coefficients for the twist operator in the D1D5 CFT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaq Carson
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The D1D5 CFT is a holographic dual of a near-extremal black hole in string theory. The interaction in this theory involves a twist operator which joins together different copies of a free CFT. Given a large number of D1 and D5 branes, the effective length of the circle on which the CFT lives is very large. We develop a technique to study the effect of the twist operator in the limit where the wavelengths of excitations are short compared to this effective length, which we call the ‘continuum limit’. The method uses Bogoliubov coefficients to compute the effect of the twist operator in this limit. For bosonic fields, we use the method to reproduce recent results describing the effect of the twist operator when it links together CFT copies with windings M and N, producing a copy of winding M+N. We also comment on possible generalizations of our results. The methods developed here may help in understanding the twist interaction at higher orders. This in turn should provide insight into the thermalization process in the D1D5 CFT, which gives a holographic description of black hole formation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shindler, A.
2007-07-01
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2007-07-15
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
The V protein of Tioman virus is incapable of blocking type I interferon signaling in human cells.
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Grégory Caignard
Full Text Available The capacity of a virus to cross species barriers is determined by the development of bona fide interactions with cellular components of new hosts, and in particular its ability to block IFN-α/β antiviral signaling. Tioman virus (TioV, a close relative of mumps virus (MuV, has been isolated in giant fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Nipah and Hendra viruses, which are present in the same bat colonies, are highly pathogenic in human. Despite serological evidences of close contacts between TioV and human populations, whether TioV is associated to some human pathology remains undetermined. Here we show that in contrast to the V protein of MuV, the V protein of TioV (TioV-V hardly interacts with human STAT2, does not degrade STAT1, and cannot block IFN-α/β signaling in human cells. In contrast, TioV-V properly binds to human STAT3 and MDA5, and thus interferes with IL-6 signaling and IFN-β promoter induction in human cells. Because STAT2 binding was previously identified as a host restriction factor for some Paramyxoviridae, we established STAT2 sequence from giant fruit bats, and binding to TioV-V was tested. Surprisingly, TioV-V interaction with STAT2 from giant fruit bats is also extremely weak and barely detectable. Altogether, our observations question the capacity of TioV to appropriately control IFN-α/β signaling in both human and giant fruit bats that are considered as its natural host.
Modular transformations of conformal blocks in WZW models on Riemann surfaces of higher genus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miao Li; Ming Yu.
1989-05-01
We derive the modular transformations for conformal blocks in Wess-Zumino-Witten models on Riemann surfaces of higher genus. The basic ingredient consists of using the Chern-Simons theory developed by Witten. We find that the modular transformations generated by Dehn twists are linear combinations of Wilson line operators, which can be expressed in terms of braiding matrices. It can also be shown that modular transformation matrices for g > 0 Riemann surfaces depend only on those for g ≤ 3. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs
Modeling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmino, M.
1994-01-01
The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by color forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects; indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author)
An empirically-based model for the lift coefficients of twisted airfoils with leading-edge tubercles
Ni, Zao; Su, Tsung-chow; Dhanak, Manhar
2018-04-01
Experimental data for untwisted airfoils are utilized to propose a model for predicting the lift coefficients of twisted airfoils with leading-edge tubercles. The effectiveness of the empirical model is verified through comparison with results of a corresponding computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) study. The CFD study is carried out for both twisted and untwisted airfoils with tubercles, the latter shown to compare well with available experimental data. Lift coefficients of twisted airfoils predicted from the proposed empirically-based model match well with the corresponding coefficients determined using the verified CFD study. Flow details obtained from the latter provide better insight into the underlying mechanism and behavior at stall of twisted airfoils with leading edge tubercles.
Pore pressure control on faulting behavior in a block-gouge system
Yang, Z.; Juanes, R.
2016-12-01
Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection/extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remain poorly understood; yet they are critical for the assessment of seismic risk. In this work, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on faulting behavior. The model couples pore network fluid flow and mechanics of the solid grains. We conceptualize the fault zone as a gouge layer sandwiched between two blocks; the block material is represented by a group of contact-bonded grains and the gouge is composed of unbonded grains. A pore network is extracted from the particulate pack of the block-gouge system with pore body volumes and pore throat conductivities calculated rigorously based on the geometry of the local pore space. Pore fluid exerts pressure force onto the grains, the motion of which is solved using the discrete element method (DEM). The model updates the pore network regularly in response to deformation of the solid matrix. We study the fault stability in the presence of a pressure inhomogeneity (gradient) across the gouge layer, and compare it with the case of homogeneous pore pressure. We consider both normal and thrust faulting scenarios with a focus on the onset of shear failure along the block-gouge interfaces. Numerical simulations show that the slip behavior is characterized by intermittent dynamics, which is evident in the number of slipping contacts at the block-gouge interfaces and the total kinetic energy of the gouge particles. Numerical results also show that, for the case of pressure inhomogeneity, the onset of slip occurs earlier for the side with higher pressure, and that this onset appears to be controlled by the maximum pressure of both sides
A torsional artificial muscle from twisted nitinol microwire
Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Hunter, Ian W.
2017-04-01
Nitinol microwires of 25 μm in diameter can have tensile actuation of up to 4.5% in less than 100 ms. A work density of up to 480 MPa can be achieved from these microwires. In the present work, we are showing that by twisting the microwires in form of closed-loop two-ply yarn we can create a torsional actuator. We achieved a revisable torsional stroke of 46°/mm with peak rotational speed of up to 10,000 rpm. We measured a gravimetric torque of up to 28.5 N•m/kg which is higher than the 3 - 6 N•m/kg for direct-drive commercial electric motors. These remarkable performance results are comparable to those of guest-infiltrated carbon nanotube twisted yarns.
Effect of Lowering Twist Levels on Quality Parameters of Rotor Spun Cotton Yarn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FAROOQ AHMED
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Investigations were made to explore the influence of lowering twist level on quality characteristics of rotor spun yarn. Three levels of yarn linear density (i.e. 40, 35 and 30 tex and five levels of twist (i.e. 700, 600, 550, 500, and 450 were employed during yarn spinning trials. Each twist multiple was investigated at all linear densities for tensile strength, elongation, total CVm (Coefficient of Mass Variation imperfection index and hairiness. 100% cotton yarn samples were prepared on Reiter R-40 at rotor speed of 90,000 rpm. Determination of elongation, yarn strength, hairiness, mass variation, and total imperfections index was carried out on Uster Tensorapid-4 and Uster Tester-4 as per set standards of ISO standard test methods. Based on investigations it is established that yarn strength and elongation declined minutely (Insignificant with lowering twist levels but still can be confidently used for knitting yarns. However, significant improvement in total imperfection index and marginal enhancement in CVm were experienced.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudman, K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Dickerson, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Byler, Darrin David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Peralta, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lim, H. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); McDonald, R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Dickerson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-09-06
The initial microstructure of an oxide fuel can play a key role in its performance. At low burn-ups, the diffusion of fission products can depend strongly on grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics, which in turn depend on processing conditions and oxygen stoichiometry. Serial sectioning techniques using Focused Ion Beam were developed to obtain Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) data for depleted UO2 pellets that were processed to obtain 3 different oxygen stoichiometries. The EBSD data were used to create 3D microstructure reconstructions and to gather statistical information on the grain and GB crystallography, with emphasis on identifying the character (twist, tilt, mixed) for GBs that meet the Coincident Site Lattice (CSL) criterion as well as GBs with the most common misorientation angles. Data on dihedral angles at triple points were also collected. The results were compared across different samples to understand effects of oxygen content on microstructure evolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Fang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available In geometrically frustrated clusters of polyhedra, gaps between faces can be closed without distorting the polyhedra by the long established method of discrete curvature, which consists of curving the space into a fourth dimension, resulting in a dihedral angle at the joint between polyhedra in 4D. An alternative method—the twist method—has been recently suggested for a particular case, whereby the gaps are closed by twisting the cluster in 3D, resulting in an angular offset of the faces at the joint between adjacent polyhedral. In this paper, we show the general applicability of the twist method, for local clusters, and present the surprising result that both the required angle of the twist transformation and the consequent angle at the joint are the same, respectively, as the angle of bending to 4D in the discrete curvature and its resulting dihedral angle. The twist is therefore not only isomorphic, but isogonic (in terms of the rotation angles to discrete curvature. Our results apply to local clusters, but in the discussion we offer some justification for the conjecture that the isomorphism between twist and discrete curvature can be extended globally. Furthermore, we present examples for tetrahedral clusters with three-, four-, and fivefold symmetry.
How the embryonic brain tube twists
Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry
2014-03-01
During early development, the tubular brain of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This deformation is one of the major organ-level symmetry-breaking events in development. Available evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops in the same direction that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is virtually nonexistent, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. In addition, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model is used to interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''.
Twisted boundary states and representation of generalized fusion algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tani, Taro
2006-01-01
The mutual consistency of boundary conditions twisted by an automorphism group G of the chiral algebra is studied for general modular invariants of rational conformal field theories. We show that a consistent set of twisted boundary states associated with any modular invariant realizes a non-negative integer matrix representation (NIM-rep) of the generalized fusion algebra, an extension of the fusion algebra by representations of the twisted chiral algebra associated with the automorphism group G. We check this result for several concrete cases. In particular, we find that two NIM-reps of the fusion algebra for su(3) k (k=3,5) are organized into a NIM-rep of the generalized fusion algebra for the charge-conjugation automorphism of su(3) k . We point out that the generalized fusion algebra is non-commutative if G is non-Abelian and provide some examples for G-bar S 3 . Finally, we give an argument that the graph fusion algebra associated with simple current extensions coincides with the generalized fusion algebra for the extended chiral algebra, and thereby explain that the graph fusion algebra contains the fusion algebra of the extended theory as a subalgebra
Twisted Frobenius Identities from Vertex Operator Superalgebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Zuevsky
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In consideration of the continuous orbifold partition function and a generating function for all n-point correlation functions for the rank two free fermion vertex operator superalgebra on the self-sewing torus, we introduce the twisted version of Frobenius identity.
Harfe, Brian D.; Gomes, Ana Vaz; Kenyon, Cynthia; Liu, Jun; Krause, Michael; Fire, Andrew
1998-01-01
Mesodermal development is a multistep process in which cells become increasingly specialized to form specific tissue types. In Drosophila and mammals, proper segregation and patterning of the mesoderm involves the bHLH factor Twist. We investigated the activity of a Twist-related factor, CeTwist, during Caenorhabditis elegans mesoderm development. Embryonic mesoderm in C. elegans derives from a number of distinct founder cells that are specified during the early lineages; in contrast, a singl...
Modelling higher twist contributions to deep inelastic scattering with diquarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Penna Firme, A.; Soares, J.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de
1994-08-01
The most recent detailed data on the unpolarized nucleon structure functions allow a precise determination of higher twist contributions. Quark-quark correlations induced by colour forces are expected to be a natural explanation for such effects: indeed, a quark-diquark picture of the nucleon, previously introduced in the description of several exclusive processes at intermediate Q 2 values, is found to model the proton higher twist data with great accuracy. The resulting parameters are consistent with the diquark properties suggested by other experimental and theoretical analyses. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs
The SU(∞) twisted gradient flow running coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pérez, Margarita García [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); González-Arroyo, Antonio [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, C-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Keegan, Liam [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Okawa, Masanori [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)
2015-01-09
We measure the running of the SU(∞) ’t Hooft coupling by performing a step scaling analysis of the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions. The computation relies on the conjecture that finite volume effects for SU(N) gauge theories defined on a 4-dimensional twisted torus are controlled by an effective size parameter l-tilde=l√N, with l the torus period. We set the scale for the running coupling in terms of l-tilde and use the gradient flow to define a renormalized ’t Hooft coupling λ(l-tilde). In the TEK model, this idea allows the determination of the running of the coupling through a step scaling procedure that uses the rank of the group as a size parameter. The continuum renormalized coupling constant is extracted in the zero lattice spacing limit, which in the TEK model corresponds to the large N limit taken at fixed value of λ(l-tilde). The coupling constant is thus expected to coincide with that of the ordinary pure gauge theory at N=∞. The idea is shown to work and permits us to follow the evolution of the coupling over a wide range of scales. At weak coupling we find a remarkable agreement with the perturbative two-loop formula for the running coupling.
Radiative capture of cold neutrons by protons and deuteron photodisintegration with twisted beams
Afanasev, Andrei; Serbo, Valeriy G.; Solyanik, Maria
2018-05-01
We consider two basic nuclear reactions: capture of neutrons by protons, n + p → γ + d, and its time-reversed counterpart, photodisintegration of the deuteron, γ + d → n + p. In both of these cases we assume that the incoming beam of neutrons or photons is ‘twisted’ by having an azimuthal phase dependence, i.e., it carries an additional angular momentum along its direction of propagation. Taking a low-energy limit of these reactions, we derive relations between corresponding transition amplitudes and cross sections with plane-wave beams and twisted beams. Implications for experiments with twisted cold neutrons and twisted photon beams are discussed.
Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy.
Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S; Larson, Steven R; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W; Yager, Kevin G
2015-12-18
We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ≈2×10^{-8}. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2 μm are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anca Dana Dobrian
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The Twist proteins (Twist-1 and -2 are highly conserved developmental proteins with key roles for the transcriptional regulation in mesenchymal cell lineages. They belong to the super-family of bHLH proteins and exhibit bi-functional roles as both activators and repressors of gene transcription. The Twist proteins are expressed at low levels in adult tissues but may become abundantly re-expressed in cells undergoing malignant transformation. This observation prompted extensive research on the roles of Twist proteins in cancer progression and metastasis. Very recent studies indicate a novel role for Twist-1 as a potential regulator of adipose tissue remodeling and inflammation. Several studies suggested that developmental genes are important determinants of obesity, fat distribution and remodeling capacity of different adipose depots. Twist-1 is abundantly and selectively expressed in the adult adipose tissue and its constitutive expression is significantly higher in subcutaneous vs. visceral fat in both mice and humans. Moreover, Twist1 expression is strongly correlated with BMI and insulin resistance in humans. However, the functional roles and transcriptional downstream targets of Twist1 in adipose tissue are largely unexplored. The purpose of this review is to highlight the major findings related to Twist1 expression in different fat depots and cellular components of adipose tissue and to discuss the potential mechanisms suggesting a role for Twist1 in adipose tissue metabolism, inflammation and remodeling.
J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of ^{14} N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Nan; Stephan, Thomas; Boehnke, Patrick; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O’D.; Wang, Jianhua; Davis, Andrew M.; Trappitsch, Reto; Pellin, Michael J.
2017-07-20
We report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 N-14-rich AB (N-14/N-15 > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s-process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s-process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process (i-process) takes place, as their stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R-and J-type carbon stars show C-13 and N-14 excesses but no s-process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. Because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%-15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.
Mass loss from red giants - A simple evolutionary model for NGC 7027
Jura, M.
1984-01-01
NGC 7027 is a young planetary nebula with the remnants of a red giant circumstellar envelope surrounding the central, ionized region. By comparing the outer molecular envelope with the inner ionized material, it is argued that the mass loss rate has decreased by at least a factor of 3, and more probably by about a factor of 10, during the past 1000 years. From this result, it is argued that the luminosity of the central star has also decreased substantially during the same time, consistent with models for the rapid evolution of stars just after they evolve off the asymptotic giant branch. In this picture, the distance to NGC 7027 is less than 1300 pc. NGC 7027 was the last (and best) example of a star where apparently the momentum in the outflowing mass /M(dot)v/ is considerably greater than the momentum in the radiation field (L/c). With the above description of this object, the evidence is now strong that quite often the mass lost from late-type giants is ultimately driven to infinity by radiation pressure on grains. If M(dot)v is as large as L/c for asymptotic branch stars, then it is expected that the total amount of mass lost during this stage of evolution is of the same magnitude as the initial mass of the star, and therefore this mass loss can profoundly affect the star's ultimate fate.
Generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras
Makedonskyi, I. A.; Feigin, E. B.
2017-08-01
We introduce the notion of generalized Weyl modules for twisted current algebras. We study their representation-theoretic and combinatorial properties and also their connection with nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials. As an application, we compute the dimension of the classical Weyl modules in the remaining unknown case.
On the description of exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anikin, I.V.; Ivanov, D.Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.
2010-01-01
We describe hard exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation in a framework based on the Taylor expansion of the amplitude around the dominant light-cone directions. This naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators whose number is minimalized after taking into account QCD equations of motion and the invariance under rotation on the light-cone. We exemplify this method at the twist 3 level and show that the coordinate and momentum space descriptions are fully equivalent.
On the description of exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anikin, I.V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Institute of Mathematics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, B., E-mail: pire@cpht.polytechnique.f [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite d' Orsay, CNRS, 91404 Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Faculte de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2010-01-04
We describe hard exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation in a framework based on the Taylor expansion of the amplitude around the dominant light-cone directions. This naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators whose number is minimalized after taking into account QCD equations of motion and the invariance under rotation on the light-cone. We exemplify this method at the twist 3 level and show that the coordinate and momentum space descriptions are fully equivalent.
Ren, He
Molecular architectures and topologies are found contributing to the formation of supramolecular structures of giant molecules. Dr. Cheng's research group developed a diverse of giant molecules via precisely controlled chemistry synthetic routes. These giant molecules can be categorized into several different families, namely giant surfactants, giant shape amphiphiles and giant polyhedron. By analyzing the hierarchical structures of these carefully designed and precisely synthesized giant molecules, the structural factors which affect, or even dominates, in some cases, the formation of supramolecular structures are revealed in these intensive researches. The results will further contribute to the understanding of dependence of supramolecular structures on molecular designs as well as molecular topology, and providing a practical solution to the scaling up of microscopic molecular functionalities to macroscopic material properties. Molecular Nano Particles (MNPs), including fullerene (C60), POSS, Polyoxometalate (POM) and proteins etc., is defined and applied as a specific type of building blocks in the design and synthesis of giant molecules. The persistence in shape and symmetry is considered as one of the major properties of MNPs. This persistence will support the construction of giant molecules for further supramolecular structures' study by introducing specific shapes, or precisely located side groups which will facilitate self-assembling behaviors with pre-programmed secondary interactions. Dictating material physical properties by its chemical composition is an attractive yet currently failed approach in the study of materials. However, the pursuit of determining material properties by microscopic molecular level properties is never seized, and found its solution when the idea of crystal engineering is raised: should each atom in the material is located exactly where it is designed to be and is properly bonded, the property of the material is hence determined
Artificial blood-flow controlling effects of inhomogeneity of twisted magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ohuchi, Mikio
2017-01-01
We developed a blood-flow controlling system using magnetic therapy for some types of nervous diseases. In our research, we utilized overlapped extremely low frequency (ELF) fields for the most effective blood-flow for the system. Results showed the possibility that the inhomogeneous region obtained by overlapping the fields at 50 Hz, namely, a desirably twisted field revealed a significant difference in induced electromotive forces at the insertion points of electrodes. In addition, ELF exposures with a high inhomogeneity of the twisted field at 50 Hz out of phase were more effective in generating an induced electromotive difference by approximately 31%, as contrasted with the difference generated by the exposure in phase. We expect that the increase of the inhomogeneity of the twisted field around a blood vessel can produce the most effective electromotive difference in the blood, and also moderately affect the excitable cells relating to the autonomic nervous system for an outstanding blood-flow control in vivo. - Highlights: • The principal aim of this research is to contribute to the utilization of the twisted fields for the most effective blood-flow in vivo. • Two newly designed coil systems were used for producing a desirably twisted magnetic field under the measuring domain in the flow channel. • Further, we investigated the magnetohydrodynamic efficiencies of a prototype of a magnetic device, which was converted from use as a commercial alternating magnetic therapy apparatus. • The system was well-constructed with a successful application of a plural exposure coil; therefore, we were able to detect a maximum of induced electromotive force in a fluid of an artificial solution as a substitute for blood. • This new finding demonstrates that the process of blood massotherapy by magnetic stimuli is a therapy for many diseases.
Artificial blood-flow controlling effects of inhomogeneity of twisted magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakagawa, Hidenori, E-mail: hnakagawa-tdt@umin.ac.jp; Ohuchi, Mikio
2017-06-01
We developed a blood-flow controlling system using magnetic therapy for some types of nervous diseases. In our research, we utilized overlapped extremely low frequency (ELF) fields for the most effective blood-flow for the system. Results showed the possibility that the inhomogeneous region obtained by overlapping the fields at 50 Hz, namely, a desirably twisted field revealed a significant difference in induced electromotive forces at the insertion points of electrodes. In addition, ELF exposures with a high inhomogeneity of the twisted field at 50 Hz out of phase were more effective in generating an induced electromotive difference by approximately 31%, as contrasted with the difference generated by the exposure in phase. We expect that the increase of the inhomogeneity of the twisted field around a blood vessel can produce the most effective electromotive difference in the blood, and also moderately affect the excitable cells relating to the autonomic nervous system for an outstanding blood-flow control in vivo. - Highlights: • The principal aim of this research is to contribute to the utilization of the twisted fields for the most effective blood-flow in vivo. • Two newly designed coil systems were used for producing a desirably twisted magnetic field under the measuring domain in the flow channel. • Further, we investigated the magnetohydrodynamic efficiencies of a prototype of a magnetic device, which was converted from use as a commercial alternating magnetic therapy apparatus. • The system was well-constructed with a successful application of a plural exposure coil; therefore, we were able to detect a maximum of induced electromotive force in a fluid of an artificial solution as a substitute for blood. • This new finding demonstrates that the process of blood massotherapy by magnetic stimuli is a therapy for many diseases.
Hydrolytic degradation of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone worm micelles.
Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E
2005-09-21
Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation-induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by polycaprolactone hydrolysis, with distinct mechanism and kinetics from that which occurs in bulk material.
Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
1996-12-31
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. 8 refs., 6 figs.
Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tangler, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (United States)
1997-08-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. (au)
γγ → M{sup +}M{sup -}(M = π, K) processes with twist-3 corrections in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Cong [Southwest University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Zhou, Ming-Zhen; Chen, Hong [Southwest University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Chongqing (China)
2017-04-15
We study the γγ → M{sup +}M{sup -}(M = π, K) processes with the contributions from the two-particle twist-2 and twist-3 distribution amplitudes of pion and kaon mesons on BHL prescription in the standard hard-scattering approach. The results show that the contributions from twist-3 parts are actually not power suppressed compared with the leading-twist contributions in the low energy region. The cross sections with twist-3 corrections agree well with the experimental data in the two-photon center-of-mass energy W > 2.8 GeV and we also predict the cross section ratio σ{sub 0}(K{sup +}K{sup -})/σ{sub 0}(π{sup +}π{sup -}), which is compatible with the experimental data from TPC and Belle. (orig.)
An estimate of higher twist at small xB and low Q2 based upon a saturation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartels, J.; Peters, K.
2000-03-01
We investigate the influence of higher twist corrections to deep inelastic structure functions in the low-Q 2 and small-x HERA region. We review the general features of the lowest-order QCD diagrams which contribute to twist-4 at small-x, in particular the sign structure of longitudinal and transverse structure functions which offers the possibility of strong cancellations in F 2 . For a numerical analysis we perform a twist analysis of the saturation model which has been very successful both in describing the structure function and the DIS diffractive cross section at HERA. As the main conclusion, twist 4 corrections are not small in F L or F T but in F 2 = F L + F T they almost cancel. We point out that F L analysis needs a large twist-4 correction. We also indicate the region of validity of the twist expansion. (orig.)
Giant pulses of pulsar radio emission
Kuzmin, A. D.
2007-01-01
Review report of giant pulses of pulsar radio emission, based on our detections of four new pulsars with giant pulses, and the comparative analysis of the previously known pulsars with giant pulses, including the Crab pulsar and millisecond pulsar PSR B1937+21.
Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar
2013-01-01
Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.
Modification of the grain structure of austenitic welds for improved ultrasonic inspectability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, S.; Dugan, S.; Stubenrauch, S.; Jacobs, O.
2012-01-01
Austenitic stainless steel welds, which are widely used for example in nuclear power plants and chemical installations, present major challenges for ultrasonic inspection due to the grain structure of the weld. Large grains in combination with the elastic anisotropy of the material lead to increased scattering and affect sound wave propagation in the weld. This results in a reduced signal-to-noise ratio, and complicates the interpretation of signals and the localization of defects. The aim of this project is to influence grain growth in the weld during the welding process to produce smaller grains, in order to improve sound propagation through the weld, thus improving inspectability. Metallographic sections of the first test welds have shown that a modification of the grain structure can be achieved by influencing the grain growth with magnetic fields. For further optimization, test blocks for ultrasonic testing were manufactured to study sound propagation through the weld and detectability of test flaws.
RESONANT ABSORPTION OF AXISYMMETRIC MODES IN TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giagkiozis, I.; Verth, G. [Solar Plasma Physics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fedun, V. [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Amy Johnson Building, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2016-06-01
It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configuration of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qin Tian
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue with cell invasion. Methods: Cervical cancer tissue, precancerous tissue and normal cervical tissue surgically removed in our hospital between May 2013 and April 2015 were collected; immunohistochemical staining kits were used to detect the positive protein expression rate of Twist and YB-1 gene; fluorescence quantitative PCR kits were used to detect Twist, YB-1 and invasion gene mRNA expression. Results: Twist and YB-1 mRNA expression and positive protein expression rate as well as USP22, Rab11, Rac1 and ANXA5 mRNA expression in cervical cancer tissue and precancerous tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue, Twist and YB-1 mRNA expression and positive protein expression rate as well as USP22, Rab11, Rac1 and ANXA5 mRNA expression in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in precancerous tissue; USP22, Rab11, Rac1 and ANXA5 mRNA expression in cervical cancer tissue and precancerous tissue with positive Twist and YB-1 expression were significantly higher than those in cervical cancer tissue and precancerous tissue with negative Twist and YB-1 expression. Conclusion: Highly expressed Twist and YB-1 in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue can promote cell invasion.
The giant branch of omega Centauri. I. Abundance variations due to mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bessell, M.S.; Norris, J.
1976-01-01
David Dunlap Observatory (DDO) intermediate-band and RI photometry, together with low-dispersion spectra of a representative sample of stars on the upper giant branch were analysed. Several conclusions were: i) The large width of the giant branch is inseparably connected with mixing. All stars on the red side of the upper giant branch appear to have greatly enhanced features of the CN molecule, with no comparable enhancement of [Fe/H]. ii) A positive correlation between [Fe/H] and the CN excess deltaC (41--42) exists in ω Cen similar to that reported by McClure and Norris for NGC 362. We suggest that this can be explained by the effect of the strong CN band at lambda3800 on the 38 filter of the DDO system. A broad continuum depression around lambda4000 exists in the mixed stars and may also contribute to the correlation. iii) The stars on the blue side of the giant branch show no evidence for mixing and yield an abundance [Fe/H]=-2.1 +- 0.2. It appears that the material from which the cluster formed was as metal deficient as the very metal poor globular clusters. iv) The strong CN enhancement in stars on the red side of the giant branch is not accompanied by greatly enhanced features of CH and C 2 as found in the CH stars. We suggest that the CN stars have O/C>1 and that during the mixing process much of the material now seen at the surface of these objects has been processed through the CN cycle. v) The large width of the branch seen in the (V, B--V) -plane is greatly reduced in the (R, R--I) -plane. This suggests to us that blocking effects are predominant in causing the observed spread in (B--V). We consider the problem that ω Cen is apparently unique in possessing an anomalously wide giant branch. We investigate the possibility that the effect could result from anomalously large angular momentum, and suggest that it might be profitable to observe the highly flattened cluster NGC 6273 to ascertain if it exhibits the same phenomenon
Electric currents induced by twisted light in Quantum Rings.
Quinteiro, G F; Berakdar, J
2009-10-26
We theoretically investigate the generation of electric currents in quantum rings resulting from the optical excitation with twisted light. Our model describes the kinetics of electrons in a two-band model of a semiconductor-based mesoscopic quantum ring coupled to light having orbital angular momentum (twisted light). We find the analytical solution, which exhibits a "circular" photon-drag effect and an induced magnetization, suggesting that this system is the circular analog of that of a bulk semiconductor excited by plane waves. For realistic values of the electric field and material parameters, the computed electric current can be as large as microA; from an applied perspective, this opens new possibilities to the optical control of the magnetization in semiconductors.
MAML1 and TWIST1 co-overexpression promote invasion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Ardalan Khales, Sima; Ebrahimi, Ehsan; Jahanzad, Eisa; Ardalan Khales, Sahar; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi
2018-01-15
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the seventh most common cancer worldwide with considerable morbidity and mortality. Invasion and metastasis of HNSCC is a complex process involving multiple molecules and signaling pathways. Twist Family BHLH Transcription Factor 1 (TWIST1) and Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1) are essential in induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition through direct regulation of implicated molecules in cellular adhesion, migration and invasion. Our aim in this study was to assess the clinical significance of MAML1 and TWIST1 expression in HNSCC, and elucidate the probable correlation between these genes to exhibit their possible associations with progression and metastasis of the disease. The gene expression profile of MAML1 and TWIST1 was assessed in fresh tumoral compared to distant tumor-free tissues of 55 HNSCC patients using quantitative real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Significant overexpression of MAML1 and TWIST1 mRNA was observed in 49.1% and 38.2% (P ˂ 0.05) of tumor specimens, respectively. Overexpression of MAML1 was associated with vascular invasion (P = 0.048). Concomitant overexpression of MAML1 and TWIST1 was significantly correlated to each other (P = 0.004). Co-overexpression of the genes was significantly correlated to the various clinicopathological indices of poor prognosis including depth of tumor invasion (P < 0.01), lymphatic invasion and grade of tumor cell differentiation (P < 0.05). Significant correlation between MAML1 and TWIST1 in HNSCC was revealed. This study was the first report elucidating MAML1 clinical relevance in HNSCC. These new findings suggest an oncogenic role for concomitant expression of MAML1 and TWIST1 genes in HNSCC invasion and metastasis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Subacromial bursitis with giant rice bodies as initial presentation of rheumatoid arthritis.
Subramaniam, Ramesh; Tan, Justina Wei Lyn; Chau, Cora Yuk Ping; Lee, Keng Thiam
2012-10-01
Rice body formation is a nonspecific response to chronic synovial inflammation associated with tuberculous arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative inflammatory arthritis, and even osteoarthritis. Such bodies were termed rice bodies because of their close resemblance to grains of polished white rice. We present a case report of a middle-aged woman with right shoulder subacromial/subdeltoid bursitis with giant rice body formation as her initial presentation of rheumatoid arthritis. Her right shoulder symptoms resolved after subacromial and subdeltoid bursectomy and removal of the rice bodies. She subsequently developed inflammatory arthritis of other joints, met the criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, and has been treated medically.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mantry, Sonny; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Sacco, Gian Franco
2010-01-01
We show that parity-violating deep-inelastic scattering (PVDIS) of longitudinally polarized electrons from deuterium can in principle be a relatively clean probe of higher twist quark-quark correlations beyond the parton model. As first observed by Bjorken and Wolfenstein, the dominant contribution to the electron polarization asymmetry, proportional to the axial vector electron coupling, receives corrections at twist four from the matrix element of a single four-quark operator. We reformulate the Bjorken-Wolfenstein argument in a matter suitable for the interpretation of experiments planned at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). In particular, we observe that because the contribution of the relevant twist-four operator satisfies the Callan-Gross relation, the ratio of parity-violating longitudinal and transverse cross sections, R γZ , is identical to that for purely electromagnetic scattering, R γ , up to perturbative and power-suppressed contributions. This result simplifies the interpretation of the asymmetry in terms of other possible novel hadronic and electroweak contributions. We use the results of MIT Bag Model calculations to estimate contributions of the relevant twist-four operator to the leading term in the asymmetry as a function of Bjorken x and Q 2 . We compare these estimates with possible leading twist corrections from violation of charge symmetry in the parton distribution functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robelius, Fredrik
2007-01-01
Since the 1950s, oil has been the dominant source of energy in the world. The cheap supply of oil has been the engine for economic growth in the western world. Since future oil demand is expected to increase, the question to what extent future production will be available is important. The belief in a soon peak production of oil is fueled by increasing oil prices. However, the reliability of the oil price as a single parameter can be questioned, as earlier times of high prices have occurred without having anything to do with a lack of oil. Instead, giant oil fields, the largest oil fields in the world, can be used as a parameter. A giant oil field contains at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil. Only 507, or 1 % of the total number of fields, are giants. Their contribution is striking: over 60 % of the 2005 production and about 65 % of the global ultimate recoverable reserve (URR). However, giant fields are something of the past since a majority of the largest giant fields are over 50 years old and the discovery trend of less giant fields with smaller volumes is clear. A large number of the largest giant fields are found in the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. The domination of giant fields in global oil production confirms a concept where they govern future production. A model, based on past annual production and URR, has been developed to forecast future production from giant fields. The results, in combination with forecasts on new field developments, heavy oil and oil sand, are used to predict future oil production. In all scenarios, peak oil occurs at about the same time as the giant fields peak. The worst-case scenario sees a peak in 2008 and the best-case scenario, following a 1.4 % demand growth, peaks in 2018
Twisting formula of epsilon factors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sazzad Ali Biswas
2017-08-07
Aug 7, 2017 ... In this article, we give a generalized twisting formula for ϵ(χ1χ2,ψ), when both χ1 and χ2 are ramified via the following local Jacobi sums. Let UF be the group of units in OF (ring of integers of F). For characters χ1, χ2 of F. × and a positive integer n, we define the local Jacobi sum. Jt(χ1,χ2, n) = ∑ x∈UF. Un.
J-type Carbon Stars: A Dominant Source of {sup 14}N-rich Presolar SiC Grains of Type AB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Nan; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O’D.; Wang, Jianhua [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Stephan, Thomas; Boehnke, Patrick; Davis, Andrew M.; Trappitsch, Reto; Pellin, Michael J., E-mail: nliu@carnegiescience.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2017-07-20
We report Mo isotopic data of 27 new presolar SiC grains, including 12 {sup 14}N-rich AB ({sup 14}N/{sup 15}N > 440, AB2) and 15 mainstream (MS) grains, and their correlated Sr and Ba isotope ratios when available. Direct comparison of the data for the MS grains, which came from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with large s -process isotope enhancements, with the AB2 grain data demonstrates that AB2 grains show near-solar isotopic compositions and lack s -process enhancements. The near-normal Sr, Mo, and Ba isotopic compositions of AB2 grains clearly exclude born-again AGB stars, where the intermediate neutron-capture process ( i -process) takes place, as their stellar source. On the other hand, low-mass CO novae and early R- and J-type carbon stars show {sup 13}C and {sup 14}N excesses but no s -process enhancements and are thus potential stellar sources of AB2 grains. Because both early R-type carbon stars and CO novae are rare objects, the abundant J-type carbon stars (10%–15% of all carbon stars) are thus likely to be a dominant source of AB2 grains.
Twist operator correlation functions in O(n) loop models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simmons, Jacob J H; Cardy, John
2009-01-01
Using conformal field theoretic methods we calculate correlation functions of geometric observables in the loop representation of the O(n) model at the critical point. We focus on correlation functions containing twist operators, combining these with anchored loops, boundaries with SLE processes and with double SLE processes. We focus further upon n = 0, representing self-avoiding loops, which corresponds to a logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT) with c = 0. In this limit the twist operator plays the role of a 0-weight indicator operator, which we verify by comparison with known examples. Using the additional conditions imposed by the twist operator null states, we derive a new explicit result for the probabilities that an SLE 8/3 winds in various ways about two points in the upper half-plane, e.g. that the SLE passes to the left of both points. The collection of c = 0 logarithmic CFT operators that we use deriving the winding probabilities is novel, highlighting a potential incompatibility caused by the presence of two distinct logarithmic partners to the stress tensor within the theory. We argue that both partners do appear in the theory, one in the bulk and one on the boundary and that the incompatibility is resolved by restrictive bulk-boundary fusion rules
Artificial blood-flow controlling effects of inhomogeneity of twisted magnetic fields
Nakagawa, Hidenori; Ohuchi, Mikio
2017-06-01
We developed a blood-flow controlling system using magnetic therapy for some types of nervous diseases. In our research, we utilized overlapped extremely low frequency (ELF) fields for the most effective blood-flow for the system. Results showed the possibility that the inhomogeneous region obtained by overlapping the fields at 50 Hz, namely, a desirably twisted field revealed a significant difference in induced electromotive forces at the insertion points of electrodes. In addition, ELF exposures with a high inhomogeneity of the twisted field at 50 Hz out of phase were more effective in generating an induced electromotive difference by approximately 31%, as contrasted with the difference generated by the exposure in phase. We expect that the increase of the inhomogeneity of the twisted field around a blood vessel can produce the most effective electromotive difference in the blood, and also moderately affect the excitable cells relating to the autonomic nervous system for an outstanding blood-flow control in vivo.
Quark mass anomalous dimension from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics
2013-12-15
We investigate whether it is possible to extract the quark mass anomalous dimension and its scale dependence from the spectrum of the twisted mass Dirac operator in Lattice QCD. The answer to this question appears to be positive, provided that one goes to large enough eigenvalues, sufficiently above the non-perturbative regime. The obtained results are compared to continuum perturbation theory. By analyzing possible sources of systematic effects, we find the domain of applicability of the approach, extending from an energy scale of around 1.5 to 4 GeV. The lower limit is dictated by physics (non-perturbative effects at low energies), while the upper bound is set by the ultraviolet cut-off of present-day lattice simulations. We use gauge field configuration ensembles generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC) with 2 flavours of dynamical twisted mass quarks, at 4 lattice spacings in the range between around 0.04 and 0.08 fm.
Quark mass anomalous dimension from the twisted mass Dirac operator spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cichy, Krzysztof; Poznan Univ.
2013-12-01
We investigate whether it is possible to extract the quark mass anomalous dimension and its scale dependence from the spectrum of the twisted mass Dirac operator in Lattice QCD. The answer to this question appears to be positive, provided that one goes to large enough eigenvalues, sufficiently above the non-perturbative regime. The obtained results are compared to continuum perturbation theory. By analyzing possible sources of systematic effects, we find the domain of applicability of the approach, extending from an energy scale of around 1.5 to 4 GeV. The lower limit is dictated by physics (non-perturbative effects at low energies), while the upper bound is set by the ultraviolet cut-off of present-day lattice simulations. We use gauge field configuration ensembles generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC) with 2 flavours of dynamical twisted mass quarks, at 4 lattice spacings in the range between around 0.04 and 0.08 fm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sami D. Salman
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison study on thermal performance conic cut twist tape inserts in laminar flow of nanofluids through a constant heat fluxed tube. Three tape configurations, namely, quadrant cut twisted tape (QCT, parabolic half cut twisted tape (PCT, and triangular cut twisted (VCT of twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth de = 0.5 cm were used with 1% and 2% volume concentration of SiO2/water and TiO2/water nanofluids. Typical twist tape with twist ratio of y = 2.93 was used for comparison. The results show that the heat transfer was enhanced by increasing of Reynolds number and nanoparticles concentration of nanofluid. The results have also revealed that the use of twist tape enhanced the heat transfer coefficient significantly and maximum heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the presence of triangular cut twist tape insert with 2% volume concentration of SiO2 nanofluid. Over the range investigated, the maximum thermal performance factor of 5.13 is found with the simultaneous use of the SiO2 nanofluid at 2% volume concentration VCT at Reynolds number of 220. Furthermore, new empirical correlations for Nusselt number, friction factor, and thermal performance factor are developed and reported.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kumar Akarsh
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study numerical analysis of enhancement in heat transfer characteristics in a double pipe heat exchanger is studied using a holed twisted tape.The twisted tape with a constant twist ratio is inserted in a double pipe heat exchanger. Holes of diameter 1mm, 3 mm and 5 mm were drilled at regular pitch throughout the length of the tape. Numerical modeling of a double pipe heat exchanger with the holed twisted tape was constructed considering hot fluid flowing in the inner pipe and cold fluid through the annulus.Simulation was done for varied mass flow rates of hot fluid in the turbulent condition keeping the mass flow rate of cold fluid being constant. Thermal properties like Outlet temperatures, Nusselt number, overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer rate and pressure drop were determined for all the cases. Results indicated that normaltwisted tape without holes performed better than the bare tube. In the tested range of mass flow rates the average Nusselt number and heat transfer rate were increased by 85% and 34% respectively. Performance of Twisted tape with holes was slightly reduced than the normal twisted tape and it deteriorated further for higher values hole diameter. Pressure drop was found to be higher for the holed twisted tape than the normal tape.
A zero torsional stiffness twist morphing blade as a wind turbine load alleviation device
Lachenal, X.; Daynes, S.; Weaver, P. M.
2013-06-01
This paper presents the design, analysis and realization of a zero stiffness twist morphing wind turbine blade. The morphing blade is designed to actively twist as a means of alleviating the gust loads which reduce the fatigue life of wind turbine blades. The morphing structure exploits an elastic strain energy balance within the blade to enable large twisting deformations with modest actuation requirements. While twist is introduced using the warping of the blade skin, internal pre-stressed members ensure that a constant strain energy balance is achieved throughout the deformation, resulting in a zero torsional stiffness structure. The torsional stability of the morphing blade is characterized by analysing the elastic strain energy in the device. Analytical models of the skin, the pre-stressed components and the complete blade are compared to their respective finite element models as well as experimental results. The load alleviation potential of the adaptive structure is quantified using a two-dimensional steady flow aerodynamic model which is experimentally validated with wind tunnel measurements.
Competitive grain growth in directional solidification investigated by phase field simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Junjie; Wang Zhijun; Wang Jincheng; Yang Yujuan
2012-01-01
During directional solidification, the competitive dendritic growth between various oriented grains is a key factor to obtain desirable texture. In order to understand the mechanism of competitive dendritic growth, the phase field method was adopted to simulate the microstructure evolution of bicrystal samples. The simulation has well reproduced the whole competitive growth process for both diverging and converging dendrites. In converging case, besides the block of the unfavorably oriented dendrite by the favorably oriented one, the unfavorably oriented dendrite is also able to overgrow the favorable one under the condition of relatively low pulling velocity. This unusual overgrowth is dictated by the solute interaction of the converging dendrite tips. In diverging case, it was found that the grain boundary can be either inclined or parallel to the favorably oriented grain depending on the disposition of two grains.
Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)
2014-12-10
To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.
Time-varying wing-twist improves aerodynamic efficiency of forward flight in butterflies.
Zheng, Lingxiao; Hedrick, Tyson L; Mittal, Rajat
2013-01-01
Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber) as well as spanwise (twist) deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects. High-speed videogrammetry is used to capture the wing kinematics, including deformation, of a Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) in untethered, forward flight. These experimental results are then analyzed computationally using a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver. For comparison to this case, a set of non-deforming, flat-plate wing (FPW) models of wing motion are synthesized and subjected to the same analysis along with a wing model that matches the time-varying wing-twist observed for the butterfly, but has no deformation in camber. The simulations show that the observed butterfly wing (OBW) outperforms all the flat-plate wings in terms of usable force production as well as the ratio of lift to power by at least 29% and 46%, respectively. This increase in efficiency of lift production is at least three-fold greater than reported for other insects. Interestingly, we also find that the twist-only-wing (TOW) model recovers much of the performance of the OBW, demonstrating that wing-twist, and not camber is key to forward flight in these insects. The implications of this on the design of flapping wing micro-aerial vehicles are discussed.
Time-varying wing-twist improves aerodynamic efficiency of forward flight in butterflies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingxiao Zheng
Full Text Available Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber as well as spanwise (twist deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects. High-speed videogrammetry is used to capture the wing kinematics, including deformation, of a Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui in untethered, forward flight. These experimental results are then analyzed computationally using a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver. For comparison to this case, a set of non-deforming, flat-plate wing (FPW models of wing motion are synthesized and subjected to the same analysis along with a wing model that matches the time-varying wing-twist observed for the butterfly, but has no deformation in camber. The simulations show that the observed butterfly wing (OBW outperforms all the flat-plate wings in terms of usable force production as well as the ratio of lift to power by at least 29% and 46%, respectively. This increase in efficiency of lift production is at least three-fold greater than reported for other insects. Interestingly, we also find that the twist-only-wing (TOW model recovers much of the performance of the OBW, demonstrating that wing-twist, and not camber is key to forward flight in these insects. The implications of this on the design of flapping wing micro-aerial vehicles are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebrahimi, Zanyar; Karami, Kayoomars [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, P.O. Box 66177-15175, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soler, Roberto, E-mail: z.ebrahimi@uok.ac.ir [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2017-08-10
There is observational evidence for the existence of a twisted magnetic field in the solar corona. This inspires us to investigate the effect of a twisted magnetic field on the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in coronal loops. With this aim, we solve the incompressible linearized MHD equations in a magnetically twisted nonuniform coronal flux tube in the limit of long wavelengths. Our results show that a twisted magnetic field can enhance or diminish the rate of phase mixing of the Alfvén continuum modes and the decay rate of the global kink oscillation depending on the twist model and the sign of the longitudinal ( k{sub z} ) and azimuthal ( m ) wavenumbers. Also, our results confirm that in the presence of a twisted magnetic field, when the sign of one of the two wavenumbers m and k {sub z} is changed, the symmetry with respect to the propagation direction is broken. Even a small amount of twist can have an important impact on the process of energy cascading to small scales.
Effects of Head Size on the Performance of Twist-Off Bolts
Schnupp, Keith Otto
2003-01-01
This study examines a specific application of button-head type twist-off bolts. Currently, the Research Council on Structural Connections Specification (2000) removes the requirement for ASTM F436 washers (ASTM 2000a) under the bolt head of twist-off bolts where the head diameter equals or exceeds that of an ASTM F436 washer when oversized and slotted holes are used. The need for washers is also removed for A490 strength bolts used on steels with specified yield strengths less than 40 ksi p...
Sweep-twist adaptive rotor blade : final project report.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashwill, Thomas D.
2010-02-01
Knight & Carver was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to develop a Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor (STAR) blade that reduced operating loads, thereby allowing a larger, more productive rotor. The blade design used outer blade sweep to create twist coupling without angled fiber. Knight & Carver successfully designed, fabricated, tested and evaluated STAR prototype blades. Through laboratory and field tests, Knight & Carver showed the STAR blade met the engineering design criteria and economic goals for the program. A STAR prototype was successfully tested in Tehachapi during 2008 and a large data set was collected to support engineering and commercial development of the technology. This report documents the methodology used to develop the STAR blade design and reviews the approach used for laboratory and field testing. The effort demonstrated that STAR technology can provide significantly greater energy capture without higher operating loads on the turbine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying-Wen Su
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN is the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Unfortunately, the survival of patients with SCCHN has not improved in the last 40 years, and thus new targets for therapy are needed. Recently, elevations in serum level of interleukin 6 (IL-6 and expression of Twist in tumor samples were found to be associated with poor clinical outcomes in multiple types of cancer, including SCCHN. Although Twist has been proposed as a master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in cancers, the mechanisms by which Twist levels are regulated post-translationally are not completely understood. Tumor progression is characterized by the involvement of cytokines and growth factors and Twist induction has been connected with a number of these signaling pathways including IL-6. Since many of the effects of IL-6 are mediated through activation of protein phosphorylation cascades, this implies that Twist expression must be under a tight control at the post-translational level in order to respond in a timely manner to external stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our data show that IL-6 increases Twist expression via a transcription-independent mechanism in many SCCHN cell lines. Further investigation revealed that IL-6 stabilizes Twist in SCCHN cell lines through casein kinase 2 (CK2 phosphorylation of Twist residues S18 and S20, and that this phosphorylation inhibits degradation of Twist. Twist phosphorylation not only increases its stability but also enhances cell motility. Thus, post-translational modulation of Twist contributes to its tumor-promoting properties. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows Twist expression can be regulated at the post-translational level through phosphorylation by CK2, which increases Twist stability in response to IL-6 stimulation. Our findings not only provide novel mechanistic insights into post-translational regulation of Twist but also suggest
Excitation of giant resonances in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuehn, W.
1991-01-01
Introduction: What are Giant Resonances? General Features of Giant Resonances, Macroscopic Description and Classification, Basic Excitation Mechanisms, Decay Modes, Giant Resonances Built on Excited States, Relativistic Coulomb Excitation of Giant Resonances, Experimental Situation. (orig.)
Floret-like multinucleated giant cells in neurofibroma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Golka Dariusz
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract This short report discusses a case of neurofibroma containing floret-like multinucleated giant cells. This being the second such case in the literature. Floret-like multinucleated giant cells have been reported in gynaecomastia and neurofibroma in neurofibromatosis type 1. These cells have been reported in uncommon soft tissue tumours including pleomorphic lipoma, giant cell collagenoma, giant cell fibroblastoma and giant cell angiofibroma. We recommend these cells to be interpreted carefully keeping in mind the rare malignant change in neurofibromas. Immunohistochemistry would help in defining the nature of such cells.
Ellipticity and twisting of the isophotes of some bright galaxies in Virgo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbon, R.; Benacchio, L.; Capaccioli, M.
1980-01-01
Ellipticity and twisting of the isophotes of four lenticular and seven elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster are presented as a sample of a more complete photometric investigation. This work has been motivated by the increasing importance of this kind of information for the understanding of the spatial structure of E galaxies. The calibrated plate material from the Loiano 1.52 meter and Tautenburg Schmidt telescopes has been digitized with a PDS microdensitometer and analysed by means of the Interactive Numerical Mapping Package (INMP). Ellipticity and orientation profiles are presented in a graphical form together with a preliminary discussion. A correlation has been found between ellipticity and twisting in barred lenticulars which might help in the understanding of some E galaxies such as NGC 4406 and NGC 4374. Twisting has been detected in all of the seven ellipticals of the sample
Circumstellar grain extinction properties of recently discovered post AGB stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buss, R.H. Jr.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.; Snow, T.P. Jr.
1989-01-01
The circumstellar grains of two hot evolved post asymptotic giant branch (post AGB) stars, HD 89353 and HD 213985 were examined. From ultraviolet spectra, energy balance of the flux, and Kurucz models, the extinction around 2175 A was derived. With visual spectra, an attempt was made to detect 6614 A diffuse band absorption arising from the circumstellar grains so that we could examine the relationship of these features to the infrared features. For both stars, we did not detect any diffuse band absorption at 6614 A, implying the carrier of this diffuse band is not the carrier of the unidentified infrared features not of the 2175 A bump. The linear ultraviolet extinction of the carbon-rich star HD 89353 was determined to continue across the 2175 A region with no sign of the bump; for HD 213985 it was found to be the reverse: a strong, wide bump in the mid-ultraviolet. The 213985 bump was found to be positioned at 2340 A, longward of its usual position in the interstellar medium. Since HD 213985 was determined to have excess carbon, the bump probably arises from a carbonaceous grain. Thus, in view of the ultraviolet and infrared properties of the two post AGB stars, ubiquitous interstellar infrared emission features do not seem to be associated with the 2175 A bump. Instead, the infrared features seem related to the linear ultraviolet extinction component: hydrocarbon grains of radius less than 300 A are present with the linear HD 89353 extinction; amorphous anhydrous carbonaceous grains of radius less than 50 A might cause the shifted ultraviolet extinction bump of HD 213985
Candy twists as an alternative to the glucola beverage in gestational diabetes mellitus screening.
Racusin, Diana A; Antony, Kathleen; Showalter, Lori; Sharma, Susan; Haymond, Morey; Aagaard, Kjersti M
2015-04-01
Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus commonly uses an oral glucose challenge test with a 50-g glucola beverage and subsequent venous puncture. However, up to 30% of pregnant women report significant side-effects, and the beverage is costly. We hypothesized that equivalent glucose loads could be achieved from a popular candy twist (Twizzlers; The Hershey Company, Hershey, PA) and tested it as cost-effective, tolerable alternative with a test of equivalency. The glucose equivalent of the 50-g glucola was calculated as 10 candy twists. We initially used a triple crossover design in nonpregnant patients whereby each subject served as her own control; this ensured the safety and equivalency of this load before using it among pregnant subjects. We then recruited pregnant women with an abnormal screening at 1 hour (glucose challenge test) in a double crossover design study. Subjects consumed 10 candy twists with a 1-hour venous blood glucose assessment. All subjects subsequently completed the confirmatory 3-hour glucose tolerance test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values, false-referral rates, and detection rates were calculated. At ≥130 mg/dL, the sensitivity (100%) was the same for candy twists and glucola. However, the false-referral rate (82% vs 90%), positive predictive value (18% vs 10%), and detection rate (18% vs 10%) were improved for candy twists when compared with the 50-g glucola beverage. Our results indicate that strawberry-flavored candy twists are potentially an equally effective screening test, compared with the gold standard glucola beverage but lead to fewer false-positive screens and therefore could be a cost-effective alternative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High Efficiency Large-Angle Pancharatnam Phase Deflector Based on Dual Twist Design
2016-12-16
construction and characterization of a ±40° beam steering device with 90% diffraction efficiency based on our dual-twist design at 633nm wavelength...N. & Escuti, M. J. Achromatic Wollaston prism beam splitter using polarization gratings. Opt. Lett. 41, 4461–4463 (2016). 13. Slussarenko, S., et...High-efficiency large-angle Pancharatnam phase deflector based on dual-twist design Kun Gao1, Colin McGinty1, Harold Payson2, Shaun Berry2, Joseph
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Sass, S.L.
1988-01-01
Quantitative X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to determine the atomic structure of the Σ = 5 and 13 [001] twist boundaries in Au with a resolution of 0.09 Angstrom or better. The reciprocal lattices of these boundaries were mapped out using synchrotron radiation. The atomic structures were obtained by testing model structures against the intensity observations with a chi square analysis. The boundary structure were modeled using polyhedra, including octahedra, special configurations of tetrahedra and Archimedian anti-prisms, interwoven together by the boundary symmetry. The results of this work point to the possibility of obtaining general rules for grain boundary structure based on X-ray diffraction observations that give the atomic positions with high resolution
Nitrogen dose and plant density effects on popcorn grain yield ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
and plant densities on grain yield and yield-related plant characteristics of popcorn in Hatay, located at Southern Mediterranean region of Turkey, during 2002 and 2003. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement with three replications. Nitrogen doses of 0, 120, 180 ...
Twist map, the extended Frenkel-Kontorova model and the devil's staircase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aubry, S.
1982-01-01
Exact results obtained on the discrete Frenkel Kontorova (FK) model and its extensions during the past few years are reviewed. These models are associated with area preserving twist maps of the cylinder (or a part of it) onto itself. The theorems obtained for the FK model thus yields new theorems for the twist maps. The exact structure of the ground-states which are either commensurate or incommensurate and assert the existence of elementary discommensurations under certain necessary and sufficient conditions is described. Necessary conditions for the trajectories to represent metastable configurations, which can be chaotic, are given. The existence of a finite Peierl Nabarro barrier for elementary discommensurations is connected with a property of non-integrability of the twist map. The existence of KAM tori corresponds to undefectible incommensurate ground-states and a theorem is given which asserts that when the phenon spectrum of an incommensurate ground-state exhibits a finite gap, then the corresponding trajectory is dense on a Cantor set with zero measure length. These theorems, when applied to the initial FK model, allows one to prove the existence of the transition by breaking of analyticity for the incommensurate structures when the parameter which describes the discrepancy of the model to the integrable limit varies. Finally, we describe a theorem proving the existence of a devil's staircase for the variation curve of the atomic mean distance versus a chemical potential, for certain properties of the twist map which are generally satisfied
Nanodielectrics with giant permittivity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Following the prediction, during the last couple of years we have investigated the effect of giant permittivity in one-dimensional systems of conventional metals and conjugated polymer chains. In this article, we have tried to summarize the works on giant permittivity and finally the fabrication of nanocapacitor using metal ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, C-C; You, J-Y; Gau, J-P; Huang, C-E; Chen, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-H; Chou, H-J; Lung, J; Yang, M-H
2015-01-01
Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical process for inducing stem-like properties of epithelial cancer cells. However, the role of EMT inducers in hematological malignancies is unknown. Twist1, an EMT inducer necessary for cell migration, has recently been found to have transcriptionally regulatory activity on the expression of Bmi1, and these two are capable of promoting tumorigenesis in a synergized manner. Knowing that Bmi1 expression is essential for maintenance of leukemic stem cells, we speculate that Twist1 might govern the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development as well. We found that upregulated Twist1 increased Bmi1 expression in AML and endued leukemic cells a higher proliferative potential and increased resistance to apoptosis. In primary AML samples, there was strong positive correlation between the expression levels of Twist1 and Bmi1. AML patients whose leukemic blasts harbored overexpressed Twist1 had a more aggressive clinical phenotype, but they were more likely to have a better clinical outcome after standard therapy. In vitro studies confirmed that Twist1-overexpressing leukemic cells were more susceptible to cytarabine, but not daunorubicin, cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that, in a subset of AML patients, Twist1 has a prominent role in the pathogenesis of the disease that leads to unique clinical phenotypes
First results of ETMC simulations with Nf=2+1+1 maximally twisted mass fermions
Baron, R.; Blossier, B.; Boucaud, P.; Deuzeman, A.; Drach, V.; Farchioni, F.; Gimenez, V.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K.; Michael, C.; Montvay, I.; Palao, D.; Pallante, E.; Pène, O.; Reker, S.; Urbach, C.; Wagner, M.; Wenger, U.; Collaboration, for the ETM
2009-01-01
We present first results from runs performed with Nf=2+1+1 flavours of dynamical twisted mass fermions at maximal twist: a degenerate light doublet and a mass split heavy doublet. An overview of the input parameters and tuning status of our ensembles is given, together with a comparison with results
From red giants to planetary nebulae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwok, S.
1982-01-01
The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Sung-Keum; Kim, Jae-Hee; Choi, Ha-Na [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Tae-Boo [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seok-Il [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jae-Youn [Laboratory of Modulation of Radiobiological Responses, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Gyu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Han, E-mail: yhlee87@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-07-11
Highlights: • Knockdown of TWIST1 enhanced ATO- and IR-induced cell death in NSCLCs. • Intracellular ROS levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA. • TWIST1 siRNA induced MMP loss and mitochondrial fragmentation. • TWIST1 siRNA upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. - Abstract: TWIST1 is implicated in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition, metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance in cancer cells, and therefore is a potential target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we found that knockdown of TWIST1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced arsenic trioxide (ATO)- and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Interestingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA and further increased by co-treatment with ATO or IR. Pretreatment of lung cancer cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine markedly suppressed the cell death induced by combined treatment with TWIST1 siRNA and ATO or IR. Moreover, treatment of cells with TWIST1 siRNA induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that siRNA-mediated TWIST1 knockdown induces mitochondrial dysfunction and enhances IR- and ATO-induced cell death in lung cancer cells.
BK-parameter from Nf=2 twisted mass lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constantinou, M.; Dimopoulos, P.; Frezzotti, R.; INFN, Rome
2011-01-01
We present an unquenched N f = 2 lattice computation of the B K parameter which controls K 0 - anti K 0 oscillations. A partially quenched setup is employed with two maximally twisted dynamical (sea) light Wilson quarks, and valence quarks of both the maximally twisted and the Osterwalder-Seiler variety. Suitable combinations of these two kinds of valence quarks lead to a lattice definition of the B K parameter which is both multiplicatively renormalizable and O(a) improved. Employing the non-perturbative RI-MOM scheme, in the continuum limit and at the physical value of the pion mass we get B RGI K =0.729±0.030, a number well in line with the existing quenched and unquenched determinations. (orig.)
Microwave modulation characteristics of twisted liquid crystals with chiral dopant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Yuan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Adding a chiral dopant in twisted nematic (TN liquid crystal cell can stabilize the orientation of liquid crystal molecules, particularly in high TN (HTN or super TN (STN liquid crystal cells. The difference in pitches in liquid crystal is induced by the chiral dopant, and these different pitches affect the orientation of liquid crystal director under an external applied voltage and influence the characteristics of microwave modulation. To illustrate this point, the microwave phase shift per unit length (MPSL versus voltage is calculated on the basis of the elastic theory of liquid crystal and the finite-difference iterative method. Enhancing the pitch induced by the chiral dopant in liquid crystal increases the MPSLs, but the stability of the twisted structures is decreased. Thus, appropriate pitches of 100d, 4d, and 2d can be applied in TN, HTN, and STN cells with cell gap d to enhance the characteristics of microwave modulation and stabilize the structures in twisted cell. This method can improve the characteristics of liquid crystal microwave modulators such that the operating voltage and the size of such phase shifters can be decreased.
Twist-2 Light-Cone Pion Wave Function
Belyaev, V. M.; Johnson, Mikkel B.
1997-01-01
We present an analysis of the existing constraints for the twist-2 light-cone pion wave function. We find that existing information on the pion wave function does not exclude the possibility that the pion wave function attains its asymptotic form. New bounds on the parameters of the pion wave function are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolando, G; Nijhuis, A; Devred, A
2014-01-01
The numerical code JackPot-ACDC (van Lanen et al 2010 Cryogenics 50 139–48, van Lanen et al 2011 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21 1926–9, van Lanen et al 2012 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 025012) allows fast parametric studies of the electro-magnetic performance of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs). In this paper the code is applied to the analysis of the relation between twist pitch length sequence and coupling loss in multi-stage ITER-type CICCs. The code shows that in the analysed conductors the coupling loss is at its minimum when the twist pitches of the successive cabling stages have a length ratio close to one. It is also predicted that by careful selection of the stage-to-stage twist pitch ratio, CICCs cabled according to long twist schemes in the initial stages can achieve lower coupling loss than conductors with shorter pitches. The result is validated by AC loss measurements performed on prototype conductors for the ITER Central Solenoid featuring different twist pitch sequences. (paper)
Mass loss of stars on the asymptotic giant branch. Mechanisms, models and measurements
Höfner, Susanne; Olofsson, Hans
2018-01-01
As low- and intermediate-mass stars reach the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), they have developed into intriguing and complex objects that are major players in the cosmic gas/dust cycle. At this stage, their appearance and evolution are strongly affected by a range of dynamical processes. Large-scale convective flows bring newly-formed chemical elements to the stellar surface and, together with pulsations, they trigger shock waves in the extended stellar atmosphere. There, massive outflows of gas and dust have their origin, which enrich the interstellar medium and, eventually, lead to a transformation of the cool luminous giants into white dwarfs. Dust grains forming in the upper atmospheric layers play a critical role in the wind acceleration process, by scattering and absorbing stellar photons and transferring their outward-directed momentum to the surrounding gas through collisions. Recent progress in high-angular-resolution instrumentation, from the visual to the radio regime, is leading to valuable new insights into the complex dynamical atmospheres of AGB stars and their wind-forming regions. Observations are revealing asymmetries and inhomogeneities in the photospheric and dust-forming layers which vary on time-scales of months, as well as more long-lived large-scale structures in the circumstellar envelopes. High-angular-resolution observations indicate at what distances from the stars dust condensation occurs, and they give information on the chemical composition and sizes of dust grains in the close vicinity of cool giants. These are essential constraints for building realistic models of wind acceleration and developing a predictive theory of mass loss for AGB stars, which is a crucial ingredient of stellar and galactic chemical evolution models. At present, it is still not fully possible to model all these phenomena from first principles, and to predict the mass-loss rate based on fundamental stellar parameters only. However, much progress has been made
Maekawa, Yasuko; Shiozaki, Akira; Majima, Yukie
2009-01-01
This study measured the twist angle of the lumbar region and the surface electromyogram (EMG) and examined their mutual relation to elucidate the degree and influence of factors of "twist" in nursing techniques as a cause of lower back pain. Using a goniometer (two-way angle and twist sensors) and an EMG(SX230; DKH Co., Ltd.), we conducted measurements by affixing the goniometer on the lumbar vertebral column and EMG sensor at four points of right and left sides of L2 and L4 (of the erector muscle of the spine). The measured nursing techniques were three common methods of "transferring a patient from bed to wheelchair," which is said to impart a heavy load on the lumbar region. Results show that the correlation value between the twist angle rate and mean energy is likely to be greater, suggesting that the magnitude of the load on the lumbar region should be related to the twist speed rather than to the twist angle of the movement itself.
On the propagation and the twist of Gaussian light in first-order optical systems
Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Gupta, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar
1998-01-01
A measure for the twist of Gaussian light is expressed in terms of the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function. The propagation law for these moments through first-order optical systems is used to express the twist in the output plane in terms of moments in the input plane, and vice
First results with two light flavours of quarks with maximally twisted mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, K.; Urbach, C.
2006-10-01
We report on first results of an ongoing effort to simulate lattice QCD with two degenerate flavours of quarks by means of the twisted mass formulation tuned to maximal twist. By utilising recent improvements of the HMC algorithm, pseudo-scalar masses well below 300 MeV are simulated on volumes L 3 .T with T=2L and L>2 fm and at values of the lattice spacing a f =2+1+1 flavours are discussed. (orig.)
Giant multipole resonances: an experimental review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertrand, F.E.
1979-01-01
During the past several years experimental evidence has been published for the existance of nondipole giant resonances. These giant multipole resonances, the so-called new giant resonances were first observed through inelastic hadron and electron scattering and such measurements have continued to provide most of the information in this field. A summary is provided of the experimental evidence for these new resonances. The discussion deals only with results from inelastic scattering and only with the electric multipoles. Emphasis is placed on the recent observations of the giant monopole resonance. Results from recent heavy-ion and pion inelastic scattering are discussed. 38 references
Giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mau, N.V.
1993-01-01
Giant resonances built on an excited state of the nucleus at a finite temperature T are studied. The following questions are investigated: how long such collective effects occur in a nucleus when T increases. How the properties of the giant resonances vary when the temperature increases. How the study of giant resonances in hot nuclei can give information on the structure of the nucleus in a highly excited state. The special case of the giant dipole resonance is studied. Some of the experimental results are reviewed and in their theoretical interpretation is discussed. (K.A.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs
Scaling and χPT description of pions from Nf=2 twisted mass QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimopoulos, Petros; Frezzotti, Roberto; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Urbach, Carsten; Bonn Univ.
2009-12-01
We study light-quark observables by means of dynamical lattice QCD simulations using two flavours of twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. We employ chiral perturbation theory to describe our data for the pion mass and decay constant. In this way, we extract precise determinations for the low-energy constants of the effective theory as well as for the light-quark mass and the chiral condensate. (orig.)
Twisting and Writhing with George Ellery Hale
Canfield, Richard C.
2013-06-01
Early in his productive career in astronomy, George Ellery Hale developed innovative solar instrumentation that allowed him to make narrow-band images. Among the solar phenomena he discovered were sunspot vortices, which he attributed to storms akin to cyclones in our own atmosphere. Using the concept of magnetic helicity, physicists and mathematicians describe the topology of magnetic fields, including twisting and writhing. Our contemporary understanding of Hale's vortices as a consequence of large-scale twist in sunspot magnetic fields hinges on a key property of helicity: conservation. I will describe the critical role that this property plays, when applied to twist and writhe, in a fundamental aspect of global solar magnetism: the hemispheric and solar cycle dependences of active region electric currents with respect to magnetic fields. With the advent of unbroken sequences of high-resolution magnetic images, such as those presently available from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on Solar Dynamics Observatory, the flux of magnetic helicity through the photosphere can be observed quantitatively. As magnetic flux tubes buoy up through the convection zone, buffeted and shredded by turbulence, they break up into fragments by repeated random bifurcation. We track these rising flux fragments in the photosphere, and calculate the flux of energy and magnetic helicity there. Using a quantitative model of coronal currents, we also track connections between these fragments to calculate the energy and magnetic helicity stored at topological interfaces that are in some ways analogous to the storage of stress at faults in the Earth's crust. Comparison of these values to solar flares and interplanetary coronal mass ejections implies that this is the primary storage mechanism for energy and magnetic helicity released in those phenomena, and suggests a useful tool for quantitative prediction of geomagnetic storms.
Electrified BPS giants: BPS configurations on giant gravitons with static electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad Mahdi
2007-01-01
We consider D3-brane action in the maximally supersymmetric type IIB plane-wave background. Upon fixing the light-cone gauge, we obtain the light-cone Hamiltonian which is manifestly supersymmetric. The 1/2 BPS solutions of this theory (solutions which preserve 16 supercharges) are either of the form of spherical three branes, the giant gravitons, or zero size point like branes. We then construct specific classes of 1/4 BPS solutions of this theory in which static electric field on the brane is turned on. These solutions are deformations about either of the two 1/2 BPS solutions. In particular, we study in some detail 1/4 BPS configurations with electric dipole on the three sphere giant, i.e. BIons on the giant gravitons, which we hence call BIGGons. We also study BPS configurations corresponding to turning on a background uniform constant electric field. As a result of this background electric field the three sphere giant is deformed to squashed sphere, while the zero size point like branes turn into circular or straight fundamental strings in the plane-wave background, with their tension equal to the background electric field
Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw
2018-04-30
We show that in twisted microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) the coupling between the core and cladding modes can be obtained for helix pitch much greater than previously considered. We provide an analytical model describing scaling properties of the twisted MOFs, which relates coupling conditions to dimensionless ratios between the wavelength, the lattice pitch and the helix pitch of the twisted fiber. Furthermore, we verify our model using a rigorous numerical method based on the transformation optics formalism and study its limitations. The obtained results show that for appropriately designed twisted MOFs, distinct, high loss resonance peaks can be obtained in a broad wavelength range already for the fiber with 9 mm helix pitch, thus allowing for fabrication of coupling based devices using a less demanding method involving preform spinning.
Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri
2005-01-01
We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)
Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik
Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016
2005-01-01
Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005
A zero torsional stiffness twist morphing blade as a wind turbine load alleviation device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lachenal, X; Daynes, S; Weaver, P M
2013-01-01
This paper presents the design, analysis and realization of a zero stiffness twist morphing wind turbine blade. The morphing blade is designed to actively twist as a means of alleviating the gust loads which reduce the fatigue life of wind turbine blades. The morphing structure exploits an elastic strain energy balance within the blade to enable large twisting deformations with modest actuation requirements. While twist is introduced using the warping of the blade skin, internal pre-stressed members ensure that a constant strain energy balance is achieved throughout the deformation, resulting in a zero torsional stiffness structure. The torsional stability of the morphing blade is characterized by analysing the elastic strain energy in the device. Analytical models of the skin, the pre-stressed components and the complete blade are compared to their respective finite element models as well as experimental results. The load alleviation potential of the adaptive structure is quantified using a two-dimensional steady flow aerodynamic model which is experimentally validated with wind tunnel measurements. (paper)
On the exchange of orbital angular momentum between twisted photons and atomic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, Basil S; Kaplan, L; McGuire, J H
2013-01-01
We obtain an expression for the matrix element for scattering of a twisted (Laguerre–Gaussian profile) photon from a hydrogen atom. We consider photons incoming with an orbital angular momentum (OAM) of ℓħ, carried by a factor of e iℓϕ not present in a plane-wave or pure Gaussian profile beam. The nature of the transfer of +2ℓ units of OAM from the photon to the azimuthal atomic quantum number of the atom is investigated. We obtain simple formulas for these OAM flip transitions for elastic forward scattering of twisted photons when the photon wavelength λ is large compared with the atomic target size a, and small compared with the Rayleigh range z R , which characterizes the collimation length of the twisted photon beam. (paper)
Rule-based expert system to establish the linkage between yarn twist factor and end-use.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dlodlo, N
2009-09-01
Full Text Available of the fibre alignment to axis. The tex twist factor αtex is defined as: where: αtex is the tex twist factor, t = twist expressed in turns/metre (or turns/centimetre), Ti = the effective linear density (count) of the composite yarn expressed in tex... of staple fibre yarns. They can be classed by fibre length (e.g. short and long staple), by spinning system (e.g. ring and rotor), or by yarn construction (e.g. single, plied, cabled, multiple and fancy). Ring-spun yarns are produced on 1000/itex Tt=α m...
R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS ARE VIABLE FACTORIES OF PRE-SOLAR GRAINS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karakas, Amanda I.; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Hampel, Melanie
2015-01-01
We present a new theoretical estimate for the birthrate of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars that is in agreement with recent observational data. We find the current Galactic birthrate of RCB stars to be ≈25% of the Galactic rate of Type Ia supernovae, assuming that RCB stars are formed through the merger of carbon–oxygen and helium-rich white dwarfs. Our new RCB birthrate (1.8 × 10 −3 yr −1 ) is a factor of 10 lower than previous theoretical estimates. This results in roughly 180–540 RCB stars in the Galaxy, depending on the RCB lifetime. From the theoretical and observational estimates, we calculate the total dust production from RCB stars and compare this rate to dust production from novae and born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the amount of dust produced by RCB stars is comparable to the amounts produced by novae or born-again post-AGB stars, indicating that these merger objects are a viable source of carbonaceous pre-solar grains in the Galaxy. There are graphite grains with carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios consistent with the observed composition of RCB stars, adding weight to the suggestion that these rare objects are a source of stardust grains
Duality in twisted N=4 supersymmetric gauge theories in four dimensions
Labastida, J.M.F.; Lozano, Carlos
1999-01-01
We consider a twisted version of the four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge groups SU(2) and SO(3), and bare masses for two of its chiral multiplets, thereby breaking N=4 down to N=2. Using the wall-crossing technique introduced by Moore and Witten within the u-plane approach to twisted topological field theories, we compute the partition function and all the topological correlation functions for the case of simply-connected spin four-manifolds of simple type. By including 't Hooft fluxes, we analyse the properties of the resulting formulae under duality transformations. The partition function transforms in the same way as the one first presented by Vafa and Witten for another twist of the N=4 supersymmetric theory in their strong coupling test of S-duality. Both partition functions coincide on K3. The topological correlation functions turn out to transform covariantly under duality, following a simple pattern which seems to be inherent in a general type of topological quantum field ...
'Twisted tape sign': Its significance in recurrent sigmoid volvulus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gopal, K. [Tameside and Glossop Acute Services NHS Trust, Fountain Street, Ashton-under-Lyne OL6 9RW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: karthikgopal73@yahoo.co.uk; Lim, Y. [Tameside and Glossop Acute Services NHS Trust, Fountain Street, Ashton-under-Lyne OL6 9RW (United Kingdom); Banerjee, B. [Tameside and Glossop Acute Services NHS Trust, Fountain Street, Ashton-under-Lyne OL6 9RW (United Kingdom)
2005-11-01
Aim: Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in the elderly. Mild attacks of sigmoid volvulus may be more difficult to diagnose due to the lack of severity of symptoms which may resolve spontaneously only to recur after an interval. This study was a review of patients to assess the incidence of the 'twisted tape sign' and to evaluate the significance of its presence in cases of recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Methods and materials: A retrospective study over eight years revealed six cases of surgically confirmed recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Case records and barium enemas of all patients were reviewed. Results: Six patients were identified, including four men and two women, with a median age of 56 years. Diagnostic difficulties were encountered in four (67%) patients with a delay ranging between 10 and 37 months with a mean 17.3 months. Twisted tape sign was confirmed on all barium examinations retrospectively. Conclusion: Recognition of twisted tape sign on barium enema examination along with an appropriate clinical history would suggest a diagnosis of recurrent sigmoid volvulus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Craig Armstrong
Full Text Available Increased left ventricular (LV twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, [Formula: see text]O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT: 32-69% of [Formula: see text]O2peak were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii at 2% above IAT, and, iii at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP. LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05. However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05. Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results.
Armstrong, Craig; Samuel, Jake; Yarlett, Andrew; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Stembridge, Mike; Stöhr, Eric J.
2016-01-01
Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, V˙O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT): 32–69% of V˙O2peak) were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i) the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii) at 2% above IAT, and, iii) at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP). LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05). However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05). Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees) of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results. PMID:27100099
Quercetin Suppresses Twist to Induce Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santhalakshmi Ranganathan
Full Text Available Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of quercetin in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, which differed in hormone receptor. IC50 value (37μM of quercetin showed significant cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells, which was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells even at 100μM of quercetin treatment. To study the response of cancer cells to quercetin, with respect to different hormone receptors, both the cell lines were treated with a fixed concentration (40μM of quercetin. MCF-7 cells on quercetin treatment showed more apoptotic cells with G1 phase arrest. In addition, quercetin effectively suppressed the expression of CyclinD1, p21, Twist and phospho p38MAPK, which was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. To analyse the molecular mechanism of quercetin in exerting an apoptotic effect in MCF-7 cells, Twist was over-expressed and the molecular changes were observed after quercetin administration. Quercetin effectively regulated the expression of Twist, in turn p16 and p21 which induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, quercetin induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through suppression of Twist via p38MAPK pathway.
An Analysis of the Linguistic Deviation in Chapter X of Oliver Twist
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘聪
2013-01-01
Charles Dickens is one of the greatest critical realist writers of the Victorian Age. In language, he is often compared with William Shakespeare for his adeptness with the vernacular and large vocabulary. Charles Dickens achieved a recognizable place among English writers through the use of the stylistic features in his fictional language. Oliver Twist is the best representative of Charles Dickens’style, which makes it the most appropriate choice for the present stylistic study on Charles Dickens. No one who has ever read the dehumanizing workhouse scenes of Oliver Twist and the dark, criminal underworld life can forget them. This thesis attempts to investigate Oliver Twist through the approach of modern stylistics, particularly the theory of linguistic devia-tion. This thesis consists of an introduction, the main body and a conclusion. The introduction offers a brief summary of the com-ments on Charles Dickens and Chapter X of Oliver Twist, introduces the newly rising linguistic deviation theories, and brings about the theories on which this thesis settles. The main body explores the deviation effects produced from four aspects: lexical deviation, grammatical deviation, graphological deviation, and semantic deviation. It endeavors to show Dickens ’manipulating language and the effects achieved through this manipulation. The conclusion mainly sums up the previous analysis, and reveals the theme of the novel, positive effect of linguistic deviation and significance of deviation application.
Giant cells around bone biomaterials: Osteoclasts or multi-nucleated giant cells?
Miron, Richard J; Zohdi, Hamoon; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Bosshardt, Dieter D
2016-12-01
Recently accumulating evidence has put into question the role of large multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) around bone biomaterials. While cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage are one of the first cell types in contact with implanted biomaterials, it was originally thought that specifically in bone tissues, all giant cells were bone-resorbing osteoclasts whereas foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) were found associated with a connective tissue foreign body reaction resulting in fibrous encapsulation and/or material rejection. Despite the great majority of bone grafting materials routinely found with large osteoclasts, a special subclass of bone biomaterials has more recently been found surrounded by large giant cells virtually incapable of resorbing bone grafts even years after their implantation. While original hypotheses believed that a 'foreign body reaction' may be taking place, histological data retrieved from human samples years after their implantation have put these original hypotheses into question by demonstrating better and more stable long-term bone volume around certain bone grafts. Exactly how or why this 'special' subclass of giant cells is capable of maintaining long-term bone volume, or methods to scientifically distinguish them from osteoclasts remains extremely poorly studied. The aim of this review article was to gather the current available literature on giant cell markers and differences in expression patterns between osteoclasts and MNGCs utilizing 19 specific markers including an array of CD-cell surface markers. Furthermore, the concept of now distinguishing between pro-inflammatory M1-MNGCs (previously referred to as FBGCs) as well as wound-healing M2-MNGCs is introduced and discussed. This review article presents 19 specific cell-surface markers to distinguish between osteoclasts and MNGCs including an array of CD-cell surface markers. Furthermore, the concept of now distinguishing between pro-inflammatory M1-MNGCs (often
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, G.A. Jr.; Najafabadi, R.; Strohmayer, W.; Baldrey, D.G.; Hamm, B.; Harris, J.; Sticht, J.; Wimmer, E.
2003-01-01
Atomistic modeling methods were employed to investigate the effects of impurity elements on the metallurgy, irradiation embrittlement, and environmentally assisted cracking of nickel-base alloys exposed to nuclear environments. Calculations were performed via ab initio atomistic modeling methods to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the results. A Griffith-type fracture criterion was used to quantitatively assess the effect of elements or element pairs on the grain boundary cohesive strength. In order of most embrittling to most strengthening, the elements are ranked as: He, Li, S, H, C, Zr, P, Fe, Mn, Nb, Cr, and B. Helium is strongly embrittling (-2.04 eV/atom lowering of the Griffith energy), phosphorus has little effect on the grain boundary (0.1 eV/atom), and boron offers appreciable strengthening (1.03 eV/atom increase in the Griffith energy). Calculations for pairs of elements (H-Li, H-B, H-C, H-P, and H-S) show little interaction on the grain boundary cohesive energy, so that for the conditions studied, linear superposition of elemental effects is a good approximation. These calculations help explain metallurgical effects (e.g. why boron can strengthen grain boundaries), irradiation embrittlement (e.g. how boron transmutation results in grain boundary embrittlement), as well as how grain boundary impurity elements can affect environmentally assisted cracking (i.e. low temperature crack propagation and stress corrosion cracking) of nickel-base alloys
THE FIRST DISCOVERY OF PRESOLAR GRAPHITE GRAINS FROM THE HIGHLY REDUCING QINGZHEN (EH3) METEORITE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Yuchen; Lin, Yangting; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong, E-mail: linyt@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)
2016-07-10
Presolar graphite grains have been extensively studied, but are limited in carbonaceous chondrites, particularly in Murchison (CM2) and Orgueil (CI1), which sampled materials from the oxidizing regions in the solar nebula. Here, we report the first discovery of presolar graphite grains from the Qingzhen (EH3) enstatite chondrite which formed under a highly reducing condition. Eighteen presolar graphite grains were identified by C-isotope mapping of the low-density fraction (1.75–1.85 g cm{sup 3}) from Qingzhen acid residue. Another 58 graphite spherules were found in different areas of the same sample mount using a scanning electron microscope and were classified into three morphologies, including cauliflower, onion, and cauliflower–onion. The Raman spectra of these spherules vary from ordered, disordered, and glassy to kerogen-like, suggestive of a wide range of thermal metamorphisms. NanoSIMS analysis of the C- and Si-isotopes of these graphite spherules confirmed 23 presolar grains. The other 35 graphite spherules have no significant isotopic anomalies, but they share similar morphologies and Raman spectra with the presolar ones. Another three grains were identified during NanoSIMS analysis. Of all the 44 presolar graphite grains identified, six grains show {sup 28}Si-excesses, suggestive of supernovae origins, and four grains are {sup 12}C- and {sup 29,30}Si-rich, consistent with low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star origins. Another two graphite spherules have extremely low {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios with marginal solar Si-isotopes. The morphologies, Raman spectra, and C- and Si-isotopic distributions of the presolar graphite grains from the Qingzhen enstatite chondrite are similar to those of the low-density fractions from Murchison carbonaceous chondrites. This study suggests a homogeneous distribution of presolar graphite grains in the solar nebula.
THE FIRST DISCOVERY OF PRESOLAR GRAPHITE GRAINS FROM THE HIGHLY REDUCING QINGZHEN (EH3) METEORITE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Yuchen; Lin, Yangting; Zhang, Jianchao; Hao, Jialong
2016-01-01
Presolar graphite grains have been extensively studied, but are limited in carbonaceous chondrites, particularly in Murchison (CM2) and Orgueil (CI1), which sampled materials from the oxidizing regions in the solar nebula. Here, we report the first discovery of presolar graphite grains from the Qingzhen (EH3) enstatite chondrite which formed under a highly reducing condition. Eighteen presolar graphite grains were identified by C-isotope mapping of the low-density fraction (1.75–1.85 g cm 3 ) from Qingzhen acid residue. Another 58 graphite spherules were found in different areas of the same sample mount using a scanning electron microscope and were classified into three morphologies, including cauliflower, onion, and cauliflower–onion. The Raman spectra of these spherules vary from ordered, disordered, and glassy to kerogen-like, suggestive of a wide range of thermal metamorphisms. NanoSIMS analysis of the C- and Si-isotopes of these graphite spherules confirmed 23 presolar grains. The other 35 graphite spherules have no significant isotopic anomalies, but they share similar morphologies and Raman spectra with the presolar ones. Another three grains were identified during NanoSIMS analysis. Of all the 44 presolar graphite grains identified, six grains show 28 Si-excesses, suggestive of supernovae origins, and four grains are 12 C- and 29,30 Si-rich, consistent with low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star origins. Another two graphite spherules have extremely low 12 C/ 13 C ratios with marginal solar Si-isotopes. The morphologies, Raman spectra, and C- and Si-isotopic distributions of the presolar graphite grains from the Qingzhen enstatite chondrite are similar to those of the low-density fractions from Murchison carbonaceous chondrites. This study suggests a homogeneous distribution of presolar graphite grains in the solar nebula.
Hilbert's Grand Hotel with a series twist
Wijeratne, Chanakya; Mamolo, Ami; Zazkis, Rina
2014-08-01
This paper presents a new twist on a familiar paradox, linking seemingly disparate ideas under one roof. Hilbert's Grand Hotel, a paradox which addresses infinite set comparisons is adapted and extended to incorporate ideas from calculus - namely infinite series. We present and resolve several variations, and invite the reader to explore his or her own variations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anikin, I.V.; Ivanov, D.Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.
2010-01-01
We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method involves the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light cone. We compare the proposed method with the covariant method formulated in the coordinate space, based on the operator product expansion. We prove the equivalence of two proposed parametrizations of the ρ T distribution amplitudes. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised ρ-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy within these two quite different methods and show that they are identical.
Outflow and clogging of shape-anisotropic grains in hoppers with small apertures.
Ashour, A; Wegner, S; Trittel, T; Börzsönyi, T; Stannarius, R
2017-01-04
Outflow of granular material through a small orifice is a fundamental process in many industrial fields, for example in silo discharge, and in everyday's life. Most experimental studies of the dynamics have been performed so far with monodisperse disks in two-dimensional (2D) hoppers or spherical grains in 3D. We investigate this process for shape-anisotropic grains in 3D hoppers and discuss the role of size and shape parameters on avalanche statistics, clogging states, and mean flow velocities. It is shown that an increasing aspect ratio of the grains leads to lower flow rates and higher clogging probabilities compared to spherical grains. On the other hand, the number of grains forming the clog is larger for elongated grains of comparable volumes, and the long axis of these blocking grains is preferentially aligned towards the center of the orifice. We find a qualitative transition in the hopper discharge behavior for aspect ratios larger than ≈6. At still higher aspect ratios >8-12, the outflowing material leaves long vertical holes in the hopper that penetrate the complete granular bed. This changes the discharge characteristics qualitatively.
Separation of minimum and higher twist in photoproduction of high-pT mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apsimon, R.J.; Flower, P.S.; Hallewell, G.; Morris, J.A.G.; Morris, J.V.; Paterson, C.N.; Sharp, P.H.; Atkinson, M.; Brook, N.; Coyle, P.; Dickinson, B.; Donnachie, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Ellison, R.J.; Foster, J.M.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Ibbotson, M.; Kolya, S.D.; Lafferty, G.D.; McCann, H.; McManus, C.; Mercer, D.; Ottewell, P.J.; Reid, D.; Thompson, R.J.; Waterhouse, J.; Barberis, D.; Davenport, M.; Eades, J.; Ingelman, G.; McClatchey, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Charity, T.; Clegg, A.B.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hickman, M.T.; Keemer, N.R.; Newton, D.; O'Connor, A.; Wilson, G.W.; Danaher, S.; Galbraith, W.; Thacker, N.A.; Thompson, L.; Diekmann, B.; Gapp, C.; Gebert, F.; Heinloth, K.; Hoeger, K.C.; Holzkamp, A.; Holzkamp, S.; Jakob, H.P.; Joseph, D.; Kingler, J.; Koersgen, G.; Oedingen, R.; Paul, E.; Rotscheidt, H.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Weigend, A.S.
1991-01-01
Photo- and hadroproduction data in the beam energy range 65-175 GeV have been studied with a view to isolating higher-twist processes in photoproduction from other point-like and hadron-like contributions. With selection of charged tracks having p T >2 GeV/c and 0.28 F <0.84 indications of a higher twist contribution have been found at a level that is consistent with QCD expectations. (orig.)
On reflection algebras and twisted Yangians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2005-01-01
It is well known that integrable models associated to rational R matrices give rise to certain non-Abelian symmetries known as Yangians. Analogously boundary symmetries arise when general but still integrable boundary conditions are implemented, as originally argued by Delius, Mackay, and Short from the field theory point of view, in the context of the principal chiral model on the half-line. In the present study we deal with a discrete quantum mechanical system with boundaries, that is the N site gl(n) open quantum spin chain. In particular, the open spin chain with two distinct types of boundary condition known as soliton preserving and soliton nonpreserving is considered. For both types of boundaries we present a unified framework for deriving the corresponding boundary nonlocal charges directly at the quantum level. The nonlocal charges are simply coproduct realizations of particular boundary quantum algebras called boundary or twisted Yangians, depending on the choice of boundary conditions. Finally, with the help of linear intertwining relations between the solutions of the reflection equation and the generators of the boundary or twisted Yangians we are able to exhibit the exact symmetry of the open spin chain, namely we show that a number of the boundary nonlocal charges are in fact conserved quantities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shibata, T.; Hasegawa, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)
2010-07-01
Grain boundary precipitation strengthening is expected to be a decisive factor in developing ferritic creep resistant steels. This study examined the grain boundary precipitation strengthening mechanism extracting the effect of the tempered martensitic microstructure and precipitates on the high angle grain boundary in M{sub 23}C4{sub 6} type carbide and the Fe{sub 2}W type Laves phase effect of the creep deformation fixing the grain boundary according to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation. A creep test was carried out at high temperature in order to evaluate the high angle boundary strengthening effect simulating the long-term creep deformation microstructure by the lath structure disappearance. The correlation of the creep rupture time and the grain boundary shielding ratio were found to be independent of precipitate type. The creep deformation model represents block boundary shielding by precipitates as the decisive factor for W containing ferritic creep resistant steels. (orig.)
Giant Planets: Good Neighbors for Habitable Worlds?
Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Eggl, Siegfried; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian
2018-04-01
The presence of giant planets influences potentially habitable worlds in numerous ways. Massive celestial neighbors can facilitate the formation of planetary cores and modify the influx of asteroids and comets toward Earth analogs later on. Furthermore, giant planets can indirectly change the climate of terrestrial worlds by gravitationally altering their orbits. Investigating 147 well-characterized exoplanetary systems known to date that host a main-sequence star and a giant planet, we show that the presence of “giant neighbors” can reduce a terrestrial planet’s chances to remain habitable, even if both planets have stable orbits. In a small fraction of systems, however, giant planets slightly increase the extent of habitable zones provided that the terrestrial world has a high climate inertia. In providing constraints on where giant planets cease to affect the habitable zone size in a detrimental fashion, we identify prime targets in the search for habitable worlds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Conventional solar heaters are inefficient due to poor convective heat transfer. → Twisted tapes improve the heat transfer rate in solar water heater system. → Increase in outlet water temperature by 15 o C through the use of twisted tapes. →Thermal performance of twisted tape collector is 19% more than plain tube system. → Reduces collector area (0.6 m 2 ) whereas area for conventional collector is 1 m 2 . -- Abstract: Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with helical and Left-Right twist of twist ratio 3 has been performed and presented. The helical twisted tape induces swirl flow inside the riser tubes unidirectional over the length. But, in Left-Right system the swirl flow is bidirectional which increases the heat transfer and pressure drop when compared to the helical system. The experimental heat transfer and friction factors characteristics are validated with theoretical equations and the deviation falls with in the acceptable limits. The results show that heat transfer enhancement in twisted tape collector is higher than the plain tube collector. Compared to helical and Left-Right twisted tape system of same twist ratio 3, maximum thermal performance is obtained for Left-Right twisted tape collector with increase in solar intensity.
Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Shindler, Andrea; Wagner, Marc
2008-08-01
We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV PS S mesons. (orig.)
3-sphere fibrations: a tool for analyzing twisted materials in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadoc, J F; Charvolin, J
2009-01-01
Chiral molecules, when densely packed in soft condensed matter or biological materials, build organizations which are most often spontaneously twisted. The crystals of 'blue' phases formed by small mesogenic molecules demonstrate the structural importance of such a twist or torsion, and its presence was also recently observed in finite toroidal aggregates formed by long DNA molecules. The formation of these organizations is driven by the fact that compactness, which tends to align the molecules, enters into conflict with torsion, which tends to disrupt this alignment. This conflict of topological nature, or frustration, arises because of the flatness of the Euclidean space, but does not exist in the curved space of the 3-sphere where particular lines, its fibres, can be drawn which are parallel and nevertheless twisted. As these fibrations conciliate compactness and torsion, they can be used as geometrical templates for the analysis of organizations in the Euclidean space. We describe these fibrations, with a particular emphasis on their torsion.
Le, H. Anh; Do, V. Nam
2018-03-01
We investigate the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with arbitrary twist angles θ . Our results are based on a method of evolving in time quantum states in lattice space. We propose an efficient scheme of sampling lattice nodes that helps to reduce significantly computational cost, particularly for tiny twist angles. We demonstrate the continuous variation of the density of states and the optical conductivity with respect to the twist angle. It indicates that the commensurability between the two graphene layers does not play an essential role in governing the electronic and optical properties. We point out that, for the twist angles roughly in the range 0 .1∘energy exhibits the typical W shape with a small peak locating at the Fermi energy. This peak is formed as the merging of two van Hove peaks and reflects the appearance of states strongly localized in the AA-like region of moiré zones. When decreasing the twist angle to zero, the W shape is gradually transformed to the U shape, which is seen as the behavior of the density of states in the limit of θ →0∘ .
Line bundle twisted chiral de Rham complex and bound states of D-branes on toric manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkhomenko, S.E.
2014-01-01
In this note we calculate elliptic genus in various examples of twisted chiral de Rham complex on two-dimensional toric compact manifolds and Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces in toric manifolds. At first the elliptic genus is calculated for the line bundle twisted chiral de Rham complex on a compact smooth toric manifold and K3 hypersurface in P 3 . Then we twist chiral de Rham complex by sheaves localized on positive codimension submanifolds in P 2 and calculate in each case the elliptic genus. In the last example the elliptic genus of chiral de Rham complex on P 2 twisted by SL(N) vector bundle with instanton number k is calculated. In all the cases considered we find the infinite tower of open string oscillator contributions and identify directly the open string boundary conditions of the corresponding bound state of D-branes
Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omel' chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias [Weierstrass Institute, Mohrenstrasse 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Laing, Carlo R. [INMS, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904 NSMC, Auckland (New Zealand)
2014-06-15
We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system.
Partially coherent twisted states in arrays of coupled phase oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omel'chenko, Oleh E.; Wolfrum, Matthias; Laing, Carlo R.
2014-01-01
We consider a one-dimensional array of phase oscillators with non-local coupling and a Lorentzian distribution of natural frequencies. The primary objects of interest are partially coherent states that are uniformly “twisted” in space. To analyze these, we take the continuum limit, perform an Ott/Antonsen reduction, integrate over the natural frequencies, and study the resulting spatio-temporal system on an unbounded domain. We show that these twisted states and their stability can be calculated explicitly. We find that stable twisted states with different wave numbers appear for increasing coupling strength in the well-known Eckhaus scenario. Simulations of finite arrays of oscillators show good agreement with results of the analysis of the infinite system
Large Variations of the Raman Signal in the Spectra of Twisted Bilayer Graphene on a BN Substrate.
Kalbac, Martin; Frank, Otakar; Kong, Jing; Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred S
2012-03-15
We report an unusual enhancement of the Raman signal of the G mode in a twisted graphene bilayer (2-LG) on a hexagonal single-crystalline boron nitride substrate. We used an isotopically engineered 2-LG, where the top layer was composed of (13)C atoms and the bottom layer of (12)C atoms. Consequently, it was possible by Raman spectroscopy to distinguish between the enhancement coming from the top and bottom layers. The enhancement of the G mode was, however, found to be similar for the top and bottom layers, and this enhancement effect was observed only at certain locations on the substrate. The experiment with two different laser excitation energies showed that the location of the enhanced spots is dependent on the laser excitation energy. Therefore our results suggest that the enhancement comes from new states in the electronic structure, which are a consequence of a local specific rotation of the grains in graphene layers.
Ma, Ben; Lei, Shuo; Qing, Qin; Wen, Yali
2018-05-03
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) reduced the threat status of the giant panda from “endangered” to “vulnerable” in September 2016. In this study, we analyzed current practices for giant panda conservation at regional and local environmental scales, based on recent reports of giant panda protection efforts in Sichuan Province, China, combined with the survey results from 927 households within and adjacent to the giant panda reserves in this area. The results showed that household attitudes were very positive regarding giant panda protection efforts. Over the last 10 years, farmers’ dependence on the natural resources provided by giant panda reserves significantly decreased. However, socio-economic development increased resource consumption, and led to climate change, habitat fragmentation, environmental pollution, and other issues that placed increased pressure on giant panda populations. This difference between local and regional scales must be considered when evaluating the IUCN status of giant pandas. While the status of this species has improved in the short-term due to positive local attitudes, large-scale socio-economic development pressure could have long-term negative impacts. Consequently, the IUCN assessment leading to the classification of giant panda as “vulnerable” instead of “endangered”, should not affect its conservation intensity and effort, as such actions could negatively impact population recovery efforts, leading to the extinction of this charismatic species.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben Ma
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN reduced the threat status of the giant panda from “endangered” to “vulnerable” in September 2016. In this study, we analyzed current practices for giant panda conservation at regional and local environmental scales, based on recent reports of giant panda protection efforts in Sichuan Province, China, combined with the survey results from 927 households within and adjacent to the giant panda reserves in this area. The results showed that household attitudes were very positive regarding giant panda protection efforts. Over the last 10 years, farmers’ dependence on the natural resources provided by giant panda reserves significantly decreased. However, socio-economic development increased resource consumption, and led to climate change, habitat fragmentation, environmental pollution, and other issues that placed increased pressure on giant panda populations. This difference between local and regional scales must be considered when evaluating the IUCN status of giant pandas. While the status of this species has improved in the short-term due to positive local attitudes, large-scale socio-economic development pressure could have long-term negative impacts. Consequently, the IUCN assessment leading to the classification of giant panda as “vulnerable” instead of “endangered”, should not affect its conservation intensity and effort, as such actions could negatively impact population recovery efforts, leading to the extinction of this charismatic species.
Lee, Jae Ah; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong
2015-04-01
High performance torsional and tensile artificial muscles are described, which utilize thermally- or electrochemically-induced volume changes of twist-spun, guest-filled, carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. These yarns were prepared by incorporating twist in carbon nanotube sheets drawn from spinnable CNT forests. Inserting high twist into the CNT yarn results in yarn coiling, which can dramatically amplify tensile stroke and work capabilities compared with that for the non-coiled twisted yarn. When electrochemically driven in a liquid electrolyte, these artificial muscles can generate a torsional rotation per muscle length that is over 1000 times higher than for previously reported torsional muscles. All-solid-state torsional electrochemical yarn muscles have provided a large torsional muscle stroke (53° per mm of yarn length) and a tensile stroke of up to 1.3% when lifting loads that are ~25 times heavier than can be lifted by the same diameter human skeletal muscle. Over a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles have been demonstrated for thermally powered CNT hybrid yarns muscles filled with paraffin wax, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. At lower actuation rates, these thermally powered muscles provide tensile strokes of over 10%.
Nonsnaking doubly diffusive convectons and the twist instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beaume, Cédric, E-mail: ced.beaume@gmail.com; Knobloch, Edgar, E-mail: knobloch@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bergeon, Alain, E-mail: alain.bergeon@imft.fr [Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse, France and CNRS, IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France)
2013-11-15
Doubly diffusive convection in a three-dimensional horizontally extended domain with a square cross section in the vertical is considered. The fluid motion is driven by horizontal temperature and concentration differences in the transverse direction. When the buoyancy ratio N = −1 and the Rayleigh number is increased the conduction state loses stability to a subcritical, almost two-dimensional roll structure localized in the longitudinal direction. This structure exhibits abrupt growth in length near a particular value of the Rayleigh number but does not snake. Prior to this filling transition the structure becomes unstable to a secondary twist instability generating a pair of stationary, spatially localized zigzag states. In contrast to the primary branch these states snake as they grow in extent and eventually fill the whole domain. The origin of the twist instability and the properties of the resulting localized structures are investigated for both periodic and no-slip boundary conditions in the extended direction.
The ρ-meson longitudinal leading-twist distribution amplitude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hai-Bing Fu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we suggest a convenient model for the vector ρ-meson longitudinal leading-twist distribution amplitude ϕ2;ρ‖, whose distribution is controlled by a single parameter B2;ρ‖. By choosing proper chiral current in the correlator, we obtain new light-cone sum rules (LCSR for the B→ρ TFFs A1, A2 and V, in which the δ1-order ϕ2;ρ‖ provides dominant contributions. Then we make a detailed discussion on the ϕ2;ρ‖ properties via those B→ρ TFFs. A proper choice of B2;ρ‖ can make all the TFFs agree with the lattice QCD predictions. A prediction of |Vub| has also been presented by using the extrapolated TFFs, which indicates that a larger B2;ρ‖ leads to a larger |Vub|. To compare with the BABAR data on |Vub|, the longitudinal leading-twist DA ϕ2;ρ‖ prefers a doubly-humped behavior.
A search for lithium-rich giant stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, J.A.; Sneden, C.; Lambert, D.L.; Dutchover, E. Jr.
1989-01-01
Lithium abundances or upper limits have been determined for 644 bright G-K giant stars selected from the DDO photometric catalog. Two of these giants possess surface lithium abundances approaching the cosmic value of the interstellar medium and young main-sequence stars, and eight more giants have Li contents far in excess of standard predictions. At least some of these Li-rich giants are shown to be evolved to the stage of having convectively mixed envelopes, either from the direct evidence of low surface carbon isotope ratios, or from the indirect evidence of their H-R diagram positions. Suggestions are given for the unique conditions that might have allowed these stars to produce or accrete new lithium for their surface layers, or simply to preserve from destruction their initial lithium contents. The lithium abundance of the remaining stars demonstrates that giants only very rarely meet the expectations of standard first dredge-up theories; the average extra Li destruction required is about 1.5 dex. The evolutionary states of these giants and their average masses are discussed briefly, and the Li distribution of the giants is compared to predictions of Galactic chemical evolution. 110 refs
On the restoration of supersymmetry in twisted two-dimensional lattice Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catterall, Simon
2007-01-01
We study a discretization of N = 2 super Yang-Mills theory which possesses a single exact supersymmetry at non-zero lattice spacing. This supersymmetry arises after a reformulation of the theory in terms of twisted fields. In this paper we derive the action of the other twisted supersymmetries on the component fields and study, using Monte Carlo simulation, a series of corresponding Ward identities. Our results for SU(2) and SU(3) support a restoration of these additional supersymmetries without fine tuning in the infinite volume continuum limit. Additionally we present evidence supporting a restoration of (twisted) rotational invariance in the same limit. Finally we have examined the distribution of scalar field eigenvalues and find evidence for power law tails extending out to large eigenvalue. We argue that these tails indicate that the classical moduli space does not survive in the quantum theory
Performance Assessment in a Heat Exchanger Tube with Opposite/Parallel Wing Twisted Tapes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Eiamsa-ard
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The thermohydraulic performance in a tube containing a modified twisted tape with alternate-axes and wing arrangements is reported. This work aims to investigate the effects of wing arrangements (opposite (O and parallel (P wings at different wing shapes (triangle (Tri, rectangular (Rec, and trapezoidal (Tra wings and on the thermohydraulic performance characteristics. The obtained results show that wing twisted tapes with all wing shape arrangements (O-Tri/O-Rec/O-Tra/P-Tri/P-Rec/P-Tra give superior thermohydraulic performance and heat transfer rate to the typical twisted tape. In addition, the tapes with opposite wing arrangement of O-Tra, O-Rec, and O-Tri give superior thermohydraulic performances to those with parallel wing arrangement of P-Tra, P-Rec, and P-Tri around 2.7%, 3.5%, and 3.2%, respectively.
Macroscopic description of isoscalar giant multipole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.
1980-01-01
On the basis of a simple macroscopic model, we calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance energy as a function of mass number and multipole degree. The restoring force is determined from the distortion of the Fermi surface, and the inertia is determined for the incompressible, irrotational flow of nucleons with unit effective mass. With no adjustable parameters, the resulting closed expression reproduces correctly the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole energy and the magnitude of the giant octupole energy for 208 Pb. We also calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance width as a function of mass number and multipole degree for various macroscopic damping mechanisms, including two-body viscosity, one-body dissipation, and modified one-body dissipation. None of these damping mechanisms reproduces correctly all features of the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole width and the magnitude of the giant octupole width for 208 Pb
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suvanjan Bhattacharyya
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in a tube fitted with inserted twisted tape swirl generator is performed. The twisted tapes are separately inserted from the tube wall. The configuration parameters include the, entrance angle (α and pitch (H. Investigations have been done in the range of α = 180°, 160° and 140° with Reynolds number varying between 100 and 20,000. In this paper, transition – SST model which can predict the transition of flow regime from laminar through intermittent to turbulent has been utilized for numerical simulations. The computational results are in good agreement with experimental data. The results show that higher entrance angle yields a higher heat transfer value. The using of single twist twisted tape supplies considerable increase on heat transfer and pressure drop when compared with the conventional twisted tapes. A large data set has been generated for heat transfer and thermal-hydraulic performance which is useful for the design of solar thermal heaters and heat exchangers.
Integral Twist Actuation of Helicopter Rotor Blades for Vibration Reduction
Shin, SangJoon; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.
2001-01-01
Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework is developed to examine integrally-twisted blades and their aeroelastic response during different flight conditions: frequency domain analysis for hover, and time domain analysis for forward flight. Both stem from the same three-dimensional electroelastic beam formulation with geometrical-exactness, and axe coupled with a finite-state dynamic inflow aerodynamics model. A prototype Active Twist Rotor blade was designed with this framework using Active Fiber Composites as the actuator. The ATR prototype blade was successfully tested under non-rotating conditions. Hover testing was conducted to evaluate structural integrity and dynamic response. In both conditions, a very good correlation was obtained against the analysis. Finally, a four-bladed ATR system is built and tested to demonstrate its concept in forward flight. This experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Tansonic Dynamics Tunnel and represents the first-of-a-kind Mach-scaled fully-active-twist rotor system to undergo forward flight test. In parallel, the impact upon the fixed- and rotating-system loads is estimated by the analysis. While discrepancies are found in the amplitude of the loads under actuation, the predicted trend of load variation with respect to its control phase correlates well. It was also shown, both experimentally and numerically, that the ATR blade design has the potential for hub vibratory load reduction of up to 90% using individual blade control actuation. Using the numerical framework, system identification is performed to estimate the harmonic transfer functions. The linear time-periodic system can be represented by a linear time-invariant system under the three modes of blade actuation: collective, longitudinal cyclic, and lateral cyclic. A vibration
Tests of the Giant Impact Hypothesis
Jones, J. H.
1998-01-01
The giant impact hypothesis has gained popularity as a means of explaining a volatile-depleted Moon that still has a chemical affinity to the Earth. As Taylor's Axiom decrees, the best models of lunar origin are testable, but this is difficult with the giant impact model. The energy associated with the impact would be sufficient to totally melt and partially vaporize the Earth. And this means that there should he no geological vestige of Barber times. Accordingly, it is important to devise tests that may be used to evaluate the giant impact hypothesis. Three such tests are discussed here. None of these is supportive of the giant impact model, but neither do they disprove it.
Homochiral Evolution in Self-Assembled Chiral Polymers and Block Copolymers.
Wen, Tao; Wang, Hsiao-Fang; Li, Ming-Chia; Ho, Rong-Ming
2017-04-18
The significance of chirality transfer is not only involved in biological systems, such as the origin of homochiral structures in life but also in man-made chemicals and materials. How the chiral bias transfers from molecular level (molecular chirality) to helical chain (conformational chirality) and then to helical superstructure or phase (hierarchical chirality) from self-assembly is vital for the chemical and biological processes in nature, such as communication, replication, and enzyme catalysis. In this Account, we summarize the methodologies for the examination of homochiral evolution at different length scales based on our recent studies with respect to the self-assembly of chiral polymers and chiral block copolymers (BCPs*). A helical (H*) phase to distinguish its P622 symmetry from that of normal hexagonally packed cylinder phase was discovered in the self-assembly of BCPs* due to the chirality effect on BCP self-assembly. Enantiomeric polylactide-containing BCPs*, polystyrene-b-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA) and polystyrene-b-poly(d-lactide) (PS-PDLA), were synthesized for the examination of homochiral evolution. The optical activity (molecular chirality) of constituted chiral repeating unit in the chiral polylactide is detected by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) whereas the conformational chirality of helical polylactide chain can be explicitly determined by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The H* phases of the self-assembled polylactide-containing BCPs* can be directly visualized by 3D transmission electron microscopy (3D TEM) technique at which the handedness (hierarchical chirality) of the helical nanostructure is thus determined. The results from the ECD, VCD, and 3D TEM for the investigated chirality at different length scales suggest the homochiral evolution in the self-assembly of the BCPs*. For chiral polylactides, twisted lamellae in crystalline banded spherulite can be formed by dense packing scheme and effective interactions upon helical
Hadron excitation of giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morsch, H.-P.
1985-01-01
A review is given on giant resonance studies in heavy nuclei using scattering of different hadronic probes. Concerning isoscalar giant resonances compression modes are discussed with the possibility to obtain more detailed structure information. From detailed studies of α scattering the distribution of isoscalar strengths of multipolarity up to L=6 was obtained. Some recent aspects of heavy ion excitation of collective modes are mentioned. The possibility to study isovector giant resonances in hadron charge exchange reactions is discussed. Finally, a comparison is made between α and 200 MeV proton scattering from which isoscalar and spin-isospin continuum response are extracted. (orig.)
Pace, Vittorio; Holzer, Wolfgang; Meng, Guangrong; Shi, Shicheng; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal
2016-10-04
Herein, we show that acyclic amides that have recently enabled a series of elusive transition-metal-catalyzed N-C activation/cross-coupling reactions are highly twisted around the N-C(O) axis by a new destabilization mechanism of the amide bond. A unique effect of the N-glutarimide substituent, leading to uniformly high twist (ca. 90°) irrespective of the steric effect at the carbon side of the amide bond has been found. This represents the first example of a twisted amide that does not bear significant steric hindrance at the α-carbon atom. The (15) N NMR data show linear correlations between electron density at nitrogen and amide bond twist. This study strongly supports the concept of amide bond ground-state twist as a blueprint for activation of amides toward N-C bond cleavage. The new mechanism offers considerable opportunities for organic synthesis and biological processes involving non-planar amide bonds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Design of a Tapered and Twisted Blade for the NREL Combined Experiment Rotor; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giguere, P.; Selig, M. S.
1999-01-01
A tapered/twisted blade was designed to operate on the Combined Experiment Rotor (CER) of the National Renewable Energy Lab., which is a stall-regulated downwind wind turbine having a rated power of 20 kilowatt. The geometry of the new blade set was optimized based on annual energy production subject to the constraints imposed on the design. These constraints were mainly related to scientific needs for fundamental research in rotor aerodynamics. A trade-off study was conducted to determine the effect of the different design constraints. Based on the results of this study, which considered nonlinear twist and taper distributions as well as the NREL S809, S814, S822 and S823 airfoils, a blade having a linear taper and a nonlinear twist distribution that uses the S809 airfoil from root to tip was selected. This blade configuration is the logical continuation of the previous constant-chord twisted and untwisted blade sets and will facilitate comparison with those earlier blades. Despite th e design constraints based on scientific needs, the new blade is more representative of commercial blades than the previous blade sets
Twisted-Light-Ion Interaction: The Role of Longitudinal Fields
Quinteiro, G. F.; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Schmiegelow, Christian T.
2017-12-01
The propagation of light beams is well described using the paraxial approximation, where field components along the propagation direction are usually neglected. For strongly inhomogeneous or shaped light fields, however, this approximation may fail, leading to intriguing variations of the light-matter interaction. This is the case of twisted light having opposite orbital and spin angular momenta. We compare experimental data for the excitation of a quadrupole transition in a single trapped 40Ca+ ion from Schmiegelow et al. [Nat. Commun. 7, 12998 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms12998] with a complete model where longitudinal components of the electric field are taken into account. Our model matches the experimental data and excludes by 11 standard deviations the approximation of a complete transverse field. This demonstrates the relevance of all field components for the interaction of twisted light with matter.
YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesvorný, David
2011-01-01
Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside ∼15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.
Young Solar System's Fifth Giant Planet?
Nesvorný, David
2011-12-01
Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside ~15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.
String theory flux vacua on twisted tori and generalized complex geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andriot, David
2010-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of flux vacua of string theory, with the ten-dimensional space-time split into a four-dimensional maximally symmetric space-time, and a six-dimensional internal manifold M, taken to be a solv-manifold (twisted torus). Such vacua are of particular interest when trying to relate string theory to supersymmetric (SUSY) extensions of the standard model of particles, or to cosmological models. For SUSY solutions of type II supergravities, allowing for fluxes on M helps to solve the moduli problem. Then, a broader class of manifolds than just the Calabi-Yau can be considered for M, and a general characterization is given in terms of Generalized Complex Geometry: M has to be a Generalized Calabi-Yau (GCY). A subclass of solv-manifolds have been proven to be GCY, so we look for solutions with such M. To do so, we use an algorithmic resolution method. Then we focus on specific new solutions: those admitting an intermediate SU(2) structure. A transformation named the twist is then discussed. It relates solutions on torus to solutions on solv-manifolds. Working out constraints on the twist to generate solutions, we can relate known solutions, and find a new one. We also use the twist to relate flux vacua of heterotic string. Finally we consider ten-dimensional de Sitter solutions. Looking for such solutions is difficult, because of several problems among which the breaking of SUSY. We propose an Ansatz for SUSY breaking sources which helps to overcome these difficulties. We give an explicit solution on a solv-manifold, and discuss partially its four-dimensional stability. (author)
Vacuum expectation value of twist fields
Belitsky, A. V.
2017-09-01
Twist fields emerge in a number of physical applications ranging from entanglement entropy to scattering amplitudes in four-dimensional gauge theories. In this work, their vacuum expectation values are studied in the path integral framework. By performing a gauge transformation, their correlation functions are reduced to field theory of matter fields in external Aharonov-Bohm vortices. The resulting functional determinants are then analyzed within the zeta-function regularization for the spectrum of Bessel zeros, and concise formulas are derived.
Chiral Tunnelling in Twisted Graphene Bilayer
He, Wen-Yu; Chu, Zhao-Dong; He, Lin
2013-01-01
The perfect transmission in graphene monolayer and the perfect reflection in Bernal graphene bilayer for electrons incident in the normal direction of a potential barrier are viewed as two incarnations of the Klein paradox. Here we show a new and unique incarnation of the Klein paradox. Owing to the different chiralities of the quasiparticles involved, the chiral fermions in twisted graphene bilayer shows adjustable probability of chiral tunnelling for normal incidence: they can be changed fr...
Do, Thanh Nho; Visell, Yon
2017-05-11
Stretchable and flexible multifunctional electronic components, including sensors and actuators, have received increasing attention in robotics, electronics, wearable, and healthcare applications. Despite advances, it has remained challenging to design analogs of many electronic components to be highly stretchable, to be efficient to fabricate, and to provide control over electronic performance. Here, we describe highly elastic sensors and interconnects formed from thin, twisted conductive microtubules. These devices consist of twisted assemblies of thin, highly stretchable (>400%) elastomer tubules filled with liquid conductor (eutectic gallium indium, EGaIn), and fabricated using a simple roller coating process. As we demonstrate, these devices can operate as multimodal sensors for strain, rotation, contact force, or contact location. We also show that, through twisting, it is possible to control their mechanical performance and electronic sensitivity. In extensive experiments, we have evaluated the capabilities of these devices, and have prototyped an array of applications in several domains of stretchable and wearable electronics. These devices provide a novel, low cost solution for high performance stretchable electronics with broad applications in industry, healthcare, and consumer electronics, to emerging product categories of high potential economic and societal significance.
Giant multipole resonances: perspectives after ten years
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertrand, F.E.
1980-01-01
Nearly ten years ago evidence was published for the first of the so-called giant multipole resonances, the giant quadrupole resonance. During the ensuing years research in this field has spread to many nuclear physics laboratories throughout the world. The present status of electric giant multipole resonances is reviewed. 24 figures, 1 table
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anikin, I.V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, B., E-mail: pire@cpht.polytechnique.f [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 06, faculte de physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2010-03-21
We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method involves the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light cone. We compare the proposed method with the covariant method formulated in the coordinate space, based on the operator product expansion. We prove the equivalence of two proposed parametrizations of the rho{sub T} distribution amplitudes. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised rho-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy within these two quite different methods and show that they are identical.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etingof, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Schiffmann, O.
2001-01-01
We consider weighted traces of products of intertwining operators for quantum groups U q (g), suitably twisted by a ''generalized Belavin-Drinfeld triple''. We derive two commuting sets of difference equations - the (twisted) Macdonald-Ruijsenaars system and the (twisted) quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard (qKZB) system. These systems involve the nonstandard quantum R-matrices defined in a previous joint work with T. Schedler (2000). When the generalized Belavin-Drinfeld triple comes from an automorphism of the Lie algebra g, we also derive two additional sets of difference equations, the dual Macdonald-Ruijsenaars system and the dual qKZB equations. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Popović Svetlana S.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Membrane filtration has become one of the major technologies in the food industry. It is widely applied in the dairy industry, and it is mostly used for the concentration and fractionation of milk proteins and for the whey processing. Of all pressure driven membrane processes, ultrafiltration is the most widely used. The major disadvantage of pressure driven membrane processes is severe fouling of membrane during filtration particularly when the fluids containing proteins are processed. Fouling with proteins is complex phenomenon because it occurs at the membrane surface as well as in the pores of membrane, and depends on the operating conditions and on the interactions of proteins and membrane material. In order to reduce fouling of the membrane different techniques have been developed, and one of them relies on the changing of the hydrodynamic conditions in the membrane or module. In this study, influence of twisted tape turbulence promoters on the fouling reduction in cross-flow microfiltration of skim milk was investigated. Twisted tapes with tree characteristic ratios of helix element length to the tape diameter (aspect ratio were studied. It was shown that twisted tapes with different aspect ratios reduce fouling of membrane by a factor of three or more. The presence of twisted tape induces changes in the flow patterns from straight to helicoidally thus producing turbulence flow at the lower cross-flow rates. Turbulence intensification prevents accumulation of proteins at membrane surface enabling reduction in reversible fouling what results in the reduction of overall membrane fouling. The best performance was achieved using a twisted tape with the lowest aspect ratio of 1.0. This promoter reduces fouling seven times at low transmembrane pressure and low cross-flow velocity. The twisted tape with aspect ratio 1.0 induces the most intensive turbulence, the longest helicoidal flow path, and appearance of vortices near the membrane surfaces
Thermomagnetic Stability in Pseudo Single Domain Grains
Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian; Fabian, Karl; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.
2016-04-01
The reliability of paleomagnetic remanences are well understood for fine grains of magnetite that are single-domain (SD, uniformly magnetized). In particular Néel's theory [1] outlined the thermal energies required to block and unblock magnetic remanences. This lead to determination of thermal stability for magnetization in fine grains as outlined in Pullaiah et. al. [2] and a comprehensive understanding of SD paleomagnetic recordings. It has been known for some time that single domain magnetite is possible only in the grain size range 30 - 80nm, which may only account for a small fraction of the grain size distribution in any rock sample. Indeed rocks are often dominated by grains in the pseudo single domain (PSD) size range, at approximately 80 - 1000nm. Toward the top end of this range multi-domain features begin to dominate. In order to determine thermomagnetic stability in PSD grains we need to identify the energy barriers between all possible pairs of local energy minima (LEM) domain states as a function of both temperature and grain size. We have attempted to do this using the nudged elastic band (NEB) method [3] which searches for minimum energy paths between any given pair of LEM states. Using this technique we have determined, for the first time, complete thermomagnetic stability curves for PSD magnetite. The work presented is at a preliminary stage. However it can be shown that PSD grains of magnetite with simple geometries (e.g. cubes or cuboctahedra) have very few low energy transition paths and the stability is likely to be similar to that observed for SD grains (as expected form experimental observations). The results will provide a basis for a much more rigorous understanding of the fidelity of paleomagnetic signals in assemblages of PSD grains and their ability to retain ancient recordings of the geomagnetic field. References: [1] Néel, Louis. "Théorie du traînage magnétique des ferromagnétiques en grains fins avec applications aux terres
Investigation of Structural Behavior due to Bend-Twist Couplings in Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fedorov, Vladimir; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Berggreen, Christian
2010-01-01
for predicting the torsional response of the wind turbine blades with built-in bend-twist couplings. Additionally, a number of improved full-scale tests using an advanced bi-axial servo-hydraulic load control have been performed on a wind turbine blade section provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. In the present......One of the problematic issues concerning the design of future large composite wind turbine blades is the prediction of bend-twist couplings and torsion behaviour. The current work is a continuation of a previous work [1,2], and it examines different finite element modelling approaches...... of the blade cross section as the defining surface, off-setting the location of the shell elements according to the specified thickness. The experimental full-scale tests were carried out on an 8 m section of a 23 m wind turbine blade with specially implemented bend-twist coupling. The blade was tested under...
Mechanical behaviors of multi-filament twist superconducting strand under tensile and cyclic loading
Wang, Xu; Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen
2016-01-01
The superconducting strand, serving as the basic unit cell of the cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs), is a typical multi-filament twist composite which is always subjected to a cyclic loading under the operating condition. Meanwhile, the superconducting material Nb3Sn in the strand is sensitive to strain frequently relating to the performance degradation of the superconductivity. Therefore, a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the strand helps understanding the superconducting performance of the strained Nb3Sn strands. To address this issue, taking the LMI (internal tin) strand as an example, a three-dimensional structural finite element model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand with the real configuration of the LMI strand is built to study the influences of the plasticity of the component materials, the twist of the filament bundle, the initial thermal residual stress and the breakage and its evolution of the filaments on the mechanical behaviors of the strand. The effective properties of superconducting filament bundle with random filament breakage and its evolution versus strain are obtained based on the damage theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials proposed by Curtin and Zhou. From the calculation results of this model, we find that the occurrence of the hysteresis loop in the cyclic loading curve is determined by the reverse yielding of the elastic-plastic materials in the strand. Both the initial thermal residual stress in the strand and the pitch length of the filaments have significant impacts on the axial and hysteretic behaviors of the strand. The damage of the filaments also affects the axial mechanical behavior of the strand remarkably at large axial strain. The critical current of the strand is calculated by the scaling law with the results of the Multi-filament twist model. The predicted results of the Multi-filament twist model show an acceptable agreement with the experiment.
Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Su Yuen Ng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.
Giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.S.
1982-11-01
The several roles of multipole giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. In particular, the modifications in the effective ion-ion potencial due to the virtual excitation of giant resonances at low energies, are considered and estimated for several systems. Real excitation of giant resonances in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies are then discussed and their importance in the approach phase of deeply inelastic processes in emphasized. Several demonstrative examples are given. (Author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moldovan, P.; Popescu, G.; Zsigmond, M.; Apostolescu, I. [Universitatea Politehnica, Bucharest (Romania)
2002-07-01
The aim of this paper is the study of the modification of AlSi7Mg alloy with two types of master alloys: AlSr10 wire type and AlSr10 block type, at a temperature of 750 C with different contents of strontium. Due to the applicability of the AlSr10 master alloy wire type, the study was mainly elaborated on the dissolving process of this one. Due to this fact we used a 10 mm diameter wire of AlSr10 master alloy, which was introduced in the melt. After the grain refining process we obtained a sample, which was cut at different heights for a better observation of the alloy structure. We can notice that the grain refining degree is not uniform along the sample. Strontium as a grain refiner equalize the qualities of sodium but is much more efficient and keeps its grain refining properties for a longer period of time. The efficiency of the two types of master alloys was compared by the grain refinement degree of AlSi7Mg alloy function of the distance till the lower part of the casting mould and by determination of the grain refinement degree function of strontium content added. We made a micrographic study of the pieces of the sample and we used an optical microscope (OLYMPUS BX 60M) and the image analyzing system was OMNIMENT EXPRESS. Analyzing the results of this study we can see that the AlSi7Mg alloy grain refining degree doesn't depend too much on the form of the master alloy (if is wire or block) but grain refining time is increased when we use block types of master alloy. Also we can see that the cooling rate has a significant influence on the grain refinement degree. The industrial application of the AlSr master alloys are mainly for the light alloys ingots producers and light alloys casting plant for the obtaining of high quality components required by automotive and aeronautical industry. (orig.)
First tests of twisted-pair HTS 1 kA range cables for use in superconducting links
Ballarino, A; Hurte, J; Sitko, M; Willering, G
2011-01-01
The requirement at CERN for 1 kA range High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables optimized for long electrical transfer has led to the design and assembly of a novel type of cable that can be made from pre-reacted MgB2, Bi-2223 or YBCO tapes. The cable consists of an assembly of twisted pairs, each of which is made from three superconducting tapes with the required copper stabilizer. The twisted pair cable is designed to transfer a DC current of ± 600 A in helium gas environment. The paper reports on the results of the electrical tests performed on twisted-pair cables of identical structure and made from commercially available MgB2, Bi-2223 and YBCO tapes. The twist pitch of the cables is adapted to match the mechanical properties of the different superconductors. Critical current tests were performed at both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperature. The electrical performance of several cables made from different conductors is reported and compared.
Guo, Zongyi; Chang, Jing; Guo, Jianguo; Zhou, Jun
2018-06-01
This paper focuses on the adaptive twisting sliding mode control for the Hypersonic Reentry Vehicles (HRVs) attitude tracking issue. The HRV attitude tracking model is transformed into the error dynamics in matched structure, whereas an unmeasurable state is redefined by lumping the existing unmatched disturbance with the angular rate. Hence, an adaptive finite-time observer is used to estimate the unknown state. Then, an adaptive twisting algorithm is proposed for systems subject to disturbances with unknown bounds. The stability of the proposed observer-based adaptive twisting approach is guaranteed, and the case of noisy measurement is analyzed. Also, the developed control law avoids the aggressive chattering phenomenon of the existing adaptive twisting approaches because the adaptive gains decrease close to the disturbance once the trajectories reach the sliding surface. Finally, numerical simulations on the attitude control of the HRV are conducted to verify the effectiveness and benefit of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.
Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz
2009-01-01
Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.
Giant serpentine intracranial aneurysm: a case report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jae Seong; Lee, Myeong Sub; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Dong Jin; Park, Joong Wha; Whang, Kum
2001-01-01
The authors present a case of giant serpentine aneurysm (a partially thrombosed aneurysm containing tortuous vascular channels with a separate entrance and outflow pathway). Giant serpentine aneurysms form a subgroup of giant intracranial aneurysms, distinct from saccular and fusiform varieties, and in this case, too, the clinical presentation and radiographic features of CT, MR imaging and angiography were distinct
Casimir energy for twisted piecewise uniform bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Shanghai, Teachers Univ.
1998-01-01
The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of piecewise uniform bosonic strings with either untwisted or twisted continuous conditions is discussed. After calculating the analytic values of zeros of the dispersion function under certain conditions, is obtained the Casimir energy for both open and closed bosonic strings composed of two or three segments
Device for measuring well twistings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kostin, Yu S; Golubin, S V; Keller, V F; Merzheyevskiy, A B; Zdorov, V P
1982-01-01
The device for measuring the well twistings with the use of fluids (poured into a vessel and which leave an imprint on the walls), containing a housing and adapter, is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the accuracy of measurement by obtaining a clear imprint, it is equipped with cylinder that is spring-loaded in relation to the adapter, forming a vessel for fluid with the adapter. The adapter is made of two parts, one of which is made of neutral metal in relation to the fluid, and the other, from active in relation to the same fluid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartels, Jochen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof [Rzeszow Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Motkyka, Leszek [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki
2009-11-15
Higher twist effects in the deeply inelastic scattering are studied. We start with a short review of the theoretical results on higher twists in QCD. Within the saturation model we perform a twist analysis of the nucleon structure functions F{sub T} and F{sub L} at small value of the Bjorken variable x. The parameters of the model are fitted to the HERA F{sub 2} data, and we derive a prediction for the longitudinal structure function F{sub L}. We conclude that for F{sub L} the higher twist corrections are sizable whereas for F{sub 2}=F{sub T}+F{sub L} there is a nearly complete cancellation of twist-4 corrections in F{sub T} and F{sub L}. We discuss a few consequences for future LHC measurements. (orig.)
Some exact computations on the twisted butterfly state in string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okawa, Yuji
2004-01-01
The twisted butterfly state solves the equation of motion of vacuum string field theory in the singular limit. The finiteness of the energy density of the solution is an important issue, but possible conformal anomaly resulting from the twisting has prevented us from addressing this problem. We present a description of the twisted regulated butterfly state in terms of a conformal field theory with a vanishing central charge which consists of the ordinary bc ghosts and a matter system with c=26. Various quantities relevant to vacuum string field theory are computed exactly using this description. We find that the energy density of the solution can be finite in the limit, but the finiteness depends on the sub leading structure of vacuum string field theory. We further argue, contrary to our previous expectation, that contributions from sub leading terms in the kinetic term to the energy density can be of the same order as the contribution from the leading term which consists of the midpoint ghost insertion. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
Many researchers conducted experiments and numerical simulations to measure or predict a Nusselt number or a friction factor in a pipe with a twisted tape while some other studies focused on the heat transfer performance enhancement using various twisted tape configurations. However, since the optical access to the inner space of a pipe with a twisted tape was limited, the detailed flow field data were not obtainable so far. Thus, researchers mainly relied on the numerical simulations to obtain the data of the flow field. In this study, a 3D printing technique was used to manufacture a transparent test section for optical access. And also, a noble refractive index matching technique was used to eliminate optical distortion. This two combined techniques enabled to measure the velocity profile with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measured velocity field data can be used either to understand the fundamental flow characteristics around a twisted tape or to validate turbulence models in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this study, the flow field in the test-section was measured for various flow conditions and it was finally compared with numerically calculated data. Velocity fields in a pipe with a classic twisted tape was measured using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To obtain undistorted particle images, a noble optical technique, refractive index matching, was used and it was proved that high-quality image can be obtained from this experimental equipment. The velocity data from the PIV was compared with the CFD simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo
2014-01-01
Many researchers conducted experiments and numerical simulations to measure or predict a Nusselt number or a friction factor in a pipe with a twisted tape while some other studies focused on the heat transfer performance enhancement using various twisted tape configurations. However, since the optical access to the inner space of a pipe with a twisted tape was limited, the detailed flow field data were not obtainable so far. Thus, researchers mainly relied on the numerical simulations to obtain the data of the flow field. In this study, a 3D printing technique was used to manufacture a transparent test section for optical access. And also, a noble refractive index matching technique was used to eliminate optical distortion. This two combined techniques enabled to measure the velocity profile with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measured velocity field data can be used either to understand the fundamental flow characteristics around a twisted tape or to validate turbulence models in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In this study, the flow field in the test-section was measured for various flow conditions and it was finally compared with numerically calculated data. Velocity fields in a pipe with a classic twisted tape was measured using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To obtain undistorted particle images, a noble optical technique, refractive index matching, was used and it was proved that high-quality image can be obtained from this experimental equipment. The velocity data from the PIV was compared with the CFD simulations
Determinant of twisted chiral Dirac operator on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fosco, C.D.; Randjbar Daemi, S.
1995-04-01
Using the overlap formulation, we calculate the fermionic determinant on the lattice for chiral fermions with twisted boundary conditions in two dimensions. When the lattice spacing tends to zero we recover the results on the usual string-theory continuum calculations. (author). 13 refs
Witte, van de P.; Neuteboom, E.E.; Brehmer, M.; Lub, Johan
1999-01-01
A method for the production of polarization sensitive recordings in liquid crystalline polymers is presented. The system is based on local modification of the twist angle of chiral nematic polymer films. The twist angle of the polymer film is varied by modifying the chemical structure of the chiral
Grain yield stability of early maize genotypes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chitra Bahadur Kunwar
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate grain yield stability of early maize genotypes. Five early maize genotypes namely Pool-17, Arun1EV, Arun-4, Arun-2 and Farmer’s variety were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design along with three replications at four different locations namely Rampur, Rajahar, Pakhribas and Kabre districts of Nepal during summer seasons of three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012 under farmer’s fields. Genotype and genotype × environment (GGE biplot was used to identify superior genotype for grain yield and stability pattern. The genotypes Arun-1 EV and Arun-4 were better adapted for Kabre and Pakhribas where as pool-17 for Rajahar environments. The overall findings showed that Arun-1EV was more stable followed by Arun-2 therefore these two varieties can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in both environments.
Stellar oscillations in planet-hosting giant stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatzes, Artie P; Zechmeister, Mathias [Thueringer Landessternwarte, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 (Germany)], E-mail: artie@tls-tautenburg.de
2008-10-15
Recently a number of giant extrasolar planets have been discovered around giant stars. These discoveries are important because many of these giant stars have intermediate masses in the range 1.2-3 Msun. Early-type main sequence stars of this mass range have been avoided by radial velocity planet search surveys due the difficulty of getting the requisite radial velocity precision needed for planet discoveries. Thus, giant stars can tell us about planet formation for stars more massive than the sun. However, the determination of stellar masses for giant stars is difficult due to the fact that evolutionary tracks for stars covering a wide range of masses converge to the same region of the H-R diagram. We report here on stellar oscillations in three planet-hosting giant stars: HD 13189, {beta} Gem, and {iota} Dra. Precise stellar radial velocity measurements for these stars show variations whose periods and amplitudes are consistent with solar-like p-mode oscillations. The implied stellar masses for these objects based on the characteristics of the stellar oscillations are consistent with the predictions of stellar isochrones. An investigation of stellar oscillations in planet hosting giant stars offers us the possibility of getting an independent determination of the stellar mass for these objects which is of crucial importance for extrasolar planet studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snover, K.A.
1989-01-01
Giant nuclear resonances are elementary mods of oscillation of the whole nucleus, closely related to the normal modes of oscillation of coupled mechanical systems. They occur systematically in most if not all nuclei, with oscillation energies typically in the range 10-30 MeV. One of the best - known examples is the giant electric dipole (El) resonance, in which all the protons and all the neutrons oscillate with opposite phase, producing a large time - varying electric dipole moment which acts as an effective antenna for radiating gamma ray. This paper discusses this mode as well as quadrupole and monopole modes
Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raphael Rossi Silva
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115 were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and July in two harvesting seasons (2007 and 2008. The study was setup in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The effects of the year and sowing date when combined explained 93% of the grain yield variance. In 2007, the CD 105 and Safira cultivars had the highest grain yield (GY for all sowing dates. Only the BRS Guabiju and Safira cultivars possessed high baking quality for all sowing dates assessed. In 2008, the environmental conditions were favorable for superior GY, but the baking quality was inferior. Considering adapted cultivars and sowing dates, it is possible to maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat.
Quench Property of Twisted-Pair MgB$_2$ Superconducting Cables in Helium Gas
Spurrell, J; Falorio, I; Pelegrin, J; Ballarino, A; Yang, Y
2015-01-01
CERN's twisted-pair superconducting cable is a novel design which offers filament transposition, low cable inductance and is particularly suited for tape conductors such as 2G YBCO coated conductors, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes and Ni/Monel-sheathed MgB2 tapes. A typical design of such twistedpair cables consists of multiple superconducting tapes intercalated with thin copper tapes as additional stabilizers. The copper tapes are typically not soldered to the superconducting tapes so that sufficient flexibility is retained for the twisting of the tape assembly. The electrical and thermal contacts between the copper and superconducting tapes are an important parameter for current sharing, cryogenic stability and quench propagation. Using an MgB2 twisted-pair cable assembly manufactured at CERN, we have carried out minimum quench energy (MQE) and propagation velocity (vp) measurements with point-like heat deposition localized within a tape. Furthermore, different contacts between the copper and superconductor aroun...
Denjoy minimal sets and Birkhoff periodic orbits for non-exact monotone twist maps
Qin, Wen-Xin; Wang, Ya-Nan
2018-06-01
A non-exact monotone twist map φbarF is a composition of an exact monotone twist map φ bar with a generating function H and a vertical translation VF with VF ((x , y)) = (x , y - F). We show in this paper that for each ω ∈ R, there exists a critical value Fd (ω) ≥ 0 depending on H and ω such that for 0 ≤ F ≤Fd (ω), the non-exact twist map φbarF has an invariant Denjoy minimal set with irrational rotation number ω lying on a Lipschitz graph, or Birkhoff (p , q)-periodic orbits for rational ω = p / q. Like the Aubry-Mather theory, we also construct heteroclinic orbits connecting Birkhoff periodic orbits, and show that quasi-periodic orbits in these Denjoy minimal sets can be approximated by periodic orbits. In particular, we demonstrate that at the critical value F =Fd (ω), the Denjoy minimal set is not uniformly hyperbolic and can be approximated by smooth curves.
Measuring Precise Radii of Giants Orbiting Giants to Distinguish Between Planet Evolution Models
Grunblatt, Samuel; Huber, Daniel; Lopez, Eric; Gaidos, Eric; Livingston, John
2017-10-01
Despite more than twenty years since the initial discovery of highly irradiated gas giant planets, the mechanism for planet inflation remains unknown. However, proposed planet inflation mechanisms can now be separated into two general classes: those which allow for post-main sequence planet inflation by direct irradiation from the host star, and those which only allow for slowed cooling of the planet over its lifetime. The recent discovery of two inflated warm Jupiters orbiting red giant stars with the NASA K2 Mission allows distinction between these two classes, but uncertainty in the planet radius blurs this distinction. Observing transits of these planets with the Spitzer Space Telescope would reduce stellar variability and thus planet radius uncertainties by approximately 50% relative to K2, allowing distinction between the two planet inflation model classes at a 3-sigma level. We propose to observe one transit of both known warm Jupiters orbiting red giant stars, K2-97b and EPIC228754001.01, to distinguish between planet model inflation classes and measure the planetary heating efficiency to 3-sigma precision. These systems are benchmarks for the upcoming NASA TESS Mission, which is predicted to discover an order of magnitude more red giant planet systems after launching next year.
Low-Frequency Interlayer Raman Modes to Probe Interface of Twisted Bilayer MoS2.
Huang, Shengxi; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S
2016-02-10
van der Waals homo- and heterostructures assembled by stamping monolayers together present optoelectronic properties suitable for diverse applications. Understanding the details of the interlayer stacking and resulting coupling is crucial for tuning these properties. We investigated the low-frequency interlayer shear and breathing Raman modes (frequency and intensity changes of low-frequency modes. The frequency variation can be up to 8 cm(-1) and the intensity can vary by a factor of ∼5 for twisting angles near 0° and 60°, where the stacking is a mixture of high-symmetry stacking patterns and is thus sensitive to twisting. For twisting angles between 20° and 40°, the interlayer coupling is nearly constant because the stacking results in mismatched lattices over the entire sample. It follows that the Raman signature is relatively uniform. Note that for some samples, multiple breathing mode peaks appear, indicating nonuniform coupling across the interface. In contrast to the low-frequency interlayer modes, high-frequency intralayer Raman modes are much less sensitive to interlayer stacking and coupling. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of low-frequency Raman modes for probing the interfacial coupling and environment of twisted bilayer MoS2 and potentially other two-dimensional materials and heterostructures.
Angular momentum transport with twisted exciton wave packets
Zang, Xiaoning; Lusk, Mark T.
2017-10-01
A chain of cofacial molecules with CN or CN h symmetry supports excitonic states with a screwlike structure. These can be quantified with the combination of an axial wave number and an azimuthal winding number. Combinations of these states can be used to construct excitonic wave packets that spiral down the chain with well-determined linear and angular momenta. These twisted exciton wave packets can be created and annihilated using laser pulses, and their angular momentum can be optically modified during transit. This allows for the creation of optoexcitonic circuits in which information, encoded in the angular momentum of light, is converted into excitonic wave packets that can be manipulated, transported, and then reemitted. A tight-binding paradigm is used to demonstrate the key ideas. The approach is then extended to quantify the evolution of twisted exciton wave packets in a many-body, multilevel time-domain density functional theory setting. In both settings, numerical methods are developed that allow the site-to-site transfer of angular momentum to be quantified.
Multiperipheral ring dynamics and a definition of the complete twisted Reggeon loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucht, P.H.
1977-11-01
The t less than 0 multiperipheral formalism of Ciafaloni, DeTar, Misheloff, Mueller, Muzinich and Yesian is reviewed, extended, and applied to the ordered S-matrix whose ring amplitudes comprise the zeroth level of the topological expansion. Toller M-function notation is used throughout. The bootstrap and cylinder problems are formulated in terms of a well defined helicity pole propagator; a definition of the complete twisted Reggeon loop, which appears in the one-twist term of the cylinder, is given as a helicity pole expansion. Some consideration is given to the following subjects: diagonalization, naturality, threshold behavior, Regge cuts, and complex helicity
Naked eye picometer resolution in a Michelson interferometer using conjugated twisted beams.
Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine
2017-01-15
Michelson interferometry is one of the most widely used techniques for accuracy measurements. Its main characteristic feature is to infer a displacement in one of the arms of the interferometer from a phase measurement. Two different twisted beams, also called vortex beams, with opposite twisted rotations in each arm of the interferometer interfere in a daisy flower-like pattern. The number of petals is twice the topological charge. Their position depends on the relative phase of the beams. Naked eye detection of 44 pm displacements is achieved. The sensitivity of such an interferometer together with possible further improvements, and applications are then discussed.
Pseudoscalar decay constants from Nf=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farchioni, Federico; Petschlies, Marcus; Urbach, Carsten
2010-12-01
We present first results for the pseudoscalar decay constants f K , f D and f D S from lattice QCD with N f = 2 + 1 + 1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The lattice simulations have been performed by the European Twisted Mass collaboration (ETMC) using maximally twisted mass quarks. For the pseudoscalar decay constants we follow a mixed action approach by using so called Osterwalder-Seiler fermions in the valence sector for strange and charm quarks. The data for two values of the lattice spacing and several values of the up/down quark mass is analysed using chiral perturbation theory. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomita, M; Suzuki, K; Fukumoto, Y; Ishihara, A; Akasaka, T; Kobayashi, Y; Maeda, A; Takayasu, M
2015-01-01
A 2 m length Twisted Stacked-Tape Cable (TSTC) conductor which was fabricated by 32-YBCO-tapes (4 mm width) with a 200 mm twist pitch was investigated at various temperatures near 77 K in subcooled- and pressurized-liquid nitrogen. The critical current of the TSTC cable which was 1.45 kA at 77 K measured from 64 K to 85 K by controlling the equilibrium vapor pressure of nitrogen bath and were varied from 3.65 kA at 64 K to 0.42 kA at 85 K. The temperature dependence of cables’ critical current agrees with that of the 4 mm width YBCO tape. These results are encouraging for applications of a compact Twisted Stacked-Tape Cable application in railway systems. (paper)