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Sample records for giant-armadillo priodontes maximus

  1. Records of the giant-armadillo Priodontes maximus (Cingulata: Dasypodidae in the Atlantic Forest: are Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo the last strongholds of the species?

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    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report 20 records of Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792 collected between 1990 and 2009 in three nature reserves located in forested areas of southeastern Brazil within the Atlantic Forest biome. Seventeen records were collected in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD, state of Minas Gerais, two in Reserva Biológica de Sooretama and one in Reserva Natural Vale, both located in the state of Espírito Santo. The records were burrows (n = 11, photographs from camera-traps (n = 6, sightings (n = 2 and carcass (n = 1. Given the higher number of records, the PERD seems to maintain the largest population among the three study areas. We searched the literature and found no other recent evidence of the species' presence in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. There are few Museum specimens and a general lack of information on the presence of the species in this biome as a whole. These facts suggest that the conservation status of the giant armadillo is extremely critical in the Atlantic Forest.

  2. Hábito alimentar do tatu-canastra (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae em uma área de cerrado do Brasil Central Food habits of the giant armadillo (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae in an area of grassland of central Brasil

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    Teresa Cristina S. Anacleto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The diel of the giant armadillo - Priodontes maximus (Kerr,1792 - was studied in the field at Fazenda São Miguel, Unaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, through 82 samples collected at foraging excavations and 25 fecal samples. In both types of sample the most common item was insects (Isoptera e Hymenoptera and, in less quantity, plant fragments and orhers invertebrates (Aranae, Blattaria, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Scorpiones. These data suggest the giant armadillo is a specialist on insects with an opportunistic foraging strategy.

  3. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

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    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  4. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

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    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  5. Effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in determining species presence in a tropical savanna landscape.

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    Vynne, Carly; Skalski, John R; Machado, Ricardo B; Groom, Martha J; Jácomo, Anah T A; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Ramos Neto, Mario B; Pomilla, Cristina; Silveira, Leandro; Smith, Heath; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-02-01

    Most protected areas are too small to sustain populations of wide-ranging mammals; thus, identification and conservation of high-quality habitat for those animals outside parks is often a high priority, particularly for regions where extensive land conversion is occurring. This is the case in the vicinity of Emas National Park, a small protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado. Over the last 40 years the native vegetation surrounding the park has been converted to agriculture, but the region still supports virtually all of the animals native to the area. We determined the effectiveness of scat-detection dogs in detecting presence of five species of mammals threatened with extinction by habitat loss: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), puma (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), and giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus). The probability of scat detection varied among the five species and among survey quadrats of different size, but was consistent across team, season, and year. The probability of occurrence, determined from the presence of scat, in a randomly selected site within the study area ranged from 0.14 for jaguars, which occur primarily in the forested areas of the park, to 0.91 for maned wolves, the most widely distributed species in our study area. Most occurrences of giant armadillos in the park were in open grasslands, but in the agricultural matrix they tended to occur in riparian woodlands. At least one target species occurred in every survey quadrat, and giant armadillos, jaguars, and maned wolves were more likely to be present in quadrats located inside than outside the park. The effort required for detection of scats was highest for the two felids. We were able to detect the presence for each of five wide-ranging species inside and outside the park and to assign occurrence probabilities to specific survey sites. Thus, scat dogs provide an effective survey tool for rare species even when accurate detection

  6. COMPOSITION OF MEDIUM AND LARGE MAMMALS IN FOREST RESERVE IN THE CERRADO OF BRAZIL CENTRAL

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    Rodrigo Jose Viana Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge about fauna location and distribution is very important for animal biology understanding. Conservation Units are relevant to biodiversity when considering factors such as hunting, agricultural expansion and forest fires. The conservation of native vegetation fragments under more suitable management plans, recovery areas and surveys are essential to the mammals preservation. This study aimed to survey the mammals of medium and large size of the Brasilia National Forest Area 1. To carry out this study it was performed weekly rounds in search for direct and indirect mammals traces existing at forest reserve. It is reported the presence of 27 species in the study area. According to the IUCN Red List, four species are vulnerable to extinction: tapir (Tapirus terrestris, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus and oncilla (Leopardus guttulus. Two species were recorded nearly threatened species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus. Also according to the same list, 48% (n=13 of species are declining in population trend and 26% (n=7 for this data is unknown. Differences in the area were observed, with mammal species presence associated to Cerrado vegetation types and in distribution of records over the period.

  7. Using Remote Sensing and Random Forest to Assess the Conservation Status of Critical Cerrado Habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Jason Reynolds

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which may also be used to map critical habitat for endangered species. We used a Random Forest algorithm to perform a supervised classification on a set of Landsat 8 images. To determine habitat fragmentation for the Cerrado, we used Fragstats. A habitat connectivity analysis was performed using Linkage Mapper. Our final classification had an overall accuracy of 88%. Our classification produced higher accuracies (72% in predicting Cerrado than existing government maps. We found that remaining Cerrado habitats were severely fragmented. Four potential corridors were identified in the southwest of Mato Grosso do Sul, where large Cerrado patches are located. Only two large patches remain in Mato Grosso do Sul: one within the Kadiwéu Indian Reserve, and one near the southeastern edge of the Pantanal-dominated landscape. These results are alarming for rare species requiring larger tracts of habitat such as the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus.

  8. STRENGTHENING THE GLUTEUS MAXIMUS IN SUBJECTS WITH SACROILIAC DYSFUNCTION.

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    Added, Marco Aurélio N; de Freitas, Diego G; Kasawara, Karina T; Martin, Robroy L; Fukuda, Thiago Y

    2018-02-01

    Case series. The literature has emphasized the use of exercise as an intervention for individuals with lumbopelvic pain. However, there is limited information to guide clinicians in exercise selection for those with sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction. Altered function of the gluteus maximus has been found in those with SI joint dysfunction. The objective of this case series was to assess the effectiveness of an exercise program directed at increasing gluteus maximus strength in those with clinical tests positive for SI joint dysfunction. The eight subjects in this series presented with lumbopelvic pain and clinical evidence of SI joint dysfunction. Each subject underwent 10 treatments over five weeks consisting of five exercises directed at strengthening the gluteus maximus. Radiological assessment and clinical examination were performed to rule out potential concurrent pathologies. Visual analog pain scale, the Oswestry Disability Index, and strength assessed via hand held dynamometry were measured pre- and post-intervention. A significant (pjoint dysfunction.

  9. Genetic assessment of captive elephant (Elephas maximus) populations in Thailand

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    Thitaram, Chatchote; Somgird, Chaleamchart; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Angkavanich, Taweepoke; Roongsri, Ronnachit; Thongtip, Nikorn; Colenbrander, Ben; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of 136 captive Thai elephants (Elephas maximus) with known region of origin were investigated by analysis of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. We did not detect significant indications of inbreeding and only a low differentiation of elephants

  10. Identification of bifidobacteria isolated from Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Rada, V.; Killer, Jiří; Kmeť, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2013), s. 239-243 ISSN 0250-5991 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : 16S rRNA genes sequencing * bifidobacteria * Elephas maximus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.939, year: 2013

  11. Secondary metabolites from the roots of Astragalus maximus

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    J. Ghasemian-Yadegari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Astragalus is one of the most abundant genera of flowering plants in Iran. There are a few reports on phytochemical investigation of this valuable genus. Saponins, flavonoids and polysaccharides have been reported as the most important metabolites in Astragalus species. In the present research, we aimed to identify the foremost constituents of Astragalus maximus. Method: Phytochemical analysis of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc fraction of Astragalus maximus roots was performed using different methods of chromatography such as HPLC, SPE and preparative TLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral evidence from 1D and 2D NMR including DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and DEPT, in comparison with reported values in the literature. Results: Analysis of the extract yielded three flavonoids namely liquiritigenin, formononetin, isoquercitrin and one acylated cycloartane-type saponin, astragaloside I. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, cycloartane-type saponin and flavonoids were the important metabolites in A. maximus.

  12. Morphology and surface topography of the schistosome Bivitellobilharzia nairi from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka.

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    Rajapakse, R P V J; Iwagami, M; Wickramasinghe, S; Walker, S M; Agatsuma, T

    2013-09-01

    Bivitellobilharzia nairi was first recorded from an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Berlin. Infections with this parasite have become increasingly important in E. maximus maximus populations in Sri Lanka. The present work is the first morphological description of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. A number of adult worms were recovered from a dead Asian elephant near the elephant orphanage, Pinnawala, in Sri Lanka. The observed clinical features of the infected elephant included emaciation, subventral oedema and anaemia. Post-mortem results indicated that the liver was enlarged and adult schistosomes were found in the blood vessels of the liver parenchyma. The total number of worms recovered from a portion of the liver was 129,870, which is an average of 22 worms per 100 g of liver. The present study uses both light microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques for the morphological and topographical characterization of this parasite and to permit comparison with other species of schistosomes. Morphologically, these worms correspond very well to the description of B. nairi by Dutt & Srivastava (1955). Moreover, it is clear that B. nairi is a distinctive species easily differentiated from other schistosomes. The SEM study of the tegument of male worms shows that the surface of B. nairi is smoother than in other schistosomes.

  13. Delayed postpartum fetotomy in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

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    Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-03-01

    A 37-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) started parturition after 640 days of pregnancy but no fetal parts entered the birth canal. Despite veterinary intervention, the calf was not delivered. After 13 mo calving resumed and a full-term dead calf advanced into and lodged within the vagina. With standing xylazine tranquilization, the dam received a vagino-vestibulotomy to permit total fetotomy of the calf, which presented with bilateral carpal arthrogryposis. Severe infection of the caudal vaginal vestibulum complicated wound healing, and over the following year two corrective surgeries were performed, which resolved the fistula 3 mo after the second debridement. The elephant not only survived the procedures but also resumed normal estrous cycles, as demonstrated by blood progesterone concentration monitoring.

  14. Suspected seminal vesiculitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

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    Kilburn, Jennifer J; Velguth, Karen E; Backues, Kay A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) underwent routine transrectal stimulation for semen collection as part of an artificial insemination program. The procedure consisted of a preinsemination semen collection followed by two consecutive days of semen collections for artificial insemination. The second day's sample contained large numbers of inflammatory cells, intracellular bacteria, and phagocytized sperm. Semen was submitted for culture and sensitivity. Culture revealed Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus intermedius, Kocuria roseus, and an unidentified gram-positive organism. Empirical antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim sulfa was initiated and then changed to enrofloxacin based on sensitivity panel results for a total of 28 days of treatment. Diagnostic semen collections were performed during treatment and 2 wk posttreatment to determine the success of therapy. Posttreatment collections revealed resolution of the inflammation. The origin of the infection was suspected to be the seminal vesicles.

  15. Culture-independent investigation of the microbiome associated with the nematode Acrobeloides maximus.

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    Jean-Paul Baquiran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Symbioses between metazoans and microbes are widespread and vital to many ecosystems. Recent work with several nematode species has suggested that strong associations with microbial symbionts may also be common among members of this phylu. In this work we explore possible symbiosis between bacteria and the free living soil bacteriovorous nematode Acrobeloides maximus. METHODOLOGY: We used a soil microcosm approach to expose A. maximus populations grown monoxenically on RFP labeled Escherichia coli in a soil slurry. Worms were recovered by density gradient separation and examined using both culture-independent and isolation methods. A 16S rRNA gene survey of the worm-associated bacteria was compared to the soil and to a similar analysis using Caenorhabditis elegans N2. Recovered A. maximus populations were maintained on cholesterol agar and sampled to examine the population dynamics of the microbiome. RESULTS: A consistent core microbiome was extracted from A. maximus that differed from those in the bulk soil or the C. elegans associated set. Three genera, Ochrobactrum, Pedobacter, and Chitinophaga, were identified at high levels only in the A. maximus populations, which were less diverse than the assemblage associated with C. elegans. Putative symbiont populations were maintained for at least 4 months post inoculation, although the levels decreased as the culture aged. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using probes specific for Ochrobactrum and Pedobacter stained bacterial cells in formaldehyde fixed nematode guts. CONCLUSIONS: Three microorganisms were repeatedly observed in association with Acrobeloides maximus when recovered from soil microcosms. We isolated several Ochrobactrum sp. and Pedobacter sp., and demonstrated that they inhabit the nematode gut by FISH. Although their role in A. maximus is not resolved, we propose possible mutualistic roles for these bacteria in protection of the host against pathogens and

  16. Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae)

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    Cappellini, Enrico; Gentry, A.; Palkopoulou, E.

    2014-01-01

    .maximus, a complete foetus preserved in ethanol, is actually an African elephant, genus Loxodonta. We further discovered that an additional E.maximus syntype, mentioned in a description by John Ray (1693) cited by Linnaeus, has been preserved as an almost complete skeleton at the Natural History Museum...

  17. Characterization of gonadal transcriptomes from the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

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    Hu, Yulong; Huang, Meng; Wang, Weiji; Guan, Jiantao; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying sexual reproduction and sex ratio determination remains unclear in turbot, a flatfish of great commercial value. And there is limited information in the turbot database regarding genes related to the reproductive system. Here, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome profiling of turbot gonad tissues to better understand their reproductive functions and to supply essential gene sequence information for marker-assisted selection programs in the turbot industry. In this study, two gonad libraries representing sex differences in Scophthalmus maximus yielded 453 818 high-quality reads that were assembled into 24 611 contigs and 33 713 singletons by using 454 pyrosequencing, 13 936 contigs and singletons (CS) of which were annotated using BLASTx. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses revealed that various biological functions and processes were associated with many of the annotated CS. Expression analyses showed that 510 genes were differentially expressed in males versus females; 80% of these genes were annotated. In addition, 6484 and 6036 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in male and female libraries, respectively. This transcriptome resource will serve as the foundation for cDNA or SNP microarray construction, gene expression characterization, and sex-specific linkage mapping in turbot.

  18. A Microsatellite Genetic Map of the Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

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    Bouza, Carmen; Hermida, Miguel; Pardo, Belén G.; Fernández, Carlos; Fortes, Gloria G.; Castro, Jaime; Sánchez, Laura; Presa, Pablo; Pérez, Montse; Sanjuán, Andrés; de Carlos, Alejandro; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Ezcurra, Susana; Cal, Rosa M.; Piferrer, Francesc; Martínez, Paulino

    2007-01-01

    A consensus microsatellite-based linkage map of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) was constructed from two unrelated families. The mapping panel was derived from a gynogenetic family of 96 haploid embryos and a biparental diploid family of 85 full-sib progeny with known linkage phase. A total of 242 microsatellites were mapped in 26 linkage groups, six markers remaining unlinked. The consensus map length was 1343.2 cM, with an average distance between markers of 6.5 ± 0.5 cM. Similar length of female and male maps was evidenced. However, the mean recombination at common intervals throughout the genome revealed significant differences between sexes, ∼1.6 times higher in the female than in the male. The comparison of turbot microsatellite flanking sequences against the Tetraodon nigroviridis genome revealed 55 significant matches, with a mean length of 102 bp and high sequence similarity (81–100%). The comparative mapping revealed significant syntenic regions among fish species. This study represents the first linkage map in the turbot, one of the most important flatfish in European aquaculture. This map will be suitable for QTL identification of productive traits in this species and for further evolutionary studies in fish and vertebrate species. PMID:18073440

  19. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

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    Ariel, Ellen; Steckler, Natalie K.; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran

    2016-01-01

    Ranaviruses have been isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in Denmark. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these two ranaviruses are nearly identical and form a distinct clade at the base of the ranavirus tree branching off near other fish ranaviruses....

  20. Influence of Gluteus Maximus Inhibition on Upper Trapezius Overactivity in Chronic Mechanical Neck Pain with Radiculopathy

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    Ghada Mohamed Koura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical neck pain is the most common type of neck pain and commonly to accompany with radiculopathy. Patients of neck pain exhibit greater activation of accessory muscles, (sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and upper trapezius muscles and may also show changed patterns of motor control of other postural muscles as pelvic muscles for reducing activation of painful muscles of neck. Aim of the study: To determine if there is an association between gluteus maximus inhibition and overactivity of upper fibres of trapezius in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: Forty female patients participated in this study diagnosed as chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy. Amplitude and onset of muscle activation were assessed by using the surface electromyography (EMG during prone hip extension test. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there is no correlation between the amplitude of EMG activity of right and left gluteus maximus and the amplitude of EMG activity of right and left upper trapezius (P<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the overactivity of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy is not related to the inhibition of the gluteus maximus muscle during prone hip extension test.

  1. A comparison of two gluteus maximus EMG maximum voluntary isometric contraction positions

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    Bret Contreras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to compare the peak electromyography (EMG of the most commonly-used position in the literature, the prone bent-leg (90° hip extension against manual resistance applied to the distal thigh (PRONE, to a novel position, the standing glute squeeze (SQUEEZE.Methods. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the upper and lower gluteus maximus of thirteen recreationally active females (age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg, before three maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC trials for each position were obtained in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion.Results. No statistically significant (p < 0.05 differences were observed between PRONE (upper: 91.94%; lower: 94.52% and SQUEEZE (upper: 92.04%; lower: 85.12% for both the upper and lower gluteus maximus. Neither the PRONE nor SQUEEZE was more effective between all subjects.Conclusions. In agreement with other studies, no single testing position is ideal for every participant. Therefore, it is recommended that investigators employ multiple MVIC positions, when possible, to ensure accuracy. Future research should investigate a variety of gluteus maximus MVIC positions in heterogeneous samples.

  2. Anatomical Basis of the Myofascial Trigger Points of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle

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    Flavia Emi Akamatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by pain and limited range of motion in joints and caused by muscular contracture related to dysfunctional motor end plates and myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. We aimed to observe the anatomical correlation between the clinically described MTrPs and the entry point of the branches of the inferior gluteal nerve into the gluteus maximus muscle. We dissected twenty gluteus maximus muscles from 10 human adult cadavers (5 males and 5 females. We measured the muscles and compiled the distribution of the nerve branches into each of the quadrants of the muscle. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student’s t-test and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Although no difference was observed either for muscle measurements or for distribution of nerve branching among the subjects, the topography of MTrPs matched the anatomical location of the entry points into the muscle. Thus, anatomical substract of the MTrPs may be useful for a better understanding of the physiopathology of these disorders and provide basis for their surgical and clinical treatment.

  3. Strangulating intestinal obstructions in four captive elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana).

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    Wiedner, Ellen B; Peddie, James; Peddie, Linda Reeve; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Doyle, Charles; Lindsay, William A; Isaza, Ramiro; Terrell, Scott; Lynch, Tim M; Johnson, Kari; Johnson, Gary; Sammut, Charlie; Daft, Barbara; Uzal, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Three captive-born (5-day-old, 8-day-old, and 4-yr-old) Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and one captive-born 22-yr-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana) from three private elephant facilities and one zoo in the United States presented with depression, anorexia, and tachycardia as well as gastrointestinal signs of disease including abdominal distention, decreased borborygmi, tenesmus, hematochezia, or diarrhea. All elephants showed some evidence of discomfort including agitation, vocalization, or postural changes. One animal had abnormal rectal findings. Nonmotile bowel loops were seen on transabdominal ultrasound in another case. Duration of signs ranged from 6 to 36 hr. All elephants received analgesics and were given oral or rectal fluids. Other treatments included warm-water enemas or walking. One elephant underwent exploratory celiotomy. Three animals died, and the elephant taken to surgery was euthanized prior to anesthetic recovery. At necropsy, all animals had severe, strangulating intestinal lesions.

  4. Granulomas caused by Mycobacterium sp. in farmed Turbot Scopthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758

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    D. JERONIMO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbot, Scophthlalmus maximus, is a Pleuronectiformes fish that occurs in northeast Atlantic along the European coast and in the Mediterranean Sea and is produced in aquaculture since the last quarter of the twentieth century. During a survey conducted in a turbot fish farm nodular formations were occasionally observed in several organs, especially in the kidney and in the spleen. Microscopic observations showed that these nodules contained acid-fast bacilli. The molecular identification of the isolated bacteria conducted to the Mycobacterium genus. Although no abnormal mortalities were evident morbidity was observed. The normal development and welfare of infected fish decrease and the condition factor, the haematocrit and the haemoglobin concentration in blood decreases significantly with the increase of nodules abundance.

  5. Relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus strength with and without normalization.

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    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the relationship between hamstring length and gluteus maximus (GM) strength with and without normalization by body weight and height. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 34 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. To measure GM strength, subjects performed maximal hip joint extension with the knee joints flexed to 90° in the prone position. GM strength was normalized for body weight and height. [Results] GM strength with normalization was positively correlated with hamstring length, whereas GM strength without normalization was negatively correlated with hamstring length. [Conclusion] The normalization of GM strength by body weight and height has the potential to lead to more appropriate conclusions and interpretations about its correlation with hamstring length. Hamstring length may be related to GM strength.

  6. Dietary gossypol suppressed postprandial TOR signaling and elevated ER stress pathways in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

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    Bian, Fuyun; Jiang, Haowen; Man, Mingsan; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2017-01-01

    Gossypol is known to be a polyphenolic compound toxic to animals. However, its molecular targets are far from fully characterized. To evaluate the physiological and molecular effects of gossypol, we chose turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish, as our model species. Juvenile turbots (7.83 ± 0.02 g) were fed diets containing gradient levels of gossypol at 0 (G0), 600 (G1), and 1,200 (G2) mg/kg diets for 11 wk. After the feeding trial, fish growth, body protein, and fat contents were significantly reduced in the G2 group compared with those of the G0 group (P TOR) signaling and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in both the feeding experiment and cell cultures. Our results demonstrated that gossypol inhibited TOR signaling and elevated ER stress pathways both in vivo and in vitro, thus providing new mechanism of action of gossypol in nutritional physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Histological and immunohistochemical characterization of uterine adenocarcinoma in an Asian elephant (Elephas Maximus).

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    Laricchiuta, Pietro; Russo, Valeria; Costagliola, Alessandro; Piegari, Giuseppe; Capasso, Michele; Silvestre, Pasquale; Martano, Manuela; Paciello, Orlando

    2018-03-23

    A 56 year old nulliparous female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living at the zoological garden of Naples (Italy), with a clinical history of recurrent colic, was found in agonal state and humane euthanasia was elected. At necropsy the uterine body was moderately increased in size and the lumen was reduced due to a poorly demarcated and infiltrative neoplasm. Furthermore, multiple, whitish, firm nodules were present in both lungs. Histological examination of the uterine mass revealed epithelial cells arranged in tubular or solid pattern infiltrating the endometrium and the muscular layer. Immunohistochemical examination showed immunoreactivity of neoplastic cells to estrogen receptors antibody. Pulmonary lesions were histologically and immunohistochemically superimposable to the epithelial uterine neoplasm. A definitive diagnosis of uterine adenocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases was made.

  8. Esophageal dissection and hematoma associated with obstruction in an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Kristen A; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Pye, Geoffrey W; Pessier, Allan P; Clippinger, Tracy L

    2014-06-01

    A 42-year-old female Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) developed a sudden onset of excessive salivation and dysphagia. Esophageal obstruction was suspected; possibly related to palm frond ingestion. Esophageal endoscopy revealed a mat of plant material in the distal esophagus. An initial attempt at relieving the obstruction was unsuccessful, but subsequent use of custom-made instruments along with insufflation and hydropulsion enabled partial removal of the material. Postimmobilization care included aggressive intravenous and rectal fluids, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic administration, and fasting. Despite treatment, the dysphagia persisted and the elephant was euthanized due to lack of improvement and grave prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed remaining plant material in the esophagus, complicated by an esophageal dissection, mural hematoma, and secondary bacterial infection. Iatrogenic trauma may have contributed to the extent of esophageal injury. Although treatment was ultimately unsuccessful, the supportive care employed could potentially aid recovery in cases of less severe esophageal trauma.

  9. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

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    Carly L. Lynsdale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC. To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus, we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores.

  10. Feeding and energetics of the great scallop, Pecten maximus, through a DEB model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Romain; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Jean, Fred; Emmery, Antoine; Strand, Øivind; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    We developed a full life-cycle bioenergetic model for the great scallop Pecten maximus relying on the concepts of the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. The covariation method was implemented to estimate the parameters of a standard DEB model. Such models are able to predict various metabolic processes from a food availability marker and temperature in the environment. However, suspension-feeders are likely to feed on various trophic sources, from microalgae cells to detritus. They are also able to sort and select food particles very efficiently, depending on their size, energetic value or quality. The present model includes a mechanistic description of the feeding processes, based on Kooijman's Synthesizing Unit principle which allows to deal with several food sources. Moreover we tested the hypothesis of a differential selectivity between two potential substrates (phytoplankton cell and the remaining particulate organic matter). Simulations of shell length, daily shell growth rate, dry weight and gonado-somatic index (GSI) variations were realized and compared to field data from a monitoring conducted in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) for six years. The model shows its capacity to efficiently reproduce all life history traits of the wild great scallops. Predicted length data were estimated to the nearest millimeter. The fit of simulated weights to observed data was very satisfactory. GSI predictions were also in accordance with observations but improvements are required to better capture the sharp increase of gametogenesis at the beginning of the year. Finally, results bring evidences that P. maximus is actually preferentially feed on living algae cells rather than on the rest of organic particles.

  11. Isolation and culture of primary adult skin fibroblasts from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus

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    Puntita Siengdee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Primary cultures from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus allow scientists to obtain representative cells that have conserved most of their original characteristics, function, physiology and biochemistry. This technique has thus gained significant importance as a foundation for further cellular, cell biology and molecular research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe conditions for the successful establishment of primary adult fibroblasts from Asian elephant carcasses. Methods Ear tissue sample collection from Asian elephant carcasses and our recommendations are given. We describe here a simple modified protocol for successful isolation and maintenance of primary adult fibroblasts from elephant ear skin. Ear samples from each individual (five 3 × 3 cm2 pieces were brought to the laboratory within 3 h after collection, kept in transportation medium at 0–4 °C. The ear tissues were prepared by a combination of 10% collagenase type II digestion procedure together with a simple explant procedure. Primary fibroblasts were cultured at 37 °C in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. After the third passage, fibroblasts were routinely trypsinized with 0.25% trypsin/EDTA and cultured in DMEM with 10% FCS at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Traditional cell counting method was used to measure cell viability and growth curve. Long-term storage of cells used freezing medium consisting of 40% FCS (v/v. Results We explored the most suitable conditions during sample collection (post-mortem storage time and sample storage temperature, which is the most important step in determining primary outgrowth. Our study successfully established and cultured primary adult skin fibroblasts obtained from post-mortem E. maximus ear skin tissues from six carcasses, with a success rate of around 83.3%. Outgrowth could be seen 4–12 days after explantation, and epithelial

  12. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Houguo; Huang, Lina; Liang, Mengqing; Zheng, Keke; Wang, Xinxing

    2015-08-01

    A 3-month feeding experiment was conducted in an in-door seawater system to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (Ve) on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). D-α-tocopherol acetate was supplemented to the basal (control) diet (65.14 mg kg-1 Ve) to obtain low and high levels of dietary Ve (244.60 mg kg-1, LVe; 721.60 mg kg-1, HVe). Compared with the control, sperm concentration was significantly increased in Ve-supplemented groups (LVe and HVe); while relative sperm volume and testis-somatic index were significantly increased in group HVe only. Sperm motility duration was significantly longer in group HVe than in the control, but no significant difference was observed in percent motility among groups. Sperm size, the uniformity of mitochondrial size, and the integrity of mitochondria cristae and plasma membrane were improved by dietary Ve, especially in HVe. The content of Ve in testis and liver as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm increased with dietary Ve. These results suggested that dietary Ve, especially at the high level (721.60 mg kg-1), significantly improved sperm concentration and motility duration and maintained normal sperm morphology of turbot.

  13. Metabolic Post-feeding Changes in Fat Body and Hemolymph of Dipetalogaster maximus (Hemiptera:Reduviidae

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    Lilián E Canavoso

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids and glycogen in fat body as well as the modifications in the wet weight of this organ were evaluated in an unfed insect, Dipetalogaster maximus, on day 5 after adult ecdysis (time 0 and during a 30-day period after ingestion of blood meal. Total lipids, high density lipophorin (HDLp, carbohydrates, total proteins and uric acid were determined in the hemolymph during the same period. Fat body wet weight was maximum on day 10 post-feeding and represented on day 30 only 42% of the maximum weight. Lipids stored in the fat body increased up to day 15 reaching 24% of the total weight of tissue. Glycogen was maximum on day 20, representing approximately 3% of the fat body weight. HDLp represented at all times between 17-24% of the total proteins, whose levels ranged between 35 and 47 mg/ml. Uric acid showed at 20, 25 and 30 days similar levels and significantly higher than the ones shown at days 10 and 15. Hemolymphatic lipids fluctuated during starvation between 3-4.4 mg/ml and carbohydrates showed a maximum on day 15 after a blood meal, decreasing up to 0.26 mg/ml on day 25. The above results suggest that during physiological events such as starvation, the availability of nutrients is affected, involving principally the fat body reserves

  14. Prenatal passive transfer of maternal immunity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofs, Sally A; Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Hanlon, Cathleen; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Tan, Jie; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Ling, Paul D

    2013-06-15

    Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit characteristics of endotheliochorial placentation, which is common in carnivore species and is associated with modest maternal to fetal transplacental antibody transfer. However, it remains unknown whether the bulk of passive immune transfer in elephants is achieved prenatally or postnatally through ingestion of colostrum, as has been documented for horses, a species whose medical knowledgebase is often extrapolated for elephants. To address this issue, we took advantage of the fact that many zoo elephants are immunized with tetanus toxoid and/or rabies vaccines as part of their routine health care, allowing a comparison of serum antibody levels against these antigens between dams and neonates. Serum samples were collected from 3 newborn Asian elephant calves at birth (before ingestion of colostrum); 2-4 days after birth; and 2-3 months of age. The findings indicate that the newborns had anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-rabies titers that were equivalent to or higher than the titers of their dams from birth to approximately 3 months of age, suggesting that the majority of maternal-to-fetal transfer is transplacental and higher than expected based on the architecture of the Asian elephant placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diurnal and Nocturnal Activity Time Budgets of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus in a Zoological Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise E. Lukacs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal and nocturnal activity time budgets of five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus were studied in a zoological park for two 24-hour, five 14-hour, and one 9-hour observation periods between May and June 2011. Relatively few studies have looked at detailed daytime and nighttime activity time budgets in captive Asian elephants. Continuous observation was used to measure the activity time budgets of at least one focal animal per observation period. The activity time budgets varied between animals and observation periods. The elephants spent 17-49% of the day (daylight hours standing, 1-9% of the day walking, 19-44% of the day eating, and 1-20% of the day using enrichment items. At night, the elephants spent 29-87% of the observation period standing, 1-19% of the night eating, and 0.1-10% of the night using enrichment items. At night, elephants spent 0-45% of the observation period lying down. Variations in activity time budgets between elephants and observation periods have been observed in other studies of captive and wild elephants. Results of this observational study allow comparison between groups of captive elephants and between captive and wild elephants. Furthermore, results of this study can inform management strategies.

  16. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ho Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients’ age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%. Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p=0.087. Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity.

  17. PROPOSED SIMPLE METHOD FOR ELECTROCARDIOGRAM RECORDING IN FREE-RANGING ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Norin; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Bouvard, Jonathan; Sillero, Leonor Camacho; Huynh, Minh; Segalini, Vincent; Point, Lisa; Croce, Veronica; Rigaux, Goulven; Highwood, Jack; Chetboul, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Electrocardiography represents a relevant diagnostic tool for detecting cardiac disease in animals. Elephants can present various congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases. However, few electrophysiologic studies have been reported in captive elephants, mainly due to challenging technical difficulties in obtaining good-quality electrocardiogram (ECG) tracings, and no data are currently available for free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The purpose of this pilot prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a simple method for recording ECG tracings in wild, apparently healthy, unsedated Asian elephants (n = 7) in the standing position. Successful six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, and aVF) were obtained, with the aVL lead providing the best-quality tracings in most animals. Variables measured in the aVL lead included heart rate, amplitudes and duration of the P waves, QRS complexes, T and U waves, and duration of the PR, QT, and QU intervals. A negative deflection following positive P waves, representative of an atrial repolarization wave (Ta wave), was observed for five out of the seven elephants.

  18. Elephant (Elephas maximus Health and Management in Asia: Variations in Veterinary Perspectives

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    David Miller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to identify strategic investments in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus health that will yield maximal benefits for overall elephant health and conservation. As an exploratory first step, a survey was administered to veterinarians from Asian elephant range countries at a workshop and via email to help prioritize health-related concerns that will mostly benefit elephants. Responses were received from 45 veterinarians from eight countries that had a range of experience with captive and wild elephants. The occurrence of medical conditions and responses to treatment varied among responses. However, injuries, parasitism, and gastrointestinal disease were reported as the most common syndromes responsible for elephant morbidity, whereas injury and infectious disease not due to parasitism were the most commonly reported sources of elephant mortality. Substandard nutrition, water quality and quantity deficiencies, and inadequate or absent shelter were among the factors listed as barriers to optimal elephant health. While this survey’s results do not support definitive conclusions, they can be used to identify where and how subsequent investigations should be directed. Rigorous assessment of the relative costs and benefits of available options is required to ensure that investments in individual and population health yield the maximal benefits for elephants.

  19. Medical management of bilateral corneal opacity in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Paul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed at studying efficacy of medical management of corneal opacity in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus. Material and methods: A 42 years old male Asian elephant was brought to the Teaching Veterinary Hospital (TVH at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU with a history of chronic lacrimation and impaired vision. On clinical examination, the animal was found apparently healthy. Opthalmological examination tentatively revealed the condition as corneal opacity. The left eye was much more affected as compared to the right one. Medical management was instituted with topical administration of ciprofloxacin, dexamethasone, subconjunctival prednisolone and dexamethasone along with intramuscular ketoprofen (at 1 mg/Kg bwt and vitamin A (at 5000 IU/Kg bwt. Results: The “mahout” (elepenat caretaker of the elephant was kept in close contact over cell phone to follow up the progress of the condition. Clinical examination after 19 days revealed complete recovery of the cornel opacity. There was no sign of lacrimation and the animal regained its normal vision. Conclusion: The treatment protocol successfully eliminated the discomfort along with corneal opacity and lacrimation in an Asian elephant. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 98-100

  20. Anti-predator adaptations in a great scallop (Pecten maximus) - a palaeontological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Krzysztof Roman; Szopa, Krzysztof; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Shelly fauna was exposed to increased pressure exerted by shell-crushing durophagous predators during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution that was initiated in the Triassic. As a result of evolutionary `arms race', prey animals such as bivalves, developed many adaptations to reduce predation pressure (e.g. they changed lifestyle and shell morphology in order to increase their mechanical strength). For instance, it was suggested that Pectinidae had acquired the ability to actively swim to avoid predator attack during the early Mesozoic. However, pectinids are also know to have a specific shell microstructure that may effectively protect them against predators. For instance, we highlight that the shells of some recent pectinid species (e.g. Pecten maximus) that display cross-lamellar structures in the middle part playing a significant role in the energy dissipation, improve the mechanical strength. In contrast, the outer layers of these bivalves are highly porous, which allow them to swim more efficiently by reducing the shell weight. Pectinids are thus perfect examples of animals optimising their skeletons for several functions. We suggest that such an optimisation of their skeletons for multiple functions likely occurred as a results of increased predation pressure during the so-called Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  1. VITAL SIGNS AND FIRST OCCURRENCES IN NORMAL AND ABNORMAL NEWBORN ASIAN ELEPHANT ( ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) CALVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Ellen; Kiso, Wendy K; Aria, Janice; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William; Jacobson, Gary; Jacobson, Kathy; Schmitt, Dennis

    2017-12-01

    Sixteen years of medical records documenting 19 births within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) at a private facility in the southeastern United States were reviewed. Of the 19 calves, 11 were normal at birth, requiring no additional veterinary care, and eight were abnormal, requiring veterinary care immediately or within the first week of birth. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate morphometrics, vital signs, and behavioral milestones in newborn calves both normal and abnormal. Blood work and urinalysis results from all calves were compared to values for adult elephants. Medical management of abnormal calves is described. All calves had faster heart rates and respiratory rates than did adult elephants, but rectal temperatures were the same. Calves were precocious with regard to sitting and standing but could be very slow to nurse. The most-common medical conditions of newborn calves were umbilical abnormalities and problems associated with nursing. Two calves required cardiopulmonary resuscitation after birth but made full recoveries. Some conditions were not apparent at birth but were recognized a few hours or days later. Following veterinary intervention, six of the eight calves made full recoveries, suggesting that early identification and treatment of problems can greatly decrease mortality. This is the first report of multiple veterinary and behavioral parameters in normal and abnormal neonatal Asian elephants from a facility with a calf survival rate above 90%. This information may be helpful to other elephant-holding facilities in providing care to their newborn elephant calves.

  2. Genitourinary and pulmonary multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; St Leger, Judy; Olsen, John H; Burton, Michael S; Ashkin, David; Maslow, Joel N

    2011-12-01

    A female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed vaginal and trunk discharge. Cultures were positive for pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally and monitored by serum levels. After being trained at 10 mo to accept oral dosing, treatment was changed and rifampin was added. Oral medications were administered for another 10 mo. A year after completion of therapy, the vaginal discharge increased and cultures yielded M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Treatment with oral ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and enrofloxacin and intramuscular amikacin was initiated. Although followup cultures became negative, adverse reactions to medications precluded treatment completion. Due to public health concerns related to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the elephant was euthanized. Postmortem smears from the lung, peribronchial, and abdominal lymph nodes yielded acid-fast bacteria, although cultures were negative. This case highlights important considerations in the treatment of M. tuberculosis in animals and the need for a consistent approach to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

  3. FDG PET/CT and MR imaging of intramuscular myxoma in the gluteus maximus

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    Nishio Jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intramuscular myxoma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor which may be mistaken for other benign and low-grade malignant myxoid neoplasms. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with an asymptomatic intramuscular myxoma discovered incidentally on a whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography. PET images showed a mild FDG uptake (maximum standardized uptake value, 1.78 in the left gluteus maximus. Subsequent magnetic resonance (MR imaging revealed a well-defined ovoid mass with homogenous low signal intensity on T1-weighted sequences and markedly high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. Contrast-enhanced MR images showed heterogeneous enhancement throughout the mass. The diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma was confirmed on histopathology after surgical excision of the tumor. The patient had no local recurrence at one year follow-up. Our case suggests that intramuscular myxoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oval-shaped intramuscular soft tissue mass with a mild FDG uptake.

  4. Anatomy, histology and elemental profile of long bones and ribs of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Siengdee, Puntita; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Klinhom, Sarisa; Pitakarnnop, Tanita; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula. The osteon structure was comparatively large and similar in all bones, although the lacuna area was greater (P < 0.05) in the femur and ulna. Another finding was that nutrient foramina were clearly present in the humerus, ulna, femur, tibia and rib. Twenty elements were identified in elephant compact bone. Of these, ten differed significantly across the seven bones: Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zr, Ag, Cd, Sn and Sb. Of particular interest was the finding of a significantly larger proportion of Fe in the humerus, radius, fibula and ribs, all bones without an open medullary cavity, which is traditionally associated with bone marrow for blood cell production. In conclusion, elephant bones present special characteristics, some of which may be important to hematopoiesis and bone strength for supporting a heavy body weight.

  5. [Insertion of gluteus maximus tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped for the treatment of severe gluteal muscle contracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-shi; Yang, Xiao-long

    2015-06-01

    To investigate clinical curative effects of gluteal muscle contracture release combined with insertion of gluteus maximus tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped in treating severe gluteal muscles contracture. From 2006 May to 2011 May, 20 patients (35 sides) with severe gluteal muscle contracture were collected, including 12 males and 8 females, aged from 8 to 34 years old with an average of 13 years old; the courses of disease ranged from 3 to 21 years. All patients manifested abnormal gait at different degree, knees close together cannot squat,positive syndrome of Ober, positive test of alice leg. Gluteus contracture fascia release were performed firstly in operation, then insertion of tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped were carried out. Preoperative and postoperative gait, and knee flexion hip extensor squat test, cross leg test, adduction and internal rotary activity of hip joint, stretch strength and motor ability after hip abduction were observed and compared. Twenty patients were followed up for 1 to 5 years. Gluteus maximus were released thoroughly, and snapping hip was disappeared, Ober syndrome were negative. There was significant differences in knee flexion hip extensor squat test, adduction and internal rotary activity of hip joint,stretch before and after operation (Pmuscle strength was protected,stretch strength and motor ability of hip joint were recovered well. Among them,31 cases got excellent results and 4 good. For severe gluteal muscles contracture,insertion of gluteus maximus tendo-chilles lengthening with Z-shaped performed after gluteus contracture fascia release could release gluteal muscle contracture to the greatest extent and obtain postoperative curative effect without resection of normal hip muscle fibers and destroy joint capsule.

  6. Evidence for distinct roles of the SEPALLATA gene LEAFY HULL STERILE1 in Eleusine indica and Megathyrsus maximus (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinheimer, Renata; Malcomber, Simon T; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (LHS1) is an MIKC-type MADS-box gene in the SEPALLATA class. Expression patterns of LHS1 homologs vary among species of grasses, and may be involved in determining palea and lemma morphology, specifying the terminal floret of the spikelet, and sex determination. Here we present LHS1 expression data from Eleusine indica (subfamily Chloridoideae) and Megathyrsus maximus (subfamily Panicoideae) to provide further insights into the hypothesized roles of the gene. E. indica has spikelets with three to eight florets that mature acropetally; E. indica LHS1 (EiLHS1) is expressed in the palea and lemma of all florets. In contrast, M. maximus has spikelets with two florets that mature basipetally; M. maximus LHS1 (MmLHS1) is expressed in the palea and lemma of the distal floret only. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that LHS1 plays a role in determining palea and lemma morphology and specifies the terminal floret of basipetally maturing grass spikelets. However, LHS1 expression does not correlate with floret sex expression; MmLHS1 is restricted to the bisexual distal floret, whereas EiLHS1 is expressed in both sterile and bisexual floret meristems. Phylogenetic analyses reconstruct a complex pattern of LHS1 expression evolution in grasses. LHS1 expression within the gynoecium has apparently been lost twice, once before diversification of a major clade within tribe Paniceae, and once in subfamily Chloridoideae. These data suggest that LHS1 has multiple roles during spikelet development and may have played a role in the diversification of spikelet morphology.

  7. The factory of illusions in the ‘Third Rome’:Circus Maximus as a space of fascist simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kallis, Aristotle

    2014-01-01

    Although the site of the ancient Circus Maximus was one of the most loaded spaces of the Fascist ‘Third Rome’, it has received limited attention as a privileged site where a dizzying array of myths and illusions were entertained, simulated, and deposited as new Fascist layers on Rome’s urban and mnemonic palimpsest. Previously a decayed, ‘unsightly’, and overcrowded hodgepodge of layers of life, history, and memory, it was substantially restored, ruthlessly emptied of its previous life, and t...

  8. Certification for Trace Elements and Methyl Mercury Mass Fractions in IAEA-452 Scallop (Pecten maximus) Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    to poor environmental management decisions. The IAEA has a long history of organizing interlaboratory studies, which have evolved to include an increasing array of potential contaminants in the marine environment. A marine certified reference material (CRM), IAEA-452, prepared with a scallop (Pecten maximus) sample, was recently produced by the IAEA and certified for trace elements and methylmercury (MeHg). This species of scallop is a common, widely consumed seafood that is also used as a bioindicator for trace metal contamination in marine pollution studies. This publication presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity and stability studies, evaluation of certification campaign results, and assignment of property values and their associated uncertainty. The reference values and associated expanded uncertainty for nine trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) and MeHg in the scallop sample are established. The informative value for one more element (Ni) is also given. The new CRM can be used for the development and validation of analytical methods in the determination of trace elements and MeHg in seafood Pecten maximus as well as for QA/QC purposes

  9. Variation in size and growth of the great scallop Pecten maximus along a latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chauvaud

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between growth and temperature will aid in the evaluation of thermal stress and threats to ectotherms in the context of anticipated climate changes. Most Pecten maximus scallops living at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere have a larger maximum body size than individuals further south, a common pattern among many ectotherms. We investigated differences in daily shell growth among scallop populations along the Northeast Atlantic coast from Spain to Norway. This study design allowed us to address precisely whether the asymptotic size observed along a latitudinal gradient, mainly defined by a temperature gradient, results from differences in annual or daily growth rates, or a difference in the length of the growing season. We found that low annual growth rates in northern populations are not due to low daily growth values, but to the smaller number of days available each year to achieve growth compared to the south. We documented a decrease in the annual number of growth days with age regardless of latitude. However, despite initially lower annual growth performances in terms of growing season length and growth rate, differences in asymptotic size as a function of latitude resulted from persistent annual growth performances in the north and sharp declines in the south. Our measurements of daily growth rates throughout life in a long-lived ectothermic species provide new insight into spatio-temporal variations in growth dynamics and growing season length that cannot be accounted for by classical growth models that only address asymptotic size and annual growth rate.

  10. Identification of shedders of elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses among Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Switzerland.

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    Mathias Ackermann

    Full Text Available Elephants, particularly Asian (Elephas maximus, are threatened by lethal elephant hemorrhagic disease (EHD due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV. At least five of seven known EEHV types have been associated to EHD, with types 1, 4, and 5 predominantly affecting Asian elephants. In Switzerland, at least three Asian elephants have been lost due to EHD but nothing is known about the present EEHV1 circulation. Moreover, the prevalence of other EEHV types has never been assessed. Intermittent shedding of EEHV can be monitored through collecting trunk secretions and analyzing them by PCR methods that discriminate the different EEHV types. To identify EEHV shedders, seven of eight Asian elephants in a Swiss zoo were trained to provide trunk wash samples. These were collected at intervals over a period of four months and tested by PCR for presence of EEHV1 through 6. Moreover, the quality of each sample was assessed by testing for the elephant TNF-alpha gene. Overall, 57% of the samples were valid with five of seven participating elephants identified as EEHV shedders. Two of those shed virus only once, whereas the other three, all closely related among each other, shed virus on multiple occasions. One of the frequent shedders had been in very close contact to all of the three EHD victims. Therefore, we speculate that this particular animal may represent the virus source in all three cases. However, when subtyping was conducted, the presently circulating virus was identified as EEHV1B, while the virus subtype causing EHD had been 1A in all three cases. In addition to four animals excreting EEHV1, a recently introduced animal was observed to shed EEHV3/4. We suggest that the policy of trunk washing to identify and characterize EEHV-shedders is to be endorsed in zoos with ongoing or planned elephant breeding programs.

  11. Lactotransferrin in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus seminal plasma correlates with semen quality.

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    Wendy K Kiso

    Full Text Available Asian elephants (Elephas maximus have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65% expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8% and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%, in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10⁶ cells ml⁻¹ compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05. Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05. We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species.

  12. Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Southern India: a latent class analysis.

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    Shalu Verma-Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a causative agent of chronic tuberculosis disease, is widespread among some animal species too. There is paucity of information on the distribution, prevalence and true disease status of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection in captive elephants in southern India while simultaneously estimating sero-prevalence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Health assessment of 600 elephants was carried out and their sera screened with a commercially available rapid serum test. Trunk wash culture of select rapid serum test positive animals yielded no animal positive for M. tuberculosis isolation. Under Indian field conditions where the true disease status is unknown, we used a latent class model to estimate the diagnostic characteristics of an existing (rapid serum test and new (four in-house ELISA tests. One hundred and seventy nine sera were randomly selected for screening in the five tests. Diagnostic sensitivities of the four ELISAs were 91.3-97.6% (95% Credible Interval (CI: 74.8-99.9 and diagnostic specificity were 89.6-98.5% (95% CI: 79.4-99.9 based on the model we assumed. We estimate that 53.6% (95% CI: 44.6-62.8 of the samples tested were free from infection with M. tuberculosis and 15.9% (97.5% CI: 9.8 - to 24.0 tested positive on all five tests. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence for high prevalence of asymptomatic M. tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants in a captive Indian setting. Further validation of these tests would be important in formulating area-specific effective surveillance and control measures.

  13. Effects of PBDE-47 on thyroid and steroid hormone status in juvenile turbot (Schophtalamus maximus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, G.; Tyrhaug, I.B.; Sormo, E.G. [Dept. of Biology, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Andersen, O.K. [Rogaland Research Akvamiljo, Mekjarvik (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Many of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Many of the PBDEs are persistent and lipophilic and have been shown to bioaccumulate. The levels of PBDEs in biota seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid1. In general, BFRs have a low acute toxicity, but there is concern about their long-term toxic effects. Exposure studies have revealed a range of subtle biochemical, cellular and physiological effects following low-dose exposure, and many BFRs have been reported to have endocrine disruptive properties. Thus, there is concern about their potential to affect organisms and populations. Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in organism's development, metabolism, growth and behavior. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) including BFRs may affect the thyroid system through several mechanisms. They may directly affect the thyroid gland function, the peripheral metabolism of THs and/or the binding of THs to plasma transport proteins. Effects of PHAHs on TH homeostasis have been documented in a number of species, including fish. Du to its persistence against degradation PBDE-47 is among the most abundant PBDE congener in biota, and there is a great concern about its ecotoxicological effects on organisms and populations. The aim of the present study was to examine if PBDE-47 may affect levels of circulating steroid and thyroid hormones in juvenile turbot (Scophtalamus maximus). The turbot is a benthic living flatfish that can be exposed to PHAHs via the sediment living organisms. Thus, plasma levels of T, E, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were determined in juvenile turbot that had been continuously exposed to PBDE-47 via water for 3 weeks.

  14. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate activities of the hip extensors and erector spinae during bridging exercise by using instruments with a laser pointer on the pelvic belt. [Subjects] Twelve subjects (age, 23 to 33 years) with non-specific low back pain volunteered for this study. [Methods] Subjects performed bridging exercises with and without trajectory exercises by using a laser pointer fixed to a pelvic strap. The erector spinae, gluteus maximus and hamstring activities with and without trajectory exercises using a laser pointer were recorded on using electromyography. [Results] Compared to the without laser pointer group, the group that underwent bridging with trajectory exercises using a laser pointer had significantly higher gluteus maximus activity and significantly lower erector spinae activity. Significantly higher gluteus maximus/erector spinae activity ratios were observed when performing trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during bridging exercises. [Conclusion] This result suggests that trajectory exercises using a laser pointer during a bridging exercise would be effective for improving gluteus maximus activity.

  15. Feeding ecology of two endangered sympatric megaherbivores: Asian elephant Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in lowland Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, N.M.B.; Wegge, P.; Moe, S.R.; Shrestha, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the diets of low-density but increasing populations of sympatric Asian elephants Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in the Bardia National Park in lowland Nepal. A microhistological technique based on faecal material was used to estimate the seasonal

  16. Mediational influence of spent mushroom compost on phytoremediation of black-oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemoloye, Michael Dare; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Jayeola, Adeniyi A; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2017-09-15

    Ability of a plant to develop different adaptive strategies can also determine its capability for effective soil remediation. In this study, influence of spent mushroom compost (SMC) was tested on the phytoremediation of black oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and the response of Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass). Studies were carried out in microcosm conditions by mixing different concentration of SMC viz., 10, 20, 30 and 40% in a 5 kg of contaminated soil along with control. Seeds of M. maximus was sown in tray for two weeks and allowed to grow for height of 10 cm and transplanted in to the different experimental pots. Soil nutrient, heavy metal and PAH contents were analyzed before and after the experiment. Ecophysiological and anatomical responses due to the contaminants in the soil by M. Maximus were analyzed after 120 days. Phytomass efficiency, potential photosynthesis (Amax) and contents of chlorophylls (a and b) as well as the total chlorophyll along with anatomical evaluations were recorded. Plant alone (control) reduced the soil heavy metal and PAH contents but further improvements were observed in SMC treatments, similar results were also observed as regards to the plant's phytoremediation efficiency (PE), phytomass and potential photosynthetic rates (m mol O 2  M -2 S -1 ). The plant's root and shoot anatomical responses were enhanced in treatments compared to control, study infers that the treatment enhances the biostimulation and development of adaptive characteristics for M. maximus survival in contaminated soils and promotes its co-degradation of hydrocarbon. SMC supports remediation and as well enhances the anatomical evaluations, we therefore recommend the use of SMC on response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq for remediation of petrochemical based phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phylogeography of the asian elephant (Elephas maximus) based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, R C; Perry, E A; Muralidharan, K; Stevens, E E; Wemmer, C M

    2001-09-01

    Populations of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) have been reduced in size and become highly fragmented during the past 3,000 to 4,000 years. Historical records reveal elephant dispersal by humans via trade and war. How have these anthropogenic impacts affected genetic variation and structure of Asian elephant populations? We sequenced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to assay genetic variation and phylogeography across much of the Asian elephant's range. Initially we compare cytochrome b sequences (cyt b) between nine Asian and five African elephants and use the fossil-based age of their separation (approximately 5 million years ago) to obtain a rate of about 0.013 (95% CI = 0.011-0.018) corrected sequence divergence per million years. We also assess variation in part of the mtDNA control region (CR) and adjacent tRNA genes in 57 Asian elephants from seven countries (Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia). Asian elephants have typical levels of mtDNA variation, and coalescence analyses suggest their populations were growing in the late Pleistocene. Reconstructed phylogenies reveal two major clades (A and B) differing on average by HKY85/gamma-corrected distances of 0.020 for cyt b and 0.050 for the CR segment (corresponding to a coalescence time based on our cyt b rate of approximately 1.2 million years). Individuals of both major clades exist in all locations but Indonesia and Malaysia. Most elephants from Malaysia and all from Indonesia are in well-supported, basal clades within clade A. thus supporting their status as evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). The proportion of clade A individuals decreases to the north, which could result from retention and subsequent loss of ancient lineages in long-term stable populations or, perhaps more likely, via recent mixing of two expanding populations that were isolated in the mid-Pleistocene. The distribution of clade A individuals appears to have been impacted by human trade in elephants

  18. Effect of stocking density on performances of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Liu, Ying; Blancheton, Jean-Paul

    2013-05-01

    Limited information has been available about the influence of loading density on the performances of Scophthalmus maximus, especially in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). In this study, turbot (13.84±2.74 g; average weight±SD) were reared at four different initial densities (low 0.66, medium 1.26, sub-high 2.56, high 4.00 kg/m2) for 10 weeks in RAS at 23±1°C. Final densities were 4.67, 7.25, 14.16, and 17.47 kg/m2, respectively, which translate to 82, 108, 214, and 282 percent coverage of the tank bottom. Density had both negative and independent impacts on growth. The final mean weight, specific growth rate (SGR), and voluntary feed intake significantly decreased and the coefficient of variation (CV) of final body weight increased with increase in stocking density. The medium and sub-high density groups did not differ significantly in SGR, mean weight, CV, food conversion rate (FCR), feed intake, blood parameters, and digestive enzymes. The protease activities of the digestive tract at pH 7, 8.5, 9, and 10 were significantly higher for the highest density group, but tended to be lower (not significantly) at pH 4 and 8.5 for the lowest density group. The intensity of protease activity was inversely related to feed intake at the different densities. Catalase activity was higher (but not significantly) at the highest density, perhaps because high density started to induce an oxidative effect in turbot. In conclusion, turbot can be cultured in RAS at a density of less than 17.47 kg/m2. With good water quality and no feed limitation, initial density between 1.26 and 2.56 kg/m2 (final: 7.25 and 14.16 kg/m2) would not negatively affect the turbot cultured in RAS. For culture at higher density, multi-level feeding devices are suggested to ease feeding competition.

  19. Evaluación estacional de la riqueza y abundancia de especies de mamíferos en la Reserva Biológica Municipal "Mário Viana", Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2006-09-01

    ía de ganado con pasto exótico.Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil. We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2 820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled. All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842 (hoary fox, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758 (tayra, Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771 (cougar and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (capybara were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI= 2.73 was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI= 3.43. Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo, Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758 (six-banded armadillo, Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara’s Agouti and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 (tapir. On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792 (giant armadillo and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 (ocelot had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an

  20. The Mitotic and Metabolic Effects of Phosphatidic Acid in the Primary Muscle Cells of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus

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    Tingting Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Searching for nutraceuticals and understanding the underlying mechanism that promote fish growth is at high demand for aquaculture industry. In this study, the modulatory effects of soy phosphatidic acids (PA on cell proliferation, nutrient sensing, and metabolic pathways were systematically examined in primary muscle cells of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus. PA was found to stimulate cell proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition through activation of target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD and follistatin, was upregulated, while that of myogenin and myostatin was downregulated by PA. Furthermore, PA increased intracellular free amino acid levels and enhanced protein synthesis, lipogenesis, and glycolysis, while suppressed amino acid degradation and lipolysis. PA also was found to increased cellular energy production through stimulated tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Our results identified PA as a potential nutraceutical that stimulates muscle cell proliferation and anabolism in fish.

  1. Insights into the mechanism of ligand binding to octopine dehydrogenase from Pecten maximus by NMR and crystallography.

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    Sander H J Smits

    Full Text Available Octopine dehydrogenase (OcDH from the adductor muscle of the great scallop, Pecten maximus, catalyzes the NADH dependent, reductive condensation of L-arginine and pyruvate to octopine, NAD(+, and water during escape swimming and/or subsequent recovery. The structure of OcDH was recently solved and a reaction mechanism was proposed which implied an ordered binding of NADH, L-arginine and finally pyruvate. Here, the order of substrate binding as well as the underlying conformational changes were investigated by NMR confirming the model derived from the crystal structures. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the OcDH/NADH/agmatine complex was determined which suggests a key role of the side chain of L-arginine in protein cataylsis. Thus, the order of substrate binding to OcDH as well as the molecular signals involved in octopine formation can now be described in molecular detail.

  2. a Method for Virtual Anastylosis: the Case of the Arch of Titus at the Circus Maximus in Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canciani, M.; Falcolini, C.; Buonfiglio, M.; Pergola, S.; Saccone, M.; Mammì, B.; Romito, G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper is the first report about the development of a methodology for the virtual Anastylosis of elements belonging to an archaeological site, based on the 3d modeling of fragments. This research is the result of the cooperation between Università Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Architettura and Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni Culturali; several 3D survey, modeling, information systems and archaeology experts were involved. The purpose of the research was to study the complex and stratified site of the Arch of Titus at the Circus Maximus aiming, first of all, at completing the existing traditional graphic documentation using cataloguing and survey innovative methodologies, and, secondly, at supporting new proposals for the reconstruction and Anastylosis of the Arch itself. This tested methodology whose fundamental element is the three-dimensional textured model of each fragment, can also be used in other sites and contexts.

  3. Spatial changes in fatty acids signatures of the great scallop Pecten maximus across the Bay of Biscay continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerot, Caroline; Meziane, Tarik; Schaal, Gauthier; Grall, Jacques; Lorrain, Anne; Paulet, Yves-Marie; Kraffe, Edouard

    2015-10-01

    The spatial variability of food resources along continental margins can strongly influence the physiology and ecology of benthic bivalves. We explored the variability of food sources of the great scallop Pecten maximus, by determining their fatty acid (FA) composition along an inshore-offshore gradient in the Bay of Biscay (from 15 to 190 m depth). The FA composition of the digestive gland showed strong differences between shallow and deep-water habitats. This trend was mainly driven by their content in diatom-characteristic fatty acids, which are abundant near the coast. Scallops collected from the middle of the continental shelf were characterized by higher contents of flagellate markers than scallops from shallow habitats. This could be related to a permanent vertical stratification in the water column, which reduced vertical mixing of waters, thereby enhancing organic matter recycling through the microbial loop. In the deeper water station (190 m), FA compositions were close to the compositions found in scallops from shallow areas, which suggest that scallops could have access to the same resources (i.e. diatoms). Muscle FA composition was more indicative of the physiological state of scallops over this depth range, revealing contrasting reproductive strategies among the two coastal sites and metabolic or physiological adaptation at greater depth (e.g. structural and functional adjustments of membrane composition). This study therefore revealed contrasted patterns between shallow and deeper habitats for both P. maximus muscle and digestive gland tissues. This emphasizes the variability in the diet of this species along its distribution range, and stresses the importance of analyzing different tissues for their FA composition in order to better understand their physiology and ecology.

  4. Stock enhancement or sea ranching? Insights from monitoring the genetic diversity, relatedness and effective population size in a seeded great scallop population (Pecten maximus)

    OpenAIRE

    Morvezen, R; Boudry, P; Laroche, J; Charrier, G

    2016-01-01

    The mass release of hatchery-propagated stocks raises numerous questions concerning its efficiency in terms of local recruitment and effect on the genetic diversity of wild populations. A seeding program, consisting of mass release of hatchery-produced juveniles in the local naturally occurring population of great scallops (Pecten maximus L.), was initiated in the early 1980s in the Bay of Brest (France). The present study aims at evaluating whether this seeding program leads to actual popula...

  5. Accuracy of two optical chlorophyll meters in predicting chemical composition and in vitro ruminal organic matter degradability of Brachiaria hybrid, Megathyrsus maximus, and Paspalum atratum

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    Martin P. Hughes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 2 optical chlorophyll meters: FieldScout CM 1,000 NDVI and Yara N-Tester, in predicting neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN and in vitro ruminal organic matter degradability (IVOMD of 3 tropical grasses. Optical chlorophyll measurements were taken at 3 stages (4, 8 and 12 weeks of regrowth in Brachiaria hybrid, and Megathyrsus maximus and at 6 and 12 weeks of regrowth in Paspalum atratum (cv. Ubon. Optical chlorophyll measurements showed the highest correlation (r = 0.57 to 0.85 with NDF concentration. The FieldScout CM 1,000 NDVI was better than the Yara N-Tester in predicting NDF (R2 = 0.70 and ADF (R2 = 0.79 concentrations in Brachiaria hybrid and NDF (R2 = 0.79 in M. maximus. Similarly, FieldScout CM 1,000 NDVI produced better estimates of 24 h IVOMD (IVOMD24h in Brachiaria hybrid (R2 = 0.81 and IVOMD48h in Brachiaria hybrid (R2 = 0.65 and M. maximus (R2 = 0.75. However, these prediction models had relatively low concordance correlation coefficients, i.e., CCC >0.90, but random errors were the main source of bias. It was, therefore, concluded that both optical chlorophyll meters were poor and unreliable predictors of ADIN and ADL concentrations. Overall, the FieldScout CM 1,000 NDVI shows potential to produce useful estimates of IVOMD24h and ADF in Brachiaria hybrid and IVOMD48h and NDF concentrations in M. maximus.

  6. Muscle activation levels of the gluteus maximus and medius during standing hip-joint strengthening exercises using elastic-tubing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Nelson, Meghan M; Hollman, John H

    2014-02-01

    No published studies have compared muscle activation levels simultaneously for the gluteus maximus and medius muscles of stance and moving limbs during standing hip-joint strengthening while using elastic-tubing resistance. To quantify activation levels bilaterally of the gluteus maximus and medius during resisted lower-extremity standing exercises using elastic tubing for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercise conditions. Repeated measures. Laboratory. 26 active and healthy people, 13 men (25 ± 3 y) and 13 women (24 ± 1 y). Subjects completed 3 consecutive repetitions of lower-extremity exercises in random order. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. Magnitudes of EMG recruitment were analyzed with a 2 × 4 repeated-measures ANOVA for each muscle (α = .05). For the gluteus maximus an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F3,75 = 21.5; P tubing.

  7. Effect of increased pCO2 level on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck larvae

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    S. Andersen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the concentration of CO2 in the oceans has increased, causing a decrease in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA. Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and also that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects of OA on embryos and unfed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck, at pCO2 levels of 469 (ambient, 807, 1164, and 1599 μatm until seven days after fertilization. To our knowledge, this is the first study on OA effects on larvae of this species. A drop in pCO2 level the first 12 h was observed in the elevated pCO2 groups due to a discontinuation in water flow to avoid escape of embryos. When the flow was restarted, pCO2 level stabilized and was significantly different between all groups. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Survival was reduced from 45% in the ambient group to 12% in the highest pCO2 group. Shell length and height were reduced by 8 and 15%, respectively, when pCO2 increased from ambient to 1599 μatm. Development of normal hinges was negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels in both trochophore larvae after two days and veliger larvae after seven days. After seven days, deformities in the shell hinge were more connected to elevated pCO2 levels than deformities in the shell edge. Embryos stained with calcein showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area, indicating calcification of the shell at the early trochophore stage between one and two days after fertilization. Our results show that P. maximus embryos and early larvae may be negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected towards year 2250, although the initial drop in pCO2 level may have overestimated the effect of the highest pCO2 levels. Future work should focus on long-term effects on this species from hatching, throughout the larval stages, and further into the

  8. Visual cues given by humans are not sufficient for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to find hidden food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Joshua M; Pokorny, Jennifer J; Keratimanochaya, Titiporn; Webb, Christine; Beronja, Hana F; Hennessy, Alice; Hill, James; Hill, Virginia J; Kiss, Rebecca; Maguire, Caitlin; Melville, Beckett L; Morrison, Violet M B; Seecoomar, Dannah; Singer, Benjamin; Ukehaxhaj, Jehona; Vlahakis, Sophia K; Ylli, Dora; Clayton, Nicola S; Roberts, John; Fure, Emilie L; Duchatelier, Alicia P; Getz, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that domesticated species--due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits--are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses) and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees) animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7) in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants' inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation.

  9. Effects of waterborne Fe(II) on juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus: analysis of respiratory rate, hematology and gill histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Mengxia; Li, Jun; Zhang, Peijun

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of Fe(II) is high in some groundwater supplies used in turbot culture, and the toxicity of waterborne Fe(II) is unknown. We investigated the stress responses of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, exposed to Fe(II) of different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d, under the same ambient conditions of other parameters. Changes in respiratory rate, hematological parameters, and gill structure were determined. The results show that waterborne Fe(II) did not cause severe hematological perturbation to turbot. A low-medium Fe(II) concentration (lower than 0.1 mg/L) could boost the respiratory rate, and caused no or very limited damage to fish. A high Fe(II) concentration (0.1 mg/L or higher), however, caused gill damage, such as vacuoles in branchial lamellae, epithelial necrosis, and hypertrophy of epithelial cells, and even death after extended exposure time. Therefore, excess waterborne Fe(II) and long-term exposure to Fe(II) could be responsible for poor growth and high mortality of turbot in culture. The concentration of waterborne Fe(II) in turbot culture should be kept below 0.1 mg/L.

  10. Visual cues given by humans are not sufficient for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus to find hidden food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Plotnik

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that domesticated species--due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits--are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7 in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants' inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation.

  11. Postprandial nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after partial dietary fishmeal replacement by soyabean meal in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-02-14

    In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45% of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6% dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal.

  12. Germ cell differentiation and proliferation in the developing testis of the South American plains viscacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

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    Gonzalez, C R; Muscarsel Isla, M L; Fraunhoffer, N A; Leopardo, N P; Vitullo, A D

    2012-08-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death are essential processes in the physiology of the developing testis that strongly influence the normal adult spermatogenesis. We analysed in this study the morphometry, the expression of the proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cell pluripotency marker OCT-4, germ cell marker VASA and apoptosis in the developing testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent in which female germ line develops through abolished apoptosis and unrestricted proliferation. Morphometry revealed an increment in the size of the seminiferous cords with increasing developmental age, arising from a significant increase of PCNA-positive germ cells and a stable proportion of PCNA-positive Sertoli cells. VASA showed a widespread cytoplasmic distribution in a great proportion of proliferating gonocytes that increased significantly at late development. In the somatic compartment, Leydig cells increased at mid-development, whereas peritubular cells showed a stable rate of proliferation. In contrast to other mammals, OCT-4 positive gonocytes increased throughout development reaching 90% of germ cells in late-developing testis, associated with a conspicuous increase in circulating FSH from mid- to late-gestation. TUNEL analysis was remarkable negative, and only a few positive cells were detected in the somatic compartment. These results show that the South American plains viscacha displays a distinctive pattern of testis development characterized by a sustained proliferation of germ cells throughout development, with no signs of apoptosis cell demise, in a peculiar endocrine in utero ambiance that seems to promote the increase of spermatogonial number as a primary direct effect of FSH.

  13. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine on ovarian cyclicity and uterine morphology of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Nancy C; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Murray, Suzan; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the successful use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine to suppress ovarian steroidogenic activity and to treat hemorrhage and anemia associated with reproductive tract pathology in a 59-year-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The Repro-BLOC GnRH vaccine was administered subcutaneously as a series of 4 boosters of increasing dose from 3 to 30 mg of recombinant ovalbumin-GnRH fusion protein given at variable intervals after initial vaccination with 3 mg protein. Efficacy was confirmed over a year after initial vaccination based on complete ovarian cycle suppression determined by serum progestagen analyses. Estrous cycle suppression was associated with a significant increase in GnRH antibody binding and subsequent decrease in serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Ultrasonographic examinations of the reproductive tract documented a reduction in uterine size and vascularity after immunization. The hematocrit level normalized soon after the initial intrauterine hemorrhage, and no recurrence of anemia has been detected. No substantive adverse effects were associated with GnRH vaccination. The results indicate that GnRH vaccination in elephants shows potential for contraception and management of uterine pathology in older elephants.

  14. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos.

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    Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (pElephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (pelephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-valueelephant welfare outcomes.

  15. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area.

  16. Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie L; Trotter, Jessica; Jones, Martin; Brown, Janine L; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Walker, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. KINETICS OF VIRAL LOADS AND GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS-1 INFECTION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Eng, Crystal; Howard, Lauren; Flanagan, Joe; Stevens, Martina; Schmitt, Dennis; Wiedner, Ellen; Graham, Danielle; Junge, Randall E.; Weber, Martha A.; Fischer, Martha; Mejia, Alicia; Tan, Jie; Latimer, Erin; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3–8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7–21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants. PMID:23505702

  18. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus IgG, IgM, and IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F Humphreys

    Full Text Available Asian elephant (Elephas maximus immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV, which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV.

  19. Rome’s seat of passion: An assessment of the archeology and history of the Circus Maximus

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    Cody Scott Ames

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a place where the general public can gather communally to watch ludi, provisionally erasing invisible boundary lines which sharply divide one social class from another. The Circus is also a location which has the capability to eradicate personal and societal perceptions potentially rendering a crowd in an intoxicated, wanton state. The association existent between society and its predetermined allocation of space in many venues (e.g. hippodromes, theaters, amphitheaters, etc. which exhibit sports and spectacles, more generally, is well attested to in the Circus Maximus’s history. Using this as the conceptual framework, this article attempts to assess the recurrent, measured, and far-ranging evolutions and interdependencies between the aristocracy and the Circus they constructed. The construction methodology, I argue, was constantly being adapted to suit specific political agendas beginning with its legendary foundation under the Etruscan kings in the sixth-century BCE and ending with its usage during late Empire in the fifth-century CE. The fictional rape of the Sabine women, for example, relates Roman notions of losing self and spatial awareness as a hazardous mistake which can be purposely leveraged by manipulating a predestined, popular situation “monstra.” The organization of this article which traces the Circus’s transitions will begin with the Regal Period, move to the Republican Period, then to the Empire. The variations and modifications the Circus Maximus has undergone since the sixth-century BCE—architecturally and usage wise—serves as evidence to both the flexibility of public spaces and usages by the aristocracy from pre-Roman times through the Roman Empire.

  20. Activation of the gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles during prone hip extension with knee flexion in three hip abduction positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Ohyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Choi, Boram

    2013-08-01

    The direction of fiber alignment within a muscle is known to influence the effectiveness of muscle contraction. However, most of the commonly used clinical gluteus maximus (GM) exercises do not consider the direction of fiber alignment within the muscle. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of hip abduction position on the EMG (electromyography) amplitude and onset time of the GM and hamstrings (HAM) during prone hip extension with knee flexion (PHEKF) exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the GM and HAM during PHEKF exercise in three hip abduction positions: 0°, 15°, and 30°. Thirty healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The results show that GM EMG amplitude was greatest in the 30° hip abduction position, followed by 15° and then 0° hip abduction during PHEKF exercise. On the other hand, the HAM EMG amplitude at 0° hip abduction was significantly greater than at 15° and 30° hip abduction. Additionally, GM EMG onset firing was delayed relative to that of the HAM at 0° hip abduction. On the contrary, the GM EMG onset occurred earlier than the HAM in the 15° and 30° hip abduction positions. These findings indicate that performing PHEKF exercise in the 30° hip abduction position may be recommended as an effective way to facilitate the GM muscle activity and advance the firing time of the GM muscle in asymptomatic individuals. This finding provides preliminary evidence that GM EMG amplitude and onset time can be modified by the degree of hip abduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutral N-glycan patterns of the gastropods Limax maximus, Cepaea hortensis, Planorbarius corneus, Arianta arbustorum and Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutternigg, Martin; Bürgmayr, Sabine; Pöltl, Gerald; Rudolf, Judith; Staudacher, Erika

    2007-11-01

    The N-glycosylation potentials of Limax maximus, Cepaea hortensis, Planorbarius corneus, Arianta arbustorum and Achatina fulica were analysed by investigation of the N-glycan structures of the skin and viscera glycoproteins by a combination of HPLC and mass-spectrometry methods. It is one of the first steps to enlarge the knowledge on the glycosylation abilities of gastropods, which may help to establish new cell culture systems, to uncover new means for pest control for some species, and to identify carbohydrate-epitopes which may be relevant for immune response. All snails analysed contained mainly oligomannosidic and small paucimannosidic structures, often terminated with 3-O-methylated mannoses. The truncated structures carried modifications by beta1-2-linked xylose to the beta-mannose residue, and/or an alpha-fucosylation, mainly alpha1,6-linked to the innermost N-acetylglucosaminyl residue of the core. Many of these structures were missing the terminal N-acetylglucosamine, which has been shown to be a prerequisite for processing to complex N-glycans in the Golgi. In some species (Planorbarius corneus and Achatina fulica) traces of large structures, terminated by 3-O-methylated galactoses and carrying xylose and/or fucose residues, were also detected. In Planorbarius viscera low amounts of terminal alpha1-2-fucosylation were determined. Combining these results, gastropods seem to be capable to produce all kinds of structures ranging from those typical in mammals through to structures similar to those found in plants, insects or nematodes. The detailed knowledge of this very complex glycosylation system of the gastropods will be a valuable tool to understand the principle rules of glycosylation in all organisms.

  2. Activity budgets and the relationship between feeding and stereotypic behaviors in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul A

    2009-03-01

    Activity budgets were studied in eight Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Chester Zoo (UK) for 35 days, between January and November 1999. Recordings were made between 10:00 and 16:00 hr (with most behavior frequencies calculated between 10:00 and 14:00 hr). The elephants exhibited variation in activity depending on their age, sex, the time of day and the time of year. Only the five adult cows exhibited stereotypic behavior, with frequencies ranging from 3.9 to 29.4% of all observations. These elephants exhibited individual, diurnal and seasonal variation in stereotypic behavior. This has implications for studies that use short sampling periods and may make comparisons of data collected at different times of the day or year invalid. The six adult elephants spent 27.4-41.4% of the time feeding (between 10:00 and 14:00 hr), 22.9-42.0% standing still, 6.1-19.2% walking and 3.9-9.6% dusting. The hypothesis that the frequency of stereotypic behavior in adult cow elephants was negatively correlated with the frequency of feeding behavior was tested and was found to be true. Stereotypic behavior increased in frequency toward the end of the day-while waiting to return to the elephant house for food--and elephants spent more time stereotyping during the winter months than during the summer months. Elephants were inactive (i.e. exhibited behaviors other than locomotion) for between 70.1 and 93.9% of the time. Creating more opportunities for elephants to exhibit foraging behavior and the introduction of greater unpredictability into management regimes, especially feeding times, may reduce the frequency of stereotypic behavior and increase general activity levels.

  3. Effects of probiotic on microfloral structure of live feed used in larval breeding of turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yingeng; Jing, Yayun; Liao, Meijie; Rong, Xiaojun; Li, Bin; Chen, Guiping; Zhang, Hesen

    2017-08-01

    The effects of an exogenous probiotic (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) on microbial community structure of Branchionus plicatils and Artemia sinica were evaluated in this study during turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larval breeding. The analysis and comparison of the microfloral composition of live feed with probiotic was conducted using the Illumina HiSeq PE250. The abundance of microbial species and diversity of microflora in live feed with B. amyloliquefaciens were higher than those in the control. The microfloral composition was similar among the three replicate experimental groups of B. plicatils compared with the control after enrichment. Lactococcus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Alteromonas were always dominant. Additionally, some other bacterial species became dominant during the enrichment process. The microbial community during nutrient enrichment of A. sinica was rather similar among the three control replicates. Relative abundance of Cobetia sp., the most dominant species, was 54%-65.2%. Similarity in the microbial community was still high after adding B. amyloliquefaciens. Furthermore, Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas replaced Cobetia as the dominant species, and the abundance of Cobetia decreased to 4.3%-25.3%. Mean common ratios at the operational taxonomic unit level were 50%-60% between the two B. plicatils and A. sinica treatments. Therefore, the microbial community structure changed after adding B. amyloliquefaciens during nutrient enrichment of B. plicatils or A. sinica and tended to stabilize. Additionally, the abundance of Vibrio in any kind of live feed was not significantly different from that in the control. These results will help improve the microflora of B. plicatils and A. sinica and can be used to understand the multiple-level transfer role of probiotic species among probiotic products, microflora of live feed, and fish larvae.

  4. RNA-seq analysis of early enteromyxosis in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): new insights into parasite invasion and immune evasion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronza, Paolo; Robledo, Diego; Bermúdez, Roberto; Losada, Ana Paula; Pardo, Belén G; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Quiroga, María Isabel; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-07-01

    Enteromyxum scophthalmi, an intestinal myxozoan parasite, is the causative agent of a threatening disease for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) aquaculture. The colonisation of the digestive tract by this parasite leads to a cachectic syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. This myxosporidiosis has a long pre-patent period and the first detectable clinical and histopathological changes are subtle. The pathogenic mechanisms acting in the early stages of infection are still far from being fully understood. Further information on the host-parasite interaction is needed to assist in finding efficient preventive and therapeutic measures. Here, a RNA-seq-based transcriptome analysis of head kidney, spleen and pyloric caeca from experimentally-infected and control turbot was performed. Only infected fish with early signs of infection, determined by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of E. scophthalmi, were selected. The RNA-seq analysis revealed, as expected, less intense transcriptomic changes than those previously found during later stages of the disease. Several genes involved in IFN-related pathways were up-regulated in the three organs, suggesting that the IFN-mediated immune response plays a main role in this phase of the disease. Interestingly, an opposite expression pattern had been found in a previous study on severely infected turbot. In addition, possible strategies for immune system evasion were suggested by the down-regulation of different genes encoding complement components and acute phase proteins. At the site of infection (pyloric caeca), modulation of genes related to different structural proteins was detected and the expression profile indicated the inhibition of cell proliferation and differentiation. These transcriptomic changes provide indications regarding the mechanisms of parasite attachment to and invasion of the host. The current results contribute to a better knowledge of the events that characterise the early

  5. Characterization and differential expression of three GnRH forms during reproductive development in cultured turbot Schophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Xu, Shihong; Feng, Chengcheng; Liu, Yifan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Yongshuang; Song, Zongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Turbots (Schophthalmus maximus), one of the most important economic marine flatfish species, fail to undergo final spawning and spermiation naturally under artificial farming conditions. In vertebrates, reproduction is regulated by the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis (BPG-axis), and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is one of its key components. Therefore, to better understand the physiology of reproduction in the turbot, three of the genes encoding GnRH subtypes—sbGnRH, cGnRH-II and sGnRH—were cloned and sequenced by isolating the cDNA sequences. The localizations and patterns of expression of their mRNAs were also evaluated during seasonal gonadal development. All three mRNAs were expressed abundantly in the brain; sbGnRH and sGnRH mRNAs were also detected in the gonads and pituitary gland, and sbGnRH expression was much higher than that of sGnRH, indicating the critical role of sbGnRH in regulating the BPG-axis. Moreover, the brain expression patterns of sbGnRH and sGnRH mRNAs showed an increased trend during gonadal development, peaking in mature stages. This indicated the direct regulation of gonadal development by the GnRH system. In addition, cGnRH-II mRNA expression showed no significant variations, suggesting that cGnRH-II is not critically involved in the control of reproduction. Further, the mRNA abundances of the three GnRH forms in the breeding season were significantly higher than those in immature and post-breeding stages in all analyzed brain areas. Therefore, we propose that sbGnRH is the most important hormone for the regulation of reproduction in turbot via the BPG-axis. These results will help in better understanding the reproductive endocrine mechanisms of turbots and lay the groundwork for additional studies aimed at comparing the reproductive physiology of wild individuals with those raised under artificial conditions.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in turbot Scophthalmus maximus at two water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junping; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Liu, Ping; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2012-07-01

    Turbot Scophthalmus maximus, an important aquaculture species in China, currently suffers from epizootic diseases because of high density aquaculture. Enrofloxacin has been used to treat various systemic bacterial fish infections. However, studies concerning the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turbot are limited. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin, were investigated in the turbot following intravenous and oral administration at 10 mg enrofloxacin/kg body weight, at 16°C and 10°C water temperatures. The concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the main tissues (plasma, muscle, liver and kidney) were detected by HPLC. The results show that the plasma concentration-time data for enrofloxacin were best described as a two-compartment open model after intravenous and oral administration. Three pharmacokinetic equations were established between the concentrations and temperatures. The kinetic profile of enrofloxacin was temperature dependent. The absorption half-life of enrofloxacin was 1.99 h and 2.17 h after oral administration, whereas the elimination half-life of the drug was 98.63 h and 136.59 h at 16°C and 10°C, respectively. The peak concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma and tissues was higher at 16°C than that at 10°C, and the peak plasma concentration time in the liver was the shortest at both temperatures among those of other tissues. The plasma C max /MIC ratio varied between 11.08 and 5 540.00 at 16°C; and between 7.92 and 3 960.00 at 10°C. The AUC/MIC ratio was 467.82-280 690.00 at 16°C, and 359.48-215 690.00 at 10°C. These ratios indicate that it is possible to obtain therapeutic efficacy. Very low levels of ciprofloxacin were detected. The AUC ratios of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in plasma suggest that plasma ciprofloxacin might play a minor role in enrofloxacin treatment for turbot.

  7. Use of Photo-Identification and Mark-Recapture Methodology to Assess Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus) Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Mauvis A.; Frey, Peter H.; Ormond, Rupert F.; Allan, Holly; Gilkes, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Following centuries of exploitation, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) are considered by IUCN as Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic, where they have now been substantially protected for over two decades. However, the present size of this population remains unknown. We investigated the use of photo-identification of individuals’ dorsal fins, combined with mark-recapture methodology, to investigate the size of populations of basking shark within the west coast of Scotland. From a total of 921 encounters photographed between 2004 and 2011, 710 sharks were found to be individually identifiable based on dorsal fin damage and natural features. Of these, only 41 individuals were re-sighted, most commonly both within days of, and close to the site of, the initial encounter. A smaller number were re-sighted after longer periods of up to two years. A comparison of the distinguishing features of individuals on first recording and subsequent re-sighting showed that in almost all cases these features remained little changed, suggesting the low re-sighting rate was not due to a loss of distinguishing features. Because of the low number of re-sighting we were not able to produce reliable estimates for the long-term regional population. However, for one 50 km diameter study area between the islands of Mull, Coll and Tiree, we were able to generate closed-population estimates for 6–9 day periods in 2010 of 985 (95% CI = 494–1683), and in 2011 of 201 (95% CI = 143–340). For the same 2011 period an open-population model generated a similar estimate of 213 (95% CI = 111–317). Otherwise the low rate and temporal patterning of re-sightings support the view that such local basking shark populations are temporary, dynamic groupings of individuals drawn from a much larger regional population than previously supposed. The study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of photo-identification as a non-invasive technique for identifying individual basking sharks. PMID

  8. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos.

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    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience, environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001. Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001. Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001. There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138 and Asian (N = 117 species or between males (N = 54 and females (N = 201. The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05. The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  9. First report of changes in leukocyte morphology in response to inflammatory conditions in Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana.

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    Nicole I Stacy

    Full Text Available Although the hematology of healthy elephants has been well-described, published information on hematological changes during disease is limited. The objective of this study was to describe qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana diagnosed with a variety of inflammatory conditions. Twenty-five of 27 elephants had morphological changes in their leukocytes, although only 16 of these had a concurrent inflammatory leukogram. Morphological changes included heterophil left-shifting with or without concurrent dysgranulopoiesis, toxicity, or hypersegmentation, reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, and/or vacuolated monocytes. Although the observed leukocyte morphological changes are non-specific, their early recognition upon blood film evaluation may provide important, clinically-relevant information, particularly if the leukogram is normal. This case series is the first description of qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of elephants in association with inflammation.

  10. Endocrine correlates of musth in free-ranging Asian elephants (Elephas maximus determined by non-invasive faecal steroid hormone metabolite measurements.

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    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus. However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone (androgen and cortisol (glucocorticoid--a physiological indicator of stress metabolites in faeces. During musth, males expectedly showed significant elevation in faecal testosterone metabolite levels. Interestingly, glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remained unchanged between musth and non-musth periods. This observation is contrary to that observed with wild and captive African elephant bulls and captive Asian bull elephants. Our results show that musth may not necessarily represent a stressful condition in free-ranging male Asian elephants.

  11. Meat Composition and Quality Assessment of King Scallops (Pecten maximus) and Frozen Atlantic Sea Scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) on a Retail Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey-Karl, Monika; Lehmann, Ines; Ostermeyer, Ute; Rehbein, Hartmut; Schröder, Ute

    2015-01-01

    An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus) and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) were purchased on the German market and compared with fresh shell-on king scallops of various origin. The approximate composition, inclusive citric acid and phosphates, minerals, free amino acids (FAA) and fatty acid profiles were examined in the muscle to identify changes as a result of processing. The FAA glycine and taurine as well the fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were the most abundant, but were reduced in processed samples. Di- and triphosphate contents were not detectable (additives. Labelling does not readily allow the consumer to recognize the extent of processing effects. PMID:28231221

  12. USE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS AS A COMPONENT OF TUSK FRACTURE MANAGEMENT IN AN ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) AND AN AFRICAN ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Stringer, Elizabeth; Donovan, Dennis; Chappell, Rachael; Flora, Pat; Hall, Jon; Pillay, Selvum; Willis, Benjamin G; McCain, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue. A 34-yr-old male African elephant with a longitudinal crack received a carbon fiber/fiberglass composite circumferential wrap to potentially stabilize the crack. Compression of the crack was achieved, but follow-up was truncated due to bacterial pulpitis. Both cases show that composite material allows for lightweight, durable management of tusk fractures with continued radiographic monitoring.

  13. Activity of invasive slug Limax maximus in relation to climate conditions based on citizen's observations and novel regularization based statistical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Yuta; Ohkubo, Yusaku; Watanabe, Sanae

    2018-05-13

    Citizen science is a powerful tool that can be used to resolve the problems of introduced species. An amateur naturalist and author of this paper, S. Watanabe, recorded the total number of Limax maximus (Limacidae, Pulmonata) individuals along a fixed census route almost every day for two years on Hokkaido Island, Japan. L. maximus is an invasive slug considered a pest species of horticultural and agricultural crops. We investigated how weather conditions were correlated to the intensity of slug activity using for the first time in ecology the recently developed statistical analyses, Bayesian regularization regression with comparisons among Laplace, Horseshoe and Horseshoe+ priors for the first time in ecology. The slug counts were compared with meteorological data from 5:00 in the morning on the day of observation (OT- and OD-models) and the day before observation (DBOD-models). The OT- and OD-models were more supported than the DBOD-models based on the WAIC scores, and the meteorological predictors selected in the OT-, OD- and DBOD-models were different. The probability of slug appearance was increased on mornings with higher than 20-year-average humidity (%) and lower than average wind velocity (m/s) and precipitation (mm) values in the OT-models. OD-models showed a pattern similar to OT-models in the probability of slug appearance, but also suggested other meteorological predictors for slug activities; positive effect of solar radiation (MJ) for example. Five meteorological predictors, mean and highest temperature (°C), wind velocity (m/s), precipitation amount (mm) and atmospheric pressure (hPa), were selected as the effective factors for the counts in the DBOD-models. Therefore, the DBOD-models will be valuable for the prediction of slug activity in the future, much like a weather forecast. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential effects of exposure to parasites and bacteria on stress response in turbot Scophthalmus maximus simultaneously stressed by low water depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quiroga, J J; Otero-Rodiño, C; Suárez, P; Nieto, T P; García Estévez, J M; San Juan, F; Soengas, J L

    2017-07-01

    The stress response of turbot Scophthalmus maximus was evaluated in fish maintained 8 days under different water depths, normal (NWD, 30 cm depth, total water volume 40 l) or low (LWD, 5 cm depth, total water volume 10 l), in the additional presence of infection-infestation of two pathogens of this species. This was caused by intraperitoneal injection of sublethal doses of the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida or the parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora:Scuticociliatida). The LWD conditions were stressful for fish, causing increased levels of cortisol in plasma, decreased levels of glycogen in liver and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) and increased activities of G6Pase and GSase. The presence of bacteria or parasites in fish under NWD resulted in increased cortisol levels in plasma whereas in liver, changes were of minor importance including decreased levels of lactate and GSase activity. The simultaneous presence of bacteria and parasites in fish under NWD resulted a sharp increase in the levels of cortisol in plasma and decreased levels of glucose. Decreased levels of glycogen and lactate and activities of GSase and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as increased activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) and levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) occurred in the same fish in liver. Finally, the presence of pathogens in S. maximus under stressful conditions elicited by LWD resulted in synergistic actions of both type of stressors in cortisol levels. In liver, the presence of bacteria or parasites induced a synergistic action on several variables such as decreased activities of G6Pase and GSase as well as increased levels of NADP and NADPH and increased activities of GPase, G6PDH and 6PGDH. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory- and field-cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia

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    H. A. Kennedy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mg/Ca ratios of biogenic calcite is commonly seen as a valuable palaeo-proxy for reconstructing past ocean temperatures. The temperature dependence of Mg/Ca ratios in bivalve calcite has been the subject of contradictory observations. The palaeoceanographic use of a geochemical proxy is dependent on initial, rigorous calibration and validation of relationships between the proxy and the ambient environmental variable to be reconstructed. Shell Mg/Ca ratio data are reported for the calcite of two bivalve species, Mytilus edulis (common mussel and Pecten maximus (king scallop, which were grown in laboratory culturing experiments at controlled and constant aquarium seawater temperatures over a range from ~10 to ~20°C. Furthermore, Mg/Ca ratio data of laboratory- and field-grown M. edulis specimens were compared. Only a weak, albeit significant, shell Mg/Ca ratio–temperature relationship was observed in the two bivalve species: M. edulis (r2=0.37, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens and r2=0.50, p0.001 for field-cultured specimens and P. maximus (r2=0.21, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens only. In the two species, shell Mg/Ca ratios were not found to be controlled by shell growth rate or salinity. The Mg/Ca ratios in the shells exhibited a large degree of variability among and within species and individuals. The results suggest that the use of bivalve calcite Mg/Ca ratios as a temperature proxy is limited, at least in the species studied to date. Such limitations are most likely due to the presence of physiological effects on Mg incorporation in bivalve calcite. The utilization is further limited by the great variability both within and among shells of the same species that were precipitated under the same ambient conditions.

  16. Does hip joint positioning affect maximal voluntary contraction in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae and sartorius muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J; Beldame, J; Van Driessche, S; Brunel, H; Poirier, T; Guiffault, P; Matsoukis, J; Billuart, F

    2017-11-01

    Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is presumed to provide functional and clinical benefits, whereas in fact the literature reveals that gait and posturographic parameters following THA do not recover values found in the general population. There is a significant disturbance of postural sway in THA patients, regardless of the surgical approach, although with some differences between approaches compared to controls: the anterior and anterolateral minimally invasive approaches seem to be more disruptive of postural parameters than the posterior approach. Electromyographic (EMG) study of the hip muscles involved in surgery [gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and sartorius (S)] could shed light, the relevant literature involves discordant methodologies. We developed a methodology to assess EMG activity during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the GMax, GMed, TFL and sartorius muscles as a reference for normalization. A prospective study aimed to assess whether hip joint positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect the EMG signal during a maximal voluntary contraction. Hip positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect EMG signal during MVC of GMax, GMed, TFL and S. Thirty young asymptomatic subjects participated in the study. Each performed 8 hip muscle MVCs in various joint positions recorded with surface EMG sensors. Each MVC was performed 3 times in 1 week, with the same schedule every day, controlling for activity levels in the preceding 24h. EMG activity during MVC was expressed as a ratio of EMG activity during unipedal stance. Non-parametric tests were applied. Statistical analysis showed no difference according to hip position for abductors or flexors in assessing EMG signal during MVC over the 3 sessions. Hip abductors showed no difference between abduction in lateral decubitus with hip straight versus hip flexed: GMax (19.8±13.7 vs. 14.5±7.8, P=0.78), GMed (13.4±9.0 vs. 9.9±6

  17. Effect of Initiation Time of Hydrostatic Pressure Shock on Chromosome Set Doubling of Tetraploidization in Turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

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    Zhu, Xiangping; Lin, Zhengmei; Wu, Zhihao; Li, Jiandong; You, Feng

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to clarify the effects of initiation time on chromosome set doubling induced by hydrostatic pressure shock through nuclear phase fluorescent microscopy in turbot Scophthalmus maximus. The ratio of developmentally delayed embryo and chromosome counting was used to assess induction efficiency. For the embryos subjected to a pressure of 67.5 MPa for 6 min at prometaphase (A group), chromosomes recovered to the pre-treatment condition after 11-min recovering. The first nuclear division and cytokinesis proceeded normally. During the second cell cycle, chromosomes did not enter into metaphase after prometaphase, but spread around for about 13 min, then assembled together and formed a large nucleus without anaphase separation; the second nuclear division and cytokinesis was inhibited. The ratio of developmentally delayed embryo showed that the second mitosis of 78% A group embryo was inhibited. The result of chromosome counting showed that the tetraploidization rate of A group was 72%. For the embryos subjected to a pressure of 67.5 MPa for 6 min at anaphase (B group), chromosomes recovered to the pre-treatment condition after about 31-min recovering. Afterwards, one telophase nucleus formed without anaphase separation; the first nuclear division was inhibited. The time of the first cleavage furrow occurrence of B group embryos delayed 27 min compared with that of A group embryos. With the first cytokinesis proceeding normally, 81.3% B group embryos were at two-cell stage around the middle of the second cell cycle after treatment. Those embryos were one of the two blastomeres containing DNA and the other without DNA. The first nuclear division of those embryos was inhibited. During the third cell cycle after treatment, 65.2% of those abovementioned embryos were at four-cell stage, cytokinesis occurred in both blastomeres, and nuclear division only occurred in the blastomere containing DNA. Of those abovementioned embryos, 14.0% were at

  18. Ion microprobe assessment of the heterogeneity of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis (bivalvia shell calcite precipitated at constant temperature

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    P. S. Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale heterogeneity of biogenic carbonate elemental composition can be a significant source of error in the accurate use of element/Ca ratios as geochemical proxies. In this study ion microprobe (SIMS profiles showed significant small-scale variability of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in new shell calcite of the marine bivalves Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis that was precipitated during a constant-temperature culturing experiment. Elevated Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios were found to be associated with the deposition of elaborate shell features, i.e. a shell surface stria in P. maximus and surface shell disturbance marks in both species, the latter a common occurrence in bivalve shells. In both species the observed small-scale elemental heterogeneity most likely was not controlled by variable transport of ions to the extra-pallial fluid, but by factors such as the influence of shell organic content and/or crystal size and orientation, the latter reflecting conditions at the shell crystal-solution interface. In the mid and innermost regions of the P. maximus shell the lack of significant small-scale variation of Mg/Ca ratios, which is consistent with growth at constant temperature, suggest a potential application as a palaeotemperature proxy. Cross-growth band element/Ca ratio profiles in the interior of bivalve shells may provide more promising palaeo-environmental tools than sampling from the outer region of bivalve shells.

  19. Hip rate of force development and strength are impaired in females with patellofemoral pain without signs of altered gluteus medius and maximus morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Guilherme S; Barton, Christian John; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2018-02-01

    To compare rate of force development (RFD) and isometric muscle strength of the hip abductors and extensors; and the thickness and the amount of non-contractile tissue of the gluteus medius and maximus between females with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP). Cross-sectional study. Fifty-four physically active females (27 with PFP and 27 healthy individuals) were studied. Hip muscle isometric strength and RFD was evaluated using isokinetic dynamometry. RFD was measured until 30%, 60%, and 90% of the maximal isometric torque (MIT). Hip muscle morphology was evaluated using ultrasonography. The PFP group possessed slower RFD compared to the control group by 33% for hip abductors until 90%MIT (-0.23%/ms, 95%CI -0.44 to -0.02, ES=0.59); by 51% for hip extensors until 30%MIT (-0.42%/ms, 95%CI -0.66 to -0.18, ES=0.97); and by 55% for hip extensors until 60%MIT (-0.36%/ms, 95%CI -0.60 to -0.12, ES=0.81). The PFP group possessed reduced isometric torque compared to the control group by 10% for hip abduction (-16.0Nm/kg×100, 95% CI -30.2 to -1.9, ES=0.61) and by 15% for hip extension (-30.1Nm/kg×100, 95%CI -51.4 to -8.9, ES=0.76). No significant between group differences for the thickness and the amount of non-contractile tissue of the gluteus medius and maximus were identified. Females with PFP have deficits in isometric strength and RFD in hip abduction and extension. RFD deficits are greater than strength deficits which may highlight their potential importance. Hip muscle strength and RFD deficits do not appear to be explained by muscle thickness or proportion of non-contractile tissue of the gluteal musculature as measured by ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus, Rhodnius neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas, 1909 Flora fúngica do trato digestivo de Rhodnius prolixus, Rhodnius neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus e Panstrongylus megistus vetores de Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas 1909

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    Aurea Maria Lage de Moraes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study on the mycobiota in the digestive tract of four important species of triatomines: Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus. The digestive tracts of 90 adults and 425 nymphs of these four triatomine species were studied and 365 fungal strains were isolated. The genera with the greatest number of species were Aspergillus, Penicillium (14 species in each genus, Acremonium and Cladosporium (three species in each genus, and the most frequent species, in decreasing order, were Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium corylophilum, Cladosporium herbarum and Aspergillus niger. It was concluded that, among the isolated fungi, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum might be part of the natural flora of the digestive tract of triatomines.Um estudo da micobiota do trato digestivo de quatro importantes espécies de triatomíneos, Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus e Panstrongylus megistus, foi realizado. Foram examinados os tratos digestivos de 90 adultos e 425 ninfas destas espécies de triatomíneos e 365 cepas fúngicas foram isoladas. Os gêneros com o maior número de espécies encontradas foram Aspergillus, Penicillium (14 espécies cada, Acremonium e Cladosporium (3 espécies cada e as espécies mais freqüentes, em ordem decrescente, foram Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium corylophilum, Cladosporium herbarum e Aspergillus niger. Dentre os fungos isolados, concluímos que Aspergillus niger e Penicillium corylophilum possam fazer parte da flora natural do trato digestivo destes triatomíneos.

  1. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

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    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  2. Housing and Demographic Risk Factors Impacting Foot and Musculoskeletal Health in African Elephants [Loxodonta africana] and Asian Elephants [Elephas maximus] in North American Zoos.

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    Michele A Miller

    Full Text Available For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [Elephas maximus] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk. We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during 2012. Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Using multivariable regression models, associations were found between foot health and age [P value = 0.076; Odds Ratio = 1.018], time spent on hard substrates [P value = 0.022; Odds Ratio = 1.014], space experienced during the night [P value = 0.041; Odds Ratio = 1.008], and percent of time spent in indoor/outdoor exhibits during the day [P value < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 1.003]. Similarly, the main risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders included time on hard substrate [P value = 0.002; Odds Ratio = 1.050] and space experienced in indoor/outdoor exhibits [P value = 0.039; Odds Ratio = 1.037]. These results suggest that facility and management changes that decrease time spent on hard substrates will improve elephant welfare through better foot and musculoskeletal health.

  3. Meat Composition and Quality Assessment of King Scallops (Pecten maximus and Frozen Atlantic Sea Scallops (Placopecten magellanicus on a Retail Level

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    Monika Manthey-Karl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus were purchased on the German market and compared with fresh shell-on king scallops of various origin. The approximate composition, inclusive citric acid and phosphates, minerals, free amino acids (FAA and fatty acid profiles were examined in the muscle to identify changes as a result of processing. The FAA glycine and taurine as well the fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA were the most abundant, but were reduced in processed samples. Di- and triphosphate contents were not detectable (<0.01 g·kg−1 in untreated meats. Most frozen scallop products contained added citrates and polyphosphates and had distinctly higher water contents (up to 89% and an increased moisture to protein ratio (M/P (up to 9 compared with the fresh king scallops (78%, M/P < 5. Labelling of species, verified by PCR-based DNA analysis, and ingredients were not correct in each case. Overall results indicated no relevant differences in mineral content, except high sodium contents, resulting from additives. Labelling does not readily allow the consumer to recognize the extent of processing effects.

  4. Specific pathways for the incorporation of dissolved barium and molybdenum into the bivalve shell: an isotopic tracer approach in the juvenile Great Scallop (Pecten maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabouret, Hélène; Pomerleau, Sébastien; Jolivet, Aurélie; Pécheyran, Christophe; Riso, Ricardo; Thébault, Julien; Chauvaud, Laurent; Amouroux, David

    2012-07-01

    Dissolved barium and molybdenum incorporation in the calcite shell was investigated in the Great Scallop Pecten maximus. Sixty six individuals were exposed for 16 days to two successive dissolved Ba and Mo concentrations accurately differentiated by two different isotopic enrichments (⁹⁷Mo, ⁹⁵Mo; ¹³⁵Ba, ¹³⁷Ba). Soft tissue and shell isotopic composition were determined respectively by quantitative ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) and laser ablation--ICP-MS. Results from Ba enrichment indicate the direct incorporation of dissolved Ba into the shell in proportion to the levels in the water in which they grew with a 6-8 day delay. The low spike contributions and the low partition coefficient (D(Mo) = 0.0049 ± 0.0013), show that neither the soft tissue nor the shell were significantly sensitive to Mo enrichment. These results eliminate direct Mo shell enrichment by the dissolved phase, and favour a trophic uptake that will be investigated using the successive isotopic enrichment approach developed in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS AND BIRTH STATISTICS FOR A HERD OF ASIAN ELEPHANTS ( ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) IN NORTH AMERICA OVER A 20-YEAR PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiso, Wendy K; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William; Aria, Janice; Jacobson, Gary; Jacobson, Kathy; Schmitt, Dennis

    2017-12-01

    We reviewed medical records documenting 28 pregnancies occurring within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) over a 20-yr (1994-2014) period at a private facility in the southeastern United States. Twenty-six pregnancies resulted in live calves and two ended in stillbirths. The 26 live births represented the offspring of 11 cows and 5 bulls. Twenty-four calves survived their first year, including two critically ill calves born after dystocias. Male and female calves occurred in almost equal numbers. Mean duration of labor in this group was 36 hr although the median duration was 13 hr. Although oxytocin was administered to several cows, parturition did not always immediately ensue. Female fecundity ranged from 1-6 calves while female age at parturition ranged from 9-46 yr. Females delivered their first calves between 9 and 26 yr of age whereas bulls sired their first calves in their 20s, on average. The number of live births and the 93% calf survival rate are among the highest reported in any western hemisphere elephant-holding facility. This may reflect the intensive management of cows before, during, and after each pregnancy, the number of experienced multiparous cows, and the skill level of staff, most of whom had worked with each other and with this herd for many years. The data presented here may assist facilities planning to breed Asian elephants.

  6. ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 5, A NEWLY RECOGNIZED ELEPHANT HERPESVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL INFECTIONS IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Lisa; Zong, Jian-Chao; Tan, Jie; Mejia, Alicia; Heaggans, Sarah Y.; Nofs, Sally A.; Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Flanagan, Joseph P.; Howard, Lauren; Latimer, Erin; Stevens, Martina R.; Hoffman, Daryl S.; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute hemorrhagic disease with high mortality rates in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Recently, a new EEHV type known as EEHV5 has been described, but its prevalence and clinical significance remain unknown. In this report, an outbreak of EEHV5 infection in a herd of captive Asian elephants in a zoo was characterized. In February 2011, a 42-yr-old wild-born female Asian elephant presented with bilaterally swollen temporal glands, oral mucosal hyperemia, vesicles on the tongue, and generalized lethargy. The elephant had a leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was treated with flunixin meglumine, famciclovir, and fluids. Clinical signs of illness resolved gradually over 2 wk, and the white blood cell count and platelets rebounded to higher-than-normal values. EEHV5 viremia was detectable starting 1 wk before presentation and peaked at the onset of clinical illness. EEHV5 shedding in trunk secretions peaked after viremia resolved and continued for more than 2 mo. EEHV5 trunk shedding from a female herd mate without any detectable viremia was detected prior to onset of clinical disease in the 42-yr-old elephant, indicating reactivation rather than primary infection in this elephant. Subsequent EEHV5 viremia and trunk shedding was documented in the other five elephants in the herd, who remained asymptomatic, except for 1 day of temporal gland swelling in an otherwise-healthy 1-yr-old calf. Unexpectedly, the two elephants most recently introduced into the herd 40 mo previously shed a distinctive EEHV5 strain from that seen in the other five elephants. This is the first report to document the kinetics of EEHV5 infection in captive Asian elephants and to provide evidence that this virus can cause illness in some animals. PMID:23505714

  7. Associations of maximal voluntary isometric hip extension torque with muscle size of hamstring and gluteus maximus and intra-abdominal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Hirata, Kosuke; Ishida, Kiraku; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Naokazu

    2017-06-01

    Muscle size of the hamstring and gluteus maximus (GM) as well as intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) are considered as factors affecting the torque development during hip extension. This study examined the associations of torque development during maximal voluntary isometric hip extension with IAP and muscle size of the hamstring and GM. Anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the hamstring and thickness of GM were determined in 20 healthy young males using an ultrasonography apparatus (Experiment 1). Torque and IAP were simultaneously measured while subjects performed maximal voluntary isometric hip extension. The IAP was measured using a pressure transducer placed in the rectum and determined at the time at which the developed torque reached to the maximal. In Experiment 2, torque and IAP were measured during maximal voluntary isometric hip flexion in 18 healthy young males. The maximal hip extension torque was significantly correlated with the IAP (r = 0.504, P = 0.024), not with the ACSA of the hamstring (r = 0.307, P = 0.188) or the thickness of GM (r = 0.405, P = 0.076). The relationship was still significant even when the ACSA of the hamstring and the thickness of GM were adjusted statistically (r = 0.486, P = 0.041). The maximal hip flexion torque was not significantly correlated with the IAP (r = -0.118, P = 0.642). The current results suggest that IAP can contribute independently of the muscle size of the agonists to maximal voluntary hip extension torque.

  8. Dietary β-glucan (MacroGard®) enhances survival of first feeding turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae by altering immunity, metabolism and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miest, Joanna J; Arndt, Carmen; Adamek, Mikolaj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting the natural biology of mass spawning fish aquaculture production of fish larvae is often hampered by high and unpredictable mortality rates. The present study aimed to enhance larval performance and immunity via the oral administration of an immunomodulator, β-glucan (MacroGard(®)) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) were incubated with or without yeast β-1,3/1,6-glucan in form of MacroGard(®) at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Rotifers were fed to first feeding turbot larvae once a day. From day 13 dph onwards all tanks were additionally fed untreated Artemia sp. nauplii (1 nauplius ml/L). Daily mortality was monitored and larvae were sampled at 11 and 24 dph for expression of 30 genes, microbiota analysis, trypsin activity and size measurements. Along with the feeding of β-glucan daily mortality was significantly reduced by ca. 15% and an alteration of the larval microbiota was observed. At 11 dph gene expression of trypsin and chymotrypsin was elevated in the MacroGard(®) fed fish, which resulted in heightened tryptic enzyme activity. No effect on genes encoding antioxidative proteins was observed, whilst the immune response was clearly modulated by β-glucan. At 11 dph complement component c3 was elevated whilst cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, toll like receptor 3 and heat shock protein 70 were not affected. At the later time point (24 dph) an anti-inflammatory effect in form of a down-regulation of hsp 70, tnf-α and il-1β was observed. We conclude that the administration of MacroGard(®) induced an immunomodulatory response and could be used as an effective measure to increase survival in rearing of turbot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities and detection of potential pathogens in a recirculating aquaculture system for Scophthalmus maximus and Solea senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Patrícia; Cleary, Daniel F R; Pires, Ana C C; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-01-01

    The present study combined a DGGE and barcoded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing approach to assess bacterial composition in the water of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with a shallow raceway system (SRS) for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and sole (Solea senegalensis). Barcoded pyrosequencing results were also used to determine the potential pathogen load in the RAS studied. Samples were collected from the water supply pipeline (Sup), fish production tanks (Pro), sedimentation filter (Sed), biofilter tank (Bio), and protein skimmer (Ozo; also used as an ozone reaction chamber) of twin RAS operating in parallel (one for each fish species). Our results revealed pronounced differences in bacterial community composition between turbot and sole RAS, suggesting that in the systems studied there is a strong species-specific effect on water bacterial communities. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the water supply and all RAS compartments. Other important taxonomic groups included the phylum Bacteriodetes. The saltwater supplied displayed a markedly lower richness and appeared to have very little influence on bacterial composition. The following potentially pathogenic species were detected: Photobacterium damselae in turbot (all compartments), Tenacibaculum discolor in turbot and sole (all compartments), Tenacibaculum soleae in turbot (all compartments) and sole (Pro, Sed and Bio), and Serratia marcescens in turbot (Sup, Sed, Bio and Ozo) and sole (only Sed) RAS. Despite the presence of these pathogens, no symptomatic fish were observed. Although we were able to identify potential pathogens, this approach should be employed with caution when monitoring aquaculture systems, as the required phylogenetic resolution for reliable identification of pathogens may not always be possible to achieve when employing 16S rRNA gene fragments.

  10. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities and detection of potential pathogens in a recirculating aquaculture system for Scophthalmus maximus and Solea senegalensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Martins

    Full Text Available The present study combined a DGGE and barcoded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing approach to assess bacterial composition in the water of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS with a shallow raceway system (SRS for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus and sole (Solea senegalensis. Barcoded pyrosequencing results were also used to determine the potential pathogen load in the RAS studied. Samples were collected from the water supply pipeline (Sup, fish production tanks (Pro, sedimentation filter (Sed, biofilter tank (Bio, and protein skimmer (Ozo; also used as an ozone reaction chamber of twin RAS operating in parallel (one for each fish species. Our results revealed pronounced differences in bacterial community composition between turbot and sole RAS, suggesting that in the systems studied there is a strong species-specific effect on water bacterial communities. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the water supply and all RAS compartments. Other important taxonomic groups included the phylum Bacteriodetes. The saltwater supplied displayed a markedly lower richness and appeared to have very little influence on bacterial composition. The following potentially pathogenic species were detected: Photobacterium damselae in turbot (all compartments, Tenacibaculum discolor in turbot and sole (all compartments, Tenacibaculum soleae in turbot (all compartments and sole (Pro, Sed and Bio, and Serratia marcescens in turbot (Sup, Sed, Bio and Ozo and sole (only Sed RAS. Despite the presence of these pathogens, no symptomatic fish were observed. Although we were able to identify potential pathogens, this approach should be employed with caution when monitoring aquaculture systems, as the required phylogenetic resolution for reliable identification of pathogens may not always be possible to achieve when employing 16S rRNA gene fragments.

  11. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on hepatic oxidative stress and hypoimmunity induced by high-fat diet in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yudong; Jing, Qiqi; Niu, Huaxin; Huang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of vitamin E on growth performance, oxidative stress and non-specific immunity of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) fed with high-fat diet. Results showed that high-fat diet significantly increased hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, hepatic malondialdehyde level and decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, whereas final weight, specific growth rate and survival rate remained unchanged. Meanwhile, nitro blue tetrazolium positive leucocytes of head kidney, respiratory burst activity in head-kidney macrophage, phagocytic index and serum lysozyme activity were significantly reduced after feeding with high-fat diet. Furthermore, fish fed with high-fat diet promoted higher expression of heat shock protein (hsp70, hsp90), and inhibited expression of complement component 3 (c3) in the liver and tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α), interleukine 1β (il-1β), toll like receptor 22 (tlr-22) in the spleen and head-kidney, respectively. However, simultaneous supplementation with 480 mg kg -1 vitamin E protected turbot against high-fat diet-induced hepatic oxidative stress, hypoimmunity through attenuating lipid peroxidation, renewing antioxidant enzymes activities and nonspecific immune responses, and modulating the expression of stress protein (hsp70, hsp90) and immune-related genes (c3, tnf-α, il-1β, tlr-22). In conclusion, the obtained results indicate the vitamin E as a wildly used functional feed additive contributes potentially to alleviate high-fat diet-induced hepatic oxidative stress and hypoimmunity, maintain the health, and improve the broodstock management for turbot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of pregnancy status of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by measurement of progestagen and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces, using enzyme immunoassay (EIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaysri, Jatuporn; Nokkaew, Weerapun

    2014-03-01

    The study was to find patterns of progestagen (progesterone and its metabolite) and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2.11 ± 0.60 to 18.44 ± 2.28 ng/ml. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1.18 ± 0.54 to 3.35 ± 0.45 µg/g during pregnancy. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month. After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving. Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days.

  13. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Lily-type lectin ( SmLTL) in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, and its response to Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dandan; Ma, Aijun; Huang, Zhihui; Shang, Xiaomei; Cui, Wenxiao; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2018-03-01

    A full-length lily-type lectin ( SmLTL) was identified from turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) in this study. By searching database for protein identification and function prediction, SmLTL were confirmed. The full-length cDNA of SmLTL is composed of 569 bp and contains a 339 bp ORF that encodes 112 amino acid residues. The SmLTL peptide is characterized by a specific β-prism architecture and contains three mannose binding sites in a three-fold internal repeat between amino acids 30-99; two of the repeats share the classical mannose binding domain (QxDxNxVxY) while the third binding site was similar to other fish-specific binding motifs (TxTxGxRxV). The primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of SmLTL were predicted and analyzed, indicating that the SmLTL protein was hydrophilic, contained 5.36% α-helices, 39.29% extended strands, 16.07% β-folds, and 39.29% random coils, and three β-folds. Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed that the SmLTL mRNA was abundantly expressed in skin, gill, and intestine. Low levels of SmLTL expression were observed in other tissues. The expression of SmLTL in gill, skin and intestine increased at mRNA level after stimulation of Vibrio anguillarum, our results suggest that SmLTL serve as the first line of defence against microbial infections and play a pivotal role in the innate mucosal immune system. The current study indicates that SmLTL is a member of the lilytype lectin family and the information reported here will provide an important foundation for future research on the role of this protein.

  14. Differential testosterone response to GnRH-induced LH release before and after musth in adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-04-15

    Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon after musth has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate LH and testosterone responses to GnRH challenge in nine adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls during three periods relative to musth: premusth, postmusth, and nonmusth. Bulls were administered 80 μg of a GnRH agonist, and blood was collected before and after injection to monitor serum hormone concentrations. The same bulls were injected with saline 2 weeks before each GnRH challenge and monitored using the same blood collection protocol. All bulls responded to GnRH, but not saline, with an increase in LH and testosterone during all three periods. The mean peak LH (1.76 ± 0.19 ng/mL; P elephants. Furthermore, although the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is active throughout the year, the testis appears to be more responsive to LH in terms of testosterone production in the period leading up to musth, compared to the nonmusth and postmusth periods. This heightened sensitivity, perhaps as a result of LH receptor up-regulation, may prime the testis for maximal testosterone production, leading to the physiological and behavioral changes associated with musth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estudos bionômicos de Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera - Triatominae: II - Influência da dieta sobre o ciclo biológico e resistência ao jejum Bionomic studies of Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera: Triatominae: II. Influence of diet on the biological cycle and resitance to fast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Margaret Costa

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de dois tipos de dieta na cronologia da ontogênsese de Dipetalogaster maximus. Alimentou-se um grupo em sangue de camundongos normais (C e outro em sangue de pombos (P. Ambos foram mantidos em estufa B.O.D. a 28ºC e 65% U.R. O grupo alimentado em C, atingiu a fase adulta com X=130,1 dias e o grupo alimentado em P com X=145,68 dias. A percentagem total de mortalidade foi significativamente superior nos alimentados em P (63,71% em relação aos alimentados em C (31,18%. Quanto á resistência ao jejum, o período de sobrevivência foi acentuadamente maior para o grupo alimentado em C. Principalmente nos 3º, 4º e 5º estádios. Estas observações complementam nossos registros anteriores desta espécie, mantida nas mesmas condições, sobre: fertilidade das fêmeas, ritmo de postura, viabilidade dos ovos e curva da mortalidade x fertilidade.Two kinds of blood-meal were assayed in order to broaden the knowledge of the biology of Dipetalogaster maximus: one group of insects was fed on normal mouse blood (C and another group fed on pigeon blood (P. Both groups were kept in a B.O.D. - chamber (28ºC and 65% R.H.. Significant data concerning their development was registered: the group fed on C reached the adult stage in X = 130,1 days and the group fed on P in X = 145,6 days. Mortality of group fed on P, (63,71% was doubled that of group fed on C (31,18%. The period of survival, as measured by resistance to starvation, was markedly greater in group fed on C, particularly in the third, fourth and fifth stages. These observations complete our former records of this species, kept under the same conditions of female fertility, egg vialbility and comparative mortality and fertility rates.

  16. Quantification of healthy and atretic germ cells and follicles in the developing and post-natal ovary of the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus: evidence of continuous rise of the germinal reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, P I F; Leopardo, N P; Willis, M A; Freysselinard, A L; Vitullo, A D

    2014-02-01

    The female germ line in mammals is subjected to massive cell death that eliminates 60-85% of the germinal reserve by birth and continues from birth to adulthood until the exhaustion of the germinal pool. Germ cell demise occurs mainly through apoptosis by means of a biased expression in favour of pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 gene family. By contrast, the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, exhibits sustained expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 gene throughout gestation and a low incidence of germ cell apoptosis. This led to the proposal that, in the absence of death mechanisms other than apoptosis, the female germ line should increase continuously from foetal life until after birth. In this study, we quantified all healthy germ cells and follicles in the ovaries of L. maximus from early foetal life to day 60 after birth using unbiased stereological methods and detected apoptosis by labelling with TUNEL assay. The healthy germ cell population increased continuously from early-developing ovary reaching a 50 times higher population number by the end of gestation. TUNEL-positive germ cells were develops in the absence of constitutive massive germ cell elimination.

  17. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Greco

    Full Text Available Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta africana], 42 Asian [Elephas maximus] at 39 North American zoos during the summer and winter. Elephants were videoed for a median of 12 daytime hours per season. A subset of 32 elephants (19 African, 13 Asian was also observed live for a median of 10.5 nighttime hours. Percentages of visible behavior scans were calculated from five minute instantaneous samples. Stereotypic behavior was the second most commonly performed behavior (after feeding, making up 15.5% of observations during the daytime and 24.8% at nighttime. Negative binomial regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations were used to determine which social, housing, management, life history, and demographic variables were associated with daytime and nighttime stereotypic behavior rates. Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk (daytime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 4.087; nighttime: p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 8.015. For both species, spending time housed separately (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.009, and having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 1.175, increased the risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy during the day, while spending more time with juvenile elephants (p<0.001, Risk Ratio = 0.985, and engaging with zoo staff reduced this risk (p = 0.018, Risk Ratio = 0.988. At night, spending more time in environments with both indoor and outdoor areas (p = 0.013, Risk Ratio = 0.987 and in larger social groups (p = 0.039, Risk Ratio = 0.752 corresponded with reduced risk of performing higher rates of stereotypy, while having experienced inter-zoo transfers (p = 0.033, Risk Ratio = 1.115 increased this risk. Overall, our results

  18. Integrating Archival Tag Data and a High-Resolution Oceanographic Model to Estimate Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus Movements in the Western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camrin D. Braun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus populations are considered “vulnerable” globally and “endangered” in the northeast Atlantic by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN. Much of our knowledge of this species comes from surface observations in coastal waters, yet recent evidence suggests the majority of their lives may be spent in the deep ocean. Depth preferences of basking sharks have significantly limited movement studies that used pop-up satellite archival transmitting (PSAT tags as conventional light-based geolocation is impossible for tagged animals that spend significant time below the photic zone. We tagged 57 basking sharks with PSAT tags in the NW Atlantic from 2004 to 2011. Many individuals spent several months at meso- and bathy-pelagic depths where accurate light-level geolocation was impossible during fall, winter and spring. We applied a newly-developed geolocation approach for the PSAT data by comparing three-dimensional depth-temperature profile data recorded by the tags to modeled in situ oceanographic data from the high-resolution HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM. Observation-based likelihoods were leveraged within a state-space hidden Markov model (HMM. The combined tracks revealed that basking sharks moved from waters around Cape Cod, MA to as far as the SE coast of Brazil (20°S, a total distance of over 17,000 km. Moreover, 59% of tagged individuals with sufficient deployment durations (>250 days demonstrated seasonal fidelity to Cape Cod and the Gulf of Maine, with one individual returning to within 60 km of its tagging location 1 year later. Tagged sharks spent most of their time at epipelagic depths during summer months around Cape Cod and in the Gulf of Maine. During winter months, sharks spent extended periods at depths of at least 600 m while moving south to the Sargasso Sea, the Caribbean Sea, or the western tropical Atlantic. Our work demonstrates the utility of applying advances in

  19. Quantitative changes in metallothionein expression in target cell-types in the gills of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) exposed to Cd, Cu, Zn and after a depuration treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Nelva E. [Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilboa (Spain); Quesada, Iban [Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilboa (Spain); Hylland, Ketil [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Brekkeveien 19, P.O. Box 173, Kjelsaas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Marigomez, Ionan [Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilboa (Spain); Soto, Manu [Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, School of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilboa (Spain)]. E-mail: zopsolom@lg.ehu.es

    2006-04-20

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (1 and 10 mg metal/l) of cadmium (8.9 and 89 {mu}M Cd), copper (15.26 and 152.6 {mu}M Cu) and zinc (15.3 and 153 {mu}M Zn) for 7 days, and afterwards were maintained depurating for 14 days. Immunoreactive metallothioneins (irMTs) and metal ions were localized in the branchial epithelium by immunohistochemistry (using an anti-Cod MT antibody) and autometallography (AMG), respectively. Metal ions were demonstrated by AMG as black silver deposits (BSD), mainly in mucocytes (MC) and to a lesser extent in the other branchial cell-types (respiratory cells (RC), chloride cells (CC) and basal layer cells (BLC)). Irrespective of the metal supplied, BSD were rapidly visualized in MC after 1 h of exposure. This accumulation did not increase with increasing exposure time and concentration. Metallothionein expression was mainly observed in mature CC in the interlamellar space for all exposure conditions and it was shown that all mature cells express the same amount of irMT. The number of CC exhibiting irMT in metal-exposed turbots increased following short exposure times (1 h-1 day) in the filament epithelium and following longer exposure times (1-7 days) in the secondary lamellae. Total levels of irMT in the gills (quantified by image analysis and densitometry) increased significantly in metal-exposed turbot and were related to increased exposure times. It can be concluded that the total content of irMT in the gills of metal-exposed turbot is governed by changes in the number of mature CC expressing the protein. The quantification of total irMT in branchial CC can be considered as a reliable biomarker of metal exposure since reflects changes in metal bioavailability. This approach based on cell-selective immunohistochemistry can be simplified by only quantifying the number of mature CC. In addition, the dramatic increase of CC in the gills that produces epithelial thickening of the FE enhances migration

  20. Quantitative changes in metallothionein expression in target cell-types in the gills of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) exposed to Cd, Cu, Zn and after a depuration treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, Nelva E.; Quesada, Iban; Hylland, Ketil; Marigomez, Ionan; Soto, Manu

    2006-01-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (1 and 10 mg metal/l) of cadmium (8.9 and 89 μM Cd), copper (15.26 and 152.6 μM Cu) and zinc (15.3 and 153 μM Zn) for 7 days, and afterwards were maintained depurating for 14 days. Immunoreactive metallothioneins (irMTs) and metal ions were localized in the branchial epithelium by immunohistochemistry (using an anti-Cod MT antibody) and autometallography (AMG), respectively. Metal ions were demonstrated by AMG as black silver deposits (BSD), mainly in mucocytes (MC) and to a lesser extent in the other branchial cell-types (respiratory cells (RC), chloride cells (CC) and basal layer cells (BLC)). Irrespective of the metal supplied, BSD were rapidly visualized in MC after 1 h of exposure. This accumulation did not increase with increasing exposure time and concentration. Metallothionein expression was mainly observed in mature CC in the interlamellar space for all exposure conditions and it was shown that all mature cells express the same amount of irMT. The number of CC exhibiting irMT in metal-exposed turbots increased following short exposure times (1 h-1 day) in the filament epithelium and following longer exposure times (1-7 days) in the secondary lamellae. Total levels of irMT in the gills (quantified by image analysis and densitometry) increased significantly in metal-exposed turbot and were related to increased exposure times. It can be concluded that the total content of irMT in the gills of metal-exposed turbot is governed by changes in the number of mature CC expressing the protein. The quantification of total irMT in branchial CC can be considered as a reliable biomarker of metal exposure since reflects changes in metal bioavailability. This approach based on cell-selective immunohistochemistry can be simplified by only quantifying the number of mature CC. In addition, the dramatic increase of CC in the gills that produces epithelial thickening of the FE enhances migration of CC

  1. Nutritional evaluation of fodder, its preference and crop raiding by wild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus in Sonitpur District of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Jyoti Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of fodder in natural habitat, cultivated crops and their preference by wild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus in forest and non-forest areas in four seasons using field observation in Sonitpur District of Assam; since, there were frequent incidences of crop raiding by wild elephant leading to loss of property and human-elephant conflict. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in four seasons. The study included forest areas of Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary, part of Nameri National Park and high human-elephant conflicted areas of non-forest near to the sanctuary and parks. The consumed fodders were identified, collected and evaluated. The proximate composition was determined using AOAC (1990. Results: Total 39 different fodder species of 18 families including herbs, climber, grasses, paddy seeds, paddy saplings, plants and its leaves, bark, fruits, and roots were recorded to be utilized by elephants. The first three family of fodder that elephant relished more were Poaceae (46.15%, Musaceae (7.69% and Zingiberaceae (5.13% respectively. The crude protein content of fodder in all seasons, total ash content only in winter and post monsoon seasons and neutral detergent fiber content of fodder between forest and non-forest were significant (p<0.05. Elephants preferred to forage more on nutritionally rich fodder than poor natural fodder. Incidence of crop raiding was more in post monsoon season could be due to availability of nutritionally rich fodder than the poor natural fodder and generally happened in the night. Conclusions: The study revealed that during post monsoon season, there were abundant nutritionally rich sources of cultivated crops than the fodder of natural habitat that might provoke the wild elephants to raid crops. Poaceae shared a major portion of their diet. The findings will definitely help nutritionist, ecologist and policy makers to understand

  2. Palatability of water-soluble extracts of protein sources and replacement of fishmeal by a selected mixture of protein sources for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Poor palatability is a limiting factor for replacing fishmeal with other protein sources in aquaculture. The water-soluble molecules with low molecular weights are the major determinants of the palatability of diets. The present study was conducted to investigate the palatability of water-soluble extracts from single protein source (single extract pellets) and the mixture of these extracts with different proportions (blended extract pellets) in juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). Then according to the palatability of blended extract pellets, an optimal mixture proportion was selected, and a new protein source made from raw protein materials with the selected proportion was formulated to replace fishmeal. Summarily, the palatability of single extract pellets for turbot was descendent from fishmeal to pet-food grade poultry by-product meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, meat and bone meal, and corn gluten meal. Subsequently, according to the palatability of single extract pellets, 52 kinds of blended extract pellets were designed to test their palatability. The results showed that the pellets presented remarkably different palatability, and the optimal one was diet 52 (wheat gluten meal: pet-food grade poultry by-product meal: meat and bone meal: corn gluten meal = 1:6:1:2). The highest ingestion ratio (the number of pellets ingested/the number of pellets fed) was 0.73 ± 0.03, which was observed in Diet 52. Then five isonitrogenous (52% crude protein) and isocaloric (20 kJ g-1 gross energy) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (control), 35%, 50%, 65% and 80% of fishmeal with No.52 blending proportion. After a 10-weeks feeding trial, a consistent feed intake was found among all replacement treatments. Replacement level of fishmeal up to 35% did not significantly influence final body weight, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio of turbot. Therefore, the water-soluble extracts of protein sources play an

  3. Performance of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus fed varying dietary L-carnitine levels at different stocking densities Desempenho de juvenis de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus em função da densidade de estocagem e de níveis dietéticos de L-carnitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Magalhães Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial farming of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus at high stocking densities may lead to growth depression and increasing production costs. Moreover, the high levels of accumulated waste in an intensive system may cause rapid deterioration of water quality, which may undermine the production. L-carnitine is known as a growth-enhancer which shows promise as mitigator of crowding effects. The effects of stocking densities (4, 8, 11 and 14 kg m² on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition were evaluated during 75 days on turbot (75.6 ± 2.8 g fed two dietary L-carnitine levels (40 or 240 mg kg¹. At the end of the feeding trial, total ammonia excretion (TAN was measured postprandially for 24h. Specific growth rate and weight gain decreased with increasing stocking density. Fish held at 4 kg m² had higher final body weight (94-96 g than fish held at higher densities (80-87 g. Protein efficiency ratio was higher in fish held at 4 kg m² (1.33-1.36, in comparison to fish stocked at 8 kg m² (0.98 or 14 kg m² (0.45. Voluntary feed intake decreased from 0.70 to 0.56% BW with increasing stocking density. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation did not affect growth performance and body composition, except for body L-carnitine content which increased from 75 to 128 mg kg¹ BW with supplementation. Fish fed 240 mg L-carnitine supplements had lower TAN that the ones fed 40 mg L-carnitine (p A aquicultura de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus utilizando elevadas densidades pode reduzir o crescimento e aumentar os custos de produção. Elevados níveis de metabolitos gerados nestes sistemas intensivos provocam rápida deterioração da qualidade da água, podendo também comprometer a performance da produção. A L-carnitina atua como potenciadora do crescimento parecendo ser promissora por atenuar alguns desses efeitos. Os efeitos de densidades (4, 8, 11 e 14 kg m² no desempenho do crescimento, composição corporal foram avaliados em pregados

  4. Diversity and Drug Resistance of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Bacterial Ascetic Disease in Cultured Turbot Scophthalmus maximus%养殖大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus)腹水病的病原多样性及其耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 王印庚; 张正; 陈国华; 廖梅杰; 陈霞; 郭伟丽

    2017-01-01

    为了解引起养殖大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus)腹水病的病原多样性及其耐药性情况,针对2002-2010年由不同地区病样分离的27株细菌性病原进行了16S rDNA鉴定,并采用K-B法测定了27株细菌对22种抗生素的耐药性,分析了病原菌的耐药谱及耐药率变化.结果显示,大菱鲆腹水病病原菌主要有大菱鲆弧菌(Vibrio scophthalmi)、迟钝爱德华氏菌(Edwardsiella tarda)、鳗弧菌(Vibrio anguillarum)、哈维氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi)、假交替单胞菌(Pseudoalteromonas espejiana).山东青岛地区以大菱鲆弧菌为主,威海地区以迟钝爱德华氏菌为主,烟台地区菌株种类分布平均.5类细菌对青霉素类、头孢菌素类、大环内酯类、复方新诺明耐药率高于50%.只有1株迟钝爱德华氏菌对氟苯尼考产生了耐药,其余菌株对其均没有耐药性,且在长期使用中不易产生耐药性,证实氟苯尼考为当前防治腹水病的一种良好抗菌药物.27株病原菌的耐药谱数量为27个,每个菌株具备自己独特的耐药谱,74.1%的菌株对10种以上的抗菌药物产生了耐药性,均有多重耐药性.%Turbot Scophthalmus maximus was introduced into China in 1992.Since then,it has become one of the most dominant mariculture industries.In recent years,however,a main bottleneck constraining its commercial development is the disease problem prevailing in the farms and causing significant mortalities.Ascites syndrome is a disease that is commonly found in larvae culture and grow-out period.The present study investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens isolated from bacterial ascetic disease in cultured turbot S.maximus in Shandong Province.In total,27 bacterial pathogens were collected from different regions of the province between 2002 and 2010.These 27 strains of pathogens were identified through the use of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and their antibiotic resistance profiles were tested with 22

  5. Cinética de fermentación in vitro de Leucaena leucocephala y Megathyrsus maximus y sus mezclas, con o sin suplementación energética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Gaviria

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la cinética de fermentación in vitro de mezclas de Leucaena leucocephala y Megathyrsus maximus, se realizó un experimento in vitro de producción de gas en el que se incluyeron cinco tratamientos: 100 % de L. leucocephala (L100, 100 % de M. maximus (G100, 100 % de suplemento a base de harina de arroz y melaza (S100, y dos proporciones: L23-G77 y L26-G70-S4. Los forrajes se recolectaron durante ocho meses en un sistema silvopastoril intensivo (SSPi, perteneciente al Centro Agropecuario Cotové de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. La producción máxima de gas varió en un rango de 156 (L100 a 247 mL g-1 sustrato (L26-G70-S4. El menor volumen de gas al punto de inflexión (57,5 mL se observó en L100, el cual fue diferente al de las mezclas y el suplemento (p < 0,05. La desaparición de la MS a las 96 h varió entre 53,8 % y 66,9 %, y fue mayor en L100 que en el resto de los tratamientos (p < 0,05. El menor valor de la producción de gas (1,31 mL por cada gramo de MS, fermentada a las 96 h, se observó en L100 (p < 0,05. Los resultados sugieren que la inclusión de leucaena aumentó la concentración de proteína de la dieta y redujo el contenido de FDN, lo que resulta positivo desde el punto de vista de la productividad animal. Se concluye que la utilización de forrajes de mayor calidad nutricional, como el de leucaena, modifica el perfil de fermentación de la dieta; por lo que la respuesta de las mezclas forraje-gramínea es diferente a la esperada, ya que depende de la respuesta individual de cada forraje.

  6. Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Latimer, Erin; Tan, Jie; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogenesis and transmission of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1) by analyzing various elephant fluid samples with a novel EEHV1-specific real-time PCR assay. Animals 5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from the same herd. Procedures A real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects EEHV1. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a 15-week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1. Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Results The PCR assay detected viral DNA to a level of 1,200 copies/mL of whole blood. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the 15-week period. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance EEHV1 was shed in the trunk secretions of healthy Asian elephants. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations. PMID:20673092

  7. Comparative Study on the Cellular and Systemic Nutrient Sensing and Intermediary Metabolism after Partial Replacement of Fishmeal by Meat and Bone Meal in the Diet of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Xu, Dandan; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the cellular and systemic nutrient sensing mechanisms as well as the intermediary metabolism responses in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed with fishmeal diet (FM diet), 45% of FM replaced by meat and bone meal diet (MBM diet) or MBM diet supplemented with essential amino acids to match the amino acid profile of FM diet (MBM+AA diet). During the one month feeding trial, feed intake was not affected by the different diets. However, MBM diet caused significant reduction of specific growth rate and nutrient retentions. Compared with the FM diet, MBM diet down-regulated target of rapamycin (TOR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGFs) signaling pathways, whereas up-regulated the amino acid response (AAR) signaling pathway. Moreover, MBM diet significantly decreased glucose and lipid anabolism, while increased muscle protein degradation and lipid catabolism in liver. MBM+AA diet had no effects on improvement of MBM diet deficiencies. Compared with fasted, re-feeding markedly activated the TOR signaling pathway, IGF signaling pathway and glucose, lipid metabolism, while significantly depressed the protein degradation signaling pathway. These results thus provided a comprehensive display of molecular responses and a better explanation of deficiencies generated after fishmeal replacement by other protein sources.

  8. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and fixed wavelength fluorescence detection of PAHs metabolites in bile in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) exposed to a dispersed topped crude oil in a continuous flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, L.; Aas, E.; Borseth, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Long term effects of sublethal concentrations of oil on the marine environment have become of general concern. Cytochrome P4501A activity (EROD) in liver and fixed wavelength fluorescence detection of PAHs metabolites (FF) have in this study been used as biomarkers for dispersed oil exposure on a long term period of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). A Continuous Flow System was used to carry out the study. The fish were continuously exposed to 0.125, 0.5 or 2.0 mg litre -1 dispersed topped crude oil for 6, 15, 24h 4 and 21 days followed by a 9 day recovery period in clean seawater. No induction of the cytochrome P4501A was measured. A maximum level in bile metabolites (4- to 5-fold) was recorded after 24h of exposure revealing thereby a detoxification process, but a decline occurred from day 4 to day 21. This study demonstrated that FF detection of PAHs metabolites in bile could be a more sensitive biomarker than EROD activity in a long term exposure to sublethal concentration of oil. (author)

  9. Insight into the heat resistance of fish via blood: Effects of heat stress on metabolism, oxidative stress and antioxidant response of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunliang; Wu, Zhihao; Song, Zongcheng; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Peijun; You, Feng

    2016-11-01

    High temperature has direct confinement on fish survival and growth, especially under the background of global warming. Selection of fish line with heat resistance is an important means to address this problem. In the present study, we analyzed the difference in heat resistance between families of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and turbot Scophthalmus maximus, two flatfish species occupying slightly different thermal niches. Then the chosen families were tested to determine their differential response to heat stress (ΔT = +8 °C and +12 °C) in blood, including anaerobic metabolism (lactate), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) and antioxidant enzymes. Results showed a difference in heat resistance between families of the two species. Among the chosen parameters, growth traits had a significant effect on contents of lactate and malondialdehyd (MDA), and activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase in flounder (P heat-sensitive family of each species, levels of all studied parameters were lower and more stable in heat-resistant families after heat stress. What's more, heat resistance of fish significantly influenced contents of lactate and MDA and activity of CAT in flounder (P heat-resistance, being potentially valuable in fish breeding. However, these markers should be applied with more caution when there is a growth discrepancy between fish families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and phylogenetic study of pathogenic bacteria causing ulcer disease of cultured Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)%养殖大菱鲆溃疡症病原菌的分离鉴定及系统发育分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文辉; 黄倢; 王秀华; 史成银; 刘莉

    2005-01-01

    2004年夏季山东海阳一带养殖大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus L.)暴发溃疡病.症状主要表现为体表病灶部位出血、肌肉溃烂、眼球凸出等,解剖可见鳃丝贫血,肝脏充血,肾脏和胆囊肿大,肠壁充血并呈透明状,从出现发病症状起,大约一周后开始出现死亡.从病鱼体表溃疡部位及内脏分离出优势菌并命名为H1,经人工感染证实H1即为引起本次养殖大菱鲆体表溃疡症的病原菌.对病原菌进行鉴定揭示该菌革兰氏染色阴性,菌体呈短杆状,极生单鞭毛.综合该菌在形态、生理生化、API 20NE与API 20E自动鉴定结果、16S rDNA同源性等方面的特性,确认H1为哈维氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi),该菌对呋喃妥因、菌必治等多种抗生素敏感.哈维氏弧菌是海水养殖鱼类的常见致病菌,但作为养殖大菱鲆的病原菌属首次报道.

  11. Summation by Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Irie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence for complex cognition in elephants suggests that greater attention to comparative studies between non-human primates and other animals is warranted. We have previously shown that elephants possess the ability to judge the difference between two discrete quantities, and unlike other animals, their choice does not appear to be affected by distance or overall quantity. In this study, we investigated Asian elephants’ ability to perform summation, as exemplified by the ability to combine four quantities into two sums and subsequently compare them. We presented two discrete sums (3–7 to the elephants by baiting two buckets; they were loaded sequentially with two discrete quantities (1–5 pieces of food per bucket. All three elephants selected the larger grand sum significantly more often than the smaller grand sum. Moreover, their performance was not affected by either distance to the bait or the overall quantity evaluated. Studies report that the performance of other animal species on similar tasks declines as distance to the bait decreases and as the overall quantities evaluated increase. These results suggest that the numerical cognition of Asian elephants may be different from that of other animals, but further study is required to elucidate the differences precisely.

  12. Valerius Maximus: Memorable Deeds and Sayings (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Gril

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Očitno je bilo zadnjih nekaj let namenjenih prav antiki, saj je izšlo kar nekaj samostojnih del, prevodov in publikacij. Pod okriljem mariborske študentske založbe Litera, natančneje v zbirki Iz antičnega sveta, sta luč sveta ugledala prevoda dveh del: filozofski spis Marka Tulija Cicerona z naslovom Lelij - o prijateljstvu, ki ga je prevedla Barbara Zlobec Del Vecchio in naposled tudi delo Valerija Maksima: Spomina vredna dejanja in besede, delo, ki bo popestrilo pouk latinščine tudi na slovenskih šolah, da se bodo naši dijaki ob zgledih, ki so jih občudovali že Stari, lahko učili, kaj je prav in kaj ne, kaj se sme in kaj ne, kako se je treba obnašati do starejših, ipd.

  13. 生防细菌K2-1对大菱鲆病原菌的抑制作用及其抗菌特性分析%Antimicrobial activity of a biocontrol bacterium strain K2-1 against selected pathogens ofScophthalmus maximus and its antimicrobial property analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方卫东; 唐旭; 刘源森; 林凌; 黄仕新; 徐长安

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the possibility of using biocontrol bacterium for control and prevention of aquatic dis-eases caused by bacterial pathogens, a bacterium strain K2-1, identified asBacillus cereus, was screened out from the mud of Haicang harbor, Xiamen, China. Antibacterial test was conducted using an agar diffusion method, and the result showed that the supernatant of strain K2-1 could inhibit the growth of some common pathogens related withScophthalmus maximus diseases during farming includingVibrio parahaemolyticus,Edwardsiella,Vibrio har-veyi,Aeromonas hydrophilaand Vibrio alginolyticus. Further study of its antibacterial substance property was im-plemented, and it revealed that the bioactive substance produced by strain K2-1 was a protein (peptide). This anti-bacterial protein was thermal stable, and it kept high antimicrobial activity under temperature ranging from 40℃ to 70℃, and it was also of high acid and alkali tolerance, with its antibacterial activity decreasing less than 15% in the rang of pH 3.0 to 9.0. Enzymatic treatment test showed that this antibacterial protein was resistant to most pro-tease including trypsase, pepsase and papain, but it was sensitive to protease K. All the these results showed that the strain K2-1 had high development and application values in the future.%为探讨生防细菌应用于水产养殖动物细菌病防治的可行性,作者从厦门市海沧港口污泥中筛选到一株蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)K2-1,利用琼脂扩散法发现其发酵上清对大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus)养殖常见致病菌——副溶血弧菌(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)、爱德华氏菌(Edwardsiella)、哈维氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi)、嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)、溶藻弧菌(Vibrio alginolyticus))有较强拮抗作用。进一步分析抗菌物质的部分特性,结果显示,蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)K2-1发酵产生的抗菌物质含有蛋白(肽)类成分,该抗菌物质具有

  14. Animais silvestres utilizados como recurso alimentar em assentamentos rurais no município de Uruará, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of hunting animals is of fundamental importance for human subsistence in different tropical areas. Knowing the chosen species, the techniques of capture and the quantity are fundamental aspects to understand how to use and the degree of threat of hunting on each wild species. In this perspective, the objective of this work was to record the wild animal species most commonly used as food resource in five rural settlements in the municipality of Uruará-PA, in addition to qualify the main techniques of capturing these species. The data collection was made through semi-structured interviews and participant observation. For the selection of the interviewees, we adopted the “snowball” method. As a result, we identified 38 species of animals consumed, most being mammals (42.1%, followed by birds (39.4% and reptiles (18.5%. The species most frequently mentioned were: Cuniculus paca (n=156, Euphractus sexcinctus (n=154 and Pecari tajacu (n=137. The most used technique was hunting with shotgun. Among the animals cited, Priodontes maximus, Tayassu pecari, Tapirus terrestris, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Podocnemis unifilis, Tinamus tao, Crax fasciolata and Podocnemis unifilis are in the list of threatened species. The results point to the urgent need for educational programs to farmers regarding the unsustainable use of animals.

  15. Riqueza de mamíferos de grande e médio porte do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (Acre, Brasil The richness of the large and medium-sized mammals of the Serra do Divisor National Park (Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Muniz Calouro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the richness (number of species of large and medium-sized mammals, and the antropic threats in the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (PNSD. In 31 days data were collected through direct observations or evidences (bones, hairs, vocalizations and tracks along pre-existing trails distributed in different types of vegetation. Wild mammals captured by local people were also considered. They were found 44 species of terrestrial mammals (with the exception of small mammals and bats and two species of cetaceans, representing 73% of the total predicted, according to the literature and information of local dwellers were registered in PNSD. They exist in the area two species classified by IUCN (1996 as "Endangered" [Cacajao calvus rubicundus (I. Geoffroy, 1806 and Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792] and five as "Vulnerable" [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812, Callimico goeldii (Thomas, 1904, Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii (Humboldt, 1812, Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 and Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817]. Given that subsistence and commercial hunting are common in the PNSD, mammals more affected by hunting [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812, Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812, Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795] were observed only in the more remote areas such as Serra do Divisor, Rio Moa. In comparison with others areas, the results indicate that PNSD has high richness of the mammals, with special attention to the 14 primates species registered.

  16. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  17. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus reassure others in distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Plotnik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Contact directed by uninvolved bystanders toward others in distress, often termed consolation, is uncommon in the animal kingdom, thus far only demonstrated in the great apes, canines, and corvids. Whereas the typical agonistic context of such contact is relatively rare within natural elephant families, other causes of distress may trigger similar, other-regarding responses. In a study carried out at an elephant camp in Thailand, we found that elephants affiliated significantly more with other individuals through directed, physical contact and vocal communication following a distress event than in control periods. In addition, bystanders affiliated with each other, and matched the behavior and emotional state of the first distressed individual, suggesting emotional contagion. The initial distress responses were overwhelmingly directed toward ambiguous stimuli, thus making it difficult to determine if bystanders reacted to the distressed individual or showed a delayed response to the same stimulus. Nonetheless, the directionality of the contacts and their nature strongly suggest attention toward the emotional states of conspecifics. The elephants’ behavior is therefore best classified with similar consolation responses by apes, possibly based on convergent evolution of empathic capacities.

  18. THROMBOELASTOGRAPHY IN THE HEALTHY ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Kathryn L.; Krogh, Anne K.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2018-01-01

    elephants. Kaolin-activated TEG was performed on whole blood at 60 min and 24 hr postsampling (to replicate shipment to an external laboratory) as well as on freeze–thawed plasma samples, 12–14 mo postsampling. Reference intervals were calculated for fresh whole blood and freeze–thawed plasma samples...

  19. Tuberculosis in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, B L; Ngeow, Y F; Razak, M F A Abdul; Yakubu, Y; Zakaria, Z; Mutalib, A R; Hassan, L; Ng, H F; Verasahib, K

    2013-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 January to 9 April 2012, to determine the seroprevalence of tuberculosis (TB) of all captive Asian elephants and their handlers in six locations in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, trunk-wash samples were examined for tubercle bacillus by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For 63 elephants and 149 elephant handlers, TB seroprevalence was estimated at 20.4% and 24.8%, respectively. From 151 trunkwash samples, 24 acid-fast isolates were obtained, 23 of which were identified by hsp65-based sequencing as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific PCR was positive in the trunk-wash samples from three elephants which were also seropositive. Conversely, the trunk wash from seven seropositive elephants were PCR negative. Hence, there was evidence of active and latent TB in the elephants and the high seroprevalence in the elephants and their handlers suggests frequent, close contact, two-way transmission between animals and humans within confined workplaces.

  20. Comparação da ativação mioelétrica do glúteo máximo e bíceps femoral entre os agachamentos paralelo e com passada à frente Comparación de la activación mioeléctrica de los glúteos y bíceps femoral entre las sentadillas con los pies paralelos y los pies uno frente al otro Comparison of myoelectric activity of gluteus maximus and biceps femoris between parallel and lunge squat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leporace

    2012-09-01

    .The purpose of this study was to compare the EMG of the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris between the lunge and the parallel squat. Seven subjects, with experience in strength training, performed eight repetitions of the parallel squat (PS and the lunge (LU with an overload corresponding to 50% of body mass. The EMG of the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris was captured, filtered by a forth order Butterworth filter (20-400 Hz and calculated RMS values. The Wilcoxon Ranked test was used to compare the normalized EMG of each muscle between the two exercises. Both the biceps femoris (p = 0.041 and the gluteus maximus (p = 0.0059 showed increased activation in LU compared to the PS. Despite the moderate activation in both exercises, ranging from 25% to 45%, the myoelectric response of the analyzed muscles was higher, for the participants, in the lunge exercise.

  1. Composição e caracterização da fauna de mamíferos de médio e grande porte em uma pequena reserva de cerrado em Mato Grosso, Brasil Composition and characterization of the medium and large size mammal fauna in a small cerrado reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na Reserva Biológica Municipal "Mário Viana", Nova Xavantina, MT, objetivando inventariar e avaliar a abundância e diversidade de mamíferos terrestres de médio e grande porte. Para tanto, foram realizadas duas visitas mensais a um transecto com 2.820 m de extensão, durante todo o ano de 2001, para o levantamento de pegadas (rastreamentos e outras evidências de mamíferos. Um total de 29 espécies foram registradas na área de estudo, sendo que 22 ocorreram no transecto e tiveram suas seqüências individuais de pegadas quantificadas para realização do cálculo dos índices de abundância e de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener (H'. De acordo com seus índices de abundância, as espécies foram classificadas em raras, comuns e abundantes. Dentre outras, onça-parda (Puma concolor - Linnaeus, 1771 e tatu-canastra (Priodontes maximus - Keer, 1792 mostraram-se raras; jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis - Linnaeus, 1758, e tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla - Linnaeus, 1758, comuns; e cutia (Dasyprocta azarae - Lichtenstein, 1823 e tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis - Linnaeus, 1758, abundantes. O H' encontrado foi 2,40, sendo considerado significativo. O presente trabalho apontou que, apesar de pequena (470 ha, a área de estudo desempenha importante papel para a conservação da mastofauna da região de Nova Xavantina, MT.This study was carried out at the 'Mario Viana' Municipal Biological Reserve in Nova Xavantina, MT, aiming to make an inventory and evaluate the abundance and diversity of terrestrial mammals of medium and large size. Thus, two monthly visits were made to a 2.820 m long transect throughout 2001 to assess tracking and other evidences of mammals. Twenty-nine species were recorded in the study area, with 22 in the transect and two individual tracking sequences being quantified for calculation of the Shannon-Wiener (H' abundance and diversity indices. According to the abundance indices, the species were

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) fuel loads and moisture on Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Andrew D. Taylor; J. Boone Kauffman

    2013-01-01

    Frequent wildfires in tropical landscapes dominated by non-native invasive grasses threaten surrounding ecosystems and developed areas. To better manage fire, accurate estimates of the spatial and temporal variability in fuels are urgently needed. We quantified the spatial variability in live and dead fine fuel loads and moistures at four guinea grass (...

  3. Soya-saponins induce intestinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Zhiyu; Bai, Nan; Xu, Xiaojie; Xu, Bingying

    2018-06-01

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine (DI) of several cultured fish species, but the exact cause is still unclear. The work on Atlantic salmon and zebrafish suggested soya-saponins, as heat-stable anti-nutritional factors in soybean meal, are the major causal agents. However, this conclusion was not supported by the research on some other fish, such as gilthead sea bream and European sea bass. Our previous work proved that soybean could induce SBMIE on turbot and the present work aimed to investigate whether soya-saponins alone could cause SBMIE and the effects of soya-saponins on the intestinal barrier function in juvenile turbot. Turbots with initial weight 11.4 ± 0.02 g were fed one of four fishmeal-based diets containing graded levels of soya-saponins (0, 2.5, 7.5, 15 g kg -1 ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the trial, all fish were weighed and plasma was obtained for diamine oxidase (DAO) activity and d-lactate level analysis and DI was sampled for histological evaluation and quantification of antioxidant parameters and inflammatory marker genes. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and intestinal glutathione level were selected to evaluated intestinal antioxidant system. The distal intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation and apoptosis were investigated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), respectively. The results showed that soya-saponins caused significantly dose-dependent decrease in the growth performance and nutrient utilization (p soya-saponins. Significantly dose-dependent increases in severity of the inflammation concomitant with up-regulated expression of il-1β, il-8, and tnf-α, increased IEC proliferation and apoptosis, and decreases in selected antioxidant parameters were detected (p soya-saponins (p soya-saponins induced enteritis and compromised the intestinal barrier functions. Based on the present work, strategies focus on regulation of cell apoptosis, epithelial permeability, intracellular junctions and redox homeostasis worth further investigating to develop new and efficient ways for SBMIE alleviation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of swimming behavior of copepod nauplii on feeding of larval turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora; Højgaard, Jacob Kring; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2018-01-01

    Feeding in larval fish is influenced by a range of factors and among these are the morphological and behavioral characteristics of their prey. We investigated the influence of the swimming behavior of two species of calanoid copepods, Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis, on larval turbot feeding....... The nauplii of these species represent two contrasting swimming behaviors: A. tonsa is a jump-sink type swimmer, while T. longicornis is a cruise swimming type. Three replicates of ten larvae aged 7 and 9 days post hatch (DPH) were observed feeding on one of the two copepod species using a 2-dimensional video...

  5. Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus Movements in the Eastern North Pacific Determined Using Satellite Telemetry

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    Heidi Dewar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To fill data gaps on movements, behaviors and habitat use, both near- and offshore, two programs were initiated to deploy satellite tags on basking sharks off the coast of California. Basking sharks are large filter-feeding sharks that are second in size only to whale sharks. Similar to many megafauna populations, available data suggest that populations are below historic levels. In the eastern North Pacific (ENP Ocean, the limited information on basking sharks comes from nearshore habitats where they forage. From 2010 to 2011, four sharks were tagged with pop-off satellite archival tags with deployments ranging from 9 to 240 days. The tags provided both transmitted and archived data on habitat use and geographic movement patterns. Nearshore, sharks tended to move north in the summer and prefer shelf and slope habitat around San Diego, Point Conception and Monterey Bay. The two sharks with 180 and 240 days deployments left the coast in the summer and fall. Offshore their paths diverged and by January one shark had moved to near the tip of the Baja Peninsula, Mexico and the other to the waters near Hawaii, USA. Vertical habitat use was variable both within and among individuals and changed as sharks moved offshore. Nearshore, most time was spent in the mixed layer but sharks did spend hours in cold waters below the mixed layer. Offshore vertical movements depended on location. The shark that went to Hawaii had a distinct diel pattern, with days spent at ~450–470 m and nights at ~250–300 m and almost no time in surface waters, corresponding with the diel migration of a specific portion of the deep scattering layer. The shark that moved south along the Baja Peninsula spent progressively more time in deep water but came to the surface daily. Movement patterns and shifts in vertical habitat and use are likely linked to shifts in prey availability and oceanography. Data collected indicate the potential for large-scale movements and the need for international dialogue in any recovery efforts.

  6. Immune responses of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to commercial tetanus toxoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William A; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro; Townsend, Hugh G G; Boleslawski, Maria; Lunn, D P

    2010-02-15

    Although captive elephants are commonly vaccinated annually against tetanus using commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccines marketed for use in horses and livestock, no data exists to prove that tetanus toxoid vaccination produces measurable antibody titers in elephants. An ELISA test was created to measure antibody responses to tetanus toxoid vaccinations in 22 Asian elephants ranging in age from 24 to 56 years (mean age 39 years) over a 7-month period. All animals had been previously vaccinated with tetanus toxoid vaccine, with the last booster administered 4 years before the start of the study. The great majority of elephants had titers prior to booster vaccination, and following revaccination all elephants demonstrated anamnestic increases in titers, indicating that this species does respond to tetanus vaccination. Surprisingly older animals mounted a significantly higher response to revaccination than did younger animals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Social relationships of wild juvenile Asian Elephants Elephas maximus in the Udawalawa National Park, Sri Lanka

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    D. Jayantha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Social relationships of juvenile wild elephants (3-6 years old in the Udawalawa National Park were studied. Focal animal sampling was employed to quantify behaviour of juveniles encountered on 450 different occasions. Nearest neighbour (NN and nearest neighbour distance (NND were considered for proximity analysis and the social relationships of focal animals. Adult females and juveniles were the NN of the study group during 50.8% and 37.6% of the total observed time respectively. The mean NND was 1.62m (SD� plus or minus 2.8, and it was less than 5m 98% of the time while 33% of the time the study group was touching (NND<1m the NN. There was a significant difference between NND categories (p<0.05. Eighty percent of the NN infants stayed at a touching distance and were cared or allo-mothered by the juveniles under discussion. Time allocated for different behaviour patterns by the study group varied with the NN. When the study animals were accompanied by age-mates, they spent 17% of time in social playing and another 3% in non-play social contacts, but only 1% in each behaviour pattern when the adult females were in close proximity. Maximum social contacts were observed between study animals and infants. The findings suggest that juvenile elephants associate more frequently with adult females and near-age mates while they show social relationships in a varying degree with different associates. Play and social contacts of juveniles with conspecifics, especially with peers, provides opportunity to develop skills and social confidence necessary in adulthood.

  8. Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Asian Elephants Elephas maximus in Karnataka state, India

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    B.R. Harish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wild animal’s health is of serious biodiversity concern and influenced by several factors like infectious, nutritional, environmental, behavioral and physiological factors. Among which infectious agents are crippling the wild life in terms of huge mortality and morbidity and terminating the life of several endangered species. The most common occurrence and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS or Pasturellosis has long been recognized as a serious disease in elephants. The present study revealed the occurrence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS in three national parks of Karnataka state among elephants. The disease was diagnosed based on the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathology and microbiological findings.

  9. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

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    Wongkalasin Warut

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination (AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.

  10. Age, size and vertebral calcification in the basking shark, Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, H.W.; Stott, F.C.

    1965-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inshore shoals of basking sharks that appear in spring off the western seabord of Europe have been variously claimed to be part of a seasonal south to north migration, or local, perhaps nuptial, aggregations. The decline in the catches of the Achill Island Fishery in the last decade

  11. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus.

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    Khyne U Mar

    Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020 to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391 between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4% and pre-weaning mortality (25.6% were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian elephant.

  12. Traumatic Hemipelvectomy with Free Gluteus Maximus Fillet Flap Covers: A Case Report

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    WI Faisham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available threatening injury. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy involved in a traffic accident who presented with an almost circumferential pelvic wound with wide diastasis of the right sacroiliac joint and symphysis pubis. The injury was associated with complete avulsion of external and internal iliac vessels as well as the femoral and sciatic nerves. He also had ipsilateral open comminuted fractures of the femur and tibia. Emergency debridement and completion of amputation with preservation of the posterior gluteal flap and primary anastomosis of the inferior gluteal vessels to the internal iliac artery stump were performed. A free fillet flap was used to close the massive exposed area.

  13. Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) cooled in ices water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Foss, A.; Imsland, A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural, neural and physiological aspects related to pre-slaughter cooling of turbot habituated to two environmental temperatures (18.7 and 12.0 °C) were investigated. Six fish in both treatments were immersed in ice water for 75 min. For control, four fish were immersed in water under their

  14. Exposure of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to silver nanoparticles and 17α-ethinylestradiol mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkas, Julia; Salaberria, Iurgi; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Combined exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and anthropogenic contaminants can lead to changes in bioavailability, uptake and thus effects of both groups of contaminants. In this study we investigated effects of single and combined exposures of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the s......Combined exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and anthropogenic contaminants can lead to changes in bioavailability, uptake and thus effects of both groups of contaminants. In this study we investigated effects of single and combined exposures of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (Ag...

  15. First visual record of a living basking shark Cetorhinus maximus in the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Janinhoff, N.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of basking sharks in the Caribbean Sea is only recently documented by satellite tagging studies, which show that some individuals migrate through the region en route from waters off the east coast of the USA to waters off northeastern South-America. The observation of a basking shark

  16. Potential factors affecting semen quality in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus

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    Pongsopavijitr Pornsawan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major obstacles in using artificial insemination to manage genetics of elephant population in captivity is the large variations in semen quality among ejaculates within the same and among individuals. The objectives of this study were to determine the influences of (1 age (2 seasonality (3 and circulating testosterone (SrTest, triiodothyronine (SrT3 and tetraiodothyronine (SrT4, as well as seminal (4 testosterone (SpTest, zinc (SpZn and protein (SpTP on semen quality in the Asian elephant Methods Analyses, including motility, viability and morphology were performed in semen samples collected twice monthly from 13 elephant bulls (age range, 10-to 72-years by manual stimulation between July 2004 and June 2005. Serum samples obtained monthly were assessed for SrTest, SrT3, SrT4, and seminal plasma samples were evaluated for, SpTest, SpZn and SpTP. Results The highest semen quality was observed at age 23 to 43 years. Percentages of progressive motility and viable sperm were lowest at age 51 to 70 years (P Conclusion This study indicates that age and seasonality had influence on semen characteristics in the Asian elephant. The knowledge obtained in this study will improve our understanding of the reproductive biology of this species.

  17. CLINICAL INFECTION OF CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuery, Angela; Browning, Geoffrey R; Tan, Jie; Long, Simon; Hayward, Gary S; Cox, Sherry K; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants. A number of EEHV types and subtypes exist, where most deaths have been caused by EEHV1A and EEHV1B. EEHV4 has been attributed to two deaths, but as both diagnoses were made postmortem, EEHV4 disease has not yet been observed and recorded clinically. In this brief communication, two cases of EEHV4 infection in juvenile elephants at the Houston Zoo are described, where both cases were resolved following intensive treatment and administration of famciclovir. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected EEHV4 viremia that correlated with clinical signs. High levels of EEHV4 shedding from trunk wash secretions of the first viremic elephant correlated with subsequent infection of the second elephant with EEHV4. It is hoped that the observations made in these cases--and the successful treatment regimen used--will help other institutions identify and treat EEHV4 infection in the future.

  18. CLINICAL INFECTION OF TWO CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuery, Angela; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    The ability of prior infection from one elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) type to protect against clinical or lethal infection from others remains an important question. This report describes viremia and subsequent shedding of EEHV1B in two juvenile 4-yr-old Asian elephants within 3 wk or 2 mo following significant infections caused by the rarely seen EEHV4. High levels of EEHV1B shedding were detected in the first elephant prior to emergence of infection and viremia in the second animal. The EEHV1B virus associated with both infections was identical to the strain causing infection in two herd mates previously. High EEHV viremia correlated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, which was followed by leukocytosis and thrombocytosis when clinical signs started to resolve. The observations from these cases should be beneficial for helping other institutions monitor and treat elephants infected with EEHV1, the most common virus associated with lethal hemorrhagic disease.

  19. Ultrasonographically documented early pregnancy loss in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Imke; Drews, Barbara; Niemuller, Cheryl; Gray, Charlie; Rich, Peter; Fickel, Jörns; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Early embryonic resorption or fetal loss is known to occur occasionally in captive elephants; however, this has mostly been reported anecdotally. The present study documents the case of a 24-year-old, multiparous Asian elephant cow that suffered embryonic death and resorption at around 18 weeks of gestation. From ovulation onwards, this female was sonographically examined 58 times. Blood was collected twice weekly for progestagen determination via enzyme immunoassay. On Day 42 after ovulation, a small quantity of fluid was detected in the uterine horn, which typically indicates the presence of a developing conceptus. Repeated inspections followed what appeared to be a normal pregnancy until Day 116. However, on Day 124, signs of embryonic life were absent. Progestagen concentrations started declining two weeks later, reaching baseline levels one month after embryonic death. Retrospectively, ultrasound examination revealed several abnormalities in the uterine horn. Besides an existing leiomyoma, multiple small cystic structures had formed in the endometrium at the implantation site and later in the placenta. These pathological findings were considered as possible contributors to the early pregnancy failure. PCR for endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus (EEHV) (which had occurred previously in the herd) as well as serology for other infectious organisms known to cause abortion in domestic animals did not yield any positive results. Although no definitive reason was found for this pregnancy to abort, this ultrasonographically and endocrinologically documented study of an early pregnancy loss provides important insights into the resorption process in Asian elephants.

  20. Variation in the composition of milk of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Frances N; Power, Michael L; Dickson, Melissa A; Brown, Janine; Oftedal, Olav T

    2013-01-01

    We investigated milk nutrient composition from three Asian elephant cows over the first 3 years of lactation, including two consecutive lactations in one cow. Body mass gain is presented for three calves during the first year. Milk samples (n = 74) were analyzed for dry matter (DM), fat, crude protein (CP), sugar, ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K); gross energy (GE) was calculated. Concentrations of most nutrients changed over lactation: DM, fat, CP, Ca, P, and GE were positively correlated to calf age; sugar was negatively correlated to calf age. GE doubled between birth (1 kcal/g) and 2 years of age (2 kcal/g). After accounting for calf age, GE, fat, Ca, and P concentrations differed among the cows. Milk composition also differed between two lactations from the same cow. When milk nutrients were expressed on a mg per kcal basis, the pattern changes: CP, Ca, and P remained relatively constant over lactation on a per energy basis. Calf mass quadrupled over the first year of life; mass gain was linear at 0.9 kg/day. Asian elephant milk composition is variable, both across lactations and between cows, complicating efforts to determine representative values for comparative studies and for the formulation of elephant milk formulas. The fact that CP, Ca, and P were all relatively constant when expressed on a per energy basis may be of biological significance. The increase in nutrient density over lactation undoubtedly limits maternal water loss, reducing the volume of milk necessary to support the calf. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Differentiation of Xenarthra (Mammalia species through the identification of their fecal bile acid patterns: An ecological tool Diferenciación de especies de Xenarthra (Mammalia a través de la identificación de sus patrones de ácidos biliares fecales: Una herramienta ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SOLEDAD ARAUJO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of feces is a fundamental tool for field work, especially to identify the presence of certain species in an area. Fecal bile acids and their relative concentration follow patterns that are species-specific, and can be characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. This technique has been used for differentiating feces of several mammal species; however it has never been used for Xenarthra species. In this work, 96 feces of Xenarthra species were analyzed by TLC to determine the bile acid pattern. The species were: Zaedyus pichiy (n = 10, Chaetophractus vellerosus (n = 5, Chaetophractus villosus (n = 57, Dasypus kybridus (n = 4, Priodontes maximus (n = 2, Tamanduá tetradactyla (n = 14 and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (n = 4. There were differences between the bile acid patterns of all the species, but not between males and females, nor between wild and captive animals of the same species. We found seven known bile acids, cholesterol and seven unidentified compounds (X1-X7. All the species had taurocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids, and cholesterol. Only C. villosus had deoxycholic acid (Rf: 0.30 ± 0.01. Z. pichiy, C. vellerosus and C. villosus had two or three bands of dehydrocholic acid (Rf between 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.45 ± 0.02, while the other species had one or two. Z. pichiy had two unidentified bile acids, X6 (Rf: 0.85 ± 0.06 and X7 (Rf 0.93 ± 0.03, that were almost indistinguishable in other species. D. hybridus differed from Z. pichiy, C. vellerosus and C villosus because it did not have chenodeoxycholic acid and X7. T. tetradactyla was the only species without cholic acid and it differed from M. tridactyla because it had dehydrocholic acid. D. hybridus was the species with the lowest number of compounds (seven, and differed from the others because it did not have the X1 and X5 unidentified compounds. These results are the first for Xenarthra and would be very important for fu ture studies about the

  2. Ultrastructural Observation of the Skin Chloride Cells of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and Turbot Scophthamus maximus Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The ultrastructures of skin chloride cells in cultured Japanese flounder and turbot larvae in metamorphosis, which grow in the same feeding conditions, are examined with a transmission electron microscope. These developed skin chloride cells were shaped like flattened ellipsoids and similar in morphology and ultrastructure to typical chloride cells of euryhaline fish gill. They locate in the epidermis and contract with the extra and interior environment through the apical pit and narrow channels. The cytoplasm of cell is full of numerous mitochondria and a ramifying network of tubules. The degeneration of skin chloride cells is observed with development of Japanese flounder larvae. Skin chloride cells of turbot are less developmental than those of Japanese flounder in the same developmental stage.

  3. Distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in the skins of normal and albino adult turbot, Scophthalmus Maximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huarong; HUANG Bing; QI Fei; ZHANG Shicui

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in skins of normal and albino adult turbots were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three types of pigment cells of melanophore, iridophore and xanthophore have been recognized in adult turbot skins. The skin color depends mainly on the amount and distribution of melanophore and iridophore, as xanthophore is quite rare. No pigment cells can be found in the epidermis of the skins. In the pigmented ocular skin of the turbot, melanophore and iridophore are usually co-localized in the dermis. This is quite different from the distribution in larvae skin. In albino and white blind skins of adult turbots, however, only iridophore monolayer still exists, while the melanophore monolayer disappears. This cytological evidence explains why the albino adult turbot, unlike its larvae, could never resume its body color no matter what environmental and nutritional conditions were provided. Endocytosis is quite active in the cellular membrane of the iridophore. This might be related to the formation of reflective platelet and stability of the iridophore.

  4. THE PERCEPTION OF COMMUNITY TOWARDS THE DISTURBANCE OF SUMATERAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS SUMATRANUS IN OGAN KOMERING ILIR REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rianti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research of elephant conflict with community have been conducted in Sungai Menang District, Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatera Province. This study was conducted in three villages in September through December 2015. This study aimed to identify the perception and socio-economic characteristics of the community related to the conflict towards elephant conservation value. Data was collected through structured interview, while respondents were selected intentionally (purposive sampling. The results are shown that the level of community education in the village of Gajah Mati dan Gajah Mulya are low, 51% and 47% respectively, which are elementary school graduates, while the level of education in the village of Gajah Mukti is 58% of high school graduates. The majority of respondents are in productive age classes and worked as a farmer. The average income per month of people in the village of Gajah Mati is Rp1,814,583, while in Gajah Mukti and Gajah Mulya Village are Rp1,158,750 and Rp1,060,833 respectively. Elephants disturbance occur in all respondent villages and has an impact on the community perception of the elephant conservation becomes negative. Most respondents want that the elephants are relocated to Padang Sugihan Wildlife Sanctuary which is suitable for the habitat of the elephants.

  5. Elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae migration paths in the Nilgiri Hills, India in the late 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R.C. Davidar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presented was carried out in 1978 with the support of the Asian Elephant Specialist Group (AsESG of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC. Its objective was to investigate the impediments to elephant movement in the Nilgiri Hills, in the Western Ghats of India, in an attempt to suggest positive steps to encourage movement through the provision of corridors. The report was left unpublished, but given its importance as a reference document for the conservation of the Asian elephant in the Nilgiris, in 2011 the last two authors decided to publish it. The process of habitat fragmentation has been going on ever since man started agriculture. But this problem has, of late, become much more acute due to mounting pressure on land. The corridor concept applied to wildlife is the provision of a free and, as far as possible, unimpeded way for the passage of wild animals between two wildlife zones. A corridor’s more important function is to prevent wild animals from getting isolated in small pocket-like islands. Maintaining elephant habitat connectivity in and around the Nilgiris rests upon the understanding that elephant populations of the several protected areas of the now Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve must remain active. The first author surveyed the Nilgiris on foot and on elephant back for several months in 1978. It was concluded that four areas (the Nilgiri north slopes and Deccan Plateau, the south and southeastern slopes, the Gudalur Plateau, and the upper plateau harboured together 10 corridors that needed to be maintained, or restored, or even partially restored.

  6. Not just quantity: gluteus maximus muscle characteristics in able-bodied and SCI individuals--implications for tissue viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary A; Bogie, Kath M

    2013-08-01

    Some individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) remain pressure ulcer (PU) free whilst others experience a recurring cycle of tissue breakdown. Detailed analysis of gluteal muscle characteristics may provide insights to local tissue viability variability. The study hypothesis was that SCI individuals have altered muscle composition compared to able-bodied (AB). Ten AB and ten SCI received a supine pelvic CT scan, with contrast. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and overall muscle volume were derived using image analysis. Gluteal muscle tissue type was classified at the S2/S3 sacral vertebrae midpoint, the superior greater trochanters margin (GT) and the inferior ischial tuberosities margin (IT) using the linear transformation Hounsfield Unit scale. SCI gluteal CSA was less than for AB throughout the muscle, with the greatest relative atrophy at the IT (48%). Average AB gluteal volume was nearly double SCI. Eight SCI had over 20% infiltrative adipose tissue, three with over 50%. SCI gluteal CSA and intramuscular fat infiltration were significantly negatively correlated (p SCI IT axial slices showed less lean muscle and higher intramuscular fat infiltration than more proximally (p SCI gluteal muscle characteristics were indicative of impaired tissue viability. SCI disuse muscle atrophy was anticipated; the analytic approach further indicated that intramuscular atrophy was not uniform. SCI muscle composition showed increased proportions of both low density muscle and adipose tissue. CT scan with contrast is effective for gluteal muscle characterization. This assessment technique may contribute to determination of personalized risk for PU development and other secondary complications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Inter-Species Transmission of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus Between Turbot (Scophthalmus Maximus) and Rainbow Trout (Onchorhynchus Mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönherz, A. A.; Lorenzen, Niels; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia is a serious viral disease of teleost fish with high economic impact on the aquaculture industry. The disease is caused by the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), an RNA virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae. Compared to other rhabdoviruses infecting...

  8. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana in North American Zoos.

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    Natalia A Prado-Oviedo

    Full Text Available This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian; sex (male vs. female; and origin (imported vs. captive-born. Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05 between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05. Other differences (p<0.05 included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications.

  9. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2015-01-01

    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially

  10. PENGELOLAAN DAN TINGKAT KESEJAHTERAAN GAJAH SUMATERA (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temminck, 1847 DI FLYING SQUAD WWF TAMAN NASIONAL TESSO NILO RIAU

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    Rizki Kurnia Tohir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict between human and elephants in Tesso Nilo National Park encourages WWF to establish the Flying Squad. Related to the function of the sumatran elephants in Flying Squad as the patrol team, it is necessary to conduct a proper management to ensure animal welfare. This study aims to examine the aspects of welfare management and asses the level of welfare of sumatran elephants in Flying Squad. The research methodology used for this study are literature review, interviews and field observation. Data analyzed by describing the suitability of management and tabulating the assessment. The management of cages, feed, health and reproduction requires some improvements such as the type, number and equipment of the cages, natural feed adequacy, medical infrastructure and reproduction management. The 76,98% percentage rate of sumatran elephant welfare, which is relatively good, is because there are only 14 priority components of 43 components of animal welfare assessment that need improvements and enhanced management. Keywords: animal welfare, flying squad, the patrol elephant

  11. A METHOD FOR VIRTUAL ANASTYLOSIS: THE CASE OF THE ARCH OF TITUS AT THE CIRCUS MAXIMUS IN ROME

    OpenAIRE

    M. Canciani; C. Falcolini; M. Buonfiglio; S. Pergola; M. Saccone; B. Mammì; G. Romito

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first report about the development of a methodology for the virtual Anastylosis of elements belonging to an archaeological site, based on the 3d modeling of fragments. This research is the result of the cooperation between Università Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Architettura and Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni Culturali; several 3D survey, modeling, information systems and archaeology experts were involved. The purpose of the research was to study the complex and str...

  12. Rome’s seat of passion: An assessment of the archeology and history of the Circus Maximus

    OpenAIRE

    Cody Scott Ames

    2016-01-01

    It is a place where the general public can gather communally to watch ludi, provisionally erasing invisible boundary lines which sharply divide one social class from another. The Circus is also a location which has the capability to eradicate personal and societal perceptions potentially rendering a crowd in an intoxicated, wanton state. The association existent between society and its predetermined allocation of space in many venues (e.g. hippodromes, theaters, amphitheaters, etc.) which exh...

  13. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Pataky, Todd C; Hill, Zoe; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-05-01

    Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion. Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue (digital cushion). Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a neuro-imaging technology. Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes (digits 3, 4 and 5). We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. Using SPM, we present a complete map of pressure distributions in elephant feet during ontogeny by performing statistical analysis at the pixel level across the entire plantar/palmar surface. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet.

  14. Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with poor initial fresh semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imrat, P.; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote; Suthanmapinanth, P.; Kornkaewrat, K.; Sombutputorn, P.; Jansittiwate, S.; Thongtip, Nikorn; Pinyopummin, A.; Colenbrander, B.; Holt, W.V.; Stout, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that

  15. Natural food monitoring of Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatraensis in Taman Hutan Raya Cut Nya’ Dhien Seulawah, Aceh Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUFRI

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to monitoring natural food of Sumatran elephant; determine rank taxonomy of species, and to give information quantitative value of taxa for vegetation analysis. The wide of area total Taman Hutan Raya Cut Nya’ Dhien Seulawah were 6.220 Ha. About 20% of area total used as an observed area. The data was collected by transect and quadratic plot method. The observed area it was took 10 transect with 500 m of long for observed station. Each observed station was put seven and ten plot samples systematically. Each plot samples has a 5 m2 of width. The result indicated that there were 69 species of the plant including 23 families. Diversity index was between 1.9838-2.7202; an evenness index was between 1.6868-2.0631. The importance value is relatively low on all station observed. The refer of importance value show that Oplismenus burmanii, Imperata cylindrica, Crassocephalum crepidiodes, Mimosa pudica, and Zingiber aquosum were dominated on secondary forest and Zingiber zerumbet, Zingiber purpureum, and Oplismenus burmanii were dominated on primary forest. The result of diversity index show that regeneration of natural food in Taman Hutan Raya Cut Nya’ Dhien Seulawah is available constant because grazing occurred with continue by elephant.

  16. Management Training of Sumatra Elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus and Daily Behavior in Flying Squad WWF Tesso Nilo National Park, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Ratnasari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying squad is an established strategy in the effort to resolve the conflict elephants in Tesso Nilo National Park. Flying squad utilizes trainedelephants to chase away wild elephants that come out the national park area. The study aims to identify management training and daily behavior ofSumatran elephant. The study was conducted in the Flying Squad WWF's Tesso Nilo National Park, Riau in March-April 2016 using focal animalsampling and interview. The elephant training curriculum consist of basic training, advanced training and exercise development by combined verbalcommands, visual, and physical. The measured success of training will be seen if the elephants could perform mahout’s commands without any error.Percentage of ingestive behavior showed the highest value at noon, while percentage of shelter seeking and other behavior showed the highest valueat night. It caused the elephants do more displacement to get the food at noon.Keywords: daily behavior, flying squad, focal animal sampling, sumatran elephant, training management

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Elephas_maxim...us_L.png Elephas_maximus_NL.png Elephas_maximus_S.png Elephas_maximus_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maxim...us&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=NS ...

  18. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Tianxiang; Chen, Chao

    2006-09-01

    The protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot Scophthalmus maximum was studied, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration were determined for different portions of the fish's internal organs. The optimal activity in the fish's stomach was at pH of 2.2, while that in the intestinal extracts was within the alkaline range from 9.5 to 10.0. In hepatopancreas, the optimal pH was in low alkalinity at 8.5. The optimal reaction temperature was above 40°C in stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas. With increasing temperature, the pH value increased in stomach, while in the intestine, an opposite tendency was observed due to combined effect of pH and temperature. NaCl concentration showed inhibitory impact on protein digestion in hepatopancreas. The main protease for protein digestion in turbot seemed to be pepsin. Moreover, the maximum protease activity in different segments of intestine existed in the hindgut.

  19. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue’s welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated ‘Monkey schools’ offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn’t have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  20. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  1. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  2. Physiological stress responses in wild Asian elephants Elephas maximus in a human-dominated landscape in the Western Ghats, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakrishnan, Sreedhar; Kumar, Mavatur Ananda; Umapathy, G; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Anindya

    2018-05-16

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014. Physiological stress responses varied significantly among the tested elephant age- and sex categories but not across different types of social organisation. Adults generally showed higher FGM concentrations, even in the absence of stressors, than did any other age category. Males also appeared to have higher stress responses than did females. Although there was no significant variation in mean stress levels between elephants on the plateau in the absence of human interactions and those in adjacent, relatively undisturbed forest habitats, FGM concentrations increased significantly for adult and subadult individuals as well as for calves following drives, during which elephants were driven off aggressively by people. Our study emphasises the general importance of understanding individual variation in physiology and behaviour within a population of a seriously threatened mammalian species, the Asian elephant, and specifically highlights the need for long-term monitoring of the stress physiology and behavioural responses of individual elephants across both human-dominated and natural landscapes. Such studies would not only provide comprehensive insights into the adaptive biology of elephants in changing ecological regimes but also aid in the development of effective management and conservation strategies for endangered populations of the species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons. Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among captive Asian Elephants Elephas maximus: effect of season, host demography, and management systems in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vanitha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of wild animals in captivity is fraught with numerous challenges, including the control of disease. This study evaluates the effect of season, host demography (age-sex, and differing management systems on the prevalence of intestinal parasites among elephants managed in three captive systems: temple, private, and forest department, in Tamil Nadu. In addition, the study also assessed the availability of veterinary care for elephants in these systems. The parasitic prevalence was evaluated by direct microscopic identification of helminth eggs in faecal samples (n = 115 collected from different age/sex classes of elephants. Of the 115 elephants examined, 37% showed positive results, being infected only with Strongyles sp. The prevalence rate varied significantly across seasons, with the highest rate during summer (49% followed by monsoon (41% and the lowest rate during winter (15%. While males had a significantly lower parasite prevalence compared to females (29% vs. 40%, age classes showed no significant difference. Despite the fact that the proportion of animals receiving veterinary care was higher under the forest department system (100% compared to the private system (26%, parasite prevalence was significantly higher under the former (48% than the latter (31% system. The difference in the proportion of animals with parasitic prevalence among the three systems could be due to differing management practices (i.e. in solitary versus groups and the details are discussed.

  5. A comparative haematological analysis of Asian Elephants Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae managed under different captive conditions in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K.D. Mel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Haematological parameters were assessed from elephants of three institutions in Sri Lanka with different captive conditions, in order to evaluate if different captive conditions influence the physiology of the animals. The institutions were: The National Zoological Gardens (NZG, where elephants live a comparatively sedentary lifestyle, Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage (PEO, where elephants are allowed to walk and engage in intra-specific behaviours, and Millennium Elephant Foundation (MEF, where the elephants are used for tourist rides. Four adult females were examined from the NZG, while only two males and two females could be examined from PEO and MEF respectively. All animals were sampled on four consecutive days. Blood glucose levels, total white blood cells (WBC, red blood cells (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV and differential white blood cell counts were carried out. Certain blood parameters of the elephants from NZG differed significantly from the parameters of the elephants from PEO and MEF. These were, the total WBC counts (Kruskal-Wallis, H=21.92, 2d.f., P=0.000, the lymphocyte count (Kruskal-Wallis, H=16.40, 2d.f., P=0.00 and the Neutrophil: Lymphocyte ratios (Kruskal-Wallis , H=14.58, 2d.f., P less than 0.05. PCV , blood glucose levels and monocyte counts were also shown to be significantly different among the three groups (Kruskal-Wallis P less than 0.000. We suggest that differences in the stress levels associated with the different management methods might influence these haematological values.

  6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of live feeds in juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) farming: copepods versus Artemiapepods versus Artemiacopepods versus Artemiacopepods versus Artemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    The biological benefits of copepods as live feed for marine finfish larvae have already been well established in the literature. Copepods have better biochemical compositions that improve growth, reduce malpigmentations and allow successful farming of ‘new’ marine finfish species. However...... items (copepods and Artemia) in juvenile turbot farming. Unit cost of production and profit are compared between the two feeding regimes using a unique data set from an existing turbot fry production facility in Denmark. The result reveals that copepods are not only biochemically superior...... but they are also economically a cost-effective alternative. Thus, a commercial use of copepods will significantly reduce the production costs for turbot. Furthermore, the unexploited economic potential can be utilized for the successful farming of other high-valued marine finfish species such as tuna, flounders...

  7. REPRODUCTION, HABITAT UTILIZATION, AND MOVEMENTS OF HOGFISH (LACHNOLAIMUS MAXIMUS) IN THE FLORIDA KEYS, U.S.A.: COMPARISONS FROM FISHED VERSUS UNFISHED HABITATS (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — in situ visual surveys of hogfish reproductive behavior, spawning and courtship events, movements estimates of habitat composition of the seafloor

  8. A production season of turbot larvae Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) reared on copepods in a Danish (56 degrees N) semi-intensive outdoor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per M.; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Rayner, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Turbot were reared from yolk sack larvae to juvenile in an outdoor semi-intensive system. Three production cycles were monitored from May to September. A pelagic food chain was established with phytoplankton, copepods and turbot larvae. Abiotic and biotic parameters of lower trophic levels together...

  9. Organ distribution and food safety aspects of cadmium and lead in great scallops, Pecten maximus L., and Horse Mussels, Modiolus modiolus L., from Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Frantzen, Sylvia; Torkildsen, Lise; Maage, Amund

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the levels and organ distribution of the potentially harmful inorganic elements cadmium and lead in great scallops and horse mussels from unpolluted Norwegian waters. The scallops far exceeded the EU-limit for cadmium in bivalves when all soft tissues were analysed. When only muscle and gonad were included, however, the level of cadmium was acceptable, because cadmium accumulated in the digestive gland with a mean of 52 mg/kg ww (wet weight). In horse mussel, lead was the most problematic element and the concentration varied from 1.4 to 6.6 mg/kg ww with a mean of 3.7 mg/kg ww, exceeding the EU limit of 1.5 mg Pb/kg. The highest concentration of lead was found in the kidney with an average of 120 mg/kg ww and with a maximum value of 240 mg/kg ww. The kidney tissue accounted for approximately 94% of the lead burden in the horse mussel. In order to consume these bivalves, only muscle and gonad of great scallops should be used for consumption and the kidney of horse mussel should be removed prior to consumption.

  10. Mortality records (1979–2011 shed light on threats to Asian Elephants Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae in Nilgiris, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Davidar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We compiled records of 291 elephant deaths over a 33-year period (1979–2011 from the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and the reserved forests of Nilgiri North and South divisions of southern India from the databases of the Tamil Nadu Forest Department, the Wildlife Protection Society of India and the Nilgiri Wildlife and Environment Association.  We tested the null hypothesis that the causes of elephant deaths would not differ with time, by gender and with level of protection.  We classified records by gender and age: adults (≥15 years, sub adults (5–15 years, juveniles (>1–<5 and calves (≤ 1. We organised records over 3-decade periods. The database consisted of 209 adults (≥15 years, 27 sub adults (5–15 years, 33 juveniles (>1–<5 and 22 calves (≤ 1. MTR had the maximum records (148 followed by NND (138 and NSD (4.  The median age of death was 20 years for adult males and 30 years for adult females.  Mean survival time for adult males was 22.45 years, and 31.84 for females.  Poaching was responsible for the majority of deaths (40%, particularly of male elephants (82%, and unknown causes (31% for the majority of female deaths (66%.  Human-caused deaths, which included poaching and some accidents, averaged 72% between 1979 and 2000 and decreased to 22% during 2001–2011. Deaths due to unknown causes and diseases increased from 28% in 1979-1989 to 69% in 2001–2011.  Relative to estimated population size, deaths attributed to poaching was higher in NND (47% than in MTR (34%.  The causes of death differed by region. In conclusion, the elephant population in the Nilgiris is at risk and needs stringent protection; the mortality database should be systematised; forensic capabilities upgraded, and detection of carcasses improved.  

  11. Differential testosterone response to GnRH-induced LH release before and after musth in adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-01-01

    Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon

  12. Influence of immunostimulant polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and Bacillus strains on the innate immune and acute stress response in turbots (Scophthalmus maximus) fed soy bean- and wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, V I; Schmidt, J; Slater, M J; Buck, B H; Steinhagen, D

    2017-12-01

    Immunostimulants are widely applied in aquaculture practice and may have beneficial effects on the immune system and physical functions allowing higher tolerance to stress. In the current study, the impact of four (i-iv) dietary active ingredients on the immune and stress response of turbot was examined in two experiments (I and II). A basal low fish meal (FM; 32%) diet was formulated and supplemented with (i) yeast β-glucan and mannan oligosaccharide (GM), (ii) alginic acid (AC), (iii) yeast nucleotides and RNA (NR), or (iv) Bacillus strains (BS). The basal diet (C-LF) and a high FM (59%) control (C-HF) were maintained. All six diets were fed to juvenile turbots for 84 days in experiment I and for additional 28 days prior to experiment II. Immunological and hematological parameters were determined in experiment I. In experiment II, physical stress response to a typical short-term (GM, AC, NR, and C-HF compared to C-LF (I). A significant increase in plasma glucose and triglyceride was observed in GM and NR treatments, while glucose levels were significantly higher in C-HF compared to C-LF. Moreover, the immunostimulant-supplemented diets exhibited significantly lower cortisol levels compared to controls C-LF (at 0.5 h) and C-HF (at 1 h) post stress, respectively (II). According to our findings, FM substitution did not modulate the innate immune response but was associated with reduced levels of cholesterol. Dietary immunostimulants were not effective enough to boost the immune response, but we believe they might be helpful to trigger metabolic advantages during stressful handling events on fish farms.

  13. A quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss due to crop raiding by Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae: a case study of Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Manas National Park, Assam in northeastern India between 2007 and 2009 to understand the magnitude of human-elephant conflict through a quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss. A cluster of six villages adjacent to the Park was selected for this study. Five major agricultural crops were grown during the study period of which three were raided by elephants: winter paddy, autumn paddy and pulses. Paddy was the principle crop central to the farmers’ subsistence. Winter paddy was the most cultivated crop and autumn paddy was the least cultivated. The incidence rate of crop raiding was highest for autumn paddy and lowest for pulses. Overall economic loss due to crop raiding was negligible, however at the individual farmer level, it was quite high. The study revealed that human-elephant conflict is not so severe, indicating ample opportunity for human-elephant coexistence in the region. Crop fields adjacent to the Park were particularly vulnerable to crop raiding which necessitates creation of a buffer zone. The frequency of raiding and the extent of damage was found to be significantly less in crop fields which were guarded by farmers. This was due to traditional crop guarding practices being followed in the region, the strengthening of which could effectively reduce annual crop loss and thus human-elephant conflict could be minimized to a large extent.

  14. Genetic population structure of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) supports the presence of multiple hybrid zones for marine fishes in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Nielsen, P.H.; Meldrup, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    Sea, suggesting high gene flow among populations in these areas. In contrast, there was a sharp cline in genetic differentiation going from the low saline Baltic Sea to the high saline North Sea. The data were explained best by two divergent populations connected by a hybrid zone; however......, a mechanical mixing model could not be ruled out. A significant part of the genetic variance could be ascribed to variation among years within locality. Nevertheless, the population structure was relatively stable over time, suggesting that the observed pattern of genetic differentiation is biologically...... significant. This study suggests that hybrid zones are a common phenomenon for marine fishes in the transition area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea and highlights the importance of using interspecific comparisons for inferring population structure in high gene flow species such as most marine fishes....

  15. 78 FR 9725 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ...-66682A The applicant requests a permit to re-export a captive-born male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus... species (Mescocapromys species), African elephant (Loxodonta Africana), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus... covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period Applicant: Hawthorn Corporation...

  16. Cinq espèces nouvelles de Coléoptères exotiques appartenant au Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansberge, van J.W.

    1887-01-01

    Maximus, niger, nitidus, elytris basi opacis, capite thoraceque granulatis, elytris subtiliter striatis, subtus rufopilosus. Mas: capite cornu valido obliquo, thorace medio elevato transversimque carinato, carina sinuata, utrinque bidentata, dente externa valida, horizontaliter retro ducto. Fem.:

  17. Reliability Estimation Based Upon Test Plan Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Read, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The report contains a brief summary of aspects of the Maximus reliability point and interval estimation technique as it has been applied to the reliability of a device whose surveillance tests contain...

  18. "Meie käisime maailmameistrivõistlustel!" / Tiina Madisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Madisson, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Šveitsis 27.-30. oktoobril toimunud 20. ISPU IPO MMist, kus Eestit esindanud suuršnautser Maximus koos perenaise Tiina Madissoniga saavutasid rahvusvahelise teenistuskoerte eksami (IPO) teises raskusastmes kolmanda koha

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linking local management, regional planning and global con- servation efforts. 393. Frederick ... women from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. 135. Lakra G .... on the intestinal para- site loads of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in southern.

  20. Siddiqui et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(3):42 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    maximus was found to possess a noteworthy growth inhibitory effect against human lung ..... such as brain dysfunction, cancer, heart disease, age related degenerative ... Green and black tea, coffee and chocolate are other potential sources of ...

  1. 77 FR 15383 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Riverbanks... or survival. This notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year... Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) [[Page 15384

  2. Quantitative Skeletal Muscle MRI: Part 2, MR Spectroscopy and T2 Relaxation Time Mapping-Comparison Between Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Healthy Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Serai, Suraj; Lindquist, Diana; Merrow, Arnold C; Horn, Paul S; Kim, Dong Hoon; Wong, Brenda L

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the use of MR spectroscopy (MRS) in measuring muscular fat and to compare it with T2 maps in differentiating boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) from healthy boys. Forty-two boys with DMD and 31 healthy boys were evaluated with MRI with (1)H-MRS and T2 maps. Grading of muscle fat and edema on conventional images, calculation of fat fractions ([fat / fat] + water) on MRS, and calculation of T2 fat values on T2 maps of the gluteus maximus and vastus lateralis muscles were performed. Group comparisons were made. The 95% reference interval (RI) of fat fraction for the control group was applied and compared with T2 map results. Minimal fat on T1-weighted images was seen in 90.3% (gluteus maximus) and 71.0% (vastus lateralis) of healthy boys, versus 33.3% (gluteus maximus) and 52.4% (vastus lateralis) of boys with DMD. Muscle edema was seen in none of the healthy boys versus 52.4% (gluteus maximus) and 57.1% (vastus lateralis) of the boys with DMD. Fat fractions were higher in the DMD group (52.7%, gluteus maximus; 27.3%, vastus lateralis) than in the control group (12.8%, gluteus maximus; 13.7%, vastus lateralis) (p muscle edema in DMD.

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 5. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome reveal novel transcripts and variants in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. Puli Chandramouli Reddy Ishani Sinha Ashwin Kelkar Farhat Habib Saurabh J Pradhan Raman Sukumar Sanjeev ...

  4. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, C.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to

  5. Production and use of copepods in marine fish larviculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Norsker, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    Batch and continuous cultures of the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae have been run for numerous generations in the laboratory at the North Sea Centre and the harvested nauplii used as food in preliminary trials with first-feeding turbot (Psetta maxima syn. Scophthalmus maximus). The naupliar...

  6. The effect of some ecological factors on the intestinal parasite loads ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Individuals of different elephant herds were not charac- terized by ... maximus) in southern India; J. Biosci. 27 521–528] ... that emerge crawl up grass blades under cool, moist condi- tions, to be .... Within the family Strongylidae, eggs are similar in shape, colour ... lease 5⋅5 A (StatSoft, Inc. 1999), and codes written in C. 4.

  7. Native herbivore exerts contrasting effects on fire regime and vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Hierro; Kenneth L. Clark; Lyn C. Branch; Diego Villarreal

    2011-01-01

    Although native herbivores can alter fire regimes by consuming herbaceous vegetation that serves as fine fuel and, less commonly, accumulating fuel as nest material and other structures, simultaneous considerations of contrasting effects of herbivores on fire have scarcely been addressed. We proposed that a colonial rodent, vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus...

  8. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued eMachines Customer

    attachment for the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, adductor brevis, vastus muscles, and the short head of the biceps ... secondary bone tumours and repetitive stress. Injury mechanism and age ... energy injuries are known to occur commonly in the elderly and are due to falls and usually have a local or general factor ...

  9. External Snapping Hip Syndrome: Emphasis on the MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Lee, Bae Young; Sung, Mi Sook; Lee, Ki Haeng; Yoo, Won Jong; Lim, Hyun Wook; Chung, Myung Hee; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jee Young

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the MR imaging features of patients with external snapping hip syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 63 hip MR images. The images were analyzed according to the thickness and contour of the iliotibial band and the gluteus maximus, the presence of bone marrow edema, bursitis, joint effusion and other associated findings. The MR imaging of 22 hips with snapping hip syndrome depicted the causes of external snapping hip syndrome in twenty cases (90%). The MR imaging features of the snapping hip included thickening of the iliotibial band in twelve cases (55%) and/or thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in nineteen (86%), and a wavy contour of the iliotibial band or the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in ten cases (45%). These findings show a significant p value (<0.01). The majority of patients with snapping hip syndrome revealed thickening of the iliotibial band, thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus and wavy contour of the those structures on MR imaging

  10. External Snapping Hip Syndrome: Emphasis on the MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Lee, Bae Young [Catholic University St. Paul' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Mi Sook; Lee, Ki Haeng; Yoo, Won Jong; Lim, Hyun Wook; Chung, Myung Hee [Catholic University Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Mi [Catholic University St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Young [Catholic University St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the MR imaging features of patients with external snapping hip syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 63 hip MR images. The images were analyzed according to the thickness and contour of the iliotibial band and the gluteus maximus, the presence of bone marrow edema, bursitis, joint effusion and other associated findings. The MR imaging of 22 hips with snapping hip syndrome depicted the causes of external snapping hip syndrome in twenty cases (90%). The MR imaging features of the snapping hip included thickening of the iliotibial band in twelve cases (55%) and/or thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in nineteen (86%), and a wavy contour of the iliotibial band or the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in ten cases (45%). These findings show a significant p value (<0.01). The majority of patients with snapping hip syndrome revealed thickening of the iliotibial band, thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus and wavy contour of the those structures on MR imaging.

  11. Clinical trial comparing excision and primary closure with modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walid Galal Elshazly

    2011-12-03

    Dec 3, 2011 ... sure, advancement flap (Karydakis procedure), local advance- ment flap (V-Y advancement flap), and rotational flap. (Limberg flap, modified Limberg flap, gluteus maximus myo- cutaneous flap).5,6. However, there have been few clinical studies to compare the rhomboid fasciocutaneous transposition flap ...

  12. (TNNC1) gene in goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... (soleus), but was not expressed in fast skeletal muscle (longissimus muscle, gluteus maximus) and brain, kidney, lung ... Muscle fibre can be classified according to their ... muscle and TNNC1 express in slow skeletal muscle and cardiac ..... and expression of the human slow twitch skeletal muscle/cardiac.

  13. Identification of Acute Phase Proteins and Assays Applicable in Nondomesticated Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M.; Grøndahl, C.

    2009-01-01

    potential APPs-serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin (Hp)-was evaluated in eight species. For SAA, a turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA) demonstrated significant detective abilities ill the Asian elephant (Elaphas maximus), impala (Aepyceros melampus), musk ox (Ovibos moschatus...

  14. Comedy in Plutarch’s Parallel Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Xenophontos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plutarch quotes Attic comedy as evidence, but he also uses both invective and stereotypes from comedy in order to illustrate and judge the character of his protagonists, as seen in the Lives of Demetrius, Antony, Pericles, and Fabius Maximus.

  15. Habitat relationships of Asian elephants in shifting-cultivation landscapes of Meghalaya, Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Ashish Kumar; G. Talukdar; A.K. Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    In Asia and India, Asian elephants (Elaphas maximus) attain their highest densities and numbers in Meghalaya, particularly in Garo Hills, of northeast India. Little quantitative work has been done on elephant-habitat relationships in this region where the species' distribution is known to be highly fragmented. If elephants and their habitat...

  16. A novel acyclic diterpenic alcohol isolated from antioxidant active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Isolation and characterization of a new compound from the antioxidant active ethanol extract of leaves of an endemic plant Centaurothamnus maximus. Methods: The air dried powdered leaves of the plant was extracted successively with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The obtained ...

  17. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared under intensive and semi-intensive production systems. ... Animals raised intensively were fed Megathyrsus maximus hay ad libitum, while those reared semi-intensively were allowed to graze freely in a fenced ... Keywords: bucks, immune response, season ...

  18. A note on the presence of the Elephant Louse Haematomyzus elephantis piaget (Mallophaga: Rhynchophthirina in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E.O Braack

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1869, this rather unusual insect has been found to be a common ectoparasite on the Indian elephant (Elephas maximus, and has been collected in low numbers from the African elephant (Loxodonta africana in nearly all of sub-saharan Africa (Ledger 1979, The arthropod parasites of vertebrates in Africa south of the Sahara (Ethiopian Region Vol. IV.

  19. Exsanguination of turbot and the effect on fillet quality measured mechanically by sensory evaluation, and with computer vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Stien, L.H.; Foss, A.; Nortvedt, R.; Imsland, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of blood residues on the end quality of exsanguinated and unbled farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), meat quality was evaluated using mechanical, sensory, and computer imaging techniques. The results show that exsanguination is important for improving the visual

  20. The influence of anaerobic muscle activity, maturation and season on the flesh quality of farmed turbot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Imsland, A.; Stien, L.H.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Gunnarsson, S.; Foss, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test seasonal, rearing, maturing and anaerobic muscle activity effect on the flesh quality of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) a total of 80 farmed turbot from three different strains from reared under natural or continuous light were killed by a percussive blow to the head in November

  1. Novel approach to study gastropod-mediated innate immune reactions against metastrongyloid parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penagos-Tabares, Felipe; Lange, Malin K.; Seipp, Anika

    2018-01-01

    -related investigations. Adult slug species (Arion lusitanicus, Limax maximus) and giant snails (Achatina fulica) were maintained in fully automated climate chambers until mating and production of fertilized eggs. Newly hatched F0 juvenile specimens were kept under parasite-free conditions before experimental use...

  2. Peak Muscle Activation, Joint Kinematics, and Kinetics during Elliptical and Stepping Movement Pattern on a Precor Adaptive Motion Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatzki, Matthew J.; Kernozek, Thomas W.; Willson, John D.; Greany, John F.; Hong, Di-An; Porcari, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyography data were collected from the biceps femoris, rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus, and erector spinae (ES) during a step and elliptical exercise at a standardized workload with no hand use. Findings depicted 95% greater ankle plantar flexion (p = 0.01), 29% more knee extension (p = 0.003), 101% higher peak…

  3. Fatal elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 and -4 co-infection in a juvenile Asian elephant in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Leifsson, Páll S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 (EEHV-1) is one of the major causes of fatality in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). On occasions, other EEHV genotypes, i.e. EEHV-3, -4 and -5, have also been reported as the cause of Asian elephant deaths. In this case report we...

  4. Ecology and distribution of gastropod snails of medical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the ecology and distribution of snails of medical importance was conducted in water bodies from four different communities (Old Karmo, Gwagwa, ... The following floras were identified from the study-sites; Megathyrsus maximus, Guinea grass and Commelina nigritana (African dayflower) were identified from the ...

  5. The effect of some ecological factors on the intestinal parasite loads ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some ecological factors that might potentially influence intestinal parasite loads in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) were investigated in the Nilgiris, southern India. Fresh dung samples from identified animals were analysed, and the number of eggs/g of dung used as an index of parasite load. Comparisons ...

  6. 75 FR 57720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Agave...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... that have not been developed are used for cattle or hay production, minimizing the recovery of native... the exotic Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass) in the area make the population Agave eggersiana... pest to St Croix. On Mona Island (Puerto Rico), feral pigs are known to uproot juveniles and destroy...

  7. 76 FR 14985 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park, Syracuse, NY; PRT- 28295A The applicant requests a permit to re-import two captive born female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and one captive born male Asian elephant from African Lion Safari and Game Farm, Ontario, Canada...

  8. 76 FR 68205 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period. Applicant: Honolulu Zoo, Honolulu, HI; PRT 699515... activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period. Families: Callithricidae, Canidae... include Aplonis pelzelni), Pelomedusidae, Testudinidae. Species: Asian elephant (Elephas maximus...

  9. 77 FR 41198 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... scientific research. This notification covers activities conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period... Foundation, Denver, CO; PRT-69465A The applicant requests a permit to import two male Asian elephants... elephant (Elephas maximus) born in captivity from Dublin Zoo, Dublin, Ireland, for the purpose of...

  10. 78 FR 25296 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... requests a permit to re-import one live Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) born in captivity from Calgary Zoo... applicant over a 5-year period. Families Bovidae Cebidae Camelidae Cathartidae Cercopithecidae Cervidae... notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year period. Families Bovidae Canidae...

  11. 75 FR 75491 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Species Applicant: International Elephant Foundation, Fort Worth, TX; PRT- 15923A On October 25, 2010, we... applicant requests a permit to import biological specimens of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) from wild... scientific research. This notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5-year...

  12. Preventing Ischial Pressure Ulcers: II. Biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton M. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pressure ulcers (PUs are common and debilitating wounds that arise when immobilized patients cannot shift their weight. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES has been investigated for Pressure Ulcer Prevention (PUP for over 20 years. Historically gluteus maximus (GM has been considered an important actuator in attempting to redistribute seated pressures through NMES.

  13. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of Pleistocene mammoth Mammuthus primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny I Rogaev

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships between the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius, and the Asian (Elephas maximus and African savanna (Loxodonta africana elephants remain unresolved. Here, we report the sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome (16,842 base pairs of a woolly mammoth extracted from permafrost-preserved remains from the Pleistocene epoch--the oldest mitochondrial genome sequence determined to date. We demonstrate that well-preserved mitochondrial genome fragments, as long as approximately 1,600-1700 base pairs, can be retrieved from pre-Holocene remains of an extinct species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Elephantinae clade suggests that M. primigenius and E. maximus are sister species that diverged soon after their common ancestor split from the L. africana lineage. Low nucleotide diversity found between independently determined mitochondrial genomic sequences of woolly mammoths separated geographically and in time suggests that north-eastern Siberia was occupied by a relatively homogeneous population of M. primigenius throughout the late Pleistocene.

  15. [A variant of island flaps for the covering of pressure sores: the hatchet flap. Apropos of 31 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillot, M; Lodde, J P; Pegorier, O; Reynaud, J P; Cormerais, A

    1994-08-01

    The authors propose a modification of the classical design of island flaps for cover of pressure sores, applied to gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles: the hatchet flap. 31 flaps have been used including 13 gluteus maximus superior flaps for sacral pressure sores, 9 gluteal inferior flaps for ischial pressure sores and 9 tensor fascia lata flaps for trochanteric pressure sores. A small partial necrosis and two cases of sepsis were observed in this series, but did not require surgical revision. The authors emphasize the value of this modification of the classical flap design, which preserves an even better musculocutaneous capital in these patients, who are often already multi-operated. The very rapid recovery of patients supports the authors' application of hatchet flaps to the surgery of pressure sores, and suggests the extension to other musculocutaneous flaps in the future.

  16. Features of muscular activity at carrying out body drop by female judo-wrestlers of highly qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elipkhanov S.B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluating muscles activity at carrying out body drop, lengths of muscles and velocity of changing their lengths. Was used 2D and 3D video analysis. Three participant of Russia female national judo team (age before 23 years took part in experiment. Has been established at carrying out reception to the right side greatest changes of length are observed at left and right muscle rectus abdominis and right muscle obliquus externus abdominis, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus, back parts of left and right muscle deltoideus. The highest velocity of contraction are noticed at muscle obliquus externus abdominis (especially at the right, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus and middle part of left muscle deltoideus.

  17. CANIS LUPUS (MAMMALIA, CANIDAE FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE DEPOSIT OF AVETRANA (TARANTO, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVIDE F.BERTÈ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we described the remains of Canis lupus from the bed 8 of Avetrana karst filling (Late Pleistocene; Taranto, Southern Italy. The studied specimens are larger than those collected from the early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities and those referred to the recent Italian wolf. Moreover, the remains from Avetrana are morphometrically close to Canis lupus maximus from France and to C. lupus collected from Central and Northern Italian localities, chronologically related to MIS 2 and MIS 3. Morphologically, the studied specimens slightly differ from both C. l. maximus and other Pleistocene Apulian wolves. The dimensional differences between the Avetrana wolves and those collected from the other early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities could be explained through a spread of a large-sized morphotype from the Northern Italy.

  18. Nasal mites (Mesostigmata, Rhinonyssidae in Sternidae (Aves: Charadriiformes on the southern Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study aimed to report on occurrences of nasal mites in Sternidae on the southern coast of Brazil. Of the 106 birds analyzed, 8.5% (9 birds were parasitized by nasal mites. This report provides the first record in the Neotropical region for two mite species, Sternostoma boydi and Larinyssus orbicularis parasitizing Thalasseus acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris. No nasal mites were found in Sterna trudeaui or Thalasseus maximus. One host individual (T. acuflavidus was parasitized by two species of nasal mites, S. boydi and L. orbicularis.

  19. The Limits of Fair Use in Military Scholarship: When, How, and From Whom to Request Permission to Use Copyrighted Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    69 J. AIR L. & COM. 743 (2004) (citing a popular song performed by the Beatles ). 152 E.g., Emily Kathryn Taylor, Note, Infringicus Maximus! An...16 JANUARY 2010 • THE ARMY LAWYER • DA PAM 27-50-440 The Limits of Fair Use in Military Scholarship: When, How, and From Whom to Request...throughout the military.1 Specialty journals, such as The Army Lawyer, and the Military, Naval, and Air Force Law Reviews (combined military publications

  20. Use of electromyography to optimize Lokomat® settings for subject-specific gait rehabilitation in post-stroke hemiparetic patients: A proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherni, Yosra; Begon, Mickael; Chababe, Hicham; Moissenet, Florent

    2017-09-01

    While generic protocols exist for gait rehabilitation using robotic orthotics such as the Lokomat ® , several settings - guidance, body-weight support (BWS) and velocity - may be adjusted to individualize patient training. However, no systematic approach has yet emerged. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and effects of a systematic approach based on electromyography to determine subject-specific settings with application to the strengthening of the gluteus maximus muscle in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. Two male patients (61 and 65 years) with post-stroke hemiparesis performed up to 9 Lokomat ® trials by changing guidance and BWS while electromyography of the gluteus maximus was measured. For each subject, the settings that maximized gluteus maximus activity were used in 20 sessions of Lokomat ® training. Modified Functional Ambulation Classification (mFAC), 6-minutes walking test (6-MWT), and extensor strength were measured before and after training. The greatest gluteus maximus activity was observed at (Guidance: 70% -BWS: 20%) for Patient 1 and (Guidance: 80% - BWS: 30%) for Patient 2. In both patients, mFAC score increased from 4 to 7. The additional distance in 6-MWT increased beyond minimal clinically important difference (MCID=34.4m) reported for post-stroke patients. The isometric strength of hip extensors increased by 43 and 114%. Defining subject-specific settings for a Lokomat ® training was feasible and simple to implement. These two case reports suggest a benefit of this approach for muscle strengthening. It remains to demonstrate the superiority of such an approach for a wider population, compared to the use of a generic protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. NMR-CT in muscular disorders. Muscle T/sub 1/ values in Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Nakano, Imaharu; Fukuda, Nobuo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Tateno, Yukio

    1987-02-01

    Proton NMR-CT (magnetic field strength 0.1 Tesla, resonant frequency 4.5 MHz) was performed in 10 normal females and 19 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers. The mean age was 39 +- 12 years for the normal females and 42 +- 6 years for the DMD carriers. In DMD carriers, there were 4 definite, 4 probable, and 11 possible carriers. T/sub 1/ (spin-lattice relaxation time) image was obtained for a slice at the buttock, mid-thigh and calf levels respectively. T/sub 1/ values were measured for the medial portion of the gluteus maximus, the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from Fullerton's equation based on the fast proton diffusion model. The following results were obtained: (1) In normal females, muscle T/sub 1/ value was highest in the gastrocnemius and lowest in the gluteus maximus. (2) In DMD carriers, T/sub 1/ values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly higher than those of the normal females. There was, however, no significant difference in T/sub 1/ value of the gastrocnemius between DMD carriers and normal females. (3) In DMD carriers, BWFs of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly lower than those of the normal females. (4) In DMD carriers, no significant correlation was observed between the muscle T/sub 1/ values and the serum creatine phosphokinase values. Increased tissue water content in the lower parts of the body due to gravity is considered to be the primary cause of the high T/sub 1/ value in the gastrocnemius of normal females. The presence of the degenerating muscle fibers are presumed responsible for the high T/sub 1/ value and low BWF in the proximal muscles of DMD carriers.

  2. NMR-CT in muscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Nakano, Imaharu; Fukuda, Nobuo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1987-01-01

    Proton NMR-CT (magnetic field strength 0.1 Tesla, resonant frequency 4.5 MHz) was performed in 10 normal females and 19 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers. The mean age was 39 ± 12 years for the normal females and 42 ± 6 years for the DMD carriers. In DMD carriers, there were 4 definite, 4 probable, and 11 possible carriers. T 1 (spin-lattice relaxation time) image was obtained for a slice at the buttock, mid-thigh and calf levels respectively. T 1 values were measured for the medial portion of the gluteus maximus, the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from Fullerton's equation based on the fast proton diffusion model. The following results were obtained: (1) In normal females, muscle T 1 value was highest in the gastrocnemius and lowest in the gluteus maximus. (2) In DMD carriers, T 1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly higher than those of the normal females. There was, however, no significant difference in T 1 value of the gastrocnemius between DMD carriers and normal females. (3) In DMD carriers, BWFs of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly lower than those of the normal females. (4) In DMD carriers, no significant correlation was observed between the muscle T 1 values and the serum creatine phosphokinase values. Increased tissue water content in the lower parts of the body due to gravity is considered to be the primary cause of the high T 1 value in the gastrocnemius of normal females. The presence of the degenerating muscle fibers are presumed responsible for the high T 1 value and low BWF in the proximal muscles of DMD carriers. (author)

  3. The biochemical textural and sensory properties of frozen stored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-rigor king scallop meats (Pecten maximus) were frozen individually for 24 h at -80°C and kept vacuum packed at -22°C for up to 301 days. Sampling was carried out on fresh meats and at days 1, 28, 91, 154, 210 and 301 of frozen storage. Tests related to muscle integrity ( -hydroxy-acyl-coenzyme –A dehydrogenase ...

  4. Quantitative Skeletal Muscle MRI: Part 1, Derived T2 Fat Map in Differentiation Between Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Healthy Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jennifer H; Kim, Hee Kyung; Merrow, Arnold C; Laor, Tal; Serai, Suraj; Horn, Paul S; Kim, Dong Hoon; Wong, Brenda L

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate derived T2 maps as an objective measure of muscular fat for discrimination between boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and healthy boys. Forty-two boys with DMD (mean age, 9.9 years) and 31 healthy boys (mean age, 11.4 years) were included in the study. Age, body mass index, and clinical function scale grade were evaluated. T1-weighted MR images and T2 maps with and without fat suppression were obtained. Fatty infiltration was graded 0-4 on T1-weighted images, and derived T2 fat values (difference between mean T2 values from T2 maps with and without fat suppression) of the gluteus maximus and vastus lateralis muscles were calculated. Group comparisons were performed. The upper limit of the 95% reference interval of T2 fat values from the control group was applied. There was no significant difference in age or body mass index between groups. All healthy boys and 19 boys (45.2%) with DMD had a normal clinical function scale grade. Grade 1 fatty infiltration was seen in 90.3% (gluteus maximus) and 71.0% (vastus lateralis) of healthy boys versus 33.3% (gluteus maximus) and 52.4% (vastus lateralis) of boys with DMD. T2 fat values of boys with DMD were significantly longer than in the control group (p < 0.001). Using a 95% reference interval for healthy boys for the gluteus maximus (28.3 milliseconds) allowed complete separation from boys with DMD (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity), whereas the values for the vastus lateralis (7.28 milliseconds) resulted in 83.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Measurement of muscular fat with T2 maps is accurate for differentiating boys with DMD from healthy boys.

  5. NMR-CT in muscular disorders. Muscle T/sub 1/ values in Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Nakano, Imaharu; Fukuda, Nobuo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Tateno, Yukio

    1987-02-01

    Proton NMR-CT (magnetic field strength 0.1 Tesla, resonant frequency 4.5 MHz) was performed in 10 normal females and 19 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers. The mean age was 39 +- 12 years for the normal females and 42 +- 6 years for the DMD carriers. In DMD carriers, there were 4 definite, 4 probable, and 11 possible carriers. T/sub 1/ (spin-lattice relaxation time) image was obtained for a slice at the buttock, mid-thigh and calf levels respectively. T/sub 1/ values were measured for the medial portion of the gluteus maximus, the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from Fullerton's equation based on the fast proton diffusion model. The following results were obtained: (1) In normal females, muscle T/sub 1/ value was highest in the gastrocnemius and lowest in the gluteus maximus. (2) In DMD carriers, T/sub 1/ values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly higher than those of the normal females. There was, however, no significant difference in T/sub 1/ value of the gastrocnemius between DMD carriers and normal females. (3) In DMD carriers, BWFs of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris were significantly lower than those of the normal females. (4) In DMD carriers, no significant correlation was observed between the muscle T/sub 1/ values and the serum creatine phosphokinase values. Increased tissue water content in the lower parts of the body due to gravity is considered to be the primary cause of the high T/sub 1/ value in the gastrocnemius of normal females. The presence of the degenerating muscle fibers are presumed responsible for the high T/sub 1/ value and low BWF in the proximal muscles of DMD carriers.

  6. Ácaros nasais (Mesostigmata, Rhinonyssidae) em Sternidae (Aves: Charadriiformes) na Costa do Extremo Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Diego Silva da; Scheer, Simone; Muller, Gertrud

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study ai...

  7. On the Asceticism of Holy Fools (from the History of Hagiographic Topoi)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana R. Rudi

    2015-01-01

    The present research is based on material from Old Russian lives of holy fools: Isaacius of the Cave Monastery, Procopius and John of Ustyug, Basil the Blessed, John Bolshoy Kolpak (Big Cap), Simon of Yuryevets, John Vlasaty (the Hairy), Maximus of Totma, Procopius of Vyatka, John Samsonovich of Solvychegodsk, Artemius Tretyak, and others. The main ascetic motifs that determine this type of hagiographic texts are examined in the context of hagiographic topoi. Many ascetic motifs of the li...

  8. Comparative study between fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flaps in the surgical treatment of pressure ulcers of the sacral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Oksman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decubitus ulcers of the sacral region are common conditions in bedridden patients. Deep lesions (Stages III and IV often require surgical treatment for closure. Flaps of the region are the first choice for treatment. We present our experience in the treatment of these lesions and compare two different approaches: local fasciocutaneous flap and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap with V-Y advancement. Method: From March 2009 to May 2014, 32 patients underwent closure of sacral pressure ulcers by flaps, 17 of them with rotational local fasciocutaneous flaps and 15 with myocutaneous flaps of the gluteus maximus muscle with V-Y advancement. Evolution regarding complications and rate of success after two months was compared between the groups. Results: Out of the 32 operated patients we obtained resolution of lesions after two months in 23 (71.8%, 10 patients in the fasciocutaneous flap group (58.8% and 13 cases in the myocutaneous flap group (86.6%. The most common complication was partial dehiscence of sutures in 12 patients (37.5%, 8 patients in the fasciocutaneous flap group (47% and 4 patients in the myocutaneous flap group (26.6%. The group of patients reconstructed with local fasciocutaneous flaps presented 3 cases with seroma, one with hematoma and 6 with partial cutaneous necrosis; these patients also required more drainage time. Conclusions: Both the local rotational fasciocutaneous flap and the myocutaneous flap of the gluteus maximus muscle in V-Y flap can be used in the surgical treatment of sacral ulcers. In our experience, a reduced success rate and more complications were found in the local fasciocutaneous reconstructive method. Keywords: Pressure ulcer, Fasciocutaneous flap, Myocutaneous flap, Gluteus maximus muscle

  9. A Theoretical Exploration of Lawrence of Arabia’s Inner Meanings on Guerrilla Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    the earliest days it has been a tactic of war used by every class of man against those defined as invaders and oppressors. Hannibal Barca‟s early...His ruses were so constant, his stratagems so subtle that the Romans felt constantly insecure, off- balance, and on edge. Hannibal was stymied by...Quintus Fabius Maximus, who turned the Roman army into virtually a guerrilla force. His forces shadowed Hannibal ‟s marches, harassed his foragers, cut

  10. A new large trapdoor spider species of the genus Heligmomerus Simon 1892 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh V. Sanap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of trapdoor spider, Heligmomerus maximus sp. nov. is described from southern Western Ghats of Kerala state, India. The new species differs from known species of the genus from India and Sri Lanka in possessing a band of thorn-like spinules on coxa IV. Moreover it is the largest species of the genus with adult females reaching a length up to 32 mm and the burrows are shallow compared with other species of the genus.

  11. Trunk and hip muscle recruitment patterns during the prone leg extension following a lateral ankle sprain: A prospective case study pre and post injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman Gregory J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and case presentation The prone leg extension (PLE is commonly used to identify dysfunction of muscle recruitment patterns. The prone leg extension is theorized to identify proximal muscle disturbances which are a result of distal injury or dysfunction (i.e. an ankle sprain. This case study compares the trunk and hip muscle (bilateral lower erector spine, ipsilateral hamstring and ipsilateral gluteus maximus timing during a PLE of a 27 year old female runner during a healthy state (pre ankle sprain and 2 and 8 weeks post ankle sprain. Results and discussion The gluteus maximus muscle onsets at 8 weeks post injury appeared to occur earlier compared with 2 weeks post injury. The Right Erector Spinae at 8 weeks post injury was also active earlier compared with the participant's non-injured state. A large degree of variability can be noted within trials on the same day for all muscle groups. Conclusion An acute ankle injury did not result in a delay in gluteus maximus muscle activation. The utility of the prone leg extension as a clinical and functional test is questionable due to the normal variability seen during the test and our current inability to determine what is normal and what is dysfunctional.

  12. Iliac hyperdense line: a new X-ray sign of gluteal muscle contracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jinhua; Gan Lanfeng; Zheng Helin; He Ling; Yu Guorong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the relationship between gluteal muscle contracture (GMC) and the iliac hyperdense line on pelvic plain film, and to explore how the iliac hyperdense line is formed. Methods: The pelvic plain films of 103 cases with GMC confirmed by operation and those of 200 individuals as control were analyzed. Pelvic CT scanning was performed in 8 cases GMC and 13 cases of normal controls. Results: The iliac hyperdense line at the side of sacroiliac joint was found on the pelvic plain film in 85 of 103 cases with GMC and 5 of 200 in control group. In 103 cases of GMC, the iliac hyperdense line was detected in 81 of 88 patients beyond 5 years, and 83 of 94 was mostly the gluteus maximus contracture. In control group, pelvic CT showed that the outer cortex of posterior ilium at the level of sacroiliac joint appeared as an oblique plane, oriented from posteromedial side to anterolateral side, while in GMC group, the oblique plane became steeper and almost oriented posteroanteriorly. In addition, the posterior part of the ilium which gave the attachment of contracted gluteus maximus muscle deformed and widened. Conclusion: The iliac hyperdense line on the pelvic plain film is resulted from the long and persistent pulling effect of contracted gluteus maximus muscle, which causes the change the oblique plane of posterior ilium into a posteroanterior course parallel to the X-ray beam

  13. Motor unit firing frequency of lower limb muscles during an incremental slide board skating test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piucco, Tatiane; Bini, Rodrigo; Sakaguchi, Masanori; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated how the combination of workload and fatigue affected the frequency components of muscle activation and possible recruitment priority of motor units during skating to exhaustion. Ten male competitive speed skaters performed an incremental maximal test on a slide board. Activation of six muscles from the right leg was recorded throughout the test. A time-frequency analysis was performed to compute overall, high, and low frequency bands from the whole signal at 10, 40, 70, and 90% of total test time. Overall activation increased for all muscles throughout the test (p  0.80). There was an increase in low frequency (90 vs. 10%, p = 0.035, ES = 1.06) and a decrease in high frequency (90 vs. 10%, p = 0.009, ES = 1.38, and 90 vs. 40%, p = 0.025, ES = 1.12) components of gluteus maximus. Strong correlations were found between the maximal cadence and vastus lateralis, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius activation at the end of the test. In conclusion, the incremental skating test lead to an increase in activation of lower limb muscles, but only gluteus maximus was sensitive to changes in frequency components, probably caused by a pronounced fatigue.

  14. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Electromyographic Comparison of Barbell Deadlift, Hex Bar Deadlift, and Hip Thrust Exercises: A Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Mo, Dag-Andrè; Iversen, Vegard M; Vederhus, Torbjørn; Rockland Hellebø, Lars R; Nordaune, Kristina I; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2018-03-01

    Andersen, V, Fimland, MS, Mo, D-A, Iversen, VM, Vederhus, T, Rockland Hellebø, LR, Nordaune, KI, and Saeterbakken, AH. Electromyographic comparison of barbell deadlift, hex bar deadlift, and hip thrust exercises: a cross-over study. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 587-593, 2018-The aim of the study was to compare the muscle activation level of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and erector spinae in the hip thrust, barbell deadlift, and hex bar deadlift; each of which are compound resisted hip extension exercises. After 2 familiarization sessions, 13 resistance-trained men performed a 1 repetition maximum in all 3 exercises in 1 session, in randomized and counterbalanced order. The whole ascending movement (concentric phase), as well as its lower and upper parts (whole movement divided in 2), were analyzed. The hip thrust induced greater activation of the gluteus maximus compared with the hex bar deadlift in the whole (16%, p = 0.025) and the upper part (26%, p = 0.015) of the movement. For the whole movement, the biceps femoris was more activated during barbell deadlift compared with both the hex bar deadlift (28%, p bar deadlift (p = 0.049) compared with hip thrust. Biceps femoris activation in the upper part of the movement was 39% higher for the barbell deadlift compared with the hex bar deadlift (p = 0.001) and 34% higher for the hip thrust compared with the hex bar deadlift (p = 0.002). No differences were displayed for the erector spinae activation (p = 0.312-0.859). In conclusion, the barbell deadlift was clearly superior in activating the biceps femoris compared with the hex bar deadlift and hip thrust, whereas the hip thrust provided the highest gluteus maximus activation.

  16. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A

    2017-08-01

    Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p bridge by flexing the active knee to 135 ° instead of 90 ° minimizes hamstring activity while maintaining high levels of gluteal activation, effectively building a bridge better suited for preferential gluteal activation. 3.

  17. Assessment of trunk muscle density using CT and its association with degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebro, Ronnie; O'Brien, Liam; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the association of trunk muscle density assessed by computed tomography (CT) with age, gender, and BMI and (2) to evaluate the association between trunk muscle CT density and degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine. The study was IRB approved and HIPAA compliant. The study group comprised 100 subjects (mean age 44.4 ± 22.2 years, 51 % male) who underwent CT of the abdomen and pelvis without intravenous contrast. Exclusion criteria included prior abdominal or spine surgery, active malignancy and scoliosis. CTs were reviewed and the attenuation of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, internal and external obliques, psoas, multifidus, longissimus and gluteus maximus were measured bilaterally at consistent levels. Degenerative disc and bilateral facet joint disease were scored using established methods. Univariate analyses were performed using linear regression. Multivariate linear regression was performed to adjust for age, gender and BMI. CT density of each trunk muscle correlated inversely with age (p < 0.001) and BMI (p < 0.001). CT density of each trunk muscle correlated inversely with degenerative disc and facet joint disease in the univariate analyses (p < 0.001); however, only the gluteus maximus and the transverse abdominis remained significant predictors of degenerative disc and facet joint disease respectively in the multivariate analysis. Fatty infiltration of trunk musculature increases with age and BMI. Fatty infiltration of the gluteus maximus and transverse abdominis are associated with degenerative disc and facet joint disease, independent of age, gender and BMI. (orig.)

  18. Neuromuscular performance in the hip joint of elderly fallers and non-fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcelli, Mary Hellen; LaRoche, Dain Patrick; Crozara, Luciano Fernandes; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Rossi, Denise Martineli; Gonçalves, Mauro; Navega, Marcelo Tavella

    2016-06-01

    Low strength and neuromuscular activation of the lower limbs have been associated with falls making it an important predictor of functional status in the elderly. To compare the rate of neuromuscular activation, rate of torque development, peak torque and reaction time between young and elderly fallers and non-fallers for hip flexion and extension. We evaluated 44 elderly people who were divided into two groups: elderly fallers (n = 20) and elderly non-fallers (n = 24); and 18 young people. The subjects performed three isometric hip flexion and extension contractions. Electromyography data were collected for the rectus femoris, gluteus maximus and biceps femoris muscles. The elderly had 49 % lower peak torque and 68 % lower rate of torque development for hip extension, 28 % lower rate of neuromuscular activation for gluteus maximus and 38 % lower rate of neuromuscular activation for biceps femoris than the young (p neuromuscular for rectus femoris than the young (p < 0.05). The elderly fallers showed consistent trend toward a lower rate of torque development than elderly non-fallers for hip extension at 50 ms (29 %, p = 0.298, d = 0.76) and 100 ms (26 %, p = 0.452, d = 0.68).The motor time was 30 % slower for gluteus maximus, 42 % slower for rectus femoris and 50 % slower for biceps femoris in the elderly than in the young. Impaired capacity of the elderly, especially fallers, may be explained by neural and morphological aspects of the muscles. The process of senescence affects the muscle function of the hip flexion and extension, and falls may be related to lower rate of torque development and slower motor time of biceps femoris.

  19. Phylogenetic data suggest the reclassification of Fasciola jacksoni (Digenea: Fasciolidae) as Fascioloides jacksoni comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr

    2013-04-01

    Fasciola jacksoni (Cobbold, 1869) is a highly prevalent (18-62%) species colonizing the liver (less frequently the lungs, kidneys, pericardia, and intestines) of Elephas maximus indicus and Elephas maximus maximus in the Indomalayan region, causing cirrhosis, hemorrhages, and connective tissue proliferation. The phylogenetic relationships of Fasciola jacksoni in relation to representative species of the superfamily Echinostomatoidea was assessed using four independent DNA regions. The analysis involved conserved (28S rDNA) and highly variable (ITS1, ITS2, and ND1) loci utilizing both mitochondrial (ND1) and nuclear (28S rDNA, ITS1, and ITS2) DNA. Although the analyses confirmed the monophyletic origin of the Fasciolidae family, all four analyzed regions suggested high similarity of Fasciola jacksoni to Fascioloides magna, member of a hitherto monotypic genus, parasitizing a variety of wild and domestic ruminants through the Holarctic. Supporting evidence stems also from the morphological similarities, host spectrum overlaps, and similarities in disease onset and progression. Fasciola jacksoni was reclassified to its genus in the nineteenth century by Cobbold based on the shared possession of dendriform system of gastric canals. However, Fascioloides magna (discovered later) shares this feature as well. Conversely, Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica possess long median intestinal branches, whereas relatively shorter median intestinal branches are characteristic for Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica only. Both, Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica, are also similar in their possession of small, but distinctive cephalic cone, while the larger one is typical for Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Reflecting the combined data, reclassification of Fasciola jacksoni as Fascioloides jacksoni comb. nov. is suggested.

  20. The cranial osteology and feeding ecology of the metriorhynchid crocodylomorph genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the late Jurassic of Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T Young

    Full Text Available Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus are characteristic genera of aquatic, large-bodied, macrophagous metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. Recent studies show that these genera were apex predators in marine ecosystems during the latter part of the Late Jurassic, with robust skulls and strong bite forces optimized for feeding on large prey.Here we present comprehensive osteological descriptions and systematic revisions of the type species of both genera, and in doing so we resurrect the genus Plesiosuchus for the species Dakosaurus manselii. Both species are diagnosed with numerous autapomorphies. Dakosaurus maximus has premaxillary 'lateral plates'; strongly ornamented maxillae; macroziphodont dentition; tightly fitting tooth-to-tooth occlusion; and extensive macrowear on the mesial and distal margins. Plesiosuchus manselii is distinct in having: non-amblygnathous rostrum; long mandibular symphysis; microziphodont teeth; tooth-crown apices that lack spalled surfaces or breaks; and no evidence for occlusal wear facets. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Dakosaurus maximus to be the sister taxon of the South American Dakosaurus andiniensis, and Plesiosuchus manselii in a polytomy at the base of Geosaurini (the subclade of macrophagous metriorhynchids that includes Dakosaurus, Geosaurus and Torvoneustes.The sympatry of Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus is curiously similar to North Atlantic killer whales, which have one larger 'type' that lacks tooth-crown breakage being sympatric with a smaller 'type' that has extensive crown breakage. Assuming this morphofunctional complex is indicative of diet, then Plesiosuchus would be a specialist feeding on other marine reptiles while Dakosaurus would be a generalist and possible suction-feeder. This hypothesis is supported by Plesiosuchus manselii having a very large optimum gape (gape at which multiple teeth come into contact with a prey-item, while Dakosaurus maximus possesses craniomandibular characteristics observed in extant

  1. Neuromuscular Responses of Elite Skaters During Different Roller Figure Skating Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantoja Patrícia Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the neuromuscular activity of elite athletes who performed various roller figure skating jumps, to determine whether the muscle activation is greater during jumps with more rotations and in which phase the muscles are more active. This study also aimed to analyze if there is any difference in the muscle activity pattern between female and male skaters. Four elite skaters were evaluated, and each participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric data were collected, and the consent forms were signed. For the second session, neuromuscular data were collected during jumps, which were performed with skates at a rink. The following four roller figure skating jumps were evaluated: single Axel, double Axel, double Mapes and triple Mapes. The neuromuscular activity of the following seven muscles was obtained with an electromyograph which was fixed to the waist of each skater with a strap: biceps femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus. The signal was transmitted wirelessly to a laptop. During the roller figure skating jumps, the lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus, showed more activation during the jumps with more rotations, and the activation mainly occurred during the propulsion and flight phases. Female skaters demonstrated higher muscle activities in tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during the landing phase of the triple Mapes, when compared to their male counterparts. The results obtained in this study should be considered when planning training programs with specific exercises that closely resemble the roller figure skating jumps. This may be important for the success of elite skaters in competitions.

  2. Neuromuscular Responses of Elite Skaters During Different Roller Figure Skating Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Patrícia Dias; Mello, André; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the neuromuscular activity of elite athletes who performed various roller figure skating jumps, to determine whether the muscle activation is greater during jumps with more rotations and in which phase the muscles are more active. This study also aimed to analyze if there is any difference in the muscle activity pattern between female and male skaters. Four elite skaters were evaluated, and each participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric data were collected, and the consent forms were signed. For the second session, neuromuscular data were collected during jumps, which were performed with skates at a rink. The following four roller figure skating jumps were evaluated: single Axel, double Axel, double Mapes and triple Mapes. The neuromuscular activity of the following seven muscles was obtained with an electromyograph which was fixed to the waist of each skater with a strap: biceps femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus. The signal was transmitted wirelessly to a laptop. During the roller figure skating jumps, the lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus, showed more activation during the jumps with more rotations, and the activation mainly occurred during the propulsion and flight phases. Female skaters demonstrated higher muscle activities in tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during the landing phase of the triple Mapes, when compared to their male counterparts. The results obtained in this study should be considered when planning training programs with specific exercises that closely resemble the roller figure skating jumps. This may be important for the success of elite skaters in competitions. PMID:25114728

  3. THE EFFECT OF A PELVIC COMPRESSION BELT ON FUNCTIONAL HAMSTRING MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN SPORTSMEN WITH AND WITHOUT PREVIOUS HAMSTRING INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that applying a pelvic compression belt (PCB) can decrease hamstring and lumbar muscle electromyographic activity and increase gluteus maximus activity in healthy women during walking. Increased isokinetic eccentric hamstring strength in the terminal range (25 ° - 5 °) of knee extension has been reported with the use of such a belt in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries. However, it is unknown whether wearing a pelvic belt alters activity of the hamstrings in sportsmen during walking. To examine the effects of wearing a PCB on electromyographic activity of the hamstring and lumbopelvic muscles during walking in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries. Randomised crossover, cross-sectional study. Thirty uninjured sportsmen (23.53 ± 3.68 years) and 20 sportsmen with hamstring injuries (22.00 ± 1.45 years) sustained within the previous 12 months participated in this study. Electromyographic amplitudes of the hamstrings, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and lumbar multifidus were monitored during defined phases of walking and normalised to maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Within-group comparisons [PCB vs. no PCB] for the normalised electromyographic amplitudes were performed for each muscle group using paired t tests. Electromyographic change scores [belt - no belt] were calculated and compared between the two groups with independent t tests. No significant change was evident in hamstring activity for either group while walking with the PCB (p > 0.050). However, with the PCB, gluteus medius activity (p ≤ 0.028) increased in both groups, while gluteus maximus activity increased (p = 0.025) and multifidus activity decreased (p hamstrings during walking, resulting in no significant changes within or between the two groups. Future studies investigating effects of the PCB on hamstring activity in participants with acute injury and during a more demanding functional activity such as running are warranted

  4. Cross friction algometry (CFA): Comparison of pressure pain thresholds between patients with chronic non-specific low back pain and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasyn, Andre; Lassat, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Palpation is widely used to assess muscular sensitivity in clinical settings but still remains a subjective evaluation. This cross-sectional study assessed a newly developed cross-friction algometry making palpation measurable. The objective was to investigate the reliability of pressure pain thresholds obtained using Cross-Friction Algometry (CFA-PPTs) measured at the level of Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus central muscle parts, and to compare the CFA-PPTs between patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (nCLBP) and matching healthy subjects. Patients presenting nCLBP to GP's and send into a Pain Center and healthy subjects recruited via university ad valvas & flyers distribution. 30 patients with nCLBP were measured for cross-friction algometry. Other evaluations consisted of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The inter- and intra-reliability were tested and found to be sufficient. The mean CFA-PPT values of the Erector spinae at levels T8, T10, L1 & L3 and the Gluteus maximus of the nCLBP group were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001) when compared to the CFA-PPT values of the healthy group. The greatest difference (-58%) was found at L1 Erector spinae level and at the superior part of the Gluteus maximus measuring point (-59%). Within the group of patients with nCLBP it was surprising to notice that there was no significant correlation between all the reference points measured using CFA-PPTs and the outcomes of the VAS and ODI scores. With the aid of CFA, the importance of local muscular disorder in the lumbar part of the Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus in patients with nCLBP is obviously demonstrated, but also reveals the very large inter-individual differences in muscular fibrosis sensitivity and/or pain behavior in daily life. This possibly re-opens the debate on which influences can be put forward as the most important: the central or the peripheral sensitization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Atypical calcific tendinitis with cortical erosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, E.J.; El-Khoury, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To present and discuss six cases of calcific tendinitis in atypical locations (one at the insertion of the pectoralis major and five at the insertion of the gluteus maximus).Patients and results. All cases were associated with cortical erosions, and five had soft tissue calcifications. The initial presentation was confusing and the patients were suspected of having infection or neoplastic disease.Conclusion. Calcific tendinitis is a self-limiting condition. It is important to recognize the imaging features of this condition to avoid unnecessary investigation and surgery. (orig.)

  6. Plankton composition and biomass development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H.H.; Jepsen, P.M.; Blanda, E.

    2016-01-01

    Plankton food web dynamics were studied during a complete production season in a semi-intensive land-based facility for rearing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae. The production season was divided into three production cycles of 3–5 weeks. Phytoplankton biomass (using chlorophyll a as biomass...... proxy) peaked in each production cycle. However, the maximum biomass decreased from spring (18 μg chlorophyll a L−1) to fall (ca. 7 μg chlorophyll a L−1), simultaneous with a decline in the concentration of dissolved nitrogen in the inoculating water. During the three production cycles, we observed...

  7. Studie van de biologie en de kweek van zeebaars Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) in intensieve aquacultuurcondities

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonck, W.

    1989-01-01

    In Europe. the interest in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) as a culture fish is fast increasing. This results in a rapid expansion of sea bass culture and of that of other marine fish species. such as seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophtalmus maximus). In 1983 a research project was started, with the aim of culturing sea bass in the thermal effluents of the nuclear power station at Doel. In this way the possibility of producing valuable proteins is created while at the same time therma...

  8. Ossifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff after arthroscopic excision of calcium deposits: report of two cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dave, Arpit C; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    Ossifying tendinitis (OT) is a type of heterotopic ossification, characterized by deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in a histologic pattern of mature lamellar bone. It is usually associated with surgical intervention or trauma and is more commonly seen in Achilles or distal biceps tendons, and also in the gluteus maximus tendon. To our knowledge, there is no description of OT as a complication of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff. In this report, we describe two cases in which the patients developed an OT of the supraspinatus after arthroscopic removal of calcium deposits. The related literature is reviewed.

  9. El enigma del oráculo de Apolo sobre Plotino

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    J. Igal

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Through a detailed analysis of the structure, motifs and sources —above all the philosophical sources— of the oracle of Apollo on Plotinus, the author of this article concludes that it was composed by a learned man well acquainted not only with Greek poetry and contemporary rhetoric, but also with Plato, Maximus of Tyre and even Plotinus. This leads to the further conclusion that it was composed by Amelius, not necessarily however as a forgery, but rather as a ready-made oracular poem submitted to, and issued with, the approval of the Delphic priesthood.

  10. Identification key to species of the flying lizard genus Draco Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Agamidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Srichairat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A species identification key of flying lizards in the genus Draco from Thailand was constructed based on 521 preserved specimens from collections during 1967–2012 in the Natural History Museum (THNHM, National Science Museum, Technopolis, Pathum Thani, Thailand. Regardless of sexual characters, four characters were used to identify Draco spp. lizards: 1 nostril direction; 2 type of tympanum; 3 pattern of patagium; and 4 snout with or without a series of scales forming a Y-shaped figure. The specimens were identified into nine species—Draco blanfordii, Draco fimbriatus, Draco maculatus, Draco maximus, Draco melanopogon, Draco obscurus, Draco quinquefasciatus, Draco taeniopterus and Draco volans.

  11. St. Maxim the Confessor’s Doctrine of the Image and Likeness to God in Man: Aspect of Synergia

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    Malkov Petr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available St. Maximus the Confessor makes a distinction between “image” and “likeness” to God in man. The “image of God” pertains to human nature in general, whereas the “likeness to God” is a realisation and fulfillment of this “image” in each particular hypostasis. Likeness to God is a result of personal hypostatic effort; at the same time, likeness to God is the act of synergia of God and man, since it is accomplished by divine energies on the one hand and by a free human decision — gnomic will — on the other. Gnomic will is an important means in the achievement of likeness to God, but this hypostatic gnomic will is not innate in a human being. It is directly related to the events of the Fall and as such it should come to an end; in the eschatological future only natural human will is to remain. St. Maximus the Confessor builds his anthropology on the vocation of human beings to Theosis. Drawing a distinction between the image of God and likeness to God, St. Maximus sees the state of Theosis as an opportunity for the fulfi llment of the “image”. Achievement of the likeness to God elevates a Christian to Theosis, though St. Maximus differentiates these two notions. Theosis is entirely a gift of God, which makes it different from likeness to God, as it is not synergia of God and man but entirely the effect of Divine energies in human nature. In the eschatological future, this intrinsic unity of deifying grace with the nature of those deified — Theosis — will result in “de-activation” of energia of human nature, when the holy will freely yield their selfdominion to God, who will be the only one to act in them. However, since the notion of “likeness” is closely connected in St. Maximus’ doctrine with the hypostatic, unique and personal manner of human existence, an assumption can be made that the perfect “likeness” of deified Christians to God in the eschatological future will be the basic prerequisite

  12. [3H]-2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography in a molluscan nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reingold, S.C.; Sejnowski, T.J.; Gelperin, A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have used [ 3 H]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to correlate the labeling of individual neurons with electrical activity within the central nervous system of a terrestrial mollusc, Limax maximus. In an electrically quiescent control preparation where a single neuron is impaled with a glass microelectrode but not stimulated, several somata are uniformly labeled at 3-5 times background. In preparations where a single cell is impaled and stimulated, one or more somata are heavily labeled with [ 3 H]2-deoxyglucose at 10-50 times tissue background. This technique may be useful for surveying metabolically active neurons during spontaneous and driven electrical activity. (Auth.)

  13. Rate of Torque Development and Feedforward Control of the Hip and Knee Extensors: Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns-Reider, Kristen M; Powers, Christopher M

    2017-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether women demonstrate decreased rate of torque development (RTD) of the hip and knee extensors and altered onset timing of the vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus during a drop-jump task when compared with men. On average, women demonstrated significantly lower normalized RTD of the hip extensors (women: 11.6 ± 1.3 MVT.s -1 , men: 13.1 ± 0.9 MVT.s -1 ; p ≤ .01); however, there was no significant difference in knee extensor RTD. Women also demonstrated significantly earlier activation of their vastus lateralis (women: 206.0 ± 130.6 ms, men: 80.9 ± 69.6 ms; p ≤ .01) and gluteus maximus (women: 85.7 ± 58.6 ms, men: 54.5 ± 35.4 ms; p = .02). In both men and women, there was a significant negative correlation between the hip extensor RTD and the vastus lateralis electromyographic onset time (men: r = -.386, p = .046; women: r = -.531, p = .008). The study findings suggest that women may utilize a feedforward control strategy in which they activate their knee extensors earlier than men to compensate for deficits in hip extensor RTD. The impaired capacity to rapidly stabilize the hip and knee joints during dynamic maneuvers may contribute to the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury observed in women.

  14. A reliable approach to the closure of large acquired midline defects of the back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, L.A.; Lewis, V.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic regionalized approach for the reconstruction of acquired thoracic and lumbar midline defects of the back is described. Twenty-three patients with wounds resulting from pressure necrosis, radiation injury, and postoperative wound infection and dehiscence were successfully reconstructed. The latissimus dorsi, trapezius, gluteus maximus, and paraspinous muscles are utilized individually or in combination as advancement, rotation, island, unipedicle, turnover, or bipedicle flaps. All flaps are designed so that their vascular pedicles are out of the field of injury. After thorough debridement, large, deep wounds are closed with two layers of muscle, while smaller, more superficial wounds are reconstructed with one layer. The trapezius muscle is utilized in the high thoracic area for the deep wound layer, while the paraspinous muscle is used for this layer in the thoracic and lumbar regions. Superficial layer and small wounds in the high thoracic area are reconstructed with either latissimus dorsi or trapezius muscle. Corresponding wounds in the thoracic and lumbar areas are closed with latissimus dorsi muscle alone or in combination with gluteus maximus muscle. The rationale for systematic regionalized reconstruction of acquired midline back wounds is described

  15. Analysis of fatty infiltration and inflammation of the pelvic and thigh muscles in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): grading of disease involvement on MR imaging and correlation with clinical assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Merrow, Arnold C; Shiraj, Sahar; Wong, Brenda L; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2013-10-01

    Prior reports focus primarily on muscle fatty infiltration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, the significance of muscle edema is uncertain. To evaluate the frequency and degree of muscle fat and edema, and correlate these with clinical function. Forty-two boys (ages 5-19 years) with DMD underwent pelvic MRI. Axial T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were evaluated to grade muscle fatty infiltration (0-4) and edema (0-3), respectively. Degree and frequency of disease involvement were compared to clinical evaluations. Gluteus maximus had the greatest mean fatty infiltration score, followed by adductor magnus and gluteus medius muscles, and had the most frequent and greatest degree of fatty infiltration. Gluteus maximus also had the greatest mean edema score, followed by vastus lateralis and gluteus medius muscles. These muscles had the most frequent edema, although the greatest degree of edema was seen in other muscles. There was correlation between cumulative scores of fatty infiltration and all clinical evaluations (P muscles with the most frequent fatty infiltration had the greatest degree of fatty infiltration and correlated with patient function. However, the muscles with the most frequent edema were different from those with the greatest degree of edema. Thus, edema may not predict patient functional status.

  16. El culto a Júpiter Optimo Máximo en el conventus emeritensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ROMERO PÉREZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo propone un acercamiento al culto Iuppiter Optimus Maximus atendiendo a dos aspectos: las dedicatorias que recibe el dios en el conventus, y la onomástica y estatuto de los dedicantes. Los veintisiete exvotos recogidos permiten inferir algunos datos que caracterizan el peculiar culto que recibe IOM en este área: su expansión por los terrítoria, fuera de los municipios y colonias; la ausencia de Capitolio.; la importancia de los elementos onomásticos indígenas y de los peregrinas, etc.ABSTRACT: This paper considers the study of the worship of Jupiter Optimus Maximus attending two aspects: on the one hand the votive inscriptions, on the other onomastic and juridical status of worshippers. Twenty-seven dedications reveal some definitive facts which distinguish the peculiar cult of IOM in this area: its expansion by terriroria out from municipio, and coloniae; the absence of Capitolia; the importance of native onomastic elements, the weight of peregrini, etc.

  17. Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with Submaximal and Maximal Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan U. Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possible kinematic and muscular activity changes with maximal loading during squat maneuver. Fourteen healthy male individuals, who were experienced at performing squats, participated in this study. Each subject performed squats with 80%, 90%, and 100% of the previously established 1 repetition maximum (1RM. Electromyographic (EMG activities were measured for the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae by using an 8-channel dual-mode portable EMG and physiological signal data acquisition system (Myomonitor IV, Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA. Kinematical data were analyzed by using saSuite 2D kinematical analysis program. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (p<0.05. Overall muscle activities increased with increasing loads, but significant increases were seen only for vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during 90% and 100% of 1RM compared to 80% while there was no significant difference between 90% and 100% for any muscle. The movement pattern in the hip joint changed with an increase in forward lean during maximal loading. Results may suggest that maximal loading during squat may not be necessary for focusing on knee extensor improvement and may increase the lumbar injury risk.

  18. Lumbar lordosis angle and trunk and lower-limb electromyographic activity comparison in hip neutral position and external rotation during back squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikawa, Tomoki; Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-03-01

    [Purpose] To compare the lumbar lordosis angle and electromyographic activities of the trunk and lower-limb muscles in the hip neutral position and external rotation during back squats. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy males without severe low back pain or lower-limb injury participated in this study. The lumbar lordosis angle and electromyographic activities were measured using three-dimensional motion-capture systems and surface electrodes during four back squats: parallel back squats in the hip neutral position and external rotation and full back squats in the hip neutral position and external rotation. A paired t-test was used to compare parallel and full back squats measurements in the hip neutral position and external rotation, respectively. [Results] During parallel back squats, the average lumbar lordosis angle was significantly larger in hip external rotation than in the hip neutral position. During full back squats, lumbar erector spinae and multifidus activities were significantly lower in hip external rotation than in the hip neutral position, whereas gluteus maximus activity was significantly higher in hip external rotation than in the hip neutral position. [Conclusion] The back squat in hip external rotation induced improvement of lumbar kyphosis, an increasing of the gluteus maximus activity and a decrease of both lumbar erector spinae and multifidus activities.

  19. Lower extremity muscle functions during full squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D G E; Wilson, Jean-Marie J; St Pierre, Taunya A

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the functions of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles about their associated joints during full (deep-knee) squats. Muscle function was determined from joint kinematics, inverse dynamics, electromyography, and muscle length changes. The subjects were six experienced, male weight lifters. Analyses revealed that the prime movers during ascent were the monoarticular gluteus maximus and vasti muscles (as exemplified by vastus lateralis) and to a lesser extent the soleus muscles. The biarticular muscles functioned mainly as stabilizers of the ankle, knee, and hip joints by working eccentrically to control descent or transferring energy among the segments during scent. During the ascent phase, the hip extensor moments of force produced the largest powers followed by the ankle plantar flexors and then the knee extensors. The hip and knee extensors provided the initial bursts of power during ascent with the ankle extensors and especially a second burst from the hip extensors adding power during the latter half of the ascent.

  20. THE EFFECT OF ADDING SPECIFIC HIP STRENGTHENING EXERCISES TO CONVENTIONAL KNEE EXERCISES IN PATIENTS WITH PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Monika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral pain Syndrome is an over use injury and one of the commonest problems seen in adolescents who are physically active. Till date no study has been done comparing the effect of adding specific hip strengthening exercises (gluteus medius, gluteus maximus & lateral rotators to conventional exercises in patients with Patello femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS while minimizing the effect of minimizing the activation of tensor fascia lata (TFL. Methods: 30 subjects were randomly allocated using convenience random sampling into 2 Groups Group A and Group B with 15 subjects in each group. Readings were taken for Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, Manual Muscle Testing (MMT for hip abductors, extensors and external rotators muscles quadriceps and hamstrings, and Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS on baseline and at the end of 4th week. Results: Analysis of the data collected for NPRS, AKPS and MMT of Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Hip Abductors and Hip External Rotators of 30 subjects was done by statistical analysis tests using STATA and software version 11.2. Although improvement was seen in both the groups but group B improved better compared to group A. Conclusion: Group B treatment protocol i.e. Hip specific strengthening (gluteus medius and gluteus maximus in addition to conventional treatment in patients with patello-femoral pain syndrome, was found to be effective in reducing pain, improving functional status and increasing muscle strength than Group A treatment protocol i.e. Knee strengthening and stretching.

  1. Mining the transcriptomes of four commercially important shellfish species for single nucleotide polymorphisms within biomineralization genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrami, David L J; Shah, Abhijeet; Telesca, Luca; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional profiling not only provides insights into patterns of gene expression, but also generates sequences that can be mined for molecular markers, which in turn can be used for population genetic studies. As part of a large-scale effort to better understand how commercially important European shellfish species may respond to ocean acidification, we therefore mined the transcriptomes of four species (the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the great scallop Pecten maximus and the blunt gaper Mya truncata) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Illumina data for C. gigas, M. edulis and P. maximus and 454 data for M. truncata were interrogated using GATK and SWAP454 respectively to identify between 8267 and 47,159 high quality SNPs per species (total=121,053 SNPs residing within 34,716 different contigs). We then annotated the transcripts containing SNPs to reveal homology to diverse genes. Finally, as oceanic pH affects the ability of organisms to incorporate calcium carbonate, we honed in on genes implicated in the biomineralization process to identify a total of 1899 SNPs in 157 genes. These provide good candidates for biomarkers with which to study patterns of selection in natural or experimental populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) scoring system in elderly patients with pressure sores undergoing fasciocutaneous flap-reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Kazuo; Morita, Eishin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to predict operative morbidity in elderly patients with deep pressure sores by using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) scoring system. Fifteen patients over 70 years old were retrospectively reviewed who had undergone gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous flap-reconstruction for pressure sores of the sacral region from 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2007. Complications were seen in six cases (40%) after operation. Four were wound infection, one was chest infection and another was septicemia. The subjects were divided into two groups by the presence (complicated group) or absence (non-complicated group) of postoperative complications. Each item of physiological scores, physiological score (PS), operative severity score (OS) and predicted morbidity rate (R) were calculated and compared between two groups. As a result, hemoglobin (P = 0.0276), PS (P = 0.0023) and R (P = 0.0078) differed significantly between the two groups. It is noteworthy that the PS were over 25 in all of the complicated group, but in only one of nine in the non-complicated group (P = 0.0014). Our study suggests that, for pressure sores in the sacral region in elderly patients, gluteus maximus fasciocutaneous flap-reconstruction can be employed in patients whose PS are under 24 in the POSSUM scoring system.

  3. Assessment of trunk muscle density using CT and its association with degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebro, Ronnie; O'Brien, Liam; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the association of trunk muscle density assessed by computed tomography (CT) with age, gender, and BMI and (2) to evaluate the association between trunk muscle CT density and degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine. The study was IRB approved and HIPAA compliant. The study group comprised 100 subjects (mean age 44.4 ± 22.2 years, 51 % male) who underwent CT of the abdomen and pelvis without intravenous contrast. Exclusion criteria included prior abdominal or spine surgery, active malignancy and scoliosis. CTs were reviewed and the attenuation of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, internal and external obliques, psoas, multifidus, longissimus and gluteus maximus were measured bilaterally at consistent levels. Degenerative disc and bilateral facet joint disease were scored using established methods. Univariate analyses were performed using linear regression. Multivariate linear regression was performed to adjust for age, gender and BMI. CT density of each trunk muscle correlated inversely with age (p degenerative disc and facet joint disease in the univariate analyses (p degenerative disc and facet joint disease respectively in the multivariate analysis. Fatty infiltration of trunk musculature increases with age and BMI. Fatty infiltration of the gluteus maximus and transverse abdominis are associated with degenerative disc and facet joint disease, independent of age, gender and BMI.

  4. The relationship between gluteal muscle activation and throwing kinematics in baseball and softball catchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Hillary A; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between gluteal muscle activation and pelvis and trunk kinematics when catchers throw to second base. Forty-two baseball and softball catchers (14.74 ± 4.07 years; 161.85 ± 15.24 cm; 63.38 ± 19.98 kg) participated in this study. Muscle activity of the bilateral gluteus maximus and medius as well as pelvis and trunk kinematics throughout the throwing motion were analyzed. It was discovered that at foot contact, there were 2 significant inverse relationships between stride leg gluteus maximus activity and pelvis axial rotation (r = -0.31, r2 = 0.10, p = 0.05), and between trunk axial rotation and pelvis lateral flexion (r = -0.34, r2= 0.12, p = 0.03). In addition, at foot contact, a significant positive relationship between the drive leg (throwing arm side) and trunk flexion (r = 0.33, r2 = 0.11, p = 0.04) was present. The results of this study provide evidence of gluteal activation both concentrically and eccentrically, in attempt to control the pelvis and trunk during the throwing motion of catchers. The gluteal muscles play a direct role in maintaining the stability of the pelvis, and catchers should incorporate strengthening of the entire lumbopelvic-hip complex into their training regimen. Incorporating concentric and eccentric gluteal exercises will help to improve musculoskeletal core stability, thereby assisting in upper extremity injury prevention.

  5. CT diagnosis of gluteal muscle contracture in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Longsheng; Bao Jiaqi; Pan Zhili; Hu Kefei; Jiang Jiatan; Zhang Hongliang; Sun Jun; Yuan Yi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT manifestations of gluteal muscle contracture (GMC) in children. Methods: Sixty-one cases of GMC diagnosed by CT and proved by surgery and pathology were studied with 20 cases of non-GMC as the control group. Results: 57 cases (93.4%) were bilateral contracture and 4 cases (6.6%) were unilateral contracture in 61 cases of GMC; The main CT manifestations were as follows: (1) gluteal muscle volume shrunk. There were 118 (100.0%) sides of gluteus maximus contracture , 16 ( 13.6 %) sides of gluteus medius contracture , 12 ( 10.2 %) sides of piriformis contracture, 4 (3.4%) sides of gluteus minimus contracture, 4 (3.4%) sides of capsula articularis contracture; (2) calcification and necrosis in injection zones. There were 95 (80.5%) sides of gluteal calcification and 24 (20.3%) sides of gluteal necrosis; (3) stripe crispation fascia. There were 81 stripes crispation fascia located outboard laterals of gluteus maximus, 36 located inboard laterals of the latter; (4) gluteal muscle clearance widened. There were 38 (32.2%) sides of light degree gluteal muscle contracture, 53 (44.9%) sides of middle degree, and 27 (22.9%) sides of heavy degree. Conclusion: CT can accurately diagnose GMC and it plays an important role in the evaluation of pathological extent and degree of GMC

  6. Effect of the Abdominal Hollowing and Bracing Maneuvers on Activity Pattern of the Lumbopelvic Muscles During Prone Hip Extension in Subjects With or Without Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlaee, Amir H; Ghamkhar, Leila; Arab, Amir M

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of abdominal hollowing (AH) and abdominal bracing (AB) maneuvers on the activity pattern of lumbopelvic muscles during prone hip extension (PHE) in participants with or without nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twenty women with or without CLBP participated in this cross-sectional observational study. The electromyographic activity (amplitude and onset time) of the contralateral erector spinae (CES), ipsilateral erector spinae (IES), gluteus maximus, and biceps femoris muscles was measured during PHE with and without abdominal maneuvers. A 3-way mixed model analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Between-group comparisons showed that the CES onset delay during PHE alone was greater (P = .03) and the activity level of IES, CES, and biceps femoris in all maneuvers (P .05). Performance of the AH maneuver decreased the erector spinae muscle AMP in both groups, and neither maneuver altered the onset delay of any of the muscles in either group. The low back pain group showed higher levels of activity in all muscles (not statistically significant in gluteus maximus during all maneuvers). The groups were similar according to the onset delay of any of the muscles during either maneuver. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparative analysis of speed's impact on muscle demands during partial body weight support motor-assisted elliptical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnfield, Judith M; Irons, Sonya L; Buster, Thad W; Taylor, Adam P; Hildner, Gretchen A; Shu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with walking limitations often experience challenges engaging in functionally relevant exercise. An adapted elliptical trainer (motor to assist pedal movement, integrated body weight harness, ramps/stairs, and grab rails) has been developed to help individuals with physical disabilities and chronic conditions regain/retain walking capacity and fitness. However, limited published studies are available to guide therapeutic interventions. This repeated measures study examined the influence of motor-assisted elliptical training speed on lower extremity muscle demands at four body weight support (BWS) levels commonly used therapeutically for walking. Electromyography (EMG) and pedal trajectory data were recorded as ten individuals without known disability used the motor-assisted elliptical trainer at three speeds [20,40, 60 revolutions per minute (RPM)] during each BWS level (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%). Overall, the EMG activity (peak, mean, duration) in key stabilizer muscles (i.e., gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius and soleus) recorded at 60 RPM exceeded those at 40 RPM, which were higher than values at 20 RPM in all but three situations (gluteus medius mean at 0% BWS, vastus lateralis mean at 20% BWS, soleus duration at 40% BWS); however, these differences did not always achieve statistical significance. Slower motor-assisted speeds can be used to accommodate weakness of gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius and soleus. As strength improves, training at faster motor-assisted speeds may provide a means to progressively challenge key lower extremity stabilizers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Fate of Iliopsoas Muscle in the Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by Medial Approach. Part 1: MRI Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Duran, Semra; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    There has been little information about the long-term status of the iliopsoas, which is the main flexor of the hip, after iliopsoas tenotomy in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The aim of this study was to assess the status of the iliopsoas muscle and other flexors and extensors of the hip in long-term follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging after complete iliopsoas tenotomy in patients with unilateral DDH treated with open reduction with a medial approach. The study included 20 patients who underwent open reduction with a medial approach for unilateral DDH and had long-term follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of iliopsoas, rectus femoris, tensor fasia lata, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles was applied and the muscles of the hip that was operated on were compared with the unoperated hip. In addition, the iliopsoas muscle was examined for reattachment and the effect of reattachment was evaluated. The mean age at the time of operation was 10.53±3.61 months (range, 5 to 18 mo), and mean follow-up was 16.65±2.16 years (range, 13 to 20 y). Spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas was observed in 18 patients (90%), either in the lesser trochanter (65%) or the superior part of it (25%). There was no significant difference between the hips that were operated on and those that were not with regard to the mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles. The CSA of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles showed no significant difference (P>0.05); however, CSA of iliopsoas muscle was significantly reduced in the operated hip (P<0.001). Although the iliopsoas tendon was atrophied after complete iliopsoas tenotomy, it was reattached in 90% of the patients spontaneously in long-term follow-up. There was no statistically significant compensatory hypertrophy in any muscles in response to iliopsoas atrophy. Level IV-Therapeutic.

  10. Injection-induced gluteus muscle contractures: diagnosis with the "reverse Ober test" and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, William F; White, Klane K; Song, Kit M; Mosca, Vincent S

    2015-03-01

    Adoption rates are increasing in the United States and other developed countries. A large proportion of adopted children have been found to have unsuspected medical diagnoses, including orthopedic problems. One condition, termed injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture, has been previously described in several case series and can be difficult to diagnose if unfamiliar with this condition. By reviewing the etiology and pathoanatomy of this problem, as well as the typical examination findings, including the near-pathognomonic-positive "reverse Ober test," treating providers will be better prepared to recognize and properly treat this condition. This is a retrospective review of 4 patients treated at our institution for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. Patient history, physical examination findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. All had undergone surgical treatment through a longitudinal incision along the posterior margin of the iliotibial band, with division of thickened, contracted gluteus tissue down to the ischial tuberosity. All 4 of the patients were adopted from orphanages in developing countries. Chief complaints of the patients varied, but physical examination findings were very consistent. Three of the 4 patients had undergone rotational osteotomies for presumed femoral retroversion before their diagnosis and treatment for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. All patients had concave, atrophic buttock contours and numerous punctate buttock scars. All walked with an out-toed gait and had marked apparent femoral retroversion. Each patient was found to have full hip adduction when the hip was extended but a hip abduction contracture when the hip was flexed. This finding of increasing abduction as an extended/adducted hip is flexed to 90 degrees is described as a positive "reverse Ober test." After surgical treatment, all hips could adduct to neutral from full extension to full flexion. Although common in some countries

  11. Effect of extraluminal ATP application on vascular tone and blood flow in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Al-Khazraji, Baraa K; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2013-01-01

    During skeletal muscle contractions, the concentration of ATP increases in muscle interstitial fluid as measured by microdialysis probes. This increase is associated with the magnitude of blood flow, suggesting that interstitial ATP may be important for contraction-induced vasodilation. However...... studied. The rat gluteus maximus skeletal muscle model was used to study changes in local skeletal muscle hemodynamics. Superfused ATP at concentrations found during muscle contractions (1-10 µM) increased blood flow by up to 400%. In this model, the underlying mechanism was also examined by inhibition...... in interstitial ATP concentrations increases muscle blood flow, indicating that the contraction-induced increase in skeletal muscle interstitial [ATP] is important for exercise hyperemia. The vasodilator effect of ATP application is mediated by NO and prostanoid formation....

  12. Evaluation of elastic bands for lower extremity resistance training in adults with and without musculo-skeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, E; Jakobsen, M D; Andersen, C H

    2014-01-01

    these findings. However, pain in the lower back decreased muscular activity of the gluteus maximus and vastus medialis (P resistance induce high levels of muscle activity in all the large muscle groups at the hip, knee, and back. Importantly, the efficiency of these exercises......Therapists commonly use elastic bands in resistance exercises during rehabilitation of smaller muscles, such as in the shoulder. However, the effectiveness has not yet been investigated for larger muscle groups. This study investigates muscle activity during lower extremity exercises....... Electromyographic (EMG) activity of 10 muscles was measured in 24 women and 18 men during lunges with elastic resistance, lunges with dumbbells, and unilateral leg press in machine using 10 repetition maximum loadings, and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction EMG. Lunges with dumbbells and leg...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging phenotyping of Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Wagner, Kathryn R; Leung, Doris G; Carrino, John A

    2014-12-01

    There is little information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phenotypes of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). This study presents the MRI phenotyping of the upper and lower extremities of a large cohort of BMD patients. In this retrospective study, MRI images of 33 BMD subjects were evaluated for severity, distribution, and symmetry of involvement. Teres major, triceps long head, biceps brachii long head, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vasti, adductor longus, adductor magnus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris muscles showed the highest severity and frequency of involvement. All analyzed muscles had a high frequency of symmetric involvement. There was significant variability of involvement between muscles within some muscle groups, most notably the arm abductors, posterior arm muscles, medial thigh muscles, and lateral hip rotators. This study showed a distinctive pattern of involvement of extremity muscles in BMD subjects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spectrum of antibody profiles in tuberculous elephants, cervids, and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Gortázar, Christian; Miller, Michele A; Waters, W Ray

    2018-02-01

    Using multi-antigen print immunoassay and DPP ® VetTB Assay approved in the United States for testing captive cervids and elephants, we analyzed antibody recognition of MPB83 and CFP10/ESAT-6 antigens in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), fallow deer (Dama dama), elk (Cervus elaphus), and cattle (Bos taurus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Serum IgG reactivity to MPB83 was found in the vast majority of tuberculous cattle and cervid species among which white-tailed deer and elk also showed significant CFP10/ESAT-6 recognition rates with added serodiagnostic value. In contrast, the infected elephants developed antibody responses mainly to CFP10/ESAT-6 with MPB83 reactivity being relatively low. The findings demonstrate distinct patterns of predominant antigen recognition by different animal hosts in tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers. Proton spin-lattice relaxation times of skeletal muscles on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I. (Shimoshizu National Hospital, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Neurology); Fukuda, N.; Ikehira, H.; Tateno, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Clinical Research); Aoki, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.).

  16. Relaxation time T/sub 1/ and bound water fraction of muscle by NMR imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, N.; Ikehira, H.; Yamane, T.; Tateno, Y.; Torii, S.; Matsumura, K.

    1986-05-01

    In order to establish the efficacy of NMR-CT in the diagnostic investigation of muscle disorders, proton NMR-CT imaging was performed and muscle longitudinal relaxation (T1) times were measured in 20 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and normal controls (NC). In addition, the bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the measured T1 value in appropriate cases. Results show that in DMD muscle T1 values were above normal in the early clinical stages, declined rapidly with progress of the disease, and reached the same low level as the subcutaneous fat. This decrease of T1 values was not uniform for all muscles, being most prominent in gluteus maximus and least in sartorius and gracilis. In NC muscle BWF increased with maturation under the age of 10 years, and became fixed beyond that. In the early stages of DMD, BWF was below normal.

  17. PRODUCTIVITY OF A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM UNDER INTENSIVE MIXED SPECIES GRAZING BY CATTLE AND SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Yalid Manriquez-Mendoza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of forage trees in pastures enhances yield and nutritional quality of forage available for animal feeding. We assessed forage yield and nutritional quality, and weight gain of cattle and sheep foraging in a silvopastoral system containing Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. and the grasses Digitaria eriantha Stent (cv. Pangola, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf (cv. Insurgentes and Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs (cv. Tanzania, during three seasons (windy, dry and rainy in two grazing treatments: 1 mixed species grazing by four to five Criollo Lechero Tropical heifers and six female Pelibuey lambs, and 2 simple species grazing by 12 female Pelibuey lambs. Weight gain was greater (P

  18. Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with Submaximal and Maximal Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdag, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible kinematic and muscular activity changes with maximal loading during squat maneuver. Fourteen healthy male individuals, who were experienced at performing squats, participated in this study. Each subject performed squats with 80%, 90%, and 100% of the previously established 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured for the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae by using an 8-channel dual-mode portable EMG and physiological signal data acquisition system (Myomonitor IV, Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA). Kinematical data were analyzed by using saSuite 2D kinematical analysis program. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (p squat may not be necessary for focusing on knee extensor improvement and may increase the lumbar injury risk. PMID:28546738

  19. Correlação entre a positividade do xenodiagnóstico artificial e a quantidade de sangue e triatomíneos utilizados no exame, em pacientes chagásicos crônicos

    OpenAIRE

    Franco,Yara Bandeira Azevedo; Silva,Ionizete Garcia da; Rassi,Anis; Rocha,Alessandra Carla Rodrigues Galvão; Silva,Heloisa Helena Garcia da; Rassi,Gustavo Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Estudou-se a correlação entre a positividade do xenodiagnóstico artificial e a quantidade utilizada de sangue e de triatomíneos, em 200 pacientes na fase crônica da doença de Chagas. Colheram-se 10 ou 40ml de sangue através de tubos a vácuo, heparinizados com 20,4UI, sendo realizado com 60 e 360 triatomíneos, respectivamente. Usou-se Dipetalogaster maximus, Triatoma infestans, Triatoma vitticeps e Rhodnius neglectus, nos estádios 1°, 3°, 3° e 4°, respectivamente. A coproscopia dos triatomíneo...

  20. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. Translocating "problem-elephants" is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: "homers" returned to the capture site, "wanderers" ranged widely, and "settlers" established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals.

  1. Exposure of Asian Elephants and Other Exotic Ungulates to Schmallenberg Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Fieke M; La Rocca, S Anna; Khatri, Meenakshi; Lopez, Javier; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging Orthobunyavirus, first described in 2011 in cattle in Germany and subsequently spread throughout Europe, affecting mainly ruminant livestock through the induction of foetal malformations. To gain a better understanding of the spectrum of susceptible species and to assess the value of current SBV serological assays, screening of serum samples from exotic artiodactyls and perissodactyls collected at the Living Collections from the Zoological Society of London (Whipsnade and London Zoos) and Chester Zoo was carried out. There was compelling evidence of SBV infection in both zoological collections. The competitive ELISA has proved to be applicable for the detection of SBV in exotic Bovidae, Cervidae, Suidae, Giraffidae and most notably in endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), but unreliable for the screening of Camelidae, for which the plaque reduction neutralisation test was considered the assay of choice.

  2. Exposure of Asian Elephants and Other Exotic Ungulates to Schmallenberg Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fieke M Molenaar

    Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus (SBV is an emerging Orthobunyavirus, first described in 2011 in cattle in Germany and subsequently spread throughout Europe, affecting mainly ruminant livestock through the induction of foetal malformations. To gain a better understanding of the spectrum of susceptible species and to assess the value of current SBV serological assays, screening of serum samples from exotic artiodactyls and perissodactyls collected at the Living Collections from the Zoological Society of London (Whipsnade and London Zoos and Chester Zoo was carried out. There was compelling evidence of SBV infection in both zoological collections. The competitive ELISA has proved to be applicable for the detection of SBV in exotic Bovidae, Cervidae, Suidae, Giraffidae and most notably in endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus, but unreliable for the screening of Camelidae, for which the plaque reduction neutralisation test was considered the assay of choice.

  3. Dynamic ultrasound of the external snapping hip syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Song, Baek Yong; Paik, Sang Hyun; Lee, Tae Gyu; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Lee, Sung Moon

    2002-01-01

    Snapping hip syndrome has been described as a hip pain accompanied by an audible snapping during motion of the hip or while walking. The variable causes of its external, internal, and intra-articular origins have been described. The most common extemal snapping hip has been associated with a thickened posterior border of the iliotibial band or of the anterior border of the gluteus maximus muscle slipping over the greater trochanter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic ultrasound findings of external snapping hip syndrome with review of the literature. We studied 5 patients (7 cases) with external snapping hip and pain over the greater trochanter during walking or hip motion (3 males and 2 females, age range, 14-32 years; mean, 19 years). Two patients reported bilateral snapping hips.

  4. Effects of salinity stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata size of grafted and ungrafted galia c8 melon cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarsi, G.; Sivaci, A.; Dasgan, H.Y.; Altuntas, O.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is known as the most important abiotic stress that decreases crop production and plant growth, and changes the anatomy and morphology of plants. In this study, the growth rate of grafted and ungrafted melon plants were studied under salinity stress. Maximus F1, Shintoza F-90 F1 and Nun 9075 F1 (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) were used as a rootstock and Galia C8 melon cultivar was used as a scion. In this study, the stomata size and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were investigated. According to the results, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata length and width of upper and lower surface of leaf were generally reduced under salinity stress. (author)

  5. Effects of rootstocks on fruit yield and some quality traits of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Kurum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of rootstocks on watermelon fruit quality and yield were investigated by comparing grafted plants with non-grafted and self-grafted ones in open field conditions in over two consecutive years (2013-2014. The watermelon cultivar Crimson Tide was grafted onto Ferro RZ, Maximus, Nun 9075, RS 841, No:3, Strong Tosa and TZ 148 rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted plants were used as control. Grafting increased the average fruit yield between 17.45% and 52.56% compared to non-grafted treatment. It was concluded that among the tested rootstocks No:3 along with Nun 9075 and TZ 148 rootstocks can be advised due to the increase in fruit yield, total soluble solids and taste panel test values and that the use of grafted plants can be advantageous alternative in watermelon production for producers.

  6. Effect of the Individual Strengthening Exercises for Posterior Pelvic Tilt Muscles on Back Pain, Pelvic Angle, and Lumbar ROM of a LBP Patient with Excessive Lordosis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to document the effect of individual strengthening exercises for posterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with excessive lordosis. [Subjects] The subject was a 28 year-old male with excessive lordosis who complained of severe LBP at the L3 level. [Methods] He performed individual strengthening exercises for the posterior pelvic tilt muscles (rectus abdominis, gluteus maximus, hamstring). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles on the right and left sides recovered to his normal ranges. Limited lumbar ROM increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that an approach of individual resistance exercises is necessary for the effective and fast strengthening of the pelvic posterior tilt muscles in case of LBP with excessive lordosis.

  7. Calcifying Bursitis ischioglutealis: A Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Alexander; Narayan, Chirag Thonse; Schuh, Ralph; Hönle, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The ischiogluteal bursa is an inconstant anatomical finding located between the ischial tuberosity and the gluteus maximus. Ischiogluteal bursitis is a rare disorder. Case Report: We report the case of a 43-year-old female patient with bilateral calcifying ischiogluteal bursitis. The patient had no relevant medical history of systemic illness or major trauma to the buttock. After aspiration of both ischiogluteal bursitis which delievered calcareous deposits and instillation of a mixture of 1cc betamethasone (6 mg) and 4 cc of 1% lidocaine the patient was out of any complaints. Conclusion: Calcifying ischiogluteal bursitis is a rare entity but easily diagnosed on radiographs. Aspiration and local steroid instillation give good relief from symptoms. PMID:27298836

  8. Moving beyond education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2018-01-01

    arenas that, today, it is almost impossible to ima- gine universities as being more and otherwise than promoters of higher education for the local job market domains, national and regional policy strategies, and global rankings and benchmarking agendas. The university as a form of being has arguably been...... emptied of an identity beyond sole educational production mechanisms, and few today explore the university’s noninstrumental and “darker” (Bengtsen and Barnett 2017; Bengtsen 2014) levels of being. This paper, as a contrast, aims to explore the being of the univer- sity anew and with a focus...... ancient times to demarcate a certain form of geographical and ontological place, like the Circus Maximus that was determined for specific activities and events, social norms and behavior, and moral codex. Where the term “universitas” originally meant any form of guild or corporation, eventually connected...

  9. The Legends of the Serpent Island in the Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Shevchuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The report presents a variety of ancient legends, connected with the cult of Achilles on the Serpent (Snake Island, located in 35 km far from the Danube Delta in the territorial waters of Ukraine. The sources of ancient legends are the essay of Flavius Arrian “Periplus Ponti Euxini (maritime guide”, Flavius Philostratus dialogue “On Heroes” (Heroikos, as well as the outlines of Arctinus of Miletus, Maximus of Tyre and Romanian folklore. The imageries of Achilles Pontarchis cult on the Serpent Island (in ancient times – Levka Island, White Island, Island of the Blessed, Fidonisi, Ilan-Ada, Sherpilor disclose the peculiarities of his worship in Scythia and Dacia.

  10. “AquaTrace” The development of tools for tracing and evaluating the genetic impact of fish from aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte; Svåsand, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture represents a key solution to meet the escalating demand for fish. Accordingly, development of appropriate legislation within the European Union aquaculture sector underpinned by cutting‐edge research and technology is required. This necessitates implementation of breeding programmes...... to identify of the genetic origin of both wild and farmed fish (assignment and genetic traceability), as well as for the detection of interbreeding genetic introgression between farmed and wild stocks. This work will be carried out on three marine fish of economic significance: the European sea bass...... (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). To address quantitative effects of farm introgression, the rationale is to examine links between key fitness and life‐history traits and specific functional genetic variation between wild and farmed fish, using...

  11. Controle de invasão biológica por capim-anonni em margem viária mediante a introdução de gramíneas Control of biological invasion by South African lovegrass on a roadside by introducing grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Borges de Medeiros

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o controle da invasão biológica por Eragrostis plana Nees (capim-anonni em margens de rodovia com a introdução de gramíneas concorrentes associada a práticas de preparo do solo e adubação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram avaliadas duas práticas de preparo do solo: solo subsolado e gradeado com aplicação de calcário e fósforo; e solo apenas subsolado, e nas subparcelas, as espécies de gramíneas: capim-mombaça (Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B. K. Simon & S. W. L. Jacobs; capim-kazangula (Setaria sphacelata (Schumach. Stapf & C. E. Hubb. ex M. B. Moss; mistura de sementes de três gramíneas nativas, grama-de-forquilha (Paspalum notatum Alain ex Flüggé, macega-do-banhado (Paspalum regnelli Mez e capim-das-roças (Paspalum urvillei Steud.; avaliadas em comparação a uma subparcela de exclusão (testemunha. Nos levantamentos florísticos, realizados em 8 de janeiro de 2005, e após o plantio, em 26 de janeiro e 25 de junho de 2006, observou-se alta riqueza florística, com 86 espécies botânicas distribuídas em 29 famílias e 21% de espécies exóticas. O solo subsolado, gradeado, corrigido e adubado, associado às introduções de M. maximus e S. kazungula, foram as alternativas que mais contribuíram para reduzir a cobertura de E. plana. As gramíneas nativas presentes na vegetação do acostamento, Paspalum plicatulum Mitchx, Piptochaetium montevidense (Spreng. Parodi e a espécie nativa introduzida (Paspalum urvillei têm potencial para controlar a invasão de E. plana.The objective of this study was to control biological invasion by Eragrostis plana Nees (South African lovegrass on a roadside by introducing competitor grasses associated with soil management and fertilization practices. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with split-plots parcels and three replications. In the parcels, it was

  12. Muscle MRI in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy carrying mutation c.187+1G>A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yawen; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Yuan, Yun

    2015-06-01

    We describe the clinical and muscle MRI changes in 2 siblings with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) carrying the mutation c.187+1G>A. Peripheral blood smears, genetic tests, and muscle biopsies were performed. Thigh MRI was performed to observe fatty replacement, muscle edema, and muscle bulk from axial sections. Both siblings had similar fatty infiltration and edema. T1-weighted images of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus revealed marked and diffuse fatty infiltration. There was asymmetric involvement in biceps femoris and quadriceps. There was extensive fatty infiltration in the quadriceps, except for the rectus femoris. Gracilis and sartorius were relatively spared. Thigh muscle volume was decreased, while the gracilis and sartorius appeared to show compensatory hypertrophy. Compared with previous reports in NLSDM, MRI changes in this myopathy tended to be more severe. Asymmetry and relatively selective fatty infiltration were characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Diversity and activity pattern of wildlife inhabiting catchment of Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Dam, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adyla, M. N. Nurul; Ikhwan, Z.; Zuhairi, M.; Ngah, Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    A series of camera trapping surveys were conducted to study the diversity and distribution of wildlife within the catchment of Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Dam. A total of 124 camera traps were deployed at nine study sites, continuously from June 2014 until December 2015. The total effort of camera trap surveys from all the study sites during the 18-month sampling period was 29,128 night traps, from which a total of 32 species of wildlife representing nine Orders were recorded. The most common species were Eurasian Wild Pig (Sus scrofa), Barking Deer (Munticus muntjak), and Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus). Camera trap data on activity patterns show that Gallus gallus, Muntiacus muntjak and Sus scrofa are diurnal animals, whereas Tapirus indicus, Elephas maximus and Helarctos malayanus are nocturnal animals.

  14. Elastofibroma of the gluteal region with a concomitant contralateral lesion: case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevolani, Luca; Casadei, R.; Donati, D. [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, III Orthopaedic and Traumatology Clinic, Bologna (Italy); Vanel, D.; Gambarotti, M. [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bone Tumor Center, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    A 51-year-old man presented with elastofibroma (EF) of the gluteal region with a concomitant contralateral lesion. The patient presented with a slow growing mass of the proximal third of the right buttock and had swelling, discomfort in sitting, and right-hip pain during walking for 2 months. On MRI, a soft-tissue mass was noted between the gluteus maximus and the gluteus medius muscle. The mass showed similar signal intensity to the surrounding tissue on T1- and T2-weighted images and with linear hyperintense areas in its internal structure. At surgery, a soft, non-encapsulated, irregular, and rubber-like mass was found attached to the gluteus medius muscles. It was pathologically confirmed to be an EF. This unusual manifestation of an EF is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Musculoskeletal Modeling of a Forward Lunge Movement:Implications for ACL Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, T; Wieland, MR; Andersen, MS

    2010-01-01

    are loaded during forward lunge? 2) Does the mechanical equilibrium cause ACL loads? Design: Computational modeling. Setting: The biomechanical forward lunge model was based on experimental motion capture data. Patients or Other Participants: One healthy female subject (height 5 169 cm, weight 5 59.6 kg, age....... The model and the pelvis. The hips were modeled as spherical joints, the knees as hinge joints, and the ankles as universal joints. Each according to a minimum fatigue criterion. Main Outcome Measures: Muscle and joint reaction forces that pulled the tibia in anterior or posterior direction. The forces were...... at the time of peak knee flexion. At peak knee flexion, the knee reaction was the only force that pulled the tibia anteriorly (2880 N). This was primarily counterbalanced by the musculus gluteus maximus (21940 N). Conclusions: The loading of the knee joint during lunging never required any stabilization...

  16. The effect of fluoride on the serum level of calcium in the rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fočak M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fluoride on the calcium level in serum was analyzed in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. The control group consisted of 10, and the experimental group of 15 animals. In the experimental group, fluoride at a concentration of 3 mg/100 g body weight of rats was intramuscularly injected into the musculus gluteus maximus. The concentration of calcium was measured by the CPC method. The average serum calcium concentration was 2.46 mmol/l, with female rats having higher values of serum calcium than male rats. Fluoride caused the reduction of calcium concentration in serum (p<0.05; the reduction was significantly expressed in female rats (p<0.000.

  17. Proteomic analysis of a pleistocene mammoth femur reveals more than one hundred ancient bone proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Szklarczyk, Damian Milosz

    2012-01-01

    We used high-sensitivity, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry to shotgun sequence ancient protein remains extracted from a 43 000 year old woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) bone preserved in the Siberian permafrost. For the first time, 126 unique protein accessions, mostly low-abundance......We used high-sensitivity, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry to shotgun sequence ancient protein remains extracted from a 43 000 year old woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) bone preserved in the Siberian permafrost. For the first time, 126 unique protein accessions, mostly low......-abundance extracellular matrix and plasma proteins, were confidently identified by solid molecular evidence. Among the best characterized was the carrier protein serum albumin, presenting two single amino acid substitutions compared to extant African (Loxodonta africana) and Indian (Elephas maximus) elephants. Strong...

  18. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  19. Effects of prior heavy exercise on VO(2) kinetics during heavy exercise are related to changes in muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Mark; Doust, Jonathan H; Ball, Derek; Jones, Andrew M

    2002-07-01

    We hypothesized that the elevated primary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) amplitude during the second of two bouts of heavy cycle exercise would be accompanied by an increase in the integrated electromyogram (iEMG) measured from three leg muscles (gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis). Eight healthy men performed two 6-min bouts of heavy leg cycling (at 70% of the difference between the lactate threshold and peak VO(2)) separated by 12 min of recovery. The iEMG was measured throughout each exercise bout. The amplitude of the primary VO(2) response was increased after prior heavy leg exercise (from mean +/- SE 2.11 +/- 0.12 to 2.44 +/- 0.10 l/min, P exercise (491 +/- 108 vs. 604 +/- 151% increase above baseline values, P exercise is related to a greater recruitment of motor units at the onset of exercise.

  20. Ski jumping boots limit effective take-off in ski jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, M; Komi, P V

    2001-12-01

    In this study, we measured the vertical and horizontal take-off forces, plantar pressures and activation patterns of four muscles (vastus lateralis, gluteus maximus, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius) in 10 ski jumpers in simulated laboratory conditions when wearing either training shoes or ski jumping boots. We found significant differences in vertical (P boots condition resulted in a smaller displacement in the final position of the following joint angles: ankle angle (P knee angle (P boots condition, significantly more pressure was recorded under the heel (P knee and hip extensors when wearing jumping boots. We conclude that the stiffness of the structure of the jumping boots may result in a forward shift of pressure, thus limiting the effective vertical force. To avoid this pressure shift, the pattern of movement of simulated take-offs should be carefully controlled, particularly when wearing training shoes.

  1. Lower limb entheseal morphology in the Neandertal Krapina population (Croatia, 130,000 BP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna

    2011-06-01

    Although the Neandertal locomotor system has been shown to differ from Homo sapiens, characteristics of Neandertal entheses, the skeletal attachments for muscles, tendons, ligaments and joint capsules, have never been specifically investigated. Here, we analyse lower limb entheses of the Krapina Neandertal bones (Croatia, 130,000 BP) with the aim of determining how they compare with modern humans, using a standard developed by our research group for describing modern human entheseal variability. The entheses examined are those of the gluteus maximus, iliopsoas and vastus medialis on the femur, the quadriceps tendon on the patella, and soleus on the tibia. For the entheses showing a different morphological pattern from H. sapiens, we discuss the possibility of recognising genetic versus environmental causes. Our results indicate that only the gluteus maximus enthesis (the gluteal tuberosity), falls out of the modern human range of variation. It displays morphological features that could imply histological differences from modern humans, in particular the presence of fibrocartilage. In both H. sapiens and the Krapina Neandertals, the morphological pattern of this enthesis is the same in adult and immature femurs. These results can be interpreted in light of genetic differences between the two hominins. The possibility of functional adaptations to higher levels of mechanical load during life in the Neandertals seems less likely. The particular morphology and large dimensions of the Krapina enthesis, and perhaps its fibrocartilaginous nature, could have been selected for in association with other pelvic and lower limb characteristics, even if genetic drift cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Germination of tropical forage seeds stored for six years in ambient and controlled temperature and humidity conditions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination performances of fresh seed lots were determined for 5 tropical forage species: Mulato II hybrid brachiaria [Urochloa ruziziensis (syn. Brachiaria ruziziensis x U. decumbens (syn. B. decumbens x U. brizantha (syn. B. brizantha], Mombasa guinea [Megathyrsus maximus (syn. Panicum maximum], Tanzania guinea [M. maximus (syn. P. maximum], Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum and Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, stored under ambient conditions in Thailand (mean monthly temperatures 23‒34 ºC; mean monthly relative humidity 40‒92% or in a cool room (18‒20 ºC and 50% relative humidity for up to 6 years. The first paper of this study showed all seeds, except unscarified Ubon stylo seed, were dead after a single year of storage in ambient conditions. This second paper shows that cool-room storage extended seed viability, but performance varied considerably between species. Germination percentage under laboratory conditions declined to below 50%, after 3 years storage for Mombasa guinea seed and Tanzania guinea seed, 4 years for Ubon paspalum seed and 4‒5 years for Mulato II seed. Ubon stylo seed maintained high germination for 5 years, in both cool-room storage (96% and ambient-room storage (84%. Apparent embryo dormancy in acid-scarified Mulato II seed steadily increased with time in cool-storage and this seed had to be acid-scarified again each year at the time of germination testing to overcome dormancy. Physical dormancy of Mulato II seeds, imposed by the tightly bound lemma and palea in unscarified seed, was not overcome by length of time in cool-storage and these seeds had to be acid-scarified to induce germination. Hardseeded percentage in Ubon stylo seed remained high throughout the study and could be overcome only by acid-scarification. The difficulties of maintaining acceptable seed germination percentages when storing forage seeds in the humid tropics are discussed.

  3. FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN AGROECOSYSTEMS USING TRADITIONAL AND ROTATIONAL CATTLE GRAZING IN PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bautista-Tolentino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage biomass and chemical composition of Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs were assessed in monoculture (P or associated with trees of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (PGu or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp (PGs, under traditional (TG or rotational (RG cattle grazing regimes, by season of the year (windy: October-February, dry: March-June, and rainy: July-September and annually. Annual forage production (kg DM ha-1 under RG and TG was 8049±586 and 4170±319, respectively; 5441±2225 in P-TG, 2022±82 in PGs-TG, 12326±2094 in PGu-TG, 9612±1331 in PGs-RG, and 7976±737 in PGu-RG. Gliricidia sepium produced 1448±2 and 1660±3 kg DM ha-1 year-1 under PGs-TG and PGs-RG, respectively. Forage yield across plant associations and grazing regimes was higher in the rainy season (5333.6±56.7 kg DM ha-1, and decreased in the windy (2462±349.0 kg DM ha-1 and dry seasons (252.9±2 kg DM ha-1. The PGu system had the highest crude protein content annually (21.8 % and by season (23.1 %, windy, and also showed the least neutral detergent fiber content during the year (55.2 % and by season (55.2 %, rainy. Biomass production and chemical composition of M. maximus in monoculture or associated with G. ulmifolia and G. sepium can be increased by modifying the traditional grazing regimes to a more intensive rotational system during the growth period of the year.

  4. The effects of therapeutic hip exercise with abdominal core activation on recruitment of the hip muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mandy Ky; Chow, Ka Wai; Lai, Alfred Ys; Mak, Noble Kc; Sze, Jason Ch; Tsang, Sharon Mh

    2017-07-21

    Core stabilization has been utilized for rehabilitation and prevention of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies showed that activation of the abdominal core muscles enhanced the hip muscle activity in hip extension and abduction exercises. However, the lack of the direct measurement and quantification of the activation level of the abdominal core muscles during the execution of the hip exercises affect the level of evidence to substantiate the proposed application of core exercises to promote training and rehabilitation outcome of the hip region. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of abdominal core activation, which is monitored directly by surface electromyography (EMG), on hip muscle activation while performing different hip exercises, and to explore whether participant characteristics such as gender, physical activity level and contractile properties of muscles, which is assessed by tensiomyography (TMG), have confounding effect to the activation of hip muscles in enhanced core condition. Surface EMG of bilateral internal obliques (IO), upper gluteus maximus (UGMax), lower gluteus maximus (LGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and biceps femoris (BF) of dominant leg was recorded in 20 young healthy subjects while performing 3 hip exercises: Clam, side-lying hip abduction (HABD), and prone hip extension (PHE) in 2 conditions: natural core activation (NC) and enhanced core activation (CO). EMG signals normalized to percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) were compared between two core conditions with the threshold of the enhanced abdominal core condition defined as >20%MVIC of IO. Enhanced abdominal core activation has significantly promoted the activation level of GMed in all phases of clam exercise (P recruitment in Clam, HABD and PHE exercises, and this enhancement is correlated with higher physical activity and stiffer hip muscle. Our results suggest the potential application of abdominal core activation for

  5. Influence of Nordic Walking Training on Muscle Strength and the Electromyographic Activity of the Lower Body in Women With Low Bone Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossowski Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are related to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contribute to a decreased level of muscle strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of Nordic walking training on muscle strength and the electromyographic (EMG activity of the lower body in women with low bone mass. Material and methods. The participants of the study were 27 women with low bone mass. The sample was randomly divided into two groups: a control group and an experimental group. Women from the experimental group participated in 12 weeks of regular Nordic walking training. Functional strength was assessed with a 30-second chair stand test. The EMG activities of the gluteus maximus (GMax, rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, soleus (SOL, and lumbar (LB muscles were measured using a surface electromyogram. Results. Nordic walking training induced a significant increase in the functional strength (p = 0.006 of the lower body and activity of GMax (p = 0.013 and a decrease in body mass (p = 0.006 in women with reduced bone mass. There was no statistically significant increase in the EMG activities of the RF, BF, SOL, or LB muscles. The study did not indicate any significant changes in functional muscle strength, the EMG activity of the lower body, or anthropometry in women from the control group. Conclusions. Nordic walking training induces positive changes in lower body strength and the electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus as well as a decrease in body mass in women with low bone mass.

  6. Eternal Rome: Guardian of the Heavenly Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latura, G.

    2016-01-01

    The power of the Roman Empire did not come solely by way of brutal force. A spiritual vision inherited from the Greeks inspired the Romans—an ascent through the classical Planets to the intersections with the Milky Way, where stood the gates of heaven. This vision stretches back, through Macrobius and Cicero, to Plato's Republic and Timaeus. The Eternal City, capital of the Empire for four centuries, claimed control over the celestial portals, a tradition that is traced on Roman coins and medals over thousands of years. Julius Caesar borrowed enormous sums to campaign for the office of Pontifex Maximus—high priest of Rome—spending a fortune on “bread and circuses” to secure the support of the masses. Consolidating power at every turn, Caesar as dictator-for-life became absolute master of Rome, the city that, according to its coins, ruled the cosmos. Though his mortal frame fell to the knives of the senators, Caesar's soul was seen ascending to heaven as a comet. Thus was born the myth of Divvs Ivlivs—the divine avatar of the Roman Empire, whose name would become synonymous with the title of emperor over millennia (German Kaiser, Hungarian Csaszar, Russian Tsar, to name a few). Caesar's heir, Octavian, piously waited for Lepidus to die of old age before grabbing the office of Pontifex Maximus for himself, a title that would define the celestial authority of the ruler of Rome until Gratian renounced it four centuries later. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, convinced Gratian that such a pagan title was not fit for a Christian. Once the Roman emperor discarded the title Pontifex Maximus, the bishop of Rome picked it up and placed it above his own head, as can be seen on coins and medals of the Vatican to this day. In Jubilee years, the Pope knocks down the brick wall that has kept closed the Holy Door for a generation, a ceremony that reaffirms Rome's control of the celestial gates.

  7. Towards evidence based strength training: a comparison of muscle forces during deadlifts, goodmornings and split squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Florian; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    To ensure an efficient and targeted adaptation with low injury risk during strength exercises, knowledge of the participant specific internal loading conditions is essential. The goal of this study was to calculate the lower limb muscles forces during the strength exercises deadlifts, goodmornings and splits squats by means of musculoskeletal simulation. 11 participants were assessed performing 10 different variations of split squats by varying the step length as well as the maximal frontal tibia angle, and 13 participants were measured performing deadlift and goodmorning exercises. Using individualised musculoskeletal models, forces of the Quadriceps ( four parts), Hamstrings (four parts) and m. gluteus maximus (three parts) were computed. Deadlifts resulted highest loading for the Quadriceps, especially for the vasti (18-34 N/kg), but not for the rectus femoris (8-10 N/kg), which exhibited its greatest loading during split squats (13-27 N/kg) in the rear limb. Hamstrings were loaded isometrically during goodmornings but dynamically during deadlifts. For the m. gluteus maximus , the highest loading was observed during split squats in the front limb (up to 25 N/kg), while deadlifts produced increasingly, large loading over large ranges of motion in hip and knee. Acting muscle forces vary between exercises, execution form and joint angle. For all examined muscles, deadlifts produced considerable loading over large ranges of motion, while split squats seem to be highly dependent upon exercise variation. This study provides key information to design strength-training programs with respect to loading conditions and ranges of motion of lower extremity muscles.

  8. Effects of external pelvic compression on electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles during unipedal stance in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela

    2015-06-01

    There is some evidence that hamstring function can be influenced by interventions focusing on the pelvis via an anatomic and neurophysiologic link between these two segments. Previous research demonstrated increased electromyographic activity from injured hamstrings during transition from bipedal to unipedal stance (BUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a pelvic compression belt (PCB) on electromyographic activity of selected muscles during BUS in sportsmen with and without hamstring injury. Electromyographic amplitudes (normalised to maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) of the hamstrings, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and lumbar multifidus were obtained during BUS from 20 hamstring-injured participants (both sides) and 30 healthy participants (one side, randomly selected). There was an increase in biceps femoris (by 1.23 ± 2.87 %MVIC; p = 0.027) and gluteus maximus (by 0.63 ± 1.13 %MVIC; p = 0.023) electromyographic activity for the hamstring-injured side but no significant differences other than a decrease in multifidus activity (by 1.36 ± 2.92 %MVIC; p = 0.023) were evident for healthy participants while wearing the PCB. However, the effect sizes for these findings were small. Wearing the PCB did not significantly change electromyographic activity of other muscles in either participant group (p > 0.050). Moreover, the magnitude of change induced by the PCB was not significantly different between groups (p > 0.050) for the investigated muscles. Thus, application of a PCB to decrease electromyographic activity of injured hamstrings during BUS is likely to have little effect. Similar research is warranted in participants with acute hamstring injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NMR-CT in muscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Nakano, Imaharu; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1986-01-01

    Proton NMR-CT (magnetic field strength 0.1 Tesla, resonant frequency 4.5 MHz) was performed in 15 normal (NC) and 20 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) males. The age ranged from 3 to 47 years for the NC males, and 1 to 14 years for the DMD males. In the DMD group there were one subclinical stage, 4 stage 1, 6 stage 2, 4 stage 3, and 5 stage 5 or higher patients. T 1 (longitudinal relaxation) images were obtained for three slices at the buttock, midthigh, and calf levels. The T 1 values were measured for the medial portion of the gluteus maximus, the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, the adductors, the sartorius, the gracilis, and the gastrocnemius muscles. Bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from Fullerton's equation based on the fast diffusion model. The following results were obtained: (1) In the NC group, muscle T 1 values declined gradually with maturation under the age of 10, and became constant beyond that. The average T 1 value was 280 ms for the age group between 3 and 6 years, 270 ms for 7 and 10 years, and 260 ms for those older than 10 years. (2) Muscle BWF increased with maturation in the NC group. (3) In the DMD group, T 1 values were initially higher than normal (300 ms), declined rapidly with the progress of the disease, and reached the same low level as the subcutaneous fat (190 ms). (4) This decrease of T 1 value in DMD was not uniform for all muscles, being most prominent in the gluteus maximus and least so in the sartorius and gracilis. (5) In the early stages of DMD, the BWF was lower than normal. (J.P.N.)

  10. A composite gluteofemoral flap for reconstruction of large pressure sores over the sacrococcygeal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Zhuang, Yue-Hong; Xue, Lan; Zheng, He-Ping; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Gigantic pressure sores pose a daunting challenge for plastic surgeons. This paper presents a composite gluteofemoral flap for reconstruction of large pressure sores over the sacrococcygeal region. In this anatomical study, 30 embalmed cadaveric lower limbs were used for dissection to observe the musculocutaneous perforators of the inferior gluteal artery and the longitudinal nutritional vascular chain of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. In this clinical study, eight patients underwent surgical harvest of the composite gluteofemoral flap for coverage of grade IV sacrococcygeal pressure sores. The size of the pressure sores ranged between 16 × 9 cm and 22 × 10 cm. The inferior gluteal artery was present in 26 cases and absent in four cases. It gave off two to four musculocutaneous branches with a diameter larger than 0.5 mm to the gluteus maximus. A direct cutaneous branch was given off at the inferior margin of the gluteus maximus, serving as a nutritional artery for the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The size of the flap harvested ranged between 22 × 9 cm and 32 × 10 cm. Flaps in seven patients survived uneventfully and developed epidermal necrosis at the distal margin in one case. An average 2-year follow-up revealed no recurrence of pressure sores. The composite gluteofemoral flap, being robust in blood supply, simple in surgical procedure, and large in donor territory, is an important addition to the armamentarium. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes of pedaling technique and muscle coordination during an exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Sylvain; Drouet, Jean-Marc; Couturier, Antoine; Champoux, Yvan; Hug, François

    2009-06-01

    Alterations of the mechanical patterns during an exhaustive pedaling exercise have been previously shown. We designed the present study to test the hypothesis that these alterations in the biomechanics of pedaling, which occur during exhaustive exercise, are linked to changes in the activity patterns of lower limb muscles. Ten well-trained cyclists were tested during a limited time to exhaustion, performing 80% of maximal power tolerated. Pedal force components were measured continuously using instrumented pedals and were synchronized with surface EMG signals measured in 10 lower limb muscles. The results confirmed most of the alterations of the mechanical patterns previously described in the literature. The magnitude of the root mean squared of the EMG during the complete cycle (RMScycle) for tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 85% and 75% of Tlim, respectively. A higher RMScycle was obtained for gluteus maximus (P < 0.01) and biceps femoris (P < 0.05) from 75% of Tlim. The k values that resulted from the cross-correlation technique indicated that the activities of six muscles (gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris) were shifted forward in the cycle at the end of the exercise. The large increases in activity for gluteus maximus and biceps femoris, which are in accordance with the increase in force production during the propulsive phase, could be considered as instinctive coordination strategies that compensate for potential fatigue and loss of force of the knee extensors (i.e., vastus lateralis and vastus medialis) by a higher moment of the hip extensors.

  12. Muscle activation patterns of the upper and lower extremity during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary A; Keeley, David W

    2011-06-01

    Fast-pitch softball has become an increasingly popular sport for female athletes. There has been little research examining the windmill softball pitch in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the muscle activation patterns of 3 upper extremity muscles (biceps, triceps, and rhomboids [scapular stabilizers]) and 2 lower extremity muscles (gluteus maximus and medius) during the 5 phases of the windmill softball pitch. Data describing muscle activation were collected on 7 postpubescent softball pitchers (age 17.7 ± 2.6 years; height 169 ± 5.4 cm; mass 69.1 ± 5.4 kg). Surface electromyographic data were collected using a Myopac Jr 10-channel amplifier (RUN Technologies Scientific Systems, Laguna Hills, CA, USA) synchronized with The MotionMonitor™ motion capture system (Innovative Sports Training Inc, Chicago IL, USA) and presented as a percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Gluteus maximus activity reached (196.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]), whereas gluteus medius activity was consistent during the single leg support of phase 3 (101.2% MVIC). Biceps brachii activity was greatest during phase 4 of the pitching motion. Triceps brachii activation was consistently >150% MVIC throughout the entire pitching motion, whereas the scapular stabilizers were most active during phase 2 (170.1% MVIC). The results of this study indicate the extent to which muscles are activated during the windmill softball pitch, and this knowledge can lead to the development of proper preventative and rehabilitative muscle strengthening programs. In addition, clinicians will be able to incorporate strengthening exercises that mimic the timing of maximal muscle activation most used during the windmill pitching phases.

  13. Dynamic factors and electromyographic activity in a sprint start

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    M Čoh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the major dynamic parameters as well as the EMG activation of muscles in a sprint start as the first derivative of sprint velocity. The subject of the analysis was block velocity, the production of force in the front and rear starting blocks, the block acceleration in the first two steps and the electromyographic activity (EMG of the following muscles: the erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, rectus femoris muscle, vastus medialis muscle, vastus lateralis muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle. One international-class female sprinter participated in the experiment. She performed eight starts in constant laboratory conditions. The 3-D kinematic analysis was made using a system of nine Smart-e 600 cameras operating at a frame rate of 60 Hz. Dynamic parameters were established by means of two separate force platforms to which the starting blocks were fixed. A 16-channel electromyograph was used to analyse electromyographic activity (EMG. It was established that the block velocity depended on the absolute force produced in the front and rear starting blocks and that it was 2.84±0.21 m.s-1. The maximal force on the rear and front blocks was 628±34 N and 1023±30 N, respectively. In view of the total impulse (210±11 Ns the force production/time ratio in the rear and front blocks was 34%:66%. The erector spinae muscle, vastus lateralis muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle generate the efficiency of the start. The block acceleration in the first two steps primarily depends on the activation of the gluteus maximus muscle, rectus femoris muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle. A sprint start is a complex motor stereotype requiring a high degree of integration of the processes of central movement regulation and an optimal level of biomotor abilities.

  14. Changes in hip joint muscle-tendon lengths with mode of locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Patrick O; Franz, Jason; Dicharry, Jay; Kerrigan, D Casey

    2010-02-01

    We have reported that peak hip extension is nearly identical in walking and running, suggesting that anatomical constraints, such as flexor muscle tightness may limit the range of hip extension. To obtain a more mechanistic insight into mobility at the hip and pelvis we examined the lengths of the muscle-tendons units crossing the hip joint. Data defining the three-dimensional kinematics of 26 healthy runners at self-selected walking and running speeds were obtained. These data were used to scale and drive musculoskeletal models using OpenSIM. Muscle-tendon unit (MTU) lengths were calculated for the trailing limb illiacus, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, and biceps femoris long head and the advancing limb biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. The magnitude and timing of MTU length peaks were each compared between walking and running. The peak length of the right (trailing limb) illiacus MTU, a pure hip flexor, was nearly identical between walking and running, while the maximum length of the rectus femoris MTU, a hip flexor and knee extensor, increased during running. The maximum length of the left (leading limb) biceps femoris was also unchanged between walking and running. Further, the timing of peak illiacus MTU length and peak contralateral biceps femoris MTU length occurred essentially simultaneously during running, at a time during gait when the hamstrings are most vulnerable to stretch injury. This latter finding suggests exploring the role for hip flexor stretching in combination with hamstring stretching to treat and/or prevent running related hamstring injury. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Regenerative Potential of D-δ-Tocotrienol Rich Fraction on Crushed Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats

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    Bijo Elsy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed muscle growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle in diabetics is believed to be due to diabetic myopathy because of alteration in the skeletal muscle homeostatis. Since vitamin E is a natural antioxidant and is also important for the integrity of sarcolemma, the present study was designed to explore the muscle regenerative potency of d-δ-tocotrienol-rich fraction (d-δ-TRF on crushed skeletal muscle in healthy and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced through single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg. Twenty-four albino rats were divided into four groups; healthy control, diabetic control, healthy treated, and diabetic treated. Treated groups received injections orally, daily (200 mg/kg for 3 weeks. A horizontal skin incision was made on the shaved right mid-thigh region, by splitting the fascia between gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata, and gluteus maximus was crushed with Kocher’s forceps. Skin wound was closed with an absorbable suture. The crushed muscle changes were studied by assessing the histopathological features, histomorphological measurements, and biochemical analyses on 3rd week following induction of injury. One-way “ANOVA” followed by Tukey’s test and Student t-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Results obtained through various methods indicate that the d-δ-TRF treated groups have controlled glycemic status, improved antioxidant capacity, faster revascularization, re-innervation, regeneration of myofibers, and connective tissue remodeling. Conclusion: It is, therefore, concluded that the d-δ-TRF is a beneficial nutritional adjuvant for skeletal muscles’ structural and functional recovery after crushed injury in both healthy and diabetics. [J Interdiscip Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 36-42

  16. An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, India

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    Mahawar Madan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since ancient times. Enormous work has been done on ethnobotany and traditional medicine. Like plants, animal and their products are also possessing medicinal properties that can be exploited for the benefit of human beings. In India, many ethnic communities are dispersed all over the country and these people are still totally depended on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. India is gifted with faunal and floral biodiversity, Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary is also one of them, and thus the aim of this work was to take an ethnozoological field survey among Garasiya people (main tribal group of this area in the adjoining areas of this sanctuary. Method In order to document the ethnozoological information about animal and their products prevalent among these people in the adjoining area of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, a study was carried out from January, 2008 to April, 2008. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 (16 male and 9 female selected Garasiya people. The name of animal and other ethnozoological information were documented. Photographs and discussion were also recorded with the help of camera and voice recorder. Result A total of 24 animal species were used in 35 different medicinal purposes including asthma, weakness, tuberculosis, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious purposes. It has been find out that animal used by Garasiya, consist of fourteen mammals, five birds, three reptiles, one arthropods and one amphibian. The meat of Cynopterus sphinx used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96% although flesh of Sus scrofa and tooth of Elephas maximus have the lowest FL (12%. Some protected species such as Elephas maximus (elephant, Semnopithecus priam (monkey, Cervus unicolor (sambhar were also mentioned as important medicinal

  17. Waterbirds (other than Laridae nesting in the middle section of Laguna Cuyutlán, Colima, México

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    Eric Mellink

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Laguna de Cuyutlán, in the state of Colima, Mexico, is the only large coastal wetland in a span of roughly 1150 km. Despite this, the study of its birds has been largely neglected. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed the waterbirds nesting in the middle portion of Laguna Cuyutlán, a large tropical coastal lagoon, through field visits. We documented the nesting of 15 species of non-Laridae waterbirds: Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Tricolored Egret (Egretta tricolor, Snowy Egret (Egretta thula, Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea, Great Egret (Ardea alba, Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis, Black-crowned Nightheron (Nycticorax nycticorax, Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea, Green Heron (Butorides virescens, Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja, White Ibis (Eudocimus albus, Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis, Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris, Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus, and Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus. These add to six species of Laridae known to nest in that area: Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla, Royal Terns (Thalasseus maximus, Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica, Forster’s Terns (S. forsteri, Least Terns (Sternula antillarum, and Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger, and to at least 57 species using it during the non-breeding season. With such bird assemblages, Laguna Cuyutlán is an important site for waterbirds, which should be given conservation status. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 391-397. Epub 2008 March 31.Durante la prospección de la parte media de la Laguna Cuyutlán, una gran laguna costera en Colima, México, entre 2003 y 2006, documentamos la anidación de 15 especies de aves acuáticas que no pertenecer a la familia Laridae: Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Egretta tricolor, Egretta thula, Egretta caerulea, Ardea alba, Bubulcus ibis, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea, Butorides virescens, Platalea ajaja, Eudocimus albus, Dendrocygna autumnalis, Rallus longirostris

  18. Ácidos grasos, fermentación ruminal y producción de metano, de forrajes de silvopasturas intensivas con Leucaena.

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    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de los forrajes sobre los ácidos grasos de cadena larga, fermentación ruminal y producción de metano de un sistema silvopastoril intensivo de Leucaena leucocephala. La investigación se desarrolló en el laboratorio NUTRILAB–GRICA, perteneciente a la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, de la Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín–Colombia, en julio del 2013. Se utilizó la técnica de producción de gas in vitro, utilizando como sustrato de fermentación las gramíneas (C. plectostachyus y/o M. maximus cv. Tanzania y leucaena (L. leucocephala, solas o en sus combinaciones, con una relación forraje:concentrado 70:30 y gramínea: leucaena 56:14, para un total de siete tratamientos. No se encontró efecto de los forrajes (p>0,05, sobre el contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC, C18:2 c9t11 o ruménico en la digesta. La inclusión de 14% de leucaena aumentó el contenido de ácido linoleico (C18:2 c9, 12 y linolénico (C18:3 c9, 12, 15 en el alimento y de transvaccénico (ATV, C18:1 t11, esteárico (C18:0, linoleico y linolénico en la digesta (p<0,05, y no afectó la cinética de fermentación, digestibilidad de la materia seca (MS, pH, total y proporción de ácidos grasos volátiles, ni redujo la producción de metano. Las gramíneas, C. plectostachyus y M. maximus, se comportaron similar en las variables evaluadas (p>0,05. Los sistemas silvopastoriles pueden ser una opción para aumentar los ácidos grasos benéficos en la leche.

  19. Struktur Vegetasi Kawasan Hutan Alam dan Hutan Rerdegradasi di Taman Nasional Tesso Nilo

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    Andi Kusumo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Hutan Tesso Nilo merupakan kawasan dengan tingkat keanekaragaman tanaman berpembuluh dan merupakan habitat bagi satwa terancam punah yaitu harimau sumatera (Panthera tigris sumatrae dan gajah sumatera (Elephas maximus sumatranus. Kawasan ini tidak luput dari kegiatan perambahan dan di konversi menjadi perkebunan dan permukiman. Pembukaan lahan hutan akan mengakibatkan rusaknya fungsi hutan dan mengakibatkan musnahnya berbagai jenis flora dan fauna. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh perambahan hutan terhadap strukur vegetasi kawasan hutan. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei dengan menggunakan sampling vegetasi petak dalam jalur dilokasi hutan alam dan hutan terdegradasi akibat perambahan. Hasil dianalisis untuk mengetahui kelimpahan vegetasi, indeks nilai penting dan indeks keanekaragaman (Shannon-Wiener. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perambahan hutan mengakibatkan terjadinya perubahan pada struktur vegetasi. Perambahan mengakibatkan penurunan jumlah kelimpahan vegetasi, nilai keanekaragaman, dan dominansi jenis (indeks nilai penting baik pada tingkat semai, pancang, tiang dan pohon. Kata kunci: Taman Nasional Tesso Nilo, struktur vegetasi, perambahan ABSTRACT Tesso Nilo forest is an area with a greater diversity of vascular plants and habitat for an endangered species, namely the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae and the Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus. This area was not spared from encroachment and conversion to plantations and settlements. Forest clearing will cause damage to forest functions and lead to the extinction of various species of flora and fauna. The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences caused by the encroachment of the structure of forest vegetation. The method used was a survey by sampling vegetation plots in the path of the location of natural forests and forests degraded due to encroachment. The results were analyzed to determine the

  20. Muscle Activation During Landing Before and After Fatigue in Individuals With or Without Chronic Ankle Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kathryn A.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Gribble, Phillip A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ankle instability is a common condition in physically active individuals. It often occurs during a jump landing or lateral motion, particularly when participants are fatigued. Objective: To compare muscle activation during a lateral hop prefatigue and postfatigue in individuals with or without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 physically active participants volunteered for the study. Sixteen participants with CAI (8 men, 8 women; age = 20.50 ± 2.00 years, height = 172.25 ± 10.87 cm, mass = 69.13 ± 13.31 kg) were matched with 16 control participants without CAI (8 men, 8 women; age = 22.00 ± 3.30 years, height = 170.50 ± 9.94 cm, mass = 69.63 ± 14.82 kg) by age, height, mass, sex, and affected side. Intervention(s): Electromyography of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus was measured before and after a functional fatigue protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s): Activation of 4 lower extremity muscles was measured 200 milliseconds before and after landing from a lateral hop. Results: We observed no interactions. The group main effects for the peroneus longus demonstrated higher muscle activation in the CAI group (52.89% ± 11.36%) than in the control group (41.12% ± 11.36%) just before landing the lateral hop (F1,30 = 8.58, P = .01), with a strong effect size (d = 1.01). The gluteus maximus also demonstrated higher muscle activation in the CAI group (45.55% ± 12.08%) than in the control group (36.81% ± 12.08%) just before landing the lateral hop (F1,30 = 4.19, P = .049), with a moderate effect size (d = 0.71). We observed a main effect for fatigue for the tibialis anterior, with postfatigue activation higher than prefatigue activation (F1,30 = 7.45, P = .01). No differences were present between groups for the gluteus medius. Conclusions: Our results support the presence of a centralized feed

  1. Herpetofauna de Tacámbaro, Michoacán, México Herpetofauna from Tacámbaro, Michoacán, México

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    Oscar Medina-Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un inventario herpetofaunístico realizado en 2007 y 2008 en 6 tipos de vegetación del municipio de Tacámbaro, Michoacán. Se registró un total de 21 especies de anfibios (8 familias y 58 especies de reptiles (16 familias. Los estimadores de riqueza indican que se registraron entre el 85 y 91% de las especies de anfibios esperadas; entre 77 y 85% de las especies de lagartijas y entre 41 y 78% de las especies de serpientes. En la selva baja caducifolia se registraron 43 especies de anfibios y reptiles, 29 en el bosque espinoso, 17 en el bosque de pino-encino, 13 en el bosque de encino, 12 en el bosque de pino y 7 en el bosque de oyamel. De 79 especies registradas en el municipio, 49 (62% son endémicas de México y 3 del estado de Michoacán. De las especies registradas, 37 (47% se encuentran en la lista de la Norma Oficial Mexicana en alguna categoría de riesgo. La serpiente Leptotyphlops maximus se registra por primera vez para el estado de Michoacán.A herpetofaunistic survey was carried out in 2007 and 2008 in 6 vegetation types in the Municipality of Tacámbaro, state of Michoacán, México. A total of 21 amphibian species (8 families and 58 reptile species (16 families were registered. Species richness estimators indicated that from 85 to 91% of amphibian species, 77 to 85% of lizard species and 41 to 78% of snake species were registered. Forty-three species were registered in tropical deciduous forest, 29 in thorn forest, 17 in pine-oak forest, 13 in oak forest, 12 in pine forest, and 7 in fir forest. Of 79 species registered, 49 (62% are endemic to México and 3 species are endemic to Michoacán. Thirty-seven (47% species are listed in the Norma Oficial Mexicana of threatened species. The snake Leptotyphlops maximus was registered for the first time in Michoacán.

  2. Influence of Bone and Muscle Injuries on the Osteogenic Potential of Muscle Progenitors: Contribution of Tissue Environment to Heterotopic Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molligan, Jeremy; Mitchell, Reed; Schon, Lew; Achilefu, Samuel; Zahoor, Talal; Cho, Young; Loube, Jeffery; Zhang, Zijun

    2016-06-01

    : By using surgical mouse models, this study investigated how the tissue environment influences the osteogenic potential of muscle progenitors (m-progenitors) and potentially contributes to heterotopic ossification (HO). Injury was induced by clamping the gluteus maximus and medius (group M) or osteotomy of greater trochanter (group O) on the right hip, as well as combined muscle injury and osteotomy of greater trochanter (group M+O). The gluteus maximus and medius of the operated hips were harvested at days 1, 3, 5, and 10 for isolation of m-progenitors. The cells were cultured in an osteogenic medium for 3 weeks, and osteogenesis was evaluated by matrix mineralization and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The expression of type I collagen, RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2), and osteocalcin by the m-progenitors of group M+O was significantly increased, compared with groups M and O. Osteogenic m-progenitors in group O increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and also bone morphogenetic protein antagonist differential screening-selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma. On histology, there was calcium deposition mostly in the muscles of group M+O harvested at day 10. CD56, representing myogenic progenitors, was highly expressed in the m-progenitors isolated from group M (day 10), but m-progenitors of group M+O (day 10) exhibited the highest expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFR-α), a marker of muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (M-MSCs). The expressions of PDGFR-α and RUNX2 were colocalized in osteogenic m-progenitors. The data indicate that the tissue environment simulated in the M+O model is a favorable condition for HO formation. Most likely, M-MSCs, rather than myogenic progenitors, in the m-progenitors participate in HO formation. The prevalence of traumatic heterotopic ossification (HO) is high in war injury. The pathogenesis of HO is still unknown. This study clarified the contribution of a

  3. MODERN TAKE-OFF POWER DIAGNOSTICS

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    Milan Čoh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Take-off power is one of the main biomotor abilities for predicting the results of many sport disciplines. It plays a particularly important role in motor situations when the take-off power is combined with the velocity of movement. The core aim of this study was to establish and analyse the fundamental kinematic, dynamic and electromyographic parameters which generate the results of selected take-off power tests. The experimental procedure involved two elite female triple jumpers. According to Bosco’s protocol the following tests were selected: squat jump, countermovement jump and drop jump – 25 cm. The following were analysed: jump height, take-off time, flight time, take-off velocity, maximum take-off force, angle velocity of the ankle, knee and hip joints, force impulse and duration of the eccentric and concen ric phases of take-off. The 3D-kinematic analysis of jumps was based on a system of nine SMART-e 600 video-cameras (BTS Bioengineering, with a 60 Hz frequency and a 768 x 576 pixel resolution. The kinematic parameters were processed using the BTS SMART Suite programme. Dynamic parameters were established by means of two separate force-plat forms, namely Kistler, Type 9286A. The analysis of the electromyographic activity (EMG of the following muscles: m. erector spinae, m. gluteus maximus, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus medialis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, m. tibialis anterior and m. gastrocnemius medialis was made using a 16-channel electromyograph (BTS Pocket EMG, MYOLAB. The research showed that the jump height (h as a criterion of explosive power was generated by: the velocity of take-off, flight time, force impulse in the concentric phase and optimal knee joint angle. The analysis of the EMG activation in vertical jumps showed the proximaldistal principle of muscle activation. In the first phase of the take-off action, the trunk extensors (m. erector spinae and hip extensors (m. gluteus maximus are activated. In the

  4. Estudo comparativo entre o xenodiagnóstico natural e o artificial, em chagásicos crônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelair Helena dos Santos

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados, simultaneamente, os xenodiagnósticos natural e artificial em 57 pacientes chagásicos, na fase crônica, com idades entre 26 e 83 anos, sendo 26 do sexo masculino e 31 do feminino, todos com sorologia reativa. Este estudo teve a finalidade de verificar a sensibilidade do método artificial, visando à sua utilização, em rotina de laboratório. Aplicaram-se 40 Dipetalogaster maximus de 1° estádiopara cada paciente tanto no xmodiagnóstico natural quanto no artificial. O xenodiagnóstico artificial foi significativamente mais sensível do que o natural para detectar o Trypanosoma cruzi, uma aplicaçao do artificial foi igual à do método natural aplicado três vezes. A "xenopositividade'' foi de 35,1%, sendo significativamente maior no sexo masculino, nas faixas etárias de 56 a 65 anos e 66 a 83 anos. Estes resultados mostram a viabilidade e a possibilidade do uso do xenodiagnóstico artificial em rotina de laboratório.In order to study the sensitivity of the xenodiagnosis technique a comparison between natural and artificial xenodiagnosis methods was performed in 57 chronic phase chagasic patients (31 female, with ages ranging from 26 to 83 years. All patients had demonsti-able antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. Forty first instar nymphs of Dipetalogaster maximus were used for each of both methods and for each patient. The positivity of xenodiagnosis artificial was significantly higher than the routine test method. These results did show that a single application of 40 bugs by the artificial method yielded a similar result than 3 applications of 40 bugs each, by the natural method.The positivity of xenodiagnosis was significantly higher in patients between 56-65 and 66-83 years old than at other ages. Males were predominant in this age group. These results showed the viability of artificial xenodiagnosis and its use in routine laboratory testing.

  5. An ethnozoological study in the adjoining areas of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroli, D P; Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Vyas, Nitin

    2010-02-10

    There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since ancient times. Enormous work has been done on ethnobotany and traditional medicine. Like plants, animal and their products are also possessing medicinal properties that can be exploited for the benefit of human beings. In India, many ethnic communities are dispersed all over the country and these people are still totally depended on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. India is gifted with faunal and floral biodiversity, Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary is also one of them, and thus the aim of this work was to take an ethnozoological field survey among Garasiya people (main tribal group of this area) in the adjoining areas of this sanctuary. In order to document the ethnozoological information about animal and their products prevalent among these people in the adjoining area of Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary, a study was carried out from January, 2008 to April, 2008. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 (16 male and 9 female) selected Garasiya people. The name of animal and other ethnozoological information were documented. Photographs and discussion were also recorded with the help of camera and voice recorder. A total of 24 animal species were used in 35 different medicinal purposes including asthma, weakness, tuberculosis, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious purposes. It has been find out that animal used by Garasiya, consist of fourteen mammals, five birds, three reptiles, one arthropods and one amphibian. The meat of Cynopterus sphinx used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96%) although flesh of Sus scrofa and tooth of Elephas maximus have the lowest FL (12%). Some protected species such as Elephas maximus (elephant), Semnopithecus priam (monkey), Cervus unicolor (sambhar) were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We also found that cough, asthma and

  6. Els exempla de Valeri Màxim a la literatura catalana medieval

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    Helena Rovira Cerdà

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverses obres en llengua catalana dels s. XIV-XV contenen nombrosos exempla procedents, de forma directa o indirecta, dels Dictorum factorumque memorabilium libri novem de Valeri Màxim. En aquest article incloem una taula on es localitzen 233 episodis de l’autor romà en 24 obres escrites en català, tant originals com traduccions. A més, analitzem el procés de transmissió dels episodis inclosos en el Memorial del pecador remut de Felip de Malla, la Doctrina compendiosa atribuïda per uns a Francesc Eiximenis i per altres a Ramon Soler, la Doctrina moral de Nicolau de Pacs, el Llibre del joc dels escacs de Jaume de Cèssulis, el Recull d’exemples d’Arnau de Lieja, i altres obres amb una presència més esporàdica d’episodis dels Dicta com ara l’anònim Curial e Güelfa, La nau de Lleonard de Sors i les Flors de virtut e de costums traduïdes per Francesc de Santcliment. Many works written in Catalan during the XIV and XV centuries transmit several exempla from the Dictorum factorumque memorabilium libri novem of Valerius Maximus. In this paper we include a table with the exact location of 233 episodes in 24 Catalan works. Moreover, we examine more deeply the transmission of these episodes in Felip de Malla’s Memorial del pecador remut, the Doctrina compendiosa attributed by some to Francesc Eiximenis and by others to Ramon Soler, the Doctrina moral of Nicolau de Pacs, the Llibre del joc dels escacs of Jacobus de Cessolis, the Recull d’exemples of Arnold of Liége, and some other works with less passages related to Valerius Maximus, as the anonymous Curial e Güelfa, La nau of Lleonard de Sors and the Flors de virtut e de costums translated by Francesc de Santcliment.

  7. Seed dispersal of Diospyros virginiana in the past and the present: Evidence for a generalist evolutionary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebein, Mimi; Davis, Charli N; Abad, Helena; Stone, Taylor; Del Sol, Jillian; Skinner, Natalie; Moran, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon ( Diospyros virginiana ) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon ( Procyon lotor ), Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ), and coyote ( Canis latrans ), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) and alpaca ( Vicugna pacos ). Persimmon seeds excreted by raccoons, coyotes, and elephants survived gut transit. Gut passage did not affect sprouting success, but did tend to decrease time to sprout and increase seedling quality. Under field conditions, persimmon fruits were palatable on the parent tree and on the ground for an equal duration, but most fruits were consumed on the ground. Seven vertebrate species fed upon persimmon fruits, with the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )-a species not capable of dispersing persimmon seeds-comprising over 90% of detections. Conversely, potential living seed dispersers were rarely detected. Our results suggest the American persimmon evolved to attract a variety of seed dispersers and thus is not anachronistic. However, human-induced changes in mammal communities could be affecting successful seed dispersal. We argue that changes in the relative abundance of mammals during the Anthropocene may be modifying seed dispersal patterns, leading to potential changes in forest community composition.

  8. The Effects of Active Straight Leg Raising on Tonicity and Activity of Pelvic Stabilizer Muscles

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    Azadeh Shadmehr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Active straight leg raising (SLR test is advocated as a valid diagnostic method in diagnosis of sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction that can assess the quality of load transfer between trunk and lower limb. The aim of this study is Comparison of changes in tonicity and activity of pelvic stabilizer muscles during active SLR, between healthy individuals and patients with sacroiliac joint pain. Materials & Methods: A case – control study was designed in 26 women (19-50 years old. With use of simple sampling, surface electromyography from rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, adductor longus, erector spine, gluteus maximus and biceps femoris was recorded in 26 subjects (15 healthy females and 11 females with sacroiliac pain in resting position and during active SLR test. Resting muscle tonicity and rms during ramp time and hold time in active SLR test were assessed by non parametric-two independent sample test. Results: Biceps femoris activity in resting position was significantly larger in patients group (P<0.05. During the active SLR, the women with sacroiliac joint pain used much less activity in some pelvic stabilizer muscles compared to the healthy subjects (P<0.05. Conclusion: The increased resting tonicity of biceps femoris and decreased activity of pelvic stabilizer muscles in subjects with sacroiliac joint pain, suggests an alteration in the strategy for lumbopelvic stabilization that may disrupt load transference through the pelvis.

  9. Iliac hyperdense line: a new radiographic sign of gluteal muscle contracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jin-Hua; Gan, Lan-Feng; Zheng, He-Lin; Li, Hao [Chongqing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Chongqing (China)

    2005-10-01

    A hyperdense line on the ilium that runs roughly parallel to the sacroiliac joint (we called it ''iliac hyperdense line sign'') was frequently observed on pelvic radiographs of patients with gluteal muscle contracture (GMC). A literature search revealed no description of this sign. To determine the relationship between the iliac hyperdense line sign and GMC and to explore how this sign is formed. Pelvic plain films of 103 cases of GMC and those of 200 control individuals were reviewed for the presence or absence of the iliac hyperdense line sign. Pelvic CT scans in 8 of 103 cases and 13 of 200 controls were analyzed with relation to the plain films. The iliac hyperdense line sign was visualized in 85 of 103 (82.5%) cases of GMC and none of the 200 controls. In the GMC group, pelvic CT scans showed a deformity of the posterior ilium. The lateral cortex of the posterior ilium took on a partly or completely anteroposterior course, while in the control group the course appeared as an oblique orientation from posteromedial to anterolateral. The iliac hyperdense line on pelvic plain film can be used as a radiographic sign to suggest a diagnosis of GMC. This sign might be a result of the long and persistent pulling effect of the contracted gluteus maximus muscle, which deforms the lateral cortex of the posterior ilium from an oblique course to an anteroposterior course tangential to the X-ray beam. (orig.)

  10. The interface modification for GNWs/Si Schottky junction with PEI/PEIE interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Liu, Xiangzhi; Luo, Wei; Shen, Jun; Wang, Yuefeng; Wei, Dapeng

    2018-03-01

    Polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) and polyethyl-enimine (PEI), the two kinds of interface buffer layer, are widely used in the organic light-emitting diodes and solar cells for band alignment adjustment. In this report, we carefully studied the influence of the inserting organic layer on the graphene nanowalls(GNWS)/Si junction quality and the photoresponse of the Schottky devices. We found that thinner layers of PEI could decrease the dark current and improve the photo-to-dark ratio to 105 for n-Si devices. The s-kink effect and degradation of open circuit voltage could be observed for thicker thickness and excessive doping. Relatively, PEIE with stable thin layer not only improve the rectifying characteristics of p-Si devices but also the incident photon conversion efficiency. The maximus IPCE could reach 44% and be adjusted to zero by the reverse bias. The tunneling inhibition for electrons can be alleviated by increasing the barrier height. Our results provide an attractive method to improve the efficiency of pristine GNWs/Si junction with interface doping and passivation.

  11. Nondestructive Estimation of Muscle Contributions to STS Training with Different Loadings Based on Wearable Sensor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Yong; Yan, Jianchao; Sun, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-25

    Partial body weight support or loading sit-to-stand (STS) rehabilitation can be useful for persons with lower limb dysfunction to achieve movement again based on the internal residual muscle force and external assistance. To explicate how the muscles contribute to the kinetics and kinematics of STS performance by non-invasive in vitro detection and to nondestructively estimate the muscle contributions to STS training with different loadings, a wearable sensor system was developed with ground reaction force (GRF) platforms, motion capture inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) sensors. To estimate the internal moments of hip, knee and ankle joints and quantify the contributions of individual muscle and gravity to STS movement, the inverse dynamics analysis on a simplified STS biomechanical model with external loading is proposed. The functional roles of the lower limb individual muscles (rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GAST)) during STS motion and the mechanism of the muscles' synergies to perform STS-specific subtasks were analyzed. The muscle contributions to the biomechanical STS subtasks of vertical propulsion, anteroposterior (AP) braking and propulsion for body balance in the sagittal plane were quantified by experimental studies with EMG, kinematic and kinetic data.

  12. Voluntary ambulation using voluntary upper limb muscle activity and Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL®) in a patient with complete paraplegia due to chronic spinal cord injury: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yukiyo; Kadone, Hideki; Kubota, Shigeki; Suzuki, Kenji; Saotome, Kousaku; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Abe, Tetsuya; Marushima, Aiki; Watanabe, Hiroki; Endo, Ayumu; Tsurumi, Kazue; Ishimoto, Ryu; Matsushita, Akira; Koda, Masao; Matsumura, Akira; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Hada, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2018-01-19

    We sought to describe our experience with the Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL®) for active knee extension and voluntary ambulation with remaining muscle activity in a patient with complete paraplegia after spinal cord injury. A 30-year-old man with complete paraplegia used the HAL® for 1 month (10 sessions) using his remaining muscle activity, including hip flexor and upper limb activity. Electromyography was used to evaluate muscle activity of the gluteus maximus, tensor fascia lata, quadriceps femoris, and hamstring muscles in synchronization with the Vicon motion capture system. A HAL® session included a knee extension session with the hip flexor and voluntary gait with upper limb activity. After using the HAL® for one month, the patient's manual muscle hip flexor scores improved from 1/5 to 2/5 for the right and from 2/5 to 3/5 for the left knee, and from 0/5 to 1/5 for the extension of both knees. Knee extension sessions with HAL®, and hip flexor and upper-limb-triggered HAL® ambulation seem a safe and feasible option in a patient with complete paraplegia due to spinal cord injury.

  13. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Andrew T; Abercrombie, Debra L; Eng, Rowena; Feldheim, Kevin; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran) in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias). Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins"). Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples).

  14. Isolation and characterization of CXC receptor genes in a range of elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goostrey, Anna; Jones, Gareth; Secombes, Christopher J

    2005-01-01

    The CXC group of chemokines exert their cellular effects via the CXCR group of G-protein coupled receptors. Six CXCR genes have been identified in humans (CXCR1-6), and homologues to some of these have been isolated from a range of vertebrate species. Here we isolate and characterize CXCR genes from a range of elasmobranch species. One CXCR1/2 gene fragment isolated from Scyliorhinus caniculus (lesser spotted catshark), and two CXCR1/2 copies from each of the elasmobranchs, Cetorhinus maximus (basking shark), Carcharodon carcharias (great white shark), and Raja naevus (cuckoo ray), exhibit high similarity to both CXCR1 and CXCR2. The two copies evident in the cuckoo ray and lamniform sharks provide strong evidence of CXCR1/2 lineage specific duplication in rays and sharks. A CXCR fragment isolated from Lamna ditropis (salmon shark) shows high similarity to a range of CXCR4 genes and strong clustering with CXCR4 gene homologues was apparent during phylogenetic reconstruction.

  15. Iliac hyperdense line: a new radiographic sign of gluteal muscle contracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jin-Hua; Gan, Lan-Feng; Zheng, He-Lin; Li, Hao

    2005-01-01

    A hyperdense line on the ilium that runs roughly parallel to the sacroiliac joint (we called it ''iliac hyperdense line sign'') was frequently observed on pelvic radiographs of patients with gluteal muscle contracture (GMC). A literature search revealed no description of this sign. To determine the relationship between the iliac hyperdense line sign and GMC and to explore how this sign is formed. Pelvic plain films of 103 cases of GMC and those of 200 control individuals were reviewed for the presence or absence of the iliac hyperdense line sign. Pelvic CT scans in 8 of 103 cases and 13 of 200 controls were analyzed with relation to the plain films. The iliac hyperdense line sign was visualized in 85 of 103 (82.5%) cases of GMC and none of the 200 controls. In the GMC group, pelvic CT scans showed a deformity of the posterior ilium. The lateral cortex of the posterior ilium took on a partly or completely anteroposterior course, while in the control group the course appeared as an oblique orientation from posteromedial to anterolateral. The iliac hyperdense line on pelvic plain film can be used as a radiographic sign to suggest a diagnosis of GMC. This sign might be a result of the long and persistent pulling effect of the contracted gluteus maximus muscle, which deforms the lateral cortex of the posterior ilium from an oblique course to an anteroposterior course tangential to the X-ray beam. (orig.)

  16. The surgical treatment of sacral radiation ulcer-report of 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzumi, Satoshi; Ootaka, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Fumio; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Hayashi, Satoru; Fujioka, Toshio; Minabe, Toshiharu

    2007-01-01

    We have treated 5 cases of sacral radiation ulcer surgically. All patients with cervical or vulval cancer were treated with external radiotherapy more than 20 years ago. Three patients have rectovaginal fistulas and four patients have osteoradionecrosis of the sacrum. Fecal and/or urinary diversion were accomplished preoperatively in four patients. After debridement of ulcers, these defects were covered by pedicled musculocutaneous flaps. In two of five, marginal necrosis was seen in a great saphenous veno-neuro accompanying artery fasciocutaneous flap and an inferior gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flap. In two of five, seroma was seen. One patient died of the sepsis from pelvic infection with rectal fistula. Among the other four patients, there was no recurrence during the follow up period. The principle for surgically treating radiation ulcer is to completely resect all radionecrotic tissues and cover these defects with well vascularized tissues. It is useful to distinguish damaged tissue from health tissue by MRI. In a case having a rectovaginal fistula, it is recommended that fecal and urinary diversion will be done at first and debridement of ulcer and reconstructive surgery will be done later. (author)

  17. The Treatise on Names from the Nomocanon (Kormchaia of the Kirillo-Belozersk Redaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Belyakova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article for the first time publishes the Treatise on Names from the little known redaction of the nomocanon (Kormchaia. In the Treatise the unknown author protests against the widespread use of non-Christian names in his time, such as Tomilo, Shumilo, etc., and he says that it is unacceptable for a Christian to have any name other than the one he received at baptism. He allows adding to the name only some indications of a person’s trade, his fatherland or place of origin. In this article the author analyzes the manuscript tradition of the Kirillo-Belozersk redaction that occurred no later than the first quarter of the 17th century. The redaction is the shortened text of the Canon norms of the Daniil’s redaction. Thus its composition is expanded by sections addressing real-life problems, such as: icons painted by “infidels,” unrighteous wealth, and impious names. The paper also examines the issue of the attribution of the titles of this version, which historians formerly had ascribed to Maximus the Greek.

  18. Muscle ultrasound elastography and MRI in preschool children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiecchio, Anna; Alessandrino, Francesco; Bortolotto, Chandra; Cerica, Alessandra; Rosti, Cristina; Raciti, Maria Vittoria; Rossi, Marta; Berardinelli, Angela; Baranello, Giovanni; Bastianello, Stefano; Calliada, Fabrizio

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine muscle tissue elasticity, measured with shear-wave elastography, in selected lower limb muscles of patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and to correlate the values obtained with those recorded in healthy children and with muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the same DMD children, specifically the pattern on T1-weighted (w) and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Five preschool DMD children and five age-matched healthy children were studied with shear-wave elastography. In the DMD children, muscle stiffness was moderately higher compared with the muscle stiffness in HC, in the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, adductor magnus and gluteus maximus muscles. On muscle MRI T1-w images showed fatty replacement in 3/5 patients at the level of the GM, while thigh and leg muscles were affected in 2/5; hyperintensity on STIR images was identified in 4/5 patients. No significant correlation was observed between stiffness values and MRI scoring. Our study demonstrated that lower limb muscles of preschool DMD patients show fatty replacement and patchy edema on muscle MRI and increased stiffness on shear-wave elastography. In conclusion, although further studies in larger cohorts are needed, shear-wave elastography could be considered a useful non-invasive tool to easily monitor muscle changes in early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Insights from the Shell Proteome: Biomineralization to Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivalagan, Jaison; Yarra, Tejaswi; Marie, Benjamin; Sleight, Victoria A; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Clark, Melody S; Marie, Arul; Berland, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Bivalves have evolved a range of complex shell forming mechanisms that are reflected by their incredible diversity in shell mineralogy and microstructures. A suite of proteins exported to the shell matrix space plays a significant role in controlling these features, in addition to underpinning some of the physical properties of the shell itself. Although, there is a general consensus that a minimum basic protein tool kit is required for shell construction, to date, this remains undefined. In this study, the shell matrix proteins (SMPs) of four highly divergent bivalves (The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas; the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis; the clam, Mya truncata, and the king scallop, Pecten maximus) were analyzed in an identical fashion using proteomics pipeline. This enabled us to identify the critical elements of a "basic tool kit" for calcification processes, which were conserved across the taxa irrespective of the shell morphology and arrangement of the crystal surfaces. In addition, protein domains controlling the crystal layers specific to aragonite and calcite were also identified. Intriguingly, a significant number of the identified SMPs contained domains related to immune functions. These were often are unique to each species implying their involvement not only in immunity, but also environmental adaptation. This suggests that the SMPs are selectively exported in a complex mix to endow the shell with both mechanical protection and biochemical defense. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

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    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Habitat Use of an Asian Elephant in Sumatra

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    Todd K. Fuller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural and human development has forced Sumatran elephants into relatively small areas, but there is little information on how elephants use these areas and thus, how habitats can be managed to sustain elephants in the future. Using a Global Positioning System (GPS collar and a land cover map developed from TM imagery, we identified the habitats used by a wild adult female elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus in the Seblat Elephant Conservation Center, Bengkulu Province, Sumatra during 2007–2008. The marked elephant (and presumably her 40–60 herd mates used a home range that contained more than expected medium canopy and open canopy land cover. Further, within the home range, closed canopy forests were used more during the day than at night. When elephants were in closed canopy forests they were most often near the forest edge vs. in the forest interior. Effective elephant conservation strategies in Sumatra need to focus on forest restoration of cleared areas and providing a forest matrix that includes various canopy types.

  4. How Big Is It Really? Assessing the Efficacy of Indirect Estimates of Body Size in Asian Elephants.

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    Simon N Chapman

    Full Text Available Information on an organism's body size is pivotal in understanding its life history and fitness, as well as helping inform conservation measures. However, for many species, particularly large-bodied wild animals, taking accurate body size measurements can be a challenge. Various means to estimate body size have been employed, from more direct methods such as using photogrammetry to obtain height or length measurements, to indirect prediction of weight using other body morphometrics or even the size of dung boli. It is often unclear how accurate these measures are because they cannot be compared to objective measures. Here, we investigate how well existing estimation equations predict the actual body weight of Asian elephants Elephas maximus, using body measurements (height, chest girth, length, foot circumference and neck circumference taken directly from a large population of semi-captive animals in Myanmar (n = 404. We then define new and better fitting formulas to predict body weight in Myanmar elephants from these readily available measures. We also investigate whether the important parameters height and chest girth can be estimated from photographs (n = 151. Our results show considerable variation in the ability of existing estimation equations to predict weight, and that the equations proposed in this paper predict weight better in almost all circumstances. We also find that measurements from standardised photographs reflect body height and chest girth after applying minor adjustments. Our results have implications for size estimation of large wild animals in the field, as well as for management in captive settings.

  5. Elephants - a conservation overview

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    H.S. Riddle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of habitat is one of the most significant problems facing elephants worldwide, leading to clashes over resources between wildlife and humans where elephants receive the largest part of blame - defined as Human Elephant Conflict (HEC. The sub-Saharan region of Africa contains an approximate population of 500,000 elephants that occupy 37 range countries. The African Elephant (Loxodonta africana is categorized as Vulnerable in the Red List of Threatened Species; they are listed there as two distinct subspecies: the Savanna Elephant (L. a. africana and the Forest Elephant (L. a. cyclotis. The Red List of Threatened Species categorizes the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus as endangered, and today they are found in 13 range states. The Asian Elephant population is estimated to be 30,000 to 50,000 with approximately 60% of the population being present in India. Due to threats of poaching, the elephant ivory debate has been an important part of recent meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES as Parties have debated proposals for one-time sales of legal government stockpiles of elephant tusks. To maintain elephant populations into the future, long-term and large-scale planning is necessary to ensure adequate space and protection for elephants and people living in elephant habitats.

  6. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise

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    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21–36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t-test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles (Phamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk. PMID:29740557

  7. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author)

  8. Sprint Acceleration Mechanics: The Major Role of Hamstrings in Horizontal Force Production

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    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Gimenez, Philippe; Edouard, Pascal; Arnal, Pierrick; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Brughelli, Matt; Mendiguchia, Jurdan

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024) between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability. PMID:26733889

  9. Sprint acceleration mechanics: the major role of hamstrings in horizontal force production

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    Jean-Benoit eMORIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024 between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability.

  10. An anatomical and histological study of the structures surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bellmunt, Albert; Miguel-Pérez, Maribel; Brugué, Marc Blasi; Cabús, Juan Blasi; Casals, Martí; Martinoli, Carlo; Kuisma, Raija

    2015-06-01

    The proximal attachment of hamstring muscles has a very high incidence of injuries due to a wide number of factors and its morphology may be one of the underlying factors as scientific literature points out. The connective tissue component of the attachment of hamstring muscles is not well known. For this reason the aim of this study is to describe the anatomy and histology surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles (PAHM) and its direct anatomic relations. Forty-eight cryopreserved lower limbs have sequentially been studied by means of dissection, anatomical sections and histology. All specimens studied presented an annular connective tissue structure that resembles a retinaculum, which covers and adapts to the attachment of hamstring muscles on the ischial tuberosity. The results show how this retinaculum is continuous with the long head of biceps femoris muscle, however there is a layer of loose connective tissue between the retinaculum and the semitendinosus muscle. Furthermore, this structure receives expansions of the anterior epimysium of the gluteus maximus muscle (GIM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

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    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  12. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  13. What is hiding behind ontogenic d13C variations in mollusk shells: New insights from scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvaud, L.; Lorrain, A.; Gillikin, D. P.; Thebault, J.; Paulet, Y.; Strand, O.; Blamart, D.; Guarini, J.; Clavier, J.

    2008-12-01

    We examined d13Ccalcite variations along scallop shells (Pecten maximus) sampled in Norway, France and Spain. Time series of shell calcite d13C show a consistent pattern of decreasing d13C with age. This almost linear d13C trend reflects an increasing contribution of metabolic CO2 to skeletal carbonate throughout ontogeny. We have removed this ontogenic trend to try to extract other information from our shell calcite d13C dataset. Scallops from the Bay of Brest (western Brittany, France) were then used to interpret the data as many environmental parameters were available for this site. d13Ccalcite variations were compared to d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and Chl a. The detrended calcite d13C profiles seem to follow a seasonal pattern, but surprisingly are inversely related to the d13C DIC and chlorophyll a concentrations measured within the water column. Theses results suggest that shell d13C variations are not controlled by isotopic variation of DIC. Since scallops eat phytoplankton and microphytobenthos cells, and, as a consequence respire organic mater largely depleted in 13C, we therefore suggest that in mollusk suspension feeders the shell d13Ccalcite might still be used to track the annual number of phytoplankton blooms when d13C values of calcite are detrended. We must consider this trend as a potential biological filter hiding precious environmental records.

  14. Use of inferior gluteal artery and posterior thigh perforators in management of ischial pressure sores with limited donor sites for flap coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Cigdem; Ozdemir, Jale; Yirmibesoglu, Oktay; Yucel, Ergin; Agir, Hakan

    2012-07-01

    Reconstructive surgery for ischial pressure sore defects presents a challenge because of high rates of recurrence. The aim of this study was to describe the use of inferior gluteal artery (IGA) and posterior thigh perforators in management of ischial pressure sores with limited donor sites. Between September 2005 and 2009, 11 patients (9 male, 2 female) with ischial sores were operated by using IGA and posterior thigh perforator flaps. The data of patients included age, sex, cause of paraplegia, flap size, perforator of flap, previous surgeries, recurrences, complications, and postoperative follow-up. Nine IGA and 5 posterior thigh perforator flaps were used. Six patients presented with recurrent lesions, 5 patients were operated for sacral and contralateral ischial pressure sores previously. In 2 patients, IGA and posterior thigh perforator flaps were used in combination. Patients were followed for an average of 34.3 months. In 2 recurrent cases, readvancement of IGA perforator flap and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap were treatment of choice. Treatment of patients with recurrent lesions or multiple pressure sores is challenging because of limited available flap donor sites. In this study, posterior thigh perforator flaps were preferred in patients in whom the previous donor site was the gluteal region. IGA perforator flaps were the treatment of choice in patients for whom posterior thigh region was previously used. Alternately, preserved perforators of previous conventional myocutaneous flaps enabled us to use these perforators in recurrences.

  15. [Surgical issues and outcomes in ischial pressure sores treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulliaume, D; Grecea, M; Viard, R; Brun, A; Comparin, J-P; Foyatier, J-L

    2011-12-01

    Ischiatic pressure sores are frequent in spinal cord injury patients, associated with bad prognosis and high recurrence rate. Many surgical techniques were described, including surgical debridement followed by pedicled flap coverage. We aim to propose a practical decision tree for primary or secondary ischial pressure sore treatment. Our series of 48 operated ischial sores with an average follow up of 4 years (range 2 to 8years) is analyzed and compared to previously published reports. Surgical techniques are discussed according to their specific indications. The optimal recurrence rate in published reports about pressure sore treatment is 20%; a rate inferior to 19% is found in our series, showing the equal importance of flap selection and postoperative care and education. Depending on each situation, various available flaps are described and compared: gluteus maximus flap, biceps femoris flap, gracilis flap, tensor fascia lata flap, fasciocutaneous thigh flaps, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis flap, rectus abdominis flap. Specific surgical indications for more extensive wounds are studied: resection arthroplasty of the hip, hip disarticulation, fillet flaps from the leg, microsurgery. Based upon our experience, a decision tree summarizes our proposition of flap selection, depending on the wound size and the patient background. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Sacral pressure sores and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Marek; Skowroński, Rafał; Skowroński, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Sacral bed sores still present a serious problem in most surgery departments. They occur mainly in elderly patients of limited mobility. The treatment of such sores extends over long periods of time and therefore involves considerable costs. The material consisted of 11 sacral pressure ulcers treated surgically. The sores occurred in 4 severely disabled patients suffering from proximal third femur fractures, 4 patients with traumatic brain injury (treated in the Intensive Care Unit), and 3 patients suffering from bed sores after spinal cord injury. In 6 patients a fasciocutaneous flap was applied to the sores and in 5 cases a pedicled musculocutaneous gluteus maximus flap. The end results were assessed using Seiler's criteria. Complications of the "seroma" type were observed in 3 patients, and in 2 marginal necrosis. In all our patients complete healing was achieved within 2-4 weeks. On analysing our experience to date in surgical treatment of bed sores we are of the opinion that even extensive sacral sores can be covered with unilateral pedicled flaps provided that they are appropriately planned. Deep sores of the 4th degree sometimes with concomitant osteomyelitis require pedicled muscle flaps or in some cases musculocutaneous flaps to improve local circulation. The preparation of the patient for reconstruction surgery is just as important as the operation itself and therefore such preparation should never be neglected.

  17. Monitoring and controlling ovarian activity in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitaram, Chatchote; Brown, Janine L

    2018-03-15

    Both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants are important keystone, umbrella and flagship species. Paradoxically, world population numbers of both species are declining in many of their natural ranges due mainly to poaching, while over population of elephants in some areas is resulting in serious human-elephant conflict, and modifications of natural habitats that impact biodiversity. Understanding mechanisms of reproductive control is vital to effective population management, and for that reason significant advances have been made in endocrine and ultrasonographic monitoring techniques, particularly in studies of elephants ex situ. However, there remains a need to develop new methods to control ovarian activity, both for enhancing and inhibiting reproduction, to maintain population numbers at levels that ensure species survival and their ability to safely cohabitate with humans and other species. We present an overview of reproductive monitoring methods and how they have contributed to our knowledge of elephant reproductive biology, as well as their application for in situ and ex situ conservation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in gluteal muscle forces with alteration of footstrike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Charles Nathan; Kernozek, Thomas W; Gheidi, Naghmeh

    2017-10-01

    Gait retraining is a common form of treatment for running related injuries. Proximal factors at the hip have been postulated as having a role in the development of running related injuries. How altering footstrike affects hip muscles forces and kinematics has not been described. Thus, we aimed to quantify differences in hip muscle forces and hip kinematics that may occur when healthy runners are instructed to alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rear-foot strike to a forefoot strike. This may gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of running related lower extremity injury. Twenty-five healthy female runners completed a minimum of 10 running trials in a controlled laboratory setting under rear-foot strike and instructed forefoot strike conditions. Kinetic and kinematic data were used in an inverse dynamic based static optimization to estimate individual muscle forces during running. Within subject differences were investigated using a repeated measures multi-variate analysis of variance. Peak gluteus medius and minimus and hamstring forces were reduced while peak gluteus maximus force was increased when running with an instructed forefoot strike pattern. Peak hip adduction, hip internal rotation, and heel-COM distance were also reduced. Therefore, instructing habitual rearfoot strike runners to run with a forefoot strike pattern resulted in changes in peak gluteal and hamstring muscle forces and hip kinematics. These changes may be beneficial to the development and treatment of running related lower extremity injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On the Origins of the Lubok Text The Register of Dames and Handsome Maidens

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    Alexandra A. Pletneva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the attempts to identify the prototype and the sources of The Register of Dames and Handsome Maidens, which was part of the lubok tradition of the 17th–18th centuries. This text is a list of female proper names provided with humorous commentaries. The satirical texts of the 17th century frequently replicate the structure of the documents and literary texts of those times. Some satirical texts represent the structure of church services, an alphabet prayer, a petition, etc. Among the manuscript and lubok texts of the 17th–18th centuries, there is a significant number of texts which include lists of names with humorous characteristics. These texts may be dated back to the Old Russian dictionaries of proper names, e.g., the Commentaries on the Names in Alphabetical Order by Maximus the Greek. Unlike the other texts organized as lists of names, The Register of Dames is related to the wedding ritual, and its probable source can be identified as the register of potential brides for Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich, which was compiled in 1669-1670, when Tsar Alexey was planning to marry for a second time. The text of the Register includes all but two of the names that appear in the probable prototype, including rather rare names. Furthermore, the name Natalia—that is, the tsar’s future wife—is particularly emphasized.

  20. An Analysis of Muscle Activities of Healthy Women during Pilates Exercises in a Prone Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Jemyung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Haroo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.

  1. Altered muscular activation during prone hip extension in women with and without low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Amir M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered movement pattern has been associated with the development of low back pain (LBP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity pattern of the ipsilateral erector spinae (IES and contralateral erectorspinae (CES, gluteus maximus (GM and hamstring (HAM muscles during prone hip extension (PHE test in women with and without LBP. A cross-sectional non-experimental design was used. Methods Convenience sample of 20 female participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: with LBP (n = 10 and without LBP (n = 10. The electromyography (EMG signal amplitude of the tested muscles during PHE (normalized to maximum voluntary electrical activity (MVE was measured in the dominant lower extremity in all subjects. Results Statistical analysis revealed greater normalized EMG signal amplitude in women with LBP compared to non-LBP women. There was significant difference in EMG activity of the IES (P = 0.03 and CES (P = 0.03 between two groups. However, no significant difference was found in EMG signals of the GM (P = 0.11 and HAM (P = 0.14 among two groups. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrated altered activation pattern of the lumbo-pelvic muscles during PHE in the women with chronic LBP. This information is important for investigators using PHE as either an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  2. Distraction manipulation reduction of an L5-S1 disk herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J M; Hazen, L J; Mungovan, M

    1993-06-01

    A computed tomography (CT)-confirmed L5-S1 disk protrusion is reported to be reduced following chiropractic adjustment, as seen on repeat CT scanning. Correlation of the CT reports with the patient's symptoms before and after manipulation is reported. A 38-yr-old female was treated for low back pain and right lower extremity first sacral dermatome sciatica. CT confirmed disk herniations at both the L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels were found. Motor weakness of the right gluteus maximus muscle was found and extremely tight hamstring muscles accompanying positive straight leg signs were elicited. A clinical and imaging diagnosis of an L5-S1 disk herniation was made. Distraction type chiropractic manipulation, electrical stimulation, exercises, nutrition advice and low back wellness class were administered with complete relief of sciatic pain and nearly complete relief of low back pain. Chiropractic distraction manipulation is an effective treatment of lumbar disk herniation, if the chiropractor is observant during its administration for patient tolerance to manipulation under distraction and any signs of neurological deficit demanding other types of care.

  3. Altered muscular activation during prone hip extension in women with and without low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Amir M; Ghamkhar, Leila; Emami, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad R

    2011-08-14

    Altered movement pattern has been associated with the development of low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity pattern of the ipsilateral erector spinae (IES) and contralateral erectorspinae (CES), gluteus maximus (GM) and hamstring (HAM) muscles during prone hip extension (PHE) test in women with and without LBP. A cross-sectional non-experimental design was used. Convenience sample of 20 female participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: with LBP (n = 10) and without LBP (n = 10). The electromyography (EMG) signal amplitude of the tested muscles during PHE (normalized to maximum voluntary electrical activity (MVE)) was measured in the dominant lower extremity in all subjects. Statistical analysis revealed greater normalized EMG signal amplitude in women with LBP compared to non-LBP women. There was significant difference in EMG activity of the IES (P = 0.03) and CES (P = 0.03) between two groups. However, no significant difference was found in EMG signals of the GM (P = 0.11) and HAM (P = 0.14) among two groups. The findings of this study demonstrated altered activation pattern of the lumbo-pelvic muscles during PHE in the women with chronic LBP. This information is important for investigators using PHE as either an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  4. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey-Karl, Monika; Lehmann, Ines; Ostermeyer, Ute; Schröder, Ute

    2016-01-01

    To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg−1) were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable. PMID:28231154

  5. The effects of habitat fragmentation on extinction risk: Mechanisms and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Reed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Across the globe, much current research reflects concerns over the effect of habitat fragmentation on the viability of species and populations. This is an immediate and important concern for the Kingdom of Thailand, where decisions about land use are at a critical juncture. Thailand is in danger of losing species that play a special role in Thai culture and history such as the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus and the tiger (Panthera tigris. We provide a selective review and synthesis of the effects of habitat fragmentation on extinction risk. Our emphasis is on objectives, causal mechanisms, and the validity of some of the arguments that have been made in the debate. Heuristic models are explored to elucidate mechanisms that may affect populations in fragmented landscapes and we point out gaps in our knowledge of this important and complicated question. Our synthesis of the current evidence suggests that fragmenting landscapes usually increases the risk of extinction, especially as the isolation of patches increases or the size of patches decreases. The Kingdom of Thailand, and other countries facing similar circumstances, should seek to connect isolated patches of habitat in order to better protect their remaining biodiversity.

  6. Encounter success of free-ranging marine predator movements across a dynamic prey landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David W; Witt, Matthew J; Richardson, Anthony J; Southall, Emily J; Metcalfe, Julian D

    2006-05-22

    Movements of wide-ranging top predators can now be studied effectively using satellite and archival telemetry. However, the motivations underlying movements remain difficult to determine because trajectories are seldom related to key biological gradients, such as changing prey distributions. Here, we use a dynamic prey landscape of zooplankton biomass in the north-east Atlantic Ocean to examine active habitat selection in the plankton-feeding basking shark Cetorhinus maximus. The relative success of shark searches across this landscape was examined by comparing prey biomass encountered by sharks with encounters by random-walk simulations of 'model' sharks. Movements of transmitter-tagged sharks monitored for 964 days (16754 km estimated minimum distance) were concentrated on the European continental shelf in areas characterized by high seasonal productivity and complex prey distributions. We show movements by adult and sub-adult sharks yielded consistently higher prey encounter rates than 90% of random-walk simulations. Behavioural patterns were consistent with basking sharks using search tactics structured across multiple scales to exploit the richest prey areas available in preferred habitats. Simple behavioural rules based on learned responses to previously encountered prey distributions may explain the high performances. This study highlights how dynamic prey landscapes enable active habitat selection in large predators to be investigated from a trophic perspective, an approach that may inform conservation by identifying critical habitat of vulnerable species.

  7. Changes in Lumbopelvic Movement and Muscle Recruitment Associated with Prolonged Deep Squatting: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K. S. Lui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the changes in spinal kinematics and muscle recruitment of the lumbopelvic region associated with prolonged squatting. Eight subjects with chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP and eight asymptomatic subjects (AS performed squat-to-stand and reverse movements, before and immediately after 15 min deep-squatting. Within-group and between-group differences in lumbopelvic kinematics and electromyographic activity acquired in lumbar erector spinae (ES, gluteus maximus (GM, and vastus lateralis (VL were analyzed. During squat-to-stand after squatting, the LBP group showed slower then faster lumbar movement in the second and third quartiles, respectively. In the second quartile, the AS group moved with a significantly greater lumbar angle. However, significantly greater bilateral GM activity (+4–4.5% was found in the LBP group only. A more profound decrease in bilateral ES activity (−10% was also shown in the LBP group, yet this was nonsignificant compared to the AS group (−4%. In the third quartile, only the LBP group moved with a significantly greater lumbar angle, together with a significant increase in bilateral ES (+6–8% and GM muscle (+2–3% activity. The findings of the altered pattern of joint kinematics and recruitment of the key lumbopelvic muscles displayed in the LBP group inform on the possible mechanisms that may contribute to the increased risk of developing lumbar dysfunctions for people who work in prolonged squatting postures.

  8. Heat storage in Asian elephants during submaximal exercise: behavioral regulation of thermoregulatory constraints on activity in endothermic gigantotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M F; Bakken, G S; Ratliff, J J; Langman, V A

    2013-05-15

    Gigantic size presents both opportunities and challenges in thermoregulation. Allometric scaling relationships suggest that gigantic animals have difficulty dissipating metabolic heat. Large body size permits the maintenance of fairly constant core body temperatures in ectothermic animals by means of gigantothermy. Conversely, gigantothermy combined with endothermic metabolic rate and activity likely results in heat production rates that exceed heat loss rates. In tropical environments, it has been suggested that a substantial rate of heat storage might result in a potentially lethal rise in core body temperature in both elephants and endothermic dinosaurs. However, the behavioral choice of nocturnal activity might reduce heat storage. We sought to test the hypothesis that there is a functionally significant relationship between heat storage and locomotion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and model the thermoregulatory constraints on activity in elephants and a similarly sized migratory dinosaur, Edmontosaurus. Pre- and post-exercise (N=37 trials) measurements of core body temperature and skin temperature, using thermography were made in two adult female Asian elephants at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA, USA. Over ambient air temperatures ranging from 8 to 34.5°C, when elephants exercised in full sun, ~56 to 100% of active metabolic heat production was stored in core body tissues. We estimate that during nocturnal activity, in the absence of solar radiation, between 5 and 64% of metabolic heat production would be stored in core tissues. Potentially lethal rates of heat storage in active elephants and Edmontosaurus could be behaviorally regulated by nocturnal activity.

  9. DNA barcode identification of commercial fish sold in Mexican markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Camacho, Stephanie; Valdez-Moreno, Martha

    2018-04-24

    The substitution of high-value fish species for those of lower value is common practice. Although numerous studies have addressed this issue, few have been conducted in Mexico. In this study, we sought to identify fresh fillets of fish, sharks, and rays using DNA barcodes. We analyzed material from "La Viga" in Mexico City, and other markets located on the Gulf and Caribbean coasts of Mexico. From 134 samples, we obtained sequences from 129, identified to 9 orders, 28 families, 38 genera, and 44 species. The most common species were Seriola dumerili, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Carcharhinus brevipinna, and Hypanus americanus. Pangasianodon hypophthalmus was most commonly used as a substitute for higher-value species. The substitution rate was 18% of the total. A review of the conservation status of the specimens identified against the IUNC list enabled us to establish that some species marketed in Mexico are threatened: Makaira nigricans, Lachnolaimus maximus, Hyporthodus flavolimbatus, and Isurus oxyrinchus are classified as vulnerable; Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps and Sphyrna lewini are endangered; and the status of Hyporthodus nigritus is critical. These results will demonstrate to the Mexican authorities that DNA barcoding is a reliable tool for species identification, even when morphological identification is difficult or impossible.

  10. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  11. One-dimensional chain of quantum molecule motors as a mathematical physics model for muscle fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Tie-Yan

    2015-01-01

    A quantum chain model of multiple molecule motors is proposed as a mathematical physics theory for the microscopic modeling of classical force-velocity relation and tension transients in muscle fibers. The proposed model was a quantum many-particle Hamiltonian to predict the force-velocity relation for the slow release of muscle fibers, which has not yet been empirically defined and was much more complicated than the hyperbolic relationships. Using the same Hamiltonian model, a mathematical force-velocity relationship was proposed to explain the tension observed when the muscle was stimulated with an alternative electric current. The discrepancy between input electric frequency and the muscle oscillation frequency could be explained physically by the Doppler effect in this quantum chain model. Further more, quantum physics phenomena were applied to explore the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. Most of the experimental tension transient curves were found to correspond to the theoretical output of quantum two- and three-level models. Mathematical modeling electric stimulus as photons exciting a quantum three-level particle reproduced most of the tension transient curves of water bug Lethocerus maximus. (special topic)

  12. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  13. The symbiotic intestinal ciliates and the evolution of their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; van der Staay, Georg W M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Pristas, Peter; Javorský, Peter; Kišidayová, Svetlana; Varadyova, Zora; McEwan, Neil R; Newbold, C Jamie; van Alen, Theo; de Graaf, Rob; Schmid, Markus; Huynen, Martijn A; Hackstein, Johannes H P

    2014-04-01

    The evolution of sophisticated differentiations of the gastro-intestinal tract enabled herbivorous mammals to digest dietary cellulose and hemicellulose with the aid of a complex anaerobic microbiota. Distinctive symbiotic ciliates, which are unique to this habitat, are the largest representatives of this microbial community. Analyses of a total of 484 different 18S rRNA genes show that extremely complex, but related ciliate communities can occur in the rumen of cattle, sheep, goats and red deer (301 sequences). The communities in the hindgut of equids (Equus caballus, Equus quagga), and elephants (Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africanus; 162 sequences), which are clearly distinct from the ruminant ciliate biota, exhibit a much higher diversity than anticipated on the basis of their morphology. All these ciliates from the gastro-intestinal tract constitute a monophyletic group, which consists of two major taxa, i.e. Vestibuliferida and Entodiniomorphida. The ciliates from the evolutionarily older hindgut fermenters exhibit a clustering that is specific for higher taxa of their hosts, as extant species of horse and zebra on the one hand, and Africa and Indian elephant on the other hand, share related ciliates. The evolutionary younger ruminants altogether share the various entodiniomorphs and the vestibuliferids from ruminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between gluteal muscle activation and upper extremity kinematics and kinetics in softball position players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D

    2014-03-01

    As the biomechanical literature concerning softball pitching is evolving, there are no data to support the mechanics of softball position players. Pitching literature supports the whole kinetic chain approach including the lower extremity in proper throwing mechanics. The purpose of this project was to examine the gluteal muscle group activation patterns and their relationship with shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics during the overhead throwing motion of softball position players. Eighteen Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association softball players (19.2 ± 1.0 years; 68.9 ± 8.7 kg; 168.6 ± 6.6 cm) who were listed on the active playing roster volunteered. Electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic data were collected while players caught a simulated hit or pitched ball and perform their position throw. Pearson correlation revealed a significant negative correlation between non-throwing gluteus maximus during the phase of maximum external rotation to maximum internal rotation (MIR) and elbow moments at ball release (r = -0.52). While at ball release, trunk flexion and rotation both had a positive relationship with shoulder moments at MIR (r = 0.69, r = 0.82, respectively) suggesting that the kinematic actions of the pelvis and trunk are strongly related to the actions of the shoulder during throwing.

  15. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea

  16. Effect of squatting velocity on hip muscle latency in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Chavez, Ignacio; Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    [Purpose] Neuromuscular activity has been evaluated in patellofemoral pain syndrome but movement velocity has not been considered. The aim was to determine differences in onset latency of hip and knee muscles between individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome during a single leg squat, and whether any differences are dependent on movement velocity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four females with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 24 healthy females participated. Onset latency of gluteus maximus, anterior and posterior gluteus medius, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during a single leg squat at high and low velocity were evaluated. [Results] There was an interaction between velocity and diagnosis for posterior gluteus medius. Healthy subjects showed a later posterior gluteus medius onset latency at low velocity than high velocity; and also later than patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects at low velocity and high velocity. [Conclusion] Patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects presented an altered latency of posterior gluteus medius during a single leg squat and did not generate adaptations to velocity variation, while healthy subjects presented an earlier onset latency in response to velocity increase.

  17. Different histories of two highly variable LTR retrotransposons in sunflower species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Cavallini, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Natali, Lucia

    2017-11-15

    In the Helianthus genus, very large intra- and interspecific variability related to two specific retrotransposons of Helianthus annuus (Helicopia and SURE) exists. When comparing these two sequences to sunflower sequence databases recently produced by our lab, the Helicopia family was shown to belong to the Maximus/SIRE lineage of the Sirevirus genus of the Copia superfamily, whereas the SURE element (whose superfamily was not even previously identified) was classified as a Gypsy element of the Ogre/Tat lineage of the Metavirus genus. Bioinformatic analysis of the two retrotransposon families revealed their genomic abundance and relative proliferation timing. The genomic abundance of these families differed significantly among 12 Helianthus species. The ratio between the abundance of long terminal repeats and their reverse transcriptases suggested that the SURE family has relatively more solo long terminal repeats than does Helicopia. Pairwise comparisons of Illumina reads encoding the reverse transcriptase domain indicated that SURE amplification may have occurred more recently than that of Helicopia. Finally, the analysis of population structure based on the SURE and Helicopia polymorphisms of 32 Helianthus species evidenced two subpopulations, which roughly corresponded to species of the Helianthus and Divaricati/Ciliares sections. However, a number of species showed an admixed structure, confirming the importance of interspecific hybridisation in the evolution of this genus. In general, these two retrotransposon families differentially contributed to interspecific variability, emphasising the need to refer to specific families when studying genome evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Severe scuticociliate (Philasterides dicentrarchi) infection in a population of sea dragons (Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossteuscher, S; Wenker, C; Jermann, T; Wahli, T; Oldenberg, E; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2008-07-01

    Scuticociliatosis is a disease of fish induced by ciliated parasites of the genus Scuticociliatida. It has been described in sea horses (Hippocampus sp.), flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus), and turbots (Scophthalmus maximus). Here we present a case study of a population of sea dragons chronically infected with scuticociliates identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi by histopathology and PCR. Beginning in 2004, over a period of 19 months, 10 sea dragons (Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) were found dead in an aquarium of the Zoological Garden Basle, Switzerland. Clinically, the animals showed only faint symptoms of disease over a short period of time. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were confined to the skin with multiple, often hemorrhagic, ulcerations. Histologically, epidermal ulcers were associated with necrosis and inflammation of the underlying dermis and musculature. Numerous ciliates, with a morphology consistent with scuticociliates, were present in these lesions. In several animals these ciliates had invaded blood vessels and were detected in gills and internal organs including kidney, thyroid gland, and central nervous system (CNS). In these organs, mild degenerative lesions and inflammatory reactions were evident. The ciliates were identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) gene sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Our report shows that scuticociliate infections of sea dragons can develop into a systemic infection and that both species of sea dragons can be affected.

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT): A New Method to Assess Hip Posterolateral Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; das Neves Rodrigues, Helena Larissa; de Freitas, Bruno Wesley; de Paula Lima, Pedro Olavo

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background The Hip Stability Isometric Test (HipSIT) evaluates the strength of the hip posterolateral stabilizers in a position that favors greater activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius and lower activation of the tensor fascia lata. Objectives To check the validity and reliability of the HipSIT and to evaluate the HipSIT in women with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Methods The HipSIT was evaluated with a handheld dynamometer. During testing, the participants were sidelying, with their legs positioned at 45° of hip flexion and 90° of knee flexion. Participants were instructed to raise the knee of the upper leg while keeping the upper and lower heels in contact. To establish reliability and validity, 49 women were tested with the HipSIT by 2 different evaluators on day 1, and then again 7 days later. The strength of the hip extensors, abductors, and external rotators was also evaluated. Twenty women with unilateral PFP were also evaluated. Results The HipSIT has excellent intrarater and interrater reliability. The standard error of measurement was 0.01 kgf/kg, and the minimal detectable change was 0.036 kgf/kg. The HipSIT showed good validity in isolated hip abduction, external rotation, and extension (Pstrength deficits in women with PFP. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):906-913. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7274.

  20. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Fields

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias. Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins". Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples.

  1. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  2. Computed tomographic findings of skeletal muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Terukuni; Sadashima, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Kusaka, Hirobumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Tanabe, Masaya (Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    We evaluated the Computed Tomographic (CT) findings of skeletal muscles in 12 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 case of spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), and 1 case of Kugelberg-Welander disease. CT examination was performed in the neck, shoulders, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, and lower legs, 15 muscles were selected for evaluation. The following muscles tended to be affected: m. transversospinalis (12 cases were abnormal), m. deltoideus (10), m. subscapularis (10), m. infraspinatus (10), mm. dorsi (12), hamstring muscles (14), m. tibialis anterior (14), and m. triceps surae (14). On the contrary, the following muscles tended to be preserved: m. sternocleidomastoideus (only 7 cases were abnormal), m. psoas major (7), m. gluteus maximus (7), m. rectus femoris (7), m. sartorius (7) and m. gracilis (6). The distribution of the muscles affected showed neither proximal nor distal dominancy. As the disease advanced, however, all the muscles became affected without any severity. CT findings of skeletal muscles in ALS were characterized by muscle atrophy and fat infiltration, which showed a patchy, linear, or moth-eaten appearance. In mildly affected cases, there was muscle atrophy without internal architectual changes. In moderately affected cases, muscle atrophy advanced and internal architectural changes (patchy, linear, and moth-eaten fat infiltration) became evident. In most advanced cases, every muscle showed a ragged appearance because of severe muscle atrophy and internal architectural changes. These findings were well distinguished from those of SPMA, which resembled the CT pattern of primary muscle diseases. (author).

  3. The role of salinity in the trophic transfer of 137Cs in euryhaline fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouil, Simon; Oberhänsli, François; Swarzenski, Peter W; Bustamante, Paco; Metian, Marc

    2018-09-01

    In order to better understand the influence of changing salinity conditions on the trophic transfer of 137 Cs in marine fish that live in dynamic coastal environments, its depuration kinetics was investigated in controlled aquaria. The juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus was acclimated to three distinct salinity conditions (10, 25 and 38) and then single-fed with compounded pellets that were radiolabelled with 137 Cs. At the end of a 21-d depuration period, assimilation efficiencies (i.e. AEs = proportion of 137 Cs ingested that is actually assimilated by turbots) were determined from observational data acquired over the three weeks. Our results showed that AEs of 137 Cs in the turbots acclimated to the highest salinity condition were significantly lower than for the other conditions (p < 0.05). Osmoregulation likely explains the decreasing AE observed at the highest salinity condition. Indeed, observations indicate that fish depurate ingested 137 Cs at a higher rate when they increase ion excretion, needed to counterbalance the elevated salinity. Such data confirm that ambient salinity plays an important role in trophic transfer of 137 Cs in some fish species. Implications for such findings extend to seafood safety and climate change impact studies, where the salinity of coastal waters may shift in future years in response to changing weather patterns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New minimally invasive option for the treatment of gluteal muscle contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bin; Zhou, Panyu; Xia, Yan; Chen, Youyan; Yu, Jun; Xu, Shuogui

    2012-12-01

    Gluteal muscle contracture is a clinical syndrome that involves contracture and distortion of the gluteal muscles and fascia fibers due to multiple causes. Physical examination demonstrates a characteristic gait due to hip adduction and internal thigh rotation. This study introduces a new minimally invasive method for surgical release of gluteal muscle contracture. Patients with gluteal muscle contracture were assigned to 4 categories: type A, contracture occurred mainly in the iliotibial tract; type B, contracture occurred in the Iliotibial tract and gluteus maximus; type C1, movement of the contraction band was palpable and a snapping sound was audible during squatting; and type C2, movement of the contraction band was not palpable or almost absent and a snapping sound was audible during squatting. This classification method allowed prediction of the anatomic location of these pathological contractures and determination of the type of surgery required. Four critical points were used to define the operative field and served as points to mark a surgical incision smaller than 4 mm. The contracture was easily released in this carefully marked operative field without causing significant neurovascular damage. Over a period of 5 years, between March 2003 and June 2008, the authors treated 1059 patients with this method and achieved excellent outcomes. Most patients were fully active within 12 weeks, with the assistance of an early postoperative rehabilitation program. The most significant complication was a postoperative periarticular hematoma, which occurred in 3 patients within 10 days postoperatively and required surgical ligation of the bleeding vessel. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Specific tackling situations affect the biomechanical demands experienced by rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Preatoni, Ezio; Trewartha, Grant

    2017-03-01

    Tackling in Rugby Union is an open skill which can involve high-speed collisions and is the match event associated with the greatest proportion of injuries. This study aimed to analyse the biomechanics of rugby tackling under three conditions: from a stationary position, with dominant and non-dominant shoulder, and moving forward, with dominant shoulder. A specially devised contact simulator, a 50-kg punch bag instrumented with pressure sensors, was translated towards the tackler (n = 15) to evaluate the effect of laterality and tackling approach on the external loads absorbed by the tackler, on head and trunk motion, and on trunk muscle activities. Peak impact force was substantially higher in the stationary dominant (2.84 ± 0.74 kN) than in the stationary non-dominant condition (2.44 ± 0.64 kN), but lower than in the moving condition (3.40 ± 0.86 kN). Muscle activation started on average 300 ms before impact, with higher activation for impact-side trapezius and non-impact-side erector spinae and gluteus maximus muscles. Players' technique for non-dominant-side tackles was less compliant with current coaching recommendations in terms of cervical motion (more neck flexion and lateral bending in the stationary non-dominant condition) and players could benefit from specific coaching focus on non-dominant-side tackles.

  6. Reliability and fatigue characteristics of a standing hip isometric endurance protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Jessica A; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Hoch, Matthew C; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2015-08-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common consideration when evaluating and rehabilitating athletic injuries. The presence of muscular fatigue has been previously determined by quantifying median frequency (MF) through a power spectral analysis on EMG signals collected throughout an endurance task. Research has not yet determined if a prolonged isometric test in a standing position generates muscular fatigue of the hip. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and fatigue characteristics of a standing hip isometric endurance test. Twenty healthy participants completed one 60-s Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction of standing hip flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction. MF of the participants' dominant limb rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and adductor longus (ADD) was determined via surface electromyography during two sessions, 30-min apart. Reliability values (ICC2,1) were moderate-to-excellent for all time intervals of each action (FlexionRF: >0.80; ExtensionBF: >0.89; ExtensionGMax: >0.60; AdductionADD: >0.78; AbductionGMed: >0.60) and MF significantly decreased over time for all actions. Results suggest the endurance test is a reliable technique to generate muscular fatigue for hip flexion, extension, adduction and abduction. It can be used as a time efficient fatigue protocol specific to the RF, BF, GMax, ADD and GMed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is muscle coordination affected by loading condition in ballistic movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Caroline; Guilhem, Gaël; Couturier, Antoine; Chollet, Didier; Rabita, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of loading on lower limb muscle coordination involved during ballistic squat jumps. Twenty athletes performed ballistic squat jumps on a force platform. Vertical force, velocity, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles were recorded during the push-off phase and compared between seven loading conditions (0-60% of the concentric-only maximal repetition). The increase in external load increased vertical force (from 1962 N to 2559 N; P=0.0001), while movement velocity decreased (from 2.5 to 1.6 ms(-1); P=0.0001). EMG activity of tibialis anterior first peaked at 5% of the push-off phase, followed by gluteus maximus (35%), vastus lateralis and soleus (45%), rectus femoris (55%), gastrocnemius lateralis (65%) and semitendinosus (75%). This sequence of activation (P=0.67) and the amplitude of muscle activity (P=0.41) of each muscle were not affected by loading condition. However, a main effect of muscle was observed on these parameters (peak value: Ppush-off phase. Our findings suggest that muscle coordination is not influenced by external load during a ballistic squat jump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraosseous migration of tendinous calcifications: cortical erosions, subcortical migration and extensive intramedullary diffusion, a SIMS series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malghem, Jacques; Omoumi, Patrick; Lecouvet, Frederic; Berg, Bruno vande [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de radiologie et d' imagerie medicale, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a common disorder, which sometimes causes acute pain as calcifications dissolve and migrate into adjacent soft tissue. Intraosseous calcium penetration has also been described. We illustrate the appearance of these lesions using a series of 35 cases compiled by members of the French Society of Musculoskeletal Imaging (Societe d'Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, SIMS). The first group in our series (7 cases) involved calcification-related cortical erosions of the humeral and femoral diaphyses, in particular at the pectoralis major and gluteus maximus insertions. A second group (28 cases) involved the presence of calcium material in subcortical areas. The most common site was the greater tubercle of the humerus, accompanying a calcifying tendinopathy of the supraspinatus. In addition, an extensive intramedullary diffusion of calcium deposits was observed in four of these cases, associated with cortical erosion in one case and subcortical lesions in three cases. Cortical erosions and intraosseous migration of calcifications associated with calcific tendinitis may be confused with neoplasm or infection. It is important to recognize atypical presentations of hydroxyapatite deposition to avoid unnecessary investigation or surgery. (orig.)

  9. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) made against insect-derived metacyclic trypomastigotes (IMT) of Trypanosoma cruzi (TC) cross-react with other parasite forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, L.V.; Gilliam, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable information has been generated in recent years about stage-specific surface membrane antigens of a number of protozoa, and this phenomenon has been observed among several stages of TC as well. However, little is known about the surface antigens of IMT, the true infective stage of TC, because of the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of these organisms for analysis. The Tulahuen strain of TC was maintained in the reduviid vector Dipetalogaster maximus by repeated feeding on mice with high parasitemias. IMT collected with insect urine were irradiated (150 krad) and used to immunize a BALB/c mouse for hybridoma production. Supernatants were screened by immunofluorescence assay for the presence of IgG MAb that react with methanol-fixed IMT, epimastogotes (EPI) and culture-derived metacyclic trypomastigoes (CMT). Of 41 MAb obtained, 40 reacted with IMT, 37 with EPI and 38 with CMT. Four MAb immunoprecipitated radioiodinated proteins or protein conjugates of M/sub r/ 80, 72, 45 and 45 from lysates of 125 I surface-labeled EPI. These results indicate that, at least at the epitopic level, there is considerable overlap among IMT, EPI and CMT surface antigens. This finding suggests that analysis of surface proteins of the latter 2 parasite forms may lead to identification of molecules useful for vaccine development

  10. Nutritive value of Tanzania grass for dairy cows under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional analysis of Tanzania grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacquin cv. Tanzânia was conducted. Pasture was managed in a rotational grazing system with a 30-day resting period, three days of paddock occupation and two grazing cycles. Ten Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were kept within a 2-ha area divided into 11 paddocks ha-1. Cows were fed 2 kg of corn meal daily and performance was evaluated by weighing the animals every 14 days and by recording milk production twice a day. Nutritional composition of the Tanzania grass was determined from forage (extrusa samples collected by esophageal fistulae from two animals. The nutritive value of Tanzania grass was estimated according to a modification of the CNCPS evaluation model. Tanzania grass supplemented with 2 kg of corn meal supplied 33.2% more net energy for lactation than required by the animals to produce 13.7 kg of milk day-1. Nevertheless, the amount of metabolizable protein met the daily protein requirement of the animals. Although the model used in the study requires adjustments, Tanzania grass has the potential to produce milk in a rotational grazing system.

  11. Hip and trunk muscles activity during nordic hamstring exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji

    2018-04-01

    The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21-36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t -test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles ( P hamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk.

  12. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Manthey-Karl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus and barramundi (Lates calcarifer and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg−1 were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable.

  13. Challenges and prospects of population genetic studies in terns (Charadriiformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia J. Faria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available about the population structure of communally nesting terns (Sternidae and skimmers (Rynchopidae throughout the world. In order to fill this gap, a survey of molecular markers was carried out for six species of terns (Anous stolidus, Sterna hirundinacea, S. fuscata, S. superciliaris, Thalasseus maximus and Phaetusa simplex and one species of skimmer (Rynchops niger. First, we describe the results of the construction of genomic DNA libraries and document problems encountered during this procedure. Secondly, we tested the cross-amplification of 18 microsatellite loci previously described for related species (the number of polymorphic loci ranged from three to seven. Thirdly, we tested the usefulness of mtDNA (control region, ND2, Cytochrome b and ATPase 6/8 for phylogeographic studies in this group of birds. The occurrence of nuclear copies of the mitochondrial control region is reported. Nucleotide divergence in the mtDNA genes analyzed ranged from 0.0 to 0.006. Despite the difficulties associated with the selection of variable markers in this group of seabirds, we were able to select polymorphic markers for each species tested and we anticipate these results will help the development of genetic studies concerning important biological questions in terns.

  14. Influence of extreme pedal rates on pulmonary O(2) uptake kinetics during transitions to high-intensity exercise from an elevated baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Burnley, Mark; Bailey, Stephen J; Jones, Andrew M

    2009-10-31

    We used extreme pedal rates to investigate the influence of muscle fibre recruitment on pulmonary V(O)(2) kinetics during unloaded-to-moderate-intensity (U-->M), unloaded-to-high-intensity (U-->H), and moderate-intensity to high-intensity (M-->H) cycling transitions. Seven healthy men completed transitions to 60% of the difference between gas-exchange threshold and peak V(O)(2) from both an unloaded and a moderate-intensity (95% GET) baseline at cadences of 35 and 115rpm. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath and iEMG of the m. vastus lateralis and m. gluteus maximus was measured during all tests. At 35rpm, the phase II time constant (tau(p)) values for U-->M, U-->H, and M-->H were 26+/-7, 31+/-7 and 36+/-8s with the value for M-->H being longer than for U-->M (PM, U-->H, and M-->H were 29+/-8, 48+/-16 and 53+/-20s with the value for U-->M being shorter than for the other two conditions (Pinfluenced by an interaction of exercise intensity and pedal rate and are consistent with the notion that changes in muscle fibre recruitment are responsible for slower phase II V(O)(2) kinetics during high-intensity and work-to-work exercise transitions.

  15. The use of tyranny in response to the Visigothic domination in the Tarraconensis (5th-6th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jiménez Sánchez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 5th century, the Hispano-Roman population watched in dismay as the Visigothic presence in Tarraconensis lands grew. Between the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century, two individuals —Burdunelus and Peter— illegally came into power and led revolts against the Visigothic domination. The source that reports on these events, the Pseudo Chronica Caesaraugustana, is an extremely problematic text which for many years was interpreted as the remains of the historiola written by bishop Maximus of Saragossa (c. 599-614/620, when, in fact, they are mere annotations made on the margins of previous chronicles. Moreover, the vicissitudes of the transmission of the manuscript led to the displacement of some of these annotations from their original position, which resulted in erroneous dates. In this paper we study the entries regarding the rebellions of Burdunelus and Peter, we propose a new chronology, we analyse the social origins of these leaders, and we examine the implications of these uprisings in the context of an imminent confrontation between Visigoths and Franks.

  16. Organization of sensory input to the nociceptive-specific cutaneous trunk muscle reflex in rat, an effective experimental system for examining nociception and plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Barker, Darrell F.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Trainer, Robert; Fransen, James W.; Seidman, Peggy A.; Soto, Roy G.; Mendell, Lorne M.; Johnson, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Detailed characterization of neural circuitries furthers our understanding of how nervous systems perform specific functions and enables the use of those systems to test hypotheses. We have characterized the sensory input to the cutaneous trunk muscle (CTM; also cutaneus trunci (rat) or cutaneus maximus (mouse)) reflex (CTMR), which manifests as a puckering of the dorsal thoracolumbar skin and is selectively driven by noxious stimuli. CTM electromyography (EMG) and neurogram recordings in naïve rats revealed that CTMR responses were elicited by natural stimuli and electrical stimulation of all segments from C4 to L6, a much greater extent of segmental drive to the CTMR than previously described. Stimulation of some subcutaneous paraspinal tissue can also elicit this reflex. Using a selective neurotoxin, we also demonstrate differential drive of the CTMR by trkA-expressing and non-expressing small diameter afferents. These observations highlight aspects of the organization of the CTMR system which make it attractive for studies of nociception and anesthesiology and plasticity of primary afferents, motoneurons, and the propriospinal system. We use the CTMR system to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate that experimental pharmacological treatments can be compared to controls applied either to the contralateral side or to another segment, with the remaining segments providing controls for systemic or other treatment effects. These data indicate the potential for using the CTMR system as both an invasive and non-invasive quantitative assessment tool providing improved statistical power and reduced animal use. PMID:23983104

  17. Gluteus medius activation during running is a risk factor for season hamstring injuries in elite footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Bonacci, Jason; Mendis, M Dilani; Christie, Craig; Rotstein, Andrew; Hides, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    To investigate if size and activation of the gluteal muscles is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in elite AFL players. Prospective cohort study. Twenty-six elite male footballers from a professional Australian Football League (AFL) club participated in the study. At the beginning of the season bilateral gluteus medius (GMED) and gluteus maximus (GMAX) muscle volume was measured from magnetic resonance images and electromyographic recordings of the same muscles were obtained during running. History of hamstring injury in the pre-season and incidence of hamstring injury during the season were determined from club medical data. Nine players (35%) incurred a hamstring injury during the season. History of hamstring injury was comparable between those players who incurred a season hamstring injury (2/9 players; 22%) and those who did not (3/17 players; 18%). Higher GMED muscle activity during running was a risk factor for hamstring injury (p=0.03, effect sizes 1.1-1.5). There were no statistically significant differences observed for GMED volume, GMAX volume and GMAX activation (P>0.05). This study identified higher activation of the GMED muscle during running in players who sustained a season hamstring injury. Whilst further research is required to understand the mechanism of altered muscle control, the results of this study contribute to the developing body of evidence that the lumbo-pelvic muscles may be important to consider in hamstring injury prevention and management. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U S; Pushpakumara, T V; Weerakoon, Devaka K; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th) percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60), averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  19. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  20. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shermin de Silva

    Full Text Available Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60, averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  1. FDG-PET imaging of lower extremity muscular activity during level walking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Naoyuki; Iwaya, Tsutomu; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Itoh, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed muscular activity of the lower extremities during level walking using positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG). We examined 17 healthy male subjects; 11 were assigned to a walking group and 6 to a resting group. After 18 F-FDG injection, the walking group subjects walked at a free speed for 15 min. A whole-body image was then obtained by a PET camera, and the standardized uptake ratio (SUR) was computed for each muscle. The SUR for each muscle of the walking group was compared with that for the corresponding muscles in the resting group. The level of muscular activity of all the muscles we examined were higher during level walking than when resting. The activity of the lower leg muscles was higher than that of the thigh muscles during level walking. The muscular activity of the soleus was highest among all the muscles examined. Among the gluteal muscles, the muscular activity of the gluteus minimus was higher than that of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. The concurrent validity of measuring muscular activity of the lower extremity during level walking by the PET method using 18 F-FDG was demonstrated. (author)

  2. Ticks on birds from Cerrado forest patches along the Uberabinha river in the Triângulo Mineiro region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelma Torga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe ticks parasitizing birds in forest fragments along the Uberabinha River, a major watercourse that cuts through patches of remnants of Brazilian savannah in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Overall 352 birds from 62 species, overwhelmingly, Passeriformes, were captured with mist-nets. The most abundant bird species was Basileuterus hypoleucus (n=36, followed by Lanio penicillata (n=24 and Thalurania furcata (n=23. Thirty one birds, all Passeriformes, were found infested with 56 ticks from which 12 were larvae and 44 nymphs, all from the Amblyomma genus. Highest infestation prevalence was found on Taraba major (66.6%, Thamnophilus pelzeni (60% and Saltator maximus (50%. The mean intensity of tick infestation was low (1.8 tick per infested bird with most of the parasites located on the neck (60% of birds, followed by the head (20%. All larvae were attached to the skin around the eyes of birds. Amblyomma nodosum was the most numerous tick species found attached to birds (n=23 nymphs, 52.3% of nymphs followed by Amblyomma longirostre (n=5, 11.4% of nymphs. Ecological relationships are discussed.

  3. Female PFP patients present alterations in eccentric muscle activity but not the temporal order of activation of the vastus lateralis muscle during the single leg triple hop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalytczak, Marcelo Martins; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bley, André Serra; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano

    2018-04-07

    This study aimed to compare the concentric and eccentric activity and the temporal order of peak activity of the hip and knee muscles between women with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and healthy women during the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT). Electromyographic (EMG) and Kinematic data were collected from 14 healthy women (CG) and 14 women diagnosed with PFP (PFG) during a single session of the single leg triple hop test. Integral surface electromyography (iEMG) data of the hip and knee muscles in eccentric and concentric phases and the length of time that each muscle needed to reach the maximal peak of muscle activity were calculated. The iEMG in the eccentric phase was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the concentric phase, for the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles (CG and PFG) and for the vastus lateralis muscle (PFG). The vastus lateralis muscle was the first muscle to reach the highest peak of activity in the PFG, and the third to reach this peak in the CG. In the present study, the activity of the vastus lateralis muscle during the eccentric phase of the jump was greater than concentric phase, as a temporal anticipation of its peak in activity among women with PFP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and other marine teleosts from northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wenbin; Li, Yongqin; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a strain of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) from Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) cultured in northern China. Based on published sequences of major capsid protein (MCP) gene of LCDV-cn (GenBank: AF126405), we designed two primer sets P1/P2 and P3/P4. We then used one-step or nested PCR and in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect LCDV and identify the target tissues or cells in infected Japanese flounder. The PCR products were positive in purified viral supernatant, skin nodules, gut, gill, kidney, spleen, stomach, heart, and liver of Japanese flounder. We compared the DNA sequence with 14 MCP nucleotide sequences from GenBank, including Megalocytivirus (OFIV and RSIV), Iridovirus (CzIV and WIV), Ranavirus (TFV and FV3), and Lymphocystivirus (8 LCDV). Based on the alignment, we confirmed the PCR product was from Lymphocystivirus (GenBank accession number DQ279090 (LCDV-HD)). Using ISH, we noted the presence of LCDV in the skin nodules, gut, gill, spleen, stomach, and heart of spontaneously infected Japanese flounders. We successfully amplified LCDV fragments from Schlegel’s black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli Higendorf), redwing sea robin ( Lepidotrigla microptera Günther) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) using the one-step and nested PCR, suggesting the target genes can be widely detected in fish using this method.

  5. Revision of the Neotropical genus Protoconnus Franz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaŁoszyŃski, PaweŁ

    2018-03-07

    The Neotropical genus Protoconnus Franz, belonging to the tribe Glandulariini, is revised. Protoconnus is redefined based on detailed morphological study, and all known species are revised, including 10 originally placed in Protoconnus, one transferred from Euconnus, and 14 described as new. The following species are treated: P. andicola Franz (Peru), P. peruensis Franz (Peru), P. minutus Franz (Peru), P. minutissimus Franz (Peru), P. venezolanus Franz (Venezuela), P. araguanus Franz (Venezuela), P. bolivianus Franz (Bolivia), P. comarapae Franz (Bolivia), P. robustus Franz (Bolivia), P. paraguayanus Franz (Paraguay), P. princeps (Franz), comb. n. (ex Euconnus) (Peru), P. quillabambanus sp. n. (Peru), P. ecuadoranus sp. n. (Ecuador), P. napoanus sp. n. (Ecuador), P. magnus sp. n. (Ecuador), P. impressifrons sp. n. (Bolivia), P. angustus sp. n. (Bolivia), P. acutus sp. n. (Bolivia), P. tunarianus sp. n. (Bolivia), P. apaapa sp. n. (Bolivia), P. maximus sp. n. (Costa Rica), P. minusculus sp. n. (Costa Rica), P. costaricanus sp. n. (Costa Rica), P. inexpectatus sp. n. (Costa Rica), and P. volcanbaru sp. n. (Panama). Lectotypes are designated for P. andicola and P. peruensis.

  6. The Effects Of Adding Complementary Treatment And Comparison To Ordinary Physical Therapy In Women With Low Back Pain Due To Osteoarthritis

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    Talebian S

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP is a one of the most common symptoms of vertebral column diseases. Spinal muscles have a outstanding role in maintaining vertebral column function in daily life. But proper function and motion of hip and knee joints also has an important role in performing smooth, fine and nonstressed movements of lumbar spin. Where as accurate and fine motions of hip and knee joints in cooperate with lumbar spin can improve translation and summation of forces and increase performance of movements. The aim of this research is to indicate the amount of interventions of lower limb joints on lumbar spin function in patients with LBP, and attention to physical treatment (PT of them. Materials and Methods: Fifty females with LBP due to osteoarthritis ( OA of lumbar spin participated in this study and divided in two groups randomly with similar number of cases: a ordinary treatment or control group and b complementary treatment group. Patients in control group treated by routine PT approach ( superficial heat, ultrasound, TENS, forward flexion and back extension exercises and patients in complementary or test group received routine treatment similar to control group and also strength and stretching exercises of hip and knee joint muscles ( latisimous dorsi, gluteous maximus, iliopsoas, quadriceps and hamstring bilaterally. Range of motion (ROM of lumbar, hip and keen joints by valid goniametere and pain of lumbar in motions at all of axis by visual analog scale measured before, after five and ten sessions of treatments in both groups. Results: In control group with non parametric tests there was not significant difference of MMT of muscles and ROMs of hip and knee joints. Lumbar pain in motion after ten sessions of PT in this group reduced significantly ( P< 0.05 . Increase of lumbar motion in all of axis after PT was significant at this patients ( P< 0.05 . In second group that received complementary treatments; ROM of joints, lumbar

  7. Cumulative damage effect of 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial delivery on beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Qi; Liu Lu; Liu Zhiyong; Huang Peilin; Lan Xinghao; Gao Hailin; Wu Qinghua; Sun Jin; Huang Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility and safety of 3 '2P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial injection.Methods: Ten Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 2) according to different doses (185 and 370 MBq), different sites (gluteus maximus and liver) and cold colloid as a control group. At different time-points after surgery, the weights of dogs were measured, and the blood and blood biochemical inspections were examined. ECT imaging was performed and histomorphology was observed dynamically. The radioactive counts of body surface for 90 days, blood for 12 weeks and urine and feces for 30 days were measured continuously. Measured data were expressed by mean ± standard error ((x-bar) ± s) and SPSS 13.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: ECT imaging demonstrated that the whole liver imaging was obtained although the radioactive distribution was uneven in liver groups, and the radioactivity concentrated continuously in the area of injection, but no liver imaging in muscle groups. Dogs in group 4 lost weight progressively and reduced by 2.7 kg till 45 d after operation. While the mean weight increments in the other groups were 3.0, 1.6, 0.8 and 3.1 kg in order. In group 4, PLT and RBC reduced obviously. Dogs died at 23 or 45 d.AST and ALT were elevated sharply before death. In the other groups, blood and blood biochemistry inspection showed there were no significant statistical differences. The highest radioactive counts after operation were obtained from the injection spot, while the urinary bladder and the spleen were followed. The peak of blood cpm in liver groups presented at 5 min.Peak values were 0.5 x 10 7 /min and 1.0 x 10 7 /min, respectively. The blood cpm in the muscle groups was always maintained at 3 x l0 5 /min. Histology study showed the hyperemia dropsy changes in muscle groups and 185 MBq liver group in 4 weeks, while after 8 weeks the organizational structure restored normally. There were partial liver cells

  8. Relationships between photosynthetic plant types in the diet of herbivore mammals and in the environment in the lower Paraná river basin, Argentina Relación entre los tipos fotosintéticos de plantas presentes en la dieta de mamíferos herbívoros y en el ambiente en la baja cuenca del río Paraná, Argentina

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    NORA MADANES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we assess the contribution of C3, C4 and intermediate C3-C4 plant species to the diet of both native (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Rhea americana and Logostomus maximus and introduced (cattle herbivore species and the abundance of these photosynthetic plant types in different environments of the lower section of the Paraná Basin, Argentina, with similar climate but different hydrological regimes. Data of current plants species and their photosynthetic pathways, both form vegetation and the diet, were compiled from literature. The analysis of annual diets conducted in terms of photosynthetic types showed that the feeding patterns of native as well introduced herbivores varied both spatially and temporally. At each site, the analysis of vegetation and the diet of herbivores in spring indicated that the feeding patterns may depend not only on vegetation availability, but also on the preferences of herbivores and inter-specific interactions under limited resource conditions. These attributes should be taken into account when interpreting the diet of fossil herbivores from isotopic carbon information. Also, the studies on photosynthetic groups enhance our understanding of the relationship between paleodiets and paleoenvironments.En el presente estudio evaluamos la contribución de especies de plantas C3, C4 e intermedias C3-C4, en la dieta de herbívoros nativos (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Rhea americana y Logostomus maximus y domésticos (reses, y analizamos la abundancia de las plantas presentes que muestran estos tipos foto sintéticos en distintos ambientes, de la sección baja de la Cuenca de Río Paraná, Argentina, con clima similar pero regímenes hidrológicos diferentes. Los datos de la vegetación y de la dieta, así como sus tipos fotosintéticos, fueron obtenidos de datos bibliográficos. El análisis de la dieta anual realizada en términos de tipos fotosintéticos, mostró que los patrones de consumo de los herb

  9. Political theology and eschatological war

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    Griško Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to describe the antagonism that constitutes the eschatological position, i.e., the inseparability of eschatology from a concept of eschatological war, through 1 the political theology of Carl Schmitt, 2 Orthodox Christological anthropology and 3 the nomadology of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Schmitt's political theology can be understood as a theory of eschatological war. The theological character of Schimtt's work entails that 'the secularisation of theological concepts' is constitutive of the eschatological concept of cosmological finitude. Moreover, Schmitt's distinction between friend and enemy, which informs his concept of politics as the 'political', aims to identify the primary antagonism of eschatological history. For Schmitt, the liberal end of history is the absolutisation of the enemy, as liberalism denies the fundamental distinction of the political, namely, liberalism maintains that war is over on the basis of its claim to immanent historical truth. From the position of Orthodox Christological anthropology, liberalism also contains a clear eschatological element. The anthropology of liberalism is consistent with the gnomic will, which, according to St. Maximus the Confessor, is the fallen definition of human freedom, i.e., freedom as choice. Freedom as the natural will, in contrast, determines the ethical mission of man as the soteriological deification of cosmos. The lines of eschatological war can be further illustrated through the work of Deleuze and Guattari as well as Heinz Von Foerster, whose concepts of diagram/ abstract machine and trivial/non-trivial machine may contribute to an understanding of how a concept of war informs the transformative cosmology which belongs to the eschatological logic of cosmic finitude and deification, theosis.

  10. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping on Muscle Recruitment Order During a Vertical Jump: A Pilot Study.

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    Mendez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Guzman-Muñoz, Eduardo; Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Dabanch-Santis, Alexis; Diaz-Valenzuela, Francisco

    2018-06-22

    Kinesio taping is commonly used in sports and rehabilitation settings with the aim of prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effects of 24 and 72 hours of kinesio taping on trunk and lower limb neuromuscular and kinetic performance during a vertical jump. The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term effects of kinesio taping on height and ground reaction force during a vertical jump, in addition to trunk and lower limb muscle latency and recruitment order. Single-group pretest-posttest. University laboratory. Twelve male athletes from different sports (track and field, basketball, and soccer). They completed a single squat and countermovement jump at basal time (no kinesio taping), 24, and 72 hours of kinesio taping application on the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and longissimus. Muscle onset latencies were assessed by electromyography during a squat and countermovement jump, in addition to measurements of the jump height and normalized ground reaction force. The kinesio taping had no effect after 24 hours on either the countermovement or squat jump. However, at 72 hours, the kinesio taping increased the jump height (P = .02; d = 0.36) and normalized ground reaction force (P = .001; d = 0.45) during the countermovement jump. In addition, 72-hour kinesio taping reduced longissimus onset latency (P = .03; d = 1.34) and improved muscle recruitment order during a countermovement jump. These findings suggest that kinesio taping may improve neuromuscular and kinetic performance during a countermovement jump only after 72 hours of application on healthy and uninjured male athletes. However, no changes were observed on a squat jump. Future studies should incorporate a control group to verify kinesio taping's effects and its influence on injured athletes.

  11. [Application of the elliptic fourier functions to the description of avian egg shape].

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    Ávila, Dennis Denis

    2014-12-01

    Egg shape is difficult to quantify due to the lack of an exact formula to describe its geometry. Here I described a simple algorithm to characterize and compare egg shapes using Fourier functions. These functions can delineate any closed contour and had been previously applied to describe several biological objects. I described, step by step, the process of data acquisition, processing and the use of the SHAPE software to extract function coefficients in a study case. I compared egg shapes in three birds' species representing different reproductive strategies: Cuban Parakeet (Aratinga euops), Royal Tern (Thalasseus maximus) and Cuban Blackbird (Dives atroviolaceus). Using 73 digital pictures of eggs kept in Cuban scientific collections, I calculated Fourier descriptors with 4, 6, 8, 16 and 20 harmonics. Descriptors were reduced by a Principal Component Analysis and the scores of the eigen-values that account for 90% of variance were used in a Lineal Discriminant Function to analyze the possibility to differentiate eggs according to its shapes. Using four harmonics, the first five component accounted for 97% of shape variances; more harmonics diluted the variance increasing to eight the number of components needed to explain most of the variation. Convex polygons in the discriminant space showed a clear separation between species, allowing trustful discrimination (classification errors between 7-15%). Misclassifications were related to specific egg shape variability between species. In the study case, A. euops eggs were perfectly classified, but for the other species, errors ranged from 5 to 29% of misclassifications, in relation to the numbers or harmonics and components used. The proposed algorithm, despite its apparent mathematical complexity, showed many advantages to describe eggs shape allowing a deeper understanding of factors related to this variable.

  12. Pelvic Belt Effects on Health Outcomes and Functional Parameters of Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Möbius, Robert; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Klima, Stefan; Lange, Justin S.; Soisson, Odette; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a common source of low back pain. However, clinical and functional signs and symptoms correlating with SIJ pain are widely unknown. Pelvic belts are routinely applied to treat SIJ pain but without sound evidence of their pain-relieving effects. This case-control study compares clinical and functional data of SIJ patients and healthy control subjects and evaluates belt effects on SIJ pain. Methods 17 SIJ patients and 17 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. The short-form 36 survey and the numerical rating scale were used to characterize health-related quality of life in patients in a six-week follow-up and the pain-reducing effects of pelvic belts. Electromyography data were obtained from the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris and medial vastus. Alterations of muscle activity, variability and gait patterns were compared in patients and controls along with the belts’ effects in a dynamic setting when walking. Results Significant improvements were observed in the short-form 36 survey of the SIJ patients, especially in the physical health subscores. Minor declines were also observed in the numerical rating scale on pain. Belt-related changes of muscle activity and variability were similar in patients and controls with one exception: the rectus femoris activity decreased significantly in patients with belt application when walking. Further belt effects include improved cadence and gait velocity in patients and controls. Conclusions Pelvic belts improve health-related quality of life and are potentially attributed to decreased SIJ-related pain. Belt effects include decreased rectus femoris activity in patients and improved postural steadiness during locomotion. Pelvic belts may therefore be considered as a cost-effective and low-risk treatment of SIJ pain. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02027038 PMID:26305790

  13. Effects of heat stress on the physiological parameters and productivity of hair sheep in tropical and coastal environments

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    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with sheep during the finishing phase in a partial confinement system to evaluate the following physiological parameters: rectal temperature (RT, respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR, productive performance and carcass characteristics. Fourteen uncastrated sheep with an average initial age of 90 days belonging to two genetic groups were used. There were seven Santa Inês animals, whose average initial live weight (ILW was 23.65 kg, and seven F1 Dorper × St. Inês animals, with an ILW of 20.02 kg. The treatments were the two genetic groups and two times for the collection of the physiological parameters, at 09.00 h and 15.00 h. Evaluation took place once a week, in a shared stall, always following a 20-min grazing activity. The animals had daily access to a Megathyrsus maximus(Jacquin pasture, cultivar Masai, from 08.00 h to 17.00 h and their feed was placed in a trough, at a forage:concentrate ratio of 51:49 in the total dry matter. The concentrate consisted of 900 g/kg of ground corn and 100 g/kg of soybean meal, and the roughage supplied was alfalfa hay. There was no interaction between treatments for the studied variables. The physiological parameters were affected only by the time of day. The variables RR and RT were higher at 15.00 h, while the highest HR values were observed at 09.00 h. Neither of the two genetic groups differed for performance and carcass characteristics. Hair sheep belonging to close genetic groups show no differences in performance, carcass characteristics and physiological responses when subjected to heat stress.

  14. THE NEEDS AND IMPORTANCE OF FATTY ACIDS IN THE NUTRITION OF FISH

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    Ivan Bogut

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the needs for the essential fatty acids, the fish can be classified in three groups: For the fish from Salrrwnidae family (Oncorhynhcus kisutch, O. keta, O. nerka and O. tshawytscha the essential is 18: 3 in the quantity of 1%. The same effect in regard to growth and nutrition coefficient can be achieved with the addition of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUF A ω 3 rows in the quantity of 9. 5%. The Californian trout (Oncorhynhcus mykiss is needier than the other fish for 20: 5 ω 3 and 22: 6 ω 3. Its needs is 1%. For the fish from Coregonidae family (Coregonus lavaretus, C. peled and C. nasus the essential is 18: 3 ω 3 in the quantity of 1% or the combination 20: 5 ω 3 (o. 25% and 22: 6 ω 3 (O. 25%. Fresh-water fish from the Anguillidae family (Anguilla anguilla and A. japonicai, Cyprinidae family (Cyprinus carpio, Ictaluridae family (lctalurus punctatus have needs for 18: 2 ω 3 in the quantity of 1-2% or RUFA O. 5-1%. The fatty acids ω 6 row (18: 2 ω 6 or 20: 4 ω 6 are important for the fish from Cichlidae family (Tilapia zillii and Orechromis nilaticus in the quantity of 1%. Te sea fish Rhombus maximus and Pagnus major achieve the best growth when they receive HUFA ω 3 row up to 2% together with the food. Rancid ointment, eruk-acid from the rape oil, gosipol and cyclophrophenoid acid from the cotton seeds oil if added to fish food cause the reduced growth and pathologic changes on fish liver, kidneys, heart and gills.

  15. Muscle MRI in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Evidence of a distinctive pattern.

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    Polavarapu, Kiran; Manjunath, Mahadevappa; Preethish-Kumar, Veeramani; Sekar, Deepha; Vengalil, Seena; Thomas, PriyaTreesa; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Nalini, Atchayaram

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of muscle involvement using MRI findings and correlate with functional as well as muscle strength measurements. Fifty genetically confirmed DMD children with a mean age of 7.6 ± 2.8 (4-15 years) underwent muscle MRI and qualitative assessment was done for muscle changes using Mercuri staging for fibro-fatty replacement on T1 sequence and Borsato score for myoedema on STIR sequence. Detailed phenotypic characterisation was done with Manual muscle testing (modified MRC grading) and Muscular Dystrophy Functional Rating Scale (MDFRS). Mercuri scoring showed severe fibro-fatty changes in Gluteus medius, minimus and Adductor magnus followed by moderate to severe changes in Gluteus maximus and Quadriceps muscles. Total sparing of Gracilis, Sartorius and Semimembranosus muscles was observed. Superficial posterior and lateral leg muscles were preferentially involved with sparing of deep posterior and anterior leg muscles. Myoedema showed significant inverse correlation with fatty infiltration in thigh muscles. Similarly, significant inverse correlation was observed between Mercuri scores and MRC grading as well as MDFRS scores. A direct linear correlation was observed between duration of illness and fibro-fatty changes in piriformis, quadriceps and superficial posterior leg muscles. There was no correlation between MRI findings and genotypic characteristics. However, this specific pattern of muscle involvement in MRI could aid in proceeding for genetic testing when clinical suspicion is high, thus reducing the need for muscle biopsy. Fibro fatty infiltration as measured by Mercuri scoring can be a useful marker for assessing the disease severity and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise intensity and muscle hypertrophy in blood flow-restricted limbs and non-restricted muscles: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Although evidence for high-intensity resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy has accumulated over the last several decades, the basic concept of the training can be traced back to ancient Greece: Milo of Croton lifted a bull-calf daily until it was fully grown, which would be known today as progressive overload. Now, in the 21st century, different types of training are being tested and studied, such as low-intensity exercise combined with arterial as well as venous blood flow restriction (BFR) to/from the working muscles. Because BFR training requires the use of a cuff that is placed at the proximal ends of the arms and/or legs, the BFR is only applicable to limb muscles. Consequently, most previous BFR training studies have focused on the physiological adaptations of BFR limb muscles. Muscle adaptations in non-BFR muscles of the hip and trunk are lesser known. Recent studies that have reported both limb and trunk muscle adaptations following BFR exercise training suggest that low-intensity (20-30% of 1RM) resistance training combined with BFR elicits muscle hypertrophy in both BFR limb and non-BFR muscles. However, the combination of leg muscle BFR with walk training elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the BFR leg muscles. In contrast to resistance exercise with BFR, the exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to cause muscle hypertrophy in the non-BFR gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles. Other mechanisms including hypoxia, local and systemic growth factors and muscle cell swelling may also potentially affect the hypertrophic response of non-BFR muscles to BFR resistance exercise. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  17. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

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    Emma V Sheehan

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2 of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus. While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries.

  18. Propulsion phase of the single leg triple hop test in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a biomechanical study.

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    Andre Serra Bley

    Full Text Available Asymmetry in the alignment of the lower limbs during weight-bearing activities is associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS, caused by an increase in patellofemoral (PF joint stress. High neuromuscular demands are placed on the lower limb during the propulsion phase of the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT, which may influence biomechanical behavior. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to compare kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity in the trunk and lower limb during propulsion in the SLTHT using women with PFPS and pain free controls. The following measurements were made using 20 women with PFPS and 20 controls during propulsion in the SLTHT: kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee; kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle; and muscle activation of the gluteus maximus (GM, gluteus medius (GMed, biceps femoris (BF and vastus lateralis (VL. Differences between groups were calculated using three separate sets of multivariate analysis of variance for kinematics, kinetics, and electromyographic data. Women with PFPS exhibited ipsilateral trunk lean; greater trunk flexion; greater contralateral pelvic drop; greater hip adduction and internal rotation; greater ankle pronation; greater internal hip abductor and ankle supinator moments; lower internal hip, knee and ankle extensor moments; and greater GM, GMed, BL, and VL muscle activity. The results of the present study are related to abnormal movement patterns in women with PFPS. We speculated that these findings constitute strategies to control a deficient dynamic alignment of the trunk and lower limb and to avoid PF pain. However, the greater BF and VL activity and the extensor pattern found for the hip, knee, and ankle of women with PFPS may contribute to increased PF stress.

  19. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  20. A comparison of muscle activation between back squats and belt squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas W; McLester, Cherilyn N; Howard, Jonathan H; McLester, John R; Calloway, Jimmy P

    2017-06-08

    A machine belt squat is a piece of equipment designed to allow the performance of squats while loading weight on the lifter's hips using a belt. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if belt squats differ from back squats in activation of the primary movers, and to determine the predictive capabilities of back squat load, training status, and anthropometric data on belt squat load. Thirty-one participants (16 males and 15 females) completed anthropometric measurements, a demographic questionnaire, a familiarization visit, and two testing visits, completing a 5 repetition maximum test for back squat and belt squat. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation for the left and right vastus medialis (VMO), vastus lateralis (VLO), rectus femoris (RF), and gluteus maximus (GM). Comparison of muscle activation between the two exercises showed significant differences in the left GM (back squat: 0.84 ± 0.45, belt squat: 0.69 ± 0.22, p=0.015) and right GM (back squat: 0.86 ± 0.45, belt squat: 0.71 ± 0.29, p=0.004). Regression analysis computed significant prediction equations for belt squat load for general population, males, females, and advanced lifters. Overall, results indicate that belt squats may significantly differ in GM activation from back squats. Back squat load, as well as other variables, may be effective in accurately estimating appropriate belt squat load. These findings may help to more appropriately program for training with machine belt squats as a back squat alternative.

  1. Difference in the recruitment of hip and knee muscles between back squat and plyometric squat jump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihide Sugisaki

    Full Text Available Athletes who aim to improve both muscular endurance and power often perform exercises that involve similar joint actions under different lifting conditions, such as changes in the load or speed, which are implemented at different times during a periodized exercise program or simultaneously. The prescribed exercises are considered to recruit the same muscles even if the lifting conditions differ to each other. The present study aimed to clarify this by examining whether the recruitment of individual hip and knee muscles during the squat exercise differs between lifting conditions adopted for muscular endurance and power training regimens. Moderately trained men performed back squats (BS, with a load of approximately 60% of one repetition maximum, as a muscular endurance training exercise, and they performed plyometric squat jumping (PSJ for power training. During each exercise, the lower limb joint torques and the recruitment of five hip and knee muscles were determined with inverse-dynamics and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. While the maximal and mean knee joint torques were greater during PSJ than during BS (p<0.01, the T2 values for the quadriceps femoris muscle did not differ between the exercises. In contrast, the T2 values of the gluteus maximus and hip adductor muscles were higher during PSJ (p<0.05 than during BS, although there was no significant difference in the mean hip extension torque between the two exercises. The current results indicate that the individual use of the agonist muscles differs between BS and PSJ, and it does not always correspond with the joint kinetics during the exercises. Therefore, in addition to the exercise type, the lifting condition should also be taken into consideration as a determinant of the major muscles trained during a resistance exercise.

  2. Muscle Activity in Single- vs. Double-Leg Squats.

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    DeFOREST, Bradley A; Cantrell, Gregory S; Schilling, Brian K

    Muscular activity, vertical displacement and ground reaction forces of back squats (BS), rear-leg elevated split squats (RLESS) and split squats (SS) were examined. Nine resistance-trained men reported for two sessions. The first session consisted of the consent process, practice, and BS 1-repetition maximum testing. In the second session, participants performed the three exercises while EMG, displacment and ground reaction force data (one leg on plate) were collected. EMG data were collected from the gluteus maximus (GMX), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas) of the left leg (non-dominant, front leg for unilateral squats). Load for BS was 85% one repetition maximum, and RLESS and SS were performed at 50% of BS load. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare all variables for the three exercises, with Bonferroni adjustments for post hoc multiple comparisons, in addition to calculation of standardized mean differences (ES). Muscle activity was similar between exercises except for biceps femoris, which was significantly higher during RLESS than SS during both concentric and eccentric phases (ES = 2.11; p=0.012 and ES= 2.19; p=0.008), and significantly higher during BS than the SS during the concentric phase (ES = 1.78; p=0.029). Vertical displacement was similar between all exercises. Peak vertical force was similar between BS and RLESS and significantly greater during RLESS than SS (ES = 3.03; p=0.001). These findings may be helpful in designing resistance training programs by using RLESS if greater biceps femoris activity is desired.

  3. A genetic linkage map of sole (Solea solea: a tool for evolutionary and comparative analyses of exploited (flatfishes.

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    Eveline Diopere

    Full Text Available Linkage maps based on markers derived from genes are essential evolutionary tools for commercial marine fish to help identify genomic regions associated with complex traits and subject to selective forces at play during exploitation or selective breeding. Additionally, they allow the use of genomic information from other related species for which more detailed information is available. Sole (solea solea L. is a commercially important flatfish species in the North Sea, subject to overexploitation and showing evidence of fisheries-induced evolutionary changes in growth- and maturation-related traits. Sole would definitely benefit from a linkage map to better understand how evolution has shaped its genome structure. This study presents a linkage map of sole based on 423 single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from expressed sequence tags and 8 neutral microsatellite markers. The total map length is 1233.8 cM and consists of 38 linkage groups with a size varying between 0 to 92.1 cM. Being derived from expressed sequence tags allowed us to align the map with the genome of four model fish species, namely medaka (Oryzias latipes, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and green spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis. This comparison revealed multiple conserved syntenic regions with all four species, and suggested that the linkage groups represent 21 putative sole chromosomes. The map was also compared to the linkage map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, another commercially important flatfish species and closely related to sole. For all putative sole chromosomes (except one a turbot homolog was detected, confirming the even higher degree of synteny between these two flatfish species.

  4. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

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    Devcharan Jathanna

    Full Text Available Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2 landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2 (SE = 847 km(2 corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2 of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2 or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We

  5. Skeletal pathology and variable anatomy in elephant feet assessed using computed tomography

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    Sophie Regnault

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elephants, but are underreported due to difficulties in diagnosis, particularly of conditions affecting the bones and internal structures. Here we evaluate post-mortem computer tomographic (CT scans of 52 feet from 21 elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana and 14 Asian Elephas maximus, describing both pathology and variant anatomy (including the appearance of phalangeal and sesamoid bones that could be mistaken for disease. We found all the elephants in our study to have pathology of some type in at least one foot. The most common pathological changes observed were bone remodelling, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions, and osteoarthritis, with soft tissue mineralisation, osteitis, infectious osteoarthriti, subluxation, fracture and enostoses observed less frequently. Most feet had multiple categories of pathological change (81% with two or more diagnoses, versus 10% with a single diagnosis, and 9% without significant pathology. Much of the pathological change was focused over the middle/lateral digits, which bear most weight and experience high peak pressures during walking. We found remodelling and osteoarthritis to be correlated with increasing age, more enthesopathy in Asian elephants, and more cyst-like lesions in females. We also observed multipartite, missing and misshapen phalanges as common and apparently incidental findings. The proximal (paired sesamoids can appear fused or absent, and the predigits (radial/tibial sesamoids can be variably ossified, though are significantly more ossified in Asian elephants. Our study reinforces the need for regular examination and radiography of elephant feet to monitor for pathology and as a tool for improving welfare.

  6. Predicting Hotspots of Human-Elephant Conflict to Inform Mitigation Strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China.

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    Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Research on the spatial patterns of human-wildlife conflict is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying it and to identifying opportunities for mitigation. In the state of Xishuangbanna, containing China's largest tropical forest, an imbalance between nature conservation and economic development has led to increasing conflicts between humans and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus, as both elephant numbers and conversion of habitable land to rubber plantations have increased over the last several decades. We analyzed government data on the compensation costs of elephant-caused damage in Xishuangbanna between 2008 and 2012 to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of conflict, in terms of their occurrence, frequency and distribution. More than 18,261 incidents were reported, including episodes involving damage to rubber trees (n = 10,999, damage to crops such as paddy, upland rice, corn, bananas and sugarcane (n = 11,020, property loss (n = 689 and attacks on humans (n = 19. The conflict data reconfirmed the presence of elephants in areas which have lacked records since the late 1990s. Zero Altered Negative Binomial models revealed that the risk of damage to crops and plantations increased with proximity to protected areas, increasing distance from roads, and lower settlement density. The patterns were constant across seasons and types of crop damaged. Damage to rubber trees was essentially incidental as elephants searched for crops to eat. A predictive map of risks revealed hotspots of conflict within and around protected areas, the last refuges for elephants in the region, and along habitat corridors connecting them. Additionally, we analyzed how mitigation efforts can best diminish the risk of conflict while minimizing financial costs and adverse biological impacts. Our analytical approach can be adopted, adjusted and expanded to other areas with historical records of human-wildlife conflict.

  7. Metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants: Management factors predicting leptin levels and the glucose-to-insulin ratio and their associations with health parameters.

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    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus and 105 African (Loxodonta africana elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I. In females, mean (± SD leptin concentrations and the G:I were lower (P0.05. As mean leptin concentration increased there was an increase in the odds of a female being non-cycling (P = 0.0083. The G:I was associated inversely with body condition (P = 0.0002; as the G:I increased there was a decreased risk of BCS = 4 or 5 as compared to the ideal, or BCS = 3. Neither leptin nor G:I were predictive of foot or musculoskeletal health scores. Factors related to walking and feeding practices were most influential in predicting metabolic status, whereas social and housing factors showed smaller, but significant effects. The metabolic health benefits of walking were detected if the time spent in staff-directed walking was 7 hours or more per week. The most protective feeding practices included implementing a random rather than predictable feeding schedule and limiting the number of methods presentation methods. Results indicate that leptin levels and G:I can be used as predictors of both ovarian cycle function and body condition, and are affected by zoo management in elephants.

  8. Community-based human-elephant conflict mitigation: The value of an evidence-based approach in promoting the uptake of effective methods.

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    Donny Gunaryadi

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC is a serious threat to elephants and can cause major economic losses. It is widely accepted that reduction of HEC will often require community-based methods for repelling elephants but there are few tests of such methods. We tested community-based crop-guarding methods with and without novel chili-based elephant deterrents and describe changes in farmers' willingness to adopt these methods following our demonstration of their relative effectiveness. In three separate field-trials that took place over almost two years (October 2005 -May 2007 in two villages adjacent to Way Kambas National Park (WKNP in Indonesia, we found that community-based crop-guarding was effective at keeping Asian elephants (Elephas maximus out of crop fields in 91.2% (52 out of 57, 87.6% (156 out of 178, and 80.0% (16 out of 20 of attempted raids. Once the method had been shown to be effective at demonstration sites, farmers in 16 villages around WKNP voluntarily adopted it during the July 2008 to March 2009 period and were able to repel elephants in 73.9% (150 out of 203 of attempted raids, with seven villages repelling 100% of attempted raids. These 16 villages had all experienced high levels of HEC in the preceding years; e.g. they accounted for >97% of the 742 HEC incidents recorded for the entire park in 2006. Our work shows, therefore, that a simple evidence-based approach can facilitate significant reductions in HEC at the protected area scale.

  9. Textile Electrodes Embedded in Clothing: A Practical Alternative to Traditional Surface Electromyography when Assessing Muscle Excitation during Functional Movements

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    Steffi L. Colyer, Polly M. McGuigan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile electromyography (EMG electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. EMG signals were identically processed to provide average rectified EMG (normalized to walking and excitation length. Results were compared across measurement systems and demonstrated good agreement between the magnitude of muscle excitation when EMG activity was lower, but agreement was poorer when excitation was higher. The length of excitation bursts was consistently longer when measured using textile vs. surface EMG electrodes. Comparable between-session (day-to-day repeatability was found for average rectified EMG (mean coefficient of variation, CV: 42.6 and 41.2% and excitation length (CV: 12.9 and 9.8% when using textile and surface EMG, respectively. Additionally, similar within-session repeatability (CV was recorded for average rectified EMG (13.8 and 14.1% and excitation length (13.0 and 12.7% for textile and surface electrodes, respectively. Generally, textile EMG electrodes appear to be capable of providing comparable muscle excitation information and reproducibility to surface EMG during dynamic tasks. Textile EMG shorts could therefore be a practical alternative to traditional laboratory-based methods allowing muscle excitation information to be collected in more externally-valid training environments.

  10. Reliability of surface electromyography activity of gluteal and hamstring muscles during sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2018-04-01

    Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hip Abductor Muscle Volume and Strength Differences Between Women With Chronic Hip Joint Pain and Asymptomatic Controls.

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    Mastenbrook, Matthew J; Commean, Paul K; Hillen, Travis J; Salsich, Gretchen B; Meyer, Gretchen A; Mueller, Michael J; Clohisy, John C; Harris-Hayes, Marcie

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis, cross-sectional study. Background Chronic hip joint pain (CHJP) can lead to limitations in activity participation, but the musculoskeletal factors associated with the condition are relatively unknown. Understanding the factors associated with CHJP may help develop rehabilitation strategies to improve quality of life of individuals with long-term hip pain. Objectives To compare measures of hip abductor muscle volume and hip abductor muscle strength between women with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Methods Thirty women, 15 with CHJP and 15 matched asymptomatic controls (age range, 18-40 years), participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the volume of the primary hip abductor muscles, consisting of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, a small portion of the gluteus maximus, and the tensor fascia latae, within a defined region of interest. Break tests were performed using a handheld dynamometer to assess hip abductor strength. During the strength test, the participant was positioned in sidelying with the involved hip in 15° of abduction. Independent-samples t tests were used to compare muscle volume and strength values between those with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Results Compared to asymptomatic controls, women with CHJP demonstrated significantly increased gluteal muscle volume (228 ± 40 cm 3 versus 199 ± 29 cm 3 , P = .032), but decreased hip abductor strength (74.6 ± 16.8 Nm versus 93.6 ± 20.2 Nm, P = .009). There were no significant differences in tensor fascia lata muscle volume between the 2 groups (P = .640). Conclusion Women with CHJP appear to have larger gluteal muscle volume, but decreased hip abductor strength, compared to asymptomatic controls. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):923-930. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7380.

  12. Distinct neuromuscular phenotypes in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 : a whole body highfield MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblum, Cornelia; Lutterbey, Götz; Bogdanow, Manuela; Kesper, Kristina; Schild, Hans; Schröder, Rolf; Wattjes, Mike Peter

    2006-06-01

    Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2) present with distinct though overlapping clinical phenotypes. Comparative imaging data on skeletal muscle involvement are not at present available. We used the novel technique of whole body 3.0 Tesla (T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to further characterize musculoskeletal features in DM2 and compared the results with DM1.MRI findings of 15 DM1 and 14 DM2 patients were evaluated with respect to patterns of skeletal muscle affection and clinical data using the Muscular Impairment Rating Scale (MIRS) and Medical Research Council scale (MRC). All DM1 patients had pathological MRI compared with only 5 DM2 patients. In contrast to DM2, DM1 patients showed a characteristic distribution of muscle involvement with frequent and early degeneration of the medial heads of gastrocnemius muscles, and a perifemoral semilunar pattern of quadriceps muscle affection sparing the rectus femoris. The most frequently affected muscles in DM1 were the medial heads of gastrocnemius, soleus, and vastus medialis muscles. In DM2, however, the erector spinae and gluteus maximus muscles were most vulnerable to degeneration. MRI data were in line with the clinical grading in 12 DM1 and 3 DM2 patients. In 3 DM1 and 5 DM2 patients, MRI detected subclinical muscle involvement. 9 DM2 patients with mild to moderate proximal muscle weakness and/or myalgias had normal MRI. Pathological MRI changes in DM2 emerged with increasing age and were restricted to women. Whole body 3.0T MRI is a sensitive imaging technique that demonstrated a characteristic skeletal muscle affection in DM1. In contrast, MRI was no reliable indicator for skeletal muscle involvement in mildly affected DM2 patients since myalgia and mild paresis were usually not reflected by MRI signal alterations.

  13. Computed tomography of the skeletal muscles in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Hideo; Takahashi, Mitsugi; Habara, Shinji; Nagai, Yoshinao; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the shoulder girdle, upper arm, waist, pelvic girdle, thigh, and lower leg were obtained in a total of 21 patients with neuromuscular diseases, including 10 with Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD), 3 with Fukushima type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), 3 with Werdnig-Hoffmann's disease (WH), 3 with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy in childhood (childhood MC), one with nemaline myopathy (NM), and one with myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC). Age-dependent changes in CT findings were examined in the 10 DMD patients ranging in age from 3 to 15 years. Each muscle of the shoulder girdle and upper arm was seen as a low density area on CT in patients 9 years of age when the arms are difficult to elevate. Changes in the m. quadriceps femoris occurring in all the patients were visible earlist on CT, followed by those in the m. gluteus maximus, m. gastrocnemius, and m. soleus. CT scans of the thigh was thus considered most useful in diagnosing DMD. CT scans of the lower leg showed low density areas in the m. gastrocnemius and m. soleus in both WH and FCMD patients, while a low density area seen in the m. gluteus maximum on CT was restricted to FCMD patients. This suggests the potential of CT in the differentiation of WH from FCMD. In patients with childhood ARMD, there were various CT findings including normal and extremely low density areas. CT findings in NM patients were similar to those in DMD patients. High density areas were seen along the fascia of the trunk in MOC patients. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Filling the gap: Using fishers' knowledge to map the extent and intensity of fishing activity.

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    Szostek, Claire L; Murray, Lee G; Bell, Ewen; Kaiser, Michel J

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the extent and intensity of fishing activities is critical to inform management in relation to fishing impacts on marine conservation features. Such information can also provide insight into the potential socio-economic impacts of closures (or other restrictions) of fishing grounds that could occur through the future designation of Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs). We assessed the accuracy and validity of fishing effort data (spatial extent and relative effort) obtained from Fishers' Local Knowledge (LK) data compared to that derived from Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data for a high-value shellfish fishery, the king scallop (Pecten maximus L.) dredge fishery in the English Channel. The spatial distribution of fishing effort from LK significantly correlated with VMS data and the correlation increased with increasing grid cell resolution. Using a larger grid cell size for data aggregation increases the estimation of the total area of seabed impacted by the fishery. In the absence of historical VMS data for vessels ≤15 m LOA (Length Overall), LK data for the inshore fleet provided important insights into the relative effort of the inshore (<6 NM from land) king scallop fishing fleet in the English Channel. The LK data provided a good representation of the spatial extent of inshore fishing activity, whereas representation of the offshore fishery was more precautionary in terms of defining total impact. Significantly, the data highlighted frequently fished areas of particular importance to the inshore fleet. In the absence of independent sources of geospatial information, the use of LK can inform the development of marine planning in relation to both sustainable fishing and conservation objectives, and has application in both developed and developing countries where VMS technology is not utilised in fisheries management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction and analysis of experimental DNA vaccines against megalocytivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Hu, Yong-Hua; Xiao, Zhi-Zhong; Sun, Yun; Sun, Li

    2012-11-01

    Iridoviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses with icosahedral capsid. The Iridoviridae family contains five genera, one of which is Megalocytivirus. Megalocytivirus has emerged in recent years as an important pathogen to a wide range of marine and freshwater fish. In this study, we aimed at developing effective genetic vaccines against megalocytivirus affecting farmed fish in China. For this purpose, we constructed seven DNA vaccines based on seven genes of rock bream iridovirus isolate 1 from China (RBIV-C1), a megalocytivirus with a host range that includes Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). The protective potentials of these vaccines were examined in a turbot model. The results showed that after vaccination via intramuscular injection, the vaccine plasmids were distributed in spleen, kidney, muscle, and liver, and transcription of the vaccine genes and production of the vaccine proteins were detected in these tissues. Following challenge with a lethal-dose of RBIV-C1, fish vaccinated with four of the seven DNA vaccines exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to control fish. Of these four protective DNA vaccines, pCN86, which is a plasmid that expresses an 86-residue viral protein, induced the highest protection. Immunological analysis showed that pCN86 was able to (i) stimulate the respiratory burst of head kidney macrophages at 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d post-vaccination, (ii) upregulate the expression of immune relevant genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity, and (iii) induce production of serum antibodies that, when incubated with RBIV-C1 before infection, significantly reduced viral loads in kidney and spleen following viral infection of turbot. Taken together, these results indicate that pCN86 is an effective DNA vaccine that may be used in the control of megalocytivirus-associated diseases in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscle activation in healthy subjects during single step up [Aktivace svalů u zdravých osob při nákroku na schod

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    Jaroslav Opavský

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The single step up is an integral movement performance for functional mobility and activities of daily living. During this activity the body has to be able to keep its balance and maintain a stable upright posture for performing voluntary movement. For this purpose the central nervous system creates different motor programs specific to the task. A motor programme is believed to contain the pre-programmed sequence of muscle activity prior to the initiation of the task, and includes both the muscle activity for the task, as well as postural muscle activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to examine the sequence of muscular activation, and to determine the timing of the involvement of selected trunk and leg muscles whilst stepping up. The further aim was to find out the most common muscle patterns in this model of motor activity in healthy subjects. METHODS: The bilateral electromyographic (EMG signal from the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris and erectores spinae muscles were recorded using surface electromyography. The visual record of the step up performance was registered simultaneously with surface electromyography. The tested group consisted of 16 healthy (5 men with an average age of 23.6, 11 women with an average age of 23.2. They were monitored during the motor task – the step up task, that is which was performed by the dominant leg. The subject stood facing the step (height of the step = 20 cm. Upon request he/she stepped up with the right leg at a spontaneous speed. The motor task was completed by bringing the left leg up onto the step. RESULTS: During this task, we registered the activation of the right erector spinae muscle, right biceps femoris muscle, left erector spinae muscle and left biceps femoris muscle before the beginning of the visually recognizable movement. The most frequently registered pattern of activation on the side that carried out the step was: right biceps femoris muscle → right erector spinae

  17. Contraction-evoked vasodilation and functional hyperaemia are compromised in branching skeletal muscle arterioles of young pre-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novielli, N M; Jackson, D N

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effects of pre-diabetes on microvascular network function in contracting skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that pre-diabetes compromises contraction-evoked vasodilation of branching second-order (2A), third-order (3A) and fourth-order (4A) arterioles, where distal arterioles would be affected the greatest. Intravital video microscopy was used to measure arteriolar diameter (in 2A, 3A and 4A) and blood flow (in 2A and 3A) changes to electrical field stimulation of the gluteus maximus muscle in pre-diabetic (The Pound Mouse, PD) and control (c57bl6, CTRL) mice. Baseline diameter and blood flow were similar between groups (2A: ~20 μm, 3A: ~14 μm and 4A: ~8 μm; 2A: ~1 nL s(-1) and 3A: ~0.5 nL s(-1) ). Single tetanic contraction (100 Hz; 200, 400, 800 ms duration) evoked rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) and blood flow responses that were blunted by ~50% and up to 81%, respectively, in PD vs. CTRL (P contraction (2 and 8 Hz, 30 s) evoked vasodilatory and blood flow responses that were also attenuated by ~50% and up to 71%, respectively, in PD vs. CTRL (P contraction was also up to 2.5-fold greater at 4A vs. 2A in CTRL; however spatial differences in vasodilation across arteriolar branch orders was disrupted in PD. Arteriolar dysregulation in pre-diabetes causes deficits in contraction-evoked dilation and blood flow, where greatest deficits occur at distal arterioles. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparison of gluteal perforator flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation flaps for reconstruction of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chou; Huang, Eng-Yen; Lin, Pao-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    The gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap was considered the workhorse that reconstructed sacral pressure sores, but was gradually replaced by fasciocutaneous flap because of several disadvantages. With the advent of the perforator flap technique, gluteal perforator (GP) flap has gained popularity nowadays. The aim of this study was to compare the complications and outcomes between GP flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation (FR) flaps in the treatment of sacral pressure sores. Between April 2007 and June 2012, 63 patients underwent sacral pressure sore reconstructions, with a GP flap used in 31 cases and an FR flap used in 32 cases. Data collected on the patients included patient age, gender, co-morbidity for being bedridden and follow-up time. Surgical details collected included the defect size, operative time and estimated blood loss. Complications recorded included re-operation, dehiscence, flap necrosis, wound infection, sinus formation, donor-site morbidity and recurrence. The complications and clinical outcomes were compared between these two groups. We found that there was no significant difference in patient demographics, surgical complications and recurrence between these two groups. In gluteal FR flap group, all recurrent cases (five) were treated by reuse of previous flaps. Both methods are comparable, good and safe in treating sacral pressure sores. Gluteal FR flap can be performed without microsurgical dissection, and re-rotation is feasible in recurrent cases. The authors suggest using gluteal FR flaps in patients with a high risk of sore recurrence. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle-splitting approach to superior and inferior gluteal vessels: versatile source of recipient vessels for free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S

    2000-07-01

    The superior gluteal vessel has been reported as a recipient in free-tissue transfer for the coverage of complex soft-tissue defects in the lumbosacral region, where a suitable recipient vessel is difficult to find. The characteristics of proximity, vessel caliber, and constancy make the superior gluteal vessel preferable to previously reported recipient vessels. However, there are technical difficulties in microsurgery (e.g., short pedicle length and deep location) and muscle injury (transection of the muscle) associated with use of the superior gluteal vessel. The purpose of this article is to present a modification of an approach to the gluteal vessel to alleviate technical difficulties and minimize muscle injury. From August of 1997 to January of 1999, six patients received microvascular transfer of the latissimus dorsi muscle or myocutaneous flap to the sacral (4) and ischial (2) regions. The causes of defects were tumor (1), trauma (1), and pressure sores (4). A muscle-splitting approach was used on the superior gluteal vessel and was later applied to the inferior gluteal vessel. The gluteus maximus muscle was split as needed in the direction of its fibers, and the perforators were dissected down to the superior or inferior gluteal artery and vein deep into the muscle. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 22 months, and all of the flaps survived with complete recovery of the lesion. The major drawbacks of using the superior and inferior gluteal vessels can be overcome with the muscle-splitting approach, which provides increased accessibility and additional length to the vascular pedicle while causing minimal injury to the muscle itself. It also proves to be an easy, safe, and reliable method of dissection. When free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions is indicated, the muscle-splitting approach to the superior and inferior gluteal vessels is a recommended option in the selection of a recipient vessel.

  20. Effects of the belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation system on lower extremity skeletal muscle activity: Evaluation using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Hitoaki; Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity muscle weakness in athletes after lower limb trauma or surgery can hinder their return to sports, and the associated muscle atrophy may lead to deterioration in performance after returning to sports. Recently, belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation (B-SES) which can contract all the lower limb skeletal muscles simultaneously was developed. However, no study has evaluated skeletal muscle activity with B-SES. Since only superficial muscles as well as a limited number of muscles can be investigated using electromyography, we investigated whether positron emission tomography (PET) can evaluate the activity of all the skeletal muscles in the body simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the B-SES system using PET. Twelve healthy males (mean age, 24.3 years) were divided into two groups. The subjects in the control group remained in a sitting position for 10 min, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was intravenously injected. In the exercise group, subjects exercised using the B-SES system for 20 min daily for three consecutive days as a pre-test exercise. On the measurement day, they exercised for 10 min, received an injection of FDG, and exercised for another 10 min. PET-computed tomography images were obtained in each group 60 min after the FDG injection. Regions of interest were drawn in each lower-extremity muscle. We compared each skeletal muscle metabolism using the standardized uptake value. In the exercise group, FDG accumulation in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, quadriceps femoris, sartorius, and hamstrings was significantly higher than the muscles in the control (P skeletal muscle activity of the gluteal muscles as well as the most lower-extremity muscles simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF DEEP GLUTEAL PAIN IN A FEMALE RUNNER WITH PELVIC INVOLVEMENT: A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J.; Garcia, Ashley; Rothschild, Carey E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gluteal injuries, proximal hamstring injuries, and pelvic floor disorders have been reported in the literature among runners. Some suggest that hip, pelvis, and/or groin injuries occur in 3.3% to 11.5% of long distance runners. The purpose of this case report is to describe the differential diagnosis and treatment approach for a patient presenting with combined hip and pelvic pain. Case description: A 45-year-old female distance runner was referred to physical therapy for proximal hamstring pain that had been present for several months. This pain limited her ability to tolerate sitting and caused her to cease running. Examination of the patient's lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower extremity led to the initial differential diagnosis of hamstring syndrome and ischiogluteal bursitis. The patient's primary symptoms improved during the initial four visits, which focused on education, pain management, trunk stabilization and gluteus maximus strengthening, however pelvic pain persisted. Further examination led to a secondary diagnosis of pelvic floor hypertonic disorder. Interventions to address the pelvic floor led to resolution of symptoms and return to running. Outcomes: Pain level on the Visual Analog Scale decreased from 7/10 to 1/10 over the course of treatment. The patient was able to return to full sport activity and improved sitting tolerance to greater then two hours without significant discomfort. Discussion: This case suggests the interdependence of lumbopelvic and lower extremity kinematics in complaints of hamstring, posterior thigh and pelvic floor disorders. This case highlights the importance of a thorough examination as well as the need to consider a regional interdependence of the pelvic floor and lower quarter when treating individuals with proximal hamstring pain. Level of Evidence: Level 4 PMID:24175132

  2. When elephants fall asleep: A literature review on elephant rest with case studies on elephant falling bouts, and practical solutions for zoo elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Christian; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Hård, Therese; Scholz, Robert; Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2018-05-01

    Little attention has been paid to the resting and sleeping behavior of zoo elephants so far. An important concern is when elephants avoid lying down, due to degenerative joint and foot disease, social structure, or stressful environmental changes. Inability or unwillingness to lie down for resting is an important welfare issue, as it may impair sleep. We emphasize the importance of satisfying rest in elephants by reviewing the literature on resting behavior in elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) as well as the documentation of four cases from European zoos and our own direct observations in a zoo group of four female African elephants during 12 entire days. The common denominator in the case reports is the occurrence of a falling bout out of a standing position subsequently to a cessation of lying rest for different periods of time. Although well-known in horses as "episodic collapse" or "excessive drowsiness," this syndrome has not been described in elephants before. To enable its detection, we recommend nocturnal video monitoring for elephant-keeping institutions. The literature evaluation as well as own observational data suggest an inverse relationship between lying rest and standing rest. Preventative measures consist of enclosure modifications that facilitate lying rest (e.g., sand hills) or standing rest in a leaning position as a substitute. Anecdotal observations suggest that the provision of appropriate horizontal environmental structures may encourage safe, sleep-conducive standing rest. We provide drawings on how to install such structures. Effects of providing such structures should be evaluated in the future. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Electromyographic Analysis of the Hip Extension Pattern in Visually Impaired Athletes

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    Halski Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the order of muscle recruitment during the active hip joint extension in particular positions in young visually impaired athletes. The average recruitment time (ART of the gluteus maximus (GM and the hamstring muscle group (HMG was assessed by the means of surface electromyography (sEMG. The sequence of muscle recruitment in the female and male group was also taken into consideration. This study followed a prospective, cross – sectional, randomised design, where 76 visually impaired athletes between the age of 18–25 years were enrolled into the research and selected on chosen inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, 64 young subjects (32 men and 32 women were included in the study (age: 21.1 ± 1.05 years; body mass: 68.4 ± 12.4 kg; body height: 1.74 ± 0.09 m; BMI: 22.20 ± 2.25 kg/m2. All subjects were analysed for the ART of the GM and HMG during the active hip extension performed in two different positions, as well as resting and functional sEMG activity of each muscle. Between gender differences were comprised and the correlations between the ART of the GM and HMG with their functional sEMG activity during hip extension in both positions were shown. No significant differences between the ART of the GM and HMG were found (p>0.05. Furthermore, there was no significant difference of ART among both tested positions, as well in male as female subjects (p>0.05.

  4. S-06: Effect of Increased Cadence on Neuromuscular Response and Lower Limb Kinematics in Middle Distance Runners

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    Amrinder Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the differences in the neuromuscular and kinematic response in middle distance runners when the step rate was increased to 5% and 10% respectively of the preferred step rate.MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: 80 middle distance runners (40 males and 40 females participated in the study. EMG of 8 muscles (rectus femoris, medial and lateral hamstrings, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, gluteus medius and maximus, kinematic changes at the lower limb joints during stance and swing phase of running, foot pressure readings and spatiotemporal gait pa-rameters were recorded as each participant ran at their preferred speed, 5% increase in preferred speed and 10% increase in their preferred speed while keeping the treadmill speed constant.RESULTS: Kinematic analysis showed an increased knee flexion angle at initial contact (p < 0.001 and decreased knee flexion angle during swing phase (p < 0.001, Ankle showed reduced dorsiflex-ion angle at initial contact (p<0.001 and the hip showed less peak flexion (p < 0.001 across step rate conditions.With an increase in step rate, a fore foot strike running pattern was seen. Muscle activity was signif-icantly increased during the late swing and pre-swing at 10% of the preferred speed (p<0.001, with less significant changes during 5% of the preferred speed. During loading response, significant de-crease in muscle activity (p<0.05 was found between 5% and 10% increase of preferred speed.CONCLUSION: Increased cadence showed increased muscle activation and a forefoot strike run-ning pattern. The kinematic changes documented along with the neuromuscular response across the step rate conditions could be beneficial to runners for rehabilitation and injury prevention.

  5. Inflammatory responses and side effects generated by several adjuvant-containing vaccines in turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noia, M; Domínguez, B; Leiro, J; Blanco-Méndez, J; Luzardo-Álvarez, A; Lamas, J

    2014-05-01

    Several of the adjuvants used in fish vaccines cause adhesions in internal organs when they are injected intraperitoneally. We describe the damage caused by vaccines containing different adjuvants in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus and show that internal adhesions can be greatly reduced by injecting the fish in a specific way. Injection of fish with the needle directed towards the anterior part of the peritoneal cavity induced formation of a single cell-vaccine mass (CVM) that became attached to the parietal peritoneum. However, injection of the fish with the needle pointing in the opposite direction generated many small CVM that became attached to the visceral and parietal peritoneum and in some cases caused internal adhesions. We describe the structural and cellular changes in the adjuvant-induced CVMs. The CVMs mainly comprised neutrophils and macrophages, although most of the former underwent apoptosis, which was particularly evident from day 3 post-injection. The apoptotic cells were phagocytosed by macrophages, which were the dominant cell type from the first days onwards. All of the vaccines induced angiogenesis in the area of contact between the CVM and the mesothelium. Vaccines containing oil-based adjuvants or microspheres induced the formation of granulomas in the CVM; however, no granulomas were observed in the CVM induced by vaccines containing aluminium hydroxide or Matrix-Q(®) as adjuvants. All of the vaccines induced strong migration of cells to the peritoneal cavity. Although some of these cells remained unattached in the peritoneal cavity, most of them formed part of the CVM. We also observed migration of the cells from the peritoneal cavity to lymphoid organs, indicating bidirectional traffic of cells between the inflamed areas and these organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of volitional spine stabilization on lifting task in recurrent low back pain population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddas, Ram; Yang, James; Lieberman, Isador

    2016-09-01

    To examine the influence of volitional preemptive abdominal contraction (VPAC) and recurrent low back pain (rLBP) on trunk mechanics and neuromuscular control during a symmetric lifting task. A 2 × 2 crossover mixed design was used to examine the effects of VPAC and group. Thirty-seven healthy individuals and 32 rLBP individuals performed symmetric box lifting trials with and without VPAC to a 1-m height table 3D trunk, pelvis, and hip joint angle and electromyographic magnitude variables were obtained. Selected variables were analyzed using ANOVA. The VPAC induced differences in joint kinematics and muscle activity in rLBP and healthy subjects during symmetric lifting. A significant two-way interaction effect was observed for the semitendinosus activity. The VPAC increased external oblique muscle activity, reduced erector spinae and multifidus muscles activity, and induced greater trunk flexion angle, greater trunk side flexion angle, and greater hip flexion angle, and decreased pelvis obliquity angle in both groups. In addition, the rLBP subjects presented with a reduced external oblique and gluteus maximus muscle activity, greater erector spinae and multifidus muscles activity, and greater pelvis posterior tilt angle. Our results provide evidence that a VPAC strategy performed during symmetric lifting may potentially reduce exposure to biomechanical factors that can contribute to lumbar spine injury. The hamstring muscles may play an important role in achieving pelvic balance during the lifting maneuver. Incorporating the VPAC during dynamic stressful activities appears to help improve sensorimotor control and facilitate positioning of the lower extremities and the pelvis, while protecting the lumbar spine.

  7. EMG Analysis and Sagittal Plane Kinematics of the Two-Handed and Single-Handed Kettlebell Swing: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gelder, Leonard H; Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Alonzo, Bryan; Briggs, Dayna; Hatzel, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Kettlebell (KB) swing exercises have been proposed as a possible method to improve hip and spinal motor control as well as improve power, strength, and endurance. To describe electromyographic (EMG) and sagittal plane kinematics during two KB exercises: the two-handed KB swing (THKS) and the single-handed KB swing (SHKS). In addition, the authors sought to investigate whether or not hip flexor length related to the muscular activity or the kinematics of the exercise. Twenty-three healthy college age subjects participated in this study. Demographic information and passive hip flexor length were recorded for each subject. A maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of bilateral gluteus maximus (GMAX), gluteus medius (GMED), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles was recorded. EMG activity and sagittal plane video was recorded during both the THKS and SHKS in a randomized order. Normalized muscular activation of the three studied muscles was calculated from EMG data. During both SHKS and THKS, the average percent of peak MVIC for GMAX was 75.02% ± 55.38, GMED 55.47% ± 26.33, and BF 78.95% ± 53.29. Comparisons of the mean time to peak activation (TTP) for each muscle showed that the biceps femoris was the first muscle to activate during the swings. Statistically significant (p < .05), moderately positive correlations (r = .483 and .417) were found between passive hip flexor length and % MVIC for the GMax during the SHKS and THKS, respectively. The THKS and SHKS provide sufficient muscular recruitment for strengthening of all of the muscles explored. This is the first study to show significant correlations between passive hip flexor length and muscular activation of hip extensors, particularly the GMax. Finally, the BF consistently reached peak activity before the GMax and GMed during the SHKS. Level 3.

  8. Elephant’s breast milk contains large amounts of glucosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAKATSU, Zenta; TSUDA, Muneya; YAMADA, Akio; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; TAKAI, Akira; TAKEDA, Yasuhiro; TAKASE, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant’s breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant’s breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We detected the following GlcN concentrations [mean ± SD] (mg/100 g) in milk hydrolysates produced by treating samples with 6M HCl for 24 hr at 110°C: four elephant’s breast milk samples: 516 ± 42, three cow’s milk mixtures: 4.0 ± 2.2, three mare’s milk samples: 12 ± 1.2 and two human milk samples: 38. The GlcN content of the elephant’s milk was 128, 43 and 14 times greater than those of the cow’s, mare’s and human milk, respectively. Then, we examined the degradation of GlcN during 0–24 hr hydrolyzation with HCl. We estimated that elephant’s milk contains >880 mg/100 g GlcN, which is similar to the levels of major amino acids in elephant’s milk. We concluded that a novel GlcN-containing milk substitute should be developed for elephant calves. The efficacy of GlcN supplements is disputed, and free GlcN is rare in bodily fluids; thus, the optimal molecular form of GlcN requires a further study. PMID:28049867

  9. Whole-Genome Analysis of a Novel Fish Reovirus (MsReV Discloses Aquareovirus Genomic Structure Relationship with Host in Saline Environments

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    Zhong-Yuan Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquareoviruses are serious pathogens of aquatic animals. Here, genome characterization and functional gene analysis of a novel aquareovirus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides reovirus (MsReV, was described. It comprises 11 dsRNA segments (S1–S11 covering 24,024 bp, and encodes 12 putative proteins including the inclusion forming-related protein NS87 and the fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST protein NS22. The function of NS22 was confirmed by expression in fish cells. Subsequently, MsReV was compared with two representative aquareoviruses, saltwater fish turbot Scophthalmus maximus reovirus (SMReV and freshwater fish grass carp reovirus strain 109 (GCReV-109. MsReV NS87 and NS22 genes have the same structure and function with those of SMReV, whereas GCReV-109 is either missing the coiled-coil region in NS79 or the gene-encoding NS22. Significant similarities are also revealed among equivalent genome segments between MsReV and SMReV, but a difference is found between MsReV and GCReV-109. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that 13 aquareoviruses could be divided into freshwater and saline environments subgroups, and MsReV was closely related to SMReV in saline environments. Consequently, these viruses from hosts in saline environments have more genomic structural similarities than the viruses from hosts in freshwater. This is the first study of the relationships between aquareovirus genomic structure and their host environments.

  10. Determination of the Timing and Level of Activities of Lumbopelvic Muscles in Response to Postural Perturbations

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    S Ebrahimi Takamjani

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important concerns in orthopedic medicine is the low back. Considering the importance of muscle function in preventing LBT by controlling too much load and stress applied on the spinal joints and ligaments. Materials and Methods: The aim of this research was to determine the timing and level of activities of lumbopelvic muscles in response to postural perturbations caused by unexpected loading of the upper limbs in standing on three different supporting surfaces (neutral, positive slope, negative slope in 20 healthy females 18 to 30 years old ( = 23.20 SD = 2.55 . The electromyographic signals were recorded from the deltoid, gluteus maximus, internal oblique abdominis and lumbar paraspinal muscles of the dominant side of the body to evaluate the onset time, end time, level of muscle activity (RMS and duration of different muscles in one task and one muscle in different tasks. Results: The results showed that the agonists (posterior muscles activated at first to compensate the flexor torque caused by loading and then the antagonists (anterior muscles switched-on to compensate the reaction forces caused by agonist activities. With regards to continuous activity of internal oblique and its attachments via thoracalumbar fascia to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, it can be considered as one of the major stabilizer muscles of the trunk . Conclusion: Finally the results indicated that supporting surface type didn’t have any effect on timing and scaling of muscle activities in different tasks suggesting that probably spinal and trunk priprioceptors are just responsible for triggering postural responses and they don’t have any role in determining timing and scaling.

  11. Misturas de forrageiras anuais e perenes para sucessão à soja em sistemas de integração lavoura‑pecuária

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    Luís Armando Zago Machado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de forragem de espécies perenes e de suas misturas com espécies anuais, durante a estação seca, e a produtividade de grãos de soja cultivada em sucessão. Os experimentos foram realizados em 2007 e 2008, em Dourados e em São Gabriel do Oeste, MS. Em 2007, foram avaliadas as espécies Urochloa brizantha ('Xaraés' e Megathyrsus maximus ('Tanzânia', em cultivos solteiros ou em misturas com Eleusine coracana (capim‑pé‑de‑galinha, Pennisetum glaucum (milheto e Sorghum bicolor (sorgo forrageiro. Em 2008, foram avaliados U. decumbens e as cultivares Xaraés e Tanzânia em cultivos solteiros ou em misturas com milheto e sorgo forrageiro. As forrageiras foram avaliadas sob sucessivos cortes, durante a estação seca, e a soja no verão, no cultivo em sucessão. As misturas de espécies anuais e perenes não aumentam a produção de forragem, mas melhoram sua distribuição ao longo da estação seca. As forrageiras anuais têm maior participação na produção de forragem das misturas no início da estação seca, e as perenes no final dessa estação. A relação folha/colmo das forrageiras perenes individuais é maior do que a das misturas. Os tratamentos avaliados não têm efeito sobre a soja cultivada em sucessão.

  12. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Emma V; Stevens, Timothy F; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas MPA have been widely used over the last 2 decades to address human impacts on marine habitats within an ecosystem management context. Few studies have quantified recovery of temperate rocky reef communities following the cessation of scallop dredging or demersal trawling. This is critical information for the future management of these habitats to contribute towards conservation and fisheries targets. The Lyme Bay MPA, in south west UK, has excluded towed demersal fishing gear from 206 km(2) of sensitive reef habitat using a Statutory Instrument since July 2008. To assess benthic recovery in this MPA we used a flying video array to survey macro epi-benthos annually from 2008 to 2011. 4 treatments (the New Closure, previously voluntarily Closed Controls and Near or Far Open to fishing Controls) were sampled to test a recovery hypothesis that was defined as 'the New Closure becoming more similar to the Closed Controls and less similar to the Open Controls'. Following the cessation of towed demersal fishing, within three years positive responses were observed for species richness, total abundance, assemblage composition and seven of 13 indicator taxa. Definitive evidence of recovery was noted for species richness and three of the indicator taxa (Pentapora fascialis, Phallusia mammillata and Pecten maximus). While it is hoped that MPAs, which exclude anthropogenic disturbance, will allow functional restoration of goods and services provided by benthic communities, it is an unknown for temperate reef systems. Establishing the likely timescales for restoration is key to future marine management. We demonstrate the early stages of successful recruitment and link these to the potential wider ecosystem benefits including those to commercial fisheries.

  13. Seasonal variations in ectotherm growth rates: Quantifying growth as an intermittent non steady state compensatory process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, J.-M.; Chauvaud, Laurent; Cloern, J.E.; Clavier, J.; Coston-Guarini, J.; Patry, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Generally, growth rates of living organisms are considered to be at steady state, varying only under environmental forcing factors. For example, these rates may be described as a function of light for plants or organic food resources for animals and these could be regulated (or not) by temperature or other conditions. But, what are the consequences for an individual's growth (and also for the population growth) if growth rate variations are themselves dynamic and not steady state? For organisms presenting phases of dormancy or long periods of stress, this is a crucial question. A dynamic perspective for quantifying short-term growth was explored using the daily growth record of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). This species is a good biological model for ectotherm growth because the shell records growth striae daily. Independently, a generic mathematical function representing the dynamics of mean daily growth rate (MDGR) was implemented to simulate a diverse set of growth patterns. Once the function was calibrated with the striae patterns, the growth rate dynamics appeared as a forced damped oscillation during the growth period having a basic periodicity during two transitory phases (mean duration 43. days) and appearing at both growth start and growth end. This phase is most likely due to the internal dynamics of energy transfer within the organism rather than to external forcing factors. After growth restart, the transitory regime represents successive phases of over-growth and regulation. This pattern corresponds to a typical representation of compensatory growth, which from an evolutionary perspective can be interpreted as an adaptive strategy to coping with a fluctuating environment. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a non-invasive method to evaluate significant differences between malignant and normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Zunterer, Hildegard; DeVries, Alexander F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: An ever recurring challenge in diagnostic radiology is the differentiation between non-malignant and malignant tissue. Based on evidence that microcirculation of normal, non-malignant tissue differs from that of malignant tissue, the goal of this study was to assess the reliability of dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dcMRI) for differentiating these two entities. Materials and methods: DcMRI data of rectum carcinoma and gluteus maximus muscles were acquired in 41 patients. Using an fast T1-mapping sequence on a 1.5-T whole body scanner, T1-maps were dynamically retrieved before, during and after constant rate i.v. infusion of a contrast medium (CM). On the basis of the acquired data sets, PI-values were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The relevance of spatial heterogeneities of microcirculation was investigated by relative frequency histograms of the PI-values. Results: A statistically significant difference between malignant and normal tissue was found for the mean PI-value (P < 0.001; 8.95 ml/min/100 g ± 2.45 versus 3.56 ml/min/100 g ± 1.20). Additionally relative frequency distributions of PI-values with equal class intervals of 2.5 ml/min/100 g revealed significant differences between the histograms of muscles and rectum carcinoma. Conclusion: We could show that microcirculation differences between malignant and normal, non-malignant tissue can be reliably assessed by non-invasive dcMRI. Therefore, dcMRI holds great promise in the aid of cancer assessment, especially in patients where biopsy is contraindicated

  15. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogenetics of the Idarnes incertus species-group (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Sycophaginae

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    Fernando H.A. Farache

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In this paper we reviewed the Idarnes incertus species-group and provide detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for the species belonging to this group. Three previously described species were redescribed: I. brasiliensis (Mayr, 1906 comb. nov., I. hansoni Bouček, 1993, and I. incertus (Ashmead, 1900. Seventeen new species are described by Farache and Rasplus: I. amacayacuensis sp. n., I. amazonicus sp. n., I. americanae sp. n., I. badiovertex sp. n., I. brevis sp. n., I. brunneus sp. n., I. comptoni sp. n., I. cremersiae sp. n., I. dimorphicus sp. n., I. flavicrus sp. n., I. flaviventris sp. n., I. gibberosus sp. n., I. gordhi sp. n., I. maximus sp. n., I. nigriventris sp. n., I. pseudoflavus sp. n. and I. ramirezi sp. n. We provided keys for the identification of the species as well as for recognising the different species-groups of Idarnes and a closely related genus (Sycophaga Westwood, 1840. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships among 13 species of the I. incertus species-group were inferred using four molecular markers and discussed in the light of Ficus taxonomy and host specificity.

  16. A Good Short-term Outcome in Delayed Decompression of Cauda Equina Syndrome in Klebsiella pneumoniae Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifah J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess is a severe, generally pyogenic, infection of the epidural space of spinal cord or cauda equina. The swelling caused by the abscess leads to compression or vascular disruption of neurological structures that requires urgent surgical decompression to avoid significant permanent disability. We share a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae spinal epidural abscess secondary to haematogenous spread of previous lung infection that presented late at our centre with cauda equina syndrome that showed good short-term outcome in delayed decompression. A 50-year old female presented with one-week history of persistent low back pain with progressively worsening bilateral lower limb weakness for seven days and urinary retention associated with saddle anesthesia of 2-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast of the lumbo-sacral region showed an intramuscular collection of abscess at left gluteus maximus and left multifidus muscle with a L3-L5 posteriorly placed extradural lesion enhancing peripherally on contrast, suggestive of epidural abscess that compressed the cauda equina. The pus was drained using the posterior lumbar approach. Tissue and pus culture revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae, suggestive of bacterial infection. The patient made immediate improvement of muscle power over bilateral lower limbs postoperative followed by ability to control micturition and defecation in the 4th post-operative day. A good short-term outcome in delayed decompression of cauda equine syndrome is extremely rare. Aggressive surgical decompression combined with antibiotic therapy led to good short-term outcome in this patient despite delayed decompression of more than 48 hours.

  17. Ground reaction forces, kinematics, and muscle activations during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary

    2011-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine quantitatively ground reaction forces, kinematics, and muscle activations during the windmill softball pitch, and to determine relationships between knee valgus and muscle activations, ball velocity and muscle activation as well as ball velocity and ground reaction forces. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship between degree of knee valgus and muscle activation, a direct relationship between ground reaction forces and ball velocity, and non-stride leg muscle activations and ball velocity. Ten female windmill softball pitchers (age 17.6 ± 3.47 years, stature 1.67 ± 0.07 m, weight 67.4 ± 12.2 kg) participated. Dependent variables were ball velocity, surface electromyographic (sEMG), kinematic, and kinetic data while the participant was the independent variable. Stride foot contact reported peak vertical forces of 179% body weight. There were positive relationships between ball velocity and ground reaction force (r = 0.758, n = 10, P = 0.029) as well as ball velocity and non-stride leg gluteus maximus (r = 0.851, n = 10, P = 0.007) and medius (r = 0.760, n = 10, P = 0.029) muscle activity, while there was no notable relationship between knee valgus and muscle activation. As the windmill softball pitcher increased ball velocity, her vertical ground reaction forces also increased. Proper conditioning of the lumbopelvic-hip complex, including the gluteals, is essential for injury prevention. From the data presented, it is evident that bilateral strength and conditioning of the gluteal muscle group is salient in the windmill softball pitch as an attempt to decrease incidence of injury.

  18. Sessile and mobile components of a benthic ecosystem display mixed trends within a temperate marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Leigh M; Pickup, Sarah E; Evans, Lowri E; Cross, Tim J; Hawkins, Julie P; Roberts, Callum M; Stewart, Bryce D

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent efforts to increase the global coverage of marine protected areas (MPAs), studies investigating the effectiveness of marine protected areas within temperate waters remain scarce. Furthermore, out of the few studies published on MPAs in temperate waters, the majority focus on specific ecological or fishery components rather than investigating the ecosystem as a whole. This study therefore investigated the dynamics of both benthic communities and fish populations within a recently established, fully protected marine reserve in Lamlash Bay, Isle of Arran, United Kingdom, over a four year period. A combination of photo and diver surveys revealed live maerl (Phymatolithon calcareum), macroalgae, sponges, hydroids, feather stars and eyelash worms (Myxicola infundibulum) to be significantly more abundant within the marine reserve than on surrounding fishing grounds. Likewise, the overall composition of epifaunal communities in and outside the reserve was significantly different. Both results are consistent with the hypothesis that protecting areas from fishing can encourage seafloor habitats to recover. In addition, the greater abundance of complex habitats within the reserve appeared to providing nursery habitat for juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) and scallops (Pecten maximus and Aequipecten opercularis). In contrast, there was little difference in the abundance of mobile benthic fauna, such as crabs and starfish, between the reserve and outside. Similarly, the use of baited underwater video cameras revealed no difference in the abundance and size of fish between the reserve and outside. Limited recovery of these ecosystem components may be due to the relatively small size (2.67 km(2)) and young age of the reserve (<5 years), both of which might have limited the extent of any benefits afforded to mobile fauna and fish communities. Overall, this study provides evidence that fully protected marine reserves can encourage seafloor habitats to recover, which in

  19. Usual populations, unusual individuals: insights into the behavior and management of Asian elephants in fragmented landscapes.

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    Nishant M Srinivasaiah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A dearth in understanding the behavior of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus at the scale of populations and individuals has left important management issues, particularly related to human-elephant conflict (HEC, unresolved. Evaluation of differences in behavior and decision-making among individual elephants across groups in response to changing local ecological settings is essential to fill this gap in knowledge and to improve our approaches towards the management and conservation of elephants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized certain behavioral decisions that would be made by Asian elephants as reflected in their residence time and movement rates, time-activity budgets, social interactions and group dynamics in response to resource availability and human disturbance in their habitat. This study is based on 200 h of behavioral observations on 60 individually identified elephants and a 184-km(2 grid-based survey of their natural and anthropogenic habitats within and outside the Bannerghatta National Park, southern India during the dry season. At a general population level, the behavioral decisions appeared to be guided by the gender, age and group-type of the elephants. At the individual level, the observed variation could be explained only by the idiosyncratic behaviors of individuals and that of their associating conspecific individuals. Recursive partitioning classification trees for residence time of individual elephants indicated that the primary decisions were taken by individuals, independently of their above-mentioned biological and ecological attributes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Decision-making by Asian elephants thus appears to be determined at two levels, that of the population and, more importantly, the individual. Models based on decision-making by individual elephants have the potential to predict conflict in fragmented landscapes that, in turn, could aid in mitigating HEC. Thus, we must target individuals

  20. The Economy of Shark Conservation in the Northeast Pacific: The Role of Ecotourism and Citizen Science.

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    Mieras, Peter A; Harvey-Clark, Chris; Bear, Michael; Hodgin, Gina; Hodgin, Boone

    Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season. However with the development of the SCUBA diving industry, and ecotourism in general, increased awareness of the role sharks play in marine ecosystems has resulted in changes in how they are perceived and utilized. Despite an ongoing harvest of sharks such as the North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), sharks now generate economic value through SCUBA diving enthusiasts who travel the globe to see, swim with, and photograph them. The use of digital cameras and other digital media has brought sharks into households around the world and increased awareness of the conservation issues facing many species. This renewed appreciation has led to a better understanding of sharks by the public, resulting in advocates calling for better protections and conservation. In particular, a growing part of the SCUBA diving community wants to contribute to conservation and research projects, which has led to participation in citizen science projects. These projects provide scientific data but also gain ground as ecotourism activities, thus adding to both economic value of tourism and conservation efforts. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  1. Two epigraphic-historical notes

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    Loma Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    Maximus Aemilianus (PIR2 L56 - probably son of Marcus Laelius Maximus (PIR2 L55, one of the leading senators under Septimius Severus - and M. Nummius Senecio Albinus (PIR2 N235 were the eponymous consuls of 227. The pair is attested in several inscriptions, e.g. CIL VIII 18831 from Numidia which resembles this one in recording the exact date: Bacaci Aug(usto \\ sac(rum \\ Albino et Ma\\ximo co(ns(ulibus \\ Kal(endis Mai(is [3] Si\\ttius Novellus \\ et Q. Galerius Mu\\stianus magg(istri \\ [Thib(ilitanorum?]. Here Albinus' name precedes that of Maximus, which is usually the case. Nevertheless, a parallel with Maximus named before Albinus is provided by an inscription from Dacia (ILD 774, near Cluj: Deae Ne\\mesi sac\\rum Aur(elius Ru[f]inus \\ be(nef(iciarius co(ns(ularis \\ leg(ionis XIII Gem(inae \\ Sever(ianae v(otum l(ibens p(osuit Maximo et Albi\\[no] co(ns(ulibus. Consequently, № 21 is a votive inscription, largely restorable and precisely datable. The Collegium curatorum of the Cohors II Delmatarum in an inscription from Čačak Forty years ago within the Ascension Church yard in Čačak the lower part of a Roman limestone monument has been accidentally unearthed, bearing an inscription, three last lines of which are partially preserved (№ 20 of the catalogue, (fig. 2, wherein only the mention of a cohort was recognized by the editors, who read: ]\\[- - -]ALB[- - -| -]GIATI +[- - -|- - -co]h(ortis eiusde(m [- - -|- - - The elegant, shaded letters are lined up one below the other, which suggests that the text was arranged following the principle of centering. Above the L in the first line there is a trace of an O or a Q, unnoticed by the editors. So, there are 4 lines partially preserved. The space left between the lines 2 and 3 being larger than that between 1-2 and 3-4 respectively, the two last lines seem to constitute a separate entry. The genitive case cohortis eiusdem implies a preceding designation of the dedicant(s, and what we have before is a nominative

  2. The Patterns of Patristic Exegesis of Genesis 3. 22 Fragment "Behold, the Man is Become as One of Us"

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    Kurdybailo Dmitrii

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study covers patristic (primarily Greek comments on the fragment of Gen 3. 22 “And the Lord God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil”, which can be grouped in three main patterns. The first and the most widespread one (from Justin Martyr to Maximus the Confessor suggests reading Gen 3. 22 as an example of God’s irony employed to show Adam that the serpent’s promise to “be as gods” was false and to urge him to repentance. Armenian and Antiochian versions of this pattern are described with some of its features indicating possible dependence on Pseudo-Clementine tradition. The second pattern was elaborated by the Alexandrian exegetes (Origen and Didymus the Blind and interprets “one of us” as the “one of” the primordial unity of God and intelligible beings, i.e. the devil, who fell away from God and who was followed by Adam. The third pattern was developed in the context of the 4th and 6th Ecumenical councils’ Christological theology (Cyril of Alexandria and Anastasius of Sinai and is based on Christological analogy: “one of us” is God’s Word as the second Hypostasis of Holy Trinity, and Adam’s likeness to God is understood using the fundamental analogy between Christ as the second Adam and the fi rst, old Adam. The reasoning of each of these three patterns was examined to show their internal logic consistency and the difficulties arising when they are externally compared one with another.

  3. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study.

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    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Słupska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman's ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the mechanism of continence.

  4. COMPARISON OF TWO VARIANTS OF A KATA TECHNIQUE (UNSU: THE NEUROMECHANICAL POINT OF VIEW

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    Francesco Felici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize from a neuromechanical point of view a jump performed within the sequence of Kata Unsu in International top level karateka. A modified jumping technique was proposed to improve the already acquired technique. The neuromechanical evaluation, paralleled by a refereeing judgment, was then used to compare modified and classic technique to test if the modification could lead to a better performance capacity, e.g. a higher score during an official competition. To this purpose, four high ranked karateka were recruited and instructed to perform the two jumps. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded in a bipolar mode from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemious muscles of both lower limbs. Mechanical data were collected by means of a stereophotogrammetric system and force platforms. Performance was associated to parameters characterizing the initial conditions of the aerial phase and to the CoM maximal height. The most critical elements having a negative influence on the arbitral evaluation were associated to quantitative error indicators. 3D reconstruction of the movement and videos were used to obtain the referee scores. The Unsu jump was divided into five phases (preparation, take off, ascending flight, descending flight, and landing and the critical elements were highlighted. When comparing the techniques, no difference was found in the pattern of sEMG activation of the throwing leg muscles, while the push leg showed an earlier activation of RF and GA muscles at the beginning of the modified technique. The only significant improvement associated with the modified technique was evidenced at the beginning of the aerial phase, while there was no significant improvement of the referee score. Nevertheless, the proposed neuromechanical analysis, finalized to correlate technique features with the core performance indicators, is new in the field and is a

  5. Preliminary validation of assays to measure parameters of calcium metabolism in captive Asian and African elephants in western Europe.

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    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2011-05-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well known cause of dystocia in animals, including elephants in captivity. In order to study calcium metabolism in elephants, it is of utmost importance to use properly validated assays, as these might be prone to specific matrix effects in elephant blood. The aim of the current study was to conduct preliminary work for validation of various parameters involved in calcium metabolism in both blood and urine of captive elephants. Basal values of these parameters were compared between Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Preliminary testing of total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and creatinine appeared valid for use in plasma and creatinine in urine in both species. Furthermore, measurements of bone alkaline phosphatase and N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen appeared valid for use in Asian elephants. Mean heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration and pH were not significantly affected by 3 cycles of freezing and thawing. Storage at 4 °C, room temperature, and 37 °C for 6, 12, and 24 hr did not alter the heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration in Asian elephants. The following linear regression equation using pH (range: 6.858-7.887) and ionized calcium concentration in heparinized plasma was utilized: iCa(7.4) (mmol/l) = -2.1075 + 0.3130·pH(actual) + 0.8296·iCa(actual) (mmol/l). Mean basal values for pH and plasma in Asian elephant whole blood were 7.40 ± 0.048 and 7.49 ± 0.077, respectively. The urinary specific gravity and creatinine concentrations in both Asian and African elephants were significantly correlated and both were significantly lower in Asian elephants. © 2011 The Author(s)

  6. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

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    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people's views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos' mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant's zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare

  7. SURGICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN PRESSURE ULCERS- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE WORKHORSE FLAP OPTIONS

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    Sheeja Rajan T. M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pressure ulcers can significantly contribute to morbidit