WorldWideScience

Sample records for giant-area flexible circuits

  1. Flexible printed circuit board actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; Cha, Youngsu

    2017-12-01

    Out-of-plane actuators are made possible by the breaking of planar symmetry. In this paper, we present a thin-film out-of-plane electrostatic actuator for a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) that can be fabricated with a single step of the conventional manufacturing process. No other components are required for actuation except a single sheet of the FPCB, and it works based on the planar asymmetry resulting from asymmetrically patterned top and bottom electrodes on each side of the polyimide film. With the structural asymmetry, the application of a high voltage in the order of kilovolts results in the asymmetry of the electric fields and the body force density, which generates the bending moment that leads to macroscopic deformations. We applied the finite element method to examine the asymmetry induced by the difference in the electrodes. In the experiment, the displacement responses to step input and square wave input of various frequencies were analyzed. It was found that our actuator constitutes an underdamped system, exhibiting resonance characteristics. The maximum oscillatory amplitude was determined at resonance, and the relationship between the displacement and the applied voltage was investigated.

  2. Laser patterning of highly conductive flexible circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Seok Young; Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Kim, Taehun; Chang, Won Seok; Baik, Seunghyun

    2017-04-01

    There has been considerable attention paid to highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) materials as electrodes and interconnectors for future flexible electronic devices. However, the patterning technology still needs to be developed to construct micro-scale electrodes and circuits. Here we developed the selective laser sintering technology where the pattering and curing were accomplished simultaneously without making additional masks. The CFA was composed of micro-scale Ag flakes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with Ag nanoparticles, and a nitrile-butadiene-rubber matrix. The Teflon-coated polyethylene terephthalate film was used as a flexible substrate. The width of lines (50-500 μm) and circuit patterns were controlled by the programmable scanning of a focused laser beam (power = 50 mW, scanning speed = 1 mm s-1). The laser irradiation removed solvent and induced effective coalescence among fillers providing a conductivity as high as 25 012 S cm-1. The conductivity stability was excellent under the ambient air and humid environments. The normalized resistance change of the pattern was smaller than 1.2 at the bending radius of 5 mm. The cyclability and adhesion of the laser-sintered line pattern on the substrate was excellent. A flexible circuit was fabricated sequentially for operating light emitting diodes during the bending motion, demonstrating excellent feasibility for practical applications in flexible electronics.

  3. Flexible Microstrip Circuits for Superconducting Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Mateo, Jennette

    2013-01-01

    Flexible circuits with superconducting wiring atop polyimide thin films are being studied to connect large numbers of wires between stages in cryogenic apparatus with low heat load. The feasibility of a full microstrip process, consisting of two layers of superconducting material separated by a thin dielectric layer on 5 mil (approximately 0.13 mm) Kapton sheets, where manageable residual stress remains in the polyimide film after processing, has been demonstrated. The goal is a 2-mil (approximately 0.051-mm) process using spin-on polyimide to take advantage of the smoother polyimide surface for achieving highquality metal films. Integration of microstrip wiring with this polyimide film may require high-temperature bakes to relax the stress in the polyimide film between metallization steps.

  4. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    We have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. We describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. We also describe two new passivation materials, Tantalum and Niobium, which produce effective surfaces. (author)

  5. Monolithically Integrated Flexible Black Phosphorus Complementary Inverter Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanda; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2017-07-25

    Two-dimensional (2D) inverters are a fundamental building block for flexible logic circuits which have previously been realized by heterogeneously wiring transistors with two discrete channel materials. Here, we demonstrate a monolithically integrated complementary inverter made using a homogeneous black phosphorus (BP) nanosheet on flexible substrates. The digital logic inverter circuit is demonstrated via effective threshold voltage tuning within a single BP material, which offers both electron and hole dominated conducting channels with nearly symmetric pinch-off and current saturation. Controllable electron concentration is achieved by accurately modulating the aluminum (Al) donor doping, which realizes BP n-FET with a room-temperature on/off ratio >10 3 . Simultaneously, work function engineering is employed to obtain a low Schottky barrier contact electrode that facilities hole injection, thus enhancing the current density of the BP p-FET by 9.4 times. The flexible inverter circuit shows a clear digital logic voltage inversion operation along with a larger-than-unity direct current voltage gain, while exhibits alternating current dynamic signal switching at a record high frequency up to 100 kHz and remarkable electrical stability upon mechanical bending with a radii as small as 4 mm. Our study demonstrates a practical monolithic integration strategy for achieving functional logic circuits on one material platform, paving the way for future high-density flexible electronic applications.

  6. Direct Desktop Printed-Circuits-on-Paper Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhizhu; Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

    2013-05-01

    There currently lacks of a way to directly write out electronics, just like printing pictures on paper by an office printer. Here we show a desktop printing of flexible circuits on paper via developing liquid metal ink and related working mechanisms. Through modifying adhesion of the ink, overcoming its high surface tension by dispensing machine and designing a brush like porous pinhead for printing alloy and identifying matched substrate materials among different papers, the slightly oxidized alloy ink was demonstrated to be flexibly printed on coated paper, which could compose various functional electronics and the concept of Printed-Circuits-on-Paper was thus presented. Further, RTV silicone rubber was adopted as isolating inks and packaging material to guarantee the functional stability of the circuit, which suggests an approach for printing 3D hybrid electro-mechanical device. The present work paved the way for a low cost and easygoing method in directly printing paper electronics.

  7. [Flexible print circuit technology application in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihua; Cao, Yi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-06-01

    Flexible print circuit (FPC) technology has been widely applied in variety of electric circuits with high precision due to its advantages, such as low-cost, high specific fabrication ability, and good flexibility, etc. Recently, this technology has also been used in biomedical engineering, especially in the development of microfluidic chip and microelectrode array. The high specific fabrication can help making microelectrode and other micro-structure equipment. And good flexibility allows the micro devices based on FPC technique to be easily packaged with other parts. In addition, it also reduces the damage of microelectrodes to the tissue. In this paper, the application of FPC technology in biomedical engineering is introduced. Moreover, the important parameters of FPC technique and the development trend of prosperous applications is also discussed.

  8. Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weinan; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Yang, Shixuan; Aldave, Sandra H; Kim, Joon-Seok; Sonde, Sushant; Tao, Li; Lu, Nanshu; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-03-11

    High-mobility two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are desirable for high-performance mechanically flexible nanoelectronics. In this work, we report the first flexible black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors (FETs) with electron and hole mobilities superior to what has been previously achieved with other more studied flexible layered semiconducting transistors such as MoS2 and WSe2. Encapsulated bottom-gated BP ambipolar FETs on flexible polyimide afforded maximum carrier mobility of about 310 cm(2)/V·s with field-effect current modulation exceeding 3 orders of magnitude. The device ambipolar functionality and high-mobility were employed to realize essential circuits of electronic systems for flexible technology including ambipolar digital inverter, frequency doubler, and analog amplifiers featuring voltage gain higher than other reported layered semiconductor flexible amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate the first flexible BP amplitude-modulated (AM) demodulator, an active stage useful for radio receivers, based on a single ambipolar BP transistor, which results in audible signals when connected to a loudspeaker or earphone. Moreover, the BP transistors feature mechanical robustness up to 2% uniaxial tensile strain and up to 5000 bending cycles.

  9. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Microstrip Gas Detectors (MSGC's) were introduced some years ago as position sensitive detectors capable of operating at very high rates. The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces

  10. Liquid-Si Technology for High-Speed Circuits on Flexible Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, flexible, wearable and disposable electronics have attracted a lot of attention. Printing enables low-cost fabrication of circuits on flexible substrates. Printed organic and metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been researched intensively due to the ease of solution-processing.

  11. The design of a sensor with flexible circuit excitation in electromagnetic tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ze; He Min; Xiong Hanliang

    2005-01-01

    A novel sensor structure of electromagnetic tomography system is presented in this paper. Flexible circuit straps are used in the excitation layer of the sensor and current of each strip can be controlled independently according to the excitation protocol matrix. In the sensor three kinds of excitation protocols: parallel, quasi-parallel and coil pair can be generated. Furthermore excitation field simulation and image reconstruction experiments have been done for analyzing the performance of the different excitation protocols

  12. Manufacturing experience and test results of the PS prototype flexible hybrid circuit for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacs, Mark Istvan; Gadek, Tomasz; Honma, Alan; Vasey, Francois

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Tracker Phase-2 Upgrade for HL-LHC requires High Density Interconnect (HDI) flexible hybrid circuits to build modules with low mass and high granularity. The hybrids are carbon fibre reinforced flexible circuits with flip-chips and passives. Three different manufacturers produced prototype hybrids for the Pixel-Strip type modules. The first part of the presentation will focus on the design challenges of this state of the art circuit. Afterwards, the difficulties and experience related to the circuit manufacturing and assembly are presented. The description of quality inspection methods with comprehensive test results will lead to the conclusion.

  13. Inverter circuits on freestanding flexible substrate using ZnO nanoparticles for cost-efficient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidor, Fábio F.; Meyers, Thorsten; Müller, Kathrin; Wirth, Gilson I.; Hilleringmann, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    Driven by the Internet of Things (IoT), flexible and transparent smart systems have been intensively researched by the scientific community and by several companies. This technology is already available for consumers in a wide range of innovative products, e.g., flexible displays, radio-frequency identification tags and wearable electronic skins which, for instance, collect and analyze data for medical applications. For these systems, thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the key elements responsible for the driving currents. Solution-based materials such as nanoparticle dispersions avail the fabrication on large-area substrates with high throughput processes. In this study, we discuss the integration of ZnO nanoparticle thin-film transistors and inverter circuits on freestanding polymeric substrates enclosing the main issues concerning the transfer of the integration process from a rigid substrate to a flexible one. The TFTs depict VON between -0.2 and 1 V, ION/IOFF > 104 and field-effect mobility >0.5 cm2 V-1 s-1. Additionally, in order to enhance the transistors and inverters performance, an adaptation on the device configuration, from an inverted coplanar to an inverted staggered setup, was conducted and analyzed. By employing the inverted staggered setup a considerable increase in the contact quality between the semiconductor and the drain and source electrodes was observed. As the integrated devices depict electrical characteristics which enable the fabrication of electronic circuits for the low-cost sector, inverters were fabricated and characterized, evaluating the circuit's gain as function of the applied supply voltage and circuit's geometric ratio.

  14. Integrated digital printing of flexible circuits for wireless sensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ping; Whiting, Gregory L.; Schwartz, David E.; Ng, Tse Nga; Krusor, Brent S.; Ready, Steve E.; Daniel, George; Veres, Janos; Street, Bob

    2016-09-01

    Wireless sensing has broad applications in a wide variety of fields such as infrastructure monitoring, chemistry, environmental engineering and cold supply chain management. Further development of sensing systems will focus on achieving light weight, flexibility, low power consumption and low cost. Fully printed electronics provide excellent flexibility and customizability, as well as the potential for low cost and large area applications, but lack solutions for high-density, high-performance circuitry. Conventional electronics mounted on flexible printed circuit boards provide high performance but are not digitally fabricated or readily customizable. Incorporation of small silicon dies or packaged chips into a printed platform enables high performance without compromising flexibility or cost. At PARC, we combine high functionality c-Si CMOS and digitally printed components and interconnects to create an integrated platform that can read and process multiple discrete sensors. Our approach facilitates customization to a wide variety of sensors and user interfaces suitable for a broad range of applications including remote monitoring of health, structures and environment. This talk will describe several examples of printed wireless sensing systems. The technologies required for these sensor systems are a mix of novel sensors, printing processes, conventional microchips, flexible substrates and energy harvesting power solutions.

  15. Adhesion and failure analysis of metal-polymer interface in flexible printed circuits boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghee; Kim, Ye Chan; Choi, Kisuk; Chae, Heeyop; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-12-01

    As device miniaturization in microelectronics is currently requested in the development of high performance device, which usually include highly-integrated metal-polyimide multilayer structures. A redistribution layer (RDL) process is currently emerging as one of the most advance fabrication techniques for on-chip interconnect and packaging. One of the major issues in this process is the poor adhesion of the metal-polyimide interfaces particularly in flexible circuit boards due to the flexibility and bendability of devices. In this study, low pressure O2 plasma treatment was investigated to improve the adhesion of metal-polyimide interfaces, using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment. We identified that the adhesion of metal-polyimide interfaces was greatly improved by the surface roughness control providing 46.1 MPa of shear force in the ball shear test after O2 plasma treatment, compared 14.2 MPa without O2 plasma treatment. It was seemingly due to the fact that the adhesion in metal-polyimide interfaces was improved by a chemical conversion of C=O to C-O bonds and by a ring opening reaction of imide groups, which was confirmed with FT-IR analysis. In the finite element numerical analysis of metal-polyimide interfaces, the O2 plasma treated interface showed that the in-plane stress distribution and the vertical directional deformation agreed well with real failure modes in flexible circuits manufacturing.

  16. Design of a smart ECG garment based on conductive textile electrode and flexible printed circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Luo, Kan; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Jianqing

    2017-08-09

    A smart electrocardiogram (ECG) garment system was designed for continuous, non-invasive and comfortable ECG monitoring, which mainly consists of four components: Conductive textile electrode, garment, flexible printed circuit board (FPCB)-based ECG processing module and android application program. Conductive textile electrode and FPCB-based ECG processing module (6.8 g, 55 mm × 53 mm × 5 mm) are identified as two key techniques to improve the system's comfort and flexibility. Preliminary experimental results verified that the textile electrodes with circle shape, 40 mm size in diameter, and 5 mm thickness sponge are best suited for the long-term ECG monitoring application. The tests on the whole system confirmed that the designed smart garment can obtain long-term ECG recordings with high signal quality.

  17. A neural circuit model of flexible sensorimotor mapping: learning and forgetting on multiple timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Stefano; Asaad, Wael F; Miller, Earl K; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2007-04-19

    Volitional behavior relies on the brain's ability to remap sensory flow to motor programs whenever demanded by a changed behavioral context. To investigate the circuit basis of such flexible behavior, we have developed a biophysically based decision-making network model of spiking neurons for arbitrary sensorimotor mapping. The model quantitatively reproduces behavioral and prefrontal single-cell data from an experiment in which monkeys learn visuomotor associations that are reversed unpredictably from time to time. We show that when synaptic modifications occur on multiple timescales, the model behavior becomes flexible only when needed: slow components of learning usually dominate the decision process. However, if behavioral contexts change frequently enough, fast components of plasticity take over, and the behavior exhibits a quick forget-and-learn pattern. This model prediction is confirmed by monkey data. Therefore, our work reveals a scenario for conditional associative learning that is distinct from instant switching between sets of well-established sensorimotor associations.

  18. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti, E-mail: kalyan-yoti.mitra@mb.tu-chemnitz.de, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Sowade, Enrico, E-mail: kalyan-yoti.mitra@mb.tu-chemnitz.de, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Martínez-Domingo, Carme [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology (ICN), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Ramon, Eloi, E-mail: eloi.ramon@uab.cat [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology (ICN), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Carrabina, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.carrabina@uab.cat [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Gomes, Henrique Leonel, E-mail: hgomes@ualg.pt [Universidade do Algarve, Institute of Telecommunications, Faro (Portugal); Baumann, Reinhard R., E-mail: reinhard.baumann@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Department of Printed Functionalities, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  19. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Sowade, Enrico; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-02-01

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as "Bridging Platform". This transfer to "Bridging Platform" from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  20. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Sowade, Enrico; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit

  1. A novel and simple method of printing flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zehong; Wang, Wei [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education (China); Jiang, Zhikang [Saintyear Holding Group Co., Ltd. (China); Yu, Dan, E-mail: vchtian@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education (China); Saintyear Holding Group Co., Ltd. (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A simple preparation of nano-silver conductive ink was proposed. • Conductive pattern was printed on PET fabrics without heat sintering. • The surface resistivity of printed pattern is low to 0.197 Ω cm. - Abstract: Flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics were fabricated by a simple approach. Firstly, well dispersed nano-silver colloids with average size of 87 nm were synthesized with poly (vinyl pyrrolidone). Then, by adding polyurethane and thickening agent into these colloids, Ag NP-based ink was produced and printed on PET fabrics by screen printing. Conductive patterns were achieved through the swelling process of polyurethane and the decrease of contact resistance between nano-silver particles when immersed in dichloromethane (DCM) and diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) mixed solution. After it was dried at 40 °C,the surface resistivity was about 0.197 Ω cm with width 1.9 mm, and thickness 20 μm. Moreover, the effects of different DCM contents on the conductivity and the film forming ability have been investigated. We believe these foundings will provide some important analysis for printing flexible conductive circuits on textiles.

  2. A novel and simple method of printing flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zehong; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Zhikang; Yu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple preparation of nano-silver conductive ink was proposed. • Conductive pattern was printed on PET fabrics without heat sintering. • The surface resistivity of printed pattern is low to 0.197 Ω cm. - Abstract: Flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics were fabricated by a simple approach. Firstly, well dispersed nano-silver colloids with average size of 87 nm were synthesized with poly (vinyl pyrrolidone). Then, by adding polyurethane and thickening agent into these colloids, Ag NP-based ink was produced and printed on PET fabrics by screen printing. Conductive patterns were achieved through the swelling process of polyurethane and the decrease of contact resistance between nano-silver particles when immersed in dichloromethane (DCM) and diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) mixed solution. After it was dried at 40 °C,the surface resistivity was about 0.197 Ω cm with width 1.9 mm, and thickness 20 μm. Moreover, the effects of different DCM contents on the conductivity and the film forming ability have been investigated. We believe these foundings will provide some important analysis for printing flexible conductive circuits on textiles.

  3. WindoWorks: A flexible program for computerized testing of accelerator control system electronic circuit boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utterback, J.

    1993-09-01

    Since most accelerator control system circuit boards reside in a commercial bus architecture, such as CAMAC or VMEbus, a computerized test station is needed for exercising the boards. This test station is needed for the development of newly designed prototypes, for commissioning newly manufactured boards, for diagnosing boards which have failed in service, and for long term testing of boards with intermittent failure problems. WindoWorks was created to address these needs. It is a flexible program which runs on a PC compatible computer and uses a PC to bus crate interface. WindoWorks was designed to give the user a flexible way to test circuit boards. Each test is incapsulated into a window. By bringing up several different windows the user can run several different tests simultaneously. The windows are sizable, and moveable. They have data entry boxes so that the test can be customized to the users preference. The windows can be used in conjunction with each other in order to create supertests. There are several windows which are generic. They can be used to test basic functions on any VME (or CAMAC) board. There are other windows which have been created to test specific boards. New windows for testing specific boards can be easily created by a Pascal programmer using the WindoWorks framework

  4. Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites with Highly Enhanced Strength and Conductivity for Flexible Electric Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Young; Kim, Han-Sem; Kim, Jeong Hun; Shin, Ueon Sang; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-07-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an important role in nanotechnology due to their unique properties, retaining the inherent material flexibility, superior strength, and electrical conductivity, unless the bottleneck of CNTs persists and the aggregated structure is overcome. Here, we report on the highly enhanced mechanical and electrical properties of the CNT-chitosan nanocomposites through homogeneous dispersion of CNTs into chitosan solution using a high-pressure homogenizer. The optimal condition is a 50% (w/w) chitosan-CNT film, providing about 7 nm thickness of homogeneous chitosan layer on CNTs, a good tensile strength of 51 MPa, high electrical conductivity under 16 Ω/sq, and a stable bending and folding performance. This CNT-chitosan nanocomposite with highly enhanced properties is an amenable material to fabricate structures of various shapes such as films, sensors, and circuits and also enables a simple and cost-effective approach to improve the performance of a device that presents the first flexible and soft electric circuits yet reported using only CNT-chitosan as the conductor.

  5. Inverter Circuits Using ZnO Nanoparticle Based Thin-Film Transistors for Flexible Electronic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidor, Fábio F; Meyers, Thorsten; Hilleringmann, Ulrich

    2016-08-23

    Innovative systems exploring the flexibility and the transparency of modern semiconducting materials are being widely researched by the scientific community and by several companies. For a low-cost production and large surface area applications, thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the key elements driving the system currents. In order to maintain a cost efficient integration process, solution based materials are used as they show an outstanding tradeoff between cost and system complexity. In this paper, we discuss the integration process of ZnO nanoparticle TFTs using a high- k resin as gate dielectric. The performance in dependence on the transistor structure has been investigated, and inverted staggered setups depict an improved performance over the coplanar device increasing both the field-effect mobility and the I ON / I OFF ratio. Aiming at the evaluation of the TFT characteristics for digital circuit applications, inverter circuits using a load TFT in the pull-up network and an active TFT in the pull-down network were integrated. The inverters show reasonable switching characteristics and V / V gains. Conjointly, the influence of the geometry ratio and the supply voltage on the devices have been analyzed. Moreover, as all integration steps are suitable to polymeric templates, the fabrication process is fully compatible to flexible substrates.

  6. Inverter Circuits Using ZnO Nanoparticle Based Thin-Film Transistors for Flexible Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Vidor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative systems exploring the flexibility and the transparency of modern semiconducting materials are being widely researched by the scientific community and by several companies. For a low-cost production and large surface area applications, thin-film transistors (TFTs are the key elements driving the system currents. In order to maintain a cost efficient integration process, solution based materials are used as they show an outstanding tradeoff between cost and system complexity. In this paper, we discuss the integration process of ZnO nanoparticle TFTs using a high-k resin as gate dielectric. The performance in dependence on the transistor structure has been investigated, and inverted staggered setups depict an improved performance over the coplanar device increasing both the field-effect mobility and the ION/IOFF ratio. Aiming at the evaluation of the TFT characteristics for digital circuit applications, inverter circuits using a load TFT in the pull-up network and an active TFT in the pull-down network were integrated. The inverters show reasonable switching characteristics and V/V gains. Conjointly, the influence of the geometry ratio and the supply voltage on the devices have been analyzed. Moreover, as all integration steps are suitable to polymeric templates, the fabrication process is fully compatible to flexible substrates.

  7. An Asynchronous Circuit Design Technique for a Flexible 8-Bit Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, Nobuo; Nanmoto, Takashi; Inoue, Satoshi

    This paper presents an asynchronous design technique, an enabler for the emerging technology of flexible microelectronics that feature low-temperature processed polysilicon (LTPS) thin-film transistors (TFT) and surface-free technology by laser annealing/ablation (SUFTLA®). The first design instance chosen is an 8-bit microprocessor. LTPS TFTs are good for realizing displays having integrated VLSI circuit at lower costs. However, LTPS TFTs have drawbacks, including substantial deviations in characteristics and the self-heating phenomenon. To solve these problems, the authors adopted the asynchronous circuit design technique and developed an asynchronous design language called Verilog+, which is based on a subset of Verilog HDL® and includes minimal primitives used for describing the communications between modules, and the dedicated tools including a translator called xlator and a synthesizer called ctrlsyn. The flexible 8-bit microprocessor stably operates at 500kHz, drawing 180μA from a 5V power source. The microprocessor's electromagnetic emissions are 21dB less than those of the synchronous counterpart.

  8. Inkjet printed large-area flexible circuits: a simple methodology for optimizing the printing quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Wu, Youwei; Shen, Xiaoqin; Lai, Wenyong; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a simple methodology was developed to enhance the patterning resolution of inkjet printing, involving process optimization as well as substrate modification and treatment. The line width of the inkjet-printed silver lines was successfully reduced to 1/3 of the original value using this methodology. Large-area flexible circuits with delicate patterns and good morphology were thus fabricated. The resultant flexible circuits showed excellent electrical conductivity as low as 4.5 Ω/□ and strong tolerance to mechanical bending. The simple methodology is also applicable to substrates with various wettability, which suggests a general strategy to enhance the printing quality of inkjet printing for manufacturing high-performance large-area flexible electronics. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2014CB648300, 2017YFB0404501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21422402, 21674050), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK20140060, BK20130037, BK20140865, BM2012010), the Program for Jiangsu Specially-Appointed Professors (No. RK030STP15001), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-13-0872), the NUPT "1311 Project" and Scientific Foundation (Nos. NY213119, NY213169), the Synergetic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and Information Displays, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), the Leading Talent of Technological Innovation of National Ten-Thousands Talents Program of China, the Excellent Scientific and Technological Innovative Teams of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (No. TJ217038), the Program for Graduate Students Research and Innovation of Jiangsu Province (No. KYZZ16-0253), and the 333 Project of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BRA2017402, BRA2015374).

  9. Flexible, low-latency architecture for qubit control and measurement in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlothuizen, Wouter; Deurloo, D.; Sterke, J. De; Vermeulen, R.; Schouten, R. N.; Dicarlo, Leo

    Increasing qubit numbers in circuit QED requires an extensible architecture for digital waveform generation of qubit control and measurement signals. For quantum error correction, the ability to select from a number of predetermined waveforms based on measurement results will become paramount. We present a room-temperature architecture with very low latency from measurement to waveform output. This modular FPGA-based system can generate both baseband and RF modulated signals using DACs clocked at 1 GHz. A backplane that interconnects several modules allows exchange of (measurement) information between modules and maintains deterministic timing across those modules. We replace the typical line based sequencer used in arbitrary waveform generators by a user programmable processor that treats waveforms and measurements as instructions added to a conventional CPU architecture. This allows for flexible coding of triggering, repetitions, delays and interactions between measurement and signal generation. We acknowledge funding from the Dutch Research Organization (NWO), an ERC Synergy Grant, and European project SCALEQIT.

  10. Ductile electroless Ni-P coating onto flexible printed circuit board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchang; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Yurong; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a ductile electroless Ni-P coating on the flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) was prepared in an acidic nickel plating bath. The addition of dipropylamine (DPA) in electroless plating not only improves the ductility of the Ni-P coating, but also enhances the corrosion resistance. The further analysis reveals that the ductility improvement and enhancement of corrosion resistance for the Ni-P coating may be due to the fact that the addition of DPA significantly refines the volume of columnar nodule and reduce the porosity, thus leading to the released internal stress. In addition, it was found that the nodule within the Ni-P coating grew into a columnar structure, which may be also contribute to the improvement of ductility.

  11. A Neural Circuit Model of Flexible Sensori-motor Mapping: Learning and Forgetting on Multiple Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Stefano; Asaad, Wael F.; Miller, Earl K.; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2007-01-01

    Summary Volitional behavior relies on the brain’s ability to remap sensory flow to motor programs whenever demanded by a changed behavioral context. To investigate the circuit basis of such flexible behavior, we have developed a biophysically-based decision-making network model of spiking neurons for arbitrary sensorimotor mapping. The model quantitatively reproduces behavioral and prefrontal single-cell data from an experiment in which monkeys learn visuo-motor associations that are reversed unpredictably from time to time. We show that when synaptic modifications occur on multiple timescales, the model behavior becomes flexible only when needed: slow components of learning usually dominate the decision process. However, if behavioral contexts change frequently enough, fast components of plasticity take over, and the behavior exhibits a quick forget-and-learn pattern. This model prediction is confirmed by monkey data. Therefore, our work reveals a scenario for conditional associative learning that is distinct from instant switching between sets of well established sensorimotor associations. PMID:17442251

  12. Fully Solution-Processable Fabrication of Multi-Layered Circuits on a Flexible Substrate Using Laser Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Young Ji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of printing technologies has enabled the realization of electric circuit fabrication on a flexible substrate. However, the current technique remains restricted to single-layer patterning. In this paper, we demonstrate a fully solution-processable patterning approach for multi-layer circuits using a combined method of laser sintering and ablation. Selective laser sintering of silver (Ag nanoparticle-based ink is applied to make conductive patterns on a heat-sensitive substrate and insulating layer. The laser beam path and irradiation fluence are controlled to create circuit patterns for flexible electronics. Microvia drilling using femtosecond laser through the polyvinylphenol-film insulating layer by laser ablation, as well as sequential coating of Ag ink and laser sintering, achieves an interlayer interconnection between multi-layer circuits. The dimension of microvia is determined by a sophisticated adjustment of the laser focal position and intensity. Based on these methods, a flexible electronic circuit with chip-size-package light-emitting diodes was successfully fabricated and demonstrated to have functional operations.

  13. Optimized circuit design for flexible 8-bit RFID transponders with active layer of ink-jet printed small molecule semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjellander, B.K.C.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Myny, K.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    We ink-jet print a blend of 6,13-bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl)pentacene and polystyrene as the active layer for flexible circuits. The discrete ink-jet printed transistors exhibit a saturation mobility of 0.5 cm2 V -1 s-1. The relative spread in transistor characteristics can be very large. This

  14. En masse pyrolysis of flexible printed circuit board wastes quantitatively yielding environmental resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang Won; Lee, Albert S; Yu, Seunggun; Han, Jeong Whan

    2018-01-15

    This paper reports the recycling of flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) waste through carbonization of polyimide by dual pyrolysis processes. The organic matter was recovered as pyrolyzed oil at low temperatures, while valuable metals and polyimide-derived carbon were effectively recovered through secondary high temperature pyrolysis. The major component of organics extracted from FPCB waste comprised of epoxy resins were identified as pyrolysis oils containing bisphenol-A. The valuable metals (Cu, Ni, Ag, Sn, Au, Pd) in waste FPCB were recovered as granular shape and quantitatively analyzed via ICP-OES. In attempt to produce carbonaceous material with increased degree of graphitization at low heat-treatment conditions, the catalytic effect of transition metals within FPCB waste was investigated for the efficient carbonization of polyimide films. The morphology of the carbon powder was observed by scanning electron microscopy and graphitic carbonization was investigated with X-ray analysis. The protocols outlined in this study may allow for propitious opportunities to salvage both organic and inorganic materials from FPCB waste products for a sustainable future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsobky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF, which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC. The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC, a differential difference amplifier (DDA, and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  16. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsobky, Mourad; Mahsereci, Yigit; Keck, Jürgen; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.

    2017-09-01

    Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI) substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF), which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing) of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA) in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a differential difference amplifier (DDA), and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  17. Quality control process improvement of flexible printed circuit board by FMEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasaephol, Siwaporn; Chutima, Parames

    2018-02-01

    This research focuses on the quality control process improvement of Flexible Printed Circuit Board (FPCB), centred around model 7-Flex, by using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method to decrease proportion of defective finished goods that are found at the final inspection process. Due to a number of defective units that were found at the final inspection process, high scraps may be escaped to customers. The problem comes from poor quality control process which is not efficient enough to filter defective products from in-process because there is no In-Process Quality Control (IPQC) or sampling inspection in the process. Therefore, the quality control process has to be improved by setting inspection gates and IPCQs at critical processes in order to filter the defective products. The critical processes are analysed by the FMEA method. IPQC is used for detecting defective products and reducing chances of defective finished goods escaped to the customers. Reducing proportion of defective finished goods also decreases scrap cost because finished goods incur higher scrap cost than work in-process. Moreover, defective products that are found during process can reflect the abnormal processes; therefore, engineers and operators should timely solve the problems. Improved quality control was implemented for 7-Flex production lines from July 2017 to September 2017. The result shows decreasing of the average proportion of defective finished goods and the average of Customer Manufacturers Lot Reject Rate (%LRR of CMs) equal to 4.5% and 4.1% respectively. Furthermore, cost saving of this quality control process equals to 100K Baht.

  18. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  19. Flexible metal-oxide thin film transistor circuits for RFID and health patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heremans, P.; Papadopoulos, N.; Jamblinne De Meux, A. de; Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Rockele, M.; Gelinck, G.; Tripathi, A.; Genoe, J.; Myny, K.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss in this paper the present state and future perspectives of thin-film oxide transistors for flexible electronics. The application case that we focus on is a flexible health patch containing an analog sensor interface as well as digital electronics to transmit the acquired data wirelessly

  20. Continuous postnatal neurogenesis contributes to formation of the olfactory bulb neural circuits and flexible olfactory associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Masayuki; Ieki, Nao; Miyoshi, Goichi; Mochimaru, Daisuke; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Imura, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Fishell, Gord; Mori, Kensaku; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Imayoshi, Itaru

    2014-04-23

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is one of the two major loci in the mammalian brain where newborn neurons are constantly integrated into the neural circuit during postnatal life. Newborn neurons are generated from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and migrate to the OB through the rostral migratory stream. The majority of these newborn neurons differentiate into inhibitory interneurons, such as granule cells and periglomerular cells. It has been reported that prolonged supply of newborn neurons leads to continuous addition/turnover of the interneuronal populations and contributes to functional integrity of the OB circuit. However, it is not still clear how and to what extent postnatal-born neurons contribute to OB neural circuit formation, and the functional role of postnatal neurogenesis in odor-related behaviors remains elusive. To address this question, here by using genetic strategies, we first determined the unique integration mode of newly born interneurons during postnatal development of the mouse OB. We then manipulated these interneuron populations and found that continuous postnatal neurogenesis in the SVZ-OB plays pivotal roles in flexible olfactory associative learning and memory.

  1. Striatal dopamine ramping may indicate flexible reinforcement learning with forgetting in the cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kenji; Kato, Ayaka

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, receiving inputs from the cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) circuits and the brainstem, compute reward prediction error (RPE), the difference between reward obtained or expected to be obtained and reward that had been expected to be obtained. These reward expectations are suggested to be stored in the CBG synapses and updated according to RPE through synaptic plasticity, which is induced by released DA. These together constitute the "DA=RPE" hypothesis, which describes the mutual interaction between DA and the CBG circuits and serves as the primary working hypothesis in studying reward learning and value-based decision-making. However, recent work has revealed a new type of DA signal that appears not to represent RPE. Specifically, it has been found in a reward-associated maze task that striatal DA concentration primarily shows a gradual increase toward the goal. We explored whether such ramping DA could be explained by extending the "DA=RPE" hypothesis by taking into account biological properties of the CBG circuits. In particular, we examined effects of possible time-dependent decay of DA-dependent plastic changes of synaptic strengths by incorporating decay of learned values into the RPE-based reinforcement learning model and simulating reward learning tasks. We then found that incorporation of such a decay dramatically changes the model's behavior, causing gradual ramping of RPE. Moreover, we further incorporated magnitude-dependence of the rate of decay, which could potentially be in accord with some past observations, and found that near-sigmoidal ramping of RPE, resembling the observed DA ramping, could then occur. Given that synaptic decay can be useful for flexibly reversing and updating the learned reward associations, especially in case the baseline DA is low and encoding of negative RPE by DA is limited, the observed DA ramping would be indicative of the operation of such flexible reward learning.

  2. Graphene-based inkjet printing of flexible bioelectronic circuits and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas

    2013-03-01

    Bioelectronics involves interfacing functional biomolecules or living cells with electronic circuitry. Recent advances in electrically conductive inks and inkjet printing technologies have enabled bioelectronic devices to be fabricated on mechanically flexible polymers, paper and silk. In this research, non-conductive graphene-oxide (GO) inks are synthesized from inexpensive graphite powders. Once printed on the flexible substrate the electrical conductivity of the micro-circuitry can be restored through thermal reduction. Laser irradiation is one method being investigated for transforming the high resistance printed GO film into conductive oxygen reduced graphene-oxide (rGO). Direct laser writing is a precision fabrication process that enables the imprinting of conductive and resistive micro-features on the GO film. The mechanically flexible rGO microcircuits can be further biofunctionalized using molecular self-assembly techniques. Opportunities and challenges in exploiting these emerging technologies for developing biosensors and bioelectronic cicruits are briefly discussed.

  3. Laser-Assisted Reduction of Highly Conductive Circuits Based on Copper Nitrate for Flexible Printed Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi; Zhang, Shigang; Zhou, Weiping; Ma, Delong; Ma, Ying; Joshi, Pooran; Hu, Anming

    2017-10-01

    Stretchable electronic sensing devices are defining the path toward wearable electronics. High-performance flexible strain sensors attached on clothing or human skin are required for potential applications in the entertainment, health monitoring, and medical care sectors. In this work, conducting copper electrodes were fabricated on polydimethylsiloxane as sensitive stretchable microsensors by integrating laser direct writing and transfer printing approaches. The copper electrode was reduced from copper salt using laser writing rather than the general approach of printing with pre-synthesized copper or copper oxide nanoparticles. An electrical resistivity of 96 μΩ cm was achieved on 40-μm-thick Cu electrodes on flexible substrates. The motion sensing functionality successfully demonstrated a high sensitivity and mechanical robustness. This in situ fabrication method leads to a path toward electronic devices on flexible substrates.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. High performance high-κ/metal gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit element on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-02-29

    Thinned silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS)electronics can be physically flexible. To overcome challenges of limited thinning and damaging of devices originated from back grinding process, we show sequential reactive ion etching of silicon with the assistance from soft polymeric materials to efficiently achieve thinned (40 μm) and flexible (1.5 cm bending radius) silicon based functional CMOSinverters with high-κ/metal gate transistors. Notable advances through this study shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using excimer laser. The impact of various mechanical bending and bending cycles show undeterred high performance of flexible siliconCMOSinverters. Future work will include transfer of diced silicon chips to destination site, interconnects, and packaging to obtain fully flexible electronic systems in CMOS compatible way.

  5. Bilingualism trains specific brain circuits involved in flexible rule selection and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Andrea; Prat, Chantel S

    2014-10-01

    Bilingual individuals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that measure non-linguistic executive functioning, suggesting that some facets of the bilingual experience give rise to generalized improvements in cognitive performance. The current study investigated the hypothesis that such advantage in executive functioning arises from the need to flexibly select and apply rules when speaking multiple languages. Such flexible behavior may strengthen the functioning of the fronto-striatal loops that direct signals to the prefrontal cortex. To test this hypothesis, we compared behavioral and brain data from proficient bilinguals and monolinguals who performed a Rapid Instructed Task Learning paradigm, which requires behaving according to ever-changing rules. Consistent with our hypothesis, bilinguals were faster than monolinguals when executing novel rules, and this improvement was associated with greater modulation of activity in the basal ganglia. The implications of these findings for language and executive function research are discussed herein. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Flexible Low-power SiGe HBT Amplifier Circuits for Fast Single-shot Spin Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Troy; Lilly, Michael; Curry, Matthew; Carr, Stephen; Carroll, Malcolm

    Fast, low-power quantum state readout is one of many challenges facing quantum information processing. Single electron transistors (SETs) are potentially fast, sensitive detectors for performing spin readout of electrons bound to Si:P donors. From a circuit perspective, however, their output impedance and nonlinear conductance are ill suited to drive the parasitic capacitance of coaxial conductors used in cryogenic environments, necessitating a cryogenic amplification stage. We will introduce two new amplifier topologies that provide excellent gain versus power tradeoffs using silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The AC HBT allows in-situ adjustment of power dissipation during an experiment and can provide gain in the millikelvin temperature regime while dissipating less than 500 nW. The AC Current Amplifier maximizes gain at nearly 800 A/A. We will also show results of using these amplifiers with SETs at 4 K. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. Flexible Low-power SiGe HBT Amplifier Circuits for Fast Single-shot Spin Readout.

  7. High performance printed N and P-type OTFTs enabling digital and analog complementary circuits on flexible plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S.; Abdinia, S.; Benwadih, M.; Bablet, J.; Chartier, I.; Gwoziecki, R.; Cantatore, E.; van Roermund, A. H. M.; Maddiona, L.; Tramontana, F.; Maiellaro, G.; Mariucci, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Palmisano, G.; Coppard, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a printed organic complementary technology on flexible plastic substrate with high performance N and P-type Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs), based on small-molecule organic semiconductors in solution. Challenges related to the integration of both OTFT types in a common complementary flow are addressed, showing the importance of surface treatments. Stability on single devices and on an elementary complementary digital circuit (ring oscillator) is studied, demonstrating that a robust and reliable flow with high electrical performances can be established for printed organic devices. These devices are used to manufacture several analog and digital building blocks. The design is carried out using a model specifically developed for this technology, and taking into account the parametric variability. High-frequency measurements of printed envelope detectors show improved speed performance, resulting from the high mobility of the OTFTs. In addition, a compact dynamic flip-flop and a low-offset comparator are demonstrated, thanks to availability of both n-type and p-type OTFTs in the technology. Measurement results are in good agreement with the simulations. The circuits presented establish a complete library of building blocks for the realization of a printed RFID tag.

  8. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-10-08

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT~0.9 GHz, fMAX~1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics.

  9. Flexible hybrid circuit fully inkjet-printed: Surface mount devices assembled by silver nanoparticles-based inkjet ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrese, J.; Vescio, G.; Xuriguera, E.; Medina-Rodriguez, B.; Cornet, A.; Cirera, A.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, inkjet-printed devices such as transistors are still unstable in air and have poor performances. Moreover, the present electronics applications require a high degree of reliability and quality of their properties. In order to accomplish these application requirements, hybrid electronics is fulfilled by combining the advantages of the printing technologies with the surface-mount technology. In this work, silver nanoparticle-based inkjet ink (AgNP ink) is used as a novel approach to connect surface-mount devices (SMDs) onto inkjet-printed pads, conducted by inkjet printing technology. Excellent quality AgNP ink-junctions are ensured with high resolution picoliter drop jetting at low temperature (˜150 °C). Electrical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations are carried out to assess the performance of the AgNP ink junction. Moreover, AgNP ink is compared with common benchmark materials (i.e., silver epoxy and solder). Electrical contact resistance characterization shows a similar performance between the AgNP ink and the usual ones. Mechanical characterization shows comparable shear strength for AgNP ink and silver epoxy, and both present higher adhesion than solder. Morphological inspections by field-emission scanning electron microscopy confirm a high quality interface of the silver nanoparticle interconnection. Finally, a flexible hybrid circuit on paper controlled by an Arduino board is manufactured, demonstrating the viability and scalability of the AgNP ink assembling technique.

  10. Flexible Simulation E-Learning Environment for Studying Digital Circuits and Possibilities for It Deployment as Semantic Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoyska, P.; Ivanova, T.; Spasova, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a partially realized project for building a distributed learning environment for studying digital circuits Test and Diagnostics at TU-Sofia. We describe the main requirements for this environment, substantiate the developer platform choice, and present our simulation and circuit parameter calculation tools.…

  11. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-04

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  12. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  13. Reduction of adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board on hot pressing process: A case study of electronic component factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakulkaew Srisang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is a reduction of an adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board in hot pressing process, the electronic factory. The manufacturing have been processing by sheet type of products with ninety-six pieces of flexible printed circuit boards. Causes of the problem include the before and internal hot pressing process. In process beginning times, the most right row of products between the cooling plate and the hot pressing machine has temperature 71.2◦C that is higher than glass transition temperature (Tg 60◦C. Those products’ temperature lead to evaporate a polyimide adhesive before hot pressing process beginning. The internal hot pressing process include the preheat times and the pressure time. In the preheat time the problem is a gap between lower and upper plate, was under specification (Under 1 mm and leaded to adhesive polyimide stain. In the actuality this time requires temperature and low pressure that mean a gap within 1 – 2 mm (between lower and upper plate. In pressure times the hot pressing plate surface is not flat and products are pressed by insufficient force that it lead to generate an adhesive stain on flexible printed circuit boards. That force is measured by the pre-scale paper and a result, RGB color, is provided. And then color density (From standard color sample and RGB color (From pre-scale paper is found out the relation by Photoshop program and multiple regression theory using. The formula is applied to compare with defect so as to find out the suitable color density (Defects reducing. The solving solutions is provided including the gap reduced adjustment between cooling plate and hot pressing machine before hot pressing process, the plate adjustment within specification in the preheat time and the pressing plate polishing in the pressure time. Results of study and solving are provide defect reduction from 24.4 percentage to 7.2 percentage of total study product.

  14. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, Gerardo

    2010-10-04

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas \\'parylene only\\' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Reduction of adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board on hot pressing process: a case study of electronic component factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakulkaew Srisang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is a reduction of an adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board in hot pressing process, the electronic factory. The manufacturing have been processing by sheet type of products with ninety-six pieces of flexible printed circuit boards. Causes of the problem include the before and internal hot pressing process. In process beginning times, the most right row of products between the cooling plate and the hot pressing machine has temperature 71.2◦C that is higher than glass transition temperature (Tg 60◦C. Those products’ temperature lead to evaporate a polyimide adhesive before hot pressing process beginning. The internal hot pressing process include the preheat times and the pressure time. In the preheat time the problem is a gap between lower and upper plate, was under specification(Under 1 mm and leaded to adhesive polyimide stain. In the actuality this time requires temperature and low pressure that mean a gap within 1 – 2 mm (between lower and upper plate. In pressure times the hot pressing plate surface is not flat and products are pressed by insufficient force that it lead to generate an adhesive stain on flexible printed circuit boards. That force is measured by the pre-scale paper and a result, RGB color, is provided. And then color density (From standard color sample and RGB color (From pre-scale paper is found out the relation by Photoshop program and multiple regression theory using. The formula is applied to compare with defect so as to find out the suitable color density (Defects reducing. The solving solutions is provided including the gap reduced adjustment between cooling plate and hot pressing machine before hot pressing process, the plate adjustment within specification in the preheat time and the pressing plate polishing in the pressure time. Results of study and solving are provide defect reduction from 24.4 percentage to 7.2 percentage of total study product.

  16. SU-8-Induced Strong Bonding of Polymer Ligands to Flexible Substrates via in Situ Cross-Linked Reaction for Improved Surface Metallization and Fast Fabrication of High-Quality Flexible Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingjun; Guo, Qiuquan; Zhang, Tengyuan; Zhou, Shaolin; Yang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    On account of in situ cross-linked reaction of epoxy SU-8 with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) and its strong reactive bonding ability with different pretreated substrates, we developed a simple universal one-step solution-based coating method for fast surface modification of various objects. Through this method, a layer of P4VP molecules with controllable thickness can be tethered tightly onto substrates with the assistance of SU-8. P4VP molecules possess a lot of pyridine ligands to immobilize transitional metal ions that can behave as the catalyst of electroless copper plating for surface metallization while functioning as the adhesion-promoting layer between the substrate and deposited metal. Attributed to interpenetrated entanglement of P4VP molecules and as-deposited metal, ultrathick (>7 μm) strongly adhesive high-quality copper layer can be formed on flexible substrates without any delamination. Then through laser printer to print toner mask, a variety of designed circuits can be easily fabricated on modified flexible PET substrate.

  17. Low-temperature spray-deposited indium oxide for flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Luisa; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: t.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Münzenrieder, Niko; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Patsalas, Panos A. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Applied Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-03-02

    Indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient air and incorporated into bottom-gate coplanar and staggered thin-film transistors. As-fabricated devices exhibited electron-transporting characteristics with mobility values of 1 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} and 16 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} for coplanar and staggered architectures, respectively. Integration of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} transistors enabled realization of unipolar inverters with high gain (5.3 V/V) and low-voltage operation. The low temperature deposition (≤250 °C) of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} also allowed transistor fabrication on free-standing 50 μm-thick polyimide foils. The resulting flexible In{sub 2}O{sub 3} transistors exhibit good characteristics and remain fully functional even when bent to tensile radii of 4 mm.

  18. High-voltage (100 V) ChipfilmTM single-crystal silicon LDMOS transistor for integrated driver circuits in flexible displays

    OpenAIRE

    J. N. Burghartz; H. Richter; A. Asif

    2009-01-01

    System-in-Foil (SiF) is an emerging field of large-area polymer electronics that employs new materials such as conductive polymers and electrophoretic micro-capsules (E-Ink) along with ultra-thin and thus flexible chips. In flexible displays, the integration of gate and source drivers onto the flexible part increases the yield and enhances the reliability of the system. In this work we propose a high-voltage ChipfilmTM lateral diffused MOS transistor (LDMOS) structur...

  19. High-performance, mechanically flexible, and vertically integrated 3D carbon nanotube and InGaZnO complementary circuits with a temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Wataru; Harada, Shingo; Ishida, Shohei; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2015-08-26

    A vertically integrated inorganic-based flexible complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter with a temperature sensor with a high inverter gain of ≈50 and a low power consumption of inverter and the temperature dependence of the CMOS inverter characteristics are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High-voltage (100 V ChipfilmTM single-crystal silicon LDMOS transistor for integrated driver circuits in flexible displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Burghartz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available System-in-Foil (SiF is an emerging field of large-area polymer electronics that employs new materials such as conductive polymers and electrophoretic micro-capsules (E-Ink along with ultra-thin and thus flexible chips. In flexible displays, the integration of gate and source drivers onto the flexible part increases the yield and enhances the reliability of the system. In this work we propose a high-voltage ChipfilmTM lateral diffused MOS transistor (LDMOS structure on ultra-thin single-crystalline silicon chips. The fabrication process is compatible with CMOS standard processing. This LDMOS structure proves to be well suited for providing adequately large switching voltages in spite of the thin (<10 μm substrate. A breakdown voltage of more than 100 volts with drain-to-source saturation current Ids(sat≈85 μA/μm for N-LDMOS and Ids(sat≈20 μA/μm for P-LDMOS is predicted through process and device simulations.

  1. Piezoelectric RL shunt damping of flexible structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Resonant RL shunt circuits represent a robust and effective approach to piezoelectric damping, provided that the individual shunt circuit components are calibrated accurately with respect to the dynamic properties of the corresponding flexible structure. The balanced calibration procedure applied...

  2. A Flexible Power Control Method of VSC-HVDC Link for the Enhancement of Effective Short-Circuit Ratio in a Hybrid Multi-Infeed HVDC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    With the emerging use of voltage source converter high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) links, the hybrid multi-infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system that includes the line commutated converter (LCC) HVDC and the VSC-HVDC links is becoming a promising power transmission structure in the modern power systems......, based on the calculation results, a flexible power control strategy for the VSC-HVDC link is developed to provide maximum reactive power support under grid faults. The theoretical analysis of the HMIDC system is based on the Danish transmission grid, evaluated through PSCAD simulations under different...... grid fault conditions. Simulation results are presented to validate the expected performance of the proposed method....

  3. Solution-processed p-type copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) for low-voltage flexible thin-film transistors and integrated inverter circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Petti, Luisa

    2017-03-17

    We report on low operating voltage thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated inverters based on copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) layers processed from solution at low temperature on free-standing plastic foils. As-fabricated coplanar bottom-gate and staggered top-gate TFTs exhibit hole-transporting characteristics with average mobility values of 0.0016 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 0.013 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively, current on/off ratio in the range 102–104, and maximum operating voltages between −3.5 and −10 V, depending on the gate dielectric employed. The promising TFT characteristics enable fabrication of unipolar NOT gates on flexible free-standing plastic substrates with voltage gain of 3.4 at voltages as low as −3.5 V. Importantly, discrete CuSCN transistors and integrated logic inverters remain fully functional even when mechanically bent to a tensile radius of 4 mm, demonstrating the potential of the technology for flexible electronics.

  4. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  5. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  6. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  7. Circuit Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a research-based activity for high school physics students in which they build an LC circuit and find its resonant frequency of oscillation using an oscilloscope. Includes a diagram of the apparatus and an explanation of the procedures. (DDR)

  8. Affective Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the intersecting streams of goods, people, ideas, and money as they circulate between African migrants and their kin who remain back home. They also show the complex ways that emotions become entangled in these exchanges. Examining how these circuits operate in domains of social life ranging from child fosterage...

  9. Flexible Bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell J; Casal, Roberto F; Lazarus, Donald R; Ost, David E; Eapen, George A

    2018-03-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy has changed the course of pulmonary medicine. As technology advances, the role of the flexible bronchoscope for both diagnostic and therapeutic indications is continually expanding. This article reviews the historical development of the flexible bronchoscopy, fundamental uses of the flexible bronchoscope as a tool to examine the central airways and obtain diagnostic tissue, and the indications, complications, and contraindications to flexible bronchoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TIMING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyd, J.W.

    1959-07-14

    An electronic circuit is described for precisely controlling the power delivered to a load from an a-c source, and is particularly useful as a welder timer. The power is delivered in uniform pulses, produced by a thyratron, the number of pulses being controlled by a one-shot multivibrator. The starting pulse is synchronized with the a-c line frequency so that each multivlbrator cycle begins at about the same point in the a-c cycle.

  11. Flexible Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.

  12. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  13. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  14. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  15. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  16. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  17. Circuit design in organic semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heremans, P.; Dehaene, W.; Steyaert, M.; Myny, K.; Mariën, H.; Genoe, J.; Gelinck, G.H.; Veenendaal, E. van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the state of the art of digital and analog circuits that have been shown in recent years in organic thin-film transistor technology on flexible plastic foil. The transistors are developed for backplanes of displays, and therefore have the characteristics to be unipolar and

  18. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  19. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  20. Current limiter circuit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  1. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  2. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  3. Electronic Control Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Je Hwong; Cha, In Su

    2001-08-01

    This book consists of nine chapters, which are basis of thyristor about its use and classify, structure of thyristor like outside, inside, manufacturing and structure of thyristor sorts of thyristor family and sub thyristor, how to use thyristor such as standard chart, choice of thyristor and way of on and off, electric heat control circuit like control temperature of heating apparatus and cooker, lighting control circuit for light bulb, neon lamp, traffic signal, lamp regulator and strobe, motor control circuit including an inverter circuit transistor and speed control of direct motor by transistor, electric power source circuit and a spark-plug, applied circuit for protection of fire.

  4. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  5. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  6. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...

  7. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  8. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  9. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  10. Classical circuit theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Starting with the basic principles of circuits, this book derives their analytic properties in both the time and frequency domains. It develops an algorithmic method to design common and uncommon types of circuits, such as prototype filters, lumped delay lines, constant phase difference circuits, and delay equalizers.

  11. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  12. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  13. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  14. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  15. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...... flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological...

  16. Flexible licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.

  17. Flexible licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-01-01

    The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs) to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they ar...

  18. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  19. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-09-03

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  20. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  1. Flexible nanovectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugno, Nicola M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  2. Flexible nanovectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  3. Fractional-order RC and RL circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2012-05-30

    This paper is a step forward to generalize the fundamentals of the conventional RC and RL circuits in fractional-order sense. The effect of fractional orders is the key factor for extra freedom, more flexibility, and novelty. The conditions for RC and RL circuits to act as pure imaginary impedances are derived, which are unrealizable in the conventional case. In addition, the sensitivity analyses of the magnitude and phase response with respect to all parameters showing the locations of these critical values are discussed. A qualitative revision for the fractional RC and RL circuits in the frequency domain is provided. Numerical and PSpice simulations are included to validate this study. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  4. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  5. Compiling quantum circuits to realistic hardware architectures using temporal planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Davide; Do, Minh; Rieffel, Eleanor; Frank, Jeremy

    2018-04-01

    To run quantum algorithms on emerging gate-model quantum hardware, quantum circuits must be compiled to take into account constraints on the hardware. For near-term hardware, with only limited means to mitigate decoherence, it is critical to minimize the duration of the circuit. We investigate the application of temporal planners to the problem of compiling quantum circuits to newly emerging quantum hardware. While our approach is general, we focus on compiling to superconducting hardware architectures with nearest neighbor constraints. Our initial experiments focus on compiling Quantum Alternating Operator Ansatz (QAOA) circuits whose high number of commuting gates allow great flexibility in the order in which the gates can be applied. That freedom makes it more challenging to find optimal compilations but also means there is a greater potential win from more optimized compilation than for less flexible circuits. We map this quantum circuit compilation problem to a temporal planning problem, and generated a test suite of compilation problems for QAOA circuits of various sizes to a realistic hardware architecture. We report compilation results from several state-of-the-art temporal planners on this test set. This early empirical evaluation demonstrates that temporal planning is a viable approach to quantum circuit compilation.

  6. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  7. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  8. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  9. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  10. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  11. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  12. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  13. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  14. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  15. Document analysis with neural net circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Hans Peter

    1994-01-01

    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  16. 'Closed Circuit' Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advantages of using rebreathing circuits in anaes- thesia are discussed and the principles for their correct employment are outlined. Practical methods are described. By using closed circuit equipment in the manner described, the initial cost of the apparatus could be recouped within one year, because of the saving in ...

  17. Offset cancelling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a

  18. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  19. Circuit of synchronous logic for the transmission of safety commands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberschlag, J.

    1969-01-01

    The author reports the development of a control-command circuit for the transmission of binary commands related to the safety of nuclear reactors. He presents the main design criteria (operation safety, provided safety level, flexibility, technical adaptation), the definition of the operation principle (inputs, logical outputs), the properties of a logic system. He evokes redundancy issues, and presents the system structure, proposes a possible sketch of the logic circuit. He describes the possible options for intermediate circuits and logic outputs, and tests to be performed

  20. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  1. Sensor readout detector circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  2. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  3. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  4. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  5. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  6. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  7. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  8. Self-Organizing Neural Circuits for Sensory-Guided Motor Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grossberg, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The reported projects developed mathematical models to explain how self-organizing neural circuits that operate under continuous or intermittent sensory guidance achieve flexible and accurate control of human movement...

  9. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  10. Power supply conditioning circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primas, Lori E. (Inventor); Loveland, Rohan C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A conditioning circuit is provided with a constant current diode in series with a zener diode, the former having a high dynamic impedance and the latter a low dynamic impedance. The constant current diode can receive an input voltage with PARD. In conjunction with the zener diode fixed to a ground, a voltage divider is provided which can give an output voltage whose PARD was significantly reduced. The conditioning circuit is effective down to dc.

  11. Paper-based silver-nanowire electronic circuits with outstanding electrical conductivity and extreme bending stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gui-Wen; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2014-07-01

    Here a facile, green and efficient printing-filtration-press (PFP) technique is reported for room-temperature (RT) mass-production of low-cost, environmentally friendly, high performance paper-based electronic circuits. The as-prepared silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) are uniformly deposited at RT on a pre-printed paper substrate to form high quality circuits via vacuum filtration and pressing. The PFP circuit exhibits more excellent electrical property and bending stability compared with other flexible circuits made by existing techniques. Furthermore, practical applications of the PFP circuits are demonstrated.Here a facile, green and efficient printing-filtration-press (PFP) technique is reported for room-temperature (RT) mass-production of low-cost, environmentally friendly, high performance paper-based electronic circuits. The as-prepared silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) are uniformly deposited at RT on a pre-printed paper substrate to form high quality circuits via vacuum filtration and pressing. The PFP circuit exhibits more excellent electrical property and bending stability compared with other flexible circuits made by existing techniques. Furthermore, practical applications of the PFP circuits are demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Video of rolling tests; video of the PFP circuit used as flexible cable in a cell phone; video of the application of the circuit as a RFID tag; a detailed method for synthesizing silver nanowires; details of the PFP technique; folding tests for the circuits; air humidity test for the circuit. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00846d

  12. Project Circuits in a Basic Electric Circuits Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James P.; Plumb, Carolyn; Revia, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of project circuits (a photoplethysmograph circuit and a simple audio amplifier), introduced in a sophomore-level electric circuits course utilizing active learning and inquiry-based methods, is described. The development of the project circuits was initiated to promote enhanced engagement and deeper understanding of course content among…

  13. Comparative Effects of Circuit Training Programme on Speed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Circuit training is one of the training methods which are a given number of exercises arranged and numbered consecutively in a given area, it is based on sound anatomical, kinesiological and physiological principles designed to increase strength, power, flexibility, quickness and cardiovascular endurance. Howell and ...

  14. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  15. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  16. Organic membrane photonic integrated circuits (OMPICs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, Toru; Hiratani, Takuo; Inoue, Daisuke; Gu, Zhichen; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Urakami, Tatsuhiro; Arai, Shigehisa

    2017-08-07

    We propose the concept of organic membrane photonic integrated circuits (OMPICs), which incorporate various functions needed for optical signal processing into a flexible organic membrane. We describe the structure of several devices used within the proposed OMPICs (e.g., transmission lines, I/O couplers, phase shifters, photodetectors, modulators), and theoretically investigate their characteristics. We then present a method of fabricating the photonic devices monolithically in an organic membrane and demonstrate the operation of transmission lines and I/O couplers, the most basic elements of OMPICs.

  17. BOOK REVIEW FLEXIBLE PEDAGOGY AND FLEXIBLE PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    KILINC, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The term of “flexible learning” means that the learner’s any time and any place involvement of the learning process without limitations on time and location. It can be said that flexible learning opportunities are provided for the learners via digital environments as open and distance learning environments. By this means, the learners can reach the learning contents without having to be in a particular location. Therefore, it can be seen that learning environments having flexible structures a...

  18. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  19. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  20. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  1. Offset cancelling circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a bipolar cell-based semicustom array. Measurements have shown that a -3-dB bandwidth below 5 Hz can be realized with a capacitor value of 50 pF. The resulting offset voltage at the audio-amplifier outpu...

  2. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  3. Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghang, C.

    1983-03-01

    The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.

  4. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  5. Het onzichtbare circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    De chip, of geïntegreerde schakeling, heeft in een razend tempo ons leven ingrijpend veranderd. Het lijkt zo vanzelfsprekend dat er weer een nieuwe generatie smartphones, tablets of computers is. Maar dat is het niet. Prof.dr.ir. Bram Nauta, hoogleraar Integrated Circuit Design, laat in zijn rede

  6. Closed Circuit Videoinstallationen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    be seen with only insignificant qualification as a specific characteristic of the medium. The closed-circuit video installations based on it represent the attest field of experiment for the assumptions on art and the theory and history of the medium that it might lead one make. In recent years...

  7. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  8. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  9. Methods for fabrication of flexible hybrid electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mei, Ping; Krusor, Brent; Ready, Steve E.; Zhang, Yong; Schwartz, David E.; Pierre, Adrien; Doris, Sean E.; Russo, Beverly; Kor, Siv; Veres, Janos

    2017-08-01

    Printed and flexible hybrid electronics is an emerging technology with potential applications in smart labels, wearable electronics, soft robotics, and prosthetics. Printed solution-based materials are compatible with plastic film substrates that are flexible, soft, and stretchable, thus enabling conformal integration with non-planar objects. In addition, manufacturing by printing is scalable to large areas and is amenable to low-cost sheet-fed and roll-to-roll processes. FHE includes display and sensory components to interface with users and environments. On the system level, devices also require electronic circuits for power, memory, signal conditioning, and communications. Those electronic components can be integrated onto a flexible substrate by either assembly or printing. PARC has developed systems and processes for realizing both approaches. This talk presents fabrication methods with an emphasis on techniques recently developed for the assembly of off-the-shelf chips. A few examples of systems fabricated with this approach are also described.

  10. A flexible inkjet printed inverted-F antenna on textile

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2016-12-19

    This is an era of wearable gadgets which demands flexible and wearer friendly wireless components. This paper presents a modified inverted-F antenna (IFA) which has seamlessly been integrated with the fabric through inkjet printing. Surface roughness of the textile has been reduced using a rapid UV curable flexible interface layer. Smooth interface layer helps achieving very fine features which may be required for complicated antenna and circuit traces.

  11. Flexible magnetic thin films and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Runwei

    2018-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51571208, 51301191, 51525103, 11274321, 11474295, 51401230), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016270), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-M05), the Ningbo Major Project for Science and Technology (No. 2014B11011), the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team (No. 2015B11001), and the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015A610110).

  12. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  13. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  14. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  15. Fault diagnosis of digital circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarmolik, Viacheslav N.

    Techniques for digital-circuit fault detection and analysis are examined analytically. Chapters are devoted to basic diagnostic testing problems, test generation, details of testable digital circuit design, circuits testable by compressed estimation of their responses, random and pseudorandom testing, the application of pseudorandom sequences to VLSI testing, signature analysis, signature generation techniques for binary sequences, and the analysis of multioutput digital circuits. Extensive graphs and diagrams are provided.

  16. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  17. Neutron event counting circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, B.J.; Maitis, W.

    1986-01-01

    A circuit is described for counting particles emitted by a particle-emitting material. The circuit consists of: means responsive to emitted particles for generating sensed particle pulses; first counting means for counting the sensed particle pulses; means responsive to the sensed particle pulses for generating window pulses, the window pulse generating means being further operative to generate window pulse of predetermined maximum time duration in response to each sensed particle pulse which occurs during the interval of a previously generated window pulse; means for generating a second pulse in response to each sensed particle pulse occurring during the interval of a previously generated window pulse; and second counting means for counting the second pulses

  18. Cartography of serotonergic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparta, Dennis R; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-08-06

    Serotonin is an essential neuromodulator, but the precise circuit connectivity that regulates serotonergic neurons has not been well defined. Using rabies virus tracing strategies Weissbourd et al. (2014) and Pollak Dorocic et al. (2014) in this issue of Neuron and Ogawa et al. (2014) in Cell Reports provide a comprehensive map of the inputs to serotonergic neurons, highlighting the complexity and diversity of potential upstream cellular regulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  20. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  1. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  2. Oxide-based thin film transistors for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongli; Wang, Xiangyu; Gao, Ya; Hou, Yahui; Wan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    The continuous progress in thin film materials and devices has greatly promoted the development in the field of flexible electronics. As one of the most common thin film devices, thin film transistors (TFTs) are significant building blocks for flexible platforms. Flexible oxide-based TFTs are well compatible with flexible electronic systems due to low process temperature, high carrier mobility, and good uniformity. The present article is a review of the recent progress and major trends in the field of flexible oxide-based thin film transistors. First, an introduction of flexible electronics and flexible oxide-based thin film transistors is given. Next, we introduce oxide semiconductor materials and various flexible oxide-based TFTs classified by substrate materials including polymer plastics, paper sheets, metal foils, and flexible thin glass. Afterwards, applications of flexible oxide-based TFTs including bendable sensors, memories, circuits, and displays are presented. Finally, we give conclusions and a prospect for possible development trends. Project supported in part by the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (No. 61425020), in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11674162).

  3. Thermionic integrated circuits: electronics for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; MacRoberts, M.D.J.; Wilde, D.K.; Dooley, G.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum tube technology with integrated circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum triode circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments

  4. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  5. Reversible gates and circuits descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracki, Krzystof

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents basic methods of reversible circuit description. To design reversible circuit a set of gates has to be chosen. Most popular libraries are composed of three types of gates so called CNT gates (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The gate indexing method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates set. It introduces a uniform indexing of the gates used during synthesis process of reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 and 3 a graphical representation of the reversible gates and circuits is described. Section 4 describes proposed uniform NCT gates indexing. The presented gate indexing method provides gate numbering scheme independent of lines number of the designed circuit. The solution for a circuit consisting of smaller number of lines is a subset of solution for a larger circuit.

  6. Flexible Frequency Discrimination Subsystems for Reconfigurable Radio Front Ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey-Smith Bruce E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The required flexibility of the software-defined radio front end may currently be met with better overall performance by employing tunable narrowband circuits rather than pursuing a truly wideband approach. A key component of narrowband transceivers is appropriate filtering to reduce spurious spectral content in the transmitter and limit out-of-band interference in the receiver. In this paper, recent advances in flexible, frequency-selective, circuit components applicable to reconfigurable SDR front ends are reviewed. The paper contains discussion regarding the filtering requirements in the SDR context and the use of intelligent, adaptive control to provide environment-aware frequency discrimination. Wide tuning-range frequency-selective circuit elements are surveyed including bandpass and bandstop filters and narrowband tunable antennas. The suitability of these elements to the mobile wireless SDR environment is discussed.

  7. Design and Analysis of Broad-Band Fixed-Tuned Submillimeter-Waveguide Multipliers using MMIC Style Circuit Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruston, J.; Kim, M.; Martin, S. C.; Mehdi, I.; Smith, R. P.; Siegel, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The design and analysis of varactor diode doubler, quadrupler and cascaded doubler circuits for 320 and 640 GHz have been completed. A new approach has been employed to produce a tunerless waveguide mount with a very flexible, frequency scaleable, MMIC style multiplier circuit. The concept, design, predicted performance and measurements on some of the constituent mount elements are presented.

  8. Printed Graphene Derivative Circuits as Passive Electrical Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K

    2018-02-23

    The objective of this study is to inkjet print resistor-capacitor ( RC ) low pass electrical filters, using a novel water-based cellulose graphene ink, and compare the voltage-frequency and transient behavior to equivalent circuits constructed from discrete passive components. The synthesized non-toxic graphene-carboxymethyl cellulose (G-CMC) ink is deposited on mechanically flexible polyimide substrates using a customized printer that dispenses functionalized aqueous solutions. The design of the printed first-order and second-order low-pass RC filters incorporate resistive traces and interdigitated capacitors. Low pass filter characteristics, such as time constant, cut-off frequency and roll-off rate, are determined for comparative analysis. Experiments demonstrate that for low frequency applications (filter and RC integrator applications. The impact of mechanical stress due to bending on the electrical performance of the flexible printed circuits is also investigated.

  9. FDM 3D printed coffee glove embedded with flexible electronic

    KAUST Repository

    Bahri, Meznan

    2017-10-31

    With the advances in 3D printing technology, Flexible Electronics can now be exploited to form the so-called “Embedded Electronics”. This paper describes experiences learned from a research project which ran during summer 2016 at KAUST, in collaboration with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Effat University, and aimed at creating a heating coffee glove product operating on double alkaline batteries using Kapton© as a flexible substrate for the circuit. The circuit and its batteries are encapsulated in a 3D printed glove, designed using SolidWorks©. The proposed methodology and techniques applied during this work could be further used in implementing other technologies, such as thermoelectric coolers head patches, smart garments, and flexible smartphones. Limitation and recommendation of the present methodology are also discussed.

  10. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  11. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  12. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  13. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  14. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  15. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  16. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  17. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... flexibility. We finally discuss implications for management and international business research, within and beyond the domain of global services sourcing.......Recent studies show that flexibility is a key concern for firms that engage in the global sourcing of services. In this conceptual paper, we seek to explore two central aspects of global sourcing flexibility: In the first part of the paper, we provide a definition of the construct of global...

  18. Engineering genetic circuit interactions within and between synthetic minimal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Martin-Alarcon, Daniel A.; Guthrie-Honea, Katriona R.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2017-05-01

    Genetic circuits and reaction cascades are of great importance for synthetic biology, biochemistry and bioengineering. An open question is how to maximize the modularity of their design to enable the integration of different reaction networks and to optimize their scalability and flexibility. One option is encapsulation within liposomes, which enables chemical reactions to proceed in well-isolated environments. Here we adapt liposome encapsulation to enable the modular, controlled compartmentalization of genetic circuits and cascades. We demonstrate that it is possible to engineer genetic circuit-containing synthetic minimal cells (synells) to contain multiple-part genetic cascades, and that these cascades can be controlled by external signals as well as inter-liposomal communication without crosstalk. We also show that liposomes that contain different cascades can be fused in a controlled way so that the products of incompatible reactions can be brought together. Synells thus enable a more modular creation of synthetic biology cascades, an essential step towards their ultimate programmability.

  19. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions....... The papers cover the following topics: foundations of flexible querying; recommendation and ranking; technologies for flexible representations and querying; knowledge discovery and information/data retrieval; intuitionistic sets; and generalized net model....

  20. Fatigue Crack Length Sizing Using a Novel Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Ruifang; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Tian, Wugang; Wu, Xuezhong; Zhou, Weihong; Tang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The eddy current probe, which is flexible, array typed, highly sensitive and capable of quantitative inspection is one practical requirement in nondestructive testing and also a research hotspot. A novel flexible planar eddy current sensor array for the inspection of microcrack presentation in critical parts of airplanes is developed in this paper. Both exciting and sensing coils are etched on polyimide films using a flexible printed circuit board technique, thus conforming the sensor to comp...

  1. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  2. Noise in biological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L; Cox, Chris D; Allen, Michael S; McCollum, James M; Dar, Roy D; Karig, David K; Cooke, John F

    2009-01-01

    Noise biology focuses on the sources, processing, and biological consequences of the inherent stochastic fluctuations in molecular transitions or interactions that control cellular behavior. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in small systems where the magnitudes of the fluctuations approach or exceed the mean value of the molecular population. Noise biology is an essential component of nanomedicine where the communication of information is across a boundary that separates small synthetic and biological systems that are bound by their size to reside in environments of large fluctuations. Here we review the fundamentals of the computational, analytical, and experimental approaches to noise biology. We review results that show that the competition between the benefits of low noise and those of low population has resulted in the evolution of genetic system architectures that produce an uneven distribution of stochasticity across the molecular components of cells and, in some cases, use noise to drive biological function. We review the exact and approximate approaches to gene circuit noise analysis and simulation, and review many of the key experimental results obtained using flow cytometry and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we consider the probative value of noise with a discussion of using measured noise properties to elucidate the structure and function of the underlying gene circuit. We conclude with a discussion of the frontiers of and significant future challenges for noise biology. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  4. Arithmetic circuits for DSP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stouraitis, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Arithmetic Circuits for DSP Applications is a complete resource on arithmetic circuits for digital signal processing (DSP). It covers the key concepts, designs and developments of different types of arithmetic circuits, which can be used for improving the efficiency of implementation of a multitude of DSP applications. Each chapter includes various applications of the respective class of arithmetic circuits along with information on the future scope of research. Written for students, engineers, and researchers in electrical and computer engineering, this comprehensive text offers a clear understanding of different types of arithmetic circuits used for digital signal processing applications. The text includes contributions from noted researchers on a wide range of topics, including a review o circuits used in implementing basic operations like additions and multiplications; distributed arithmetic as a technique for the multiplier-less implementation of inner products for DSP applications; discussions on look ...

  5. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  6. 49 CFR 236.13 - Spring switch; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuits through circuit controller. 236.13 Section 236.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller. The control circuits of signals governing... circuit controller, or through the contacts of relay repeating the position of such circuit controller...

  7. Source-circuit design overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  8. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  9. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  10. PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creveling, R.

    1959-03-17

    A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

  11. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...

  12. Flexible Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Narrow Tube carries 10 watts or more to moving parts. Heat pipe 12 inches long and diameter of 0.312 inch (7.92mm). Bent to minimum radius of 2.5 blocks. Flexible section made of 321 stainless steel tubing (Cajon Flexible Tubing or equivalent). Evaporator and condenser made of oxygen free copper. Working fluid methanol.

  13. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  14. Flexible magnetoimpidence sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use[1]. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.

  15. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  16. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  17. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  18. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  19. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  20. VLSI circuits implementing computational models of neocortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Jayawan H B; Dudek, Piotr

    2012-09-15

    This paper overviews the design and implementation of three neuromorphic integrated circuits developed for the COLAMN ("Novel Computing Architecture for Cognitive Systems based on the Laminar Microcircuitry of the Neocortex") project. The circuits are implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology and include spiking and bursting neuron models, and synapses with short-term (facilitating/depressing) and long-term (STDP and dopamine-modulated STDP) dynamics. They enable execution of complex nonlinear models in accelerated-time, as compared with biology, and with low power consumption. The neural dynamics are implemented using analogue circuit techniques, with digital asynchronous event-based input and output. The circuits provide configurable hardware blocks that can be used to simulate a variety of neural networks. The paper presents experimental results obtained from the fabricated devices, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the analogue circuit approach to computational neural modelling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Data assimilation with Chua's circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a certain set of parameters. It has been extensively stud- ied in many different contexts, including experimental and numerical studies of synchronization of coupled. Chua circuits [20–25]. The schematic circuit is shown in figure 1. It consists of an inductor L with an internal resistance r, two capacitors C1 and C2, a nonlinear ...

  2. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interfac...

  3. Pharmacokinetics and "RC" Circuit Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Mieke; Janssen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses include a chapter on "RC" circuits in which the differential equations for the charging and discharging of a capacitor are derived. A number of papers in this journal describe lab experiments dealing with the measurement of different parameters in such "RC" circuits. In this contribution, we…

  4. Balanced calibration of resonant piezoelectric RL shunts with quasi-static background flexibility correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Resonant RL shunt circuits constitute a robust approach to piezoelectric damping, where the performance with respect to damping of flexible structures requires a precise calibration of the corresponding circuit components. The balanced calibration procedure of the present paper is based on equal ...... that the procedure leads to equal modal damping and effective response reduction, even for rather indirect placement of the transducer, provided that the correction for background flexibility is included in the calibration procedure....

  5. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

    2012-10-09

    A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

  6. [Neuroscience of mental flexibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    Mental flexibility enabling shifts from the usual prepotent behaviour to new strategies and solutions is a significant factor in the successful adaptation to the changing environment. Components of mental flexibility comprise attention, salience detection, inhibition, working memory and switch processes which can be measured by neurocognitive tests. Data derived from examinations by the methods of cognitive neuroscience can be compared to the features, observed under resting state and during task performance, of brain structures and functions. Studying central nervous system correlates of mental flexibility by imaging, neurobiological, and pharmacological techniques revealed that certain cerebral regions (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and insula, striatum, inferior parietal lobule) with their network connectivities, and some neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine) have profound roles in this respect. Flexibility shares some similarities with artistic/scientific/everyday creativity and openness as a personality trait and this is also reflected in neurobiological parameters. According to precedents in art history, the public reception and acceptance of nonconform avant-garde artistic products are also dependent on flexibility and openness. Alterations of mental flexibility have been found in diseases (psychiatric and others), and in stress situations. Although flexible switch is generally considered as positive and beneficial, under certain conditions advantages might arise from keeping stability maintaining customs, conventions, and traditions. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(45): 1771-1786.

  7. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...... the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... flexibility. We finally discuss implications for management and international business research, within and beyond the domain of global services sourcing....

  8. Magnetomicrofluidics Circuits for Organizing Bioparticle Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh

    Single-cell analysis (SCA) tools have important applications in the analysis of phenotypic heterogeneity, which is difficult or impossible to analyze in bulk cell culture or patient samples. SCA tools thus have a myriad of applications ranging from better credentialing of drug therapies to the analysis of rare latent cells harboring HIV infection or in Cancer. However, existing SCA systems usually lack the required combination of programmability, flexibility, and scalability necessary to enable the study of cell behaviors and cell-cell interactions at the scales sufficient to analyze extremely rare events. To advance the field, I have developed a novel, programmable, and massively-parallel SCA tool which is based on the principles of computer circuits. By integrating these magnetic circuits with microfluidics channels, I developed a platform that can organize a large number of single particles into an array in a controlled manner. My magnetophoretic circuits use passive elements constructed in patterned magnetic thin films to move cells along programmed tracks with an external rotating magnetic field. Cell motion along these tracks is analogous to the motion of charges in an electrical conductor, following a rule similar to Ohm's law. I have also developed asymmetric conductors, similar to electrical diodes, and storage sites for cells that behave similarly to electrical capacitors. I have also developed magnetophoretic circuits which use an overlaid pattern of microwires to switch single cells between different tracks. This switching mechanism, analogous to the operation of electronic transistors, is achieved by establishing a semiconducting gap in the magnetic pattern which can be changed from an insulating state to a conducting state by application of electrical current to an overlaid electrode. I performed an extensive study on the operation of transistors to optimize their geometry and minimize the required gate currents. By combining these elements into

  9. High-Performance Integrated Self-Package Flexible Li-O2Battery Based on Stable Composite Anode and Flexible Gas Diffusion Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Ji-Jing; Bao, Di; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Da-Peng; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-07-01

    With the rising development of flexible and wearable electronics, corresponding flexible energy storage devices with high energy density are required to provide a sustainable energy supply. Theoretically, rechargeable flexible Li-O 2 batteries can provide high specific energy density; however, there are only a few reports on the construction of flexible Li-O 2 batteries. Conventional flexible Li-O 2 batteries possess a loose battery structure, which prevents flexibility and stability. The low mechanical strength of the gas diffusion layer and anode also lead to a flexible Li-O 2 battery with poor mechanical properties. All these attributes limit their practical applications. Herein, the authors develop an integrated flexible Li-O 2 battery based on a high-fatigue-resistance anode and a novel flexible stretchable gas diffusion layer. Owing to the synergistic effect of the stable electrocatalytic activity and hierarchical 3D interconnected network structure of the free-standing cathode, the obtained flexible Li-O 2 batteries exhibit superior electrochemical performance, including a high specific capacity, an excellent rate capability, and exceptional cycle stability. Furthermore, benefitting from the above advantages, the as-fabricated flexible batteries can realize excellent mechanical and electrochemical stability. Even after a thousand cycles of the bending process, the flexible Li-O 2 battery can still possess a stable open-circuit voltage, a high specific capacity, and a durable cycle performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Design and implementation of a programming circuit in radiation-hardened FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lihua; Han Xiaowei; Zhao Yan; Liu Zhongli; Yu Fang; Chen, Stanley L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel programming circuit used in our radiation-hardened field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. This circuit provides the ability to write user-defined configuration data into an FPGA and then read it back. The proposed circuit adopts the direct-access programming point scheme instead of the typical long token shift register chain. It not only saves area but also provides more flexible configuration operations. By configuring the proposed partial configuration control register, our smallest configuration section can be conveniently configured as a single data and a flexible partial configuration can be easily implemented. The hierarchical simulation scheme, optimization of the critical path and the elaborate layout plan make this circuit work well. Also, the radiation hardened by design programming point is introduced. This circuit has been implemented in a static random access memory (SRAM)-based FPGA fabricated by a 0.5 μm partial-depletion silicon-on-insulator CMOS process. The function test results of the fabricated chip indicate that this programming circuit successfully realizes the desired functions in the configuration and read-back. Moreover, the radiation test results indicate that the programming circuit has total dose tolerance of 1 x 10 5 rad(Si), dose rate survivability of 1.5 x 10 11 rad(Si)/s and neutron fluence immunity of 1 x 10 14 n/cm 2 .

  11. PHOTOSENSITIVE RELAY CONTROL CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.F.

    1958-01-14

    adapted for the measurement of the time required for an oscillating member to pass through a preselected number of oscillations, after being damped to a certain maximum amplitude of oscillation. A mirror is attached to the moving member and directs light successively to a photocell which is part of a trigger unit and to first and second photocells which are part of a starter unit, as the member swings to its maximum amplitude. The starter and trigger units comprise thyratrons and relays so interconnected that the trigger circuit, although generating a counter pulse, does not register a count in the counter when the light traverses both photocells of the starter unit. When the amplitude of oscillation of the member decreases to where the second photocell is not transversed, the triggei pulse is received by the counter. The counter taen operates to register the desired number of oscillations and initiates and terminates a timer for measuring the time irterval for the preselected number of oscillations.

  12. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.

  13. Flexibility of zeolite frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapko, Vitaliy; Treacy, Michael; Thorpe, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Zeolites are an important class of industrial catalysts because of their large internal surfaces and molecular-sieving properties. Recent geometric simulations (1) show that almost all of the known zeolites can exist without distortion of their tetrahedra within some range of densities, which we call the flexibility window. Within this window, the framework accommodates density changes by rotations about the shared tetrahedral corners. We argue that the presence of a flexibility window can be used as a topological criterion to select potential candidates for synthesis from millions of hypothetical structures. We also investigate the exceptions to the rule, as well as the shape of the flexibility window and the symmetric properties of zeolites inside it. (1) A. Sartbaeva, S.A. Wells, M.M.J. Treacy and M.F. Thorpe The flexibility window in zeolites, Nature Materials 5, 962-965 (2006); I. Rivin, commentary 931-932.

  14. Flexible programmable logic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  15. Global optimization of digital circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandera, Richard

    1991-12-01

    This thesis was divided into two tasks. The first task involved developing a parser which could translate a behavioral specification in Very High-Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into the format used by an existing digital circuit optimization tool, Boolean Reasoning In Scheme (BORIS). Since this tool is written in Scheme, a dialect of Lisp, the parser was also written in Scheme. The parser was implemented is Artez's modification of Earley's Algorithm. Additionally, a VHDL tokenizer was implemented in Scheme and a portion of the VHDL grammar was converted into the format which the parser uses. The second task was the incorporation of intermediate functions into BORIS. The existing BORIS contains a recursive optimization system that optimizes digital circuits by using circuit outputs as inputs into other circuits. Intermediate functions provide a greater selection of functions to be used as circuits inputs. Using both intermediate functions and output functions, the costs of the circuits in the test set were reduced by 43 percent. This is a 10 percent reduction when compared to the existing recursive optimization system. Incorporating intermediate functions into BORIS required the development of an intermediate-function generator and a set of control methods to keep the computation time from increasing exponentially.

  16. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs.......Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  17. Framed 4-graphs: Euler tours, Gauss circuits and rotating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yutko, Denis P

    2011-01-01

    We consider connected finite 4-valent graphs with the structure of opposite edges at each vertex (framed 4-graphs). For any of such graphs there exist Euler tours, in travelling along which at each vertex we turn from an edge to a nonopposite one (rotating circuits); and at the same time, it is not true that for any such graph there exists an Euler tour passing from an edge to the opposite one at each vertex (a Gauss circuit). The main result of the work is an explicit formula connecting the adjacency matrices of the Gauss circuit and an arbitrary Euler tour. This formula immediately gives us a criterion for the existence of a Gauss circuit on a given framed 4-graph. It turns out that the results are also valid for all symmetric matrices (not just for matrices realisable by a chord diagram). Bibliography: 24 titles.

  18. The Maplin electronic circuits handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The Maplin Electronic Circuits Handbook provides pertinent data, formula, explanation, practical guidance, theory and practical guidance in the design, testing, and construction of electronic circuits. This book discusses the developments in electronics technology techniques.Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the common types of passive component. This text then provides the reader with sufficient information to make a correct selection of passive components for use in the circuits. Other chapters consider the various types of the most commonly used semiconductor

  19. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit includes a light emitting diode which from time to time illuminates a photo-transistor, the photo-transistor serving when its output reaches a predetermined value to operate a trigger circuit. In order to allow for aging of the components, the current flow through the diode is increased when the output from the transistor falls below a known level. Conveniently, this is achieved by having a transistor in parallel with the diode, and turning the transistor off when the output from the phototransistor becomes too low. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  20. Quantum circuit behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, D.

    1989-09-01

    Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)

  1. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  2. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  3. Solar cell fabricated on welded thin flexible silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessmann Maik Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell with an AM1.5 efficiency of 11.5% fabricated on welded 50 μm thin silicon foils. The aperture area of the cell is 1.00 cm2. The cell has an open-circuit voltage of 570 mV, a short-circuit current density of 29.9 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 67.6%. These are the first results ever presented for solar cells on welded silicon foils. The foils were welded together in order to create the first thin flexible monocrystalline band substrate. A flexible band substrate offers the possibility to overcome the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafers and the feasibility of a roll-to-roll manufacturing. In combination with an epitaxial and layer transfer process a decrease in production costs can be achieved.

  4. Robustness from flexibility in the fungal circadian clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akman Ozgur E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robustness is a central property of living systems, enabling function to be maintained against environmental perturbations. A key challenge is to identify the structures in biological circuits that confer system-level properties such as robustness. Circadian clocks allow organisms to adapt to the predictable changes of the 24-hour day/night cycle by generating endogenous rhythms that can be entrained to the external cycle. In all organisms, the clock circuits typically comprise multiple interlocked feedback loops controlling the rhythmic expression of key genes. Previously, we showed that such architectures increase the flexibility of the clock's rhythmic behaviour. We now test the relationship between flexibility and robustness, using a mathematical model of the circuit controlling conidiation in the fungus Neurospora crassa. Results The circuit modelled in this work consists of a central negative feedback loop, in which the frequency (frq gene inhibits its transcriptional activator white collar-1 (wc-1, interlocked with a positive feedback loop in which FRQ protein upregulates WC-1 production. Importantly, our model reproduces the observed entrainment of this circuit under light/dark cycles with varying photoperiod and cycle duration. Our simulations show that whilst the level of frq mRNA is driven directly by the light input, the falling phase of FRQ protein, a molecular correlate of conidiation, maintains a constant phase that is uncoupled from the times of dawn and dusk. The model predicts the behaviour of mutants that uncouple WC-1 production from FRQ's positive feedback, and shows that the positive loop enhances the buffering of conidiation phase against seasonal photoperiod changes. This property is quantified using Kitano's measure for the overall robustness of a regulated system output. Further analysis demonstrates that this functional robustness is a consequence of the greater evolutionary flexibility conferred on

  5. Flexible Foam Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Werner, Brian T.; Scherzinger, William M.; Lo, Chi S.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of a 15 pcf flexible polyurethane foam to large deformation at different strain rates and temperatures. Results from these experiments indicated that at room temperature, flexible polyurethane foams exhibit significant nonlinear elastic deformation and nearly return to their original undeformed shape when unloaded. However, when these foams are cooled to temperatures below their glass transition temperature of approximately -35 o C, they behave like rigid polyurethane foams and exhibit significant permanent deformation when compressed. Thus, a new model which captures this dramatic change in behavior with temperature was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Flex_Foam to describe the mechanical response of both flexible and rigid foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments. Next, development of the Flex Foam model for flexible polyurethane and other flexible foams is described. Selection of material parameters are discussed and finite element simulations with the new Flex Foam model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this new model.

  6. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  7. Printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Saumen; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-01-01

    Organic electronics is moving ahead on its journey towards reality. However, this technology will only be possible when it is able to meet specific criteria including flexibility, transparency, disposability and low cost. Printing is one of the conventional techniques to deposit thin films from solution-based ink. It is used worldwide for visual modes of information, and it is now poised to enter into the manufacturing processes of various consumer electronics. The continuous progress made in the field of functional organic semiconductors has achieved high solubility in common solvents as well as high charge carrier mobility, which offers ample opportunity for organic-based printed integrated circuits. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of all-printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits, mainly ring oscillators. First, the necessity of all-printed organic integrated circuits is discussed; we consider how the gap between printed electronics and real applications can be bridged. Next, various materials for printed organic integrated circuits are discussed. The features of these circuits and their suitability for electronics using different printing and coating techniques follow. Interconnection technology is equally important to make this product industrially viable; much attention in this review is placed here. For high-frequency operation, channel length should be sufficiently small; this could be achievable with a combination of surface treatment-assisted printing or laser writing. Registration is also an important issue related to printing; the printed gate should be perfectly aligned with the source and drain to minimize parasitic capacitances. All-printed organic inverters and ring oscillators are discussed here, along with their importance. Finally, future applications of all-printed organic integrated circuits are highlighted. (paper)

  8. A Flexible Flow Sensor System and Its Characteristics for Fluid Mechanics Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyi Que

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel micromachined hot-film flow sensor system realized by a technique using a film depositing processes and incorporating a standard printed circuit. Sensor electrodes and electronic circuits are preprinted on a flexible substrate of polyimide (PI, i.e., a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB. The sensing element, which is made of Cr/Ni/Pt with a temperature coefficient of resistance around 2,000 ppm/K, is fabricated on the FPCB by either magnetron sputtering technology or pulsed laser deposition (PLD. The sensor can be packed efficiently at high-density and integrated with signal processing circuits without additional pads. A simple fabrication process using mature technique and materials selection guarantees that the time and costs are greatly reduced. Both steady-state and transient characteristics of the sensors are experimentally tested, and the results presented to validate the effectiveness of the sensors.

  9. Flexible heartbeat sensor for wearable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Wonhyo; Park, Kwang Bum; Kim, Kunnyun; Seo, Sungkyu

    2017-08-15

    We demonstrate a flexible strain-gauge sensor and its use in a wearable application for heart rate detection. This polymer-based strain-gauge sensor was fabricated using a double-sided fabrication method with polymer and metal, i.e., polyimide and nickel-chrome. The fabrication process for this strain-gauge sensor is compatible with the conventional flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) processes facilitating its commercialization. The fabricated sensor showed a linear relation for an applied normal force of more than 930 kPa, with a minimum detectable force of 6.25Pa. This sensor can also linearly detect a bending radius from 5mm to 100mm. It is a thin, flexible, compact, and inexpensive (for mass production) heart rate detection sensor that is highly sensitive compared to the established optical photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors. It can detect not only the timing of heart pulsation, but also the amplitude or shape of the pulse signal. The proposed strain-gauge sensor can be applicable to various applications for smart devices requiring heartbeat detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  11. Development of reconfigurable analog and digital circuits for plasma diagnostics measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar

    2009-01-01

    In long pulse discharge tokamak, a large number of diagnostic channels are being used to understand the complex behavior of plasma. Different diagnostics demand different types of analog and digital processing for plasma parameters measurement. This leads to variable requirements of signal processing for diagnostic measurement. For such types of requirements, we have developed hardware with reconfigurable electronic devices, which provide flexible solution for rapid development of measurement system. Here the analog processing is achieved by Field Programmable Analog Array (FPAA) integrated circuit while reconfigurable digital devices (CPLD/FPGA) achieve digital processing. FPAA's provide an ideal integrated platform for implementing low to medium complexity analog signal processing. With dynamic reconfigurability, the functionality of the FPAA can be reconfigured in-system by the designer or on the fly by a microprocessor. This feature is quite useful to manipulate the tuning or the construction of any part of the analog circuit without interrupting operation of the FPAA, thus maintaining system integrity. The hardware operation control logic circuits are configured in the reconfigurable digital devices (CPLD/FPGA) to control proper hardware functioning. These reconfigurable devices provide the design flexibility and save the component space on the board. It also provides the flexibility for various setting through software. The circuit controlling commands are either issued by computer/processor or generated by circuit itself. (author)

  12. Cognitive radios for dynamic spectrum access - Polyphase Multipath Radio Circuits for Dynamic Spectrum Access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Shrestha, R.; Mensink, E.; Arkesteijn, V.J.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynamic access of unused spectrum via a cognitive radio asks for flexible radio circuits that can work at an arbitrary radio frequency. This article reviews techniques to realize radios without resorting to frequency selective dedicated filters. In particular, a recently proposed polyphase

  13. An Integer Programming-Based Generalized Vehicle Routing Approach for Printed Circuit Board Assembly Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Production planning and scheduling for printed circuit, board assembly has so far defied standard operations research approaches due to the size and complexity of the underlying problems, resulting in unexploited automation flexibility. In this thesis, the increasingly popular collect-and-place machine configuration is studied and the assembly…

  14. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  15. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Luisa; Münzenrieder, Niko; Vogt, Christian; Faber, Hendrik; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Tröster, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular

  16. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Luisa; Vogt, Christian; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Münzenrieder, Niko [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Sensor Technology Research Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer (United Kingdom); Faber, Hendrik; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In

  17. Flexible Quantum Oblivious Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Yang, Rui; Cao, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2017-04-01

    We propose a flexible protocol for one-out-of- nquantum oblivious transfer (QOT) Compared with existing QOT protocols, our protocol is more flexible. We demonstrate that, by adjusting the value of 𝜃 the flexible one-out-of- nQOT is allowable where n can be located theoretically on any value the communicating parties wanted. Meanwhile, it also meets the rigorous security requirements of the oblivious transfer (OT) definition, which ensures Bob can receive on average one of n messages held by Alice, while Alice cannot know which one Bob has received. Finally, we analyze the security of our protocol and show that it is not based on quantum bit commitment and does not violate Lo's no-go theorem so that its security can be achieved.

  18. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  20. Learning shapes spatiotemporal brain patterns for flexible categorical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Mayhew, Stephen D; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2012-10-01

    Learning is thought to facilitate our ability to perform complex perceptual tasks and optimize brain circuits involved in decision making. However, little is known about the experience-dependent mechanisms in the human brain that support our ability to make fine categorical judgments. Previous work has focused on identifying spatial brain patterns (i.e., areas) that change with learning. Here, we take advantage of the complementary high spatial and temporal resolution of simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics between cortical networks involved in flexible category learning. Observers were trained to use different decision criteria (i.e., category boundaries) when making fine categorical judgments on morphed stimuli (i.e., radial vs. concentric patterns). Our findings demonstrate that learning acts on a feedback-based circuit that supports fine categorical judgments. Experience-dependent changes in the behavioral decision criterion were associated with changes in later perceptual processes engaging higher occipitotemporal and frontoparietal circuits. In contrast, category learning did not modulate early processes in a medial frontotemporal network that are thought to support the coarse interpretation of visual scenes. These findings provide evidence that learning flexible criteria for fine categorical judgments acts on distinct spatiotemporal brain circuits and shapes the readout of sensory signals that provide evidence for categorical decisions.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Driver Circuit for 6 × 6 Organic Light Emitting Diode Display

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Jianping

    2015-06-29

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is expected to be a very promising material for flexible and transparent driver circuits for active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM OLED) displays due to its high field-effect mobility, excellent current carrying capacity, optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. Although there have been several publications about SWNT driver circuits, none of them have shown static and dynamic images with the AM OLED displays. Here we report on the first successful chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown SWNT network thin film transistor (TFT) driver circuits for static and dynamic AM OLED displays with 6 × 6 pixels. The high device mobility of ~45 cm2V−1s−1 and the high channel current on/off ratio of ~105 of the SWNT-TFTs fully guarantee the control capability to the OLED pixels. Our results suggest that SWNT-TFTs are promising backplane building blocks for future OLED displays.

  2. Noise-Reduction Circuit For Imaging Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luis J.; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Hickok, Roger W.

    1995-01-01

    Developmental correlated-triple-sampling circuit suppresses capacitor reset noise and attenuates low frequency noise in integrated-and-sampled circuits of multiplexed photodiode arrays. Noise reduction circuit part of Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument to fly aboard Cassini spacecraft to explore Saturn and its moons. Modified versions of circuit also useful for reducing noise in terrestrial photosensor instruments.

  3. Trace-based post-silicon validation for VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    This book first provides a comprehensive coverage of state-of-the-art validation solutions based on real-time signal tracing to guarantee the correctness of VLSI circuits.  The authors discuss several key challenges in post-silicon validation and provide automated solutions that are systematic and cost-effective.  A series of automatic tracing solutions and innovative design for debug (DfD) techniques are described, including techniques for trace signal selection for enhancing visibility of functional errors, a multiplexed signal tracing strategy for improving functional error detection, a tracing solution for debugging electrical errors, an interconnection fabric for increasing data bandwidth and supporting multi-core debug, an interconnection fabric design and optimization technique to increase transfer flexibility and a DfD design and associated tracing solution for improving debug efficiency and expanding tracing window. The solutions presented in this book improve the validation quality of VLSI circuit...

  4. Chemoelectronic circuits based on metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Warren, Scott C.; Fuller, Patrick; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2016-07-01

    To develop electronic devices with novel functionalities and applications, various non-silicon-based materials are currently being explored. Nanoparticles have unique characteristics due to their small size, which can impart functions that are distinct from those of their bulk counterparts. The use of semiconductor nanoparticles has already led to improvements in the efficiency of solar cells, the processability of transistors and the sensitivity of photodetectors, and the optical and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles have led to similar advances in plasmonics and energy conversion. However, metals screen electric fields and this has, so far, prevented their use in the design of all-metal nanoparticle circuitry. Here, we show that simple electronic circuits can be made exclusively from metal nanoparticles functionalized with charged organic ligands. In these materials, electronic currents are controlled by the ionic gradients of mobile counterions surrounding the ‘jammed’ nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-based electronic elements of the circuitry can be interfaced with metal nanoparticles capable of sensing various environmental changes (humidity, gas, the presence of various cations), creating electronic devices in which metal nanoparticles sense, process and ultimately report chemical signals. Because the constituent nanoparticles combine electronic and chemical sensing functions, we term these systems ‘chemoelectronic’. The circuits have switching times comparable to those of polymer electronics, selectively transduce parts-per-trillion chemical changes into electrical signals, perform logic operations, consume little power (on the scale of microwatts), and are mechanically flexible. They are also ‘green’, in the sense that they comprise non-toxic nanoparticles cast at room temperature from alcohol solutions.

  5. Use of Nanocomposites for Flexible Pressure Sensors =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Alexandra Conceicao Teixeira

    films, where two of them are A-CNTs/PDMS nanocomposites (defining the diaphragm type electrodes) separated by a film made of neat PDMS (defining the dielectric) and its operating principie is based on the change of the deflection of the nanocomposite layers due to the change of an external pressure. The developed flexible pressure sensors tested for pressures between 0 kPa and 100 kPa (operation required to measure the blood pressure in the aneurysm sac) showed good linearity, mainly in the region near to the atmospheric pressure (pressure inside of dielectric ). To demonstrate feasibility for practical applications, the flexible sensor technology was used in a biomedical application, more specifically in the context of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The proposed implantable flexible pressure sensing system (capacitive sensor plus inductor) consists of a mixed technology that uses A-CNTs/nanocomposites to build the capacitar electrodes and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) technology to build an inductor. The complete system was assessed by applying pressures varying from 0 kPa to 100 kPa. The results showed that the flexible sensors responded to pressure variations with a well-defined characteristic curve and oscillation frequencies centered around 5.3 MHz (the sensor receives energy and reflects back its oscillation frequency by means of inductive coupling). Finally, the developed technology to fabricate flexible pressure sensors based on A-CNTs/PDMS nanocomposites proved successful in sensing applications and due to its biocompatibility and versatility, can be used in other fields of application such as portable medical devices and e-textiles (to monitor the vital signs of an individual, such as heart rate and temperature, by using textile substrates with integrated electronics). (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  6. Transistor Aging Prediction in Nanometer Digital Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung Ki Kim

    2013-01-01

    In nanometer technology, accurate aging prediction of MOSFET digital circuits is one of the most critical issues for more reliable adaptive system design. This paper proposes a new on-chip aging prediction circuit to monitor BTI and HCI aging effects on digital circuits. The proposed circuit deploys a flip-flop based delay detector for monitoring a guardband violation of sequential logics. The outputs of the proposed circuit can be used as a control signal in reliable self-adaptive systems. A...

  7. Instrumentation and test gear circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual provides diagrams, graphs, tables, and discussions of several types of practical circuits. The practical circuits covered in this book include attenuators, bridges, scope trace doublers, timebases, and digital frequency meters. Chapter 1 discusses the basic instrumentation and test gear principles. Chapter 2 deals with the design of passive attenuators, and Chapter 3 with passive and active filter circuits. The subsequent chapters tackle 'bridge' circuits, analogue and digital metering techniques and circuitry, signal and waveform generation, and p

  8. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  9. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  10. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  11. Calculation of Flexible Bus-Bars Electrodynamic Stability with Application of Implicit Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Panamarenka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method for calculation of open-air substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been improved on equations of a flexible elastic string with application of an implicit scheme. On the basis of the numerical method a computer program FLEBUS for calculation of substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been developed. An approbation and an estimation of calculation result reliability have been carried out in accordance with the program while using experimental data. On the basis of the obtained information it is possible to assert that the developed program is an independent tool for calculation of electrodynamic stability of substations’ flexible bus-bars.

  12. Printed Circuit Board Embedded Inductors for Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the design of three different structures for printed circuit board embedded inductors. Direct comparison of spirals, solenoids and toroids are made with regard to inductance, dc and ac resistance, electromagnetic field and design flexibility. First the equations for the impeda......The paper describes the design of three different structures for printed circuit board embedded inductors. Direct comparison of spirals, solenoids and toroids are made with regard to inductance, dc and ac resistance, electromagnetic field and design flexibility. First the equations...... to take possible electromagnetic interference problems into account, when the structures are compared. The simulated fields are verified through near field measurements performed on the prototypes. Finally design flexibility are considered, both regarding scalability and design of the individual inductors...

  13. Measures of Potential Flexibility and Practical Flexibility in Equation Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers interested in mathematical proficiency have recently begun to explore the development of strategic flexibility, where flexibility is defined as knowledge of multiple strategies for solving a problem and the ability to implement an innovative strategy for a given problem solving circumstance. However, anecdotal findings from this literature indicate that students do not consistently use an innovative strategy for solving a given problem, even when these same students demonstrate knowledge of innovative strategies. This distinction, sometimes framed in the psychological literature as competence vs. performance—has not been previously studied for flexibility. In order to explore the competence/performance distinction in flexibility, this study developed and validated measures for potential flexibility (e.g., competence, or knowledge of multiple strategies and practical flexibility (e.g., performance, use of innovative strategies for solving equations. The measures were administrated to a sample of 158 Chinese middle school students through a Tri-Phase Flexibility Assessment, in which the students were asked to solve each equation, generate additional strategies, and evaluate own multiple strategies. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of potential and practical flexibility. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for the measures. Additional validity evidence included the significant association with flexibility measured with the previous method. Potential flexibility and practical flexibility were found to be distinct but related. The theoretical and practical implications of the concepts and their measures of potential flexibility and practical flexibility are discussed.

  14. Multiplication circuit for particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlier, Jean

    1962-01-01

    After having commented some characteristics of the particles present in a cyclotron, and their interactions, this report addresses the development and the implementation of a method and a device for selecting and counting particles. The author presents the principle and existing techniques of selection. In comparison with an existing device, the proportional counter and the scintillator are replaced by junctions: a surface barrier type junction (a silicon N layer with a very thin oxygen layer playing the role of the P layer), and lithium-based junction (a silicon P type layer made intrinsic by migration of lithium). The author then describes the developed circuit and assembly (background of the choice of a multiplication circuit), and their operation. In the next part, he presents the performed tests and discuses the obtained results. He finally outlines the benefits of the herein presented circuit [fr

  15. Rapid synthesis of flexible conductive polymer nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, C O; Sotiriou, G A; Pratsinis, S E

    2015-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposite films with nanoparticle-specific properties are sought out in novel functional materials and miniaturized devices for electronic and biomedical applications. Sensors, capacitors, actuators, displays, circuit boards, solar cells, electromagnetic shields and medical electrodes rely on flexible, electrically conductive layers or films. Scalable synthesis of such nanocomposite films, however, remains a challenge. Here, flame aerosol deposition of metallic nanosliver onto bare or polymer-coated glass substrates followed by polymer spin-coating on them leads to rapid synthesis of flexible, free-standing, electrically conductive nanocomposite films. Their electrical conductivity is determined during their preparation and depends on substrate composition and nanosilver deposition duration. Accordingly, thin (<500 nm) and flexible nanocomposite films are made having conductivity equivalent to metals (e.g. 5  × 10 4 S cm −1 ), even during repetitive bending. (paper)

  16. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eKlanker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Striatal dopamine is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior towards a reward. Less is known about the contribution of dopamine to cognitive flexibility – the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder. Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in dopamine signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal dopamine in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD.

  17. A pseudo-single-crystalline germanium film for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, H.; Yamada, S.; Kanashima, T.; Hamaya, K., E-mail: hamaya@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Kasahara, K.; Park, J.-H.; Miyao, M. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kudo, K.; Okamoto, H.; Moto, K.; Tsunoda, I. [Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan)

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate large-area (∼600 μm), (111)-oriented, and high-crystallinity, i.e., pseudo-single-crystalline, germanium (Ge) films at 275 °C, where the temperature is lower than the softening temperature of a flexible substrate. A modulated gold-induced layer exchange crystallization method with an atomic-layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier and amorphous-Ge/Au multilayers is established. From the Raman measurements, we can judge that the crystallinity of the obtained Ge films is higher than those grown by aluminum-induced-crystallization methods. Even on a flexible substrate, the pseudo-single-crystalline Ge films for the circuit with thin-film transistor arrays can be achieved, leading to high-performance flexible electronics based on an inorganic-semiconductor channel.

  18. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, James; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Gelinck, Gerwin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  19. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James

    2017-10-30

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  20. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...... kinds of problems at different locations in the grid. This means that the best measurement methodology changes depending on the location in the grid. Three typical examples with different measurement problems at 400 kV, 132 kV and 400 V voltage level are discussed....

  1. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  2. Embedded systems circuits and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    During the development of an engineered product, developers often need to create an embedded system--a prototype--that demonstrates the operation/function of the device and proves its viability. Offering practical tools for the development and prototyping phases, Embedded Systems Circuits and Programming provides a tutorial on microcontroller programming and the basics of embedded design. The book focuses on several development tools and resources: Standard and off-the-shelf components, such as input/output devices, integrated circuits, motors, and programmable microcontrollers The implementat

  3. A General Waveguide Circuit Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Roger B; Williams, Dylan F

    1992-01-01

    This work generalizes and extends the classical circuit theory of electromagnetic waveguides. Unlike the conventional theory, the present formulation applies to all waveguides composed of linear, isotropic material, even those involving lossy conductors and hybrid mode fields, in a fully rigorous way. Special attention is given to distinguishing the traveling waves, constructed with respect to a well-defined characteristic impedance, from a set of pseudo-waves, defined with respect to an arbitrary reference impedance. Matrices characterizing a linear circuit are defined, and relationships among them, some newly discovered, are derived. New ramifications of reciprocity are developed. Measurement of various network parameters is given extensive treatment.

  4. Specific circuit design: electrocardiogram amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laribiere, Laurent

    1991-01-01

    The electrocardiogram amplifier is a specific integrated circuit. It is based on a linear array of Raytheon. This circuit is fitted with the following functions and characteristics: - electrocardiogram signals amplification, - pacemaker detection, - electrode un-sticking detection, - defibrillator overload protection, - battery-powered, - internal regulation 5 V, - low supply current 2.5 mA, - according to French norms on electrocardiogram surveillance devices - 28 pin package, available in CMS version It can be used for any surveillance device, requiring an analog processing of cardiac signals. (author) [fr

  5. Programming languages for circuit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  6. GÉANT PERFsonar MDM-Based Circuit Monitoring in a Multidomain Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleist, Josva; Yu, Hao; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    , which often cross multiple administrative domains with heterogeneous infrastructure, poses many compelling research challenges, one of which is interdomain network monitoring. In this article, a multidomain circuit monitoring system, CMon, is introduced. Using some services of GÉANT perfSONAR MDM, CMon......Global research collaborations today require reliable and secure dedicated network connections to facilitate data communications between collaborating partners. To deal with the deluge of data, dedicated connections are needed to transport data in a highly efficient manner. Managing such links...... is able to provide end-to-end circuit monitoring services with great flexibility, extensibility, and vendor independence, regardless of the underlying circuit provisioning systems. The architecture of CMon, by using measurement federations, can adapt to either changes in the circuit provisioning system...

  7. A Digital Auto-Zeroing Circuit to Reduce Offset in Sub-Threshold Sense Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benton H. Calhoun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Device variability in modern processes has become a major concern in SRAM design leading to degradation of both performance and yield. Variation induced offset in the sense amplifiers requires a larger bitline differential, which slows down SRAM access times and causes increased power consumption. The effect aggravated in the sub-threshold region. In this paper, we propose a circuit that reduces the sense amp offset using an auto-zeroing scheme with automatic temperature, voltage, and aging tracking. The circuit enables flexible tuning of the offset voltage. Measurements taken from a 45 nm test chip show the circuit is able to limit the offset to 20 mV. A 16kB SRAM is designed using the auto-zeroing circuit for the sense amps. The reduction in the total read energy and delay is reported for various configurations of the memory.

  8. Implementation of Chua's circuit using simulated inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopakumar, K.; Premlet, B.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we describe how to build an inductorless version of the classic Chua's circuit. A suitable inductor for Chua's circuit is often hard to procure. The required inductor for the circuit is designed using simple circuit elements such as resistors, capacitors and operational amplifiers. The complete circuit can be implemented by using off-the-shelf components, and it can readily be integrated on a single chip. This design of Chua's circuit allows the original dynamics to be slowed down to just a few hertz, enabling implementation of sophisticated control schemes without severe time restrictions. Another novel feature of the circuit is that losses associated with capacitors due to leakages can easily be compensated by providing negative resistance using the same setup. The chaotic behaviour of the circuit is verified by PSpice and Multisim simulation and also by experimental study on a circuit breadboard. The results give excellent agreement with each other and with the results of previous investigators.

  9. Studies on Design Automation and Arithmetic Circuit Design for Single-Flux-Quantum Digital Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    小畑, 幸嗣; Obata, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Superconductive single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuit technology attracts attention as a nextgeneration technology of integrated circuits because of its ultra-fast computation speedand low power consumption. In SFQ digital circuits, unlike CMOS digital circuits, apulse is used as a carrier of information and the representation of the logic values isdifferent from that in CMOS digital circuits. Therefore, design automation algorithms andstructure of arithmetic circuits suitable for SFQ digital cir...

  10. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament

  11. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  12. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  13. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, Eva; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  14. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  15. PTFE films with improved flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. F.; Koch, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development and application of flexible polytetrafluroethylene films for expulsion bladders in spacecraft propellant tanks are described. Flexibility of material is obtained by reducing crystallinity through annealing and quenching in water. Physical and mechanical properties of material are presented.

  16. Digital circuit boards mach 1 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A unique, practical approach to the design of high-speed digital circuit boards The demand for ever-faster digital circuit designs is beginning to render the circuit theory used by engineers ineffective. Digital Circuit Boards presents an alternative to the circuit theory approach, emphasizing energy flow rather than just signal interconnection to explain logic circuit behavior. The book shows how treating design in terms of transmission lines will ensure that the logic will function, addressing both storage and movement of electrical energy on these lines. It cove

  17. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  18. Advanced circuit simulation using Multisim workbench

    CERN Document Server

    Báez-López, David; Cervantes-Villagómez, Ofelia Delfina

    2012-01-01

    Multisim is now the de facto standard for circuit simulation. It is a SPICE-based circuit simulator which combines analog, discrete-time, and mixed-mode circuits. In addition, it is the only simulator which incorporates microcontroller simulation in the same environment. It also includes a tool for printed circuit board design.Advanced Circuit Simulation Using Multisim Workbench is a companion book to Circuit Analysis Using Multisim, published by Morgan & Claypool in 2011. This new book covers advanced analyses and the creation of models and subcircuits. It also includes coverage of transmissi

  19. Superconductive Signal-Processing Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    September 1991. 13. P. H. Xiao, E. Charbon , A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, T. Van Duzer,and S.W. Whiteley, "INDEX: An inductance extractor for superconducting...APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 3, ,Q I, MARCH 1993 2629 INDEX: An Inductance Extractor for Superconducting Circuits P. H. Xiao, E. Charbon , A

  20. Integrated circuits for multimedia applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    This work presents several key aspects in the design of RF integrated circuits for portable multimedia devices. One chapter is dedicated to the application of negative-feedback topologies to receiver frontends. A novel feedback technique suitable for common multiplier-based mixers is described...

  1. Homoclinic bifurcation in Chua's circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mixed-mode oscillations interspersed by chaotic states. Moreover, we observed two inter- mediate bursting regimes. Experimental evidences of homoclinic chaos are verified with. PSPICE simulations. Keywords. Chua's circuit; asymmetry; mixed mode oscillations; homoclinic chaos; bursting. PACS No. 05.45. 1. Introduction.

  2. Homoclinic bifurcation in Chua's circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report our experimental observations of the Shil'nikov-type homoclinic chaos in asymmetry-induced Chua's oscillator. The asymmetry plays a crucial role in the related homoclinic bifurcations. The asymmetry is introduced in the circuit by forcing a. DC voltage. For a selected asymmetry, when a system ...

  3. A Low Noise Electronic Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; de Vreede, Petrus W.H.

    2002-01-01

    An electronic circuit, which can be used as a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), comprises two complementary Field Effect Transistors (M1, M2; M5, M6), each having a gate, a source and a drain. The gates are connected together as a common input terminal, and the drains are connected together as a

  4. Design for low-power and reliable flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Ching (Jim)

    Flexible electronics are emerging as an alternative to conventional Si electronics for large-area low-cost applications such as e-paper, smart sensors, and disposable RFID tags. By utilizing inexpensive manufacturing methods such as ink-jet printing and roll-to-roll imprinting, flexible electronics can be made on low-cost plastics just like printing a newspaper. However, the key elements of exible electronics, thin-film transistors (TFTs), have slower operating speeds and less reliability than their Si electronics counterparts. Furthermore, depending on the material property, TFTs are usually mono-type -- either p- or n-type -- devices. Making air-stable complementary TFT circuits is very challenging and not applicable to most TFT technologies. Existing design methodologies for Si electronics, therefore, cannot be directly applied to exible electronics. Other inhibiting factors such as high supply voltage, large process variation, and lack of trustworthy device modeling also make designing larger-scale and robust TFT circuits a significant challenge. The major goal of this dissertation is to provide a viable solution for robust circuit design in exible electronics. I will first introduce a reliability simulation framework that can predict the degraded TFT circuits' performance under bias-stress. This framework has been validated using the amorphous-silicon (a-Si) TFT scan driver for TFT-LCD displays. To reuse the existing CMOS design ow for exible electronics, I propose a Pseudo-CMOS cell library that can make TFT circuits operable under low supply voltage and which has post-fabrication tunability for reliability and performance enhancement. This cell library has been validated using 2V self-assembly-monolayer (SAM) organic TFTs with a low-cost shadow-mask deposition process. I will also demonstrate a 3-bit 1.25KS/s Flash ADC in a-Si TFTs, which is based on the proposed Pseudo-CMOS cell library, and explore more possibilities in display, energy, and sensing

  5. Measuring process flexibility and agility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.

    2010-01-01

    In their attempt to improve their systems and architectures, organizations need to be aware of the types of flexibility and agility and the current level of each type of flexibility and agility. Flexibility is the general ability to react to changes, whilst agility is the speed in responding to

  6. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  7. Flexible touchpads based on inductive sensors using embedded conductive composite polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, A.; Rahbar, M.; Gray, B. L.

    2014-04-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and preliminary testing of a flexible array of sensor switches intended for applications in wearable electronics and sensor systems. The touch pad sensor arrays feature flexible printed circuit board (flexible PCB) substrates and/or flexible conductive composite polymer (CCP) structures, resulting in highly flexible switch arrays. Each switch consists of 4 elements: fascia, target, spacer and a sensor coil. The user presses the fascia, bringing the target in contact with the sensor coil. Any change in the position of the target changes the coil inductance due to the generation of eddy currents, which are detected by an electronic circuit and custom software. Contact between the target and coil also measurably changes the inductance of the coils. Different sizes and geometries (square, circular, hexagonal and octagonal) of coils in both flexible PCB metal (copper) and CCP were investigated to determine which couple best with the CCP that forms the target for the inductive coils. We describe techniques for patterning two-layer inductive coils on flexible PCBs. Using this process, we demonstrate coil trace thicknesses of 200 micrometers. We also present a new low cost microfabrication technique to create inductive flexible coils using embedded CCP in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an alternative to flexible PCB metal coils. We further describe an electronic circuit that accurately measures inductances as low as 500 nH that is used to detect the change in the inductance of a sensor's coil when the user presses the target element of the sensor. The inductance for a sensor composed of CCP square coils and CCP target was measured to be approximately 35 μH before being pressed. When pressed, the inductance dropped to 3.8 μH, a change which was easily detected.

  8. Flexible graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wonho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kahya, Orhan; Toh, Chee Tat; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr 0.35 ,Ti 0.65 )O 3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol–gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (P r ) of 30 μC cm −2 and a coercive voltage (V c ) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits. (paper)

  9. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased...

  10. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...

  11. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  12. 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    The formation of 3D objects composed of shape memory polymers for flexible electronics is described. Layer-by-layer photopolymerization of methacrylated semicrystalline molten macromonomers by a 3D digital light processing printer enables rapid fabrication of complex objects and imparts shape memory functionality for electrical circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Brain-machine interface circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zjajo, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a complete overview of significant design challenges in respect to circuit miniaturization and power reduction of the neural recording system, along with circuit topologies, architecture trends, and (post-silicon) circuit optimization algorithms. The introduced novel circuits for signal conditioning, quantization, and classification, as well as system configurations focus on optimized power-per-area performance, from the spatial resolution (i.e. number of channels), feasible wireless data bandwidth and information quality to the delivered power of implantable system.

  14. Trip electrical circuit of the gyrotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance heating system of INPE/LAP is shown and the trip electrical circuit of the gyrotron is described, together with its fundamental aspects. The trip electrical circuit consists basically of a series regulator circuit which regulates the output voltage level and controls the pulse width time. Besides that, a protection circuit for both tubes, regulator and gyrotron, against faults in the system. (author) [pt

  15. Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Shuai; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Fenghua; Jiang, Yuan; Zhu, Hongbo; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-12-01

    A monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit with integrated functionalities was implemented by integrating multiple components with different functions into a single chip. In particular, the III-nitride-on-silicon platform is used as it integrates a transmitter, a waveguide, and a receiver into a suspended III-nitride membrane via a wafer-level procedure. Here, a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended device architecture is directly transferred from silicon to a foreign substrate by mechanically breaking the support beams. The transferred InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diode (MQW-diode) exhibits a turn-on voltage of 2.8 V with a dominant electroluminescence peak at 453 nm. The transmitter and receiver share an identical InGaN/GaN MQW structure, and the integrated photonic circuit inherently works for on-chip power monitoring and in-plane visible light communication. The wire-bonded monolithic photonic circuit on glass experimentally demonstrates in-plane data transmission at 120 Mb/s, paving the way for diverse applications in intelligent displays, in-plane light communication, flexible optical sensors, and wearable III-nitride optoelectronics.

  16. Memory and cognitive control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, V.

    2018-01-01

    Numerical cognition relies on interactions within and between multiple functional brain systems, including those subserving quantity processing, working memory, declarative memory, and cognitive control. This chapter describes recent advances in our understanding of memory and control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning. The working memory system involves multiple parietal–frontal circuits which create short-term representations that allow manipulation of discrete quantities over several seconds. In contrast, hippocampal–frontal circuits underlying the declarative memory system play an important role in formation of associative memories and binding of new and old information, leading to the formation of long-term memories that allow generalization beyond individual problem attributes. The flow of information across these systems is regulated by flexible cognitive control systems which facilitate the integration and manipulation of quantity and mnemonic information. The implications of recent research for formulating a more comprehensive systems neuroscience view of the neural basis of mathematical learning and knowledge acquisition in both children and adults are discussed. PMID:27339012

  17. Memory and cognitive control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, V

    2016-01-01

    Numerical cognition relies on interactions within and between multiple functional brain systems, including those subserving quantity processing, working memory, declarative memory, and cognitive control. This chapter describes recent advances in our understanding of memory and control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning. The working memory system involves multiple parietal-frontal circuits which create short-term representations that allow manipulation of discrete quantities over several seconds. In contrast, hippocampal-frontal circuits underlying the declarative memory system play an important role in formation of associative memories and binding of new and old information, leading to the formation of long-term memories that allow generalization beyond individual problem attributes. The flow of information across these systems is regulated by flexible cognitive control systems which facilitate the integration and manipulation of quantity and mnemonic information. The implications of recent research for formulating a more comprehensive systems neuroscience view of the neural basis of mathematical learning and knowledge acquisition in both children and adults are discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in energy supply and demand becomes more and more important with increasing Renewable Energy Sources (RES) production and the emergence of the Smart Grid. So-called prosumers, i.e., entities that produce and/or consume energy, can offer their inherent flexibilities through so......-called demand response and thus help stabilize the energy markets. Thus, prosumer flexibility becomes valuable and the ongoing Danish project TotalFlex [1] explores the use of prosumer flexibility in the energy market using the concept of a flex-offer [2], which captures energy flexibilities in time and...... induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  19. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors....... However, the stakeholders’ reaction to energy flexibility have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the stakeholder involvement in energy flexibility by applying the business ecosystem concept (including actors, relationships, value alliances, and influential factors......), with the discussion of the stakeholders’ roles and their interrelation in delivering energy flexibility with the influential factors to the actual implementation of energy flexible operation of their buildings. Based on a literature analysis, the results cover stakeholders’ types and roles, perceptions (drivers...

  20. Multistable decision switches for flexible control of epigenetic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Guantes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is now recognized that molecular circuits with positive feedback can induce two different gene expression states (bistability under the very same cellular conditions. Whether, and how, cells make use of the coexistence of a larger number of stable states (multistability is however largely unknown. Here, we first examine how autoregulation, a common attribute of genetic master regulators, facilitates multistability in two-component circuits. A systematic exploration of these modules' parameter space reveals two classes of molecular switches, involving transitions in bistable (progression switches or multistable (decision switches regimes. We demonstrate the potential of decision switches for multifaceted stimulus processing, including strength, duration, and flexible discrimination. These tasks enhance response specificity, help to store short-term memories of recent signaling events, stabilize transient gene expression, and enable stochastic fate commitment. The relevance of these circuits is further supported by biological data, because we find them in numerous developmental scenarios. Indeed, many of the presented information-processing features of decision switches could ultimately demonstrate a more flexible control of epigenetic differentiation.

  1. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  2. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...

  3. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  4. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...

  5. New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi

    1982-12-01

    It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.

  6. Piezo pump and pressurized circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezo pump for use in a pressurized circuit includes a pump chamber with an inlet provided with a one way inlet valve, for connection to a feeding line of the pressurized circuit and an outlet provided with a one way outlet valve, for connection to a discharge line of the pressurized circuit and a

  7. 49 CFR 236.731 - Controller, circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit. 236.731 Section 236.731 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Controller, circuit. A device for opening and closing electric circuits. ...

  8. An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1976-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....

  9. CMOS digital integrated circuits a first course

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Charles; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches the fundamentals of modern CMOS technology and covers equal treatment to both types of MOSFET transistors that make up computer circuits; power properties of logic circuits; physical and electrical properties of metals; introduction of timing circuit electronics and introduction of layout; real-world examples and problem sets.

  10. Multi parametric card to personal computers interface based in ispLSI1016 circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio Deliz, J.F.; Toledo Acosta, R.B.; Arista Romeu, E.

    1997-01-01

    It is described the design and principal characteristic of the interface circuit for a 16 bit multi parametric add on card for IBM or compatible microcomputer which content two communication channels of direct memory access and bidirectional between the card and the computer, an interrupt controller, a programmable address register, a default add res register of the card, a four channels multiplexer, as well as the decoder logic of the 80C186 and computer. The circuit was designed with two programmable logic devices ispL1016, which allowed drastically to diminish the quantity of utilized components and get a more flexible design in less time better characteristics

  11. Hybrid circuit prototypes for the CMS Tracker upgrade front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchot, G; Honma, A; Kovacs, M; Braga, D; Raymond, M

    2013-01-01

    New high-density interconnect hybrid circuits are under development for the CMS tracker modules at the HL-LHC. These hybrids will provide module connectivity between flip-chip front-end ASICs, strip sensors and a service board for the data transmission and powering. Rigid organic-based substrate prototypes and also a flexible hybrid design have been built, containing up to eight front-end flip chip ASICs. A description of the function of the hybrid circuit in the tracker, the first prototype designs, results of some electrical and mechanical properties from the prototypes, and examples of the integration of the hybrids into detector modules are presented

  12. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  13. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.; Hietala, V.M.; Ginley, D.S.; Tigges, C.P.; Phillips, J.M.; Siegal, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a family of digital logic circuits based on superconducting flux flow transistors that show high speed, reasonable signal levels, large fan-out, and large noise margins. The circuits are made from high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and have been shown to operate at over 90 K. NOR gates have been demonstrated with fan-outs of more than 5 and fully loaded switching times less than a fixture-limited 50 ps. Ring-oscillator data suggest inverter delay times of about 40ps when using a 3-μm linewidths. Simple flip-flops have also been demonstrated showing large noise margins, response times of less than 30 ps, and static power dissipation on the order of 30 nW. Among other uses, this logic family is appropriate as an interface between logic families such as single flux quantum and conventional semiconductor logic

  14. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  15. Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    such as voltage-controlled oscillators and electron devices for millimeter wave and submillimeter wave applications. This part also covers studies of integrated buffer circuits. Passive components are indispensable elements of any electronic system. The increasing demands to miniaturization and cost effectiveness...... push currently available technologies to the limits. Some considerations to meet the growing requirements are provided in the fifth part of this book. The following part deals with circuits based on LTCC and MEMS technologies. The book concludes with chapters considering application of microwaves...... in measurement and sensing systems. This includes topics related to six-port reflectometers, remote network analysis, inverse scattering for microwave imaging systems, spectroscopy for medical applications and interaction with transponders in medical sensors....

  16. Smart Circuit Breaker Communication Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Mihai MACHIDON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the Internet of Things has fostered the development of smart technologies in fields such as power transmission and distribution systems (as is the Smart Grid and also in regard to home automation (the Smart Home concept. This paper addresses the network communication infrastructure for a Smart Circuit Breaker system, a novel application at the edge of the two afore-mentioned systems (Smart Grid and Smart Home. Such a communication interface has high requirements from functionality, performance and security point of views, given the large amount of distributed connected elements and the real-time information transmission and system management. The paper describes the design and implementation of the data server, Web interface and the embedded networking capabilities of the smart circuit breakers, underlining the protocols and communication technologies used.

  17. Foundations for microstrip circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Building on the success of the previous three editions, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design offers extensive new, updated and revised material based upon the latest research. Strongly design-oriented, this fourth edition provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of this fast expanding field making it a definitive source for professional engineers and researchers and an indispensable reference for senior students in electronic engineering. Topics new to this edition: microwave substrates, multilayer transmission line structures, modern EM tools and techniques, microstrip and planar transmision line design, transmission line theory, substrates for planar transmission lines, Vias, wirebonds, 3D integrated interposer structures, computer-aided design, microstrip and power-dependent effects, circuit models, microwave network analysis, microstrip passive elements, and slotline design fundamentals.

  18. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Peng, Fang Zheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Ott, Jr., George W.

    1998-01-01

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  19. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection. Automatic... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  20. Circuit complexity of regular languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koucký, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2009), s. 865-879 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : regular languages * circuit complexity * upper and lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.726, year: 2009

  1. Realistic Realizations Of Threshold Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hassan M.

    1987-08-01

    Threshold logic, in which each input is weighted, has many theoretical advantages over the standard gate realization, such as reducing the number of gates, interconnections, and power dissipation. However, because of the difficult synthesis procedure and complicated circuit implementation, their use in the design of digital systems is almost nonexistant. In this study, three methods of NMOS realizations are discussed, and their advantages and shortcomings are explored. Also, the possibility of using the methods to realize multi-valued logic is examined.

  2. Monolithic readout circuits for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.; Harder, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Several CMOS ASICs have been developed for a proposed RHIC experiment. This paper discusses why ASIC implementation was chosen for certain functions, circuit specifications and the design techniques used to meet them, and results of simulations and early prototypes. By working closely together from an early stage in the planning process, in-house ASIC designers and detector and data acquisition experimenters can achieve optimal use of this important technology.

  3. Root finding with threshold circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 462, Nov 30 (2012), s. 59-69 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : root finding * threshold circuit * power series Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512008006#

  4. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  5. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  6. Screen printed passive components for flexible power electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, Aminy E; Deckman, Igal; Gaikwad, Abhinav M; Lochner, Claire M; Arias, Ana C

    2015-10-30

    Additive and low-temperature printing processes enable the integration of diverse electronic devices, both power-supplying and power-consuming, on flexible substrates at low cost. Production of a complete electronic system from these devices, however, often requires power electronics to convert between the various operating voltages of the devices. Passive components-inductors, capacitors, and resistors-perform functions such as filtering, short-term energy storage, and voltage measurement, which are vital in power electronics and many other applications. In this paper, we present screen-printed inductors, capacitors, resistors and an RLC circuit on flexible plastic substrates, and report on the design process for minimization of inductor series resistance that enables their use in power electronics. Printed inductors and resistors are then incorporated into a step-up voltage regulator circuit. Organic light-emitting diodes and a flexible lithium ion battery are fabricated and the voltage regulator is used to power the diodes from the battery, demonstrating the potential of printed passive components to replace conventional surface-mount components in a DC-DC converter application.

  7. Demonstrating Hybrid Learning in a Flexible Neuromorphic Hardware System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Simon; Schemmel, Johannes; Grubl, Andreas; Hartel, Andreas; Hock, Matthias; Meier, Karlheinz

    2017-02-01

    We present results from a new approach to learning and plasticity in neuromorphic hardware systems: to enable flexibility in implementable learning mechanisms while keeping high efficiency associated with neuromorphic implementations, we combine a general-purpose processor with full-custom analog elements. This processor is operating in parallel with a fully parallel neuromorphic system consisting of an array of synapses connected to analog, continuous time neuron circuits. Novel analog correlation sensor circuits process spike events for each synapse in parallel and in real-time. The processor uses this pre-processing to compute new weights possibly using additional information following its program. Therefore, to a certain extent, learning rules can be defined in software giving a large degree of flexibility. Synapses realize correlation detection geared towards Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) as central computational primitive in the analog domain. Operating at a speed-up factor of 1000 compared to biological time-scale, we measure time-constants from tens to hundreds of micro-seconds. We analyze variability across multiple chips and demonstrate learning using a multiplicative STDP rule. We conclude that the presented approach will enable flexible and efficient learning as a platform for neuroscientific research and technological applications.

  8. Ultra-low power integrated circuit design circuits, systems, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design of CMOS circuits for ultra-low power consumption including analog, radio frequency (RF), and digital signal processing circuits (DSP). The book addresses issues from circuit and system design to production design, and applies the ultra-low power circuits described to systems for digital hearing aids and capsule endoscope devices. Provides a valuable introduction to ultra-low power circuit design, aimed at practicing design engineers; Describes all key building blocks of ultra-low power circuits, from a systems perspective; Applies circuits and systems described to real product examples such as hearing aids and capsule endoscopes.

  9. An inductorless CMOS realization of Chua's circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Radwan, A G; El-Sedeek, A L

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an inductorless CMOS realization of Chua's circuit [IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst.--I 1985;32:798] is presented. The circuit is derived from the dimensionless form of Chua's circuit and can generate Rossler or double-scroll attractors by changing a single capacitor's value. Variables are represented in the current domain to facilitate adding or subtracting variables. New G sub m -C representation of the Chua diode as well as the Chua circuit are presented. The circuit can operate from supply voltage as low as +-1.5 V. Transistor-level simulation results using PSpice in 0.5 mu m Mietec process are presented.

  10. CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, R Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.

  11. Design of analog integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laker, Kenneth R

    1994-01-01

    This text is designed for senior or graduate level courses in analog integrated circuits or design of analog integrated circuits. This book combines consideration of CMOS and bipolar circuits into a unified treatment. Also included are CMOS-bipolar circuits made possible by BiCMOS technology. The text progresses from MOS and bipolar device modelling to simple one and two transistor building block circuits. The final two chapters present a unified coverage of sample-data and continuous-time signal processing systems.

  12. Integrated devices in digital circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, G. S.

    Aspects of combinational design are examined, taking into account logical operations, truth tables, Karnaugh maps as input output expressions, minimum forms, maximum forms, minterm forms, symbols, fundamental relationships, Karnaugh maps as design tools, the implementation of logic functions, logic and implementation, logic nor implementation, implementation examples, the exclusive or function, symmetrical forms, reduction, and practical circuits. Multiplexers and demultiplexers in combinational circuits are considered along with fundamental mode circuits, event-driven sequential circuits, event-driven circuit implementation using multiplexers, clock-driven sequential circuits, counters and multiplexers in clock-driven sequential circuits, state diagram construction, registers in logic design, a digital system, programming and programming aids, input and output techniques, operation and configuration of independent systems, and a definition of a Boolean algebra. Attention is also given to Intel's and Motorola's executable instructions.

  13. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...... the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined...

  14. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    , Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...... of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current...

  15. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  16. Flexible retinal electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat [Albuquerque, NM; Wessendorf, Kurt O [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  17. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...... of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based...

  18. Mobile, Flexible, and Adaptable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Thao, Thi Vu

    2011-01-01

    Industrialisation and urban growth are constitutive aspects of Vietnam's new economy and are important driving forces behind increasing rural-to-urban migration. Growth in informal sector employment is a significant aspect of this development, which has provided for both male and female migrants......, although they generally are engaged in different occupations. Based on a case study among porters at Hanoi's Long Bien Market, this paper examines rural-to-urban migrants' gendered migration practices. Two interrelated aspects of gendered migration practices are in focus: the role of migration networks...... of the female porters demonstrate a particular way of adapting to the migration process. Also, it is emphasised how women's flexible practices are facilitated by women's own village-based networks. It is suggested that ‘in-betweenness’, which stands for the simultaneous and overlapping presence of urban...

  19. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......-computer interaction. The special track covers some some specific and, typically, newer fields, namely: environmental scanning for strategic early warning; generating linguistic descriptions of data; advances in fuzzy querying and fuzzy databases: theory and applications; fusion and ensemble techniques for on......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...

  20. Use of laser drilling in the manufacture of organic inverter circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Shingo; Kato, Yusaku; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Takayasu; Someya, Takao

    2006-01-01

    Inverter circuits have been made by connecting two high-quality pentacene field-effect transistors. A uniform and pinhole-free 900 nm thick polyimide gate-insulating layer was formed on a flexible polyimide film with gold gate electrodes and partially removed by using a CO2 laser drilling machine to make via holes and contact holes. Subsequent evaporation of the gold layer results in good electrical connection with a gold gate layer underneath the gate-insulating layer. By optimization of the settings of the CO2 laser drilling machine, contact resistance can be reduced to as low as 3 ohms for 180 microm square electrodes. No degradation of the transport properties of the organic transistors was observed after the laser-drilling process. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the laser drilling process for implementation of organic transistors in integrated circuits on flexible polymer films.

  1. Self-commutated high-voltage direct current transmission with DC circuit breakers. Backbone for the energy policy turnaround; Selbstgefuehrte Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung mit DC-Leistungsschalter. Rueckgrat fuer die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerner, Raphael [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Marketing und Vertrieb, Geschaeftsbereich Grid Systems

    2013-06-01

    The 'current war' between direct current and alternating current is extended by a new location. In the future, both technologies work together in order to provide a reliable power transmission in Germany and long-term in Europe. This is based on the self-guided high-voltage direct current transmission. In conjunction with direct current circuit breakers (DC circuit breaker) the power circuit breakers may help to make the transmission grids more flexible and to minimize losses.

  2. Modeling and Analysis of a Fractional-Order Generalized Memristor-Based Chaotic System and Circuit Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningning; Xu, Cheng; Wu, Chaojun; Jia, Rong; Liu, Chongxin

    2017-12-01

    Memristor is a nonlinear “missing circuit element”, that can easily achieve chaotic oscillation. Memristor-based chaotic systems have received more and more attention. Research shows that fractional-order systems are more close to real systems. As an important parameter, the order can increase the flexibility and degree of freedom of the system. In this paper, a fractional-order generalized memristor, which consists of a diode bridge and a parallel circuit with an equivalent unit circuit and a linear resistance, is proposed. Frequency and electrical characteristics of the fractional-order memristor are analyzed. A chain structure circuit is used to implement the fractional-order unit circuit. Then replacing the conventional Chua’s diode by the fractional-order generalized memristor, a fractional-order memristor-based chaotic circuit is proposed. A large amount of research work has been done to investigate the influence of the order on the dynamical behaviors of the fractional-order memristor-based chaotic circuit. Varying with the order, the system enters the chaotic state from the periodic state through the Hopf bifurcation and period-doubling bifurcation. The chaotic state of the system has two types of attractors: single-scroll and double-scroll attractor. The stability theory of fractional-order systems is used to determine the minimum order occurring Hopf bifurcation. And the influence of the initial value on the system is analyzed. Circuit simulations are designed to verify the results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.

  3. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  4. HF radio systems and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, William

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive reference for the design of high frequency communications systems and equipment. This revised edition is loaded with practical data, much of which cannot be found in other reference books. Its approach to the subject follows the needs of an engineer from system definition and performance requirements down to the individual circuit elements that make up radio transmitters and receivers. The accompanying disk contains updated software on filters, matching networks and receiver analysis. SciTech Publishing also provides many other products related to Communication Systems Design.

  5. Pragmatic circuits signals and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Signals and Filters is built around the processing of signals. Topics include spectra, a short introduction to the Fourier series, design of filters, and the properties of the Fourier transform. The focus is on signals rather than power. But the treatment is still pragmatic. For example, the author accepts the work of Butterworth and uses his results to design filters in a fairly methodical fashion. This third of three volumes finishes with a look at spectra by showing how to get a spectrum even if a signal is not periodic. The Fourier transform provides a way of dealing wi

  6. Circuit QED with transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.

  7. G(sup 4)FET Implementations of Some Logic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Akarvardar, Kerem; Cristoleveanu, Sorin; Gentil, Paul; Blalock, Benjamin; Chen, Suhan

    2009-01-01

    Some logic circuits have been built and demonstrated to work substantially as intended, all as part of a continuing effort to exploit the high degrees of design flexibility and functionality of the electronic devices known as G(sup 4)FETs and described below. These logic circuits are intended to serve as prototypes of more complex advanced programmable-logicdevice-type integrated circuits, including field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In comparison with prior FPGAs, these advanced FPGAs could be much more efficient because the functionality of G(sup 4)FETs is such that fewer discrete components are needed to perform a given logic function in G(sup 4)FET circuitry than are needed perform the same logic function in conventional transistor-based circuitry. The underlying concept of using G(sup 4)FETs as building blocks of programmable logic circuitry was also described, from a different perspective, in G(sup 4)FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates (NPO-41698), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (July 2007), page 44. A G(sup 4)FET can be characterized as an accumulation-mode silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) featuring two junction field-effect transistor (JFET) gates. The structure of a G(sup 4)FET (see Figure 1) is the same as that of a p-channel inversion-mode SOI MOSFET with two body contacts on each side of the channel. The top gate (G1), the substrate emulating a back gate (G2), and the junction gates (JG1 and JG2) can be biased independently of each other and, hence, each can be used to independently control some aspects of the conduction characteristics of the transistor. The independence of the actions of the four gates is what affords the enhanced functionality and design flexibility of G(sup 4)FETs. The present G(sup 4)FET logic circuits include an adjustable-threshold inverter, a real-time-reconfigurable logic gate, and a dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) cell (see Figure 2). The configuration

  8. Sleep monitoring sensor using flexible metal strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Jinyong; Kim, Kunnyun

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a sleep monitoring sensor based on a flexible metal strain gauge. As quality of life has improved, interest in sleep quality, and related products, has increased. In this study, unlike a conventional single sensor based on a piezoelectric material, a metal strain gauge-based array sensor based on polyimide and nickel chromium (NiCr) is applied to provide movement direction, respiration, and heartbeat data as well as contact-free use by the user during sleeping. Thin-film-type resistive strain gage sensors are fabricated through the conventional flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) process, which is very useful for commercialization. The measurement of movement direction and respiratory rate during sleep were evaluated, and the heart rate data were compared with concurrent electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An algorithm for analyzing sleep data was developed using MATLAB, and the error rate was 4.2% when compared with ECG for heart rate.

  9. Comparison of three resistor network division circuits for the readout of 4×4 pixel SiPM arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratos, David; Maria, Georgiou; Eleftherios, Fysikopoulos; George, Loudos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of a flexible SensL's silicon photomultiplier array (SPMArray4) photodetector for possible applications in PET imaging. We have designed and evaluated three different resistor network division circuits to read out the signal outputs of a 4×4 pixel SiPM array. We have applied firstly (i) a symmetric resistive voltage division circuit, secondly (ii) a symmetric resistive charge division circuit and thirdly (iii) a charge division multiplexing resistor network reducing the 16 pixel outputs to 4 position signals. In the first circuit the SensL SPMArray4-A0 preamplification electronics and a SPMArray4-A1 evaluation board providing the 16 pixels voltage outputs were used, before the symmetric resistive voltage network. We reduced the 16 voltage signals firstly to 4X and 4Y coordinate signals. Then those signals were further reduced to 2X and 2Y position signals connected via a resistor network. In the second readout circuit we have used the same technique but without the preamplification stage. The third circuit is based on a discretized positioning circuit, which multiplexes the 16 signals from the SiPM array to 4 position signals. The 4 position signals (Xa, Xb, Yc and Yd) were digitized using a free running sampling technique. An FPGA (Spartan 6 LX16) was used for triggering and signal processing of the pulses. We acquired raw images and energy histograms of a BGO and a CsI:Na pixilated scintillator under 22 Na excitation. A clear visualization of the discrete 2×2×5 mm 3 pixilated BGO scintillator elements as well as the 1×1×5 mm 3 pixilated CsI:Na crystal array was achieved with all applied readout circuits. The symmetric resistive charge division circuit provides higher peak to valley ratio than the other readout circuits. Τhe sensitivity and the energy resolution remained almost constant for the three circuits

  10. Copper circuit patterning on polymer using selective surface modification and electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Jin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Tae-Jun [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Juil [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Hansung University, Seoul 136-792 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myoung-Woon [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyu Hwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jun Hyun, E-mail: jhhan@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A new simple two step method for the pattering of Cu circuits on PET substrate was proposed. • The simple patterning of the high adhesive Cu circuits was achieved by plasma treatment using a patterned mask coated with a catalyst material. • The high adhesive strength of Cu circuits was due to the nanostructure formed by oxygen plasma treatment. - Abstract: We have examined a potential new and simple method for patterning a copper circuit on PET substrate by copper electroless plating, without the pretreatment steps (i.e., sensitization and activation) for electroless plating as well as the etching processes of conventional circuit patterning. A patterned mask coated with a catalyst material, Ag, for the reduction of Cu ions, is placed on a PET substrate. Subsequent oxygen plasma treatment of the PET substrate covered with the mask promotes the selective generation of anisotropic pillar- or hair-like nanostructures coated with co-deposited nanoparticles of the catalyst material on PET. After oxygen plasma treatment, a Cu circuit is well formed just by dipping the plasma-treated PET into a Cu electroless plating solution. By increasing the oxygen gas pressure in the chamber, the height of the nanostructures increases and the Ag catalyst particles are coated on not only the top but also the side surfaces of the nanostructures. Strong mechanical interlocking between the Cu circuit and PET substrate is produced by the large surface area of the nanostructures, and enhances peel strength. Results indicate this new simple two step (plasma surface modification and pretreatment-free electroless plating) method can be used to produce a flexible Cu circuit with good adhesion.

  11. Research of temperature field measurement using a flexible temperature sensor array for robot sensing skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Siyu; Li, Ruiqi; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Yugang; Liu, Caixia

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a novel temperature sensor array by dispensing conductive composites on a flexible printed circuit board which is able to acquire the ambient temperature. The flexible temperature sensor array was fabricated by using carbon fiber-filled silicon rubber based composites on a flexible polyimide circuit board, which can both ensure their high flexibility. It found that CF with 12 wt% could be served as the best conductive filler for higher temperature sensitivity and better stability comparing with some other proportion for dynamic range from 30&° to 90°. The preparation of the temperature sensitive material has also been described in detail. Connecting the flexible sensor array with a data acquisition card and a personal computer (PC), some heat sources with different shapes were loaded on the sensor array; the detected results were shown in the interface by LabVIEW software. The measured temperature contours are in good agreement with the shapes and amplitudes of different heat sources. Furthermore, in consideration of the heat dissipation in the air, the relationship between the resistance and the distance of heat sources with sensor array was also detected to verify the accuracy of the sensor array, which is also a preparation for our future work. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the developed flexible sensor array, and it can be used as humanoid artificial skin for sensation system of robots.

  12. Lost and Found in Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    'New work' is characterized by mobility and flexibility and a growing need to facilitate social awareness. The paper discusses how to augment the environment with social awareness and suggest 'awareness-in-transition' as a lable for awareness in mobile work in flexible work environments, and as l...

  13. Flexible automated manufacturing for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube Hansen, David; Bilberg, Arne; Madsen, Erik Skov

    SMEs are in general highly flexible and agile in order to accommodate the customer demands in the paradigm of High Mix-Low Volume manufacturing. The flexibility and agility have mainly been enabled by manual labor, but as we are entering the technology and data driven fourth industrial revolution...

  14. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  15. Quantum circuits for quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Raban; Colbeck, Roger; Christandl, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    We study the implementation of quantum channels with quantum computers while minimizing the experimental cost, measured in terms of the number of controlled-not (cnot) gates required (single-qubit gates are free). We consider three different models. In the first, the quantum circuit model (QCM), we consider sequences of single-qubit and cnot gates and allow qubits to be traced out at the end of the gate sequence. In the second (RandomQCM), we also allow external classical randomness. In the third (MeasuredQCM) we also allow measurements followed by operations that are classically controlled on the outcomes. We prove lower bounds on the number of cnot gates required and give near-optimal decompositions in almost all cases. Our main result is a MeasuredQCM circuit for any channel from m qubits to n qubits that uses at most one ancilla and has a low cnot count. We give explicit examples for small numbers of qubits that provide the lowest known cnot counts.

  16. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan; Hummelgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  17. Development of larval motor circuits in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Okusawa, Satoko; Itakura, Yuki; Fushiki, Akira; Nose, Akinao

    2012-04-01

    How are functional neural circuits formed during development? Despite recent advances in our understanding of the development of individual neurons, little is known about how complex circuits are assembled to generate specific behaviors. Here, we describe the ways in which Drosophila motor circuits serve as an excellent model system to tackle this problem. We first summarize what has been learned during the past decades on the connectivity and development of component neurons, in particular motor neurons and sensory feedback neurons. We then review recent progress in our understanding of the development of the circuits as well as studies that apply optogenetics and other innovative techniques to dissect the circuit diagram. New approaches using Drosophila as a model system are now making it possible to search for developmental rules that regulate the construction of neural circuits. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. A concise guide to chaotic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buscarino, Arturo; Frasca, Mattia; Sciuto, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides a source of instruction from which students can be taught about the practicalities of designing and using chaotic circuits. The text provides information on suitable materials, circuit design and schemes for design realization. Readers are then shown how to reproduce experiments on chaos and to design new ones. The text guides the reader easily from the basic idea of chaos to the laboratory test providing an experimental basis that can be developed for such applications as secure communications. This brief provides introductory information on sample chaotic circuits, includes coverage of their development, and the “gallery” section provides information on a wide range of circuits. Concise Guide to Chaotic Electronic Circuits will be useful to anyone running a laboratory class involving chaotic circuits and to students wishing to learn about them.

  19. Physical synthesis of quantum circuits using templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkhani, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Naser

    2016-10-01

    Similar to traditional CMOS circuits, quantum circuit design flow is divided into two main processes: logic synthesis and physical design. Addressing the limitations imposed on optimization of the quantum circuit metrics because of no information sharing between logic synthesis and physical design processes, the concept of " physical synthesis" was introduced for quantum circuit flow, and a few techniques were proposed for it. Following that concept, in this paper a new approach for physical synthesis inspired by template matching idea in quantum logic synthesis is proposed to improve the latency of quantum circuits. Experiments show that by using template matching as a physical synthesis approach, the latency of quantum circuits can be improved by more than 23.55 % on average.

  20. Functional aspects of protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2009-01-01

    . The thermodynamics involved are reviewed, and examples of structure-function studies involving experimentally determined flexibility descriptions are presented. While much remains to be understood about protein flexibility, it is clear that it is encoded within their amino acid sequence and should be viewed......Proteins are dynamic entities, and they possess an inherent flexibility that allows them to function through molecular interactions within the cell, among cells and even between organisms. Appreciation of the non-static nature of proteins is emerging, but to describe and incorporate...... this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions...

  1. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  2. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  3. Logarithmic current-measuring transistor circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1967-01-01

    Describes two transistorized circuits for the logarithmic measurement of small currents suitable for nuclear reactor instrumentation. The logarithmic element is applied in the feedback path of an amplifier, and only one dual transistor is used as logarithmic diode and temperature compensating...... transistor. A simple one-amplifier circuit is compared with a two-amplifier system. The circuits presented have been developed in connexion with an amplifier using a dual m.o.s. transistor input stage with diode-protected gates....

  4. Schrodinger Cat States in Circuit QED

    OpenAIRE

    Girvin, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Circuit quantum electrodynamics ('circuit QED') describes the quantum mechanics and quantum field theory of superconducting electrical circuits operating in the microwave regime near absolute zero temperature. It is the analog of cavity QED in quantum optics with the role of the atoms being played by superconducting qubits. The present lecture notes focus primarily on novel quantum states that can be produced and measured using the strong coupling between an artificial atom and one or more ca...

  5. Organization Of The Drosophila Larval Visual Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Pauline; Gendre, Nanae; Maier, Larisa; Fetter, Rick; Schneider-Mizell, Casey; Truman, James; Zlatic, Marta; Cardona, Albert; Larderet, Ivan; Sprecher, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Visual systems transduce, process and transmit light-dependent environmental cues. Computation of visual features depends on the types of photoreceptor neurons (PR) present, the organization of the eye and the wiring of the underlying neural circuit. Here, we describe the circuit architecture of the visual system of Drosophila larvae by mapping the synaptic wiring diagram and neurotransmitters. By contacting different targets, the two larval PR-subtypes create parallel circuits potentially un...

  6. A monolithically integrated magneto-optoelectronic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Basu, D.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2008-11-01

    The monolithic integration of a spin valve, an amplifier, and a light emitting diode to form a magneto-optoelectronic integrated circuit on GaAs is demonstrated. The circuit converts the spin polarization information in the channel of the spin valve to an amplified change in light intensity with a gain of 20. The monolithic circuit therefore operates as a magnetoelectronic switch which modulates the light intensity of the light emitting diode.

  7. Finding False Paths in Sequential Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosova, A. Yu.; Andreeva, V. V.; Chernyshov, S. V.; Rozhkova, S. V.; Kudin, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Method of finding false paths in sequential circuits is developed. In contrast with heuristic approaches currently used abroad, the precise method based on applying operations on Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDDs) extracted from the combinational part of a sequential controlling logic circuit is suggested. The method allows finding false paths when transfer sequence length is not more than the given value and obviates the necessity of investigation of combinational circuit equivalents of the given lengths. The possibilities of using of the developed method for more complicated circuits are discussed.

  8. Electronic circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a discharging circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet used for a reactor which is highly reliable and has high performance. The resistor of the circuit comprises a non-linear resistor element and a blocking rectification element connected in series. The discharging circuit can be prevented from short-circuit by selecting a resistor having a resistance value about ten times as great as the coil resistance, even in a case where the blocking rectification element and the non-linear resistor element are failed. Accordingly, reduction of attracting force and the increase of scream releasing time can be minimized. (I.S.)

  9. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  10. Ways to Optimize Analogue Switched Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hospodka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how analogue switched circuits (switched-capacitor and switched-current circuits can be optimized by means of a personal computer. The optimization of this kind of circuits is not so common and their analysis is more difficult in comparison with continuously working circuits. Firstly, the nonidealities occurring in these circuits whose effect on their characteristics should be optimized are discussed. Then a few ways to analyze analogue switched circuits are shown. From all optimization algorithms applicable for this kind of optimization, two ones that seem to be the most promising are proposed. The differential evolution (one of evolutionary algorithms combined with the simplex method was found to be most appropriate from these two ones. Two types of programs are required for the optimization of these circuits: a program for implementing calculations of the used optimization algorithm and a program for the analysis of the optimized circuit. Several suitable computer programs from both of the groups together with their proper settings according to authors’ experience are proposed. At the end of the paper, an example of a switched-current circuit optimization documenting the previous description is presented.

  11. Radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Hughes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Electronic circuits that operate properly after exposure to ionizing radiation are necessary for nuclear weapon systems, satellites, and apparatus designed for use in radiation environments. The program to develop and theoretically model radiation-tolerant integrated circuit components has resulted in devices that show an improvement in hardness up to a factor of ten thousand over earlier devices. An inverter circuit produced functions properly after an exposure of 10 6 Gy (Si) which, as far as is known, is the record for an integrated circuit

  12. Effective model of nonlinear circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Simon; Devoret, Michel; Girvin, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Superconducting electronic circuits containing nonlinear elements such as Josephson junctions are of interest for quantum information processing. The low-energy spectrum of such circuits can now be measured to a precision of better than one part per million. A precise knowledge of their Hamiltonian that goes beyond current models is thus desirable. In this talk I will show how to quantize a superconducting, weakly nonlinear circuit from the knowledge of its classical linear admittance matrix. This approach represents a change of paradigm in circuit quantum electrodynamics and may potentially become a useful alternative to the standard models based on the language of atomic physics and quantum optics.

  13. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  14. Circuit complexity in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Robert A.; Myers, Robert C.

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by recent studies of holographic complexity, we examine the question of circuit complexity in quantum field theory. We provide a quantum circuit model for the preparation of Gaussian states, in particular the ground state, in a free scalar field theory for general dimensions. Applying the geometric approach of Nielsen to this quantum circuit model, the complexity of the state becomes the length of the shortest geodesic in the space of circuits. We compare the complexity of the ground state of the free scalar field to the analogous results from holographic complexity, and find some surprising similarities.

  15. Digital circuits for computer applications: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The innovations in this updated series of compilations dealing with electronic technology represent a carefully selected collection of digital circuits which have direct application in computer oriented systems. In general, the circuits have been selected as representative items of each section and have been included on their merits of having universal applications in digital computers and digital data processing systems. As such, they should have wide appeal to the professional engineer and scientist who encounter the fundamentals of digital techniques in their daily activities. The circuits are grouped as digital logic circuits, analog to digital converters, and counters and shift registers.

  16. Reconfigurable and tunable flat graphene photonic crystal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zan Hui; Tan, Qi Long; Lao, Jieer; Liang, Yao; Huang, Xu Guang

    2015-07-07

    Photonic crystal waveguides and circuits are one of the basic modules for integrated photonic devices. They mainly rely on photonic bandgaps to achieve light confinement and manipulation. Herein, we propose a novel general principle or method to achieve reconfigurable and tunable flat graphene photonic crystals (FG-PCs) by selectively electrostatic gating a layer of graphene with periodic gold electrodes. The tunable flat photonic bandgap structure of the FG-PCs as a function of the Fermi level is investigated. Reconfigurable FG-PC defect waveguides and cavities created by external patterned-gate-voltage control are also proposed and discussed. The features of reconfigurable/tunable FG-PCs will add more flexibility and capabilities for the single chip integration of graphene-based integrated photonic devices.

  17. DFB laser array driver circuit controlled by adjustable signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weikang; Du, Yinchao; Guo, Yu; Li, Wei; Wang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    In order to achieve the intelligent controlling of DFB laser array, this paper presents the design of an intelligence and high precision numerical controlling electric circuit. The system takes MCU and FPGA as the main control chip, with compact, high-efficiency, no impact, switching protection characteristics. The output of the DFB laser array can be determined by an external adjustable signal. The system transforms the analog control model into a digital control model, which improves the performance of the driver. The system can monitor the temperature and current of DFB laser array in real time. The output precision of the current can reach ± 0.1mA, which ensures the stable and reliable operation of the DFB laser array. Such a driver can benefit the flexible usage of the DFB laser array.

  18. Incentivizing Flexibility in System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Defining flexibility has been a challenge that a number of industry members and researchers have attempted to address in recent years. With increased variability and uncertainty of variable generation (VG), the resources on the system will have to be more flexible to adjust output, so that power output ranges, power ramp rates, and energy duration sustainability are sufficient to meet the needs of balancing supply with demand at various operational timescales. This chapter discusses whether existing market designs provide adequate incentives for resources to offer their flexibility into the market to meet the increased levels of variability and uncertainty introduced by VG in the short-term operational time frame. It presents a definition of flexibility and discusses how increased levels of VG require increased needs for flexibility on power systems. Following this introductory material, the chapter examines how existing market designs ensure that resources have the right incentives to provide increased flexibility, and then discusses a number of emerging market design elements that impact flexibility incentives.

  19. Electrical circuit theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    This much-loved textbook explains the principles of electrical circuit theory and technology so that students of electrical and mechanical engineering can master the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions help you to learn and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have fully understood each subject. In total the book contains 800 worked problems, 1000 further problems and 14 revision tests with answers online. This an ideal text for foundation and undergraduate degree students and those on upper level vocational engineering courses, in particular electrical and mechanical. It provides a sound understanding of the knowledge required by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. This edition has been updated with developments in key areas such as semiconductors, transistors, and fuel cells, along with brand new material on ABCD parameters and Fourier's An...

  20. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V.L.; Carstensen, H.K.

    1959-11-24

    An improved time calibrated sweep circuit is presented, which extends the range of usefulness of conventional oscilloscopes as utilized for time calibrated display applications in accordance with U. S. Patent No. 2,832,002. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a pair of separate signal paths, each of which is phase and amplitude adjustable, to connect a high-frequency calibration oscillator to the output of a sawtooth generator also connected to the respective horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope cathode ray tube. The amplitude and phase of the calibration oscillator signals in the two signal paths are adjusted to balance out feedthrough currents capacitively coupled at high frequencies of the calibration oscillator from each horizontal deflection plate to the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube.

  1. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  2. Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Immunity Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.

    2000-08-01

    This handbook presents the results of the Boeing Company effort for NASA under contract NAS8-98217. Immunity level data for certain integrated circuit parts are discussed herein, along with analytical techniques for applying the data to electronics systems. This handbook is built heavily on the one produced in the seventies by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC, MDC Report E1929 of 1 August 1978, entitled Integrated Circuit Electromagnetic Susceptibility Handbook, known commonly as the ICES Handbook, which has served countless systems designers for over 20 years). Sections 2 and 3 supplement the device susceptibility data presented in section 4 by presenting information on related material required to use the IC susceptibility information. Section 2 concerns itself with electromagnetic susceptibility analysis and serves as a guide in using the information contained in the rest of the handbook. A suggested system hardening requirements is presented in this chapter. Section 3 briefly discusses coupling and shielding considerations. For conservatism and simplicity, a worst case approach is advocated to determine the maximum amount of RF power picked up from a given field. This handbook expands the scope of the immunity data in this Handbook is to of 10 MHz to 10 GHz. However, the analytical techniques provided are applicable to much higher frequencies as well. It is expected however, that the upper frequency limit of concern is near 10 GHz. This is due to two factors; the pickup of microwave energy on system cables and wiring falls off as the square of the wavelength, and component response falls off at a rapid rate due to the effects of parasitic shunt paths for the RF energy. It should be noted also that the pickup on wires and cables does not approach infinity as the frequency decreases (as would be expected by extrapolating the square law dependence of the high frequency roll-off to lower frequencies) but levels off due to mismatch effects.

  3. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  4. High performance flexible heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaubach, R. M.; Gernert, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Phase I SBIR NASA program for developing and demonstrating high-performance flexible heat pipes for use in the thermal management of spacecraft is examined. The program combines several technologies such as flexible screen arteries and high-performance circumferential distribution wicks within an envelope which is flexible in the adiabatic heat transport zone. The first six months of work during which the Phase I contract goal were met, are described. Consideration is given to the heat-pipe performance requirements. A preliminary evaluation shows that the power requirement for Phase II of the program is 30.5 kilowatt meters at an operating temperature from 0 to 100 C.

  5. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... and amount dimensions. We define the problem of aggregating FOs taking into account grid power constraints. We also propose two constraint-based aggregation techniques that efficiently aggregate FOs while retaining flexibility. We show through a comprehensive evaluation that our techniques, in contrast...

  6. Methods for shielding a flexible, PCB-made eddy current array probe against edge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, B.

    2012-05-01

    Probe shielding has been used in combination with eddy current and eddy current array sensors for quite some time to improve detection of defects located near component edges. Conventional methods of providing such shielding are not suitable for coils etched on printed circuit board. This paper describes an innovative shielded coil design suitable for highly flexible, printed circuit board eddy current array probes. The benefits of the new design will be demonstrated for the inspection of dovetails, where detection of defects along the edge is critical.

  7. Design of an improved RCD buffer circuit for full bridge circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Wei, Xueye; Du, Yongbo; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Ou

    2017-05-01

    In the full bridge inverter circuit, when the switch tube suddenly opened or closed, the inductor current changes rapidly. Due to the existence of parasitic inductance of the main circuit. Therefore, the surge voltage between drain and source of the switch tube can be generated, which will have an impact on the switch and the output voltage. In order to ab sorb the surge voltage. An improve RCD buffer circuit is proposed in the paper. The peak energy will be absorbed through the buffer capacitor of the circuit. The part energy feedback to the power supply, another part release through the resistor in the form of heat, and the circuit can absorb the voltage spikes. This paper analyzes the process of the improved RCD snubber circuit, According to the specific parameters of the main circuit, a reasonable formula for calculating the resistance capacitance is given. A simulation model will be modulated in Multisim, which compared the waveform of tube voltage and the output waveform of the circuit without snubber circuit with the improved RCD snubber circuit. By comparing and analyzing, it is proved that the improved buffer circuit can absorb surge voltage. Finally, experiments are demonstrated to validate that the correctness of the RC formula and the improved RCD snubber circuit.

  8. Polymer Ferroelectric Memory for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohd Adnan

    2013-11-01

    With the projected growth of the flexible and plastic electronics industry, there is renewed interest in the research community to develop high performance all-polymeric memory which will be an essential component of any electronic circuit. Some of the efforts in polymer memories are based on different mechanisms such as filamentary conduction, charge trapping effects, dipole alignment, and reduction-oxidation to name a few. Among these the leading candidate are those based on the mechanism of ferroelectricity. Polymer ferroelectric memory can be used in niche applications like smart cards, RFID tags, sensors etc. This dissertation will focus on novel material and device engineering to fabricate high performance low temperature polymeric ferroelectric memory for flexible electronics. We address and find solutions to some fundamental problems affecting all polymer ferroelectric memory like high coercive fields, fatigue and thermal stability issues, poor breakdown strength and poor p-type hole mobilities. Some of the strategies adopted in this dissertation are: Use of different flexible substrates, electrode engineering to improve charge injection and fatigue properties of ferroelectric polymers, large area ink jet printing of ferroelectric memory devices, use of polymer blends to improve insulating properties of ferroelectric polymers and use of oxide semiconductors to fabricate high mobility p-type ferroelectric memory. During the course of this dissertation we have fabricated: the first all-polymer ferroelectric capacitors with solvent modified highly conducting polymeric poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] electrodes on plastic substrates with performance as good as devices with metallic Platinum-Gold electrodes on silicon substrates; the first all-polymer high performance ferroelectric memory on banknotes for security applications; novel ferroelectric capacitors based on blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride

  9. Flexible integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bigeng; Wu, Hao; Xin, Chenguang; Dai, Daoxin; Tong, Limin

    2017-06-14

    Silicon photonics has been developed successfully with a top-down fabrication technique to enable large-scale photonic integrated circuits with high reproducibility, but is limited intrinsically by the material capability for active or nonlinear applications. On the other hand, free-standing nanowires synthesized via a bottom-up growth present great material diversity and structural uniformity, but precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a great challenge. Here we report hybrid integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics with high flexibility by coupling free-standing nanowires onto target silicon waveguides that are simultaneously used for precise positioning. Coupling efficiency between a free-standing nanowire and a silicon waveguide is up to ~97% in the telecommunication band. A hybrid nonlinear-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a racetrack resonator for significantly enhanced optical modulation are experimentally demonstrated, as well as hybrid active-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides circuits for light generation. These results suggest an alternative approach to flexible multifunctional on-chip nanophotonic devices.Precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a challenge. Here, Chen et al. integrate free-standing nanowires into silicon waveguides and show all-optical modulation and light generation on silicon photonic chips.

  10. Flexible Electronics: Integration Processes for Organic and Inorganic Semiconductor-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Vidor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible and transparent electronics have been studied intensively during the last few decades. The technique establishes the possibility of fabricating innovative products, from flexible displays to radio-frequency identification tags. Typically, large-area polymeric substrates such as polypropylene (PP or polyethylene terephthalate (PET are used, which produces new requirements for the integration processes. A key element for flexible and transparent electronics is the thin-film transistor (TFT, as it is responsible for the driving current in memory cells, digital circuits or organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs. In this paper, we discuss some fundamental concepts of TFT technology. Additionally, we present a comparison between the use of the semiconducting organic small-molecule pentacene and inorganic nanoparticle semiconductors in order to integrate TFTs suitable for flexible electronics. Moreover, a technique for integration with a submicron resolution suitable for glass and foil substrates is presented.

  11. A High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with an Integrated Signal-Conditioning Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of a high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit, which consists of an encapsulated pressure-sensitive chip, a temperature compensation circuit and a signal-conditioning circuit. A silicon on insulation (SOI material and a standard MEMS process are used in the pressure-sensitive chip fabrication, and high-temperature electronic components are adopted in the temperature-compensation and signal-conditioning circuits. The entire pressure sensor achieves a hermetic seal and can be operated long-term in the range of −50 °C to 220 °C. Unlike traditional pressure sensor output voltage ranges (in the dozens to hundreds of millivolts, the output voltage of this sensor is from 0 V to 5 V, which can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy in practical applications of long-term transmission based on experimental verification. Furthermore, because this flexible sensor’s output voltage is adjustable, general follow-up pressure transmitter devices for voltage converters need not be used, which greatly reduces the cost of the test system. Thus, the proposed high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit is expected to be highly applicable to pressure measurements in harsh environments.

  12. Distributed dynamical computation in neural circuits with propagating coherent activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Gong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity in neural circuits is spatiotemporally organized. Its spatial organization consists of multiple, localized coherent patterns, or patchy clusters. These patterns propagate across the circuits over time. This type of collective behavior has ubiquitously been observed, both in spontaneous activity and evoked responses; its function, however, has remained unclear. We construct a spatially extended, spiking neural circuit that generates emergent spatiotemporal activity patterns, thereby capturing some of the complexities of the patterns observed empirically. We elucidate what kind of fundamental function these patterns can serve by showing how they process information. As self-sustained objects, localized coherent patterns can signal information by propagating across the neural circuit. Computational operations occur when these emergent patterns interact, or collide with each other. The ongoing behaviors of these patterns naturally embody both distributed, parallel computation and cascaded logical operations. Such distributed computations enable the system to work in an inherently flexible and efficient way. Our work leads us to propose that propagating coherent activity patterns are the underlying primitives with which neural circuits carry out distributed dynamical computation.

  13. Hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    2001-01-01

    capacitors and one nonlinear active conductor. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm the hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations of the circuit. The nonlinear conductor is realized with a diode. A negative impedance converter and a linear resistor. The performance of the circuit is investigated...

  14. Two New Families of Floating FDNR Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new configurations for realizing ideal floating frequency-dependent negative resistor elements (FDNR are introduced. The proposed circuits are symmetrical and are realizable by four CCII or ICCII or a combination of both. Each configuration is realizable by eight different circuits. Simulation results are included to support the theory.

  15. 30 CFR 56.6407 - Circuit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... series or the resistance of multiple balanced series to be connected in parallel prior to their... detonator series. (d) Total blasting circuit resistance prior to connection to the power source. Nonelectric... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit testing. 56.6407 Section 56.6407...

  16. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  17. Piezoelectric pump and pressurised circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezoelectric pump for use in a pressurised circuit is provided, comprising a pump chamber (5) with an inlet (6) provided with a one way inlet valve (7), for connection to a feeding line (8) of the pressurised circuit and an outlet (9) provided with a one way outlet valve (10), for connection to a

  18. Electronic circuit realization of the logistic map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An electronic circuit realization of the logistic difference equation is presented using analog electronics. The behaviour of the realized system is evalu- ated against computer simulations of the same. The circuit is found to exhibit the entire range of dynamics of the logistic equation: fixed points, periodicity, period.

  19. IMPORTANT NOTICE: Cancellation of shuttle Circuit 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Circuit 3 of the CERN Shuttle Service (Point 5), which has served CMS since the start of LS1, will be cancelled with effect from Tuesday 16 April. This decision has been taken in consultation with CMS, as the circuit was seldom used.   In response to increasing demand for Circuit 1 - Meyrin and feedback from passengers, the two Circuit 3 journeys will be switched to Circuit 1 – Meyrin (see new timetable below): Mornings: Four journeys instead of three. Circuit 1 now starts at 8:10 (instead of 8:19 a.m.) and runs until 9:27 a.m. (instead of 9:16 a.m.). Lunchtimes: Five journeys in place between 12:10 p.m. and 1:47 p.m. Evenings: Circuit starts at 5:23 p.m. (instead of 5:03 p.m.) and ends at 6:20 p.m. at Building 33. Please note that the circuit will depart from Building 13 instead of Building 33.  

  20. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  1. Circuit II--A Conversational Graphical Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Ronald A.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of Circuit II, an interactive system that provides users with a graphical representation of an electronic circuit within which questions may be posed and manipulated, and discusses how mouse selections have analogous roles to certain natural language features, such as anaphora, deixis, and ellipsis. (13 references) (EA)

  2. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  3. The Circuit Ideal of a Vector Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, Tristram; Thomas, Rekha

    The circuit ideal, $\\ica$, of a configuration $\\A = \\{\\a_1, ..., \\a_n\\} \\subset \\Z^d$ is the ideal generated by the binomials ${\\x}^{\\cc^+} - {\\x}^{\\cc^-} \\in \\k[x_1, ..., x_n]$ as $\\cc = \\cc^+ - \\cc^- \\in \\Z^n$ varies over the circuits of $\\A$. This ideal is contained in the toric ideal, $\\ia$, ...

  4. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…

  5. Solid State Circuits for Cryogenic Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrac, D.; Spencer, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Tests confirm operation of five commercial semiconductor devices at cryogenic temperatures. The five devices - one tunnel diode, one field-effect transistor, and three CMOS integrated circuits - all perform well in circuits immersed in liquid-helium bath. For some tests, bath temperature was reduced to 1,25K by pumping.

  6. Proposition algebra and short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2012-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. We review proposition algebra [2010],

  7. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong

    2017-07-27

    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  8. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern

  9. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Marchisio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well insulated...

  11. Improved Circuit For Hot-Film Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit suitable for automation or computer control of setup and operation. Hot-film or hot-wire anemometer circuit features individual current drives for two arms of wheatstone bridge, plus other features that provide improved calibration and automated or computer-controlled operation.

  12. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted...... classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts...

  13. Flexible pavement rehabilitation using pulverization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Pulverization is a roadway rehabilitation strategy that involves in-place recycling of the entire existing flexible pavement layer and some of the existing granular base layer (Figure 1). Pavement pulverization provides an alternative to conventional...

  14. Distributed flexibility in inertial swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floryan, Daniel; Rowley, Clarence W.; Smits, Alexander J.

    2017-11-01

    To achieve fast and efficient swimming, the flexibility of the propulsive surfaces is an important feature. To better understand the effects of distributed flexibility (either through inhomogeneous material properties, varying geometry, or both) we consider the coupled solid and fluid mechanics of the problem. Here, we develop a simplified model of a flexible swimmer, using Euler-Bernoulli theory to describe the solid, Theodorsen's theory to describe the fluid, and a Blasius boundary layer to incorporate viscous effects. Our primary aims are to understand how distributed flexibility affects the thrust production and efficiency of a swimmer with imposed motion at its leading edge. In particular, we examine the modal shapes of the swimmer to gain physical insight into the observed trends. Supported under ONR MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533, Program Manager Robert Brizzolara.

  15. Remote tuning of NMR probe circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodibagkar, V D; Conradi, M S

    2000-05-01

    There are many circumstances in which the probe tuning adjustments cannot be located near the rf NMR coil. These may occur in high-temperature NMR, low-temperature NMR, and in the use of magnets with small diameter access bores. We address here circuitry for connecting a fixed-tuned probe circuit by a transmission line to a remotely located tuning network. In particular, the bandwidth over which the probe may be remotely tuned while keeping the losses in the transmission line acceptably low is considered. The results show that for all resonant circuit geometries (series, parallel, series-parallel), overcoupling of the line to the tuned circuit is key to obtaining a large tuning bandwidth. At equivalent extents of overcoupling, all resonant circuit geometries have nearly equal remote tuning bandwidths. Particularly for the case of low-loss transmission line, the tuning bandwidth can be many times the tuned circuit's bandwidth, f(o)/Q. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Circuit processing pulsed signals from nuclear detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalfod Nielsen, H.

    1990-01-01

    A circuit for processing signals from a detector and occuring at random time intervals has a pulse-shaper, a delay and a processing circuit. The signal path is divided over part of its extent into parallel part-signal paths, each including an electronic switch and signal modifying circuits, a discriminator to detect a signal in the path and a control circuit for the switches and controlled by the discriminator being connected to the path ahead of the delay. The parallel paths are identical and the switch in each is ahead of the modifying circuits. When the discriminator detects a signal in the path the switch in on part path is made to conduct for at least as long as the duration of the signal as detected by the discriminator. The switches are preferable made to conduct cyclically. Processes increased number of signals, with quality of results not dependent on pulse rate and risk of errors substantially reduced. (au)

  17. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  18. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2018-01-01

    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  19. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  20. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal

    2017-07-01

    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  1. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system

  2. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  3. Workplace flexibility across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Pieter; Jansen, Paul G W

    2016-01-01

    As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations and workers arelooking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace flexibility has beenintroduced as a potential way workers can have more satisfying working lives until theirretirement ages. This paper presents a critical review of the literature on workplace flexibilityacross the lifespan. It discusses how flexibility has been conceptualized across differentdisciplines, and postulates a definitio...

  4. Biomedical implementation of liquid metal ink as drawable ECG electrode and skin circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Conventional ways of making bio-electrodes are generally complicated, expensive and unconformable. Here we describe for the first time the method of applying Ga-based liquid metal ink as drawable electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes. Such material owns unique merits in both liquid phase conformability and high electrical conductivity, which provides flexible ways for making electrical circuits on skin surface and a prospective substitution of conventional rigid printed circuit boards (PCBs). Fundamental measurements of impedance and polarization voltage of the liquid metal ink were carried out to evaluate its basic electrical properties. Conceptual experiments were performed to draw the alloy as bio-electrodes to acquire ECG signals from both rabbit and human via a wireless module developed on the mobile phone. Further, a typical electrical circuit was drawn in the palm with the ink to demonstrate its potential of implementing more sophisticated skin circuits. With an oxide concentration of 0.34%, the resistivity of the liquid metal ink was measured as 44.1 µΩ·cm with quite low reactance in the form of straight line. Its peak polarization voltage with the physiological saline was detected as -0.73 V. The quality of ECG wave detected from the liquid metal electrodes was found as good as that of conventional electrodes, from both rabbit and human experiments. In addition, the circuit drawn with the liquid metal ink in the palm also runs efficiently. When the loop was switched on, all the light emitting diodes (LEDs) were lit and emitted colorful lights. The liquid metal ink promises unique printable electrical properties as both bio-electrodes and electrical wires. The implemented ECG measurement on biological surface and the successfully run skin circuit demonstrated the conformability and attachment of the liquid metal. The present method is expected to innovate future physiological measurement and biological circuit manufacturing technique in a large extent.

  5. The Simulation Computer Based Learning (SCBL) for Short Circuit Multi Machine Power System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmaniar; Putri, Maharani

    2018-03-01

    Strengthening Competitiveness of human resources become the reply of college as a conductor of high fomal education. Electrical Engineering Program UNPAB (Prodi TE UNPAB) as one of the department of electrical engineering that manages the field of electrical engineering expertise has a very important part in preparing human resources (HR), Which is required by where graduates are produced by DE UNPAB, Is expected to be able to compete globally, especially related to the implementation of Asean Economic Community (AEC) which requires the active participation of graduates with competence and quality of human resource competitiveness. Preparation of HR formation Competitive is done with the various strategies contained in the Seven (7) Higher Education Standard, one part of which is the implementation of teaching and learning process in Electrical system analysis with short circuit analysis (SCA) This course is a course The core of which is the basis for the competencies of other subjects in the advanced semester at Development of Computer Based Learning model (CBL) is done in the learning of interference analysis of multi-machine short circuit which includes: (a) Short-circuit One phase, (B) Two-phase Short Circuit Disruption, (c) Ground Short Circuit Disruption, (d) Short Circuit Disruption One Ground Floor Development of CBL learning model for Electrical System Analysis course provides space for students to be more active In learning in solving complex (complicated) problems, so it is thrilling Ilkan flexibility of student learning how to actively solve the problem of short-circuit analysis and to form the active participation of students in learning (Student Center Learning, in the course of electrical power system analysis.

  6. Biomedical implementation of liquid metal ink as drawable ECG electrode and skin circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional ways of making bio-electrodes are generally complicated, expensive and unconformable. Here we describe for the first time the method of applying Ga-based liquid metal ink as drawable electrocardiogram (ECG electrodes. Such material owns unique merits in both liquid phase conformability and high electrical conductivity, which provides flexible ways for making electrical circuits on skin surface and a prospective substitution of conventional rigid printed circuit boards (PCBs. METHODS: Fundamental measurements of impedance and polarization voltage of the liquid metal ink were carried out to evaluate its basic electrical properties. Conceptual experiments were performed to draw the alloy as bio-electrodes to acquire ECG signals from both rabbit and human via a wireless module developed on the mobile phone. Further, a typical electrical circuit was drawn in the palm with the ink to demonstrate its potential of implementing more sophisticated skin circuits. RESULTS: With an oxide concentration of 0.34%, the resistivity of the liquid metal ink was measured as 44.1 µΩ·cm with quite low reactance in the form of straight line. Its peak polarization voltage with the physiological saline was detected as -0.73 V. The quality of ECG wave detected from the liquid metal electrodes was found as good as that of conventional electrodes, from both rabbit and human experiments. In addition, the circuit drawn with the liquid metal ink in the palm also runs efficiently. When the loop was switched on, all the light emitting diodes (LEDs were lit and emitted colorful lights. CONCLUSIONS: The liquid metal ink promises unique printable electrical properties as both bio-electrodes and electrical wires. The implemented ECG measurement on biological surface and the successfully run skin circuit demonstrated the conformability and attachment of the liquid metal. The present method is expected to innovate future physiological measurement and

  7. Flexible logic circuits composed of chalcogenide-nanocrystal-based thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Junggwon; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2010-01-01

    Complementary NAND and NOR gates composed of p-channel HgTe-nanocrystal (NC) films and n-channel HgSe-NC films were constructed on back-gate patterned plastic substrates. The NAND gate was made of two HgTe-p-channel thin film transistors (TFTs) in parallel and two HgSe-n-channel TFTs in series. The NOR gate was built up with both two HgSe-n-channel TFTs in parallel and two HgTe-p-channel TFTs in series. The mobility and on/off ratio for the p-channel TFTs were estimated to be 0.9 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 10, respectively, and those for the n-channel TFTs were measured to be 1.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 10 2 , respectively. The NAND and NOR gates were operated with gains of 1.45 and 1.63 and transition widths of 7.8 and 6.2 V, respectively, at room temperature in air. In addition, the operations of the NAND and NOR logics are reproducible for up to 1000 strain cycles.

  8. A Comprehensive Surface Mount Technology Solution for Integrated Circuits onto Flexible Screen Printed Electrical Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    18] Weiwei Yin, Dong-Hyun Lee, Jaesoo Choi, Chinho Park and Sung Min Cho , (2008, Nov.), “Screen printing of silver nanoparticle suspension for...Ming Ho , Tsung-Hsiung Wang, Han-Lung Chen, Ker-Ming Chen, Syh-Ming Lian and Aina Hung, (2003, Mar.), “Metallization of polyimide film by wet process

  9. Medium scale carbon nanotube thin film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Cao, Qing; Alam, Muhammad; Pimparkar, Ninad

    2015-02-03

    The present invention provides device components geometries and fabrication strategies for enhancing the electronic performance of electronic devices based on thin films of randomly oriented or partially aligned semiconducting nanotubes. In certain aspects, devices and methods of the present invention incorporate a patterned layer of randomly oriented or partially aligned carbon nanotubes, such as one or more interconnected SWNT networks, providing a semiconductor channel exhibiting improved electronic properties relative to conventional nanotubes-based electronic systems.

  10. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  11. Flexible thin-film NFC tags powered by commercial USB reader device at 13.56MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Cobb, B.; Steen, J.L. van der; Tripathi, A.K.; Genoe, J.; Gelinck, G.; Heremans, P.

    2015-01-01

    Our goal is to create thin low-cost flexible NFC tags to allow everyday objects to communicate to smartphones and computers and thus participate in the Internet of Things. We employ amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor circuits processed at low temperatures, less than

  12. Circuit arrangement of an electronic component for the design of fail-safe protective circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centmaier, W.; Bernhard, U.; Friederich, B.; Heisecke, I.

    1974-01-01

    The critical parameters of reactors are controlled by safety circuits. These circuits are controlled designed as logic modules operating by the 'n-out-of-m' selection principle. In most cases, a combination of a '1-out-of-3' circuit with a '2-out-of-3' circuit and separate indication is sufficient for a dynamic fail-safe circuit. The basic logic elements are AND and OR gate circuits, respectively, which are triggered by pulse trains and in which the failure of a pulse train is indicated as an error at the output. The module allows the design of safety circuits offering various degrees of safety. If the indication of an error is made on the modules, faulty components can be exchanged by the maintenance crew right away. (DG) [de

  13. Aging evaluation of electrical circuits using the ECCAD [Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostic] system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, an aging assessment of electrical circuits was conducted at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station Decommissioning Project. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostic (ECCAD) system in identifying circuit conditions, to determine the present condition of selected electrical circuits, and correlate the results with aging effects. To accomplish this task, a series of electrical tests was performed on each circuit using the ECCAD system, which is composed of commercially available electronic test equipment under computer control. Test results indicate that the ECCAD system is effective in detecting and identifying aging and service wear in selected electrical circuits. The major area of degradation in the circuits tested was at the termination/connection points, whereas the cables were in generally good condition

  14. Short circuit protection for a power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J. R., III

    1969-01-01

    Sensing circuit detects when the output from a matrix is present and when it should be present. The circuit provides short circuit protection for a power distribution system where the selection of the driven load is accomplished by digital logic.

  15. Negative inductance circuits for metamaterial bandwidth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignon-Meseldzija, Emilie; Lepetit, Thomas; Ferreira, Pietro Maris; Boust, Fabrice

    2017-12-01

    Passive metamaterials have yet to be translated into applications on a large scale due in large part to their limited bandwidth. To overcome this limitation many authors have suggested coupling metamaterials to non-Foster circuits. However, up to now, the number of convincing demonstrations based on non-Foster metamaterials has been very limited. This paper intends to clarify why progress has been so slow, i.e., the fundamental difficulty in making a truly broadband and efficient non-Foster metamaterial. To this end, we consider two families of metamaterials, namely Artificial Magnetic Media and Artificial Magnetic Conductors. In both cases, it turns out that bandwidth enhancement requires negative inductance with almost zero resistance. To estimate bandwidth enhancement with actual non-Foster circuits, we consider two classes of such circuits, namely Linvill and gyrator. The issue of stability being critical, both metamaterial families are studied with equivalent circuits that include advanced models of these non-Foster circuits. Conclusions are different for Artificial Magnetic Media coupled to Linvill circuits and Artificial Magnetic Conductors coupled to gyrator circuits. In the first case, requirements for bandwidth enhancement and stability are very hard to meet simultaneously whereas, in the second case, an adjustment of the transistor gain does significantly increase bandwidth.

  16. Negative inductance circuits for metamaterial bandwidth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avignon-Meseldzija Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive metamaterials have yet to be translated into applications on a large scale due in large part to their limited bandwidth. To overcome this limitation many authors have suggested coupling metamaterials to non-Foster circuits. However, up to now, the number of convincing demonstrations based on non-Foster metamaterials has been very limited. This paper intends to clarify why progress has been so slow, i.e., the fundamental difficulty in making a truly broadband and efficient non-Foster metamaterial. To this end, we consider two families of metamaterials, namely Artificial Magnetic Media and Artificial Magnetic Conductors. In both cases, it turns out that bandwidth enhancement requires negative inductance with almost zero resistance. To estimate bandwidth enhancement with actual non-Foster circuits, we consider two classes of such circuits, namely Linvill and gyrator. The issue of stability being critical, both metamaterial families are studied with equivalent circuits that include advanced models of these non-Foster circuits. Conclusions are different for Artificial Magnetic Media coupled to Linvill circuits and Artificial Magnetic Conductors coupled to gyrator circuits. In the first case, requirements for bandwidth enhancement and stability are very hard to meet simultaneously whereas, in the second case, an adjustment of the transistor gain does significantly increase bandwidth.

  17. A programming language for composable DNA circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-08-06

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing.

  18. A novel interface circuit for triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wuqi; Ma, Jiahao; Zhang, Zhaohua; Ren, Tianling

    2017-10-01

    For most triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), the electric output should be a short AC pulse, which has the common characteristic of high voltage but low current. Thus it is necessary to convert the AC to DC and store the electric energy before driving conventional electronics. The traditional AC voltage regulator circuit which commonly consists of transformer, rectifier bridge, filter capacitor, and voltage regulator diode is not suitable for the TENG because the transformer’s consumption of power is appreciable if the TENG output is small. This article describes an innovative design of an interface circuit for a triboelectric nanogenerator that is transformerless and easily integrated. The circuit consists of large-capacity electrolytic capacitors that can realize to intermittently charge lithium-ion batteries and the control section contains the charging chip, the rectifying circuit, a comparator chip and switch chip. More important, the whole interface circuit is completely self-powered and self-controlled. Meanwhile, the chip is widely used in the circuit, so it is convenient to integrate into PCB. In short, this work presents a novel interface circuit for TENGs and makes progress to the practical application and industrialization of nanogenerators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61434001) and the ‘Thousands Talents’ Program for Pioneer Researchers and Its Innovation Team, China.

  19. Controller with an ispLS1016 circuit for the utilization of a TV fifo in spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.; Toledo Acosta, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    It is described the design of a controller based in the integrated circuit ispLS1016 for the utilization of a 256K x 8 FIFO originally for digital video applications in spectroscopy., Co, Zn, Sn, U and Th (deposited in filter paper) are The design was based upon an integrated circuit of the ispLSI family, which allowed drastically to diminish the quantity of utilized components, to obtain a flexible design in less time and to fulfill other specific requirements for spectroscopy applications

  20. Evaluation of the IRAD flexible-probe sonic extensometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, H.D.; Patrick, W.C.; Rector, N.L.; Butler, L.S.

    1984-11-01

    The evaluation of the IRAD flexible-probe sonic extensometer consisted of: a performance analysis of the MB-7D readout electronic circuit; an accuracy check of the system for both distances and small displacements; measurements of sensitivity to strong shocks; and measurements of sensitivity to temperature changes. The electronic-circuit analysis indicated an accuracy of +-0.001 in. (0.025 mm) that is limited primarily by the counter circuit. Other components of the readout circuit (e.g., crystal oscillator, pulse generator, and amplifiers) gave consistently stable and reliable responses. Sensitivity of the sonic-probe system to strong shock waves in granite was investigated with a series of high-explosive tests in the Climax tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site. Five magnetic anchors were located in a borehole, and three 50,000 g accelerometers were installed in separate boreholes nearby. Peak radial accelerations of from 2100 g up to about 32,000 g were measured after the detonation of individual line charges at varying distances. Sonic-probe readings of the distance between magnetic anchors, taken before and after each line-charge detonation, had differences that generally fell within the inherent accuracy (+-0.002 in. [0.051 mm]) for the sonic extensometer that was used. A temperature bath, which incorporated the test bed used in the displacement-accuracy tests, was designed and built to check the sensitivity of the sonic probe to temperature variations. Sonic-probe readings exhibited a definite sensitivity to temperature changes over the range of 20 to 50 0 C for the four segments of the probe that were monitored. Recommendations are made for increasing the accuracy and performance of the IRAD sonic extensometer and other studies are suggested to supplement the present report. 17 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Low-power VLSI circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive coverage of different aspects of low power circuit synthesis at various levels of design hierarchy; starting from the layout level to the system level. For a seamless understanding of the subject, basics of MOS circuits has been introduced at transistor, gate and circuit level; followed by various low-power design methodologies, such as supply voltage scaling, switched capacitance minimization techniques and leakage power minimization approaches. The content of this book will prove useful to students, researchers, as well as practicing engineers.

  2. An introduction to logic circuit testing

    CERN Document Server

    Lala, Parag K

    2008-01-01

    An Introduction to Logic Circuit Testing provides a detailed coverage of techniques for test generation and testable design of digital electronic circuits/systems. The material covered in the book should be sufficient for a course, or part of a course, in digital circuit testing for senior-level undergraduate and first-year graduate students in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. The book will also be a valuable resource for engineers working in the industry. This book has four chapters. Chapter 1 deals with various types of faults that may occur in very large scale integration (VLSI)

  3. Newnes passive and discrete circuits pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    2000-01-01

    Newnes Passive and Discrete Circuits Pocket Book is aimed at all engineers, technicians, students and experimenters who can build a design directly from a circuit diagram. In a highly concise form Ray Marston presents a huge compendium of circuits that can be built as they appear, adapted or used as building blocks. The devices used have been carefully chosen for their ease of availability and reasonable price. The selection of devices has been thoroughly updated for the second edition, which has also been expanded to cover the latest ICs.The three sections of the book cover: Moder

  4. Radio-frequency integrated-circuit engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2015-01-01

    Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering addresses the theory, analysis and design of passive and active RFIC's using Si-based CMOS and Bi-CMOS technologies, and other non-silicon based technologies. The materials covered are self-contained and presented in such detail that allows readers with only undergraduate electrical engineering knowledge in EM, RF, and circuits to understand and design RFICs. Organized into sixteen chapters, blending analog and microwave engineering, Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering emphasizes the microwave engineering approach for RFICs. Provide

  5. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  6. Silicon integrated circuits part A : supplement 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahng, Dawon

    1981-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science, Supplement 2: Silicon Integrated Circuits, Part A focuses on MOS device physics. This book is divided into three chapters-physics of the MOS transistor; nonvolatile memories; and properties of silicon-on-sapphire substrates devices, and integrated circuits. The topics covered include the short channel effects, MOSFET structures, floating gate devices, technology for nonvolatile semiconductor memories, sapphire substrates, and SOS integrated circuits and systems. The MOS capacitor, MIOS devices, and SOS process and device technology are also deliberated. This public

  7. Synchronization Phenomena in Coupled Colpitts Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. K. Volos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the case of coupling (bidirectional and unidirectional between two identical nonlinear chaotic circuits via a linear resistor, is studied. The produced dynamical systems have different structure, in regard to other similar works, due to the choice of coupling nodes. As a circuit, a modification of the most well-known nonlinear circuit that can operate in a wide range of radiofrequencies, the Colpitts oscillator, is chosen. The simulation and the experimental results show a variety of dynamical phenomena, such as periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic behaviors, as well as anti-phase and complete synchronization phenomena, depending on the value of the coupling coefficient.

  8. Semiconductors integrated circuit design for manufacturability

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinki, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Because of the continuous evolution of integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM) and design for manufacturability (DfM), most books on the subject are obsolete before they even go to press. That's why the field requires a reference that takes the focus off of numbers and concentrates more on larger economic concepts than on technical details. Semiconductors: Integrated Circuit Design for Manufacturability covers the gradual evolution of integrated circuit design (ICD) as a basis to propose strategies for improving return-on-investment (ROI) for ICD in manufacturing. Where most books put the spotl

  9. Efficiency of homopolar generators without ferromagnetic circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    E.m.f. and weights of homopolar generators (HG) without a ferromagnetic circuit and of similar generator with a ferromagnetic circuit are compared at equal armature diameters and armature rotative speed. HG without ferromagnetic cuircuit of disk and cylinder types with hot and superconducting excitation winding are considered. Areas of the most reasonable removal of a ferromagnetic circuit in the HG layout are found. The plots of relationships between the e.m.f. and HG weight that permit to estimate the efficiency of ''nonferrite'' HG constructions are presented

  10. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  11. A guide to printed circuit board design

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Charles

    1984-01-01

    A Guide to Printed Circuit Board Design discusses the basic design principles of printed circuit board (PCB). The book consists of nine chapters; each chapter provides both text discussion and illustration relevant to the topic being discussed. Chapter 1 talks about understanding the circuit diagram, and Chapter 2 covers how to compile component information file. Chapter 3 deals with the design layout, while Chapter 4 talks about preparing the master artworks. The book also covers generating computer aided design (CAD) master patterns, and then discusses how to prepare the production drawing a

  12. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  13. Model Comparison Exercise Circuit Training Game and Circuit Ladder Drills to Improve Agility and Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilaturochman Hendrawan Koestanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare: (1 the effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill for the agility; (2 the effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill on speed; (3 the difference effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill for the speed (4 the difference effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill on agility. The type of this research was quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this research was Factorial Design, with analysing data using ANOVA. The process of data collection was done by using 30 meters sprint speed test and shuttle run test during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data was analyzed by using SPSS 22.0 series. Result: The circuit training game exercise program and circuit ladder drill were significant to increase agility and speed (sig 0.000 < α = 0.005 Group I, II, III had significant differences (sig 0.000 < α = 0.005. The mean of increase in speed of group I = 0.20 seconds, group II = 0.31 seconds, and group III = 0.11 seconds. The average increase agility to group I = 0.34 seconds group II = 0.60 seconds, group III = 0.13 seconds. Based on the analysis above, it could be concluded that there was an increase in the speed and agility of each group after being given a training.

  14. Comparison of modified driver circuit and capacitor-transfer circuit in longitudinally excited N2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Kenshi; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2013-04-01

    We developed a modified driver circuit composed of a capacitance and a spark gap, called a direct-drive circuit, for a longitudinally excited gas laser. The direct-drive circuit uses a large discharge impedance caused by a long discharge length of the longitudinal excitation scheme and eliminates the buffer capacitance used in the traditional capacitor-transfer circuit. We compared the direct-drive circuit and the capacitor-transfer circuit in a longitudinally excited N2 laser (wavelength: 337 nm). Producing high output energy with the capacitor-transfer circuit requires a large storage capacitance and a discharge tube with optimum dimensions (an inner diameter of 4 mm and a length of 10 cm in this work); in contrast, the direct-drive circuit requires a high breakdown voltage, achieved with a small storage capacitance and a large discharge tube. Additionally, for the same input energy of 792 mJ, the maximum output energy of the capacitor-transfer circuit was 174.2 μJ, and that of the direct-drive circuit was 344.7 μJ.

  15. Fabrication and Characterisation of Flexible Coaxial Thin Thread Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulian Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexible coaxial thin thread supercapacitors were fabricated semi-automatically using a dip coating method. A typical coaxial thin thread supercapacitor of a length of 70 cm demonstrated a specific length capacitance of 0.3 mF cm-1 (11.2 mF cm-2 and 2.18 F cm-3 at 5 mV s-1, the device exhibited good electrochemical performance with a high volume energy density of 0.22 mWh cm-3 at a power density of 22 mW cm-3. Thread supercapacitors were assembled in series and parallel combinations, the accepted models for series and parallel circuit combinations were obeyed for two coaxial thread supercapacitors. The thread shows high flexibility and uniformity of specific length capacitance, one integrated with a commercial solar cell could be charged and power a LED. The process is simple, robust and easy to scale up to make unlimited length thread supercapacitors for numerous miniaturized and flexible electronic applications.

  16. Voltage linear transformation circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lucas R. W.; Jin, Moon-Seob; Scott, R. Phillip; Luder, Ryan J.; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Many engineering projects require automated control of analog voltages over a specified range. We have developed a computer interface comprising custom hardware and MATLAB code to provide real-time control of a Thorlabs adaptive optics (AO) kit. The hardware interface includes an op amp cascade to linearly shift and scale a voltage range. With easy modifications, any linear transformation can be accommodated. In AO applications, the design is suitable to drive a range of different types of deformable and fast steering mirrors (FSM's). Our original motivation and application was to control an Optics in Motion (OIM) FSM which requires the customer to devise a unique interface to supply voltages to the mirror controller to set the mirror's angular deflection. The FSM is in an optical servo loop with a wave front sensor (WFS), which controls the dynamic behavior of the mirror's deflection. The code acquires wavefront data from the WFS and fits a plane, which is subsequently converted into its corresponding angular deflection. The FSM provides +/-3° optical angular deflection for a +/-10 V voltage swing. Voltages are applied to the mirror via a National Instruments digital-to-analog converter (DAC) followed by an op amp cascade circuit. This system has been integrated into our Thorlabs AO testbed which currently runs at 11 Hz, but with planned software upgrades, the system update rate is expected to improve to 500 Hz. To show that the FSM subsystem is ready for this speed, we conducted two different PID tuning runs at different step commands. Once 500 Hz is achieved, we plan to make the code and method for our interface solution freely available to the community.

  17. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  18. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  19. Wearable Flexible Sensors: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2017-05-18

    The paper provides a review on some of the significant research work done on wearable flexible sensors (WFS). Sensors fabricated with flexible materials have been attached to a person along with the embedded system to monitor a parameter and transfer the significant data to the monitoring unit for further analyses. The use of wearable sensors has played a quite important role to monitor physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. The paper categorizes the work according to the materials used for designing the system, the network protocols and different types of activities that were being monitored. The challenges faced by the current sensing systems and future opportunities for the wearable flexible sensors regarding its market values are also briefly explained in the paper.

  20. Lateral power transistors in integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Erlbacher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This book details and compares recent advancements in the development of novel lateral power transistors (LDMOS devices) for integrated circuits in power electronic applications. It includes the state-of-the-art concept of double-acting RESURF topologies.

  1. CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Here is a comprehensive examination of CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems. Covers design challenges, fundamental issues of ultra-low power wireless communications, radio-frequency power harvesting, and advanced design techniques, and more.

  2. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain.

  3. Josephson Circuits as Vector Quantum Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samach, Gabriel; Kerman, Andrew J.

    While superconducting circuits based on Josephson junction technology can be engineered to represent spins in the quantum transverse-field Ising model, no circuit architecture to date has succeeded in emulating the vector quantum spin models of interest for next-generation quantum annealers and quantum simulators. Here, we present novel Josephson circuits which may provide these capabilities. We discuss our rigorous quantum-mechanical simulations of these circuits, as well as the larger architectures they may enable. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) and the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  4. Hemodynamic Consequences for Circuit Weight Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T. Earl; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study of high sustained heart rates observed during circuit weight training involving high resistance and low repetitions indicates that such training has no concurrent cardiovascular training effect. (MB)

  5. Rotary Power Transformer and Inverter Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1985-01-01

    Noise lower than with sliprings. Rotary transformer transfers electric power across rotary joint. No wearing contacts, no contact noise, and no contamination from lubricants or wear debris. Because additional inductor not required, size and complexity of circuit reduced considerably.

  6. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helinski, Ryan

    2017-05-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  7. Circuit, especially for digital nuclear gyroscope systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdenslager, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    The circuit with at least one or two spin generator shows a digital phase synchronizing loop in solid-state construction without movable mechanical parts. It is stable, may be turned in one direction any number of times without saturation, and also remains phase-synchronized when input signals are turned off. For this purpose, crystal oscillators with certain resonance frequencies are used. The spin generators are coupled at the outled side with filtering, squaring, and differential connections generating control impulses synchronous to the spin generators. Step divider circuits are connected to the oscillators, which act upon flip-flop registers. This is controlled by the filtering, squaring, and differential connections. Furthermore, field proportional control circuits with registers, advancing and delay circuits are provided, the registers being connected at the outlet side with digital adders and subtractors. The digital adder serves inertial-related purposes. (DG) [de

  8. Latch-up in CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estreich, D.B.; Dutton, R.W.

    1978-04-01

    An analysis is presented of latch-up in CMOS integrated circuits. A latch-up prediction algorithm has been developed and used to evaluate methods to control latch-up. Experimental verification of the algorithm is demonstrated

  9. Selected Special-Purpose Telecommunications Circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this memorandum report for your information and use. This report is the first of three reports resulting from the review of requirements for special-purpose voice circuits as part of Project...

  10. Polymer electronics a flexible technology

    CERN Document Server

    Technology, Rapra

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide market for polymer electronic products has been estimated to be worth up to £15 billion by 2015 and the opportunity for new markets could be as high as £125 billion by 2025.'The rapid development of polymer electronics has revealed the possibility for transforming the electronics market by offering lighter, flexible and more cost effective alternatives to conventional materials and products. With applications ranging from printed, flexible conductors and novel semiconductor components to intelligent labels and large area displays and solar panels, products that were previously un

  11. From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Patricia H.; Tye, Kay M.

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala has long been associated with emotion and motivation, playing an essential part in processing both fearful and rewarding environmental stimuli. How can a single structure be crucial for such different functions? With recent technological advances that allow for causal investigations of specific neural circuit elements, we can now begin to map the complex anatomical connections of the amygdala onto behavioural function. Understanding how the amygdala contributes to a wide array of behaviours requires the study of distinct amygdala circuits. PMID:25592533

  12. Data path analysis for dynamic circuit specialisation

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Tom; Stroobandt, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Circuit Specialisation (DCS) is a method that exploits the reconfigurability of modern FPGAs to allow the specialisation of FPGA circuits at run-time. Currently, it is only explored as part of Register-transfer level design. However, at the Register-transfer level (RTL), a large part of the design is already locked in. Therefore, maximally exploiting the opportunities of DCS could require a costly redesign. It would be interesting to already have insight in the opportunities for DCS f...

  13. Effects of smoke on functional circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are converting to digital instrumentation and control systems; however, the effects of abnormal environments such as fire and smoke on such systems are not known. There are no standard tests for smoke, but previous smoke exposure tests at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that digital communications can be temporarily interrupted during a smoke exposure. Another concern is the long-term corrosion of metals exposed to the acidic gases produced by a cable fire. This report documents measurements of basic functional circuits during and up to 1 day after exposure to smoke created by burning cable insulation. Printed wiring boards were exposed to the smoke in an enclosed chamber for 1 hour. For high-resistance circuits, the smoke lowered the resistance of the surface of the board and caused the circuits to short during the exposure. These circuits recovered after the smoke was vented. For low-resistance circuits, the smoke caused their resistance to increase slightly. A polyurethane conformal coating substantially reduced the effects of smoke. A high-speed digital circuit was unaffected. A second experiment on different logic chip technologies showed that the critical shunt resistance that would cause failure was dependent on the chip technology and that the components used in the smoke exposures were some of the most smoke tolerant. The smoke densities in these tests were high enough to cause changes in high impedance (resistance) circuits during exposure, but did not affect most of the other circuits. Conformal coatings and the characteristics of chip technologies should be considered when designing circuitry for nuclear power plant safety systems, which must be highly reliable under a variety of operating and accident conditions. 10 refs., 34 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Breakdown of transistors in Marx bank circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amitabh

    2000-09-01

    We reconsider the mode of operation of a Marx bank circuit and analyze the secondary breakdown of transistors with shorted emitter-base. The mechanism of breakdown of the transistor when a fast rising voltage pulse is applied across is investigated. The device exhibits chaotic behavior at the breakdown point where it can go into two possible modes of breakdown. A new explanation for the working of the circuit consistent with the experimental observations is proposed.

  15. Reconfigurable Optical Directed-Logic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    implemented a wet chemical etch to produce an adiabatic taper that has been shown to efficiently couple into waveguides [16]. Tapered optical fibre tips were...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0053 Reconfigurable Optical Directed-Logic Circuits Jacob Robinson WILLIAM MARSH RICE UNIV HOUSTON TX Final Report 11/20/2015...2015 Reconfigurable Optical Directed-Logic Circuits FA9550-12-1-0261 FA9550-12-1-0261 Robinson, Jacob Rice University 6100 Main Street Houston

  16. Effects of smoke on functional circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are converting to digital instrumentation and control systems; however, the effects of abnormal environments such as fire and smoke on such systems are not known. There are no standard tests for smoke, but previous smoke exposure tests at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that digital communications can be temporarily interrupted during a smoke exposure. Another concern is the long-term corrosion of metals exposed to the acidic gases produced by a cable fire. This report documents measurements of basic functional circuits during and up to 1 day after exposure to smoke created by burning cable insulation. Printed wiring boards were exposed to the smoke in an enclosed chamber for 1 hour. For high-resistance circuits, the smoke lowered the resistance of the surface of the board and caused the circuits to short during the exposure. These circuits recovered after the smoke was vented. For low-resistance circuits, the smoke caused their resistance to increase slightly. A polyurethane conformal coating substantially reduced the effects of smoke. A high-speed digital circuit was unaffected. A second experiment on different logic chip technologies showed that the critical shunt resistance that would cause failure was dependent on the chip technology and that the components used in the smoke exposures were some of the most smoke tolerant. The smoke densities in these tests were high enough to cause changes in high impedance (resistance) circuits during exposure, but did not affect most of the other circuits. Conformal coatings and the characteristics of chip technologies should be considered when designing circuitry for nuclear power plant safety systems, which must be highly reliable under a variety of operating and accident conditions. 10 refs., 34 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Resizing methodology for CMOS analog circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Timothée; Tomas, J.; Lewis, N.; Fouillat, P.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a CMOS resizing methodology for analog circuits during a technology migration. The scaling rules aim to be easy to apply and are based on the simplest MOS transistor model. The principle is to transpose one circuit topology from one technology to another, while keeping the main figures of merit, and the issue is to quickly calculate the new transistor dimensions. Furthermore, when the target technology has smaller minimum length, we expect to obtain...

  18. Evolvable designs of experiments applications for circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2009-01-01

    Adopting a groundbreaking approach, the highly regarded author shows how to design methods for planning increasingly complex experiments. He begins with a brief introduction to standard quality methods and the technology in standard electric circuits. The book then gives numerous examples of how to apply the proposed methodology in a series of real-life case studies. Although these case studies are taken from the printed circuit board industry, the methods are equally applicable to other fields of engineering.

  19. Synthetic Biology: A Unifying View and Review Using Analog Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jonathan J Y; Woo, Sung Sik; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2015-08-01

    We review the field of synthetic biology from an analog circuits and analog computation perspective, focusing on circuits that have been built in living cells. This perspective is well suited to pictorially, symbolically, and quantitatively representing the nonlinear, dynamic, and stochastic (noisy) ordinary and partial differential equations that rigorously describe the molecular circuits of synthetic biology. This perspective enables us to construct a canonical analog circuit schematic that helps unify and review the operation of many fundamental circuits that have been built in synthetic biology at the DNA, RNA, protein, and small-molecule levels over nearly two decades. We review 17 circuits in the literature as particular examples of feedforward and feedback analog circuits that arise from special topological cases of the canonical analog circuit schematic. Digital circuit operation of these circuits represents a special case of saturated analog circuit behavior and is automatically incorporated as well. Many issues that have prevented synthetic biology from scaling are naturally represented in analog circuit schematics. Furthermore, the deep similarity between the Boltzmann thermodynamic equations that describe noisy electronic current flow in subthreshold transistors and noisy molecular flux in biochemical reactions has helped map analog circuit motifs in electronics to analog circuit motifs in cells and vice versa via a `cytomorphic' approach. Thus, a body of knowledge in analog electronic circuit design, analysis, simulation, and implementation may also be useful in the robust and efficient design of molecular circuits in synthetic biology, helping it to scale to more complex circuits in the future.

  20. Active shunt capacitance cancelling oscillator circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2003-09-23

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be used to produce oscillation using a piezoelectric crystal, with a frequency of oscillation being largely independent of any shunt capacitance associated with the crystal (i.e. due to electrodes on the surfaces of the crystal and due to packaging and wiring for the crystal). The oscillator circuit is based on a tuned gain stage which operates the crystal at a frequency, f, near a series resonance frequency, f.sub.S. The oscillator circuit further includes a compensation circuit that supplies all the ac current flow through the shunt resistance associated with the crystal so that this ac current need not be supplied by the tuned gain stage. The compensation circuit uses a current mirror to provide the ac current flow based on the current flow through a reference capacitor that is equivalent to the shunt capacitance associated with the crystal. The oscillator circuit has applications for driving piezoelectric crystals for sensing of viscous, fluid or solid media by detecting a change in the frequency of oscillation of the crystal and a resonator loss which occur from contact of an exposed surface of the crystal by the viscous, fluid or solid media.

  1. Flexible Learning, Spatiality and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Clarke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on Foucault, Deleuze, Guattari, and actor-network theory, the significance of space in flexible learning and its role in knowledge production and identity are explored. A cautious and analytical approach to the notion of lifelong learners liberated from time and space constraints is advocated. (Contains 27 references.) (Author/SK)

  2. Requirements for flexible learner monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Requirements for flexible learner monitoring. In T. Navarette, J. Blat & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop 'Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures' (pp. 89-96). June,

  3. Light Management in Flexible OLEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, S.; Pendyala, R.K.; Geurts, C.G.C.; Helgers, P.L.J.; Levell, J.W.; Wilson, J.S.; MacKerron, D.

    2014-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising lighting technology. In particular OLEDs fabricated on plastic foils are believed to hold the future. These planar devices are subject to various optical losses, which requires sophisticated light management solutions. Flexible OLEDs on plastic

  4. Creep behaviour of flexible adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Botter, E.; Berg, A. van den; Beers, P. van

    2004-01-01

    Since flexible adhesives are used more and more in structural applications, designers should have a better understanding of its behaviour under various conditions as ultimate load, fatigue load, long-term load and environmental conditions. This paper focuses on long-term load conditions and its

  5. PNF and Other Flexibility Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.

    Effective flexibility procedures are one of the essential tools by which excellence can be attained. Although stretching exercises provide obvious benefits, negative outcomes can result unless effective stretching procedures are incoroporated. Characteristics of effective stretching include warmup before stretching, stretch before and after…

  6. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  7. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  8. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  9. Flexible Systems Invade the Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are systems that can be programed to alter their procedures to suit varying production requirements. Use of and trends related to these systems in the United States and foreign countries are discussed. A detailed diagram of a hypothetical FMS is provided. (JN)

  10. Flexible Learning: A Luddite View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the flexible learning concept through the eyes of the 19th-century industrial activists known as the Luddites. During a period of economic uncertainty, the Luddite perspective provides a sensitive justification for a change-free educational environment, and for a backlash in favour of "inflexible learning" (IL). The…

  11. Design and implementation of a delay-optimized universal programmable routing circuit for FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fang; Zhang Huowen; Lai Jinmei; Wang Yuan; Chen Liguang; Duan Lei; Tong Jiarong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a universal field programmable gate array (FPGA) programmable routing circuit, focusing primarily on a delay optimization. Under the precondition of the routing resource's flexibility and routability, the number of programmable interconnect points (PIP) is reduced, and a multiplexer (MUX) plus a BUFFER structure is adopted as the programmable switch. Also, the method of offset lines and the method of complementary hanged end-lines are applied to the TILE routing circuit and the I/O routing circuit, respectively. All of the above features ensure that the whole FPGA chip is highly repeatable, and the signal delay is uniform and predictable over the total chip. Meanwhile, the BUFFER driver is optimized to decrease the signal delay by up to 5%. The proposed routing circuit is applied to the Fudan programmable device (FDP) FPGA, which has been taped out with an SMIC 0.18-μm logic 1P6M process. The test result shows that the programmable routing resource works correctly, and the signal delay over the chip is highly uniform and predictable.

  12. How Do Efficient Coding Strategies Depend on Origins of Noise in Neural Circuits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Braden A W; Weber, Alison I; Rieke, Fred; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Neural circuits reliably encode and transmit signals despite the presence of noise at multiple stages of processing. The efficient coding hypothesis, a guiding principle in computational neuroscience, suggests that a neuron or population of neurons allocates its limited range of responses as efficiently as possible to best encode inputs while mitigating the effects of noise. Previous work on this question relies on specific assumptions about where noise enters a circuit, limiting the generality of the resulting conclusions. Here we systematically investigate how noise introduced at different stages of neural processing impacts optimal coding strategies. Using simulations and a flexible analytical approach, we show how these strategies depend on the strength of each noise source, revealing under what conditions the different noise sources have competing or complementary effects. We draw two primary conclusions: (1) differences in encoding strategies between sensory systems-or even adaptational changes in encoding properties within a given system-may be produced by changes in the structure or location of neural noise, and (2) characterization of both circuit nonlinearities as well as noise are necessary to evaluate whether a circuit is performing efficiently.

  13. Flexible devices: from materials, architectures to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingzhi; Ma, Yue; Yuan, Xin; Hu, Yi; Liu, Jie; Jin, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Flexible devices, such as flexible electronic devices and flexible energy storage devices, have attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years for their potential applications in modern human lives. The development of flexible devices is moving forward rapidly, as the innovation of methods and manufacturing processes has greatly encouraged the research of flexible devices. This review focuses on advanced materials, architecture designs and abundant applications of flexible devices, and discusses the problems and challenges in current situations of flexible devices. We summarize the discovery of novel materials and the design of new architectures for improving the performance of flexible devices. Finally, we introduce the applications of flexible devices as key components in real life. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2017YFA0208200, 2016YFB0700600, 2015CB659300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21403105, 21573108), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 020514380107).

  14. Submicrosecond Power-Switching Test Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Eric N.

    2006-01-01

    A circuit that changes an electrical load in a switching time shorter than 0.3 microsecond has been devised. This circuit can be used in testing the regulation characteristics of power-supply circuits . especially switching power-converter circuits that are supposed to be able to provide acceptably high degrees of regulation in response to rapid load transients. The combination of this power-switching circuit and a known passive constant load could be an attractive alternative to a typical commercially available load-bank circuit that can be made to operate in nominal constant-voltage, constant-current, and constant-resistance modes. The switching provided by a typical commercial load-bank circuit in the constant-resistance mode is not fast enough for testing of regulation in response to load transients. Moreover, some test engineers do not trust the test results obtained when using commercial load-bank circuits because the dynamic responses of those circuits are, variously, partly unknown and/or excessively complex. In contrast, the combination of this circuit and a passive constant load offers both rapid switching and known (or at least better known) load dynamics. The power-switching circuit (see figure) includes a signal-input section, a wide-hysteresis Schmitt trigger that prevents false triggering in the event of switch-contact bounce, a dual-bipolar-transistor power stage that drives the gate of a metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), and the MOSFET, which is the output device that performs the switching of the load. The MOSFET in the specific version of the circuit shown in the figure is rated to stand off a potential of 100 V in the "off" state and to pass a current of 20 A in the "on" state. The switching time of this circuit (the characteristic time of rise or fall of the potential at the drain of the MOSFET) is .300 ns. The circuit can accept any of three control inputs . which one depending on the test that one seeks to perform: a

  15. High voltage short plus generation based on avalanche circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuanfeng; Yu Xiaoqi

    2006-01-01

    Simulate the avalanche circuit in series with PSPICE module, design the high voltage short plus generation circuit by avalanche transistor in series for the sweep deflection circuit of streak camera. The output voltage ranges 1.2 KV into 50 ohm load. The rise time of the circuit is less than 3 ns. (authors)

  16. Development of 3D integrated circuits for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    Three dimensional integrated circuits are well suited to improving circuit bandwidth and increasing effective circuit density. Recent advances in industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for HEP. The 3D technology is discussed in this paper and several examples are shown. Design of a 3D demonstrator chip for the ILC is presented

  17. 30 CFR 75.900-2 - Approved circuit schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... device installed in the main secondary circuit at the source transformer may be used to provide undervoltage protection for each circuit that receives power from that transformer. (c) One circuit breaker may... may be used for undervoltage protection if the relay coils are designed to trip the circuit breaker...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12017 - Work on power circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall prevent the power circuits from being energized without the knowledge of the individuals working... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work on power circuits. 57.12017 Section 57... Surface and Underground § 57.12017 Work on power circuits. Power circuits shall be deenergized before work...

  19. 47 CFR 32.6232 - Circuit equipment expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6232 Circuit equipment expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with circuit equipment. Circuit...) This subaccount 6232.1 Electronic shall include expenses associated with electronic circuit equipment...

  20. 30 CFR 75.900-1 - Circuit breakers; location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit breakers; location. 75.900-1 Section 75.900-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900-1 Circuit breakers; location. Circuit breakers used to protect low-and...