Sample records for giant mucinous adenocarcinoma

  1. Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma of the Eyelid Associated With Mucinous Adenocarcinoma.

    Charles, Norman C; Proia, Alan D; Lo, Christopher


    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma, a rare, low-grade neoplasm with predilection for the eyelids, has been posited as a precursor to invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and its concurrence with mucinous adenocarcinoma have received little attention in the ophthalmic literature. The combination of the 2 histologic patterns parallels endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and its transition to Type B invasive mucinous carcinoma. The authors describe a 59-year-old man who developed a tumor of the right upper eyelid showing endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma in the outer dermis and extensive mucinous carcinoma in the deeper tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positivity for endocrine markers chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, estrogen, and progesterone in each histologic component of the tumor. This research was conducted in conformity with the Helsinki Declaration and HIPPA regulations.

  2. Primary Papillary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ureter Mimicking Genitourinary Tuberculosis

    Hanni Gulwani


    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignancies at this site. We report a case of primary papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ureter that clinically mimicked genitourinary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis is important for the better outcome.

  3. Laparoscopic treatment of mucinous urachal adenocarcinoma with mucocele.

    Oberndoerfer, Marine; Bucher, Pascal; Caviezel, Alessandro; Platon, Alexandra; Ott, Vincent; Egger, Jean-François; Morel, Philippe


    We present a case of an asymptomatic 76-year-old woman treated laparoscopically for an urachal mucocele owing to a nonmetastatic urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma. Since laparoscopic en bloc resection of the urachus and partial cystectomy, the patient has been healthy and disease-free for 12 months. Modern surgical treatment of urachal adenocarcinoma is discussed in the light of this case.

  4. Mucinous Bladder Adenocarcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Bruno Mello R. Santos


    Full Text Available Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare type of bladder cancer, with aggressive behavior and poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The symptoms are similar to those of other bladder tumors. Surgery is the main treatment and remains the only curative option. There may be a progression from mucinous metaplasia to mucinous adenoma and then mucinous adenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with recurrent lower urinary tract infections, submitted to imaging tests, which showed a bladder tumor. After transurethral resection, pathology showed intestinal mucinous carcinoma. Metastatic work-up was negative. New surgical procedure showed metaplasia but no recurrence of the carcinoma. The patient is now using antibiotic prophylaxis and will undergo a cystoscopy every 3 months and computed tomography in one year.


    W.H.Chow; LouisT.C.Chow


    An 88-year-old man presented symptoms and signs of ascending cholangitis and died 20 days after the onset of illness.Postmortem examination revealed a mucinous tumor arising from the head of the pancreas,encasing the common bile duct and invading the liver with multiple hepatic metastasis.The tumor showed a unique and uniform histological appearance,consisting of signet-ring neoplastic cells floating in mucin pools.The rapid clinical course and widespread hepatic metastasis of this patient suggest that this pure,signet-ring variant of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the pancreas might have a poorer prognosis.

  6. Conjunctival mucinous adenocarcinoma in an ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    Perrin, Kathryn L; Bertelsen, Mads F; Bartholin, Henrik


    . Gross examination revealed a botryoid mass attached to the inferior palpebral conjunctiva and extending onto the palpebral aspect of the nictitating membrane. Euthanasia was selected, and the histological diagnosis of the second mass was a mixed mucinous adenocarcinoma; however, no acid-fast bacteria...

  7. [Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate: description of a case].

    Ferrero, G; Mastroberardino, E; Del Vino, A; Artese, L


    We report an occasional biopsy of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate with review of the literature and discussion about all criteria used to classify this clinical-pathological entity. Histochemical (Alcian Blue and P.A.S.) and immunohistochemical (P.A.P. and P.S.A.) stainings were performed.

  8. Pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinomas: architectural patterns in correlation with genetic changes, prognosis and survival.

    Geles, Abidin; Gruber-Moesenbacher, Ulrike; Quehenberger, Franz; Manzl, Claudia; Al Effah, Mohamed; Grygar, Elisabeth; Juettner-Smolle, Freyja; Popper, Helmut H


    Of pulmonary adenocarcinomas, about 25-30 % of cases is of a mucinous type. Mucinous adenocarcinomas are regarded as more aggressive compared to their non-mucinous counterparts. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, colloid, and enteric adenocarcinomas are variants within adenocarcinomas. We investigated 76 invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas, including colloid variants, for predominant and secondary patterns, their different form of mucin storage and release, expression of cytokeratin 7 and 20, TTF1 and CDX2, MUC1, 2, and 5AC proteins, p14 and p16 proteins, possible rearrangements for EML4ALK and ROS1, as well as KRAS mutational status, and correlated this with survival. For comparison, 259 non-mucinous adenocarcinomas were selected. Overall survival for invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas corrected for T and N stage was not different from their non-mucinous counterpart. Most were of an acinar pattern. Neither pattern, nor type of mucin storage and release, such as luminal, extracellular, or goblet cell type had any influence on survival. Of adenocarcinomas expressing CK20, all but one expressed TTF1 either strongly or at least focally, and 8 co-expressed CDX2 focally. Most mucinous adenocarcinomas expressed either MUC1 or MUC5AC proteins, but rarely MUC2, while a few cases co-expressed both or all three. Loss of p16 expression correlated with worse outcome. KRAS mutation was found in 56 % of mucinous adenocarcinomas. Mutational status was neither correlated with architectural pattern nor survival. Codon 12 mutations were most frequent, and one case presented with KRAS mutations in codon 12 and 61. Goblet cell variants of mucinous adenocarcinomas presented predominantly with codon 12 mutations, while all colloid variants had KRAS mutation. Two cases had EML4 and ALK1 rearranged; ROS1 rearrangement was not found. Mucinous adenocarcinomas behave similar to non-mucinous variants. TNM stage is the most important factor followed by p16 loss predicting overall survival.

  9. Pseudomyxoma retropentonei due to the primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma

    LIUZhou-Lu; JIANGYan-Yong


    Aim Pseudomyxoma retroperitonei is a rare conditioncharacterized by mucinous implants in the retroperitonealspace. It is commonly associated with cystadenoma orcystadenocarcinoma of a retrocecal appendix.Methods A case of patient with pseudomyxomaretroperitonei and reviewed the literature was reported.Results A 68-year lady was operated for a presumedappendix abscess. A large amount of mucin was found in thefight hemi-retroperitoneal space during the operation.Appendectomy was performed together with the removal ofmucin . In addition intraoperative chemotherapy was used.Histologic diagnosis showed mucinous adenocarcinoma of theappendix. She was given systemic chemotherapypostoperatively (5-FU, MMC). Half a year later, she wasreferred to our hospital with an elevated CEA and CTrevealed a mass within the right hemi-retroperitoneal space.During exploration, the lesion was found to be encapsulatedand was completely removed . She remains disease-free nowfor 3 years since the last operation.Conclusion Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma is a diseasedifficult to diagnose, it has a relatively good prognosis evenwith pseudomyxoma peritonei or retroperitonei.Appendectomy with removal of all mucin tissue is a suitablechoice of treatment for some patients. Chemotherapy,especially intraoperative chemotherapy is recommended to improve survival.

  10. Prostate Mucinous Adenocarcinoma with Signet Ring Cells: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Yi Wang; Guang Sun; Jiangang Pan; Jiwu Chang; Shumin Zhang; Tao Li; Binghuang Ren


    @@ Prostate mucinous adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells(MCSRC)is a rare morphologic variant of prostate cancer,with only 12 cases reported to date.[1] Diagnosis of this carcinoma requires that at least 25% of the tumor tissue should consist of an extracellular mucin pool.[2] In this report, we present a case of prostate prostate mucinous adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells.

  11. Mucinous adenocarcinoma originating in localized type adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder


    @@ Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder (GBA) has been defined as an acquired disease characterized by hyperplastic extension of the surface epithelium into, and often beyond, the thickened gallbladder muscular layer (Rokitansky-Aschoff's sinuses, or RA sinuses).1 It is reported as a lesion with no risk of malignant transformation.2 In recent years, however, a few cases of GBA associated with carcinoma have been reported.3-7 We present another case of mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from GBA.

  12. Relationship between clinicopathological features and mucin phenotypes of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma

    Fumiaki; Toki; Atsushi; Takahashi; Ryusuke; Aihara; Kyoichi; Ogata; Hiroyuki; Ando; Tetsuro; Ohno; Erito; Mochiki; Hiroyuki; Kuwano


    AIM: To investigate a relationship between the clinicopathological features and mucin phenotypes in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (AGA). METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the mucin phenotypes in 38 patients with differentiated adenocarcinomas (DACs), 9 with signet-ring cell carcinomas (SIGs), and 48 with other diffuse-type adenocarcinomas (non-SIGs) of AGA. The mucin phenotypes were classified into 4 types: gastric (G), gastrointestinal (GI), intestinal, and unclassified. RE...

  13. Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with chronic anaI fistula: case report

    Park, ChuI Hi; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Jee Eun; Choi, Soo Jin [Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare disease. We report here on the CT findings in a case of perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with chronic anal fistula. The CT revealed a low attenuated lesion surrounding the subcutaneous area of chronic anal fistula, anal canal and perirectal area.

  14. Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix: A Case Report.

    Khan, M K; Talukder, R H; Uddin, M J


    Primary tumors of the appendix are unusual and most of them are carcinoids. Their main presentation is that of an acute appendicitis or as a palpable mass, mainly in the right lower quadrant. A 40 years old male patient presented in Dhaka Community Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh on 31st October 2013 with mucous adenocarcinoma of the appendix, which primarily presented as heaviness in right lower abdomen and atypical abdominal pain. Diagnosis of the disease was made after right hemicolectomy and histopathological analysis of the specimen. Mucin producing adenocarcinomas of the appendix are a category of rare cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Although at present they are a well studied pathological entity, the crucial issue of their preoperative diagnosis remains unsolved.

  15. Giant Mucinous Cystadenoma in Nnewi, Nigeria

    Okafor, CI; Onyegbule, OA; Etigbue, J; Uyoh, IS; Ezenri, U


    Mucinous ovarian tumors are the second commonest type of epithelial ovarian tumors. Most of these tumors are benign. Occasionally, these tumors may reach enormous dimensions without being symptomatic. We reported the occurrence of a huge benign ovarian tumor (mucinous cystadenoma) in Nnewi. The data were collected from history taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigation, ultrasonographic examination, operative findings and histopathological examination of the surgical specimen. The case was reported as a massive ovarian mucinous cystadenoma. This case report emphasizes the importance of a thorough evaluation of women who presented with vague abdominal pain. Although the condition is very rare, it is potentially hazardous if early diagnosis and timely intervention is not instituted PMID:26097766

  16. Mucin histochemistry of stomach in metaplasia and adenocarcinoma: An observation

    Prakas Kumar Mandal


    Full Text Available Background: There is a variable pattern of occurrence of gastric carcinomas world-wide, partially reflecting the frequency of various changes of gastric mucosa from, which such neoplasm occur. Many cases of gastric carcinoma originate in the background of chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori. Subsequent intestinal metaplasia (IM can be morphologically classified by routine and special histopathological stains. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted over the 2 years at NRSMC & H, Kolkata. Aims of the present study were to search for evidences of H. pylori infection, classification of different metaplastic and/or malignant changes, identification of types of mucin by mucin histochemistry and their interrelationship in gastrectomy and gastric biopsy specimens (total 70. After obtaining clinical history, radiological and endoscopic findings were noted. After macroscopic study of the specimen, hematoxylene and eosin, southgate mucicarmine, periodic acid schiff-alcian blue (PAS-AB and gomori aldehyde fuchsin (GAF/AB staining were performed to classify gastric carcinoma and metaplastic changes and to correlate with staining patterns of mucin. Results: The overall male to female ratio was 2.89:1. Age ranged from 22 years to 78 years and the commonest age group of gastric carcinomas being 41-50 years (26 cases, 37.1%. Gastric adenocarcinoma was found in 61 (87.1% cases (22.9% were of intestinal type and 77.1% of diffuse type and only IM was found in 9 (12.9% cases. Overall the rapid urease test was positive in 18 (25.7% cases majority of which showing either pure IM or IM associated with intestinal type of gastric carcinoma. All diffuse types of gastric carcinoma (47 cases, 77.1% were showed PAS positive staining (indicating neutral mucin whereas in 15 (65.2% cases of IM columnar cells stained with AB (representing acidic mucin. GAF/AB stain revealed Type II IM in 10 (43.5% cases and Type III IM in 4 (17.4% cases. Conclusion

  17. Unusual synchronous lung tumors: mucoepidermoid carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma.

    Ponea, Ana M; Marak, Creticus P; Sun, Ying; Guddati, Achuta Kumar; Tibb, Amit S


    Primary mucoepidermoid tumors of the lung are rare entities. Synchronous primary malignancies of the lung involving mucoepidermoid carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma are even rarer and constitute a unique set of patient population. The presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies for this patient population are not well described. In most cases, the diagnosis of synchronous primary lung malignancy is made after pathological examination of the resected lung specimen. Molecular and genetic analysis is now being used to supplement the diagnosis of synchronous primary lung malignancies. In this work, we briefly discuss the current state of knowledge of this unique combination of primary lung malignancies and describe the clinical presentation and management of a patient with a rare combination of synchronous primary lung malignancies.

  18. Unusual Synchronous Lung Tumors: Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and Mucinous Adenocarcinoma

    Ana M. Ponea


    Full Text Available Primary mucoepidermoid tumors of the lung are rare entities. Synchronous primary malignancies of the lung involving mucoepidermoid carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma are even rarer and constitute a unique set of patient population. The presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies for this patient population are not well described. In most cases, the diagnosis of synchronous primary lung malignancy is made after pathological examination of the resected lung specimen. Molecular and genetic analysis is now being used to supplement the diagnosis of synchronous primary lung malignancies. In this work, we briefly discuss the current state of knowledge of this unique combination of primary lung malignancies and describe the clinical presentation and management of a patient with a rare combination of synchronous primary lung malignancies.

  19. Mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with chronic suppurative hidradenitis: Report of a case and review of the literature

    Natalia Mukai


    Conclusion: Malignant degeneration to mucinous adenocarcinoma must be suspected in patients with a history of long-term CSH. In such cases, local biopsies and a radiological examination, such as MRI can help in the diagnosis.

  20. Concomitant mucin-producing tumors of ovary and adenocarcinoma of cervix: a case report

    Mousavi A


    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian mucinous borderline tumors are divided into two morphologic groups: endocervical-like and intestinal type. Most endocervical adenocarcinomas exhibit mucinous and/or endometrioid differentiation, they infrequently metastasize to the ovaries but may simulate primary ovarian tumors (both atypical proliferative or borderline and carcinoma. In patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma in the abdominal cavity, caution should be exercised in interpreting the possible primary site of the tumor on the basis of the immunohistochemical profiles. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA is assessed to determine whether the ovarian neoplasms were metastases or primary independent neoplasm. Approximately 90% of endocervical adenocarcinomas are related to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV with the remainder being unrelated to HPV. Both types metastasize to the ovaries very infrequently. Ovarian endocervical-type (mullerian mucinous tumors and tumors composed of a mixture of endocervical-type mucinous, serous endometrioid, squamous, and indifferent cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm reported to date have been primarily limited to borderline and micro invasive types. We report a-36-yr old woman with adenocarcinomas of uterine cervix who also had ovarian mucinous borderline tumor.Case presentation: The patient presented with abnormal uterine bleeding and lower abdominal pain. She had a history of uterine cervix polyps. Pelvic ultrasound showed a right adnexal mass and a large cervical size. Histological diagnosis in uterine cervix biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma of cervix. Radical hysterectomy type III with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histological finding in adnexal mass revealed borderline mucinous tissue of ovarian tumor. Testing for HPV DNA in the tumoral tissue was negative. This confirms that the ovarian tumor is not metastatic from endocervical adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: We conclude that in a patient with

  1. Clinicopathologic features and survival of patients with colorectal mucinous, signet-ring cell or non-mucinous adenocarcinoma:experience at an institution in southern China

    SONG Wu; WU Sui-jing; HE Yu-long; CAI Shi-rong; ZHANG Chang-hua; ZHANG Xin-hua; ZHAN Wen-hua


    Background Previous studies have shown conflicting results on the relation between clinicopathologic features and prognosis of patients with colorectal mucinous, signet-ring cell, or non-mucinous adenocarcinoma; only few such studies have been performed in China. This retrospective study analyzed data from our department to investigate clinicopathologic characteristics, prognosis and possible correlations of three histologic types -- colorectal mucinous,signet-ring cell, and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma, to clarity the bases for observed differences which may lead to development of targeted therapies Methods Of 2079 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 1994 and 2007, 144 had mucinous, 25 had signet-ring cell, and 1837 had non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. Their clinicopathologic parameters and survival were analyzed using established statistical methodologies.Results Mucinous and signet-ring cell adenocarcinomas were common in younger patients (P <0.001). Location, size and disease stage differed significantly among the three types. Signet-ring cell tumors were more commonly found in the rectum than mucinous and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (P <0.001). Mucinous and signet-ring cell tumors presented in a later stage in life more often than non-mucinous adenocarcinoma, with lymph node involvement, serosal infiltration, peritoneal dissemination, and adjacent organ invasion (P <0.01). The rate of radical resection, hepatic metastasis and local recurrence did not differ among types (P >0.05). Compared with patients with non-mucinous adenocarcinoma, patients with mucinous and signet-ring cell tumors who underwent potentially curative resections or stage Ⅱ/Ⅲ disease had poorer long-term overall survival. Survival did not differ by type for patients with either stage Ⅰor Ⅳ disease (P >0.05). Conclusions Mucinous and signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma have unique carcinogenesis and similar biologic behavior.Our study confirms that both histologic types

  2. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder with signet-ring cells: case report

    Marcelo Lorenzi Marques

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder are uncommon and usually occur by contiguity with or hematogenic dissemination of other adenocarcinomas such as colorectal, prostate and gynecological tract carcinomas. Mucinous and signet-ring cell histological patterns are even rarer and it is often difficult to morphologically distinguish them from metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. CASE REPORT: We present and discuss a rare case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder with signet-ring cells in a 57-year-old male patient. Other primary sites for the tumor had been excluded and, in the absence of digestive tract tumor and for confirmation that it was a primary bladder tumor, an immunohistochemistry study was performed.

  3. Mucin phenotype of gastric cancer and clinicopathology of gastric-type differentiated adenocarcinoma

    Tsutomu; Namikawa; Kazuhiro; Hanazaki


    Differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach is classified into gastric or intestinal phenotypes based on mucus expression. Recent advances in mucin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry have highlighted the importance of such a distinction, and it is important clinically to distinguish between gastricand intestinal-type differentiated adenocarcinoma. However, a clinical and pathological diagnosis of this type is often difficult in early gastric cancer because of histological similarities between a hyperp...

  4. Vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: A case report and review of the literature

    Rosmalen, M.H. Van; Reijnen, C.; Boll, D.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Piek, J.M.


    BACKGROUND: There are limited cases in literature of patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vulva with neuroendocrine differentiation have. With this new case, we aim to provide an overview of the existing literature and present a tool with relevant markers for the pathologist in the different

  5. Primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma alongside with situs inversus totalis: a unique clinical case

    Evangelou Konstantinos


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract and one of the three major histological subtypes of the primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma. The most common type of presentation is that of acute appendicitis and the diagnosis is usually occurred after appendectomy. The accurate preoperative diagnosis and management of the above condition represents a real challenge when uncommon anatomic anomalies such intestinal malrotation and situs inversus take place. Situs inversus totalis with an incidence of 0.01% is an uncommon condition caused by a single autosomal recessive gene of incomplete penetration in which the major visceral organs are mirrored from their normal positions. Case presentation We present an unusual case of a 59 years old, previously healthy man presented with a left lower quadrant abdominal pain, accompanied with low fever, leukocytosis, anorexia and constipation. A chest radiograph demonstrated dextrocardia with a right side positioned stomach bubble. Both preoperative US and CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis declared situs inversus, with a characteristic thickening in its wall, appendix situated in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. These findings reached to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with situs inversus and a standard appendicectomy was performed. Pathologic evaluation established primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and three months afterwards the patient underwent a subsequent extended left hemicolectomy. Conclusion In conclusion, the occurrence of primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma along with situs inversus, definitely accounts as a unique clinical case. Even synchronous manifestation of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and situs inversus totalis represents an unusual anatomo-pathological entity, all physicians should be familiar having the knowledge to make an appropriate and accurate diagnosis that will lead to prompt and correct

  6. Ruptured mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon in a child : a case report

    Kim, Jong Chul; Shin, Kyung Sook [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Carcinoma of the colon is extremely rare in pediatric patients, and due to the preponderance of poor histological characteristics and the difficulty of diagnosis, the prognosis in children is quite unfavorable. We describe a case of ruptured and disseminated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the descending and sigmoid colon in a 14-year-old boy with abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a large soft tissue mass containing tiny calcifications and poorly enhanced hypodense portions in the thickened descending and sigmoid colon, as well as abundant ascites. Where images reveal a mass with low attenuation, calcifications, and aggressive dissemination, mucinous adenocarcinoma may be preferentially included in the differential diagnosis of a pedriatic colon tumor. (author)

  7. Cytoreductive Surgery and Heated Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Secondary to Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix

    Sparks, David S.; Morris, Bradley; Xu, Wen; Fulton, Jessica; Atkinson, Victoria; Meade, Brian; Lutton, Nicholas


    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a radical but effective treatment option for select peritoneal malignancies. We sought to determine our early experience with this method for peritoneal carcinomatosis secondary to mucinous adenocarcinomas of appendiceal origin. As such, we performed a retrospective clinical study of 30 consecutive patients undergoing CRS with planned HIPEC at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, between June 2009 to Dece...

  8. High-resolution computed tomography findings of early mucinous adenocarcinomas and their pathologic characteristics in 22 surgically resected cases

    Miyata, Naoko, E-mail: [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Endo, Masahiro [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Kojima, Hideaki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Shoji; Isaka, Mitsuhiro [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Kameya, Toru [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Ohde, Yasuhisa [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan)


    Highlights: • We clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of early mucinous adenocarcinoma. • Radiologically, all cases showed solid or part-solid nodules. • Lobular-bounded margins were observed in 7 cases. • The radiological features could be histologically attributed to mucin production. • One-third of the cases were preoperatively misdiagnosed as inflammatory nodules. - Abstract: Background: The pathological criteria of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung have recently been defined; however, its characteristic radiologic imaging findings are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the radiologic and pathological findings of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: In this study, we clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of surgically resected mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimal invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and attempted to elucidate the characteristic radiologic features of early mucinous adenocarcinomas using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Results: Radiologically, the mean value of the maximum diameter of 22 tumours was 2.1 cm (range, 1.0–2.9 cm). Based on the HRCT findings, the tumours were divided into part-solid ground glass nodules (n = 11) and solid nodules (n = 11). The mean CT attenuation value was 25.7 HU (range, 17–35 HU). All tumours, except 3 tumours pathologically diagnosed as AIS, showed air-containing features. According to the preoperative CT findings, 7 (35%) cases were diagnosed as inflammatory nodules. Of these, 4 cases had lobular-bounded margins, and 3 showed vaguely outlined ground glass shadows. Conclusion: The characteristic HRCT findings of mucinous AIS and MIA were solid or part-solid nodules with air-containing spaces. However, some AIS and MIA nodules showed lobular-bounded margins or marginally vaguely outlined ground glass shadows, and were difficult to differentiate from inflammatory nodules.

  9. Mucin-Producing Urothelial-Type Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate (a Case Report and Review of the Literature)

    Haitao Niu; Guang Sun; Jiwu Chang; Yibing Zhang


    OBJECTIVE To report clinical and pathologic findings of one case of mucin-producing urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and to discuss the diagnosis and prognosis of this disease.METHODS The patient was a 60-year-old man who had an 8-month history of urinary frequency and dysuria culminating in an aggravating condition for 10-days. Laboratory results were tPSA 3.0 and fPSA 0.4. An ultrasound and digital rectal exam showed no abnormal findings, so he was diagnosed as having benign prostatic hyperplasia, and underwent a transurethral prostate resection.RESULTS The findings during the operation resembled benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), whereas the pathological exam showed that the prostatic construction was deranged in the tumor infiltrating region, with many mucin lakes and signet ring cell in the cancer tissue. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the cancer tissue was negative for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and postive for carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA). Final diagnosis: mucin-producing urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of the prostate.After 50 Gy radiotherapy, the patient was free of recurrent signs and metastasis up to 8 months after operation.CONCLUSION Mucin-producing urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of the prostate is extremely rare. Its differential diagnosis mainly includes conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma with mucin production and secondary adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis and treatment of this disease should be further investigated.

  10. Primary minute mucinous adenocarcinoma of vermiform appendix arising from appendiceal diverticulosis

    Tadashi Terada, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA of vermiform appendix is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported in the English literature. A 77-year-old man presented with abdominal pain, and was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was performed. The resected appendix showed submucosal swelling measuring 0.7×0.6×0.6 cm in the tip of appendix. The appendix showed inflammation and numerous diverticuloses. Microscopically, the submucosal swelling was a mucin lake in which adenocarcinoma cells were floating. The adenocarcinoma cells were MA in 80% and signet-ring cell carcinoma in 20%. The carcinoma cells were located in the submucosa, muscular layer and subserosa, sparing the mucosa. No apparent lymphovascular permeation was seen. The surgical margins were negative for tumor cells. The non-tumorous appendix shows numerous diverticulosis, diverticulitis, and appendicitis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CK CAM5.2, CK AE1/3, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, CEA, CA19-9, MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, NCAM, p53 and Ki-67 (labeling index = 23%. The tumor cells were negative for CK34BE12, CD5, CK6, CK7, NSE, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CA125, KIT, and PDGFRA. No metastasis has been seen 2.5 years after the operation.

  11. Goblet cells carcinoid with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vermiform appendix: a step towards the unitary intestinal stem cell theory?

    Gravante, G; Yahia, S; Gopalakrishnan, K; Mathew, G


    Associations of various histotypes in appendiceal neoplasms may help elucidate the histogenesis of such uncommon tumors. We present the fourth published case of Goblet Cell Carcinoid (GCC) associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix. This association has been described only for GCC and not for classic appendix carcinoids which are thought to originate from neuroendocrine-committed cells. The GCC-mucinous association adds more towards the theory of a pluripotent intestinal stem cell with amphicrine possibilities of differentiation.

  12. Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Arising in Chronic Perianal Fistula: Good Results with Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Surgery

    Marisa D. Santos


    Full Text Available Chronic perianal fistulas are a common clinical condition. However, their evolution to adenocarcinoma is rare. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with perianal chronic fistulas, who developed two perianal ulcerated lesions near the external orifices of the fistulas, which extended proximally as a pararectal tumor. No intestinal lesion was seen at endoscopic examination. Histopathological biopsy indicated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Staging was performed by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and thoracoabdominal CT scan. The patient underwent a laparoscopic colostomy followed by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and then laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection followed by adjuvant therapy. We have seen a favorable outcome with no recurrence at 3 years of follow-up.

  13. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component: relation of MMP-13, EGFR, and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis.

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Aziz, Azza Abdel


    The aim of this study was to compare colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, ordinary adenocarcinoma (OA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) regarding clinicopathological parameters, survival, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 28 patients with adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, 47 with OA, and 56 with MA, who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. High density manual tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry for EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin was done. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component (AWMC) was significantly associated with more perineural invasion, lower EGFR, and MMP-13 expressions than OA, with no difference in E-cadherin expression. Conversely, only microscopic abscess formation was significantly more with colorectal AWMC than MC with no difference in EGFR, MMP-13 and E-cadherin expression between both groups. Colorectal AWMC showed a better survival than MA with no difference with OA. In a univariate analysis, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin expressions did not show a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival in patients with colorectal AWMC. Colorectal AWMC remains a vague entity that resembles OA in some clinicopathological and molecular respects as well as MA. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma. A further reason for histological study of anal fistula or anorectal abscess].

    Marti, L; Nussbaumer, P; Breitbach, T; Hollinger, A


    A 39-year-old man came to us for surgical treatment of a hidradenitis suppurativa. Upon excision of a perianal abscess, the diagnosis of a rare tumor, a perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma (pT4, pN 1, MO), was made. An abdominoperineal resection was performed, followed by a combination of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. A year after the operation, the patient is doing well without any signs of recurrence. This carcinoma probably arises in the anal glands. It often presents as a perirectal abscess and/or an anal fistula. Therefore, the diagnosis is often delayed. At presentation, the tumor is bigger than 5 cm in diameter in 80% of the cases, and the prognosis is poor. It metastasizes mostly to the superficial inguinal or to the retrorectal lymph nodes. There are only case reports and no comparative studies in the literature. In the last 10 years, the carcinoma has mostly been treated by neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy, followed by abdominoperineal resection. Since then, the median survival has increased to 3 years. This is the first case report of a combination of a perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma with a hidradenitis suppurativa.

  15. Mucin pattern reflects the origin of the adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus: a retrospective clinical and laboratorial study

    Corbett Carlos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucin immunoexpression in adenocarcinoma arising in Barrett's esophagus (BE may indicate the carcinogenesis pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate resected specimens of adenocarcinoma in BE for the pattern of mucins and to correlate to the histologic classification. Methods Specimens were retrospectively collected from thirteen patients who underwent esophageal resection due to adenocarcinoma in BE. Sections were scored for the grade of intestinal metaplasia. The tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry for MUC2 and MUC5AC antibodies. Results Eleven patients were men. The mean age was 61 years old (varied from 40 to 75 years old. The tumor size had a mean of 4.7 ± 2.3 cm, and the extension of BE had a mean of 7.7 ± 1.5 cm. Specialized epithelium with intestinal metaplasia was present in all adjacent mucosas. Immunohistochemistry for MUC2 showed immunoreactivity in goblet cells, while MUC5AC was extensively expressed in the columnar gastric cells, localizing to the surface epithelium and extending to a variable degree into the glandular structures in BE. Tumors were classified according to the mucins in gastric type in 7/13 (MUC5AC positive and intestinal type in 4/13 (MUC2 positive. Two tumors did not express MUC2 or MUC5AC proteins. The pattern of mucin predominantly expressed in the adjacent epithelium was associated to the mucin expression profile in the tumors, p = 0.047. Conclusion Barrett's esophagus adenocarcinoma shows either gastric or intestinal type pattern of mucin expression. The two types of tumors developed in Barrett's esophagus may reflect the original cell type involved in the malignant transformation.

  16. Double Primary Tumors-Renal Cell Carcinoma and Duodenal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma

    Dejan Vuckovic


    Full Text Available A 59-year old patient was admited to the Gastroenterology Clinic with the signs of gastrointestinal bleeding. Computerized tomography (CT and a barium-meal radiography revealed a circumferential nodular wall narrowing and incomplete stricture at the D2 part of the duodenum. CT also showed a poorly demarcated mass in the upper and lower poles of the left kidney. During the operation, the whole kidney together with the tumor was removed and also a part of the duodenum. Morphological features of both tumors were typical and distinctive enough to set the diagnosis of two independent primary tumors. The possibility of one being the metastasis of the other was excluded. The diagnosis of double primary malignant neoplasms - renal cell carcinoma and duodenal mucinous adenocarcinoma was made.

  17. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of lung invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma based on computed tomography findings

    Shimizu K


    Full Text Available Katsuhiko Shimizu, Riki Okita, Shinsuke Saisho, Ai Maeda, Yuji Nojima, Masao Nakata Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan Background: We performed an analysis to clarify differences in clinicopathological and molecular features of lung invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA based on computed tomography (CT findings and their impact on prognosis.Patients and methods: On the basis of CT findings, we divided lung IMA into three subtypes: solid, bubbling, and pneumonic. We then investigated differences in clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, and the expressions of well-identified biomarkers, including cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1, ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1, class III beta-tubulin, thymidylate synthase (TS, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, programmed cell death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1, and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, among the three subtypes.Results: A total of 29 patients with resected lung IMA were analyzed. Compared with the solid or bubbling type, the pneumonic type had a higher proportion of symptoms, a larger tumor size, a higher pathological stage, and a significantly worse prognosis. The immunohistochemical findings tended to show high expression of RRM1, class III beta-tubulin, and Cox-2 in the tumor and of SPARC in the stroma, but not of ERCC1, TS, and PD-L1 in the tumor. None of the biomarkers with high expression levels in the tumor were prognostic biomarkers, but the expression of SPARC in the stroma was correlated with a poor outcome.Conclusion: Clinical and pathological features, in conjunction with molecular data, indicate that IMA should be divided into different subgroups. In our results, the pneumonic type was correlated with a significantly worse outcome. Further studies should be performed to confirm our conclusion and to explore its molecular implications. Keywords: non-small cell

  18. Cytoreductive Surgery and Heated Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Secondary to Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix

    Sparks, David S.; Morris, Bradley; Xu, Wen; Fulton, Jessica; Atkinson, Victoria; Meade, Brian; Lutton, Nicholas


    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a radical but effective treatment option for select peritoneal malignancies. We sought to determine our early experience with this method for peritoneal carcinomatosis secondary to mucinous adenocarcinomas of appendiceal origin. As such, we performed a retrospective clinical study of 30 consecutive patients undergoing CRS with planned HIPEC at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, between June 2009 to December 2012, with mucinous adenocarcinomas of the appendix. CRS was performed in 30 patients, 13 received HIPEC intraoperatively and 17 received early postoperative intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) in addition. Mean age was 52.3 years and median hospital stay was 26 days (range 12–190 days). Peritoneal cancer index scores were 0–10 in 6.7% of patients, 11–20 in 20% of patients and >20 in 73.3% of patients. Complete cytoreduction was achieved overall in 21 patients. In total, 106 complications were observed in 28 patients. Ten were grade 3-A, five were grade 3-B and one grade-5 secondary to a fatal PE on day 97. In patients who received HIPEC, there was no difference in disease-free survival (P = 0.098) or overall survival (P = 0.645) between those who received EPIC versus those who did not. This study demonstrates that satisfactory outcomes with regards to morbidity and survival can be achieved with CRS and HIPEC, at a single-centre institution with growing expertise in the technique. Our results are comparable with outcomes previously described in the international literature. PMID:25594636

  19. Mucinous Colorectal Adenocarcinoma: Influence of EGFR and E-Cadherin Expression on Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis.

    Foda, Abd AlRahman M; AbdelAziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira K; Hosni, Ali; Zalata, Khalid R; Gado, Asmaa I


    Previous studies have shown conflicting results on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and E-cadherin expression in colorectal carcinoma and their prognostic significance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate EGFR and E-cadherin expression, interrelation and relation to clinicopathologic, histologic parameters, and survival in rare colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA). In this study, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tips technique, and immunohistochemistry for EGFR and E-cadherin was performed. All relations were analyzed using established statistical methodologies. NMA expressed EGFR and E-cadherin in significantly higher rates with significant heterogenous pattern than MA. EGFR and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in both NMA and MA groups. In the NMA group, high EGFR expression was associated with old age, male sex, multiplicity of tumors, lack of mucinous component, and association with schistosomiasis. However, in the MA group, high EGFR expression was associated only with old age and MA subtype rather than signet ring carcinoma subtype. Conversely, high E-cadherin expression in MA cases was associated with old age, fungating tumor configuration, MA subtype, and negative intratumoral lymphocytic response. However, in the NMA cases, none of these factors was statistically significant. In a univariate analysis, neither EGFR nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival. Targeted therapy against EGFR and E-cadherin may not be useful in patients with MA. Neither EGFR nor E-cadherin is an independent prognostic factor in NMA or MA.

  20. Pathobiological behavior and molecular mechanism of signet ring cell carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach:A comparative study

    Xue-Fei Yang; Lin Yang; Xiao-Yun Mao; Dong-Ying Wu; Su-Min Zhang; Yan Xin


    AIM: To elucidate the distinctive pathobiological behavior between signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach.METHODS: Based on the histological growth patterns and cell-functional differentiation classifications of stomach carcinoma, we conducted a series of comparative studies.All paraffin-embedded and frozen blocks were collected from the files of Cancer Institute of China Medical University. On the basis of histopathological observation, we applied enzymatic and mucous histochemistry, immunohistochemistry,flow cytometry (FCM) and molecular biology to compare these two categories of gastric cancers in terms of the DNA ploidy, proliferative kinetics, the expression of gastric carcinoma associated gene product and instabilities of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).RESULTS: Gastric SRC was commonly seen in females below 45 years, mostly presenting diffuse growth and ovary or uterine cervix metastasis. The majority of SRC were absorptive and mucus-producing functional differentiation type (AMlPFDT), which growth relied on estrogen. Meanwhile,stomach mucinous adenocarcinomas were mostly observed in males over 50 years, prone to massive growth or nest growth and extensive peritoneal infiltration, showing two categories of cell-functional differentiation types: AMPFDT and mucus-secreting functional differentiation type (MSFDT).Expressions of ER, enzyme c-PDE and 67kDaLN-R in SRC were evidently higher than that in mucinous adenocarcinoma,while expressions of LN, CN-IV, CD44v6, and PTEN protein were obviously lower in SRC than that in mucinous adenocarcinoma (P<0.05). There was no statistic significance in VEGF, ECD and instabilities of mtDNA (P>0.05) between the above two gastric carcinomas.CONCLUSION: Though SRC and mucinous adenocarcinoma were both characterized by abundant mucus-secretion, they were quite different in morphology, ultrastructure, cellfunctional differentiation and protein expression, indicating different mechanisms of

  1. Immunophenotype and K-RAS mutation in mucinous ovarian adenocarcinoma with mural nodule of high-grade sarcoma: case report.

    Desouki, Mohamed M; Fadare, Oluwole; Kanbour, Anisa; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal


    Ovarian mucinous tumors with mural nodules are rare. The mural nodules are microscopically divergent neoplasms of varying sizes that may be benign (eg, sarcoma-like and carcinosarcoma-like), or malignant (eg, anaplastic carcinoma and sarcoma). The K-RAS gene mutation in ovarian mucinous neoplasms with mural nodules has not been previously reported. This is a case report of a 25-year-old female diagnosed with ovarian invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma with mural nodule of high-grade sarcoma. The mucinous tumor component demonstrated a K-RAS codon 12/13 mutation (p.G12V, c.35 G>T), whereas the sarcomatous component demonstrated a K-RAS codon 12/13 mutation (p.G12D, c.35 G>A). Although both tumor components revealed a mutation in codon 12 of K-RAS, they were of different nucleotide substitutions, indicating that these 2 tumor components were of different clonal origins. However, the fact that the 2 mutations identified in the tumor components are the most common mutations reported in mucinous tumors of the ovary, raises the possibility that sarcomatous mural nodules simply represent a form of dedifferentiation in mucinous tumors.

  2. Clinical significance of subcellular localization of KL-6 mucin in primary colorectal adenocarcinoma and metastatic tissues

    Qian Guo; Masatoshi Makuuchi; Wei Tang; Yoshinori Inagaki; Yutaka Midorikawa; Norihiro Kokudo; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Munehiro Nakata; Toshiro Konishi; Hirokazu Nagawa


    AIM: To assess subcellular localization of KL-6 mucin and its clinicopathological significance in colorectal carcinoma as well as metastatic lymph node and liver tissues.METHODS: Colorectal carcinoma tissues as well as metastatic lymph node and liver tissues were collected from 82 patients who underwent colorectomy or hepatectomy. Tissues were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using KL-6 antibody.RESULTS: Of the 82 colorectal carcinoma patients, 6showed no staining, 29 showed positive staining only in the apical membrane, and 47 showed positive staining in the circumferential membrane and/or cytoplasm.Positive staining was not observed in non-cancerous colorectal epithelial cells surrounding the tumor tissues.The five-year survival rate was significantly lower in cases showing positive staining in the circumferential membrane and/or cytoplasm (63.0%) than those showing positive staining only in the apical membrane (85.7%) and those showing no staining (100%).Statistical analysis between clinicopathological factors and subcellular localization of KL-6 mucin showed that KL-6 localization in the circumferential membrane and/or cytoplasm was significantly associated with the presence of venous invasion (P=0.0003), lymphatic invasion (P<0.0001), lymph node metastasis (P<0.0001),liver metastasis (P=0.058), and advanced histological stage (P<0.0001). Positive staining was observed in all metastatic lesions tested as well as in the primary colorectal carcinoma tissues.CONCLUSION: The subcellular staining pattern of KL-6 in colorectal adenocarcinoma may be an important indicator for unfavorable behaviors such as lymph node and liver metastasis, as well as for the prognosis of patients.

  3. Synchronous mucinous adenocarcinoma of the recto sigmoid revealed by and seeding an anal fistula. (A case report and review of the literature).

    Spiridakis, Konstadinos G; Sfakianakis, Elefterios E; Flamourakis, Manthos E; Intzepogazoglou, Dimitra S; Tsagataki, Eleni S; Ximeris, Nikolaos E; Rachmanis, Efstathios K; Gionis, Ioannis G; Kostakis, Giorgos E; Christodoulakis, Manousos S


    There are few cases of synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma revealed by an anal fistula. The diagnosis of synchronous mucinous adenocarcinoma of the recto sigmoid and anal canal remains difficult. The chronic anal fistula can be mistaken as the common manifestation of a benign perianal abscess or fistula. We present a rare case of a Greek Caucasian 79year old male patient with anal fistula and a recurrent perianal abscess who subsequently was found to have developed synchronous rectosigmoid and perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma on biopsy. The histological exam revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma in two sites, representing two tumors, cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 20 and negative in cytokeratin 7. The patient underwent "laparoscopic extralevator abdominoperineal excision " with both lesions being resected. There is no recurrence after four years of follow up. This case highlights the importance of high suspicion, further investigation and the need of biopsy in all anal fistulae. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The clinical value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in postoperative patients with gastrointestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma.

    Yang, Zhong-Yi; Hu, Si-Long; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Bei-Ling; Xu, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Ying-Jian


    To evaluate the clinical value of F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT) in postoperative patients with gastrointestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma. From July 2007 to March 2009, 30 patients who had previous surgical resection of histopathologically diagnosed gastrointestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma underwent ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT scans in our center. The standard of reference for tumor recurrence, regional lymph node (LN) metastasis, peritoneal and distant metastasis consisted of histopathologic confirmation or clinical follow-up information for at least 6 months after PET/CT examinations. With final diagnosis, tumor recurrences were confirmed in eight of the 30 patients (26.7%). If a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 2.5 or more was used as a cut-off point, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET/CT were 87.5, 77.3, and 80.0%, respectively. However, if an SUVmax of 4.0 or more was the criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 25.0, 86.4, and 70.0%, respectively. A cut-off point of 2.5 showed a higher sensitivity (P=0.041), and there was no statistical difference in the specificity and the accuracy of these two criteria. For the diagnosis of metastasis in regional LNs and peritoneum, the detection rate was 95.2 and 86.4%, respectively. In addition, we followed up 20 patients with 26 suspicious distant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 58.3, 92.9, and 76.9%, respectively. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT may be effective to discriminate tumor recurrence, and to detect regional LNs, peritoneal and distant metastasis in postoperative patients with gastrointestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma.

  5. A Rare Case of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Biliary Duct in a Patient with Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    Ravish Parekh


    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs are mucin-producing papillary neoplasms of the pancreatic or biliary ductal system that exhibit variable cellular atypia and cause ductal dilation. There are few reported cases of IPMN arising from the biliary tree in the literature. It has a higher propensity to undergo malignant transformation compared to IPMN arising from the pancreatic duct. An 80-year-old male underwent cross-sectional tomography (CT imaging of the abdomen for evaluation of prostate adenocarcinoma, which revealed an incidental 2.3 × 2.7 cm soft tissue mass centered at the porta hepatis with diffuse dilatation of the left intrahepatic biliary ductal system and mild prominence of the right intrahepatic ductal system. Endoscopic ultrasound showed 2 adjacent hilar masses involving the common hepatic duct and the left hepatic duct with protrusion of the tissue into the lumen of the duct and upstream ductal dilatation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a large filling defect in the common hepatic duct extending into the left hepatic duct. A large amount of clot and soft tissue with a fish-egg appearance was retrieved. The patient underwent left hepatic lobectomy, radical resection of the common hepatic duct with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy to the right hepatic duct. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with diffuse high-grade dysplasia. Follow-up CT scan of the abdomen 2 months after the surgery was negative for any masses.

  6. A Rare Case of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Biliary Duct in a Patient with Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    Parekh, Ravish; Krol, Gregory; Piraka, Cyrus; Batra, Surinder


    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are mucin-producing papillary neoplasms of the pancreatic or biliary ductal system that exhibit variable cellular atypia and cause ductal dilation. There are few reported cases of IPMN arising from the biliary tree in the literature. It has a higher propensity to undergo malignant transformation compared to IPMN arising from the pancreatic duct. An 80-year-old male underwent cross-sectional tomography (CT) imaging of the abdomen for evaluation of prostate adenocarcinoma, which revealed an incidental 2.3 × 2.7 cm soft tissue mass centered at the porta hepatis with diffuse dilatation of the left intrahepatic biliary ductal system and mild prominence of the right intrahepatic ductal system. Endoscopic ultrasound showed 2 adjacent hilar masses involving the common hepatic duct and the left hepatic duct with protrusion of the tissue into the lumen of the duct and upstream ductal dilatation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a large filling defect in the common hepatic duct extending into the left hepatic duct. A large amount of clot and soft tissue with a fish-egg appearance was retrieved. The patient underwent left hepatic lobectomy, radical resection of the common hepatic duct with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy to the right hepatic duct. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with diffuse high-grade dysplasia. Follow-up CT scan of the abdomen 2 months after the surgery was negative for any masses. PMID:28100995

  7. Urachal adenocarcinoma that metastasized to breast was misinterpreted as primary breast mucinous carcinoma: A rare case report and literature review

    Zhao, Xiang-Rong; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Lei; Qu, Wei; Li, Jia; Gao, Yong-Sheng; Yu, Yong-Hua


    Abstract Background: The urachus is a vestigial tubular structure that connects the urinary bladder to the allantois during early embryonic development. Urachal carcinoma develops in the urachus, which is an embryological remnant of the urogenital sinus and allantois. The estimated annual incidence of urachal carcinoma in the general population is 0.01% of all cancers in adults. Moreover, urachal carcinoma accounts for 0.34% to 0.7% of all bladder carcinoma cases. And breast metastasis is extremely rarer. Methods and Results: A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in the outer upper quadrant of the right breast, which was misinterpreted as a carcinoma that originated from the breast. Subsequently, she underwent surgery without any further meticulous examination. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed positivity for CK20, Villin, and CDX-2 and negativity for CK7. After further inspection, a mass was found in the bladder dome using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography. The mass was surgically removed. Conclusion: Pathologic and immunohistochemical examination confirmed that the mass was urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma to the right breast. The patient has been followed up without recurrence for 8 months. PMID:27583877

  8. Relation of glypican-3 and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis of mucinous and non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohammad, Mie Ali; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal


    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a member of the membrane-bound heparin sulfate proteoglycans. E-cadherin is an adhesive receptor that is believed to act as a tumor suppressor gene. Many studies had investigated E-cadherin expressions in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) while only one study had investigated GPC3 expression in CRC. This study aims to investigate expression of GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal mucinous carcinoma (MA) and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) using manual tissue microarray technique. Tumor tissue specimens are collected from 75 cases of MC and 75 cases of NMA who underwent radical surgery from Jan 2007 to Jan 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. Their clinicopathological parameters and survival data were revised and analyzed using established statistical methodologies. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique and immunohistochemistry for GPC3 and E-cadherin was done. NMA showed higher expression of GPC3 than MA with no statistically significant relation. NMA showed a significantly higher E-cadherin expression than MA. GPC3 and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in NMA, but not in MA, group. In NMA group, there was no significant relation between either GPC3 or E-cadherin expression and the clinicopathological features. In a univariate analysis, neither GPC3 nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS). GPC3 and E-cadherin expressions are not independent prognostic factors in CRC. However, expressions of both are significantly interrelated in NMA patients, suggesting an excellent interplay between both, in contrast to MA. Further molecular studies are needed to further explore the relationship between GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  9. A role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography in a strategy for abdominal wall metastasis of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma developed after laparoscopic surgery

    Kaneko Hironori


    Full Text Available Abstract Metastasis to the abdominal wall including port sites after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is rare. Resection of metastatic lesions may lead to greater survival benefit if the abdominal wall metastasis is the only manifestation of recurrent disease. A 57-year-old man, who underwent laparoscopic surgery for advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum 6 years prior, developed a nodule in the surgical wound at the lower right abdomen. Although tumor markers were within normal limits, the metastasis to the abdominal wall and abdominal cavity from the previous cecal cancer was suspected. An abdominal computed tomography scan did not provide detective evidence of metastasis. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT was therefore performed, which demonstrated increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (maximum standardized uptake value: 3.1 in the small abdominal wall nodule alone. Histopathological examination of the resected nodule confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Prognosis of intestinal mucinous adenocarcinoma is reported to be poorer than that of non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, this case suggests an important role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in early diagnosis and decision-making regarding therapy for recurrent disease in cases where a firm diagnosis of recurrent colorectal cancer is difficult to make.

  10. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix associated with adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon and hepatocellular carcinoma of the liver: Report of a case

    Srdjan P Djuranovic; Milan M Spuran; Nada V Kovacevic; Milenko B Ugljesic; Dragutin M Kecmanovic; Marjan T Micev


    Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix is a rare condition and represents one of the three entities with the common name mucocele of the appendix. It is characterized by a cystic dilatation of the lumen with stasis of mucus inside it. Histopathologically mucocele is divided into three groups: focal or diffuse mucosal hyperplasia, mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This condition is often associated with other neoplasia, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and ovaries. We here describe a 57 year old male patient who presented with abdominal discomfort,constipation, fresh blood in stool and frequent urination.He had a big cystadenoma of the appendix associated with adenocarcinoma of the colon and hepatocellular carcinoma of the liver. The patient underwent right haemicolectomy, sigmoid colon resection and segmental resection of the liver. Now 3 years later he has no evidence of disease relapse. According to this, we stress the need of accurate preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative exploration of the whole abdomen in these patients.

  11. Multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon in a woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report and review of literatures.

    Zhou, Feng; Lv, Bingjian; Dong, Lifeng; Wan, Fang; Qin, Jiale; Huang, Lili


    We report a very rare case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) composed of multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma. A 46-year-old woman presented to our hospital with lower abdominal pain resulting from PJS involves sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT), ovarian mucinous tumor, ovarian serous tumor, mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon. The CEA concentration is high before surgery, and decreases after the surgery and subsequent chemoradiotherapy. This case demonstrates a classic clinical presentation of a patient with PJS. PJS patients have increased risk of malignancy and early detection and regular surveillance of the high-risk patients with PJS is crucial. Surgery may be required for obstructive gastrointestinal lesions as well as those exhibiting malignant degeneration.

  12. Vesico-appendiceal fistula in a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix Fístula vésico-apendicular em adenocarcinoma mucinoso do apêndice

    Ivan R B Orso


    Full Text Available BACKGOUND: A rare case of vesicoappendiceal fistula secondary to mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix is presented. CASE REPORT: A 62-year-old man with a one year history of recurrent urinary tract infections. After two months he developed pneumaturia and fecaluria. An abdominal and pelvic computed tomography demonstrated a trans-mural mass in the posterior wall of the bladder with a vesicoenteric fistula leading to the terminal ileum. Laparotomy revealed a tumor arising from the appendix contiguous with the bladder posterior wall. The bladder was opened and a large fistula and tumor on the posterior bladder wall near the trigone was identified. Frozen pathological analysis showed a mucinous adenocarcinoma. En-bloc right hemicolectomy and partial cystectomy, preserving bladder trigone was performed. After manipulating the tumor, grossly leakage of mucinous materials occurred into the pelvic cavity. A peritoneal washing with a mytomicin solution at 42º C was then performed, to prevent peritoneal seeding. The patient had a prolonged postoperative ileus and was discharged at the 15th day. Five months after the procedure the patient was recieving chemotherapy with 5-fluoracil and leucovorin and there was no signs of recurrent disease. CONCLUSION: The presentation with vesico-appendiceal fistula is extremely rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Knowledge of different types of neoplasm and appropriate treatment allows the surgeon to provide patients optimal care referring to specialized centers whenever appropriate.INTRODUÇÃO: Apresenta-se raro caso de fístula vésico-apendicular secundária a adenocarcinoma mucinoso do apêndice. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente masculino de 62 anos com história de um ano de infecções urinárias de repetição. Após dois meses desenvolveu pneumatúria e fecalúria, sendo indicada tomografia computadorizada de abdômen que mostrou massa trans-mural na parede da bexiga, com fistula v

  13. The Case of an Elderly Male Patient with Unknown Primary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma within Presacral Teratoma (Teratoma with Malignant Transformation

    Ozgur Tanriverdi


    Full Text Available Teratomas are rarely seen in adults, and presacral region is an area where they rarely settle in. Similarly, only about 1% of teratomas show malignant transformation. Malignant transformation is often associated with the area where teratoma settles in. Malignant transformation of mediastinal teratomas is more frequent than the ones located in retroperitoneal area and gonad. They most commonly show rhabdomyosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, enteric adenocarcinoma, and leukemia transformation. In teratomas showing malignant transformation, the clinical course is aggressive; and survival of patients with metastatic disease is very low. The primary treatment of teratomas with malignant transformations is surgical. Effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is not clear in patients, to whom surgical operation cannot be applied, or those who are with residual tumor, even if surgical operation can be applied to them, or those who are at metastatic stage. In this paper, we presented a 76-year-old male patient due to the histologic diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma within teratoma, in whom approximately 7 cm presacral mass was found during the radiographic examination made by the reason of low back pain and pelvic pain.

  14. The Case of an Elderly Male Patient with Unknown Primary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma within Presacral Teratoma (Teratoma with Malignant Transformation)

    Cokmert, Suna; Koca, Emine; Bulut, Naki; Gul, Suha; Yilmaz, Nevin


    Teratomas are rarely seen in adults, and presacral region is an area where they rarely settle in. Similarly, only about 1% of teratomas show malignant transformation. Malignant transformation is often associated with the area where teratoma settles in. Malignant transformation of mediastinal teratomas is more frequent than the ones located in retroperitoneal area and gonad. They most commonly show rhabdomyosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, enteric adenocarcinoma, and leukemia transformation. In teratomas showing malignant transformation, the clinical course is aggressive; and survival of patients with metastatic disease is very low. The primary treatment of teratomas with malignant transformations is surgical. Effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is not clear in patients, to whom surgical operation cannot be applied, or those who are with residual tumor, even if surgical operation can be applied to them, or those who are at metastatic stage. In this paper, we presented a 76-year-old male patient due to the histologic diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma within teratoma, in whom approximately 7 cm presacral mass was found during the radiographic examination made by the reason of low back pain and pelvic pain. PMID:25874143

  15. Pancreatic Mucinous Cyst Adenocarcinoma Producing CA 19-9. A Case Report

    Sumiya Ishigami


    Full Text Available Context We herein present a rare case of a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas producing CA 19-9 and the clinical implications are discussed. Case report A 35-year-old woman with no history of abdominal surgery presented at Saisei Kai Sendai Hospital with an upper abdominal distention. Abdominal CT showed a large lobulated cystic tumor at the pancreatic tail. No distant metastases were identified. The preoperative serum CA 19-9 level was 6,200 U/mL (reference range: 0-37 U/mL. A mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas was diagnosed and elective surgery was performed. On laparotomy, a round tumor 15 cm in diameter was encountered in the upper left abdomen. No invasion of neighboring organs or the portal vein was apparent. The entire tumor was curatively resected with a distal pancreatectomy. The final histopathological analysis revealed mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with no invasive component. Immunohistochemical staining disclosed CA 19-9 expression within the tumor cells. The CA 19-9 level normalized rapidly postoperatively and, although a minor pancreatic fistula occurred, this was resolved conservatively. She was discharged on the 45th postoperative day with no sign of tumor relapse; her CA 19-9 level was within the normal range 20 months postoperatively. Conclusion We present this rare case of a mucinous cystic neoplasm producing CA 19-9 and discuss the relevant literature. The CA 19-9 production in this tumor does not appear to be directly correlated to aggressive clinical behavior.

  16. Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of Renal Pelvis. A Case Presentation Adenocarcinoma mucinoso de pelvis renal. Presentación de un caso

    Caridad Socorro Castro


    Full Text Available

    Malignant neoplasms of the kidney represent about 2% of all cancers, being renal cell carcinoma the most frequent presentation in this group with a frequency of 80% to 90%. Adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis is a rare neoplasm, which occurs in less than 1% of patients with renal malignancies and is associated, most of the times, to inflammatory processes of the organ and to renal stones. For all these reasons it was decided to publish a clinical case diagnosed in the Anatomical Pathology Department of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima General University Hospital in Cienfuegos. A female patient over forty years old presented this histological variant of kidney cancer.

    Las neoplasias malignas del riñón representan alrededor del 2 % de todos los cánceres, el carcinoma de células renales es el más frecuente dentro de este grupo con una frecuencia del 80 al 90 %. El adenocarcinoma de pelvis renal es una neoplasia muy rara, que se presenta en menos del 1 % de los pacientes con neoplasias malignas renales, asociada, la mayoría de las veces, a procesos inflamatorios del  órgano y litiasis. Por tales razones se decidió la publicación de un caso clínico diagnosticado  en el Departamento de Anatomía Patológica del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, de Cienfuegos, con esta variante histológica de cáncer renal, en una mujer en la cuarta década de la vida.

  17. Malignant Transformation of a Mature Cystic Ovarian Teratoma into Thyroid Carcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Strumal Carcinoid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Hilary D. Hinshaw


    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of a mature cystic teratoma (MCT is an infrequent, often asymptomatic event. We report the first example of a struma ovarii with a focus of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (a, mucinous adenocarcinoma (b, and strumal carcinoid tumor (c—all three arising in one mature cystic teratoma of the ovary. From our reviews, we found limited data to guide management when these malignant foci occur within an MCT. Consideration should be given to thyroidectomy followed by total-body scanning and serum studies for foci of thyroid carcinoma and adjuvant therapy with thyroidectomy and radioablation if residual disease is identified (a. Additionally, extrapolating from data for mucinous adenocarcinomas, consideration could be given to adjuvant chemotherapy after appropriate staging (b. Strumal carcinoid tumors should be treated as tumors of low malignant potential. Observation is appropriate if after complete staging, no invasive implants are noted (c.

  18. Experience with adjuvant chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei secondary to mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix with oxaliplatin/fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX4

    Huang Che-Jen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare condition characterized by mucinous tumors, disseminated intra-peritoneal implants, and mucinous ascites. So far its diagnosis remains challenging to most clinicians. Case presentation A 55-year-old male patient had suffered from acute onset of abdominal pain and abdominal distension for one day prior to his admission. Physical examination revealed tenderness over the right lower quadrant of the abdomen without diffuse muscle guarding. A large amount of ascites was identified by abdominal computed tomography (CT scan. Paracentesis showed the appearance of sticky mucinous ascites. He underwent laparotomy under the impression of pseudomyxoma peritonei. There was a lot of mucinous ascites, one appendiceal tumor and multiple peritoneal implants disseminated from the subphrenic space to the recto-vesicle pouch. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei caused by mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendiceal origin, was confirmed by histopathology. We performed an excision of the appendiceal tumor combined with copious irrigation and debridement. After the operation, he received 10 cycles of systemic chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 regimen, without specific morbidity. Follow-up of abdominal CT and colonoscopy at post-operative 17 months showed excellent response without evidence of local recurrence or distal metastasis. He made an uneventful recovery (up to the present for 21 months after the operation. Conclusion This case report emphasizes the possible new role of systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with this rare clinical syndrome.

  19. Distinction of Invasive Carcinoma Derived From Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms From Concomitant Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas Using Molecular Biomarkers.

    Tamura, Koji; Ohtsuka, Takao; Date, Kenjiro; Fujimoto, Takaaki; Matsunaga, Taketo; Kimura, Hideyo; Watanabe, Yusuke; Miyazaki, Tetsuyuki; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Takahata, Shunichi; Ishigami, Kousei; Oda, Yoshinao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masao


    To clarify the usefulness of molecular biomarkers for distinguishing invasive carcinoma derived from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs [Inv-IPMN]) from concomitant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Data from 19 patients with resected concomitant PDAC were retrospectively reviewed. KRAS/GNAS mutations and immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p53 and p16/CDKN2A were assessed in both IPMN and distinct PDAC. As controls, KRAS/GNAS mutations and IHC labeling were assessed between invasive and noninvasive components in 1 lesion of 22 independent patients. KRAS/GNAS mutation status of invasive and noninvasive components in Inv-IPMN was consistent in 18 (86%) of 21 patients. Conversely, mutational patterns in IPMN and distinct PDAC in the same pancreas differed from each other in 17 (89%) of 19. There were 10 (53%) and 8 (42%) of 19 patients who showed the same p53 and p16/CDKN2A staining between concomitant PDAC and distinct IPMN. In the Inv-IPMN cohort, 19 (86%) of 22 patients showed the same IHC expression pattern between the noninvasive and invasive components. It may be possible to distinguish Inv-IPMN from concomitant PDAC by assessing these molecular biomarkers. More precise distinction of Inv-IPMN and concomitant PDAC will lead to adequate recognition of the natural history of IPMNs and hence optimal management.

  20. Loss of gastric gland mucin-specific O-glycan is associated with progression of differentiated-type adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    Shiratsu, Kazuo; Higuchi, Kayoko; Nakayama, Jun


    Gastric gland mucin secreted from the lower portion of the gastric mucosa contains unique O-linked oligosaccharides having terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (αGlcNAc) residues largely attached to a MUC6 scaffold. Previously, we generated A4gnt-deficient mice, which totally lack αGlcNAc, and showed that αGlcNAc functions as a tumor suppressor for gastric cancer. Here, to determine the clinicopathological significance of αGlcNAc in gastric carcinomas, we examined immunohistochemical expression of αGlcNAc and mucin phenotypic markers including MUC5AC, MUC6, MUC2, and CD10 in 214 gastric adenocarcinomas and compared those expression patterns with clinicopathological parameters and cancer-specific survival. The αGlcNAc loss was evaluated in MUC6-positive gastric carcinoma. Thirty-three (61.1%) of 54 differentiated-type gastric adenocarcinomas exhibiting MUC6 in cancer cells lacked αGlcNAc expression. Loss of αGlcNAc was significantly correlated with depth of invasion, stage, and venous invasion by differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. Loss of αGlcNAc was also significantly associated with poorer patient prognosis in MUC6-positive differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. By contrast, no significant correlation between αGlcNAc loss and any clinicopathologic variable was observed in undifferentiated-type adenocarcinoma. Expression of MUC6 was also significantly correlated with several clinicopathological variables in differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. However, unlike the case with αGlcNAc, its expression showed no correlation with cancer-specific survival in patients. In undifferentiated-type adenocarcinoma, we observed no significant correlation between mucin phenotypic marker expression, including MUC6, and any clinicopathologic variable. These results together indicate that loss of αGlcNAc in MUC6-positive cancer cells is associated with progression and poor prognosis in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, types of gastric adenocarcinoma. © 2013 The

  1. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma mice lacking mucin 1 have a profound defect in tumor growth and metastasis.

    Besmer, Dahlia M; Curry, Jennifer M; Roy, Lopamudra D; Tinder, Teresa L; Sahraei, Mahnaz; Schettini, Jorge; Hwang, Sun-Il; Lee, Yong Y; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku


    MUC1 is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in more than 60% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The functional role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has yet to be fully elucidated due to a dearth of appropriate models. In this study, we have generated mouse models that spontaneously develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (KC), which are either Muc1-null (KCKO) or express human MUC1 (KCM). We show that KCKO mice have significantly slower tumor progression and rates of secondary metastasis, compared with both KC and KCM. Cell lines derived from KCKO tumors have significantly less tumorigenic capacity compared with cells from KCM tumors. Therefore, mice with KCKO tumors had a significant survival benefit compared with mice with KCM tumors. In vitro, KCKO cells have reduced proliferation and invasion and failed to respond to epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or matrix metalloproteinase 9. Further, significantly less KCKO cells entered the G(2)-M phase of the cell cycle compared with the KCM cells. Proteomics and Western blotting analysis revealed a complete loss of cdc-25c expression, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as well as a significant decrease in nestin and tubulin-α2 chain expression in KCKO cells. Treatment with a MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, abrogated the enhanced proliferation of the KCM cells but had minimal effect on KCKO cells, suggesting that MUC1 is necessary for MAPK activity and oncogenic signaling. This is the first study to utilize a Muc1-null PDA mouse to fully elucidate the oncogenic role of MUC1, both in vivo and in vitro.

  2. Mucin phenotypic expression and p53 gene abnormality of gastric super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma: Re-evaluation with relationship between histogenesis of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and intestinal metaplasia in distal stomach

    Yamaguchi Toshikazu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the gastric well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in the distal stomach has been thought to develop via a intestinal metaplasia-carcinoma sequence, there are some disproofs from new mucin examinations for minute-size lesions in same type carcinoma. The current study was performed and pointed out the new findings for the solution to the problem according to the point described above. Methods 12 super-minute lesions (less than 1 mm in maximum diameter of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in distal stomach (SMCa, which were detected from the pathological examinations of 210 surgically resected stomach specimens, and the mucosa adjacent to these carcinoma lesions, were examined by immunohistochemical mucin stainings (MUC2 and CD-10: intestinal phenotype, 45M1 and MUC6: gastric phenotype and p53-overexpression. And the analyses of the replication error of the microsatellites in chromosome 17 related p53 gene (TP53 and D17S786 (RER-p53MS were performed in SMCa lesions, adjacent mucosa to each lesion and other gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia, because all SMCa lesions showed p53-overexpression immunohistochemically, decribed below. Results 1. The carcinoma cells in all SMCa lesions were positive for 45M1 and p53. On the other hand, no positive carcinoma cells for MUC6 were seen although the pyloric glands and the remnant pyloric gland in the SMCa lesions in the same slides were positive for MUC6. Ten lesions (83% had intestinal phenotypic mucin (10 lesions: MUC2 (+, 4 lesions: CD10 (+. Two lesions (17% were positive for only 45M1 (gastric phenotypic mucin. 2. All of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa showed intestinal metaplasia (complete type: 7 regions, incomplete type: 5 regions. 3. RER-p53MS was confirmed in 42% (5/12 regions of SMCa, in 42% (5/12 regions of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa and 14% (6/42 regions of the other intestinal metaplasia mucosa. Conclusion Most of the super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma

  3. The Canonical Wnt Pathway Regulates the Metastasis-Promoting Mucin MUC4 in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Pai, Priya; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Lakshmanan, Imayavaramban; Macha, Muzafar A; Sheinin, Yuri; Smith, Lynette M.; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Batra, Surinder K.


    Aberrant Wnt signaling frequently occurs in pancreatic cancer (PC) and contributes to disease progression/metastases. Likewise, the transmembrane-mucin MUC4 is expressed de novo in early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs) and incrementally increases with PC progression, contributing to metastasis. To determine the mechanism of MUC4 upregulation in PC, we examined factors deregulated in early PC progression, such as Wnt/β-catenin signaling. MUC4 promoter analysis revealed the presence of three putative TCF/LEF-binding sites, leading us to hypothesize that MUC4 can be regulated by β-catenin. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of rapid autopsy PC tissues showed a correlation between MUC4 and cytosolic/nuclear β-catenin expression. Knock down (KD) of β-catenin in CD18/HPAF and T3M4 cell lines resulted in decreased MUC4 transcript and protein. Three MUC4 promoter luciferase constructs, p3778, p3000, and p2700, were generated. The construct p3778, encompassing the entire MUC4 promoter, elicited increased luciferase activity in the presence of stabilized β-catenin. Mutation of the TCF/LEF site closest to the transcription start site (i.e., −2629/−2612) and furthest from the start site (i.e., −3425/−3408) reduced MUC4 promoter luciferase activity. Transfection with dominant negative TCF4 decreased MUC4 transcript and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed enrichment of β-catenin on −2629/−2612 and −3425/−3408 of the MUC4 promoter in CD18/HPAF. Functionally, CD18/HPAF and T3M4 β-catenin KD cells showed decreased migration and decreased Vimentin, N-cadherin, and pERK1/2 expression. Tumorigenicity studies in athymic nude mice showed CD18/HPAF β-catenin KD cells significantly reduced primary tumor sizes and metastases compared to scrambled control cells. We show for the first time that β-catenin directly governs MUC4 in PC. PMID:26526617

  4. Comprehensive application of CT and PET/CT in diagnosing colorectal mucinous and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma%CT联合正电子发射计算机断层成像术对结直肠黏液腺癌与非黏液腺癌的鉴别诊断

    黄斯韵; 孙灿辉; 李雪华; 关键; 冯仕庭; 彭振鹏; 李子平; 孟悛非


    目的 探讨联合应用CT和正电子发射计算机断层成像术(PET-CT)对结直肠黏液腺癌与非黏液腺癌的鉴别诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月至2012年12月间中山大学附属第一医院收治、且接受CT和PET-CT检查的37例结直肠黏液腺癌与50例结直肠非黏液腺癌患者的临床和影像学资料.比较两者在CT和PET-CT表现上的差异.结果 CT检查示,在肿瘤实质的平扫密度、增强后密度和强化程度上,黏液腺癌组明显低于非黏液腺癌组,差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.01);肿瘤低密度区的强化程度、低密度区面积占总病灶面积的比例、淋巴结转移及远处转移比例,黏液腺癌组均明显高于非黏液腺癌组(均P<0.05).PET-CT检查示,黏液腺癌组的最大SUV值明显小于非黏液性腺癌组[(8.64±4.34) Bq/L比(12.38±5.96) Bq/L,P=0.015].结论 联合PET-CT与传统CT两种检查手段,可对结直肠黏液腺癌与非黏液腺癌进行有效的鉴别诊断.%Objective To explore the value of comprehensive application of CT and PET/CT in differential diagnosing mucinous and non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.Methods CT and PET/CT image data of 37 patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma and 50 patients with non-mucinous adenocarcinoma confirmed by pathology in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively.Differences of image were compared between two methods.Results On CT,lesion density of pre-contrast,pro-contrast phase and enhancement degree were significantly lower in mucinous adenocarcinoma than those in non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (all P<0.01).Enhancement degree of hypointense area,hypointense area proportion of total lesion,and lymphatic or distant metastasis ratio were significantly higher in mucinous adenocarcinoma than those in non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (all P<0.05).On PET/CT,maximal SUV value of mucinous adenocarcinoma was significantly lower as compared to non-mucinous adenocarcinoma

  5. Laparoscopic fenestration of multiple giant biliary mucinous cystadenomas of the liver


    Biliary cystadenomas of the liver are rare, cystic neoplasms of the biliary ductal system usually occur in middle aged women. We report a case of synchronous multiple huge biliary mucinous cystadenomas with unique features. This is, according to our knowledge, the first report in the literature about three synchronously occurring hepatobiliary cystadenomas. Cystadenomas have a strong tendency to recur, particularly following incomplete excision, and a potential of malignant transformation. A therapeutic re-evaluation may be necessary when the diagnosis of hepatobiliary cystadenoma is made after the operation and an open liver resection should be considered.

  6. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder after long-term duodeno-renal and colovesical fistula--case report.

    Petrovic, J; Barisic, G; Krivokapic, Z; Krivokapic, B


    Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare neoplasm. It accounts for 1-2% of all bladder carcinomas and sometimes may be found in the bladder diverticula. Fistula between duodenum and renal pelvis is another rarity while colovesical fistula is not so uncommon. We present a case of a 40 years old man who had surgery for colovesical and duodenorenal fistula and subsequently developed adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  7. Predictors of Lymph Node Metastasis and Prognosis in pT1 Colorectal Cancer Patients with Signet-Ring Cell and Mucinous Adenocarcinomas

    Bao-Rong Song


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The local excision of early colorectal cancer is limited by the presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM. Signet-ring cell carcinomas (SRC and mucinous adenocarcinomas (MAC are two relatively infrequent histological subtypes. However, little is known about the predictors of LNM and prognosis to support the feasibility of local excision in early-stage SRC and MAC. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database were used to identify all patients with pT1 adenocarcinomas, including conventional adenocarcinoma (AC, MAC, and SRC. The prevalence of LNM was assessed, and the long-term survival rate in the above three types of colorectal cancer was calculated. Results: SRC accounted for 0.3% and MAC accounted for 4.4% of the entire cohort of colorectal adenocarcinomas. Compared to AC, MRC and SRC were more often located in the proximal colon, and exhibited a higher grade. The incidence of LNM in AC, MAC, and SRC was 10.6%, 17.2%, and 33.3% for colon cancers and 14.8%, 25.9%, and 46.2% for rectal cancers, respectively. In patients with lymph nodes resected no less than 12, incidence of LNM in AC, MRC, and SRC was 12%, 21%, and 44% for colon tumors and 17%, 30%, and 14% for rectal tumors, respectively. Although, colon patients MAC showed an entirely worse survival rate than AC, rectum patients MAC showed a similar prognosis to AC. We found that in patients with rectal tumors, SRC had a worse 3 and 5-year prognosis than AC. However, for colon cancers, the prognosis of SRC was similar to that of AC. Histology was not found to be an independent prognostic factor in multivariate survival analysis. Conclusions: MAC and SRC are two distinct subtypes of colorectal cancer that require special attention despite their relatively rare prevalence. pT1 patients with SRC of the rectum and patients with MAC of the colon have higher incidences of LNM, and with these adverse outcomes, local excision is not recommended. AlthoughMAC of the

  8. Differentiating Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma from Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma, Mucinous Cystadenoma, and a Pseudocyst with Detailed Analysis of Cystic Features on CT Scans: a Preliminary Study

    Lv, Peijie; Mahyoub, Radfan; Lin, Xiaozhu; Chen, Kemin; Chai, Weimin; Xie, Jing [Rui Jin Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)


    To determine whether or not detailed cystic feature analysis on CT scans can assist in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from serous cystadenoma (SCN), mucinous cystadenoma (MCN), and a pseudocyst. This study received Institutional Review Board approval and informed patient consent was waived. Electronic radiology and pathology databases were searched to identify patients with PDAC (n = 19), SCN (n = 26), MCN (n = 20) and a pseudocyst (n = 23) who underwent pancreatic CT imaging. The number, size, location, and contents of cysts, and the contour of the lesions were reviewed, in addition to the wall thickness, enhancement patterns, and other signs of pancreatic and peripancreatic involvement. Diagnosis was based on lesion resection (n = 82) or on a combination of cytological findings, biochemical markers, and tumor markers (n = 6). Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the results. A combination of the CT findings including irregular contour, multiple cysts, mural nodes, and localized thickening, had a relatively high sensitivity (74%) and specificity (75%) for differentiating PDAC from SCN, MCN, and pseudocysts (p < 0.05). Other CT findings such as location, greatest dimension, or the presence of calcification were not significantly different. The CT findings for PDAC are non-specific, but perhaps helpful for differentiation. PDAC should be included in the general differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms

  9. Does a family history of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cyst size influence the follow-up strategy for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas?

    Mandai, Koichiro; Uno, Koji; Yasuda, Kenjiro


    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) family history and PDAC development in patients followed up for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and to assess the cyst size relevance in determining follow-up strategies. We analyzed 300 patients with branch duct and mixed-type IPMN who were followed up at our facility. Among the patients aged 70 years or older, the frequency of PDAC did not differ significantly between those with 1 first-degree relative with PDAC and those without a family history. Although patients with IPMNs of greater than or equal to 30 mm were followed up for a significantly shorter duration than those patients with IPMNs of less than 30 mm, the frequency of IPMN progression and malignant IPMN was significantly greater in the former. The frequency of IPMN progression and pancreatic cancer did not differ significantly according to IPMN size (family history. Special attention should be paid to IPMN progression and malignant transformation in patients with IPMNs of greater than or equal to 30 mm, but cyst size need not be considered when determining follow-up strategies for patients with IPMNs of less than 30 mm without mural nodules.

  10. Giant Cavernous Hepatic Hemangioma Diagnosed Incidentally in a Perimenopausal Obese Female with Endometrial Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report.

    Bara, Tivadar; Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Muresan, Mircea; Szederjesi, Janos; Bara, Tivadar


    Hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors of the liver, considered giant when they exceed 50-100 mm in diameter. In the present report, we present a case of a 5.2-kg hemangioma of the right hepatic lobe, with hemangiomatous foci in the left lobe, which was incidentally diagnosed in a 53-year-old obese female hospitalized for uterine bleeding. The computed tomographic scan and physical examination revealed a giant abdominal tumor and hepatic hemangioma of the right hepatic lobe was suspected. Right hepatectomy and total hysterectomy with bilateral ovariectomy was performed. The histological examination of the surgical specimens confirmed the extremely giant cavernous hepatic hemangioma, and a synchronous pT1a endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma was also diagnosed. The patient remains alive without postoperative disorders, 6 months after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of such huge hemangioma incidentally diagnosed in an obese female, with a synchronous endometrial adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Because obesity may cause hyperestrogenism, it might both increase the growth rate of hemangioma and the genesis of endometrial cancer in perimenopausal females. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Synchronous occurrence of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma, with colon adenocarcinoma and tubulovillous rectal adenoma: Management and review of the literature.

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Nakos, Georgios; Katikaridis, Ilias; Zografidis, Andreas


    Appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare clinical entity comprising 8% of all appendiceal tumors, and it is seen in 0.2-0.3% of all appendectomy specimens. Apart from sporadic cases, there are no enough published data about the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors in patients with colorectal cancer. We describe a very rare case of synchronous occurrence of AM, colon adenocarcinoma, and tubulovillous adenoma of the rectum and review the relevant literature. We conclude that thorough preoperative and perioperative evaluations are mandatory in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer to exclude a synchronous colon or an appendiceal primary tumor. Larger prospective studies are necessary to accurately determine the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors and colorectal cancer.

  12. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) mice lacking Mucin 1 have a profound defect in tumor growth and metastasis

    Besmer, Dahlia M.; Curry, Jennifer M.; Roy, Lopamudra D.; Tinder, Teresa L.; Sahraei, Mahnaz; Schettini, Jorge; Hwang, Sun-Il; Lee, Yong Y.; Gendler, Sandra J.; Mukherjee, Pinku


    MUC1 is over expressed and aberrantly glycosolated in >60% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The functional role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has yet to be fully elucidated due to a dearth of appropriate models. In the present study, we have generated mouse models that spontaneously develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (KC), which are either Muc1-null (KCKO) or express human MUC1 (KCM). We show that KCKO mice have significantly slower tumor progression and rates of secondary metastasis, compared to both KC and KCM. Cell lines derived from KCKO tumors have significantly lower tumorigenic capacity compared to cells from KCM tumors. Therefore, mice with KCKO tumors had a significant survival benefit compared to mice with KCM tumors. In vitro, KCKO cells have reduced proliferation and invasion and failed to respond to epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), or matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Further, significantly fewer KCKO cells entered the G2M phase of the cell cycle compared to the KCM cells. Proteomics and western blotting analysis revealed a complete loss of cdc-25c expression, phosphorylation of MAPK, as well as a significant decrease in Nestin and Tubulin α-2 chain expression in KCKO cells. Treatment with a MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, abrogated the enhanced proliferation of the KCM cells but had minimal effect on KCKO cells, suggesting that MUC1 is necessary for MAPK activity and oncogenic signaling. This is the first study to utilize a Muc1-null PDA mouse in order to fully elucidate the oncogenic role of MUC1, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:21558393

  13. Size of Non-lepidic Invasive Pattern Predicts Recurrence in Pulmonary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma: Morphologic Analysis of 188 Resected Cases with Reappraisal of Invasion Criteria

    Soohyun Hwang


    Full Text Available Background We reviewed a series of 188 resected pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinomas (MAs to clarify the prognostic significance of lepidic and non-lepidic patterns. Methods Non-lepidic patterns were divided into bland, non-distorted acini with uncertain invasiveness (pattern 1, unequivocal invasion into stroma (pattern 2, or invasion into alveolar spaces (pattern 3. Results The mean proportion of invasive patterns (patterns 2 and 3 was lowest in small (≤ 3 cm tumors, and gradually increased in intermediate (> 3 cm and ≤ 7 cm and large (> 7 cm tumors (8.4%, 34.3%, and 50.1%, respectively. Adjusted T (aT stage, as determined by the size of invasive patterns, was positively correlated with adverse histologic and clinical features including older age, male sex, and ever smokers. aTis tumors, which were exclusively composed of lepidic pattern (n = 9, or a mixture of lepidic and pattern 1 (n = 40 without any invasive patterns, showed 100% disease- free survival (DFS. The aT1mi tumors, with minimal (≤ 5 mm invasive patterns (n = 63, showed a 95.2% 5-year DFS, with recurrences (n = 2 limited to tumors greater than 3 cm in total size (n = 23. Both T and aT stage were significantly associated with DFS; however, survival within the separate T-stage subgroups was stratified according to the aT stage, most notably in the intermediatestage subgroups. In multivariate analysis, the size of invasive patterns (p = .020, pleural invasion (p < .001, and vascular invasion (p = .048 were independent predictors of recurrence, whereas total size failed to achieve statistical significance (p = .121. Conclusions This study provides a rationale for histologic risk stratification in pulmonary MA based on the extent of invasive growth patterns with refined criteria for invasion.

  14. Thermal characterisation of PEGylated mucin

    Momoh MA; Adikwu MU; Ibezim CE; Ofokansi KC; Attama AA


    Objective:To investigate the characteristics of PEGylated mucin and its potential usage. Methods: Mucin was extracted from giant African land snails and PEGylated mucin was prepared with different ratios of PEG 2000-Mwt and mucin (1÷1, 0÷1, 2÷1, 1÷3 and 3÷1 to form batch A-E) using solvent technique. The physicochemical properties of mucin were identified and the solubility of mucin was assessed. The thermal properties of PEGylated mucin were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results:Carbohydrates, proteins and trace amounts of fats were present in snail mucin. The mucin powder was water-soluble at 30℃and more water-soluble at 35℃, but not soluble;in acetone, ethanol, 0.1 M NaOH, 0.1M H2SO4 and 0.1 NH4OH was water-soluble. The melting point Tm ranged from 58.58℃to 61.17℃, crystallization temperature Tc 37.08℃to 39.83℃, and glass transition temperature Tg 126.85℃to 138.39℃. The variation in Tm, Tc, and Tg with the composition in the PEGylaton showed that an interaction between PEG and mucin occured. Conclusions:This result can serve as a basis for further evaluation of the PEGylation method and be used for drug delivery.

  15. Mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from chronic anorectal fistulas and review of the literatures%慢性肛瘘继发黏液腺癌诊治分析(附4例报告)

    吴瑶; 刘连成; 陈希琳


    Objective To evaluate the clinical features, pathology, treatment, and outcome of patients with fistula-associated anal adenocarcinoma. Methods A retrospective study was made to analyze clinical,treatment, and pathological features of 4 cases mucinous adenocarcinoma from chronic anal fistula. Results The canceration of anal fistula was due to chronic inflammation and scarring. The definitive diagnosis of the carcinoma depends on biopsy of the fistula and the related tumor. Conclusion If surgical treatment for perineal abscess or anorectal fistula is not successful for a long time, mucinous adenocarcinoma should be suspected. Biopsy of fistulous tracts and perianal abscesses are thus paramount in the early diagnosis and subsequent treatment of these tumours.%目的 探讨肛瘘继发黏液腺癌临床特点、病理、治疗和预后.方法 对4例病例的临床表现、治疗方法进行回顾性分析.结果 反复发作的慢性炎症刺激是肛瘘癌变的主要诱因,确诊依靠瘘管及相关肿物的病理学活检.结论 对于长期不愈的脓肿和/或肛瘘患者,应保持警惕黏液腺癌可能,对于瘘道或脓肿周围组织活检有助于早期诊断和治疗.

  16. A male case of an undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells originating in an indeterminate mucin-producing cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. A case report and review of the literature

    Koyama Yasumasa


    Full Text Available Abstract We report a rare male case of an undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells originating in an indeterminate mucin-producing cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. A 59-year-old Japanese man with diabetes visited our hospital, complaining of fullness in the upper abdomen. A laboratory analysis revealed anemia (Hemoglobin; 9.7 g/dl and elevated C-reactive protein (3.01 mg/dl. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 was 274 U/ml and Carcinoembryonic antigen was 29.6 ng/ml. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a 14-cm cystic mass in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen that appeared to originate from the pancreatic tail. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy/splenectomy/total gastrectomy/cholecystectomy. The mass consisted of a multilocular cystic lesion. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by cuboidal or columnar epithelium, including mucinous epithelium. Sarcomatous mononuclear cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells were found in the stroma. Ovarian-type stroma was not seen. We made a diagnosis of osteoclast-like giant cell tumor originating in an indeterminate mucin-producing cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. All surgical margins were negative, however, two peripancreatic lymph nodes were positive. The patient recovered uneventfully. Two months after the operation, multiple metastases occurred in the liver. He died 4 months after the operation.

  17. The Diagnostic Value of X-ray and MRI in Breast Mucinous Adenocarcinoma%X线和MRI在乳腺黏液腺癌中的诊断价值



    目的 评价X线和MRI在乳腺黏液腺癌中的诊断价值.方法回顾分析我院2013年12月~2014年12月收治的乳腺黏液腺癌患者120例,根据不同诊断方案分为两组(各60例),对照组行X线诊断,研究组行MRI诊断,依据病理诊断结果,评价两组诊断结果.结果研究组符合率93.33%比对照组75.00%高(P<0.05).结论 对于乳腺黏液腺癌的诊断,予以MRI诊断价值较之X线更高,可建议结合两种方案,以提高诊断成功率.%Objective X-ray evaluation and diagnostic value of MRI in breast mucinous adenocarcinoma. Methods Retrospective analysis of patients with mucinous carcinoma of the breast in our hospital in December 2013 -2014 December treated 120 cases, depending on the diagnostic program is divided into two groups (60 patients) in the control group underwent X-ray diagnosis, the study group underwent MRI diagnosis, based on pathological diagnosis Results , the evaluation Results of the diagnostic groups. Results Research Group in line with the rate of 93.33% compared with the control group, 75.00% high (P < 0.05). Conclusion For the diagnosis of breast mucinous carcinoma, the diagnostic value of MRI to be higher than the X-ray, may recommend a combination of two programs to improve the diagnostic success rate.

  18. Clinical characteristics of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma%原发性卵巢黏液性癌的临床特征分析

    李艺; 张芸娜; 马彧; 李小平; 崔恒


    Objective; To summarize the clinical characteristics of primary mucinous o-varian carcinoma. Methods; A retrospective study was performed on 24 mucinous and 108 non-mucinous ovarian carcinoma patients including age, FIGO stage, residual disease, response rate. To paclitaxel/platinum chemotherapy. The survival time was compared between two groups and the prognostic factors were analyzed. Results;The age was similar between two groups,while the mucinous carcinoma group had less advanced FIGO stage (P=0.001) and lower tumor grading (P = 0.000). Although the overall rate of optimal debulking surgery was higher in mucinous group (P=0.020),there was no difference in advanced patients (P = 0.453). Response rate to platinum-based chemotherapy was 63. 2% and 85. 2% , respectively (P = 0. 212). There seemed no relation with FIGO stage and residual disease in platium-resistant mucinous carcinoma patients, the response rate dramatically reduced to 40% in recurrent patients. The median progression-free survival ( PFS) of all stages of mucinous and non-mucinous group was 22 months and 17 months ( P=0. 393 ) ,the median overall survival ( OS) was 22 months and 37.5 months (P = 0. 670) .respectively. While the median PFS of early stage patients was 37. 5months and 44 months (P = 0. 304 ) , the median OS was 49 months and 45 months (P -0.621) , respectively. The median PFS was worse in stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ mucinous carcinoma patients after optimal debulking surgery (mucinous vs non-mucinous;12 vs 27 months, P = 0.003) ,and worse OS (mucinous vs non-mucinous;18 vs45 months, P = 0.044) ;but there was no difference between two groups with stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ after sub-optimal debulking surgery. Cox regression analysis showed the mucinous histology, FIGO stage and residual disease were prognostic factors for PFS, only residual tumor size was the progostic factor for OS. Conclusions: Mucinous ovarian carcinoam is an unique type in epithelial carcinoma. The prognosis was poor in advanced mucinous

  19. Pancreatic mucinous noncystic (colloid) carcinomas and intraductal papillary mucinous carcinomas are usually microsatellite stable.

    Lüttges, Jutta; Beyser, Kurt; Pust, Susanne; Paulus, Anja; Rüschoff, Josef; Klöppel, Günter


    Pancreatic mucinous noncystic (colloid) carcinomas (MNCC) differ from the usual ductal adenocarcinomas in their mucin expression profile and share with many extrapancreatic mucinous carcinomas the expression of MUC2. Because mucinous carcinomas are frequently associated with mutations of the DNA mismatch repair genes, causing them to exhibit the so-called mutator phenotype, we decided to investigate whether MNCCs of the pancreas are characterized by microsatellite instability (MSI). Twelve carcinomas with a mucinous phenotype (8 mucinous noncystic carcinomas, 3 intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinomas with an invasive muconodular component, and 1 ductal adenocarcinoma with an extensive mucinous noncystic component) and 11 ductal adenocarcinomas were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies to the mismatch repair gene products hMLH1, hMSH2, and hMSH6. For MSI analysis, DNA was isolated from microdissected tissue, and five primary microsatellites (BAT 25, BAT 26, D5S346, D17S250, and D2S123) were analyzed. MSI was diagnosed in case a novel allele was found, compared with the normal tissue. The criterion for LOH was a 75% signal reduction. All carcinomas tested exhibited nuclear expression of mismatch repair gene products, except for one MNCC that also showed MSI at the molecular level. The data suggest that pancreatic carcinomas with a mucinous phenotype (MUC2+/MUC1-) do not appear to normally exhibit mutations in the mismatch repair genes and therefore differ in their carcinogenesis from those in other organs.

  20. Clinical Significance and Expression of p57KIP2 and SKP2 in Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma%P57KIP2和SKP2在卵巢黏液性肿瘤组织中的表达及临床意义

    杨娟; 肖兰


    目的 探讨卵巢黏液性肿瘤组织中P57KIP2和SKP2蛋白表达情况及与其临床病理特征的关系.方法 采用免疫组织化学SP法,检测12例卵巢良性黏液性囊腺瘤、12例卵巢黏液性交界性肿瘤、47例卵巢黏液腺癌中P57KIP2和SKP2蛋白表达.结果 良性粘液性囊腺瘤与粘液性交界性肿瘤P57KIP2阳性表达率比较无统计学差异(P>0.05),而良性黏液性囊腺瘤与黏液腺癌、黏液性交界性肿瘤与黏液腺癌其阳性表达率比较均具有统计学差异(P<0.05),在黏液腺癌中,P57KIP2表达与肿瘤分化及TNM分期有关(P<0.05),有淋巴结转移黏液腺癌中P57KIP2阳性表达率较无淋巴结转移黏液腺癌明显升高,差异具有统计学意义.SKP2阳性表达率良性黏液性囊腺瘤与黏液性交界性肿瘤比较无统计学差异(P>0.05),而良性黏液性囊腺瘤与黏液腺癌、黏液性交界性肿瘤与黏液腺癌其阳性表达率比较具有统计学差异(P<0.05),在黏液腺癌中SKP2表达与肿瘤分化及TNM分期有关(P<0.05).卵巢黏液腺癌中P57KIP2与SKP2表达呈负相关性(γ=-0.292,P<0.05).结论 P57KIP2可抑制卵巢黏液腺癌的发生发展,SKP2可促进卵巢黏液腺癌的发生发展,SKP2参与了P57KIP2的降解.%Objective To investigate the expression and clinicopathologic characteristics of p57KIP2 and SKP2 proteins in ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma. Methods The expression of p57KIP2 and SKP2 proteins were detected by immunohisto-chemical SP method in 12 cases of benign mucinous cystadenoma of ovary, 12 cases of ovarian mucinous borderline tumor and 47 cases of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma. Results The positive rate of p57KIP2 in benign mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous borderline tumor has no statistical difference( P >0. 05 ), in benign mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma, in mucinous borderline tumor and mucinous adenocarcinoma exist statistical difference( P 0. 05 )( P > 0. 05 ), but the positive

  1. Mucinous adenocarcinona of the appendix

    Milton Roberto Furst Crenitte


    Full Text Available Diagnosis of malignancy in the vermiform appendix is quite rare. The most common histological malignant neoplasia found in this tiny portion of the gastrointestinal tract is represented by the mucinous adenocarcinoma. This entity predominates in males around 50 years of age, and clinical presentation usually mimics or occurs along with an acute appendicitis. Early diagnosis is outside the rule since most cases at this stage are symptomless. The authors present the case of a 59-year-old female patient who looked for medical attention complaining of abdominal pain. Physical examination and laboratory workup were poor in diagnostic findings. The computed tomography images were compatible with the diagnosis of appendicitis and/or appendiceal neoplasia. The patient underwent a laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. The histological examination disclosed a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix stage T4a, N0, M0. The patient outcome was uneventful and was referred to an oncological center.

  2. Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Colon during Pregnancy

    T. Shoji


    Full Text Available A rare case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum in a pregnant woman is described. A 32-year-old Korean woman was diagnosed as having an abdominal tumor immediately after giving birth. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a smooth mass measuring 10 cm in diameter on the right side of the abdomen. Acute abdomen developed 3 days after birth. At emergency surgery, volvulus of a polypoid tumor was detected at the cecum apart from the normal appendix. We successfully performed a tumorectomy; however, histopathological examination demonstrated mucinous adenocarcinoma with a massive blood clot.

  3. Difference between intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma%胰腺导管内乳头状黏液性肿瘤与胰腺导管腺癌的差异分析

    徐彬; 楼文晖; 王单松; 靳大勇


    Objective To identify difference between intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and pancreatic common ductal adenocarcinoma. Methods Between March 2003 and June 2006, 29 patients with pathological diagnosis of IPMN and 46 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma in Zhongshan Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic factors were retrospectively analyzed. Prognosis between two groups were compared by log-rank test.Results The proportion with no symptom visit in IPMN was obviously higher than in pancreatic cancer. Twenty-one of 29 specimens were malignant in IPMN. Stage of the malignant IPMN was significantly earlier than that of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma (P=0.017). Intrapancreatic neural invasion was more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma than in malignant IPMN (P=0.005). The survival curve of the malignant IPMN was significantly better than that of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma (P=0.014). Conclusion IPMN with less aggressive bionomics can be diagnosed and treated in an earlier stage. So its prognosis is better than that of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Prognosis of malignant IPMN which is more invasive than stage Ⅱ B is simular to that of common pancreatic cancer. However, this conclusion should be further investigated.%目的 探讨胰腺导管内乳头状黏液性肿瘤(IPMN)与胰腺导管腺癌的差异.方法 回顾性收集2003年3月至2006年6月收治的资料完整的29例IPMN病例和46例胰腺导管腺癌的临床、生化、病理和随访资料,利用单因素及生存分析方法探讨两者的差异.结果 IPMN中无症状就诊比例明显高于胰腺导管腺癌(P<0.05).29例IPMN中21例为恶性,其病理分期明显早于胰腺导管腺癌(P=0.017);肿瘤对胰腺内神经的侵犯较胰腺癌少见(P=0.005).IPMN 患者术后的生存时间长于胰腺导管腺癌,而ⅡB期及以上的恶性IPMN患者术后生存时间与胰腺导管腺癌比较无明显差异.结论 IPMN与胰腺

  4. Sammenhengen mellom kronisk pancreatitt, mucinøse lesjoner i pancreas og andre synkrone/metakrone cancere.

    Svensson, Emelie Maria


    Abstract Background: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a dreaded disease, with a very high mortality, but some malignancies in the pancreas have a better prognosis. These are carcinomas generated from the mucinous neoplasms. There are mainly two types of mucinous lesions in the pancreas: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN). Some studies have also reported some increased frequency of extrapancreatic malignancies concurrent with a mucinous neoplasm. Met...

  5. Aberrant expression of mucin core proteins and o-linked glycans associated with progression of pancreatic cancer

    Remmers, Neeley; Anderson, Judy M; Linde, Erin M;


    Mucin expression is a common feature of most adenocarcinomas and features prominently in current attempts to improve diagnosis and therapy for pancreatic cancer and other adenocarcinomas. We investigated the expression of a number of mucin core proteins and associated O-linked glycans expressed...

  6. A pulmonary mucinous cystic tumour of borderline malignancy.

    Bacha, D; Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Smati, B; Kilani, T; El Mezni, F


    We report a well-documented case of pulmonary mucinous cystic tumour of borderline malignancy involving the left lower lobe. The lesion was found incidentally by chest radiograph and CT scan with a provisional diagnosis of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The tumour was 4 cm in its greatest dimension, cystic and filled with gelatinous mucus. Microscopically, the neoplastic mucinous epithelium was composed of cuboidal cells with focally nuclear stratification and mild to moderate nuclear atypia. The patient has remained free from recurrence or metastases for 6 years. Pulmonary mucinous cystic tumour of borderline malignancy is a rare, recently described neoplasm, which spans a spectrum of tumours with malignant potential. The recent World Health Organization classification of lung tumours does not recognize this entity, which has a very good prognosis, and as such should be distinguished from classic pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Histological diagnosis can be difficult to distinguish from cystic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma.

  7. Usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to detect metastatic mucinous adencarcinoma within an inguinal hernia

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Min, Byung Wook; Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Sun Il; Kang, Sang Hee; Jung, Sung Yup; Oh, Sang Chul; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University College of Medicine, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in an inguinal hernia is a rare disease and the image findings of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) are little known. Here, we introduce a 57-year-old man with metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in an inguinal hernia. On initial {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, hypermetabolism was observed in mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cecum, and adenocarcinomas of the transverse and ascending colon, respectively. Follow-up {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT revealed newly developed multiple hypermetabolism in peritoneal seeding masses and nodules in the pelvic cavity and scrotum. Peritoneal carcinomatosis in the right pelvic side wall was extended to the incarcerated peritoneum and mesentery in the right inguinoscrotal hernia. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was useful to reveal unexpected peritoneal seeding within the inguinal hernia. Also, this case demonstrated that metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas had variably intense FDG uptake.

  8. Sarcoma-like mural nodules in ovarian mucinous cystadenomas - A report of two cases

    Chakrabarti S


    Full Text Available Sarcoma-like mural nodule is a very rare occurrence in a mucinous tumour of the ovary. Two such nodules having morphologically benign features with osteoclastic giant cells, in the wall of mucinous cystadenoma are described. In addition, these nodules exhibited reactive vascular proliferations. The sarcoma-like nodules are associated with a favourable outcome and must be distinguished from other malignant nodules composed of sarcoma or anaplastic carcinoma that may also occur in the wall of mucinous ovarian tumours.

  9. Commensal ocular bacteria degrade mucins.

    Berry, M; Harris, A; Lumb, R; Powell, K


    Antimicrobial activity in tears prevents infection while maintaining a commensal bacterial population. The relation between mucin and commensal bacteria was assessed to determine whether commensals possess mucinolytic activity, how degradation depends on mucin integrity, and whether mucins affect bacterial replication. Bacteria were sampled from healthy eyes and contact lenses from asymptomatic wearers. Intracellular mucins were extracted and purified from cadaver conjunctivas, and surface mucins from extended wear contact lenses. After exposure to bacteria, changes in mucin hydrodynamic volume (proteolytic cleavage) and subunit charge (oligosaccharide degradation) were assayed by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. The effect of mucin on bacterial replication was followed for up to 24 hours from the end of incubation with purified ocular mucins. Ocular bacteria decreased the hydrodynamic volume of intracellular and contact lens adherent mucins, irrespective of glycosylation density. A decrease in mucin sialylation was observed after exposure to commensal bacteria. Subunit charge distributions were generally shifted to lesser negative charge, consistent with loss of charged epitopes. Subunits with high negative charge, observed after digesting lightly adhering contact lens mucins with bacteria, suggest preferential cleavage sites in the mucin molecule. The presence of purified ocular mucin in the medium inhibited bacterial growth. Bacteria in the healthy ocular surface possess mucinolytic activity on both intact and surface processed mucins, targeted to discrete sites in the mucin molecule. Inhibition of bacterial growth by ocular mucins can be seen as part of the mucosal control of microbiota.

  10. Ovarian mucinous tumor with malignant mural nodules: dedifferentiation or collision?

    Desouki, Mohamed M; Khabele, Dineo; Crispens, Marta A; Fadare, Oluwole


    Ovarian mucinous tumors with mural nodules are rare surface epithelial-stromal tumors. The mural nodules are divergent neoplasms that may be benign or malignant. The latter may be in the form of a sarcoma, carcinosarcoma, anaplastic carcinoma, or a variety of other recognized histotypes of carcinoma, which raises the question of whether malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors or whether they represent collision tumors. We recently reported the K-RAS gene mutation status in a case of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma with mural nodule of high-grade sarcoma. The mucinous and sarcomatous components revealed a mutation in codon 12 of the K-RAS gene of a different nucleotide substitution, indicating that these 2 tumor components were different clones of the same tumor. Herein, we are reporting another case of a 20-yr-old woman who presented with 22 cm pelvic mass, omental caking, and ascites. A diagnosis of invasive mucinous carcinoma with mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma was rendered. K-RAS gene mutation studies revealed p.G12V, c.35G>T mutation in the 2 components of the tumor, which is the most common mutation reported in mucinous tumors of the ovary. The fact that sarcomatous or anaplastic carcinomatous mural nodules in ovarian mucinous tumors display the same K-RAS mutations as their underlying mucinous neoplasms provides supportive evidence that at least some malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors, rather than a collision of 2 divergent tumor types.

  11. The study of mucin histochemistry in benign and malignant lesions of prostate

    Durgaprasad N Agrawal


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of mucin stains in differentiating benign and malignant lesions of prostate. Materials and Methods: Sections were obtained from archival paraffin blocks which included randomly selected 70 cases of benign hyperplasia and 30 cases of carcinoma prostate. After confirming the diagnosis, sections were stained for Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS to study neutral mucins, Alcian blue (2.5 pH to study acidic mucins and combined Alcian blue - PAS to study the mucin character. Results: Benign hyperplasia of prostate showed positivity for neutral mucins (98.57% but not for acidic mucins, whereas prostatic carcinomas showed positivity for acidic mucins (46.66% in addition to the positivity for neutral mucins (56.66%. All the cases of low grade prostatic carcinomas showed positivity for acidic mucins but none of the high grade carcinomas showed positivity for the same. Conclusion: Positivity for acidic mucins with Alcian Blue (2.5 pH technique can be used to differentiate well differentiated adenocarcinomas of prostate from benign hyperplasia especially in those cases where prostatic lesion is a questionable malignancy either because it is so well differentiated histologically or have altered architecture so as to make it cytologically un diagnosable (P = 0.001.

  12. [Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas].

    Davies, Nestor R; Kasparian, Andres C; Viotto, Lucas E; Moreno, Walter A; Gramática, Luis


    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas represents around 6-36% of mucinous cystic neoplasm. The lesions are usually found in the body and tail of the pancreas and are generally solitary with a size range of 6-36 cm. We present a clinical case of a 63 years old patient with abdominal pain and weight loss. We used radiographic imaging studies. It was treated with surgery by distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and transverse colectomy. Patient was not post operative complications.

  13. Combined goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the vermiform appendix

    Khaled O Alsaad; Stefano Serra; Runjan Chetty


    Goblet cell carcinoid is an uncommon primary tumor of the vermiform appendix, characterized by dual endocrine and glandular differentiation. Whether goblet cell carcinoid represents a morphological variant of appendiceal classical carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is a matter of conjecture. Rare cases of goblet cell carcinoid with other concomitant appendiceal epithelial neoplasms have been documented. In this report, we describe a rare case of combined appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma, and discuss the possible histopathogenesis of this combination.

  14. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and Mucocele of the Appendix: An Unusual Coexistence

    Ioannis Kalogiannidis


    Full Text Available Appendiceal mucocele is a rare clinical entity, which is however quite often associated with mucinous ovarian tumor. The coexistence of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and endometrial adenocarcinoma has not been reported before. A 49-year-old woman presented to our clinic with postmenopausal bleeding and no other symptom. Endometrial biopsy revealed endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type (grade I. Preoperative CT scanning revealed an appendiceal mucocele, and a colonoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and appendectomy. The final histopathological examination showed a mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and confirmed the diagnosis of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. The coexistence of appendiceal mucocele and female genital tract pathology is rare. However, gynecologists should keep a high level of suspicion for such possible coexistence. Both the diagnostic approach and the therapeutic management should be multidisciplinary, most importantly with the involvement of general surgeons.

  15. [P53 protein in adenocarcinoma of the large intestine].

    Paluszkiewicz, P; Pawłowska-Wakowicz, B; Cybulski, M; Berbeć, H


    P53 gen mutations play significant role in neoplastic transformation of colorectal mucosa. We investigated p53 immunostaining in 80 cases of spontaneous human colorectal adenocarcinomas (with monoclonal DO7 antibody and LSAB+ kit). We found positive, nuclear p53 immunostaining in 64% of nonmucinous adenocarcinoma tissues and in 19% of mucinous adenocarcinomas tissues. P53 protein deposits were most often found in colorectal adenocarcinomas localised in rectum (66.67%) and in advanced (Dukes C, D) colorectal adenocarcinomas (59.38%) as well. There was no statistical significance between the p53 positive immunostaining and the histological differentiation of the colorectal adenocarcinomas. The overall survival of patients with tumours positive for p53 protein was significantly shorter than that of patients with colorectal cancers negative for p53 protein. We conclude that p53 immunohistochemical analysis may be treated as a supplementary prognostic marker for patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma, especially it may be useful for adjuvant therapy selection.

  16. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates in normal and malignant human endometrium

    Ravn, V; Mandel, U; Svenstrup, B


    The simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and T, are tumor-associated antigens of adenocarcinomas. We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the expression of Tn, sialosyl-Tn (s-Tn), T, and sialosyl-T (s-T) antigens in normal nonsecretory, early gestational, and malignant human end...

  17. Mucin profile of the pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms

    JI Yuan; XU Jian-fang; KUANG Tian-tao; ZHOU Yan-nan; LU Shao-hua; TAN Yun-shan


    @@ Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas are a distinct entity, account for 1% of pancreatic exocrine tumors. MCNs can be classified histologically as adenomas, borderline tumors, or carcinomas. Because several evidences showing that mucinous cystadenomas are poten- tially malignant and may transform into cystadeno- carcinomas, particularly if treated by drainage, these tumors should be identified accurately.1

  18. A case of mucin producing liver metastases with intrabiliary extension

    Hirotaka Tokai; Yujo Kawashita; Susumu Eguchi; Yukio Kamohara; Mitsuhisa Takatsuki; Sadayuki Okudaira; Yoshitsugu Tajima; Tomayoshi Hayashi; Takashi Kanematsu


    A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of liver metastases from colon cancer. He underwent right hemicolectomy for cecal cancer eight years ago, and had a metastatic liver tumor in segment 8 (S8),which was surgically resected about 4 years after the initial operation. Histopathological examination of the resected specimens from both operations revealed a welldifferentiated adenocarcinoma with mucinous carcinoma. Four months after the second operation, computed tomography demonstrated a low-density lesion at the cutsurface of the remnant liver. Although it was considered to be a postoperative collection of inflammatory fluid, it formed a cystic configuration and increased in size to approximately 5 cm in diameter. With a tentative diagnosis of a recurrence of metastatic cancer, partial hepatectomy of S8 was performed. Histological examination of the resected specimens also revealed mucinous adenocarci noma, which had invaded into the biliary ducts, replacing and extending along its epithelium. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 20, but negative for CK7. Therefore, the tumor was diagnosed as a metastatic adenocarcinoma from colonic cancer. Liver metastases of colorectal adenocarcinoma sometimes invade the Glisson's triad and grow along the biliary ducts.

  19. Novel Method for Differentiating Histological Types of Gastric Adenocarcinoma by Using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy.

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheu, Jeng-Horng; Lin, Chia-Wen; Lin, Lien-Fu; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Chen, Wenlung


    Gastric adenocarcinoma, a single heterogeneous disease with multiple epidemiological and histopathological characteristics, accounts for approximately 10% of cancers worldwide. It is categorized into four histological types: papillary adenocarcinoma (PAC), tubular adenocarcinoma (TAC), mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC), and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRC). Effective differentiation of the four types of adenocarcinoma will greatly improve the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma to increase its five-year survival rate. We reported here the differentiation of the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma from the molecularly structural viewpoint of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In total, 79 patients underwent laparoscopic or open radical gastrectomy during 2008-2011: 21 for signet ring cell carcinoma, 21 for tubular adenocarcinoma, 14 for papillary adenocarcinoma, 6 for mucinous carcinoma, and 17 for normal gastric mucosas obtained from patients underwent operation for other benign lesions. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical charts, and Raman data were processed and analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two-dimensional plots of PCA and LDA clearly demonstrated that the four histological types of gastric adenocarcinoma could be differentiated, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy provides potentially a rapid and effective method for differentiating SRC and MAC from TAC or PAC.

  20. R1: Immunohistochemical study of mucins in human intestinal spirochetosis.

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki


    Most patients with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS; a colorectal bacterial infection caused by Brachyspira species) seem asymptomatic, and its pathogenicity remains unclear. Recently, alterations in mucin expression were reported in animal Brachyspira infection. The present question was "Is mucin expression altered in HIS?". Using antibodies for MUCs 1, 2, 4, 5 AC, and 6, we immunohistochemically compared 215 specimens from 83 histology-confirmed HIS cases with 106 specimens from 26 non-HIS cases. Positive staining (which included even focal positive staining) was rated "high (+)" or "low (+)". Results were analysed for four categories of lesions, and associations between MUC expression and spirochetal presence were also analysed. In the "specimens without polyps or adenocarcinoma" category: high (+) MUC2-positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. In the hyperplasia/serrated polyp category: in HIS (vs. control), the MUC5AC-positivity rate was lower, while high (+) MUC4-positivity was more frequent. In the conventional adenoma category: in HIS (vs. control), the MUC1-positivity rate was lower, while both high (+) MUC2-positivity and high (+) MUC5AC-positivity were less frequent. In the adenocarcinoma category: high (+) MUC2-positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. Among the above mucins, only MUC1-positivity was significantly associated with an absence of the so-called fringe formation, an absence of spiral organisms within mucus, and an absence of strong immunopositive materials within the epithelial layer and within the subepithelial layer. The results suggest that Brachyspira infection or a related change in the microbiome may alter the large intestine mucin-expression profile in humans.

  1. The precipitation of mucin by aluminium.

    Exley, C


    The interactions of Al with a mucin glycopeptide have been studied. A number of specific reactions were identified the nature of which were dependent upon the Al chemistry in the hydration environment. In particular, Al was observed to precipitate mucin and it is suggested that this proceeded via the intercalation of the hydroxide within the hydrated macroreticular network of the mucin biopolymer. This precipitation of mucin was visible by eye and abolished the viscosity of native mucin. Viscometry indicated that Al was bound by mucin at low pH. At pH > 3 Al formed a low molecular weight complex with mucin which was hydrolytically stable and was not precipitated at pH up to 8. In an additional and competitive reaction Al was bound by mucin and the resultant mucin-Al complex was suggested to be the precursor to self-assembled mucin-Al spheres identified in solution, by photon correlation spectroscopy, and in precipitate using selective histochemistry. The majority of these spherical structures were of sub-micron diameter and, through their interaction with each other, were probably responsible for the observed pH-dependent peaks of mucin solution viscosity. The larger spheres, between 20 and 80 microns in diameter, were only identified in isolated mucin/Al precipitates and, being comparatively rare, were unlikely to have influenced solution viscosities. These large spheres were observed to act as possible nucleation sites for the flocculation of mucin/Al precipitate. Al at concentrations as low as 0.015 mM induced changes in the rheological properties of mucin. Considering the ubiquitous nature of mucin and the degree to which it is conserved within biota the interactions of Al with mucin may have wide ranging implications for biological systems.

  2. Simple mucin-type Tn and sialosyl-Tn carbohydrate antigens in salivary gland carcinomas

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M


    BACKGROUND: Neoplastic transformation is associated frequently with changes in the glycosylation process. Simple mucin-type glycosylation in cancer cells has been found to be characterized by incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation, leading to the exposure of the structures Tn and sialosyl...... adenoma, when the malignant component was an adenocarcinoma. In contrast, acinic cell carcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas expressed only minimal amounts of Tn and sialosyl-Tn, and the staining was seen only in relation to the luminal membrane and mucin of a few glandular structures. CONCLUSIONS...

  3. Mucin (Muc expression during pancreatic cancer progression in spontaneous mouse model: potential implications for diagnosis and therapy

    Rachagani Satyanarayana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer (PC is a lethal malignancy primarily driven by activated Kras mutations and characterized by the deregulation of several genes including mucins. Previous studies on mucins have identified their significant role in both benign and malignant human diseases including PC progression and metastasis. However, the initiation of MUC expression during PC remains unknown because of lack of early stage tumor tissues from PC patients. Methods In the present study, we have evaluated stage specific expression patterns of mucins during mouse PC progression in (KrasG12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC murine PC model from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. Results In agreement with previous studies on human PC, we observed a progressive increase in the expression of mucins particularly Muc1, Muc4 and Muc5AC in the pancreas of KC (as early as PanIN I mice with advancement of PanIN lesions and PDAC both at mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, mucin expression correlated with the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ (p CXCL1 (p CXCL2 (p  Conclusions Our study reinforces the potential utility of the KC murine model for determining the functional role of mucins in PC pathogenesis by crossing KC mice with corresponding mucin knockout mice and evaluating mucin based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for lethal PC.

  4. Characterization of a common antigen of colorectal and mucinous ovarian tumors, COTA.

    Pant, K D; Zamora, P O; Rhodes, B A; Sachatello, C R; Hagihara, P F; Griffen, W O; van Nagell, J R; Fulks, R; Ram, M D


    A new colon cancer antigen is reported. It is designated as COTA, Colon-Ovarian Tumor Antigen, because it is found in mucins produced by both tissues during malignancy. The new antigen was identified by making antibodies against human colon cancer tissue in goats. The antisera were exhaustively absorbed with lyophilized extracts of normal colon, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, plasma, and the well-known colon tumor antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The new antigen was identified by immunodiffusion. Studies of 28 malignant tissue extracts, 10 ovarian adenocarcinoma cyst fluids, 43 normal tissues, and 5 plasma samples revealed that this antigen is found only in colon tumors and mucinous ovarian adenocarcinomas. The antigen was not detected in serous adenocarcinoma of the ovaries, extracts of adenocarcinoma of lung, breast, kidney or stomach nor in the extracts of normal tissues. Other tests show that this antigen is not CEA, Ca 19-9, or CSAp. It is stable to heating at 65 degrees for 5 minutes; it elutes from an ion exchange matrix (DEAE) with 0.3-0.5M NaCl; it migrates to the alpha-2 region on immunoelectrophoresis; and its size, by exclusion chromatography on Sepharose 4B, is 3-15 million daltons. Anti-COTA stains colon cancer tissue sections indicating that COTA is present in goblet-cell mucin.

  5. [Orbital metastasis from mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum].

    Chekrine, T; Hassouni, A; Hatime, M; Jouhadi, H; Benchakroun, N; Bouchbika, Z; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A


    Orbital metastasis from colorectal cancer are extremely rare. Only six cases are described in the literature. The discrepancy between the frequency of colorectal cancer and the rarity of metastasis to the eye and orbit remains paradoxical and enigmatic. We report the case of an 18-year-old young woman with orbital metastasis as the presenting sign of rectal cancer. Proptosis is the most frequent presenting clinical sign. Once the diagnosis is made, the prognosis is poor and treatment is palliative.


    Espinosa-París Hernando; Espinosa-Dorothy J


    A document written by an importan professor in the area of general surgery was published in 1953, this professor played an important role in medicine department in the Universidad de Cartagena- Colombia in the second half of twentieth century. Hernando Espinoza París was born in Colombia, he studied medicine in the Universidad Nacional de Colombia and then, he made a specialization in surgery in the United States of America. He made important contributions in the medical field of Cartagena, b...

  7. Follistatin is a novel biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma in humans.

    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Follistatin (FST, a single chain glycoprotein, is originally isolated from follicular fluid of ovary. Previous studies have revealed that serum FST served as a biomarker for pregnancy and ovarian mucinous tumor. However, whether FST can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis in lung adenocarcinoma of humans remains unclear.The study population consisted of 80 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma and 80 healthy subjects. Serum FST levels in patients and healthy subjects were measured using ELISA. The results showed that the positive ratio of serum FST levels was 51.3% (41/80, which was comparable to the sensitivity of FST in 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma (60%, 24/40 using the 95th confidence interval for the healthy subject group as the cut-off value. FST expressions in lung adenocarcinoma were examined by immunohistochemical staining, we found that lung adenocarcinoma could produce FST and there was positive correlation between the level of FST expression and the differential degree of lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the results showed that primary cultured lung adenocarcinoma cells could secrete FST, while cells derived from non-tumor lung tissues almost did not produce FST. In addition, the results of CCK8 assay and flow cytometry showed that using anti-FST monoclonal antibody to neutralize endogenous FST significantly augmented activin A-induced lung adenocarcinoma cells apoptosis.These data indicate that lung adenocarcinoma cells can secret FST into serum, which may be beneficial to the survival of adenocarcinoma cells by neutralizing activin A action. Thus, FST can serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma and a useful biotherapy target for lung adenocarcinoma.

  8. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas (IPMNs: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Future Aspects

    Froso Konstantinou


    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs are potentially malignant intraductal epithelial neoplasms which consist of columnar, mucin-containing cells and arise from the epithelium of the main pancreatic duct or its branches. IPMNs as well as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs and mucinous cystic neoplasms represent noninvasive precursors of invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The diagnosis of IPMNs includes radiographic (CT scanning, MRI, MRCP and endoscopic evaluation (ERCP, EUS, PET, as well as serum tumor markers and molecular markers. The Sendai Consensus Guidelines help guide surgical resection for patients with IPMN. The follow-up of these patients, as well as of those who do not undergo surgical resection, is of great importance, since patients with IPMN appear to be at risk for other malignancies. Herein, the authors summarize the data presented at the 2013 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium regarding incidence and clinicopathological characteristics of IPMN (Abstracts #324, #187 and #179.

  9. Cell patterning with mucin biopolymers

    Crouzier, T.; Jang, H.; Ahn, J.; Stocker, R.; Ribbeck, K.


    The precise spatial control of cell adhesion to surfaces is an endeavor that has enabled discoveries in cell biology and new possibilities in tissue engineering. The generation of cell-repellent surfaces currently requires advanced chemistry techniques and could be simplified. Here we show that mucins, glycoproteins of high structural and chemical complexity, spontaneously adsorb on hydrophobic substrates to form coatings that prevent the surface adhesion of mammalian epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and myoblasts. These mucin coatings can be patterned with micrometer precision using a microfluidic device, and are stable enough to support myoblast differentiation over seven days. Moreover, our data indicate that the cell-repellent effect is dependent on mucin-associated glycans because their removal results in a loss of effective cell-repulsion. Last, we show that a critical surface density of mucins, which is required to achieve cell-repulsion, is efficiently obtained on hydrophobic surfaces, but not on hydrophilic glass surfaces. However, this limitation can be overcome by coating glass with hydrophobic fluorosilane. We conclude that mucin biopolymers are attractive candidates to control cell adhesion on surfaces. PMID:23980712

  10. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms of Pancreas

    Naveed, Shah; Qari, Hasina; Banday, Tanveer; Altaf, Asma; Para, Mah


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual management of mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas. A systematic review was performed in December 2009 by consulting PubMed MEDLINE for publications and matching the key words “pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic tumor”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic mass”, “pancreatic cyst” and “pancreatic cystic neoplasm” to identify English language articles describing the diagnosis and treatment of the MCN of the pancreas. In total, 16,322 references ranging from January 1969 to December 2009 were analyzed and 77 articles were identified. No articles published before 1996 were selected because MCNs were not previously considered to be a completely autonomous disease. Definition, epidemiology, anatomopathological findings, clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, treatment and prognosis were reviewed. MCNs are pancreatic mucin-producing cysts with a distinctive ovarian-type stroma localized in the body-tail of the gland and occurring in middle-aged females. The majority of MCNs are slow growing and asymptomatic. The prevalence of invasive carcinoma varies between 6% and 55%. Preoperative diagnosis depends on a combination of clinical features, tumor markers, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound with cyst fluid analysis and positron emission tomography-CT. Surgery is indicated for all MCNs.

  11. Preliminary spectroscopic characterization of PEGylated mucin, a ...



    Nov 20, 2013 ... system with principal FT-IR peaks quite different from those of non-PEGylated mucin and non- mucinated PEG, and .... drug delivery systems, PEGylated polymeric bioadhesive microparticles ..... adhesive protein. Int. J. Pharm.

  12. Mucin dynamics and enteric pathogens.

    McGuckin, Michael A; Lindén, Sara K; Sutton, Philip; Florin, Timothy H


    The extracellular secreted mucus and the cell surface glycocalyx prevent infection by the vast numbers of microorganisms that live in the healthy gut. Mucin glycoproteins are the major component of these barriers. In this Review, we describe the components of the secreted and cell surface mucosal barriers and the evidence that they form an effective barricade against potential pathogens. However, successful enteric pathogens have evolved strategies to circumvent these barriers. We discuss the interactions between enteric pathogens and mucins, and the mechanisms that these pathogens use to disrupt and avoid mucosal barriers. In addition, we describe dynamic alterations in the mucin barrier that are driven by host innate and adaptive immune responses to infection.

  13. Small Undifferentiated Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma which Mimics IPMN at Imaging

    Mirko D’Onofrio


    Full Text Available Context To present the case of an unusual presentation at imaging of a very small solid undifferentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma which mimics a side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Case report The patient came to our hospital for a revaluation of a cystic pancreatic lesion. Ultrasound (US and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS examinations were carried out. A small cystic lesion of about 1.5 cm in diameter was seen in the posterior aspect of the pancreatic uncinate process A very small, solid, vascularized nodule was detected at CEUS within the lesion. Consequently, the patient underwent CT and MRI. MRI confirmed the presence of an intralesional nodule and communication with the main pancreatic duct was demonstrated, suggesting the diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with solid intralesional tissue. A pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was carried out. An undifferentiated adenocarcinoma having a notable peripheral inflammatory reaction and dilated branch duct was finally diagnosed. Conclusion To our knowledge, we present for the first time, the case of a very small solid undifferentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process which mimicked a side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm at imaging. The cystic appearance may be an epiphenomenon of a solid lesion and this possibility has to be considered when one encounters incidental cystic lesions at imaging.

  14. Histologic characteristics of thymic adenocarcinomas: Clinicopathologic study of a nine-case series and a review of the literature.

    Kwon, Ah-Young; Han, Joungho; Chu, Jinah; Choi, Yong Soo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Ahn, Yong Chan


    Primary thymic adenocarcinoma is an extraordinarily rare malignancy; only 49 cases have been reported in the medical literature to date. Because of its rarity, clinical and pathologic characteristics of thymic adenocarcinoma are unclear. We present nine cases of primary thymic adenocarcinoma and discuss clinicopathologic findings in the context of the existing literature. Two-hundred twenty-six thymic carcinoma cases were diagnosed at Samsung Medical Center in Korea, from January, 2001 to July, 2016. Nine of these 226 cases were primary thymic adenocarcinomas. The mean age of primary thymic adenocarcinoma patients was 53.6 years, slightly younger than the mean age of patients with thymic squamous cell carcinomas. The male to female ratio was 2:1. Symptoms, if present, were usually due to compression by the tumor. Tumors showed an extra- or intra-cellular mucin and tubular growth pattern, with CK20- and CDX2-immunoreactivity, similar to adenocarcinomas of the lower intestinal tract. Twenty-five previously reported cases, classified as mucinous adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, also had similar characteristics to enteric-type adenocarcinoma and generally expressed CK20, CDX2, CEA, and/or MUC2. Some of these cases had a thymic cyst. These characteristics are different from those of papillary thymic carcinomas, which are morphologically similar to papillary thyroid carcinomas, express CK7 but not CK20, and are often associated with thymoma. The prognosis of thymic adenocarcinoma, enteric type appeared to be worse than the prognosis of papillary thymic carcinoma or carcinoma with adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. In summary, we demonstrated that common primary thymic adenocarcinomas show enteric-type differentiation with mucin. This tumor type has distinct clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and prognostic characteristics and is different from other subtypes of thymic adenocarcinoma, papillary thymic carcinoma, and carcinoma with

  15. Cytomorphological features of ALK-positive lung adenocarcinomas: psammoma bodies and signet ring cells.

    Pareja, Fresia; Crapanzano, John P; Mansukhani, Mahesh M; Bulman, William A; Saqi, Anjali


    Correlation between histology and genotype has been described in lung adenocarcinomas. For example, studies have demonstrated that adenocarcinomas with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement may have mucinous features. The objective of the current study was to determine whether a similar association can be identified in cytological specimens. A retrospective search for ALK-rearranged cytopathology (CP) and surgical pathology (SP) lung carcinomas was conducted. Additional ALK-negative (-) lung adenocarcinomas served as controls. For CP and SP cases, the clinical data (i.e., age, sex, and smoking history), architecture, nuclear features, presence of mucin-containing cells (including signet ring cells), and any additional salient characteristics were evaluated. The search yielded 20 ALK-positive (+) adenocarcinomas. Compared with patients with ALK(-) lung adenocarcinomas (33 patients; 12 with epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-mutation, 11 with Kristen rat sarcoma [KRAS]-mutation, and 10 wild-type adenocarcinomas), patients with ALK(+) adenocarcinoma presented at a younger age; and there was no correlation noted with sex or smoking status. The most common histological pattern in SP was papillary/micropapillary. Mucinous features were associated with ALK rearrangement in SP specimens. Signet ring cells and psammoma bodies were evident in and significantly associated with ALK(+) SP and CP specimens. However, psammoma bodies were observed in rare adenocarcinomas with an EGFR mutation. Both the ALK(+) and ALK(-) groups had mostly high nuclear grade. Salient features, including signet ring cells and psammoma bodies, were found to be significantly associated with ALK(+) lung adenocarcinomas and are identifiable on CP specimens. Recognizing these may be especially helpful in the molecular triage of scant CP samples. © 2014 American Cancer Society.


    Arockiasamy Babiya Infant


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Primary adenocarcinoma of cervix constitutes 10-15% of all cases of carcinoma of cervix, which is the second most common carcinoma next to squamous cell carcinoma. Endocervical adenocarcinoma have a considerable morphological overlap with endometrial adenocarcinoma though they differ in their aetiologies, behaviour, and treatments. This makes their diagnosis very difficult particularly in biopsy or curetting specimens or when a fractional dilation and curettage specimens show adenocarcinoma in both components of it. This study was done in the aim to suggest the possible origin of the tumour with the help of immunohistochemistry. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To identify the incidence, distribution, clinicopathological, histomorphological features of endocervical adenocarcinomas and to determine the immunohistochemical expression of CEA, Vimentin, ER and PR in endometrioid type of adenocarcinoma detected in endocervical biopsies, fractional dilation and curettage specimens (Both the components showing similar morphology, and in hysterectomy specimens to suggest the site of origin of tumour. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a retrospective descriptive study of cervical adenocarcinomas conducted in the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Madras Medical College, Chennai for a period of 4 years during the period between 2009 November to 2013 October. The statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social science software version 11.5 the clinicopathological profile of the tumour were calculated using Student t-test and chi-square test. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS Among the total 13499 cases received during the study period, 2489 were cervical malignancies comprising 148 adenocarcinoma. It includes 101 mucinous (Endocervical type, 44 endometrioid type, 2 serous type, and 1 clear cell type. Among the 30 cases of endometrioid type, 16 cases showed definite immunophenotype of cervical origin, 9 cases of endometrial origin and in the

  17. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and other pancreatic cystic lesions

    Hugh James Freeman


    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are being increasingly recognized, even in the absence of symptoms, in large part, due to markedly improved imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography (MRCP) and computer tomography (CT) scanning. During the past 2 decades, better imaging of these cystic lesions has resulted in definition of different types, including pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). While IPMN represent only a distinct minority of all pancreatic cancers, they appear to be a relatively frequent neoplastic form of pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Moreover, IPMN have a much better outcome and prognosis compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Therefore, recognition of this entity is exceedingly important for the clinician involved in diagnosis and further evaluation of a potentially curable form of pancreatic cancer.

  18. Adenocarcinoma arising in an ileal duplication cyst with peritoneal seeding: a case report

    Kim, Hyun Suk; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hong Suk; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)


    We report a case in which mucinous adenocarcinoma arose in a duplication cyst at the distal ileum with intraperitoneal seeding. A thirty-three-year-old male patient presented with abdominal distension. Ultrasonography, CT and MR imaging revealed a dumbbell-shaped cystic mass adherent to the small intestine. The wall of the mass was thickened in two areas and contained inhomogeneous materials. A large amount of ascites with irregular masses along the greater omentum were seen present. Surgery revealed a duplication cyst adherent to the ileum. Pathologic examination proved that the thickened portions of the wall of the mass were mucinous adenocarcinoma, and that the nodules on the greater omentum were metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  19. Adenocarcinoma in an ano-vaginal fistula in Crohn's disease

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Atinga, Angela; Mohsen, Yasser; Anthony, Andrew; Myers, Alistair


    INTRODUCTION Fistulas are a relatively common occurrence in Crohn's disease (CD), and often present early in the disease process. Additionally, patients suffering from either CD or ulcerative colitis are shown to have an increased risk of colorectal malignancies compared with the general population. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of adenocarcinoma in an ano-vaginal fistula in a patient with longstanding CD. DISCUSSION Various pathogenic mechanisms for the development of carcinoma in fistulas have been suggested, but there is no consensus and indeed this risk may be cumulative. In this case report, we also discuss the pathogenesis of mucinous adenocarcinoma in fistulas secondary to CD. CONCLUSION Better detection of adenocarcinoma in patients presenting with persistent non-resolving fistulas in the presence of CD should be undertaken with regular biopsies following examinations under anaesthetic of the anorectum. PMID:23702362

  20. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas: An Update

    Shu-Yuan Xiao


    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN is a cystic tumor of the pancreas. The etiology is unknown, but increasing evidence suggests the involvement of several tumorigenesis pathways, including an association with hereditary syndromes. IPMN occurs more commonly in men, with the mean age at diagnosis between 64 and 67 years old. At the time of diagnosis, it may be benign, with or without dysplasia, or frankly malignant with an invasive carcinoma. Tumors arising from the main pancreatic duct are termed main-duct IPMNs, those involving the branch ducts, branch-duct IPMNs. In general, small branch-duct IPMNs are benign, particularly in asymptomatic patients, and can be safely followed. In contrast, main-duct tumors should be surgically resected and examined carefully for an invasive component. In the absence of invasion, patient’s survival is excellent, from 94 to 100%. For patients with an IPMN-associated invasive carcinoma, the prognosis overall is better than those with a de novo pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, with a 5-year survival of 40% to 60% in some series. However, no survival advantage can be demonstrated if the invasive component in an IPMN patient is that of the conventional tubular type (versus mucinous carcinoma. Several histomorphologic variants are recognized, although the clinical significance of this “subtyping” is not well defined.

  1. Primary mucinous cystadenoma of the ileum

    LIANG Guo-biao; LU Yi-ping; HUANG Xiao-ke; SHI Ming


    @@ Mucinous cystadenoma is a rare benign tumor. Because it has no specific clinical manifestations or imaging features, preoperative clinical and radiologic diagnoses are difficult to make.~(1-3) We report here a case of primary mucinous cystadenoma of the terminal ileum wall. In this report, the characteristics of the disease will be discussed and the previous reports in literature on mucinous cystadenoma in other organs will be reviewed.

  2. Mucocele of appendix secondary to mucinous cystadenoma.

    Butt, Muhammad Qasim; Chatha, Sohail Saqib; Farooq, Mahwish; Ghumman, Adeel Qamar


    Mucocele of appendix is a rare disorder characterised by obstructive dilatation of the appendicular lumen by mucinous secretions. More commonly it is caused by mucinous cystadenoma and rarely by mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Patients are often asymptomatic and may sometimes present with acute appendicitis. It is known to be associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei as a result of rupture of mucocele. A pre-operative diagnosis is necessary to plan careful resection. Ultrasonography and computed tomography are useful tools for the diagnosis of appendiceal mucocele. We report a case of appendiceal mucocele due to mucinous cystadenoma with surgical and histopathological confirmation.

  3. Atypical presentation of colon adenocarcinoma: a case report

    Tumwine Lynnette K


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the most common histopathological type of colorectal cancer. In Western Europe and the United States, it is the third most common type and accounts for 98% of cancers of the large intestine. In Uganda, as elsewhere in Africa, the majority of patients are elderly (at least 60 years old. However, more recently, it has been observed that younger patients (less than 40 years of age are presenting with the disease. There is also an increase in its incidence and most patients present late, possibly because of the lack of a comprehensive national screening and preventive health-care program. We describe the clinicopathological features of colorectal carcinoma in the case of a young man in Kampala, Uganda. Case presentation A 27-year-old man from Kampala, Uganda, presented with gross abdominal distension, progressive loss of weight, and fever. He was initially screened for tuberculosis, hepatitis, and lymphoma, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection. After a battery of tests, a diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma was finally established with hematoxylin and eosin staining of a cell block made from the sediment of a liter of cytospun ascitic fluid, which showed atypical glands floating in abundant extracellular mucin, suggestive of adenocarcinoma. Ancillary tests with alcian blue/periodic acid Schiff and mucicarmine staining revealed that it was a mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed strong positivity with CDX2, confirming that the origin of the tumor was the colon. Conclusions Colorectal carcinoma has been noted to occur with increasing frequency in young adults in Africa. Most patients have mucinous adenocarcinoma, present late, and have rapid disease progression and poor outcome. Therefore, colorectal malignancy should no longer be excluded from consideration only on the basis of a patient's age. A high index of suspicion is important in the

  4. Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Characterization of Mucin in Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A Case Study

    Anwar S. Mall


    Full Text Available We previously reported the presence of MUC2, MUC5AC and, for the first time, MUC5B in a 58-year-old male with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP. This is a report on the biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of mucin in a 50-year-old female with the same rare illness. A right oophorectomy and appendicectomy and a resection of the involved omentum were performed. Approximately a litre of crude material in the sol and gel phases was obtained from the patient during laparotomy. This was briefly homogenized in 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride and proteolytic inhibitors and purified by density gradient centrifugation in caesium chloride. At laparotomy it was noted that the patient had appendiceal and ovarian masses as well as extensive mucinous deposits in the omentum and peritoneum. A mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and ovary was confirmed on histology. The cells expressed both sulphated and non-sulphated acidic mucins. The presence of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and α-1-acid glycoprotein was shown by Western blotting and MUC4 by immunohistochemical staining. MUC1 and MUC6 were not detectable in the tissue. The study confirms that MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B are produced in the mucus of patients with PMP. The expression of MUC4 in this disease has not been previously reported.

  5. Biliary tract intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: A brief report and review of literature

    Raveendran Subhash


    Full Text Available Biliary Tract Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm (BT-IPMN is a very rare entity, gradually emerging into attention as sporadic cases are being reported worldwide. In this brief report we discuss about such an entity from our part of the world, based on a case from our institution. A 47-year-old female was referred to our department with jaundice, intermittent fever with chills and rigor of 6 weeks duration. Initial evaluation revealed obstructive jaundice with distended gall bladder. Imaging with ultrasonogram (USG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed hugely dilated intra and extrahepatic biliary radicles with multiple and diffuse soft tissue lesions filling the common bile duct (CBD extending to the ductal system of left lobe of liver. A side viewing endoscopy demonstrated mucin extruding from a prominent ampulla of Vater. The patient was managed successfully by left hepatectomy with pancreaticoduodenectomy (HPD. Gross pathological examination of the specimen showed marked dilatation of intra and extra hepatic bile ducts with multiple polypoidal lesions and plenty of mucin filling the entire biliary ductal system. Histopathology revealed predominantly intraductal papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma at the hilum extending to left bile duct with diffuse dysplastic changes throughout the biliary tree. Thus the clinical, radiological and pathological features of this lesion clearly fit into the diagnosis of BT-IPMN, which is slowly being established as a definite clinical entity with features much similar to its pancreatic counterpart.

  6. A Pyloric Gland-Phenotype Ovarian Mucinous Tumor Resembling Lobular Endocervical Glandular Hyperplasia in a Patient with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome.

    Kim, Eun Na; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Kim, Jiyoon; Park, In Ah; Shin, Jin Ho; Chai, Yun; Kim, Kyu-Rae


    We describe an ovarian mucinous neoplasm that histologically resembles lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) containing pyloric gland type mucin in a patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). Although ovarian mucinous tumors rarely occur in PJS patients, their pyloric gland phenotype has not been clearly determined. The histopathologic features of the ovarian mucinous tumor were reminiscent of LEGH. The cytoplasmic mucin was stained with periodic acid-Schiff reaction after diastase treatment but was negative for Alcian blue pH 2.5, suggesting the presence of neutral mucin. Immunohistochemically, the epithelium expressed various gastric markers, including MUC6, HIK1083, and carbonic anhydrase-IX. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification detected a germline heterozygous deletion mutation at exons 1-7 of the STK11 gene (c.1-?_920+?del) in peripheral blood leukocytes and mosaic loss of heterozygosity in ovarian tumor tissue. Considering that LEGH and/or gastric-type cervical adenocarcinoma can be found in patients with PJS carrying germline and/or somatic STK11 mutations, our case indicates that STK11 mutations have an important role in the proliferation of pyloric-phenotype mucinous epithelium at various anatomical locations.

  7. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon. CONCLUSION: Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  8. Mucin glycoarray in gastric and gallbladder epithelia

    Ganesh Iniya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucins are critical cytoprotective glycoproteins and alterations of epithelial gastric mucins have been described in different pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the putative usefulness of mucins in understanding the progression of gastric cancer and gallstone formation in a better perspective. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens and surgically resected gallbladder tissue samples were sectioned. Alcian Blue (AB staining was performed to identify sialomucins (staining blue at pH 2.5 and sulfomucins (staining brown at pH 1.0 and then Periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS staining to visualize the neutral mucins (staining magenta. Results In normal gastric and gallbladder mucosae, we found that neutral mucins were predominant, whereas in intestinal metaplasia, gastric carcinoma and stone-containing gallbladder, a significant increase of acidic mucins was found. Conclusion We suggest that the sulfomucins have a greater role in gallstone formation than the neutral mucins and also that the sialomucins and sulfomucins play an important role in cancer progression and metastasis. Our results challenge the glycobiologists to delve deeper in elucidating the role of mucins in gastric malignancy and in gallstone formation.

  9. Emulsion flocculation induced by saliva and mucin

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Zoet, F.D.; Aken, van G.A.


    Upon consumption of emulsions, mixing with saliva occurs. This article shows that whole saliva and a model mucin (pig gastric mucin, PGM) are able to induce extensive droplet flocculation. Saliva samples collected from several subjects at different times of the day always showed flocculation. Howeve

  10. [Intraductal papillary mucinous pancreas tumor].

    Maev, I V; Kaziulin, A N; Kucheriavyĭ, Iu A


    Data of the literature on the epidemiology, patogenesis, diagnosis, peculiarities of the symptoms and the treatment of the intraduct papillar pancreatic tumor, are analyzed in this review. These tumors are rare, there are up to 1% of the exocrine pancreatic tumors. Intraduct proliferation of the mucin producing cells, that are disposed as papillars is typical of these tumors. There are the symptoms of the acute or chronic pancreatitis, sometimes the diagnosis of this tumor is accidental. The main diagnostic methods are ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT). Endoluminal ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are the main methods to reveal the intraduct growth. The surgical treatment is necessary for these patients.

  11. Gastric Collision Tumor Consisting of Mucinous Carcinoma and Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Kang, Su Min; Lee, Ye Ri; Han, Eun Mee; Yeon, Jae Woo; Yoo, Jin Young; Choi, Jong Mun; Sim, Ji Ye [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The concurrence of two different pathological tumors of the stomach is infrequent. Even rarer is a gastric collision tumor of both tumor types. Although there have been a few reported cases of gastric collision tumors that consisted of an adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma, to the best of our knowledge, there is no documented case report of a gastric collision tumor consisting of a mucinous carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. We report a case of gastric collision tumor, consisting of a mucinous carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma that presented as abdominal discomfort in a 64-year-old man. This finding draws attention to the related findings from previous studies on gastric collision tumors

  12. A Massive Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma: A Rare Case Report

    Ruma Sen Gupta


    Full Text Available Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma is a benign tumour that arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary. It tends to be huge in size if not detected early. We describe a 32 year old woman (para 1+0 presented with marked abdominal distension, discomfort and vague pain in the abdomen with dyspepsia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and irregular menstruation for last three months with the suspicion of pregnancy. On examination no findings were in favour of pregnancy, rather an ill defined abdominal mass about 30 weeks pregnancy size was found. Transabdominal USG revealed a big multiloculated ovarian cyst of about 25x20 cm. On laparotomy a huge cystic mass was noticed arising from left ovary. The cyst wall was smooth, intact and without any external projection though adherent with the left fallopian tube and left salpingo-oophorectomy was done. Histopathological examination revealed an ovarian cyst compatible with mucinous cystadenoma. Such giant ovarian tumours have become rare in current practice. This case report emphasizes the significance of thorough evaluation of all women presented with non specific complaints like vague abdominal pain or simple dyspepsia. Although the condition is rare, it is potentially dangerous in the massive form if not timely diagnosed and managed properly. With the increasing awareness of such conditions, more and more cases could be detected and reported early.

  13. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    De Lisle Robert C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal and the bath (serosal solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M and indomethacin (10-5 M were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in

  14. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas

    Ke Lü; Qing Dai; Zhong-hui Xu; Yi-xiu Zhang; Li Tan; Yan Yuan; Yu-xin Jiang


    Objective To analyze the clinical and ultrasonographic imaging features of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas.Methods Twelve patients with IPMN underwent surgery between May 2005 and December 2008, including 4 (33.3%) with adenoma and 8 (66.7%) with adenocarcinoma. IPMN was classified preoperatively into 3 types based on sonographic findings of different sites: main duct, branch duct, and combined type. All clinical presentations and ultrasonographic findings of those patients were reviewed and the correlation be-tween ultrasonographic findings and histopathological results was analyzed.Results There were 9 men and 3 women with a mean age of 60.1±9.6 years (range, 32-73). Of all the 12 patients with IPMN, 9 (75.0%) had experienced some symptoms of epigastric discomfort and/or pain as well as backache; 7 cases were with medical history of acute pancreatitis, 5 cases with diabetes, 4 cases with elevated CAi9-9, and 2 cases with steatorrhea. All lesions of IPMN have been revealed by transabdominal ul-trasonography. The mean diameters of the lesions were 1.4±0.8 cm (range, 0. 5-2.0) and 6.3±6.0 cm (range, 2.0-20.0) in adenomas and adenocarcinomas, respectively. And the mean diameters of the main duct in ade-nomas and adenocarcinomas were 1.0±0.8 cm and 1.6±1.0 cm, respectively. Among the 4 adnomas, 3 (75.0%) cases were classified as branch type based on sonographic findings, and 2 were demonstrated as mural nodules in which no color signals was detected. Among the 8 adenocarcinomas, 5 (62.5%) cases were classi-fied as main duct type, and 3 (37.5%) as combined type. In 7 of the 8 adenocarcinomas, mural nodules were detected within the dilated ducts or cysts of the lesions in which color flow signals were detected.Conclusions Transabdominal ultrasonography can reveal the pancreatic cystic lesions of IPMN as well as dilated pancreatic ducts. Some characteristics should be noticed as suggesting the possibility of malig-nancy: clinical

  15. SIgA binding to mucosal surfaces is mediated by mucin-mucin interactions.

    Hannah L Gibbins

    Full Text Available The oral mucosal pellicle is a layer of absorbed salivary proteins, including secretory IgA (SIgA, bound onto the surface of oral epithelial cells and is a useful model for all mucosal surfaces. The mechanism by which SIgA concentrates on mucosal surfaces is examined here using a tissue culture model with real saliva. Salivary mucins may initiate the formation of the mucosal pellicle through interactions with membrane-bound mucins on cells. Further protein interactions with mucins may then trigger binding of other pellicle proteins. HT29 colon cell lines, which when treated with methotrexate (HT29-MTX produce a gel-forming mucin, were used to determine the importance of these mucin-mucin interactions. Binding of SIgA to cells was then compared using whole mouth saliva, parotid (mucin-free saliva and a source of purified SIgA. Greatest SIgA binding occurred when WMS was incubated with HT29-MTX expressing mucus. Since salivary MUC5B was only able to bind to cells which produced mucus and purified SIgA showed little binding to the same cells we conclude that most SIgA binding to mucosal cells occurs because SIgA forms complexes with salivary mucins which then bind to cells expressing membrane-bound mucins. This work highlights the importance of mucin interactions in the development of the mucosal pellicle.

  16. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms using a novel method of DNA methylation analysis of mucin expression in pancreatic juice.

    Seiya Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Mucins (MUC play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs. Our immunohistochemistry (IHC studies have shown a consensus position on mucin expression profiles in pancreatic neoplasms as follows: MUC1-positive but MUC2-negative expression in PDACs; MUC1-negative but MUC2-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs (dangerous type; MUC1-negative and MUC2-negative expression in gastric-type IPMNs (safe type; High MUC4 expression in PDAC patients with a poor outcome; and MUC4-positive expression in intestinal-type IPMNs. We also showed that three mucin genes (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 expression in cancer cell line was regulated by DNA methylation. We have developed a novel 'methylation-specific electrophoresis (MSE' method to analyze the DNA methylation status of mucin genes by high sensitivity and resolution. By using the MSE method, we evaluated pancreatic juice samples from 45 patients with various pancreatic lesions. The results were compared with final diagnosis of the pancreatic lesions including IHC of mucin expression in the paired pancreatic tissues. The results indicated that the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in pancreatic juice matched with the mucin expression in tissue. Analyses of the DNA methylation status of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 were useful for differential diagnosis of human pancreatic neoplasms, with specificity and sensitivity of 87% and 80% for PDAC; 100% and 88% for intestinal-type IPMN; and 88% and 77% for gastric-type IPMN, respectively. In conclusion, MSE analysis of human pancreatic juice may provide useful information for selection of treatment for pancreatic neoplasms.

  17. Biomimetic oral mucin from polymer micelle networks

    Authimoolam, Sundar Prasanth

    Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated using affinity-based interactions on synthetic and biological surfaces. Unlike conventional polyelectrolyte-based LBL methods, pre-assembled biotin-functionalized filamentous (worm-like) micelles was utilized as the network building block, which from complementary additions of streptavidin generated synthetic networks of desired thickness. The biomimetic nature in those synthetic networks are studied by evaluating its structural and bio-functional properties. Structurally, synthetic networks formed a nanoporous mesh. The networks demonstrated excellent surface hydration property and were able capable of microbial capture. Those functional properties are akin to that of natural mucin networks. Further, the role of synthetic mucin as a drug delivery vehicle, capable of providing localized and tunable release was demonstrated. By incorporating antibacterial curcumin drug loading within synthetic networks, bacterial growth inhibition was also demonstrated. Thus, such bioactive interfaces can serve as a model for independently characterizing mucin network properties and through its role as a drug carrier vehicle it presents exciting future opportunities for localized drug delivery, in regenerative applications and as bio

  18. Immunohistochemical Profile of Mucins and their Expression in Precancerous Changes of the Stomach

    Sergii V. Vernygorodskyi, PhD¹


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the profile of mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC in the intestinal metaplasia (IM of the gastric mucosa through the immunohistochemical method. Methods: To identify the metaplastic areas in the gastric mucosa, chromoendoscopy was employed using 0.5% solution of methylene blue. The expression of the profile of the mucins was determined using immunohistochemistry with MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC2 antibodies (clone Ma695, clone CLH2, Ccp58 and CLH5, "Novocastra "Great Britain. Results: In the regions adjacent to the adenocarcinoma and neoplastic modified cells, a visible weak expression of MUC2 and MUC5AC was observed. In the case of complete IM, a visibly maximum MUC2 expression was observed in the goblet cells; thus, the MUC5AC, MUC1, and MUC6 marking were absent in the columnar epitheliocytes with the brush border. In the case of incomplete IM, along with the positive MUC2 markings of the goblet cells, the presence of gastric mucin (MUC5AC has been observed in 25% of such patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG having incomplete IM; however, in the columnar epitheliocytes the characteristic occurrence of gastric mucin (MUC5AC was observed in 100% of the patients while a small amount of MUC2 was recorded in 15% of patients. Conclusion: The MUC5AC expression of the gastric mucins in the columnar epithelial cells and the goblet exocrinocytes marks the formation of the gastrointestinal phenotype viz., incomplete intestinal metaplasia, along with the simultaneous production of the MUC2 by the goblet cells. The decrease with further loss of the protective MUC5AC production by the columnar epithelial cells and goblet exocrinocytes that were found in the regions of severe dysplasia and IM, adjacent to the neoplastic altered cells, may serve as additional criteria of early malignancy of the gastric mucosa.

  19. [Primary intestinal-type adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis associated with lithiasis: a case report].

    Renaud, Florence; Berthon, Nicolas; Lemaitre, Laurent; Castillo, Christine; Copin, Marie-Christine; Aubert, Sébastien; Leroy, Xavier


    A case of primary adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis occurring in a 57-year-old woman who had no previous history is reported. The lesions were thought to be a renal destruction by pyelolithiasis upon symptomatology and imaging study data. A nephrectomy was thus performed. Macroscopic examination revealed voluminous and exophytic lesions surrounding lithiasis. Diagnosis of intestinal-type adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis was established on histological examination. No evidence of other tumor localization was revealed by complete exploration. Primary adenocarcinoma of renal pelvis is a rare and often mucinous intestinal-type tumour. Chronic inflammation and renal lithiasis seem to be associated with this tumour. Few cases are reported and prognosis is doubtful. The main differential diagnosis to eliminate is secondary lesions to the kidney of adenocarcinoma from another origin. A careful pathological examination in case of pyelonephritic kidney is necessary to look for an associated tumour.

  20. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma

    GU Jin; LI Jiyou; YAO Yunfeng; LU Aiping; WANG Hongyi


    It is difficult to distinguish a tectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.Here,we report on the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with an upper-third rectal adenocarcinoma.Five months after resection,he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.The histological slides of both tumors were reviewed and immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins(CKs)7 and 20 were performed.The index tumor demonstrated CK 7-/CK 20+and the second showed CK7+/CK20+.For this reason,we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.It is very important to difierentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available,especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

  1. Utility of Genomic Analysis in Differentiating Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Adenocarcinomas from Primary Adenocarcinomas with Intrapulmonary Metastasis.

    Saab, Jad; Zia, Hamid; Mathew, Susan; Kluk, Michael; Narula, Navneet; Fernandes, Helen


    Distinguishing synchronous and metachronous primary lung adenocarcinomas from adenocarcinomas with intrapulmonary metastasis is essential for optimal patient management. In this study, multiple lung adenocarcinomas occurring in the same patient were evaluated using comprehensive histopathologic evaluation supplemented with molecular analysis. The cohort included 18 patients with a total of 52 lung adenocarcinomas. Eleven patients had a new diagnosis of multiple adenocarcinomas in the same lobe (n=5) or different lobe (n=6). Seven patients had a history of lung cancer and developed multiple new tumors. The final diagnosis was made in resection specimens (n=49), fine needle aspiration (n=2), and biopsy (n=1). Adenocarcinomas were non-mucinous, and histopathologic comparison of tumors was performed. All tumors save for one were subjected to ALK gene rearrangement testing and targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Using clinical, radiologic, and morphologic features, a confident conclusion favoring synchronous/metachronous or metastatic disease was made in 65% of patients. Cases that proved challenging included ones with more than three tumors showing overlapping growth patterns and lacking a predominant lepidic component. Genomic signatures unique to each tumor were helpful in determining the relationship of multiple carcinomas in 72% of patients. Collectively, morphologic and genomic data proved to be of greater value and achieved a conclusive diagnosis in 94% of patients. Assessment of the genomic profiles of multiple lung adenocarcinomas complements the histological findings, enabling a more comprehensive assessment of synchronous, metachronous, and metastatic lesions in most patients, thereby improving staging accuracy. Targeted NGS can identify genetic alterations with therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A GNAS mutation found in pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms induces drastic alterations of gene expression profiles with upregulation of mucin genes.

    Hirotake Komatsu

    Full Text Available GNAS, a gene encoding G protein stimulating α subunit, is frequently mutated in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs, which are indolent and slow-growing pancreatic tumors that secrete abundant mucin. The GNAS mutation is not observed in conventional ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. To determine the functional significance of the GNAS mutation in pancreatic ductal lineage cells, we examined in vitro phenotypes of cells of pancreatic ductal lineage, HPDE, PK-8, PCI-35, and MIA PaCa-2, with exogenous expression of either wild-type or mutated (R201H GNAS. We found that exogenous GNAS upregulated intracellular cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP, particularly in mutated GNAS transfectants, and upregulated expression of MUC2 and MUC5AC in HPDE and PK-8 cells. By contrast, exogenous GNAS inhibited expression of mucin genes in PCI-35 and MIA PaCa-2 cells, despite upregulation of cAMP. We examined global gene expression profiles of some of the cells transfected with exogenous mutated GNAS (PK-8, PCI-35, and MIA PaCa-2, and found that PK-8 cells exhibited drastic alterations of the gene expression profile, which contrasted with modest alterations in PCI-35 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. To identify a cause of these different effects of exogenous mutated GNAS on phenotypes of the cells, we examined effects of interactions of the signaling pathways of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K on expression of mucin genes. The MAPK and PI3K pathways significantly influenced the expression of mucin genes. Exogenous GNAS did not promote cell growth but suppressed it in some of the cells. In conclusion, mutated GNAS found in IPMNs may extensively alter gene expression profiles, including expression of mucin genes, through the interaction with MAPK and PI3K pathways in pancreatic ductal cells; these changes may determine the characteristic phenotype of IPMN. PK-8 cells expressing

  3. Cellular and Molecular Biology of Airway Mucins

    Lillehoj, Erik P.; Kato, Kosuke; Lu, Wenju; Kim, Kwang C.


    Airway mucus constitutes a thin layer of airway surface liquid with component macromolecules that covers the luminal surface of the respiratory tract. The major function of mucus is to protect the lungs through mucociliary clearance of inhaled foreign particles and noxious chemicals. Mucus is comprised of water, ions, mucin glycoproteins, and a variety of other macromolecules, some of which possess anti-microbial, anti-protease, and anti-oxidant activities. Mucins comprise the major protein component of mucus and exist as secreted and cell-associated glycoproteins. Secreted, gel-forming mucins are mainly responsible for the viscoelastic property of mucus, which is crucial for effective mucociliary clearance. Cell-associated mucins shield the epithelial surface from pathogens through their extracellular domains and regulate intracellular signaling through their cytoplasmic regions. However, neither the exact structures of mucin glycoproteins, nor the manner through which their expression is regulated, are completely understood. This chapter reviews what is currently known about the cellular and molecular properties of airway mucins. PMID:23445810

  4. Incidentally discovered giant mucocele of the appendix.

    Harris, Syed Hasan; Khan, Roobina; Ansari, Maulana Mohammad; Maheshwari, Veena


    Mucocele of the appendix is a rare but well-recognized entity that can mimic several common clinical conditions or present as an incidental radiological or surgical finding at laparotomy. Mucoceles are characterized by distension of the lumen due to accumulation of mucoid substance. They can result from mucosal hyperplasia, mucinous cystadenoma, or mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. If untreated, they may rupture producing the potentially fatal entity Pseudomyxoma peritonei, which is difficult to treat both surgically or medically. Appendectomy is used for simple mucocele or for cystadenoma. Preoperative diagnosis of a mucocele is helpful at the time of surgical intervention with careful mobilization, particularly of large lesions reducing the possibility of rupture and complications. The authors report a case of a 65-year-old man presenting with peritonitis due to a pre-pyloric gastric perforation also having an incidental giant mucocele of the appendix.

  5. Expression of mucins and E-cadherin in gastric carcinoma and their clinical significance

    Hong-Kai Zhang; Qiu-Min Zhang; Tie-Hua Zhao; Yuan-Yuan Li; Yong-Fen Yi


    AIM: To investigate the expression of three types of mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUCSAC) and E-cadherin in human gastric carcinomas and their clinical significance.METHODS: Ninety-four gastric cancer specimens were classified according to WHO criteria and detected by immunohistochemical assay of expression of mucins and E-cadherin.RESULTS: The positive expression rates of MUC1, MUC2,MUC5AC and E-cadherin were 82% (77/94), 84% (79/94),40% (38/94) and 56% (53/94) respectively. MUC1 expression was significantly correlated with the types of cancer (the positive rates of MUC1 in well and moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma,signet-ring cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma were 91%, 87%, 71%, 71%, respectively, P<0.05), age of patients (the positive rates of it among the people who are younger than 40 years, between 40-60 years and over 60 year were 74%, 81%, 89%, P<0.05), lymph nodes involvement (the positive rates in the non-interfered group and the interfered group were 78%, 85%, P<0.05) and tumor size (the positive rates in the tumors with the size less than 3 cm, 3-6 cm and larger than 6 cm were 69%, 92%, 69%, P<0.05); MUC2expression was significantly associated with types of cancers and had the strongest expression in mucinous carcinomas (the positive rates of MUC2 in well and moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma,signet-ring cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma were 94%, 70%, 81%, 100%, P<0.05), but it had no obvious relation to age, gender, tumor location, lymph nodes involvement,depth of invasion and metastasis to extra-gastric organs (P>0.05); MUC5AC expression was not related to any of the characteristics investigated except that it had relation to gender, whereas MUC5AC showed the tendency to higher expression in less invasive lesions and lower expression in advanced stage cancers (P>0.05); No significant difference was found for E-cadherin expression

  6. Giant Planets

    Guillot, Tristan


    We review the interior structure and evolution of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and giant exoplanets with particular emphasis on constraining their global composition. Compared to the first edition of this review, we provide a new discussion of the atmospheric compositions of the solar system giant planets, we discuss the discovery of oscillations of Jupiter and Saturn, the significant improvements in our understanding of the behavior of material at high pressures and the consequences for interior and evolution models. We place the giant planets in our Solar System in context with the trends seen for exoplanets.

  7. Intraductal mucin-hypersecreting neoplasm of the pancreas : US, CT and ERP findings

    Lee, Ki Yeol [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate US, CT and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) findings of intraductal mucin-hypersecreting neoplasm(IMHN). We categorized an IMHN as belonging to a group of disease that can be clinically detected by the pooling of mucus produced by tumors inside the main duct or branch ducts of the pancreas, thus causing dilatation of these ducts. We retrospectively reviewed the US, CT and ERP findings of five patients(hyperplasia, 4;adenocarcinoma, 1). On US and/or CT, diffuse dilatation of the main pancreatic duct was demonstrated in five patients. In two cystic lesions corresponding to cystic dilatation of branch ducts were noted at the pancreatic head(n=1) and neck(n=1). In one patient, multiple cystic lesions were seen on CT along the entire pancreas, but these were not detected on US. In all patients, dilatation of the main duct and /or its branch ducts was seen on ERP. Filling defects resulting from mucin in the main duct or branch ducts were noted in all cases. Lymphadenopathy was not seen on US or CT, but carcinoma peritonei was found in the adenocarcinoma patient at the time of operation. IMHN usually shows smooth, diffuse dilatation of the main duct, and on US or CT, dilated branch ducts are occasionally noted. ERP findings are the most characteristic and conclusive;dilatation of the main duct and/or branch ducts is noted, with a filling defect corresponding to mucin. If overlooked during diagnosis, an IMHN might be interpreted simply as chronic pancreatitis, and so the recognition of this neoplasm is important.

  8. Mucinous carcinoma of breast: A diagnostic pitfall

    Magdalene KF, Sapna M, Jeevaraj TR


    Full Text Available Mucinous carcinoma is also known as mucoid carcinoma, colloid carcinoma, gelatinous carcinoma and mucin producing carcinoma. They are uncommon neoplasms of the breast and the reported incidence varies from 1-4%. Most of the mucinous carcinomas occur in older age group. FNAC can aid in diagnosis of mucinous carcinoma with only a few FNAC studies documented in literature. We present here a 56year old lady with a huge ulcerated breast mass clinically diagnosed as Malignant Phyllodes tumor. An FNAC was done which showed epithelial cell clusters with mild atypia in a background of both bluish violet and pink extracellular material. Spindle shaped cells were noted in the ground substance which led to a diagnosis of a phyllodes tumor with extensive myxoid change. Mastectomy was performed and the histopathological features confirmed a diagnosis of mucinous carcinoma. The tumor had areas showing thick collagenized fibrous septae separating tumor cell clusters and also areas of fibrosis. The pitfall in FNAC diagnosis may be due to the sampling from such an area.

  9. Secretory myoepithelial carcinoma: a histologic and molecular survey and a proposed nomenclature for mucin producing signet ring tumors.

    Bastaki, Jassem M; Purgina, Bibianna M; Dacic, Sanja; Seethala, Raja R


    Signet ring cell (mucin producing) adenocarcinoma is a rare low grade salivary gland malignancy. While currently designated as an adenocarcinoma, myoepithelial differentiation has been implied in previously reported cases. We herein perform a survey of our cases of signet ring cell adenocarcinoma and review the literature in order to refine categorization of this rare tumor. Five cases were retrieved. One was reclassified as a mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, leaving four that fulfilled the criteria for signet ring cell adenocarcinoma: the presence of prominent signet ring or vacuolated cells arranged in islands, interconnecting strands, cords or sheets in a myxoid or hyaline stroma, or pools of mucin. An extensive panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (modeled after common phenotypes and molecular alterations seen in signet ring and myoepithelial tumors at other sites) was performed. The male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The mean age was 56 years (range 18-81). Sites involved included buccal mucosa (2), soft palate (1) and deep parotid (1). Perineural and angiolymphatic invasion were present in three and two cases respectively. One patient was lost to follow up and the remainder were alive and without disease at time of last follow up (mean 38 months). All cases showed mucicarmine positive vacuolated/signet ring cells embedded in a myxoid stroma. Three cases showed at least focal p63 staining and two cases showed positivity for calponin. Membranous E-cadherin was retained in all cases. FISH was negative for ETV6, EWSR1, and ALK1 rearrangements in all four cases. Based on the current series and the previously reported cases, it is evident that signet ring adenocarcinomas have a dual secretory and myoepithelial phenotype and thus as a whole more appropriately designated as 'secretory myoepithelial carcinoma.' They behave in a fairly indolent fashion and do not share the major molecular alterations seen

  10. Mucinous carcinoma in a male breast

    Roopak Aggarwal


    Full Text Available Male breast cancer is rare as compared to female counterpart. Pure mucinous carcinoma is an extremely rare histological subtype representing less than 1% of male breast cancers. So far very few cases of pure mucinous carcinoma of male breast have been reported in the literature, most of which were diagnosed after surgical resection. Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a well-established procedure for the evaluation of female breast masses but the diagnosis of malignancy in aspirates from male breast masses is rare. We herein present one case of mucinous carcinoma of breast in a 75-year-old male diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and confirmed by histopathology. After a follow-up of 12 months the patient is free of any recurrence or metastasis.

  11. Collagenous micronodules in prostate cancer revisited: are they solely associated with Gleason pattern 3 adenocarcinomas?

    Kim, Mi J; Divatia, Mukul K; Lee, Jeong H; Shen, Steven; Miles, Brian J; Hwang, Jun H; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y


    Collagenous micronodules (CMs) are microscopic stromal nodular eosinophilic fibrillar collagen deposition of uncertain histogenesis seen in prostatic adenocarcinoma. Per the 2005 International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference, they are categorized as Gleason pattern 3. This study analyzes morphological and clinical features of CMs from a large series of radical prostatectomies. Hematoxylin and eosin stained slides for 129 radical prostatectomies for adenocarcinoma of prostate with CMs and for 93 prostatic adenocarcinoma cases without CMs as comparison were examined out of a total of 667 cases performed from January 2010 to December 2011 at Houston Methodist Hospital. CMs were identified in 19% of all radical prostatectomies (129/667 cases). Almost all tumors with CMs were located in the peripheral zone (98%) as single or multiple foci of prostatic cancer glands. The vast majority of cases (96%) were identified in association with mucinous secretion. A cribriform Gleason pattern 4 was associated in 86 cases (67%). The CMs were associated with glomerulation (42%) and amphophilic luminal secretion (59%). 88 cases (68%) showed tumor foci with Gleason pattern ≥ 4 in close association with CMs. Multivariate analysis revealed CMs of the prostatic adenocarcinoma are closely related to mucinous secretion, cribriform growth pattern, and Gleason pattern 4. This study suggests that CMs are more frequently associated with Gleason pattern 4 cancer warranting morphologic reappraisal of CMs, rather than the consensus assignment of Gleason pattern 3. PMID:26097531

  12. Identification of a major human high molecular weight salivary mucin (MG1) as tracheobronchial mucin MUC5B

    Nielsen, P A; Bennett, E P; Wandall, H H;


    Human saliva contains high and low molecular weight mucin glycoproteins, that are distinct. Recently the gene encoding low molecular weight salivary mucin was cloned and designated MUC7, whereas the primary structure of high molecular weight salivary mucin is unclear. Furthermore, the expression ...

  13. [Giant appendiceal mucocele during laparotomy for acute abdomen. Report of a case and brief review].

    Caiazzo, P; Comentale, A; Rampone, B; Di Lascio, P; Morlino, A; Pastore, M; Del Vecchio, G; Tramutoli, P R


    The authors describe a case of giant appendiceal mucocele, secondary to a mucinous neoplasm of the appendix, diagnosed during laparotomy for acute abdomen. By a review of the literature they stress the rarity of this lesion, the particular onset in their case as acute complication of appendiceal neoplasm with rupture of the intestinal wall, the difficulties of diagnosis and management in emergency.

  14. Aberrant Expression of Calretinin, D2-40 and Mesothelin in Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Colorectal Carcinomas and Relation to Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis.

    Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Hamed, Hazem


    CRC is a heterogeneous disease in terms of morphology, invasive behavior, metastatic capacity, and clinical outcome. Recently, many so-called mesothelial markers, including calretinin, D2-40, WT1, thrombomodulin, mesothelin, and others, have been certified. The aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of calretinin and other mesothelial markers (D2-40 and mesothelin) in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) and non mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) specimens and relation to clinicopathological features and prognosis using manual tissue microarray technique. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and NMA who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin expressions. We found that NMA showed significantly more calretinin and D2-40 expression than MA In contrast, no statistically significant difference between NMA and MA was detected in mesothelin expression. There were no statistically significant relations between any of the clinicopathological or histological parameters and any of the three markers. In a univariate analysis, neither calretinin nor D2-40 expressions showed any significant relations to DFS or OS. However, mesothelin luminal expression was significantly associated with worse DFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved that luminal mesothelin expression was an independent negative prognostic factor in NMA. In conclusion, Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin are aberrantly expressed in a proportion of CRC cases with more expression in NMA than MA. Aberrant expression of these mesothelial markers was not associated with clinicopathological or histological features of CRCs. Only mesothelin expression appears to be a strong predictor of adverse prognosis.

  15. Small invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas distinct from branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Hiroki Sakamoto; Masayuki Kitano; Takamitsu Komaki; Hajime Imai; Ken Kamata; Masatomo Kimura; Yoshifumi Takeyama; Masatoshi Kudo


    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a highly sensitive diagnostic method for the detection of small pancreatic carcinomas.Recently, there have been some reports describing the utility of contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS) which uses sonographic contrast agent for differentiation of a pancreatic mass.This report describes a case of small adenocarcinoma of the pancreas distinct from branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) in which investigation by EUS took place every 6 mo and diagnosis was made accurately by additional CEH-EUS during the followup of the branch duct IPMN.A 68-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of a branch duct IPMN in the pancreatic body.She had been followedup by EUS every 6 mo.However, after 2 years EUS demonstrated a low echoic area distinct from the branch duct IPMN which was vaguely discernible by EUS, and accurate sizing and differential diagnosis were considered difficult on the EUS imaging.CHEUS with Sonazoid revealed a hypovascular tumor and we suspected small pancreatic carcinoma.The histopathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma (10 mm) in the pancreatic tail, distinct from the branch duct IPMN of the pancreatic body.EUS and CEH-EUS may play an important role in the correct diagnosis of small pancreatic tumors, including synchronous and metachronous occurrence of IPMN and ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

  16. Synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Mirko Muroni; Francesco D'Angelo; Massimo Pezzatini; Simone Sebastiani; Samantha Noto; Emanuela Pilozzi; Giovanni Ramacciato


    BACKGROUND: The association between gastric and pancreatic carcinoma is a relatively rare condition. In gastric carcinoma patients, the prevalence of second tumors varies 2.8% to 6.8% according to the reported statistics. Gastric cancer associated with pancreatic cancer is uncommon. METHODS: We report a case of a 73-year-old patient hospitalized for vomiting and weight loss. Esophagogastro-duodenoscopy demonstrated an ulcerative lesion of the gastric antrum. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance showed a gastric thickening in the antral and pyloric portion and a nodular mass (3×1.7 cm) in the uncinate portion of the pancreas. RESULTS: The patient underwent pancreaticoduoden-ectomy according to Whipple regional typeⅠFortner. Histological examination of the specimen demonstrated a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach and a poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. CONCLUSIONS: Long survival is rare in patients with associated gastric and pancreatic cancer. Surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment.

  17. Adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid (appendiceal-type crypt cell adenocarcinoma) is a morphologically distinct entity with highly aggressive behavior and frequent association with peritoneal/intra-abdominal dissemination: an analysis of 77 cases.

    Reid, Michelle D; Basturk, Olca; Shaib, Walid L; Xue, Yue; Balci, Serdar; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Akkas, Gizem; Memis, Bahar; Robinson, Brian S; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Staley, Charles A; Staley, Christopher A; Winer, Joshua H; Russell, Maria C; Knight, Jessica H; Goodman, Michael; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Adsay, Volkan


    High-grade versions of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids ('adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoids') are poorly characterized. We herein document 77 examples. Tumors occurred predominantly in females (74%), mean age 55 years (29-84), most with disseminated abdominal (77% peritoneal, 58% gynecologic tract involvement) and stage IV (65%) disease. Many presented to gynecologic oncologists, and nine had a working diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Metastases to liver (n=3) and lung (n=1) were uncommon and none arose in adenomatous lesions. Tumors had various histologic patterns, in variable combinations, most of which were fairly specific, making them recognizable as appendiceal in origin, even at metastatic sites: I: Ordinary goblet cell carcinoid/crypt pattern (rounded, non-luminal acini with well-oriented goblet cells), in variable amounts in all cases. II: Poorly cohesive goblet cell pattern (diffusely infiltrative cords/single files of signet ring-like/goblet cells). III: Poorly cohesive non-mucinous cell (diffuse-infiltrative growth of non-mucinous cells). IV: Microglandular (rosette-like glandular) pattern without goblet cells. V: Mixed 'other' carcinoma foci (including ordinary intestinal/mucinous). VI: goblet cell carcinoid pattern with high-grade morphology (marked nuclear atypia). VII: Solid sheet-like pattern punctuated by goblet cells/microglandular units. Ordinary nested/trabecular ('carcinoid pattern') was very uncommon. In total, 33(52%) died of disease, with median overall survival 38 months and 5-year survival 32%. On multivariate analysis perineural invasion and younger age (tumor progression. In conclusion, 'adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid' is an appendix-specific, high-grade malignant neoplasm with distinctive morphology that is recognizable at metastatic sites and recapitulates crypt cells (appendiceal crypt cell adenocarcinoma). Unlike intestinal-type adenocarcinoma, it occurs predominantly in women, is disguised as gynecologic malignancy

  18. Apocrine adenocarcinoma of the vulva

    Babita Kajal


    Full Text Available Cutaneous vulvar carcinomas are predominantly of squamous cell carcinoma type. Primary vulvar adenocarcinomas are rare with a poorly understood histogenesis. They are classified into extramammary Paget’s disease, sweat gland carcinomas, and breast-like adenocarcinomas of the vulva. Adenocarcinomas, originating from Bartholin glands, can also present as vulvar adenocarcinoma. Rare adenocarcinomas with apocrine features have been described in the literature. The origin of these neoplasms from the native apocrine sweat glands or from anogenital mammary-like glands is still debatable. We report herein a case of a 67 year old female with a rare primary apocrine carcinoma of the vulva.

  19. Distribution of individual components of basement membrane in human colon polyps and adenocarcinomas as revealed by monoclonal antibodies

    Ljubimov, A V; Bartek, J; Couchman, J R


    -membrane components (laminin, entactin/nidogen, collagen type IV and large heparan sulfate proteoglycan), as well as to keratin 8. In all adenocarcinomas, including mucinous, basement membranes were altered more at the invasive front than in the parenchyma. The degree of this alteration was inversely correlated......-membrane components and to a specific keratin may constitute an adequate immunohistochemical test for the presence of invasion, and may be useful in the histologic analysis of polyps, especially in dubious cases....

  20. Targeting hypoxia-mediated mucin 2 production as a therapeutic strategy for mucinous tumors.

    Dilly, Ashok K; Lee, Yong J; Zeh, Herbert J; Guo, Zong Sheng; Bartlett, David L; Choudry, Haroon A


    Excessive accumulation of mucin 2 (MUC2; a gel-forming secreted mucin) protein in the peritoneal cavity is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). Hypoxia (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; HIF-1α) has been shown to regulate the expression of similar mucins (eg, MUC5AC). We hypothesized that hypoxia (HIF-1α) drives MUC2 expression in PMP and is therefore a novel target to reduce mucinous tumor growth. The regulation of MUC2 by 2% hypoxia (HIF-1α) was evaluated in MUC2-secreting LS174T cells. The effect of BAY 87-2243, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, on MUC2 expression and mucinous tumor growth was evaluated in LS174T cells, PMP explant tissue, and in a unique intraperitoneal murine xenograft model of PMP. In vitro exposure of LS174T cells to hypoxia increased MUC2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression and increased HIF-1α binding to the MUC2 promoter. Hypoxia-mediated MUC2 protein overexpression was downregulated by transfected HIF-1α small interfering RNA (siRNA) compared with scrambled siRNA in LS174T cells. BAY 87-2243 inhibited hypoxia-induced MUC2 mRNA and protein expression in LS174T cells and PMP explant tissue. In a murine xenograft model of PMP, chronic oral therapy with BAY 87-2243 inhibited mucinous tumor growth and MUC2, HIF-1α expression in the tumor tissue. Our data suggest that hypoxia (HIF-1α) induces MUC2 promoter activity to increase MUC2 expression. HIF-1α inhibition decreases MUC2 production and mucinous tumor growth, providing a preclinical rationale for the use of HIF-1α inhibitors to treat patients with PMP.

  1. CRADA Final Report: Mucin Mimic and Glycopeptide Synthesis

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.


    Mucus has several constituents but the most important are the mucins, heavily O-glycosylated proteins characterized by long stretches of tandem repeat sequences rich in glycosylated serine and threonine residues, with N- and C-terminal domains that have determined to a large extent by the viscous and viscoelastic properties of mucin glycoproteins. Indeed, these properties are evident in reconstituted purified mucin glycoproteins. Oligomeric mucin can be deconstructed into its monomeric components and then further into the domains that comprise each mucin molecule. There are two major domain types. "Glycodomains" are defined by stretches of the tandemly repeated Thr/Ser-rich segments that bear the characteristic O-linked glycans of the mucin molecule. The goal of this project is to synthesize polymeric materials that mimic mucin glycodomains. In order to mimic the central features of mucin, these materials should have dense clusters of glycans that bear a similar structure to those found in native mucins, and a fairly rigid polymer backbone. Four different polymers bearing ketone groups for the attachment of sugars were synthesized. GalNAc{alpha}-ONH{sub 2} and Sia{alpha}2,6GaINAc{alpha}·ONH{sub 2} both of which could be ligated to the polymer scaffolds were synthesized. Mucin glycodomain mimics were successfully synthesized by ligation of glycans to polymers.

  2. Malignancies associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    Terumi Kamisawa; Yuyang Tu; Naoto Egawa; Hitoshi Nakajima; Kouji Tsuruta; Atsutake Okamoto


    AIM: As intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)has a favorable prognosis, associated malignancies have potential significance in these patients. We examined the incidence and characteristics of pre-existing, coexisting and subsequent malignancies in patients with IPMN. METHODS: Seventy-nine cases of IPMN were diagnosed by detection of mucous in the pancreatic duct during endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. Histological diagnosis was confirmed in 30 cases (adenoma (n = 19)and adenocarcinoma (n = 11). Other primary malignancies associated with IPMN, occurring in the prediagnostic or postdiagnostic period, were investigated. Postdiagnostic follow-up period was 3.3±0.5 years (range, 0.2-20 years).RESULTS: Other 40 malignancies occurred in 28 patients (35%). They were found before (n = 15), at (n = 19) and after (n = 6) the diagnosis of IPMT. Major associated malignancies were gastric cancer (n = 12), colonic cancer (n = 7), esophageal cancer (n = 4), pulmonary cancer (n = 4), and independent pancreatic cancer (n = 3).Pancreatic cancer was synchronous with IPMN in two patients and metachronous in one (3 years after diagnosis of IPMN). Thirty-one lesions were treated surgically or endoscopically. Fourteen patients died of associated cancers. Development of other malignancies was related to age (71.9±8.2 vs66.8±9.3, P<0.05), but not to gender or site of the tumor.CONCLUSION: IPMN is associated with a high incidence of other malignancies, particularly gastric and colonic cancers. Common genetic mechanisms between IPMN and other associated malignancies might be present. Clinicians should pay attention to the possibility of associated malignancies in preoperative screening and follow-up of patients with IPMN.

  3. A rare renal pelvis tumor: Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

    Gül Türkcü


    Full Text Available Urothelial carcinomas are the most common neoplasms in the renal pelvis. However mucinous cystadenocarcinomas (MCA are very rare in this localization. Although some theories are attributed on the patogenesis of MCA, its exact etiology is not known. Herein, we present histopathological characteristic of a case with MCA. Multiple cystic lesions and millimetric calculi with ectasia of the left kidney were detected by abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Left simple nephrectomy was performed because of a pre-diagnosis of atrophic pyonephrotic kidney. The sections of the nephrectomized kidney revealed, multilocular mucinous cysts and histopathological appearance of MCA. We aimed to present this rare case mimicking atrophic cystic kidney with clinical, radiological findings, and histopathological characteristics in the lights of literature.J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6(1: 78-80

  4. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix: CT findings

    ZHOU Mei-ling; YAN Fu-hua; XU Peng-ju; ZHANG Li-jun; LI Qing-hai; JI Yuan


    @@ Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma (AMC) is an uncommon disease. The clinical symptoms are non-specific, thus the preoperative diagnosis is very difficult. The importance of recognizing this condition lies in preventing spillage during surgery. At present,the widespread use of computed tomography (CT)for evaluating abdominal disease has increased the detection rate and diagnostic accuracy for AMC.Here, we report the CT appearance of 4histologically proven AMCs.

  5. [Mucinous papillary cystadenoma of the pancreas].

    Ledezma, G; Salloum, S; de Sulbarán, Y; de Armas, L


    The case of a 15-years-old female patient is presented, who referred pain and presence of a mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Diagnostic imaging showed a 9 cm diameter cystic lesion in the tail of the pancreas which was removed surgically. Histology demonstrated a pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma with borderline biological behaviour. A review of the literature related to cystic neoplasms of the pancreas is realized.

  6. Activated Wnt Signaling in Stroma Contributes to Development of Pancreatic Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms

    Sano, Makoto; Driscoll, David R.; De Jesus-Monge, Wilfredo E.; Klimstra, David S.; Lewis, Brian C.


    BACKGROUND & AIMS Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), a cystic tumor of the pancreas that develops most frequently in women, is a potential precursor to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. MCNs develop primarily in the body and tail of the pancreas and are characterized by the presence of a mucinous epithelium and ovarian-like subepithelial stroma. We investigated the involvement of Wnt signaling in KRAS-mediated pancreatic tumorigenesis and development of MCN in mice, and Wnt activation in human MCN samples. METHODS LSL-KrasG12D, Ptf1a-cre mice were crossed with elastase-tva mice to allow for introduction of genes encoded by the replication-competent avian sarcoma-leukosis virus long-terminal repeat with splice acceptor viruses to pancreatic acinar cells and acinar cell progenitors, postnatally and sporadically. Repeat with splice acceptor viruses that expressed Wnt1 were delivered to the pancreatic epithelium of these mice; pancreatic lesions were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses. We analyzed levels of factors in Wnt signaling pathways in 19 MCN samples from patients. RESULTS Expression of Wnt1 in the pancreatic acinar cells and acinar cell progenitors of female mice led to development of unilocular or multilocular epithelial cysts in the pancreas body and tail, similar to MCN. The cystic lesions resembled the estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–positive ovarian-like stroma of MCN, but lacked the typical mucinous epithelium. Activated Wnt signaling, based on nuclear localization of β-catenin, was detected in the stroma but not cyst epithelium. Wnt signaling to β-catenin was found to be activated in MCN samples from patients, within the ovarian-like stroma, consistent with the findings in mice. CONCLUSIONS Based on studies of mice and pancreatic MCN samples from patients, the canonical Wnt signaling pathway becomes activated and promotes development of the ovarian-like stroma to contribute to formation of MCNs. PMID

  7. Optical biomarkers of serous and mucinous human ovarian tumor assessed with nonlinear optics microscopies.

    Javier Adur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonlinear optical (NLO microscopy techniques have potential to improve the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study we showed that multimodal NLO microscopies, including two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF, second-harmonic generation (SHG, third-harmonic generation (THG and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM can detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with ovarian cancer progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained strong TPEF + SHG + THG signals from fixed samples stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E and robust FLIM signal from fixed unstained samples. Particularly, we imaged 34 ovarian biopsies from different patients (median age, 49 years including 5 normal ovarian tissue, 18 serous tumors and 11 mucinous tumors with the multimodal NLO platform developed in our laboratory. We have been able to distinguish adenomas, borderline, and adenocarcinomas specimens. Using a complete set of scoring methods we found significant differences in the content, distribution and organization of collagen fibrils in the stroma as well as in the morphology and fluorescence lifetime from epithelial ovarian cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns for serous and mucinous ovarian tumors. The results provide a basis to interpret future NLO images of ovarian tissue and lay the foundation for future in vivo optical evaluation of premature ovarian lesions.

  8. [Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor: diagnostic and therapeutic approach].

    Seijo Ríos, Susana; Lariño Noia, José; Iglesias García, Julio; Lozano León, Antonio; Domínguez Muñoz, Juan Enrique


    Primary cystic pancreatic neoplasms are rare tumors, with an approximate prevalence of 10% of cystic pancreatic lesions. Most of these lesions correspond to mucinous cystic neoplasm, serous cystoadenoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT). IPMT is characterized by diffuse dilatation of the main pancreatic duct and/or side branches with inner defects related to mucin or tumor, or mucin extrusion from a patent ampulla. IPMT has a low potential for malignancy, with a low growth rate, a low rate of metastatic spread and postsurgical recurrence. Over the last few years, major advances have been made in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of this tumor.

  9. Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma

    Krishnendra Varma


    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma is a rare entity. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old female who presented with yellowish-brown, irregular, solid, elevated rashes over the pubis with a recent history off palliative colostomy for anorectal adenocarcinoma. Clinically, we suspected metastasis that was proved on biopsy. We report this case due to the rare presenting site (i.e., perineum of a metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  10. MicroRNA in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and itsprecursor lesions


    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the 4thdeadliest cancer in the United States, due to its aggressivenature, late detection, and resistance tochemotherapy. The majority of PDAC develops from3 precursor lesions, pancreatic intraepithelial lesions(PanIN), intraductual papillary mucinous neoplasm(IPMN), and mucinous cystic neoplasm. Early detectionand surgical resection can increase PDAC 5-year survivalrate from 6% for Stage Ⅳ to 50% for Stage Ⅰ. To date,there are no reliable biomarkers that can detect PDAC.MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs (18-25nucleotides) that regulate gene expression by affectingtranslation of messenger RNA (mRNA). A large bodyof evidence suggests that miRNAs are dysregulated invarious types of cancers. MiRNA has been profiled as apotential biomarker in pancreatic tumor tissue, blood,cyst fluid, stool, and saliva. Four miRNA biomarkers(miR-21, miR-155, miR-196, and miR-210) have beenconsistently dysregulated in PDAC. MiR-21, miR-155, andmiR-196 have also been dysregulated in IPMN and PanINlesions suggesting their use as early biomarkers of thisdisease. In this review, we explore current knowledge ofmiRNA sampling, miRNA dysregulation in PDAC and itsprecursor lesions, and advances that have been made inusing miRNA as a biomarker for PDAC and its precursorlesions.

  11. Mucin-hypersecreting bile duct neoplasm characterized by clinicopathological resemblance to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas

    Harimoto Norifumi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas is acceptable as a distinct disease entity, the concept of mucin-secreting biliary tumors has not been fully established. Case presentation We describe herein a case of mucin secreting biliary neoplasm. Imaging revealed a cystic lesion 2 cm in diameter at the left lateral segment of the liver. Duodenal endoscopy revealed mucin secretion through an enlarged papilla of Vater. On the cholangiogram, the cystic lesion communicated with bile duct, and large filling defects caused by mucin were observed in the dilated common bile duct. This lesion was diagnosed as a mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. Left and caudate lobectomy of the liver with extrahepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction was performed according to the possibility of the tumor's malignant behavior. Histological examination of the specimen revealed biliary cystic wall was covered by micropapillary neoplastic epithelium with mucin secretion lacking stromal invasion nor ovarian-like stroma. The patient has remained well with no evidence of recurrence for 38 months since her operation. Conclusion It is only recently that the term "intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN," which is accepted as a distinct disease entity of the pancreas, has begun to be used for mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. This case also seemed to be intraductal papillary neoplasm with prominent cystic dilatation of the bile duct.

  12. The different morphologies of urachal adenocarcinoma do not discriminate genomically by micro-RNA expression profiling.

    Bissonnette, Mei Lin Z; Kocherginsky, Masha; Tretiakova, Maria; Jimenez, Rafael E; Barkan, Güliz A; Mehta, Vikas; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont Joseph; Steinberg, Gary D; White, Kevin P; Stricker, Thomas; Paner, Gladell P


    Urachal adenocarcinoma has several morphologic presentations that include mucinous, enteric, signet ring cell, and not otherwise specified. Mixtures of these morphologies can occur, and percentage cut-offs are used for classification. The clinical significance of these morphologic types is currently unknown, and genetic analysis that could elucidate possible intertumoral differences has not been performed. In this study, we analyzed the micro-RNA expression profiles of 12 urachal adenocarcinomas classified using strict morphologic criteria (3 pure enteric, 3 pure mucinous, 2 signet ring cell [both 90% signet ring cell], 2 pure not otherwise specified, and 2 mixed cell types). Of 598 unique human micro-RNAs, 333 were expressed in more than 50% of the samples. Hierarchal clustering showed no distinct patterns in the genetic profiles of the morphologic types. However, there were individual micro-RNA differences when the different types were compared individually or grouped together, either by intracellular mucin production or by grouping enteric and signet ring cell together. In the later group, 13 messenger RNA species were differentially expressed (adjusted P value of ≤.05). However, these micro-RNA differences were small, suggesting more biologic similarity than differences among these entities. Thus, this study suggests that the different morphological subtypes may represent patterns of differentiation or a continuum of a single biological tumor type rather than several distinct types that arose from the urachal remnant epithelium. This finding, if further validated in larger studies, may have implications in future clinical therapeutic trials for urachal adenocarcinoma with regard to patient grouping and choice of therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Travis, William D.; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Geisinger, Kim R.; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G.; Powell, Charles A.; Riely, Gregory J.; Van Schil, Paul E.; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H. M.; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M.; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A.; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David


    , will have 100% or near 100% disease-specific survival, respectively. AIS and MIA are usually nonmucinous but rarely may be mucinous. Invasive adenocarcinomas are classified by predominant pattern after using comprehensive histologic subtyping with lepidic (formerly most mixed subtype tumors with nonmucinous BAC), acinar, papillary, and solid patterns; micropapillary is added as a new histologic subtype. Variants include invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (formerly mucinous BAC), colloid, fetal, and enteric adenocarcinoma. This classification provides guidance for small biopsies and cytology specimens, as approximately 70% of lung cancers are diagnosed in such samples. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), in patients with advanced-stage disease, are to be classified into more specific types such as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, whenever possible for several reasons: (1) adenocarcinoma or NSCLC not otherwise specified should be tested for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations as the presence of these mutations is predictive of responsiveness to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, (2) adenocarcinoma histology is a strong predictor for improved outcome with pemetrexed therapy compared with squamous cell carcinoma, and (3) potential life-threatening hemorrhage may occur in patients with squamous cell carcinoma who receive bevacizumab. If the tumor cannot be classified based on light microscopy alone, special studies such as immunohistochemistry and/or mucin stains should be applied to classify the tumor further. Use of the term NSCLC not otherwise specified should be minimized. Conclusions This new classification strategy is based on a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma that incorporates clinical, molecular, radiologic, and surgical issues, but it is primarily based on histology. This classification is intended to support clinical practice, and research investigation and clinical trials. As EGFR mutation is a validated

  14. Mucin secretion induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Eric Y T Chen

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NP exposure has been closely associated with the exacerbation and pathophysiology of many respiratory diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and asthma. Mucus hypersecretion and accumulation in the airway are major clinical manifestations commonly found in these diseases. Among a broad spectrum of NPs, titanium dioxide (TiO(2, one of the PM10 components, is widely utilized in the nanoindustry for manufacturing and processing of various commercial products. Although TiO(2 NPs have been shown to induce cellular nanotoxicity and emphysema-like symptoms, whether TiO(2 NPs can directly induce mucus secretion from airway cells is currently unknown. Herein, we showed that TiO(2 NPs (<75 nm can directly stimulate mucin secretion from human bronchial ChaGo-K1 epithelial cells via a Ca(2+ signaling mediated pathway. The amount of mucin secreted was quantified with enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA. The corresponding changes in cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration were monitored with Rhod-2, a fluorescent Ca(2+ dye. We found that TiO(2 NP-evoked mucin secretion was a function of increasing intracellular Ca(2+ concentration resulting from an extracellular Ca(2+ influx via membrane Ca(2+ channels and cytosolic ER Ca(2+ release. The calcium-induced calcium release (CICR mechanism played a major role in further amplifying the intracellular Ca(2+ signal and in sustaining a cytosolic Ca(2+ increase. This study provides a potential mechanistic link between airborne NPs and the pathoetiology of pulmonary diseases involving mucus hypersecretion.

  15. Glycan elongation beyond the mucin associated Tn antigen protects tumor cells from immune-mediated killing.

    Caroline B Madsen

    Full Text Available Membrane bound mucins are up-regulated and aberrantly glycosylated during malignant transformation in many cancer cells. This results in a negatively charged glycoprotein coat which may protect cancer cells from immune surveillance. However, only limited data have so far demonstrated the critical steps in glycan elongation that make aberrantly glycosylated mucins affect the interaction between cancer cells and cytotoxic effector cells of the immune system. Tn (GalNAc-Ser/Thr, STn (NeuAcα2-6GalNAc-Ser/Thr, T (Galβ1-3GalNAc-Ser/Thr, and ST (NeuAcα2-6Galβ1-3GalNAc-Ser/Thr antigens are recognized as cancer associated truncated glycans, and are expressed in many adenocarcinomas, e.g. breast- and pancreatic cancer cells. To investigate the role of the cancer associated glycan truncations in immune-mediated killing we created glyco-engineered breast- and pancreatic cancer cells expressing only the shortest possible mucin-like glycans (Tn and STn. Glyco-engineering was performed by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN knockout (KO of the Core 1 enzyme chaperone COSMC, thereby preventing glycan elongation beyond the initial GalNAc residue in O-linked glycans. We find that COSMC KO in the breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines T47D and Capan-1 increases sensitivity to both NK cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL-mediated killing. In addition, we investigated the association between total cell surface expression of MUC1/MUC16 and NK or CTL mediated killing, and observed an inverse correlation between MUC16/MUC1 expression and the sensitivity to ADCC and CTL-mediated killing. Together, these data suggest that up-regulation of membrane bound mucins protects cells from immune mediated killing, and that particular glycosylation steps, as demonstrated for glycan elongation beyond Tn and STn, can be important for fine tuning of the immune escape mechanisms in cancer cells.

  16. Primaert mucinøst karcinom i huden

    Kalialis, Louise Vennegaard; Breiting, Line Bro; Klausen, Siri;


    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is a rare malignant tumour originating from the sweat glands. It is often misdiagnosed clinically since it has an uncharacteristic and variable presentation, and microscopically because it resembles a cutaneous metastasis from the more frequent mucinous...

  17. Alterations in gastric mucin synthesis by Helicobacter pylori

    James C, Byrd; Robert S, Bresalier


    AIM To determine the role of Helicobacter pylori in altering gastric mucin synthesis and define how thprocess relates to H. pylori-related diseases.METHODS Analyses of human gastric tissues using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridizatiodocument the role of H. pylori in altering the composition and distribution of gastric mucins.RESULTS These data indicate a decrease in the product of the MUC5 (MUC5AC) gene and aberraexpression of MUC6 in the surface epithelium of H. pylori-infected patients. A normal pattern was restorby H. pylori eradication. Inhibition of mucin synthesis including MUC5AC and MUCl mucins by H. pvlohas been established in vitro using biochemical and Western blot analyses. This effect is not due to inhibitiof glycosylation, but results from inhibition of synthesis of mucin core structures. In vitro experiments usiinhibitors of mucin synthesis indicate that cell surface mucins decrease adhesion of H. pylori to gastepithelial cells.CONCLUSION Inhibition of mucin synthesis by H. pylori in vivo can disrupt the protective mucous layand facilitate bacterial adhesion, which may lead to increased inflammation in thc gastric epithelium.




    In this study rheological properties of aqueous solutions of mucin, albumin and mucin-albumin have been investigated in search for saliva substitutes. They were compared with commercially available saliva substitutes on the one hand and natural human saliva on the other hand. For the latter a few me

  19. Studies on the binding of amylopectin sulfate with gastric mucin.

    Kim, Y S; Bella, A; Whitehead, J S; Isaacs, R; Remer, L


    Amylopectin sulfate, a sulfated polysaccharide that has an antipeptic property, was examined for its ability to bind gastric mucins. After chemically cross-linking the amylopectin sulfate into an insoluble gel, its binding with mucins isolated from antral and fundic mucosa of canine stomachs was studied with chromatography. A component present in both mucin fractions bound to the amylopectin sulfate gel below pH 4.5. This binding was reversible, and the complex dissociated above pH 5. Similar binding properties were found with soluble amylopectin sulfate. The component of the mucine which bound to amylopectin sulfate differed from the one which did not bind in its electrophoretic mobility and in its higher proportion of basic amino acids and a lower hexosamine, serine, and threonine content. This study suggests that amylopectin sulfate may bind to gastric mucins only under conditions of low pH.

  20. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis: diagnostic criteria.

    Uri, N; Ronen, O; Marshak, T; Parpara, O; Nashashibi, M; Gruber, M


    Chronic sinusitis is one of the most common otolaryngological diagnoses. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed and treated as chronic sinusitis, causing continuing harm. To better identify and characterise these two subgroups of patients, who may suffer from a systemic disease requiring multidisciplinary treatment and prolonged follow up. A retrospective, longitudinal study of all patients diagnosed with allergic fungal sinusitis or eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis within one otolaryngology department over a 15-year period. Thirty-four patients were identified, 26 with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis and 8 with allergic fungal sinusitis. Orbital involvement at diagnosis was commoner in allergic fungal sinusitis patients (50 per cent) than eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis patients (7.7 per cent; p sinusitis patients. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis have the same clinical presentation but different clinical courses. The role of fungus and the ability to confirm its presence are still problematic issues, and additional studies are required.

  1. The role of gastric mucins in interactions with Helicobacter pylori

    Iwona Radziejewska


    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which colonizes the stomach of over 50�0of the world’s population. The pathogen is responsible for many diseases including gastritis, ulcers and also gastric cancers. It is said that adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells plays a key role in infection development. Two gastric mucins, components of mucus, are assumed to have an important role in protection against adhesion and in this way in progression of infection. These are a secretory MUC5AC mucin, produced by mucous epithelial cells, and a membrane-bound MUC1 mucin, expressed by epical surfaces of epithelial cells. Interactions with bacteria occur between carbohydrate antigens of mucins and specific adhesins of the Helicobacter pylori surface. In this paper we present the latest knowledge about these intriguing interactions of both mucins and their interplay with the pathogen providing protection against infection.

  2. Sarcoma-Like Mural Nodule in a Borderline Mucinous Tumour of Ovary.

    Ahmed, Rabia; Din, Hafeez Ud; Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar; Muhammad, Iqbal


    A 37-year female presented with complaint of lower abdominal pain and amenorrhoea to the Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. Ultrasound of pelvis showed a right adnexal cystic lesion. On investigation, CA-125 was raised. Her MRI scan of pelvis revealed a right adnexal mass of fluid intensity measuring 15.2 x 12.9 x 9.2 cm. Right ovarian cystectomy was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. Grossly, the mass was cystic in appearance and measured 13.5 x 10 x 10 cm. On sectioning, it was unilocular and filled with turbid material. The cyst wall showed multiple papillary structures along with a nodule measuring 1.1 x 1 cm. Microscopically, the sections revealed borderline mucinous tumour with a sarcoma-like mural nodule composed of spindle shaped cells and epulis-like giant cells. Sarcoma-like mural nodules are rare nodules which are associated with mucinous tumours of the ovary. However, they have excellent prognosis and should not be interpreted as malignant.

  3. Anal Canal Adenocarcinoma in a Patient with Longstanding Crohn's Disease Arising From Rectal Mucosa that Migrated From a Previously Treated Rectovaginal Fistula.

    Maejima, Taku; Kono, Toru; Orii, Fumika; Maemoto, Atsuo; Furukawa, Shigeru; Liming, Wang; Kasai, Shoji; Fukahori, Susumu; Mukai, Nobutaka; Yoshikawa, Daitaro; Karasaki, Hidenori; Saito, Hiroya; Nagashima, Kazuo


    BACKGROUND This study reports the pathogenesis of anal canal adenocarcinoma in a patient with longstanding Crohn's disease (CD). CASE REPORT A 50-year-old woman with a 33-year history of CD presented with perianal pain of several months' duration. She had been treated surgically for a rectovaginal fistula 26 years earlier and had been treated with infliximab (IFX) for the previous 4 years. A biopsy under anesthesia revealed an anal canal adenocarcinoma, which was removed by abdominoperineal resection. Pathological examination showed that a large part of the tumor consisted of mucinous adenocarcinoma at the same location as the rectovaginal fistula had been removed 26 years earlier. There was no evidence of recurrent rectovaginal fistula, but thick fibers surrounded the tumor, likely representing part of the previous rectovaginal fistula. Immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies against cytokeratins (CK20 and CK7) revealed that the adenocarcinoma arose from the rectal mucosa, not the anal glands. CONCLUSIONS Mucinous adenocarcinoma can arise in patients with CD, even in the absence of longstanding perianal disease, and may be associated with adenomatous transformation of the epithelial lining in a former fistula tract.

  4. Direct Determination of Chitosan–Mucin Interactions Using a Single-Molecule Strategy: Comparison to Alginate–Mucin Interactions

    Kristin E. Haugstad


    Full Text Available Aqueous chitosan possesses attractive interaction capacities with various molecular groups that can be involved in hydrogen bonds and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. In the present paper, we report on the direct determination of chitosan–mucin molecular pair interactions at various solvent conditions as compared to alginate–mucin interactions. Two chitosans of high molecular weight with different degrees of acetylation—thus possessing different solubility profiles in aqueous solution as a function of pH and two alginates with different fractions of α-guluronic acid were employed. The interaction properties were determined through a direct unbinding assay at the single-molecular pair level using an atomic force microscope. When probed against immobilized mucin, both chitosans and alginates revealed unbinding profiles characteristic of localized interactions along the polymers. The interaction capacities and estimated parameters of the energy landscapes of the pairwise chitosan–mucin and alginate–mucin interactions are discussed in view of possible contributions from various fundamental forces. Signatures arising both from an electrostatic mechanism and hydrophobic interaction are identified in the chitosan–mucin interaction properties. The molecular nature of the observed chitosan–mucin and alginate–mucin interactions indicates that force spectroscopy provides fundamental insights that can be useful in understanding the surface binding properties of other potentially mucoadhesive polymers.

  5. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Antonio Biroli


    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  6. Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans

    Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Zhang, Angela Q.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.


    ABSTRACT Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, causing a variety of diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to deep-seated systemic invasions. Mucus, the gel that coats all wet epithelial surfaces, accommodates C. albicans as part of the normal microbiota, where C. albicans resides asymptomatically in healthy humans. Through a series of in vitro experiments combined with gene expression analysis, we show that mucin biopolymers, the main gel-forming constituents of mucus, induce a new oval-shaped morphology in C. albicans in which a range of genes related to adhesion, filamentation, and biofilm formation are downregulated. We also show that corresponding traits are suppressed, rendering C. albicans impaired in forming biofilms on a range of different synthetic surfaces and human epithelial cells. Our data suggest that mucins can manipulate C. albicans physiology, and we hypothesize that they are key environmental signals for retaining C. albicans in the host-compatible, commensal state. PMID:25389175

  7. [Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and recurrent pancreatitis].

    Gálvez, Eduardo; Gálvez, Gustavo; Barboza, Aurelio; Barboza, Eduardo; Combe, Juan Manuel; Combe, Mario R; Combe, Juan; Arias Stella C, Javier; Arias Stella, Javier


    Ohashi described for the first time the IPMN on 1982 as a pancreatic neoplasia with mucine cells forming papillae and producing dilatation of the main pancreatic duct or its branches. The IPMN represent the 1% of the pancreatic tumors and 5% of the cystic neoplasias. It is potentially malignant in a period of five years being more frequent in males between 60-70 and clinically these patients' presents as acute, recurrent or chronic pancreatitis, with an incidence of malignancy from 25% to 70%. CT scan and cholangio MRI allows the diagnosis, the variety, localization and possibility of determine malignancy. The treatment is the Whipple resection. We are reporting the case of an obese middle age male, being observed along the last 10 years because of recurrent pancreatitis with a cystic lesion of the head of the pancreas. The CT scan, endoscopic-ultrasound and the analysis of the liquid content suggested a mucinous lesion, reason why the patient underwent a pancreatic-duodenal resection. The histology study confirms the diagnosis of IPMN.

  8. Does St. John's Wort cause regression in gastrointestinal system adenocarcinomas?

    Karaarslan, Serap; Cokmert, Suna; Cokmez, Atilla


    St. John's Wort (SJW) is an old herb which has long been consumed widely for its anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-depressive properties. Here we present a detailed clinical evaluation of three cases (two colon and one duodenal adenocarcinoma) with remarkable and intensive lymphoplasmocytic host reaction, at the basal part of tumor, intensive fibrosis, giant cells, plasma cell increase in lymph nodes and few giant cells in germinal centers in resection specimens. The observation of similar host reaction in those tumors having otherwise usual appearance was interesting. None of the cases received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or additional treatment before surgery but only SJW. These cases are presented to increase the awareness about such cases. Further research is needed to reveal the possible effect of SJW, which has long been consumed for different treatment purposes, on human tumors.

  9. Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    Kawauchi, Shigeto; Kusuda, Tomoko; Liu, Xu-Ping; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Mikami, Yoshiki; Takeshita, Morishige; Nakao, Motonao; Chochi, Yasuyo; Sasaki, Kohsuke


    Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix. In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurrent chromosomal imbalances, that is, gains of chromosome 3q and a loss of 1p, which were common to MDA and MAC, in 3 of 14 LEGHs analyzed (21%). LEGHs with chromosomal imbalances showed a degree of cellular atypia in the hyperplastic glandular epithelium. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions. HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined. Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions. Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.

  10. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is a versatile mucin-like molecule likely to play a differential role in digestive tract cancer

    Mollenhauer, J; Herbertz, S; Helmke, B


    Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a candidate tumor suppressor gene for brain, lung, and digestive tract cancer. In particular, alterations of the gene and/or a loss of expression have been observed in gastric, colorectal, and esophageal carcinomas. Initial evidence......, a loss of DMBT1 expression also takes place in adenocarcinomas. Regarding DMBT1 as a mucin-like molecule is a new perspective that is instructive for its functions and its role in cancer. We conclude that DMBT1 is likely to play a differential role in the genesis of digestive tract carcinomas. However...

  11. Simultaneous large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach

    Tadashi Terada; Hirotoshi Maruo


    A large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the stomach is very rare. A 76-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of epigastralgia and nausea. Endoscopy revealed 2 large tumors in the stomach. He did not have multiple endocrine neoplasia type Ⅰ or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Imaging modali-ties, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, revealed no other tumors. Gas-trectomy, cholecystectomy, and lymph node dissection were performed. The resected stomach had 2 tumors: one was an antral ulcerated type 3 tumor measuring 5 cm x 5 cm, and the other was a polypoid type 1 tumor measuring 6 cm x 6 cm x 3 cm in the fundus. Micro-scopically, the antral ulcerated tumor was a well differ-entiated adenocarcinoma with deep invasion. The fun-dus polypoid tumor was a LCNEC, being composed of malignant large cells arranged in trabecular and nested patterns. The tumor cells were large and the nuclei were vesicular. Nucleoli were frequently present, and there were many mitotic figures, apoptotic bodies, and necrotic areas. Much lymphovascular permeation was seen. Seven out of 29 dissected lymph nodes showed metastatic foci; 6 were from the LCNEC and 1 from the adenocarcinoma. Many intravascular tumor emboli of LCNEC were seen in the peritoneum around the lymph nodes. Mucins were present in the adenocarcinoma but not in the LCNEC. Immunohistochemically, the LCNEC tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins, synaptophysin (50% positive), chromogranin A (10% positive), Ki-67 (90% labeled), and platelet-derived growth factor-α (80% positive). They were negative for KIT, p53, CD56, and neuron-specific enolase. The non-cancerous stomach showed a normal number of endocrine cells. The patient is now treated with adju-vant chemotherapy.

  12. Study on Mucin in Normal-Appearing Leg Skin.

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel


    Dermal deposits of mucin in the legs have been described associated with venous insufficiency. However, some degree of stasis dermatitis is generally common in aged individuals. Therefore, some amount of mucin is expected a priori in the reticular dermis of aged patients, even in the absence of clinical lesions. To test this hypothesis, the authors investigated the mucin in the legs of aged individuals without any dermatologic disease. Cutaneous samples were taken from the legs of 15 autopsy cases. A sample of the skin of the legs (either from the left or the right leg without any distinction being made) was randomly taken (without selecting any specific area or attending to macroscopical features). The skin samples were fixed in formaldehyde, and sections obtained from all samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, iron, and Alcian blue. Iron deposits were graded as 0/4 in 7 cases, as 1/4 in 4 cases, as 2/4 in 2 cases, and as 4/4 in 2 cases. Cases with greater deposits of iron also had other signs of stasis, such as neovascularization. All the samples scored 0 for dermal mucin deposits in the reticular dermis. The authors conclude that mucin deposits in the legs are not inherent to aging. Therefore, any mucin deposit in the reticular dermis, as well as expansion of the periadnexal dermis by mucin deposits, should be considered abnormal.

  13. Functionalized positive nanoparticles reduce mucin swelling and dispersion.

    Eric Y T Chen

    Full Text Available Multi-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs have been extensively investigated for their potential in household and commercial products, and biomedical applications. Previous reports have confirmed the cellular nanotoxicity and adverse inflammatory effects on pulmonary systems induced by NPs. However, possible health hazards resulting from mucus rheological disturbances induced by NPs are underexplored. Accumulation of viscous, poorly dispersed, and less transportable mucus leading to improper mucus rheology and dysfunctional mucociliary clearance are typically found to associate with many respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF, and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Whether functionalized NPs can alter mucus rheology and its operational mechanisms have not been resolved. Herein, we report that positively charged functionalized NPs can hinder mucin gel hydration and effectively induce mucin aggregation. The positively charged NPs can significantly reduce the rate of mucin matrix swelling by a maximum of 7.5 folds. These NPs significantly increase the size of aggregated mucin by approximately 30 times within 24 hrs. EGTA chelation of indigenous mucin crosslinkers (Ca(2+ ions was unable to effectively disperse NP-induced aggregated mucins. Our results have demonstrated that positively charged functionalized NPs can impede mucin gel swelling by crosslinking the matrix. This report also highlights the unexpected health risk of NP-induced change in mucus rheological properties resulting in possible mucociliary transport impairment on epithelial mucosa and related health problems. In addition, our data can serve as a prospective guideline for designing nanocarriers for airway drug delivery applications.

  14. Vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Alberto A. Antunes


    Full Text Available Metastatic vesical tumors are rare, and constitute approximately 1% of all neoplasias affecting this organ. The authors report the case of a 63-year old woman with vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Patient presented signs of cachexia and complained of left lumbar pain and dysuria unresponsive to antibiotic therapy for approximately 5 months. She reported a previous partial gastrectomy due to ulcerative undifferentiated gastric adenocarcinoma 1 year and 9 months before. Cystoscopy revealed an extensive vegetative lesion in bladder, occupying its entire mucosal surface. The biopsy revealed metastatic signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma.

  15. Mucin gene expression in human middle ear epithelium.

    Kerschner, Joseph Edward


    To investigate the expression of recently identified human mucin genes in human middle ear epithelial (MEE) specimens from in vivo middle ear (ME) tissue and to compare this mucin gene expression with mucin gene expression in an immortalized cell culture in vitro source of human MEE. Human MEE was harvested as in vivo specimens, and human MEE cell cultures were established for in vitro experimentation. RNA was extracted from MEE and primers designed for reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess for mucin gene MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, MUC7, MUC8, MUC9, MUC11, MUC12, MUC13, MUC15, MUC16, MUC18, MUC19, and MUC20 expression. Mucin gene expression in the in vivo and in vitro ME tissue was compared against tissues with known expression of the mucin genes in question. Mucin genes MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC7, MUC8, MUC9, MUC11, MUC13, MUC15, MUC16, MUC18, MUC19, and MUC20 were identified and expressed in both the in vivo and in vitro samples of MEE. Mucin genes MUC6, MUC12, and MUC17 were not identified in either tissue samples. Many of the mucin genes that have been recently identified are expressed in human MEE. These genes are expressed in a similar manner in both in vivo and in vitro models. Understanding the mechanisms in which these genes regulate the physiology and pathophysiology of MEE will provide a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanics of the MEE and disease conditions such as otitis media.

  16. Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiome

    Tailford, Louise E.; Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Kavanaugh, Devon; Juge, Nathalie


    The availability of host and dietary carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a key role in shaping the structure-function of the microbiota. In particular, some gut bacteria have the ability to forage on glycans provided by the mucus layer covering the GI tract. The O-glycan structures present in mucin are diverse and complex, consisting predominantly of core 1-4 mucin-type O-glycans containing α- and β- linked N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine. These core structures are further elongated and frequently modified by fucose and sialic acid sugar residues via α1,2/3/4 and α2,3/6 linkages, respectively. The ability to metabolize these mucin O-linked oligosaccharides is likely to be a key factor in determining which bacterial species colonize the mucosal surface. Due to their proximity to the immune system, mucin-degrading bacteria are in a prime location to influence the host response. However, despite the growing number of bacterial genome sequences available from mucin degraders, our knowledge on the structural requirements for mucin degradation by gut bacteria remains fragmented. This is largely due to the limited number of functionally characterized enzymes and the lack of studies correlating the specificity of these enzymes with the ability of the strain to degrade and utilize mucin and mucin glycans. This review focuses on recent findings unraveling the molecular strategies used by mucin-degrading bacteria to utilize host glycans, adapt to the mucosal environment, and influence human health. PMID:25852737

  17. Metastatic Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma 6 Years After Curative Resection for Ampullary Adenocarcinoma. Metastatic Disease from Initial Primary or Metachronous Tumour?

    Alexandros Giakoustidis


    Full Text Available Context With patients surviving longer after pancreatic resection, the challenges now is the management of the unresolved longerterm issues. Case report A 53-year-old woman with painless obstructive jaundice, underwent a pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for a pT3N0M0 ampullary adenocarcinoma in 2001 (patchy chronic pancreatitis with mucinous metaplasia of background pancreatic duct epithelium and acinar atrophy were noted. Despite adjuvant chemotherapy, at month 54 she required a pulmonary wedge resection for metastatic adenocarcinoma, followed by a pulmonary relapse at 76 months when she underwent 6 neoadjuvant cycles of gemcitabine/capecitabine and a left pneumonectomy. Finally 7 years after the initial Whipple’s, a single 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG avid pancreatic tail lesion led to completion pancreatectomy for a well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma with clear resection margins albeit peripancreatic adipose tissue infiltration. On review all resected tumour cells had identical immunophenotype (CK7+/CK20-/MUC1+/MUC2- as that of the primary. She is currently asymptomatic on follow-up. Conclusions These findings suggest that in selected cases even in the presence of pulmonary metastasis, repeat resections could result in long-term survival of patients with metachronous ampullary cancer. Second, even ampullary tumours maybe should be regarded as index tumors in the presence of ductal precursor lesions in the resection specimen. Three distant metastases, particularly if long after the initial tumour, should instigate a search for metachronous tumour, especially in the presence of field change in the initial specimen. Risk-adapted follow-up protocols with recognition of such factors could result in cost-effective surveillance and potentially improved outcomes.

  18. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J


    -defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well...... antigens indicates that these structures may be of value as markers of salivary gland tumors....

  19. Pseudomyxoma peritonei caused by ruptured intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: A case report

    Huh, Sun; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Min Hee; Yi, Boem Ha; KIm, Hee Kyung; Jung, Jun Chul; Cha, Jang Gyu [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon disease characterized by the seeding of mucin-secreting tumor cells throughout the abdomen and accumulation of mucin in the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are defined as pancreatic neoplasms that accumulate mucin within dilated ducts. Only a few cases of pancreatic IPMNs are associated with extra-pancreatic mucin and lead to PMP. This manuscript describes an unusual case of PMP caused by ruptured pancreatic IPMN.

  20. [Ocular metastasis heralding gastric adenocarcinoma].

    Chekrine, T; Tawfiq, N; Bouchbika, Z; Benchakroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A


    Ocular metastasis is a rare presenting feature of gastric adenocarcinoma. We report a 48-year-old woman who presented with a decrease in visual acuity of the right eye leading to the discovery of an ocular metastasis. Diagnostic work-up identified a gastric adenocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases. She received four cycles of chemotherapy combining epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil. The patient died 6 months after the diagnosis of respiratory failure.

  1. Transforming giants.

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss


    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  2. Intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas associated with pancreas divisum: a case report and review of the literature.

    Nishi, Takeshi; Kawabata, Yasunari; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Araki, Asuka; Yano, Seiji; Maruyama, Riruke; Tajima, Yoshitsugu


    Pancreas divisum, the most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas, is caused by failure of the fusion of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic duct systems during embryological development. Although various pancreatic tumors can occur in patients with pancreas divisum, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is rare. A 77-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because she was incidentally found to have a cystic tumor in her pancreas at a regular health checkup. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography images demonstrated a cystic tumor in the head of the pancreas measuring 40 mm in diameter with slightly enhancing mural nodules within the cyst. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography via the major duodenal papilla revealed a cystic tumor and a slightly dilated main pancreatic duct with an abrupt interruption at the head of the pancreas. The orifice of the major duodenal papilla was remarkably dilated and filled with an abundant extrusion of mucin, and the diagnosis based on pancreatic juice cytology was "highly suspicious for adenocarcinoma". Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography depicted a normal, non-dilated dorsal pancreatic duct throughout the pancreas. The patient underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy under the diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with suspicion of malignancy arising in the ventral part of the pancreas divisum. A pancreatography via the major and minor duodenal papillae on the surgical specimen revealed that the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts were not connected, and the tumor originated in the ventral duct, i.e., the Wirsung's duct. Microscopically, the tumor was diagnosed as intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma with microinvasion. In addition, marked fibrosis with acinar cell depletion was evident in the ventral pancreas, whereas no fibrotic change was noted in the dorsal pancreas. Invasive ductal carcinomas of the pancreas associated with pancreas divisum usually arise from the dorsal

  3. Does clear cell carcinoma of stomach exist? Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of clear cell changes in gastric adenocarcinomas.

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Park, Do Youn; Kim, Gwang Ha; Jeon, Tae-Yong; Lauwers, Gregory Y


    In contrast to clear cell carcinomas developing in other organs (e.g. ovary and uterus), gastric adenocarcinomas with clear cell features are not well characterized. We evaluated a series of 762 gastric adenocarcinomas for the presence of clear cell changes; and investigated the nature of the changes using several histochemical and immunohistochemical markers, their association with various clinicopathological features, and their prognostic significance. Clear cell changes were observed in 8.5% (n = 65) of gastric cancers. Cases with clear cell changes (GCC) were associated significantly with older age, intestinal type histology, body/fundic location, greater depth of invasion, lymph node metastases and lymphovascular invasion. An increasing proportion of clear cell changes indicated a worsening prognosis, and was identified as an independent marker of poor prognosis using the Cox proportional hazard model (hazard ratio, 0.462; P = 0.003). Of 62 GCCs subjected to special staining, 35 cases (55.6%) displayed cytoplasmic accumulation of glycogen, while 21 (33.3%) contained mucin. GCCs showing glycogen accumulation expressed AFP, glypican-3 and CD10 more commonly than those with mucin, which commonly expressed Muc5AC and Muc6. Clear cell gastric adenocarcinoma is a unique subgroup of gastric cancer which, although heterogeneous, has a poor prognosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  5. Extracellular Protease Activity of Enteropathogenic Escherechia coli on Mucin Substrate



    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC causes gastrointestinal infections in human. EPEC invasion was initiated by attachment and aggressive colonization on intestinal surface. Attachment of EPEC alter the intestine mucosal cells. Despite this, the pathogenic mechanism of EPEC infectior has not been fully understood. This research hypothesizes that extracellular proteolytic enzymes is necessary for EPEC colonization. The enzyme is secreted into gastrointestinal milieu and presumably destroy mucus layer cover the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to assay EPEC extracellular protease enzyme by using mucin substrate. The activity of EPEC extracellular proteolytic enzyme on 1% mucin substrate was investigated. Non-pathogenic E. coli was used as a negative control. Positive and tentative controls were Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella. Ten EPEC strains were assayed, seven of them were able to degrade mucin, and the highest activity was produced by K1.1 strain. Both positive and tentative controls also showed the ability to digest 0.20% mucin.

  6. Mucinous Naevus: A Rare Variant of Connective Tissue Naevus

    Bhavna Nayal


    Full Text Available Mucinous naevus is a form of primary cutaneous mucinosis and connective tissue neavus characterized by deposition of dermal type of mucin in the dermis. Clinically, these lesions may present as papulonodules or plaques and are treated by simple surgical excision. This case is being reported because of the unusual location and rarity of this lesion. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(2.000: 89-92

  7. Viscous boundary lubrication of hydrophobic surfaces by mucin.

    Yakubov, Gleb E; McColl, James; Bongaerts, Jeroen H H; Ramsden, Jeremy J


    The lubricating behavior of the weakly charged short-side-chain glycoprotein mucin "Orthana" (Mw=0.55 MDa) has been investigated between hydrophobic and hydrophilic PDMS substrates using soft-contact tribometry. It was found that mucin facilitates lubrication between hydrophobic PDMS surfaces, leading to a 10-fold reduction in boundary friction coefficient for rough surfaces. The presence of mucin also results in a shift of the mixed lubrication regime to lower entrainment speeds. The observed boundary lubrication behavior of mucin was found to depend on the bulk concentration, and we linked this to the structure and dynamics of the adsorbed mucin films, which are assessed using optical waveguide light spectroscopy. We observe a composite structure of the adsorbed mucin layer, with its internal structure governed by entanglement. The film thickness of this adsorbed layer increases with concentration, while the boundary friction coefficient for rough surfaces was found to be inversely proportional to the thickness of the adsorbed film. This link between lubrication and structure of the film is consistent with a viscous boundary lubrication mechanism, i.e., a thicker adsorbed film, at a given sliding speed, results in a lower local shear rate and, hence, in a lower local shear stress. The estimated local viscosities of the adsorbed layer, derived from the friction measurements and the polymer layer density, are in agreement with each other.

  8. Genetically engineered mucin mouse models for inflammation and cancer

    Joshi, Suhasini; Kumar, Sushil; Bafna, Sangeeta; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Jain, Maneesh


    Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins primarily produced by glandular and ductal epithelial cells, either in membrane-tethered or secretory forms, for providing lubrication and protection from various exogenous and endogenous insults. However, recent studies have linked their aberrant overexpression with infection, inflammation, and cancer that underscores their importance in tissue homeostasis. In this review, we present current status of the existing mouse models that have been developed to gain insights into the functional role(s) of mucins under physiological and pathological conditions. Knockout mouse models for membrane-associated (Muc1 and Muc16) and secretory mucins (Muc2) have helped us to elucidate the role of mucins in providing effective and protective barrier functions against pathological threats, participation in disease progression, and improved our understanding of mucin interaction with biotic and abiotic environmental components. Emphasis is also given to available transgenic mouse models (MUC1 and MUC7), which has been exploited to understand the context-dependent regulation and therapeutic potential of human mucins during inflammation and cancer. PMID:25634251

  9. Giant appendiceal mucocele: Report of a case and brief review

    Bernardino Rampone; Franco Roviello; Daniele Marrelli; Enrico Pinto


    Mucocele of the appendix is a rare lesion, characterized by distension of the lumen due to accumulation of mucoid substance. This disease is often asymptomatic and pre-operative diagnosis is rare. If untreated, one type of mucocele may rupture producing a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. The type of surgical treatment is related to the dimensions and to histology of the mucocele. Appendectomy is used for simple mucocele or for cystadenoma. Right hemi-colectomy is recommended for cystadenocarcinoma. In this paper, we report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a mobile, painless mass in the right lower quadrant of abdomen caused by a giant appendiceal mucocele. Imaging showed a large, tubular,cystic structure extending below from the inferior wall of the cecum. Surgery revealed a giant retro-cecal appendix measuring 17 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter. The final pathologic diagnosis was mucocele caused by mucinous cystadenoma.

  10. Giant appendiceal mucocele: Report of a case and brief review

    Rampone, Bernardino; Roviello, Franco; Marrelli, Daniele; Pinto, Enrico


    Mucocele of the appendix is a rare lesion, characterized by distension of the lumen due to accumulation of mucoid substance. This disease is often asymptomatic and pre-operative diagnosis is rare. If untreated, one type of mucocele may rupture producing a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. The type of surgical treatment is related to the dimensions and to histology of the mucocele. Appendectomy is used for simple mucocele or for cystadenoma. Right hemi-colectomy is recommended for cystadenocarcinoma. In this paper, we report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a mobile, painless mass in the right lower quadrant of abdomen caused by a giant appendiceal mucocele. Imaging showed a large, tubular, cystic structure extending below from the inferior wall of the cecum. Surgery revealed a giant retro-cecal appendix measuring 17 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter. The final pathologic diagnosis was mucocele caused by mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:16094726

  11. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma of conjunctiva: A case report

    Karabi Konar


    Full Text Available Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma is a condition characterized histologically by damaged elastic fibers associated with preponderance of giant cells along with absence of necrobiosis, lipid, mucin, and pallisading granuloma. It usually occurs on sun-damaged skin and hence the previous name actinic granuloma. A similar process occurs on the conjunctiva. Over the past three decades only four cases of conjunctival actinic granuloma have been documented. All the previous patients were females with lesions in nasal or temporal bulbar conjunctiva varying 2-3 mm in size. We report a male patient aged 70 years presenting with a 14 mm × 7 mm fleshy mass on right lower bulbar conjunctiva. Clinical differential diagnoses were lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma in situ and amyloidosis. Surgical excision followed by histopathology confirmed it to be a case of actinic granuloma. This is the first case of isolated conjunctival actinic granuloma of such a large size reported from India.

  12. Obstructive Chronic Pancreatitis and/or Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs: A 21-Year Long Case Report

    Mohammed Abu-Hilal


    Full Text Available Context :Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs, usually present with a picture of chronic pancreatitis and must be considered within the differential diagnosis of this condition. Case report :We report a long history of a 58- year-old male who presented with recurrent attacks of pancreatitis. He was treated for chronic pancreatitis until the age of 78 when the diagnosis of IPMN was made, but radical treatment was not possible and he was managed palliatively. The patient died of sepsis and multi-organ failure 21 years following his first presentation. Conclusion :This case highlights possible pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of IPMNs, suggests a very long natural history, proposes possible palliative treatment in selected cases and reflects about IPMNs biological position in the chronic pancreatitisductal adenocarcinoma chain.

  13. Mucins in neoplasms of pancreas, ampulla of Vater and biliary system

    Moschovis, Dimitrios; Bamias, Giorgos; Delladetsima, Ioanna


    Tumors of the pancreas, the ampulla of Vater, and the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts have significant histological similarities due to the common embryonic origin of the pancreatobiliary system. This obviates the need for discovery of biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic value for these tumors. Mucins, especially MUC-1, -2, -4 and -5AC, are important candidates for developing into such reliable biomarkers. Increased expression of MUC1 occurs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and is associated with increased degrees of dysplasia in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Positive expression of MUC2 in intraductal papillary mucinus neoplasms (IPMN) of the intestinal type indicates high potential progression to invasive carcinoma with de novo expression of MUC1, while absence of MUC2 expression in IPMNs of gastric type implies low potential to malignant evolution. De novo MUC4 expression correlates to the severity of dysplasia in PanIN and is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. In biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN), increased expression of MUC1 is associated with higher degrees of dysplasia. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC) are characterized by increased expression of all glycoforms of MUC1. Positive MUC2 expression in intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile ducts (IPNB) of the intestinal type indicates high malignant potential with de novo expression of MUC1 in the invasive element. Absent MUC2 expression in any degree of BilIN may prove useful in differentiating them from IPNB. De novo expression of MUC4 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ICC or carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC). High de novo expression of MUC5AC is found in all degrees of BilIN and all types of IPNB and ICC. The MUC5AC is useful in the detection of neoplastic lesions of the bile duct at an early stage. Increased expression of mucin MUC1 in carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater

  14. The GCTM-5 Epitope Associated with the Mucin-Like Glycoprotein FCGBP Marks Progenitor Cells in Tissues of Endodermal Origin

    Stamp, Lincon A.; Braxton, David R.; Wu, Jun; Akopian, Veronika; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Chandrasoma, Parakrama T.; hawes, Susan M.; Mclean, Catriona; Petrovic, Lydia m.; WANG, KASPER; Pera, Martin F.


    Monoclonal antibodies against cell surface markers are powerful tools in the study of tissue regeneration, repair, and neoplasia, but there is a paucity of specific reagents to identify stem and progenitor cells in tissues of endodermal origin. The epitope defined by the GCTM-5 monoclonal antibody is a putative marker of hepatic progenitors. We sought to analyze further the distribution of the GCTM-5 antigen in normal tissues and disease states and to characterize the antigen biochemically. The GCTM-5 epitope was specifically expressed on tissues derived from the definitive endoderm, in particular the fetal gut, liver, and pancreas. Antibody reactivity was detected in subpopulations of normal adult biliary and pancreatic duct cells, and GCTM-5-positive cells isolated from the nonparenchymal fraction of adult liver expressed markers of progenitor cells. The GCTM-5-positive cell populations in liver and pancreas expanded greatly in numbers in disease states such as biliary atresia, cirrhosis, and pancreatitis. Neoplasms arising in these tissues also expressed the GCTM-5 antigen, with pancreatic adenocarcinoma in particular showing strong and consistent reactivity. The GCTM-5 epitope was also strongly displayed on cells undergoing intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s esophagus, a precursor to esophageal carcinoma. Biochemical, mass spectrometry, and immunochemical studies revealed that the GCTM-5 epitope is associated with the mucin-like glycoprotein FCGBP. The GCTM-5 epitope on the mucin-like glycoprotein FCGBP is a cell surface marker for the study of normal differentiation lineages, regeneration, and disease progression in tissues of endodermal origin. PMID:22761039

  15. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography with Secretin Stimulation in the Diagnosis of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm: A Paradigmatic Case Report

    Elsa Iannicelli


    Full Text Available Context. One of the characteristic findings of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN is the presence of a direct communication between the lesion and the ductal pancreatic system and when magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP shows uncertain findings, it is useful to perform a MRCP after secretin stimulation (MRCP-S which provides a better visualization of the ductal system. Case Report. We present a case of 51-year-old man in whom, during a CT follow-up for a renal tumour, was found a cystic lesion of the pancreas. To better evaluate the lesion and its suspected communication with the pancreatic system, MR with gadolinium and MRCP and MRCP-S were performed. With the MRCP and MRI it was not possible to identify a clear communication between the cystic lesion and the ductal system. MRCP-S showed an increase in signal intensity of the lesion and its communication with the ductal system, allowing us to classify the cystic lesion as a main duct in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. The patient underwent a surgical duodenal pancreatectomy. The histological result of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma IPMN. Conclusion. In this case MRCP-S has allowed a clearer identification of the cystic lesion allowing a correct diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Mucin16蛋白的表达纯化及单克隆抗体的制备与鉴定%Expression and purification of mucin 16 and preparation and characterization of anti-mucin 16 monoclonal antibody

    杨赟; 丁宇婷; 龚慧婷; 于占娇; 李晓彤


    目的:在原核生物中表达带有His标签的mucin 16N端重组蛋白(简称为His-mucin 16N),制备抗mucin 16的单克隆抗体(mAb).方法:将mucin 16基因片段插入原核表达载体pET-32,在大肠杆菌中表达重组蛋白,用亲和纯化方法纯化后免疫BALB/c小鼠,并进行细胞融合.筛选可稳定分泌抗mucin 16抗体的阳性单克隆杂交瘤细胞株,用Western blot、ELISA、免疫荧光和免疫组化等方法分析和鉴定抗mucin 16的mAb.结果:表达并纯化了His-mucin 16N蛋白;筛选出几株可稳定分泌特异性抗人mucin 16 mAb的细胞株;挑选出效价高、特异性好的1株进行纯化.获得的抗mucin 16 mAb,可用于Western blot、ELISA、免疫组化、免疫荧光等检测,并鉴定该抗体亚型为IgG1.通过上述免疫学实验,分析了在不同肿瘤细胞中mucin 16的表达情况.结论:在原核生物中成功表达和纯化带His标签的mucin 16N重组蛋白,制备出具有高特异性的抗mucin16的mAb.%AIM: To generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mucin 16 using purified recombinant protein of human mucin 16 N terminus with His tag ( His-mucin 16N) as the antigen. METHODS: Mucin 16 N terminus was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-32. His-mucin 16N was then expressed in E. coli and purified by the affinity chromotography. Cell fusion was performed after the BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified His-mucin 16N protein. We screened hybridoma cell strains producing mAbs against mucin 16. The specificity and titer of the antibodies were characterized with ELISA, Western blotting, immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The recombinant protein of His-mucin 16N was expressed and purified. A few hybridoma cell strains which could secrete specific mAbs against mucin 16 were obtained, and one anti-mucin 16 mAb with good specificity and high titer was selected and purified. The isotype of this anti-mucin 16 mAb was determined as IgGl, which indicated

  17. [Local excision of giant rectal polypoid neoplasms].

    Cimitan, Andrea; Burza, Antonio; Basile, Ursula; Saputo, Serena; Mingazzini, Pietro; Stipa, Francesco


    Local excision is the best therapeutic option for giant adenomas of the rectum. Parks technique for lower rectal lesions and the T.E.M. technique for lesions localised in the middle and upper rectum offer exceptionally good exposure, allowing radical excision in the case of early low-risk T1 adenocarcinomas (well or moderately differentiated [G1/2] without lymphovascular invasion [L0]). From July 1987 to March 2006, 224 patients were treated by local excision for rectal lesions in our department. In 48 patients (21.4%) a large sessile benign lesion was diagnosed preoperatively. In 3 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of severe dysplasia (Tis) final pathology showed adenoma and for this reason they were included in our study group. A total of 51 patients with giant preoperative benign lesions were treated by local excision (Parks technique, T.E.M. or both). Twenty-five (49%) patients had a definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma: in situ (pTis) in 22 patients (88%), pT1 in 2 patients (8%) and pT2 in 1 patient (4%). In 26 patients (51%) the diagnosis was adenoma. The overall local recurrence rate was 9.8% (5/51); the recurrence rate was 7.6% (2/26) for adenomas and 12% (3/25) for carcinomas. The median hospital stay was 7 days (range 3-39). There was no operative mortality. Giant sessile polypoid lesions localized in the middle and upper rectum are best treated with T.E.M., while Parks technique is a good option in lower rectal tumours. These techniques, if correctly indicated and well performed, offer great advantages in terms of safety and radicality. In our experience the operative mortality was nil and the morbidity and recurrence rates were low.

  18. Risk factor analysis of recurrence in low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    Roma, Andres A; Rybicki, Lisa A; Barbuto, Denise; Euscher, Elizabeth; Djordjevic, Bojana; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth; Kim, Insun; Hong, Sung Ran; Montiel, Delia; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Malpica, Anais; Silva, Elvio G


    Prognosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma is favorable; however, the risk of recurrence ranges from 7% to 13%. Recurrence has been related to age, tumor type, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade, depth of invasion, and lymphovascular invasion (LVI); however, morphologic features that would predict the site of recurrence have not been established. In this multi-institutional study, we reviewed 589 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grades 1 or 2 endometrial adenocarcinoma, endometrioid type. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to identify univariate and multivariate risk factors for recurrence and survival. Univariate analysis revealed features of tumors that recurred only in the vagina: low nuclear grade; superficial myoinvasion; minimal to no LVI; and minimal myoinvasion with microcystic, elongated, and fragmented (MELF) pattern; low nuclear grade and superficial myoinvasion persisted on multivariate analysis. Features of tumors that recurred at other sites included large size, deep myoinvasion, tumor necrosis, 1 or more LVI foci, LVI foci distant/deeper than invasive tumor front, MELF myoinvasion pattern, lower uterine segment and cervical stromal involvement, pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph node metastases at presentation, and higher grade of tumor in the metastatic foci, whereas increased percentage of solid component and lower percentage of mucinous features were marginally associated. Tumors with recurrences only in vagina had different features than tumors that recurred at other sites. The presence of tumor necrosis, MELF foci at the invasive tumor front, and the percentage of solid component and mucinous features could be helpful in grading endometrioid adenocarcinomas, if a 2-tier rather than a 3-tier grading system is accepted in the future.

  19. Precision prevention of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Vaughan, Thomas L; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C


    The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has risen rapidly over the past four decades. Unfortunately, treatments have not kept pace; unless their cancer is identified at a very early stage, most patients will not survive a year after diagnosis. The beginnings of this widespread problem were first recognized over 25 years ago, yet rates have continued to rise against a backdrop of much improved understanding and management of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We estimate that only ∼7% of the 10,000 cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma diagnosed annually in the USA are identified through current approaches to cancer control, and trace pathways by which the remaining 93% are 'lost'. On the basis of emerging data on aetiology and predictive factors, together with new diagnostic tools, we suggest a five-tier strategy for prevention and control that begins with a wide population base and triages individuals into progressively higher risk strata, each with risk-appropriate prevention, screening and treatment options.

  20. Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma

    Mudan Satvinder


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases. Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known. In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy. Case presentation A 52 year-old female was diagnosed with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and treated with oesophagectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 × 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 × 3 cm in size. Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma. Conclusion The present case highlights the unusual behaviour of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma causing metastasis to an adrenocortical adenoma.

  1. KL-6 mucin expression in pancreatic ductal carcinoma and its clinical significance%肺泡Ⅱ型上皮细胞抗原黏蛋白在胰腺导管癌中的表达及其临床意义

    孔晔宏; 刘三光; 穆宏凌; 王文斌; 刘建华


    目的 检测肺泡Ⅱ型上皮细胞抗原(KL-6)黏蛋白(Mucin)在胰腺导管癌中的表达水平,探讨其在胰腺癌诊断和预后评估中的临床意义.方法 38例胰腺癌患者标本采用免疫组织化学染色的方法检测胰腺癌组织标本KL-6 Mucin的表达.结果 38例胰腺导管癌标本的免疫组织化学结果显示,KL-6 Mucin均呈阳性表达(100%),78.9%表达为强阳性,72.3%的癌周胰腺组织未见KL-6 Mucin的强阳性表达.KL-6 Mucin的阳性表达与肿瘤的发展与分化呈正相关.结论 胰腺导管癌中KL-6 Mucin多呈强阳性表达,而癌周胰腺组织内表达不明显,这表明KL-6 Mucin和胰腺癌的浸润行为相关.%Objective To investigate the expression of KL-6 mucin in pancreatic ducatal tissue,and to explore its clinical significance.Methods All specimens form 38 patients who were diagnosed as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using KL-6 monoclonal antibody.Results 100% specimens of pancreatic adenocarcinoma were found positive staining,and marked positive staining was 78.9%,remarkable positive staining was not found in the surrounding noncancer regions of the pancreatic tissues (72.3%).KL-6 mucin expression was statistical significance with the tumor development and differentiation.Conclusion Most of all pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases showed remarkable positive staining for KL-6 mucin,while the majority of surrounding non-cancer regions did not.The aberrant expression of KL-6 mucin is significantly related to aggressive tumor behaviors of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.KL-6 mucin may be a specific target to detect the pancreatic adenocarcinoma in molecular imaging study.

  2. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and Barrett's esophagus

    Bytzer, P; Christensen, P B; Damkier, P


    OBJECTIVE: We described incidence rates of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Denmark in a 20-yr period and determined the proportion of patients diagnosed with esophageal adenocarcinoma who had a previous diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus, making them potential candidates for endoscopic surveillance. M......'s esophagus, but these screening programs are not likely to reduce the death rate from esophageal adenocarcinomas in the general population....

  3. Airway Mucin Concentration as a Marker of Chronic Bronchitis.

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Ford, Amina A; Ceppe, Agathe; Radicioni, Giorgia; Cao, Rui; Davis, C William; Doerschuk, Claire M; Alexis, Neil E; Anderson, Wayne H; Henderson, Ashley G; Barr, R Graham; Bleecker, Eugene R; Christenson, Stephanie A; Cooper, Christopher B; Han, MeiLan K; Hansel, Nadia N; Hastie, Annette T; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Martinez, Fernando; Paine, Robert; Woodruff, Prescott G; O'Neal, Wanda K; Boucher, Richard C


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic bronchitic and emphysematous components. In one biophysical model, the concentration of mucin on the airway surfaces is hypothesized to be a key variable that controls mucus transport in healthy persons versus cessation of transport in persons with muco-obstructive lung diseases. Under this model, it is postulated that a high mucin concentration produces the sputum and disease progression that are characteristic of chronic bronchitis. We characterized the COPD status of 917 participants from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) using questionnaires administered to participants, chest tomography, spirometry, and examination of induced sputum. Total mucin concentrations in sputum were measured with the use of size-exclusion chromatography and refractometry. In 148 of these participants, the respiratory secreted mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B were quantitated by means of mass spectrometry. Data from chronic-bronchitis questionnaires and data on total mucin concentrations in sputum were also analyzed in an independent 94-participant cohort. Mean (±SE) total mucin concentrations were higher in current or former smokers with severe COPD than in controls who had never smoked (3166±402 vs. 1515±152 μg per milliliter) and were higher in participants with two or more respiratory exacerbations per year than in those with zero exacerbations (4194±878 vs. 2458±113 μg per milliliter). The absolute concentrations of MUC5B and MUC5AC in current or former smokers with severe COPD were approximately 3 times as high and 10 times as high, respectively, as in controls who had never smoked. Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis of the association between total mucin concentration and a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis yielded areas under the curve of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.79) for the SPIROMICS cohort and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.92) for the

  4. Early-Onset Signet-Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Maliha Khan


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. While a decline has been observed in the older population, the occurrence of CRC in the adolescent and young adult (AYA population has increased over the past two decades. The histopathologic characteristics and clinical behavior of CRC in AYA patients have been shown to be distinct from those of CRC in older adults. The rarer subtypes of CRC such as mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma are associated with a poorer prognosis compared to the more common subtypes. Here we report a case of a 20-year-old man who was diagnosed with stage IVB (T4 N2 M1, with peritoneal carcinomatosis signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of the colon. The scarcity of information on these rarer subtypes merits further study and investigation.

  5. Relationships between mucinous gastric carcinoma, MUC2 expression and survival

    Emmanuelle Leteurtre; Nicole Porchet; Marie-Pierre Buisine; Farid Zerimech; Guillaume Piessen; Agnès Wacrenier; Xavier Leroy; Mrie-Christine Copin; Christophe Mariette; Jean-Pierre Aubert


    AIM: To investigate the expression of the four secreted gel-forming mucins (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6)in a series of gastric carcinomas, classified according with special attention to all the different components (major and minor) present in tumors and to follow up clinical data.METHODS: Expression of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6 was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.RESULTS: Expression of secreted gel-forming mucins in gastric carcinoma was particularly complex, each mucin being not restricted to any histopathological type even considering all components (major and minor) present in a given tumor. There was a worst survival in patients with a higher content of mucus (Goseki Ⅱ or Ⅳ) and high positive MUC2 expression.CONCLUSION: Complexity of mucin gene expression patterns in gastric cancer may reflect a precise state of differentiation at the cell level not recognized in used morphologic classification systems. High expression of MUC2 was nevertheless associated with mucinous subtype of the WHO classification and with group Ⅱ of Goseki's classification identified by the major component of a particular tumor. The quantity and quality of mucus were related to survival.

  6. Primary mucinous carcinoma with direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion.

    Warycha, Melanie; Kamino, Hideko; Mobini, Narciss; Hale, Elizabeth K


    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is a rare sweat gland neoplasm which occurs most commonly in the periorbital region. Although the tumor has a propensity for local recurrence and regional spread, distant metastases are rare. The standard treatment of primary mucinous carcinoma is wide local excision. Mohs micrographic surgery may also be utilized in cases where tissue conservation is of utmost concern. We present a case of primary mucinous carcinoma arising in the scalp, which was treated with wide local excision. A case report and literature review are presented. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a well-circumscribed neoplasm characterized by lobules and aggregates of epithelial cells embedded in abundant pools of mucin. In addition, small aggregates of neoplastic cells were found at a distance from the primary nodule, indicative of lymphatic invasion. Primary mucinous carcinoma has a high propensity for locoregional metastases and recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion which correlates with this tumor's biologic behavior.

  7. Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast with extracellular mucin: A case report

    G.S. Gómez Macías


    Conclusion: It is important to know that extracellular mucin production is not exclusive of ductal lesions and keep in mind the lobular carcinomas with extracellular mucin as a differential diagnosis.

  8. Glycemic Control after Total Pancreatectomy for Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm: An Exploratory Study

    Laith H. Jamil


    Full Text Available Background. Glycemic control following total pancreatectomy (TP has been thought to be difficult to manage. Diffuse intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN is a potentially curable precursor to pancreatic adenocarcinoma, best treated by TP. Objective. Compare glycemic control in patients undergoing TP for IPMN to patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design/Setting. Retrospective cohort. Outcome Measure. Hemoglobin A1C(HbA1C at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after TP. In the control group, baseline was defined as 6 months prior to the first HbA1c measure. Results. Mean HgbA1C at each point of interest was similar between TP and type I DM patients (6 months (7.5% versus 7.7%, P=0.52, 12 months (7.3% versus 8.0%, P=0.081, 18 months (7.7% and 7.6%, P=0.64, and at 24 months (7.3% versus 7.8%, P=0.10. Seven TP patients (50% experienced a hypoglycemic event compared to 65 type 1 DM patients (65%, P=0.38. Limitations. Small number of TP patients, retrospective design, lack of long-termfollowup. Conclusion. This suggests that glycemic control following TP for IPMNcan be well managed, similar to type 1 DM patients. Fear of DM following TP for IPMN should not preclude surgery when TP is indicated.

  9. Primary Adenocarcinoma in an Enterocutaneous Fistula Associated with Crohn’s Disease

    Luis T Ying


    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of intestinal adenocarcinomas in patients with Crohn’s disease have been reported, but the strength of this association still needs to be elucidated. Adenocarcinoma has also been documented in different types of fistulous tracts associated with Crohn’s disease. The first case of well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma involving only enterocutaneous fistulae is reported in a patient with long-standing Crohn’s disease complicated by persistent abdominal wall fistulous tracts. The malignant lesion arose from neoplastic transformation of columnar epithelium lining portions of the fistulae occurring as a result of either re-epithelialization of these inflammatory tracts or mural implantation of mucosal tissue secondary to prior ulceration. The patient has remained disease-free eight years after surgical resection of the tumour. Even though intestinal carcinoma is not as strongly associated with Crohn’s disease as with ulcerative colitis, intestinal carcinoma should be considered in the setting of long-standing disease, previous intestinal exclusion surgeries and complications such as enterocutaneous or other types of fistulous tracts. The prognosis of such patients may be excellent with early diagnosis and treatment.

  10. IQGAP1 in rectal adenocarcinomas

    Holck, Susanne; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, Emilie;


    Treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma includes total mesorectal excision, which is preceded by radiochemotherapy (RCT) in cases of advanced disease. The response to RCT varies from total tumor regression to no effect but this heterogeneous response is unexplained. However, both radiation and treatme...

  11. Cutaneous Metastases From Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    Triantafyllou, Stamatina; Georgia, Doulami; Gavriella-Zoi, Vrakopoulou; Dimitrios, Mpistarakis; Stulianos, Katsaragakis; Theodoros, Liakakos; Georgios, Zografos; Dimitrios, Theodorou


    The aim of this study is to present 2 rare cases of cutaneous metastases originated from adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction, thus, underline the need for early diagnosis and possible treatment of suspicious skin lesions among patients with esophageal malignancy. Metastatic cancer to the skin originated from internal malignancies, mostly lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, constitute 0.5 to 9% of all metastatic cancers.5,8,15 Skin metastases, mainly from squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, are rarely reported. Cutaneous metastasis is a finding indicating progressiveness of the disease.17 More precisely, median survival is estimated approximately 4.7 months.2,14 This study is a retrospective review of 2 cases of patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and a review of the literature. Two patients aged 60 and 32 years old, respectively, underwent esophagectomy. Both pathologic reports disclosed adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction staged T3 N2 M0 (stage IIIB). During follow-up time, the 2 patients were diagnosed with cutaneous metastases originated from the primary esophageal tumor 11 and 4 months after surgery, respectively. The first patient is alive 37 months after diagnosis, while the second one died 16 months after surgery. Cutaneous metastasis caused by esophageal adenocarcinoma is possible. Therefore, follow-up of patients who were diagnosed with esophageal malignancy and underwent esophagectomy is mandatory in order to reveal early surgical stages. PMID:25785344

  12. Interphase cytogenetics of prostatic adenocarcinoma

    J.C. Alers (Janneke)


    textabstractIn the first part of this chapter an overview will be presented on the structural, histological and functional aspects of the normal human prostate. The second part describes the epidemiological and clinicopathological features of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Further, a state of the art of

  13. Physical and chemical characteristics of mucin secreted by pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP)

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Mekkawy, Ahmed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David L


    Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease with excess intraperitoneal mucin secretion. Treatment involves laparotomy, cytoreduction and chemotherapy that is very invasive with patients often acquiring numerous compromises. Hence a mucolytic comprising of bromelain and N-acetyl cystein has been developed to solubilise mucin in situ for removal by catherization. Owing to differences in mucin appearance and hardness, dissolution varies. Therefore the current study investigates the inter-mucin physical and chemical characteristics, in order to reformulate an effective mucolytic for all mucin. Method: PMP mucin, from the three categories (soft, semi hard and hard mucin) was solubilised and then various physical characteristics such as turbidity, density, kinematic viscosity were measured. The water content and the density of solid mucin were also determined. This was followed by the determination of sialic acid, glucose, lipid, Thiol (S-S and S-H) content of the samples. Lastly, the distribution of MUC2, MUC5B and MUC5AC was determined using western blot technique. Results: Both turbidity and kinematic viscosity and sialic acid content increased linearly as the hardness of mucin increased. However, density, hydration, protein, glucose, lipid and sulfhydryl and disulphide content decreased linearly as hardness of mucin increased. The distribution ratio of mucins (MUC2:MUC5B:MUC5AC) in soft mucin is 2.25:1.5:1.0, semi hard mucin is 1:1:1 and hard mucin is 3:2:1. Conclusion: The difference in texture and hardness of mucin may be due to cellular content, hydration, glucose, protein, lipids, thiol and MUC distribution. Soft mucin is solely made of glycoprotein whilst the others contained cellular materials. PMID:28138305

  14. Human gastric mucins differently regulate Helicobacter pylori proliferation, gene expression and interactions with host cells.

    Emma C Skoog

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the mucus niche of the gastric mucosa and is a risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and cancer. The main components of the mucus layer are heavily glycosylated mucins, to which H. pylori can adhere. Mucin glycosylation differs between individuals and changes during disease. Here we have examined the H. pylori response to purified mucins from a range of tumor and normal human gastric tissue samples. Our results demonstrate that mucins from different individuals differ in how they modulate both proliferation and gene expression of H. pylori. The mucin effect on proliferation varied significantly between samples, and ranged from stimulatory to inhibitory, depending on the type of mucins and the ability of the mucins to bind to H. pylori. Tumor-derived mucins and mucins from the surface mucosa had potential to stimulate proliferation, while gland-derived mucins tended to inhibit proliferation and mucins from healthy uninfected individuals showed little effect. Artificial glycoconjugates containing H. pylori ligands also modulated H. pylori proliferation, albeit to a lesser degree than human mucins. Expression of genes important for the pathogenicity of H. pylori (babA, sabA, cagA, flaA and ureA appeared co-regulated in response to mucins. The addition of mucins to co-cultures of H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells protected the viability of the cells and modulated the cytokine production in a manner that differed between individuals, was partially dependent of adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric cells, but also revealed that other mucin factors in addition to adhesion are important for H. pylori-induced host signaling. The combined data reveal host-specific effects on proliferation, gene expression and virulence of H. pylori due to the gastric mucin environment, demonstrating a dynamic interplay between the bacterium and its host.

  15. Giant Cell Arteritis

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  16. Nanodielectrics with giant permittivity

    S K Saha


    Nanodielectrics is an emerging area of research because of its potential application in energy storage and transducers. One-dimensional metallic nanostructures with localized electronic wave functions show giant dielectric constant. Following the prediction, during the last couple of years we have investigated the effect of giant permittivity in one-dimensional systems of conventional metals and conjugated polymer chains. In this article, we have tried to summarize the works on giant permittivity and finally the fabrication of nanocapacitor using metal nanowires, which shows giant permittivity is also discussed.

  17. Alterations in gastric mucin synthesis by Helicobacter p ylori

    James C. Byrd; Robert S. Bresalier


    Helicobacter pylori is recognized as a cause of chronic active gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer, though the mechanisms of pathogenesis for H. pylori-associated diseases are not yet well understood[1 -4] The ecological niche to which H. pylori is well-adapted is the mucous layer of the human gastric antrum, which has mucin glycoproteins as major constituents. Mucins, highmolecular weight carbohydrate-rich glycoproteins that coat the surface of the stomach and are secreted into the lumen, function to protect the stomach and could be important in H. pylori colonization. For further understanding the pathogenesis of H. pylori-related diseases, it is important to consider whether H. pylori colonization of the surface epithelium is associated, as cause or effect, with changes in the gastric mucin synthesized by surface mucous cells.

  18. Mucin biopolymers as broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Lieleg, Oliver; Lieleg, Corinna; Bloom, Jesse; Buck, Christopher B.; Ribbeck, Katharina


    Mucus is a porous biopolymer matrix that coats all wet epithelia in the human body and serves as the first line of defense against many pathogenic bacteria and viruses. However, under certain conditions viruses are able to penetrate this infection barrier, which compromises the protective function of native mucus. Here, we find that isolated porcine gastric mucin polymers, key structural components of native mucus, can protect an underlying cell layer from infection by small viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), or a strain of influenza A virus. Single particle analysis of virus mobility inside the mucin barrier reveals that this shielding effect is in part based on a retardation of virus diffusion inside the biopolymer matrix. Our findings suggest that purified mucins may be used as a broad-range antiviral supplement to personal hygiene products, baby formula or lubricants to support our immune system. PMID:22475261

  19. Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion

    Cagnini Didier Q


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo. The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

  20. Gelation of mucin: Protecting the stomach from autodigestion

    Bansil, Rama


    In this talk I will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the remarkable ability of the mucus lining of the stomach for protecting the stomach from being digested by the acidic gastric juices that it secretes. These physical properties can be attributed to the presence of a high molecular weight glycoprotein found in mucus, called mucin. Rheology and other measurements show that gastric mucin forms a gel under acidic pH. A model of gelation based on the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions will be discussed. Molecular Dynamics simulation studies of folding and aggregation of mucin domains provide further support for this model. The relevance of gelation to the motion of the ulcer causing bacterium H. pylori will be discussed.

  1. Age-related changes in mucins from human whole saliva.

    Denny, P C; Denny, P A; Klauser, D K; Hong, S H; Navazesh, M; Tabak, L A


    The predominant mucins in human whole saliva, MG1 and MG2, serve to protect and to lubricate the oral cavity. In this study, both unstimulated and stimulated whole salivas were collected from two groups of subjects: young (18-35 years of age) and aged (65-83 years of age). The subjects were in apparent good health. Saliva samples from each subject were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The gels were stained with Stains-all, and both MG1 and MG2 were quantitated by video-image densitometry. The protocol gave reproducible values for each mucin. The stimulated and unstimulated salivas from aged subjects showed significant reductions in concentrations of both MG1 and MG2, as quantitated in mucin dye-binding units. Possible associations of these reductions with the aging process are discussed.

  2. Aberrant expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in mucinous and nonmucinous colorectal carcinomas and relation to clinicopathologic features and prognosis.

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohamed, Mie Ali


    c-KIT and DOG-1 are 2 highly expressed proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Few studies had investigated c-KIT, but not DOG-1, expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study aims to investigate expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in colorectal mucinous carcinoma and nonmucinous carcinoma using manual tissue microarray technique. In this work, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal mucinous (MA) and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and immunohistochemistry for c-KIT and DOG-1 was done. We found that aberrant c-KIT expression was detected in 12 cases (8%); 6 cases (4%) showed strong expression. Aberrant DOG-1 expression was detected in 15 cases (10%); among them, only 4 cases (2.7%) showed strong expression. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly high expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. Aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions were significantly unrelated but were associated with excessive microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. In conclusion, aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions in CRC are rare events, either in NMA or MA. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly higher expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. The expressions of both in CRC are significantly unrelated but are associated with microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. So, c-KIT and DOG-1 immunostaining is not a cost-effective method of identifying patients with CRC who may benefit from treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GABA selectively increases mucin-1 expression in isolated pig jejunum.

    Braun, Hannah-Sophie; Sponder, Gerhard; Pieper, Robert; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Deiner, Carolin


    The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is expressed in the central nervous system and in various other tissues including the intestine. Moreover, GABA can be ingested in vegetarian diets or produced by bacterial commensals in the gastrointestinal tract. As previous studies in lung have suggested a link between locally increased GABA availability and mucin 5AC production, the present study sought to test whether the presence or lack of GABA (and its precursor glutamine) has an effect on intestinal mucin expression. Porcine jejunum epithelial preparations were incubated with two different amounts of GABA or glutamine on the mucosal side for 4 h, and changes in the relative gene expression of seven different mucins, enzymes involved in mucin shedding, GABA B receptor, enzymes involved in glutamine/GABA metabolism, glutathione peroxidase 2, and interleukin 10 were examined by quantitative PCR (TaqMan(®) assays). Protein expression of mucin-1 (MUC1) was analyzed by Western blot. On the RNA level, only MUC1 was significantly up-regulated by both GABA concentrations compared with the control. Glutamine-treated groups showed the same trend. On the protein level, all treatment groups showed a significantly higher MUC1 expression than the control group. We conclude that GABA selectively increases the expression of MUC1, a cell surface mucin that prevents the adhesion of microorganisms, because of its size and negative charge, and therefore propose that the well-described positive effects of glutamine on enterocytes and intestinal integrity are partly attributable to effects of its metabolite GABA.

  4. Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiome

    Tailford, Louise E; Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Kavanaugh, Devon; Juge, Nathalie


    The availability of host and dietary carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a key role in shaping the structure-function of the microbiota. In particular, some gut bacteria have the ability to forage on glycans provided by the mucus layer covering the GI tract. The O-glycan structures present in mucin are diverse and complex, consisting predominantly of core 1-4 mucin-type O-glycans containing α- and β- linked N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine. These c...

  5. [Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas, IPMN].

    Sirén, Jukka


    With the development and increasing use of imaging techniques, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is being detected with increasing frequency. Two forms of the disease are distinguished, the rare main duct form and the common accessory pancreatic duct form. The former often progresses to malignancy, the latter only seldom. The mixed form of IPMN exhibits features of both forms. In main duct IPMN, mucin production obstructs the pancreatic duct causing its dilatation and often symptoms typical of chronic pancreatitis. Main duct IPMN is always an indication for surgery, whereas monitoring is often sufficient for side duct IPMN.

  6. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of pancreas

    Norman Oneil Machado


    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN. The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as "worrisome features." Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The

  7. Peripheral giant cell granuloma

    Padam Narayan Tandon


    Full Text Available Peripheral giant cell granuloma or the so-called "giant cell epulis" is the most common oral giant cell lesion. It normally presents as a soft tissue purplish-red nodule consisting of multinucleated giant cells in a background of mononuclear stromal cells and extravasated red blood cells. This lesion probably does not represent a true neoplasm, but rather may be reactive in nature, believed to be stimulated by local irritation or trauma, but the cause is not certainly known. This article reports a case of peripheral giant cell granuloma arising at the maxillary anterior region in a 22-year-old female patient. The lesion was completely excised to the periosteum level and there is no residual or recurrent swelling or bony defect apparent in the area of biopsy after a follow-up period of 6 months.

  8. Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma of the Urachus

    Daniel Fernando Gallego


    Full Text Available Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the urachus is a rare condition. We present the case of a 51-year-old female who developed abdominal pain and hematuria. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI reported an urachal mass with invasion to the bladder that was resected by partial cystectomy. On light microscopy the tumor resembled liver architecture, with polygonal atypical cells in nest formation and trabecular structures. Immunochemistry was positive for alfa-fetoprotein (AFP and serum AFP was elevated. Hepatoid adenocarcinomas have been reported in multiple organs, being most commonly found in the stomach and the ovaries. Bladder compromise has been rarely described in the literature, and it has been associated with poor prognosis, low remission rates, and early metastasis.

  9. Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    Rutledge, F N; Galakatos, A E; Wharton, J T; Smith, J P


    From January 1, 1947, through December 31, 1971, 219 patients with primary adenocarcinoma of the intact uterine cervix were treated at the M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. Two modes of therapy were primarily used, namely, irradiationtherapy alone and irradiation therapy plus operation. The 5 year survival resultsare 83.7 per cent for patients with Stage i disease, 48.0 per cent for patients with Stage ii disease, 29.2 per cent for patients with Stage iii disease, and 0.0 per cent for patients with Stage iv disease. The group with irradiation plus operation had a better over-all survival rate. In addition, the incidence of central and pelvic recurrent disease was remarkably lower (fourfold difference). The urologic and bowel complications are discussed. This review lends support for our practice of preoperative irradiation followed by simple (constructive) hysterectomy for selected patients eith adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.

  10. Oncocytic Adenocarcinoma of the Orbit.

    Harris, Gerald J; Paul, Sean; Hunt, Bryan C

    Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of the orbit is a rare tumor, with 1 case of nonlacrimal sac, nonlacrimal gland origin, and a poor outcome previously reported. An 85-year-old man with a 2-month history of left-sided epiphora, enlarging eyelid nodules, and diplopia in left gaze was found on imaging to have a poorly circumscribed, nodular mass of uniform radiodensity in the inferomedial orbit. Incisional biopsy revealed morphologic and immunohistochemical features of oncocytic adenocarcinoma with origin in the caruncle suspected, and CT of the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no metastases or remote primary tumor source. Based on multidisciplinary consensus, orbital exenteration with adjuvant radiation therapy was performed, and there was no evidence of residual or recurrent tumor 2 years after treatment.

  11. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Thin Films of Bovine Submaxillary Mucin versus Porcine Gastric Mucin on a Hydrophobic Surface in Aqueous Solutions

    Madsen, Jan Busk; Sotres, Javier; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.


    The structural and mechanical properties of thin films generated from two types of mucins, namely, bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) in aqueous environment were investigated with several bulk and surface analytical techniques. Both mucins generated hydrated films...... on hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces from spontaneous adsorption arising from their amphiphilic characteristic. However, BSM formed more elastic films than PGM at neutral pH condition. This structural difference was manifested from the initial film formation processes to the responses to shear...... on a nonpolar PDMS surface leads to weakening of the mechanical integrity of the films....

  12. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M


    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  13. Mucinous ovarian tumour presenting as a ruptured incisional hernia.

    Toomey, D


    We describe an ovarian borderline tumour that presented as an acute deterioration in an incisional hernia secondary to intraperitoneal mucin accumulation. The differential diagnosis associated with hernial sac contents and options for opportunistic diagnosis are discussed. This case raises awareness of potential serious diagnoses that may be overlooked during emergent hernia repair.

  14. Mucin 1 Gene (MUC1 and Gastric-Cancer Susceptibility

    Norihisa Saeki


    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is one of the major malignant diseases worldwide, especially in Asia. It is classified into intestinal and diffuse types. While the intestinal-type GC (IGC is almost certainly caused by Helicobacter pylori (HP infection, its role in the diffuse-type GC (DGC appears limited. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS on Japanese and Chinese populations identified chromosome 1q22 as a GC susceptibility locus which harbors mucin 1 gene (MUC1 encoding a cell membrane-bound mucin protein. MUC1 has been known as an oncogene with an anti-apoptotic function in cancer cells; however, in normal gastric mucosa, it is anticipated that the mucin 1 protein has a role in protecting gastric epithelial cells from a variety of external insults which cause inflammation and carcinogenesis. HP infection is the most definite insult leading to GC, and a protective function of mucin 1 protein has been suggested by studies on Muc1 knocked-out mice.

  15. Expression of Mucin-1 in multiple myeloma and its precursors

    Andrulis, Mindaugas; Ellert, Elena; Mandel, Ulla


    AIMS: Recent reports suggest a possible role for extracellular (MUC1N) and transmembrane (MUC1C) subunits of Mucin 1 (MUC1) in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). Nuclear translocation of MUC1C is involved in activation of various oncogenic signalling pathways and both MUC1 subunits...

  16. Mupirocin-mucin agar for selective enumeration of Bifidobacterium bifidum.

    Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech; Parafati, Lucia; Musilova, Sarka; Bunesova, Vera; Vlkova, Eva; Killer, Jiri; Mrazek, Jakub; Kmet, Vladimir; Svejstil, Roman


    Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species exclusively found in the human intestinal tract. This species is becoming increasingly popular as a probiotic organism added to lyophilized products. In this study, porcine mucin was used as the sole carbon source for the selective enumeration of B. bifidum in probiotic food additives. Thirty-six bifidobacterial strains were cultivated in broth with mucin. Only 13 strains of B. bifidum utilized the mucin to produce acids. B. bifidum was selectively enumerated in eight probiotic food supplements using agar (MM agar) containing mupirocin (100 mg/L) and mucin (20 g/L) as the sole carbon source. MM agar was fully selective if the B. bifidum species was presented together with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum species and with lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, streptococci). Isolated strains of B. bifidum were identified using biochemical, PCR, MALDI-TOF procedures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The novel selective medium was also suitable for the isolation of B. bifidum strains from human fecal samples.

  17. Germline fumarate hydratase mutations in patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma

    Ylisaukko-oja, Sanna K.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lehtonen, Rainer;


    analyzed for somatic FH mutations. Two patients diagnosed with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma (two out of 33, 6%) were found to be FH germline mutation carriers. One of the changes was a novel mutation (Ala231Thr) and the other one (435insAAA) was previously described in FH deficiency families. These results...

  18. Confocal Endomicroscopy Characteristics of Different Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Subtypes.

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Dewitt, John M; Modi, Rohan M; Conwell, Darwin L; Krishna, Somashekar G


    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are classified into gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic subtypes where morphology portends disease prognosis. The study aim was to demonstrate EUS-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy imaging features of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes. Four subjects, each with a specific intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtype were enrolled. An EUS-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy miniprobe was utilized for image acquisition. The mean cyst size from the 4 subjects (2 females; mean age = 65.3±12 years) was 36.8±12 mm. All lesions demonstrated mural nodules and focal dilation of the main pancreatic duct. EUS-nCLE demonstrated characteristic finger-like papillae with inner vascular core for all subtypes. The image patterns of the papillae for the gastric, intestinal, and pancreatobiliary subtypes were similar. However, the papillae in the oncocytic subtype were thick and demonstrated a fine scale-like or honeycomb pattern with intraepithelial lumina correlating with histopathology. There was significant overlap in the needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy findings for the different intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes; however, the oncocytic subtype demonstrated distinct patterns. These findings need to be replicated in larger multicenter studies.

  19. Control of mucin-type O-glycosylation

    Bennett, Eric P; Mandel, Ulla; Clausen, Henrik


    Glycosylation of proteins is an essential process in all eukaryotes and a great diversity in types of protein glycosylation exists in animals, plants and microorganisms. Mucin-type O-glycosylation, consisting of glycans attached via O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to serine and threonine ...

  20. Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin

    Keita Nishiyama


    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective.

  1. Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin

    Nishiyama, Keita; Sugiyama, Makoto; Mukai, Takao


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective. PMID:27681930

  2. Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic approaches to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.

    Turner, Brian G; Brugge, William R


    Pancreatic cystic lesions are increasingly identified on routine imaging. One specific lesion, known as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), is a mucinous, pancreatic lesion characterized by papillary cells projecting from the pancreatic ductal epithelium. The finding of mucin extruding from the ampulla is essentially pathognomonic for diagnosing these lesions. IPMNs are of particular interest due to their malignant potential. Lesions range from benign, adenomatous growths to high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer. These mucinous lesions therefore require immediate attention to determine the probability of malignancy and whether observation or resection is the best management choice. Unresected lesions need long-term surveillance monitoring for malignant transformation. The accurate diagnosis of these lesions is particularly challenging due to the substantial similarities in morphology of pancreatic cystic lesions and limitations in current imaging technologies. Endoscopic evaluation of these lesions provides additional imaging, molecular, and histologic data to aid in the identification of IPMN and to determine treatment course. The aim of this article is to focus on the diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic approaches to IPMN.

  3. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    Kelemen, Linda E; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan;


    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOCs). Our analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls with imputation identified 3 new risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10(-8)), rs711830 at...

  4. Vitiligo associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Ali Asilian


    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a disease that results in depigmented areas in the skin. It may develop at any age but the average age at onset is 20 years. Association of vitiligo and melanoma has been commonly reported, but malignancies other than melanoma have been rarely associated with vitiligo. We report a 73-year-old patient with new onset vitiligo who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma in the following years.

  5. Interphase cytogenetics of prostatic adenocarcinoma

    Alers, Janneke


    textabstractIn the first part of this chapter an overview will be presented on the structural, histological and functional aspects of the normal human prostate. The second part describes the epidemiological and clinicopathological features of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Further, a state of the art of (cyto)genetic aberrations occurring in prostatic cancer is given. The third part of this introduction will discuss methodological aspects of this thesis, i.e., the development and methodology of no...

  6. Optimal lymphadenectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Oezcelik, A


    Recently published data have shown that an extended lymphadenectomy during the en bloc esophagectomy leads to a significant increased long-term survival for esophageal adenocarcinoma. On the other hand some studies indicate that the increased survival is based on stage migration and that the surgical complication rate is increased after extended lymphadenectomy. The aim of this review was to give an overview about all aspects of an extended lymphadenectomy in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. The review of the literature shows clearly that the number of involved lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, an extended lymphadenectomy leads to an increased long-term survival. Some studies describe that 23 lymph nodes should be removed to predict survival; other studies 18 lymph nodes or 15 lymph nodes. Opponents indicate that the survival benefit is based on stage migration. The studies with a large study population have performed a Cox regression analyzes and identified the number of lymph nodes removed as an independent factor for improved survival, which means it is significant independently from other parameters. Under these circumstances is stage migration not an option to explain the survival benefit. An important difficulty is, that there is no standardized definition of an extended lymphadenectomy, which means the localization and number of removed lymph nodes differ depending from the performing centre. The controversies regarding the survival benefit of the lymphadenectomy is based on the lack of standardisation of the lymphadenectomy. The main goal of further studies should be to generate a clear definition of an extended lymphadenectomy in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  7. Physical Properties of Human Whole Salivary Mucin:A Dynamic Light Scattering Study

    Mahajan, Manish; Kumar, Vijay; Saraswat, Mayank; Yadav, Savita; Shukla, N. K.; Singh, T. P.


    Human salivary mucin, a primary mucous membrane coating glycoprotein forms the first line of defense against adverse environments, attributed to the complex formation between mucin subunits and non mucin species. Aim of the study was to emphasize the effect of pH, denaturants (guanidinum hydrochloride, urea) and detergents (CHAPS, TRITON X -100, SDS on human whole salivary mucin. Hydrodynamic size distribution was measured using DLS. It was observed that aggregation was due to increase in hydrophobic interactions, believed to be accomplished by unfolding of the protein core. Whereas, the detergents which solubilize the proteins by decreasing hydrophobicity lead to disaggregation of mucin into smaller fragments. Mucin subjected to tobacco extract and upon subsequent addition of nicotine was found to have a disaggregating effect on it, suggesting nicotine may be one of the factors responsible for the disaggregating effect of tobacco on mucin, an important carcinogenetic mechanism.

  8. Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix

    Ae Lee Won


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of gastric adenocarcinoma can be simply diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsy specimen. Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium. Case presentation A 67-year-old male presented with a gastric mass incidentally found on the abdominal computed tomography (CT for routine medical examination. Gastric endoscopic examination revealed a huge fungating mass at the cardia and mucosal biopsy was performed. Microscopically the biopsy specimen showed proliferation of bland looking foveolar epithelia in the inflammatory background and diagnosed as foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Because the clinical and endoscopic features of this patient were strongly suggestive of malignancy, the patient underwent radical total gastrectomy. The resected stomach revealed a huge fungating tumor at the cardia. The cut surface of the tumor was whitish gelatinous. Microscopically the tumor was sharply demarcated from surrounding mucosa and composed of very well formed glandular structures without significant cellular atypia, which invaded into the whole layer of the gastric wall. Tumor glands were occasionally complicated or dilated, and glandular lumina were filled with abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells revealed no overexpression of p53 protein but high Ki-67 labeling index. The tumor cells and intraluminal mucin were diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC and only focally expressed MUC2. On abdominal CT taken after 12 months demonstrated peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple metastatic foci in the lung. Conclusion The clinicopathologic profiles of gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype include cardiac location, fungating gross type, very similar histology to foveolar epithelial hyperplasia, foveolar mucin phenotype, lack of p53 overexpressoin and high proliferative index.

  9. Induction of mucin secretion from human bronchial tissue and epithelial cells by rhinovirus and lipopolysaccharide

    Shao-heng HE; Jian ZHENG; Ming-ke DUAN


    AIM: To examine the effects of rhinovirus and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on mucin secretion from bronchial tissue and epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: Human small bronchial tissue fragments (HSBTF) and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) were cultured with rhinovirus 16 and LPS, respectively and culture supernatants were collected for mucin measurement. To determine mucin levels in the culture supernatants, a MUC5AC enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and an enzyme linked lectin assay procedure with dolichos bifiorus agglutinin (DBA)were developed, and mucin release was expressed as percentage increased (or decreased) secretion over baseline level. RESULTS: A concentration-dependent release of DBA mucin and MUC5AC mucin were observed when HSBTF were infected with various concentrations of rhinovirus 16 at 37 ℃. The maximum-induced DBA mucin and MUC5AC mucin release were approximately 258 % and 83 % over baseline. The response of HSBTF to rhinovirus was completely abolished by metabolic inhibitors. Rhinovirus was also able to induce a concentrationdependent release of DBA mucin and MUC5AC mucin from primarily cultured HBEC. LPS 100 mg/L was able to provoke up to approximately 19 % and 54 % increase in DBA and MUC5AC mucin release over baseline, respectively from HSBTF, and 3.1% and 57 % increase from HBEC at 20 h. Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) 30 mg/L was able to inhibit LPS-induced mucin release from HSBTF and HBEC. CONCLUSION: Rhinovirus is able to induce mucin secretion from human bronchial tissue and bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. LPS can induce MUC5AC mucin release from HSBTF and HBEC.

  10. Resolution of polyserositis after removal of appendix mucinous cystadenoma.

    Brajkovic, Ana Vujaklija; Zlopasa, Ozrenka; Brida, Vojtjeh; Gasparovic, Vladimir


    Mucinous cystadenoma is a rare benign neoplasm and is usually discovered incidentally. Pleuritis and pericarditis, inflammation of the pleura and pericardium, may represent manifestations of autoimmune disorders especially in female subjects. We report a patient with polyserositis that was resolved after removal of the mucinous cystadenoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report describing pleuritis and pericarditis as an initial presentation of mucinous cystadenoma of an appendix. A forty-year-old Caucasian female patient with a history of pleuritis and recurrent pericarditis was admitted to the hospital due to acute abdomen. At that time she was taking indomethacin and colchicine due to pericarditis that was controlled only with the combination of these two drugs. The patient had elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and normocytic anemia. Immunological tests, including antinuclear antibody, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, rheumatoid factor, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, were repeatedly negative. Emergency surgery revealed acute appendicitis with perforation and subsequent diffuse peritonitis. Histopathological examination showed acute appendicitis and mucinous cystadenoma. Following the surgery the patient did not take any drugs. Fourteen months later the patient was symptom free. Pleuritis and pericarditis in female patients are most often associated with autoimmune diseases. We assume that increased ESR and CRP with anemia detected in the patient may reflect the altered immunity that is due to mucinous cystadenoma. We believe that this report has a broader clinical impact, implying that benign tumor could alter immunity, which can lead to unusual presentation such as polyserositis.

  11. Nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis with prostatic adenocarcinoma

    Murugan Paari


    Full Text Available Granulomatous prostatitis is an infrequently seen entity in routine practice. One of its most common subtypes is nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis (NSGP, the etiology of which is still under debate. Such cases may be mistaken for adenocarcinoma clinically and radiologically. Histological resemblance to adenocarcinoma may arise when there is a xanthogranulomatous pattern or a prominence of epithelioid histiocytes. However, NSGP may rarely coexist with adenocarcinoma and it is critical to sample these cases thoroughly to exclude the presence of malignancy.

  12. Increased levels of mucins in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine, and modulator effects of the Muc1 mucin expression.

    Malmberg, Emily K; Noaksson, Karin A; Phillipson, Mia; Johansson, Malin E V; Hinojosa-Kurtzberg, Marina; Holm, Lena; Gendler, Sandra J; Hansson, Gunnar C


    The mouse model (Cftr(tm1UNC)/Cftr(tm1UNC)) for cystic fibrosis (CF) shows mucus accumulation and increased Muc1 mucin mRNA levels due to altered splicing (Hinojosa-Kurtzberg AM, Johansson MEV, Madsen CS, Hansson GC, and Gendler SJ. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284: G853-G862, 2003). However, it is not known whether Muc1 is a major mucin contributing to the increased mucus and why CF/Muc1-/- mice show lower mucus accumulation. To address this, we have purified mucins from the small intestine of CF mice using guanidinium chloride extraction, ultracentrifugation, and gel filtration and analyzed them by slot blot, gel electrophoresis, proteomics, and immunoblotting. Normal and CF mice with wild-type (WT) Muc1 or Muc1-/- or that are transgenic for human MUC1 (MUC1.Tg, on a Muc1-/- background) were analyzed. The total amount of mucins, both soluble and insoluble in guanidinium chloride, increased up to 10-fold in the CF mice compared with non-CF animals, whereas the CF mice lacking Muc1 showed intermediate levels between the CF and non-CF mice. However, the levels of Muc3 (orthologue of human MUC17) were increased in the CF/Muc1-/- mice compared with the CF/MUC1.Tg animals. The amount of MUC1 mucin was increased several magnitudes in the CF mice, but MUC1 did still not appear to be a major mucin. The amount of insoluble mucus of the large intestine was also increased in the CF mice, an effect that was partially restored in the CF/Muc1-/- mice. The thickness of the firmly adherent mucus layer of colon in the Muc1-/- mice was significantly lower than that of WT mice. The results suggest that MUC1 is not a major component in the accumulated mucus of CF mice and that MUC1 can influence the amount of other mucins in a still unknown way.

  13. Quantum Giant Magnons

    Zarembo, K


    The giant magnons are classical solitons of the O(N) sigma-model, which play an important role in the AdS/CFT correspondence. We study quantum giant magnons first at large N and then exactly using Bethe Ansatz, where giant magnons can be interpreted as holes in the Fermi sea. We also identify a solvable limit of Bethe Ansatz in which it describes a weakly-interacting Bose gas at zero temperature. The examples include the O(N) model at large N, weakly interacting non-linear Schrodinger model, and nearly isotropic XXZ spin chain in the magnetic field.

  14. Dynamos of giant planets

    Busse, F H; 10.1017/S1743921307000920


    Possibilities and difficulties of applying the theory of magnetic field generation by convection flows in rotating spherical fluid shells to the Giant Planets are outlined. Recent progress in the understanding of the distribution of electrical conductivity in the Giant Planets suggests that the dynamo process occurs predominantly in regions of semiconductivity. In contrast to the geodynamo the magnetic field generation in the Giant Planets is thus characterized by strong radial conductivity variations. The importance of the constraint on the Ohmic dissipation provided by the planetary luminosity is emphasized. Planetary dynamos are likely to be of an oscillatory type, although these oscillations may not be evident from the exterior of the planets.

  15. Giant Cell Fibroma

    Tahere Nosratzehi; Lale Maleki


    Giant cell fibroma is a fibrous tumor which represents about 2 to 5% of all oral fibrotic proliferations. Compared to traumatic fibroma, giant (traumatic fibroma or irritation fibroma) cell fibroma occurs at a younger age. In about 60% of the cases the lesion is diagnosed within the first three decades of life and is slightly more in women. 50% of the cases is observed in the gum and will appear as a nodule with a papillary surface [1]. The giant cell fibroma is treated by conservative excisi...

  16. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors.

    Varvara Vitiazeva

    Full Text Available Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer.In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn. The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes.The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC.Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas appear to be different from

  17. Giant distal humeral geode

    Maher, M.M. [Department of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kennedy, J.; Hynes, D. [Department of Orthopaedics, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Murray, J.G.; O' Connell, D. [Department of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)


    We describe the imaging features of a giant geode of the distal humerus in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, which presented initially as a pathological fracture. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing this diagnosis is emphasized. (orig.)

  18. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  19. The Giant Cell.

    Stockdale, Dennis


    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  20. Seismology of Giant Planets

    Gaulme, Patrick; Schmider, Francois-Xavier; Guillot, Tristan


    Seismology applied to giant planets could drastically change our understanding of their deep interiors, as it has happened with the Earth, the Sun, and many main-sequence and evolved stars. The study of giant planets' composition is important for understanding both the mechanisms enabling their formation and the origins of planetary systems, in particular our own. Unfortunately, its determination is complicated by the fact that their interior is thought not to be homogeneous, so that spectroscopic determinations of atmospheric abundances are probably not representative of the planet as a whole. Instead, the determination of their composition and structure must rely on indirect measurements and interior models. Giant planets are mostly fluid and convective, which makes their seismology much closer to that of solar-like stars than that of terrestrial planets. Hence, helioseismology techniques naturally transfer to giant planets. In addition, two alternative methods can be used: photometry of the solar light ref...

  1. A procedure for Alcian blue staining of mucins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes.

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko


    The isolation and characterization of mucins are critically important for obtaining insight into the molecular pathology of various diseases, including cancers and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we developed a novel membrane electrophoretic method, supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), which separates mucins on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane impregnated with a hydrophilic polymer. Alcian blue staining is widely used to visualize mucopolysaccharides and acidic mucins on both blotted membranes and SMME membranes; however, this method cannot be used to stain mucins with a low acidic glycan content. Meanwhile, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, but is incompatible with glycan analysis, which is indispensable for mucin characterizations. Here we describe a novel staining method, designated succinylation-Alcian blue staining, for visualizing mucins on a PVDF membrane. This method can visualize mucins regardless of the acidic residue content and shows a sensitivity 2-fold higher than that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain. Furthermore, we demonstrate the compatibility of this novel staining procedure with glycan analysis using porcine gastric mucin as a model mucin.

  2. Giant magnetostrictive materials

    LIU JingHua; JIANG ChengBao; XU HuiBin


    Giant magnetostrictive materials are a kind of functional materials developed since 1970s,known as their large magnetostrain and high energy density.In this paper,an introduction of magnetosttiction and the history of magnetostrictive materials are described firstly.Then we review the recent developments of both rare earth and non-rare earth magnetostrictive materials.Finally,the tendency of developing new giant magnetostrictive materials is presented.

  3. Salivary mucins induce a Toll-like receptor 4-mediated pro-inflammatory response in human submandibular salivary cells: are mucins involved in Sjögren's syndrome?

    Barrera, M.J.; Aguilera, S.; Veerman, E.; Quest, A.F.G.; Díaz-Jiménez, D.; Urzúa, U.; Cortés, J.; González, S.; Castro, I.; Molina, C.; Bahamondes, V.; Leyton, C.; Hermoso, M.A.; González, M.J.


    Objectives. A hallmark characteristic of SS patients is the ectopic presence of the mucins MUC5B and MUC7 in the extracellular matrix of salivary glands that have lost apical-basolateral acinar-cell polarity. This study aims to determine whether exogenous salivary mucins induce gene expression of

  4. Salivary mucins induce a Toll-like receptor 4-mediated pro-inflammatory response in human submandibular salivary cells: are mucins involved in Sjögren's syndrome?

    Barrera, M.J.; Aguilera, S.; Veerman, E.; Quest, A.F.G.; Díaz-Jiménez, D.; Urzúa, U.; Cortés, J.; González, S.; Castro, I.; Molina, C.; Bahamondes, V.; Leyton, C.; Hermoso, M.A.; González, M.J.


    Objectives. A hallmark characteristic of SS patients is the ectopic presence of the mucins MUC5B and MUC7 in the extracellular matrix of salivary glands that have lost apical-basolateral acinar-cell polarity. This study aims to determine whether exogenous salivary mucins induce gene expression of pr

  5. Red giant seismology: Observations

    Mosser B.


    Full Text Available The CoRoT and Kepler missions provide us with thousands of red-giant light curves that allow a very precise asteroseismic study of these objects. Before CoRoT and Kepler, the red-giant oscillation patterns remained obscure. Now, these spectra are much more clear and unveil many crucial interior structure properties. For thousands of red giants, we can derive from seismic data precise estimates of the stellar mass and radius, the evolutionary status of the giants (with a clear difference between clump and RGB stars, the internal differential rotation, the mass loss, the distance of the stars... Analyzing this amount of information is made easy by the identification of the largely homologous red-giant oscillation patterns. For the first time, both pressure and mixed mode oscillation patterns can be precisely depicted. The mixed-mode analysis allows us, for instance, to probe directly the stellar core. Fine details completing the red-giant oscillation pattern then provide further information on the interior structure, including differential rotation.

  6. Transcriptomic Microenvironment of Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Bossé, Yohan; Sazonova, Olga; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Bastien, Nathalie; Conti, Massimo; Pagé, Sylvain; Trahan, Sylvain; Couture, Christian; Joubert, Philippe


    Background: Tissues surrounding tumors are increasingly studied to understand the biology of cancer development and identify biomarkers.Methods: A unique geographic tissue sampling collection was obtained from patients that underwent curative lobectomy for stage I pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Tumor and nontumor lung samples located at 0, 2, 4, and 6 cm away from the tumor were collected. Whole-genome gene expression profiling was performed on all samples (n = 5 specimens × 12 patients = 60). Analyses were carried out to identify genes differentially expressed in the tumor compared with adjacent nontumor lung tissues at different distances from the tumor as well as to identify stable and transient genes in nontumor tissues with respect to tumor proximity.Results: The magnitude of gene expression changes between tumor and nontumor sites was similar with increasing distance from the tumor. A total of 482 up- and 843 downregulated genes were found in tumors, including 312 and 566 that were consistently differentially expressed across nontumor sites. Twenty-nine genes induced and 34 knocked-down in tumors were also identified. Tumor proximity analyses revealed 15,700 stable genes in nontumor lung tissues. Gene expression changes across nontumor sites were subtle and not statistically significant.Conclusions: This study describes the transcriptomic microenvironment of lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent nontumor lung tissues collected at standardized distances relative to the tumor.Impact: This study provides further insights about the molecular transitions that occur from normal tissue to lung adenocarcinoma and is an important step to develop biomarkers in nonmalignant lung tissues. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 389-96. ©2016 AACR.

  7. Adenocarcinoma uretral em uma cadela Urethral adenocarcinoma in a bitch

    Marcia Cristina da Silva


    Full Text Available Tumores primários de uretra são raros em animais e há poucos relatos em cães. A ocorrência é maior em cadelas idosas, não havendo predileção por raça. Disúria, estrangúria e hematúria são sinais clínicos associados a esses tumores. É relatado um caso de adenocarcinoma primário de uretra em um cadela Poodle de 12 anos de idade que apresentava aumento de volume no membro pélvico esquerdo. Na necropsia, foram encontradas metástases na articulação femorotibial esquerda, na glândula adrenal e no rim.Urethral primary tumors are rare in animals and there are only few reports in dogs. They are more frequent in old bitches and have no breed predilection. Clinical signs associated with urethral primary tumors include dysuria, strangury and hematuria. We report a case of primary urethral adenocarcinoma in a 12-year-old female Poodle that was presented with localized volume enlargement in the left pelvic limb. At necropsy metastasis were found at the left femorotibial joint, adrenal gland and kidney.

  8. MYC and gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis

    Danielle Queiroz Calcagno; Mariana Ferreira Leal; Paulo Pimentel Assumpcao; Marilia de Arruda Cardoso Smith; Rommel Rodriguez Burbano


    MYC is an oncogene involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth arrest, cell adhesion, metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. It has been described as a key element of several carcinogenesis processes in humans. Many studies have shown an association between MYC deregulation and gastric cancer. MYC deregulation is also seen in gastric preneoplastic lesions and thus it may have a role in early gastric carcinogenesis. Several studies have suggested that amplification is the main mechanism of MYC deregulation in gastric cancer. In the present review, we focus on the deregulation of the MYC oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, including its association with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and clinical applications.

  9. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Uzair Chaudhary


    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  10. Sigmoid adenocarcinoma with renal metastasis

    Carini Dagnoni


    Full Text Available We report a case of a 75-year-old man submitted to a rectosigmoidectomy and partial cystectomy because of a sigmoid cancer and colovesical fistula. Seven months later and after four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, a lesion was detected in the kidney. Histology revealed tubular adenocarcinoma, which meant sigmoid cancer metastasis. Kidney metastases are very rare in colorectal cancer (CRC, but may be generally associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Thus, patients with metastatic CRC and kidney tumors are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

  11. [An ovarian mucinous borderline tumour with mixed mural nodules].

    Dhouibi, A; Denoux, Y; Touil, N; Devouassoux Shisheboran, M; Carbonnel, M; Baglin, A C


    The occurrence of mural nodules in serous or mucinous ovarian tumours is not frequent. Mural nodule can be developed in benign, borderline or malignant tumours. They can be benign, malignant or mixed type. Thus the prognosis of the ovarian tumour can be dramatically modified by the presence if these nodules. Eighty-two cases of mural nodules were reported in the literature, among which we account four cases of mixed nodules type. We report an additional case of mixed type mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma and sarcoma-like developed in an ovarian mucinous borderline tumour at a 60-year-old woman.We give details about the classification, the differential diagnosis and prognosis of theses nodules.

  12. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M


    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, including...... saliva and salivary glands. The expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures and ABH(O) variants was studied in paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue sections from 37 pleomorphic adenomas with associated normal parotid tissue, using immunohistology and a panel of MAbs with well......-defined specificity for T, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and blood group H and A variants hereof. The immature Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigen structures were expressed in the epithelial ductular structures of the tumors, whereas they were almost absent from normal parotid tissue, indicating aberrant glycosylation with accumulation...

  13. Clinicopathological characteristics and computed tomography features of mucinous gastric carcinoma.

    Yan, C; Zhu, Z-G; Yan, M; Zhang, H; Pan, Z-L; Chen, J; Xiang, M; Chen, M-M; Liu, B-Y; Lin, Y-Z


    This study investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of mucinous gastric carcinoma (MGC) and assessed whether multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) could differentiate MGC from non-mucinous gastric carcinoma (NGC). Clinicopathological data from 542 patients with gastric carcinoma (23 MGC, 519 NGC), who underwent pre-operative MDCT examination and curative or palliative gastrectomy, were analysed. Only seven of the 23 patients with MGC were correctly diagnosed pre-operatively by endoscopic biopsy. The MGC patients had larger tumours, a higher frequency of lymph node metastases, were more likely to have tumours of tumour, node, metastasis stages III and IV, and were less likely to have a curative resection than NGC patients. In addition, five MGC patients had calcifications in the thickened gastric wall. In conclusion, MGC is rare and is detected mostly at an advanced stage. The diagnostic sensitivity of MGC by endoscopic biopsy was relatively low, whereas MDCT was helpful in distinguishing MGC from NGC.

  14. Main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma of the pancreas

    Takuma Kensuke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of carcinoma in main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN is high, and surgical resection is recommended for all patients with a main-duct IPMN. Results A main-duct IPMN with typical imagings including protruding lesions in the dilated main pancreatic duct was resected, but the histology was intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma of the pancreas. Discussion It has been reported that the presence of mural nodules and dilatation of MPD are significantly higher in malignant IPMNs. The presented case had protruding lesions in the dilated main pancreatic duct on endoscopic ultrasonography, but the histology was adenoma. Conclusion Preoperative distinction between benign and malignant IPMNs is difficult.

  15. Engineering Mammalian Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Plants

    Yang, Zhang; Drew, Damian P; Jørgensen, Bodil


    Mucin-type O-glycosylation is an important post-translational modification that confers a variety of biological properties and functions to proteins. This post-translational modification has a particularly complex and differentially regulated biosynthesis rendering prediction and control of where...... cell for production of recombinant O-glycoproteins with custom-designed O-glycosylation. The observed hydroxyproline modifications, however, call for additional future engineering efforts....

  16. Effect of mucin production on survival in colorectal cancer:A case-control study

    Mirna H Farhat; Kassem A Barada; Ayman N Tawil; Doha H Itani; Hassan A Hatoum; Ali I Shamseddine


    AIM: To investigate the impact of mucin production on prognosis in colorectal cancer, in terms of overall survival (OS) and time to disease progression (TTP) in patients with mucinous compared to those with nonmucinous colorectal cancer (NMCRC), matched for age,gender, and tumor stage.METHODS: Thirty five patients with mucinous colorectal cancer (MCRC) were matched for age, gender, and tumor stage with 35 controls having NMCRC. OS and TTP were compared among 4 groups divided according to mucin content: group A (500-75% mucin), group B (75%-100% mucin), group C or controls ( 75% of tumor volume. However, it tends to be more poorly differentiated. A larger study matching for stage and grade is needed.

  17. The MUC4 membrane-bound mucin regulates esophageal cancer cell proliferation and migration properties: Implication for S100A4 protein

    Bruyere, Emilie; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Frenois, Frederic [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Mariette, Christophe [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Department of Digestive and Oncological Surgery, University Hospital Claude Huriez, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Van Seuningen, Isabelle, E-mail: [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France)


    Highlights: {yields} Loss of MUC4 reduces proliferation of esophageal cancer cells. {yields} MUC4 inhibition impairs migration of esophageal cancer cells but not their invasion. {yields} Loss of MUC4 significantly reduces in vivo tumor growth. {yields} Decrease of S100A4 induced by MUC4 inhibition impairs proliferation and migration. -- Abstract: MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin known to participate in tumor progression. It has been shown that MUC4 pattern of expression is modified during esophageal carcinogenesis, with a progressive increase from metaplastic lesions to adenocarcinoma. The principal cause of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is the gastro-esophageal reflux, and MUC4 was previously shown to be upregulated by several bile acids present in reflux. In this report, our aim was thus to determine whether MUC4 plays a role in biological properties of human esophageal cancer cells. For that stable MUC4-deficient cancer cell lines (shMUC4 cells) were established using a shRNA approach. In vitro (proliferation, migration and invasion) and in vivo (tumor growth following subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice) biological properties of shMUC4 cells were analyzed. Our results show that shMUC4 cells were less proliferative, had decreased migration properties and did not express S100A4 protein when compared with MUC4 expressing cells. Absence of MUC4 did not impair shMUC4 invasiveness. Subcutaneous xenografts showed a significant decrease in tumor size when cells did not express MUC4. Altogether, these data indicate that MUC4 plays a key role in proliferative and migrating properties of esophageal cancer cells as well as is a tumor growth promoter. MUC4 mucin appears thus as a good therapeutic target to slow-down esophageal tumor progression.

  18. Clinicopathologic features and prognosis analysis of mucinous gastric carcinoma.

    Yin, Chunming; Li, Deming; Sun, Zhe; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Yan; Wang, Zhenning; Xu, Huimian


    Mucious gastric carcinoma (MGC) is a subtype of gastric carcinoma and its clinicopathologic features and prognosis still remain unclear. To investigate the clinical significance and surgical outcomes of mucinous gastric carcinoma, 2,769 patients with gastric carcinoma were analyzed in a case control study. We reviewed the records of 196 patients with mucinous gastric carcinoma and 2,573 with nonmucinous gastric carcinoma (NGC). Clinicopathologic features and survival rate of patients were analyzed. In all registered patients, patients with MGC had a larger size, more T3 and T4 invasion to the gastric wall, more positive lymph node metastasis, more III and IV stage and more positive peritoneal dissemination, but less curative gastrectomy. In curative gastrectomy patients, MGC had larger size, deeper invasion to gastric wall, more positive lymph node metastasis and more advanced TNM stage. The overall survival rate in curative gastrectomy patients with MGC was significantly lower than that for patients with NGC (P gastric carcinoma, but MGC itself was not. The prognosis of MGC did not have significant difference compared with NGC. Frequently, MGC was of advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Age, location of tumor, Borrmann type, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and lymphovascular invasion are independent prognostic factors of gastric carcinoma, but mucinous histological type itself is not. Further study on the origin and progression of MGC is needed in future.

  19. Polymorphisms in mucin genes in the development of gastric cancer

    Rong; Wen; Fang; Gao; Cheng-Jiang; Zhou; Yan-Bin; Jia


    Gastric cancer(GC) is the third leading cause of cancerrelated death worldwide.In areas of high prevalence,such as Japan,South Korea and China,most cases of GC are related to Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori),which involves well-characterized sequential stages,including infection,atrophic gastritis,intestinal metaplasia,dysplasia,and GC.Mucins are the most abundant highmolecular-weight glycoproteins in mucus,which is the first line of defense and plays a major role in blocking pathogenic factors.Normal gastric mucosa shows expression of MUC1,MUC5 AC and MUC6 that is specific to cell type.However,the specific pattern of MUC1,MUC5 AC and MUC6 expression is changed in gastric carcinogenesis,accompanied by de novo expression of secreted MUC2.Recent studies have provided evidence that variations in these mucin genes affect many steps of GC development,such as H.pylori infection,and gastric precancerous lesions.In this review,we focus on studies of the association between polymorphisms in mucin genes and development of GC.This information should be helpful for the early detection,surveillance,and treatment of GC.

  20. Mucins Help to Avoid Alloreactivity at the Maternal Fetal Interface

    Arnela Redzovic


    Full Text Available During gestation, many different mechanisms act to render the maternal immune system tolerant to semi-allogeneic trophoblast cells of foetal origin, including those mediated via mucins that are expressed during the peri-implantation period in the uterus. Tumour- associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72 enhances the already established tolerogenic features of decidual dendritic cells with the inability to progress towards Th1 immune orientation due to lowered interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-15 expression. Mucine 1 (Muc 1 supports alternative activation of decidual macrophages, restricts the proliferation of decidual regulatory CD56+ bright natural killer (NK cells, and downregulates their cytotoxic potential, including cytotoxic mediator protein expression. Removing TAG-72 and Muc 1 from the eutopic implantation site likely contributes to better control of trophoblast invasion by T cells and NK cells and appears to have important immunologic advantages for successful implantation, in addition to mechanical advantages. However, these processes may lead to uncontrolled trophoblast growth after implantation, inefficient defence against infection or tumours, and elimination of unwanted immunocompetent cells at the maternal-foetal interface. The use of mucins by tumour cells to affect the local microenvironment in order to avoid the host immune response and to promote local tumour growth, invasion, and metastasis confirms this postulation.

  1. Mucins help to avoid alloreactivity at the maternal fetal interface.

    Redzovic, Arnela; Laskarin, Gordana; Dominovic, Marin; Haller, Herman; Rukavina, Daniel


    During gestation, many different mechanisms act to render the maternal immune system tolerant to semi-allogeneic trophoblast cells of foetal origin, including those mediated via mucins that are expressed during the peri-implantation period in the uterus. Tumour- associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) enhances the already established tolerogenic features of decidual dendritic cells with the inability to progress towards Th1 immune orientation due to lowered interferon (IFN)- γ and interleukin (IL)-15 expression. Mucine 1 (Muc 1) supports alternative activation of decidual macrophages, restricts the proliferation of decidual regulatory CD56(+) bright natural killer (NK) cells, and downregulates their cytotoxic potential, including cytotoxic mediator protein expression. Removing TAG-72 and Muc 1 from the eutopic implantation site likely contributes to better control of trophoblast invasion by T cells and NK cells and appears to have important immunologic advantages for successful implantation, in addition to mechanical advantages. However, these processes may lead to uncontrolled trophoblast growth after implantation, inefficient defence against infection or tumours, and elimination of unwanted immunocompetent cells at the maternal-foetal interface. The use of mucins by tumour cells to affect the local microenvironment in order to avoid the host immune response and to promote local tumour growth, invasion, and metastasis confirms this postulation.

  2. Tea derived galloylated polyphenols cross-link purified gastrointestinal mucins.

    Pantelis Georgiades

    Full Text Available Polyphenols derived from tea are thought to be important for human health. We show using a combination of particle tracking microrheology and small-angle neutron scattering that polyphenols acts as cross-linkers for purified gastrointestinal mucin, derived from the stomach and the duodenum. Both naturally derived purified polyphenols, and green and black tea extracts are shown to act as cross-linkers. The main active cross-linking component is found to be the galloylated forms of catechins. The viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time of the mucin solutions experience an order of magnitude change in value upon addition of the polyphenol cross-linkers. Similarly small-angle neutron scattering experiments demonstrate a sol-gel transition with the addition of polyphenols, with a large increase in the scattering at low angles, which is attributed to the formation of large scale (>10 nm heterogeneities during gelation. Cross-linking of mucins by polyphenols is thus expected to have an impact on the physicochemical environment of both the stomach and duodenum; polyphenols are expected to modulate the barrier properties of mucus, nutrient absorption through mucus and the viscoelastic microenvironments of intestinal bacteria.

  3. Uncommon features of surgically resected ALK-positive cavitary lung adenocarcinoma: a case report.

    Takamori, Shinkichi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Taguchi, Kenichi; Edagawa, Makoto; Shimamatsu, Shinichiro; Toyozawa, Ryo; Nosaki, Kaname; Hirai, Fumihiko; Seto, Takashi; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Ichinose, Yukito


    Some features found on chest computed tomography (CT), such as central tumor location, large pleural effusion, and the absence of a pleural tail, and a patient age of less than 60 years, have been suggested to be useful in predicting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).A 68-year-old female patient with a history of gynecological treatment was found to have a cavitary mass in the right lower lobe on an annual chest roentgenogram. The tumor was located in the peripheral area with a pleural tail showing no pleural effusion. In addition, two pure ground-glass-opacity nodules (p-GGNs) in the right upper lobe of the lung were detected on consecutive chest CT scans. The patient underwent right lower lobectomy, partial resection of the right upper lobe, and hilar mediastinal lymph node dissection for complete resection of each tumor. The pathological diagnosis was invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells for the cavitary mass in the right lower lobe and invasive adenocarcinoma for the rest of the p-GGNs; subcarinal lymph node metastasis was also detected. The ALK rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization from the cavitary mass. The patient underwent four cycles of cisplatin and vinorelbine chemotherapy as standard adjuvant chemotherapy for pStage III NSCLC. The ALK fusion gene status of NSCLC with atypical CT features should also be investigated.

  4. A Rare Renal Epithelial Tumor: Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Erdem, Mehmet Remzi; Kurt, Omer; Topaktas, Ramazan; Kilicaslan, Isin; Armağan, Abdullah; Önol, Şinasi Yavuz


    Primary renal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a very rare lesion of kidney which originates from the metaplasia of the renal pelvic uroepithelium. Only one case with primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma has been reported in the English literature. We report second case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma which was radiologically classified as type-IIF Bosniak cyst in peripheral localization. We aimed to present this extreme and unusual entity with its radiological, surgical, and pathologic aspects under the light of literature. PMID:22110514

  5. Thermal Giant Gravitons

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A; Orselli, Marta; Pedersen, Andreas Vigand


    We study the giant graviton solution as the AdS_5 X S^5 background is heated up to finite temperature. The analysis employs the thermal brane probe technique based on the blackfold approach. We focus mainly on the thermal giant graviton corresponding to a thermal D3-brane probe wrapped on an S^3 moving on the S^5 of the background at finite temperature. We find several interesting new effects, including that the thermal giant graviton has a minimal possible value for the angular momentum and correspondingly also a minimal possible radius of the S^3. We compute the free energy of the thermal giant graviton in the low temperature regime, which potentially could be compared to that of a thermal state on the gauge theory side. Moreover, we analyze the space of solutions and stability of the thermal giant graviton and find that, in parallel with the extremal case, there are two available solutions for a given temperature and angular momentum, one stable and one unstable. In order to write down the equations of mot...

  6. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric


    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...

  7. Cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix: an incidental imaging finding in a patient with adenocarcinomas of the ascending and the sigmoid colon

    Prassopoulos Panos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary adenocarcinomas of the appendix are uncommon. Mucoceles that result from mucinous adenocarcinomas of the appendix may be incidentally detected on imaging. Case presentation A case of a mucocele of the appendix, due to cystadenocarcinoma, is presented as an incidental imaging finding in a female, 86-year-old patient. The patient was admitted due to rectal hemorrhage and underwent colonoscopy, x-ray, US and CT. Adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon, adenomatous polyp of the sigmoid colon and a cystic lesion in the right iliac fossa were diagnosed. The cystic lesion was characterized as mucocele. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy, excision of the mucocele and sigmoidectomy. She recovered well and in two-year follow-up is free from cancer. Conclusions Preoperative diagnosis of an underlying malignancy in a mucocele is important for patient management, but it is difficult on imaging studies. Small lymph nodes or soft tissue stranding in the surrounding fat on computed tomography examination may suggest the possibility of malignancy.

  8. Cystic fibrosis airway secretions exhibit mucin hyperconcentration and increased osmotic pressure

    Henderson, Ashley G.; Ehre, Camille; Button, Brian; Abdullah, Lubna H.; Cai, Li-Heng; Leigh, Margaret W.; DeMaria, Genevieve C.; Matsui, Hiro; Donaldson, Scott H.; Davis, C. William; Sheehan, John K.; Boucher, Richard C.; Kesimer, Mehmet


    The pathogenesis of mucoinfective lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients likely involves poor mucus clearance. A recent model of mucus clearance predicts that mucus flow depends on the relative mucin concentration of the mucus layer compared with that of the periciliary layer; however, mucin concentrations have been difficult to measure in CF secretions. Here, we have shown that the concentration of mucin in CF sputum is low when measured by immunologically based techniques, and mass spectrometric analyses of CF mucins revealed mucin cleavage at antibody recognition sites. Using physical size exclusion chromatography/differential refractometry (SEC/dRI) techniques, we determined that mucin concentrations in CF secretions were higher than those in normal secretions. Measurements of partial osmotic pressures revealed that the partial osmotic pressure of CF sputum and the retained mucus in excised CF lungs were substantially greater than the partial osmotic pressure of normal secretions. Our data reveal that mucin concentration cannot be accurately measured immunologically in proteolytically active CF secretions; mucins are hyperconcentrated in CF secretions; and CF secretion osmotic pressures predict mucus layer–dependent osmotic compression of the periciliary liquid layer in CF lungs. Consequently, mucin hypersecretion likely produces mucus stasis, which contributes to key infectious and inflammatory components of CF lung disease. PMID:24892808

  9. Emerging Potential of Natural Products for Targeting Mucins for Therapy Against Inflammation and Cancer

    Macha, Muzafar A.; Krishn, Shiv Ram; Jahan, Rahat; Banerjee, Kasturi; Batra, Surinder K.; Jain, Maneesh


    Deregulated mucin expression is a hallmark of several inflammatory and malignant pathologies. Emerging evidence suggests that, apart from biomarkers, these deregulated mucins are functional contributors to pathogenesis in inflammation and cancer. Both overexpression and downregulation of mucins in various organ systems is associated with pathobiology of inflammation and cancer. Restoration of mucin homeostasis has become an important goal for therapy and management of such disorders and has fueled the quest for selective mucomodulators. With improved understanding of mucin regulation and mechanistic insights into their pathobiological roles, there is optimism to find selective non-toxic agents capable of modulating mucin expression and function. Recently, natural compounds derived from dietary sources have drawn attention due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties and low toxicity. Considerable efforts have been directed towards evaluating dietary natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents; identification, characterization and synthesis of their active compounds; and improving their delivery and bioavailability. We describe the current understanding of mucin regulation, rationale for targeting mucins with natural products and discuss some natural products that modulate mucin expression and functions. We further discuss the approaches and parameters that should guide future research to identify and evaluate selective natural mucomodulators for therapy. PMID:25624117

  10. MR imaging of mucinous carcinoma of the breast associated with ductal carcinoma in situ: case report

    Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Young Up; Kim, Sei Joong; Kim, Won Hong; Suh, Chang Hae; Han, Jee Young [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    A mucinous carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon carcinoma containing mucin that is associated with a mucocele-like tumor or other malignant tumors. We report the MR imaging findings of two cases, a mucinous carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), associated with mucocele-like tumor. The mucinous carcinoma showed a gradually enhancing kinetic pattern on the dynamic MR and high signal intensity on the T2-weighted images. The MR findings were indistinguishable from a common benign mass of the breast.

  11. Stimulation of mucin secretion from human bronchial epithelial cells by mast cell chymase

    Shao-heng HE; Jian ZHENG


    AIM: To investigate the effect ofchymase on the mucin secretion from human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS:Primarily-cultured human bronchial epithelial (PCHBE) cells and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were cultured with chymase or other stimulus in a mixture of bronchial epithelial growth medium (BEGM) and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and the quantities of stimulatory mucin release were recorded.MUC5AC mucin was measured with an ELISA and dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) mucin was determined with an enzyme linked DBA assay. RESULTS: A dose-dependent secretion of DBA mucin from PCHBE cells was observed with chymase with a maximum secretion of 98 % above baseline being achieved following 3 h incubation.The action of chymase started from 1 h, peaked at 3 h and dramatically decreased at 20 h following incubation.Chymase was able to also stimulate approximately 38 % increase in MUC5AC mucin release from PCHBE cells, and about 121% increase in DBA mucin release from NHBE cells. A chymase inhibitor soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI)was able to inhibit up to 85 % chymase induced mucin release, indicating that the enzymatic activity was essential for the actions of chymase on bronchial epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: Chymase is a potent stimulus of mucin secretion from human bronchial epithelial cells. It can contribute to mucus hypersecretion process in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.

  12. Intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma with atypical manifestations: Report of two cases

    Seung Eun Lee; Jin-Young Jang; Sung Hoon Yang; Sun-Whe Kim


    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are a well-characterized group of mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the clear malignant potential type. We report here two cases of intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC) with atypical manifestations. In one case, we discussed a pseudomyxoma peritonei caused by a ruptured IPMC. In the other case we discussed the fistulization of IPMC into the stomach and duodenum. These two cases suggest that IPMN can either spontaneously rupture causing mucinous materials to spill into the free abdominal cavity or directly invade adjacent organs resulting in fistula development.

  13. Profile of the intermolecular forces governing the interaction of drugs with mucin.

    Caron, Giulia; Visentin, Sonja; Pontremoli, Carlotta; Ermondi, Giuseppe


    The study highlights the balance of the intermolecular forces governing the interaction between drugs and mucin. The interaction strength is expressed as a retention factor k (data retrieved from the literature (Gargano et al., 2014)) obtained by a new bio-affinity chromatographic method in which the stationary phase is based on covalently immobilized mucin (porcine gastric mucin, PGM). A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) between logk and 82 VolSurf+ descriptors was established and mechanistically interpreted. Results evidence that all blocks contribute similarly to the model; moreover, hydrogen bonding donor (HBD) properties of solutes favor the interaction with mucin; and thus, support their detrimental role on drug permeability.

  14. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in a fistula-associated anal adenocarcinoma in a patient with long-standing Crohn's disease.

    Scharl, Michael; Frei, Pascal; Frei, Sandra M; Biedermann, Luc; Weber, Achim; Rogler, Gerhard


    Anal adenocarcinomas arising from perianal fistulae represent a rare complication in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We have previously demonstrated the involvement of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the pathogenesis of CD-associated fistulae. Although EMT has also been implicated in the development of colorectal and anal carcinoma, the molecular link from fistula to carcinoma is unclear. We present a case of a 48-year-old White woman who developed a mucinous anal adenocarcinoma originating from a perianal, CD-associated fistula 24 years after being diagnosed with CD. To characterize the expression of EMT-associated molecules in fistula and carcinoma tissue, immunohistochemical analysis for Snail1, Slug, β-catenin and E-cadherin was performed. A mucinous anal adenocarcinoma developed on a perianal fistula in a patient with long-standing CD. After neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, the fistula-associated tumour was resected and the patient is presently in remission. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we detected a remarkable staining of the Slug transcription factor in transitional cells lining the fistula tract. This observation is unique to this 'carcinoma'-fistula: we had previously shown Slug expression in cells surrounding the fistula tract but not in transitional cells. Expression of Snail1, β-catenin and E-cadherin in this case was comparable with our previous findings. We describe a rare case of a CD fistula-associated adenocarcinoma within an area of squamous epithelium of the perianal area and an unusual expression pattern of EMT markers in this fistula. This case seems to underline the relevance of our previous findings demonstrating that EMT plays an important role for fistula pathogenesis and likely carcinogenesis in CD patients.

  15. Engineered CAR T Cells Targeting the Cancer-Associated Tn-Glycoform of the Membrane Mucin MUC1 Control Adenocarcinoma

    Posey, Avery D; Schwab, Robert D; Boesteanu, Alina C


    Genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) demonstrate robust responses against lineage restricted, non-essential targets in hematologic cancers. However, in solid tumors, the full potential of CAR T cell therapy is limited by the availability of cell surface antige...

  16. Engineered CAR T Cells Targeting the Cancer-Associated Tn-Glycoform of the Membrane Mucin MUC1 Control Adenocarcinoma

    Posey, Avery D.; Schwab, Robert D.; Boesteanu, Alina C.; Steentoft, Catharina; Mandel, Ulla; Engels, Boris; Stone, Jennifer D.; Madsen, Thomas D.; Schreiber, Karin; Haines, Kathleen M.; Cogdill, Alexandria P.; Chen, Taylor J.; Song, Decheng; Scholler, John; Kranz, David M.; Feldman, Michael D.; Young, Regina; Keith, Brian; Schreiber, Hans; Clausen, Henrik; Johnson, Laura A.; June, Carl H.


    SUMMARY Genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) demonstrate robust responses against lineage restricted, non-essential targets in hematologic cancers. However, in solid tumors, the full potential of CAR T cell therapy is limited by the availability of cell surface antigens with sufficient cancer-specific expression. The majority of CAR targets have been normal self-antigens on dispensable hematopoietic tissues or overexpressed shared antigens. Here, we established that abnormal self-antigens can serve as targets for tumor rejection. We developed a CAR that recognized cancer-associated Tn glycoform of MUC1, a neoantigen expressed in a variety of cancers. Anti-Tn-MUC1 CAR T cells demonstrated target-specific cytotoxicity and successfully controlled tumor growth in xenograft models of T cell leukemia and pancreatic cancer. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of CAR T cells directed against Tn-MUC1 and present aberrantly glycosylated antigens as a novel class of targets for tumor therapy with engineered T cells. PMID:27332733

  17. Mucinous noncystic (colloid) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas%胰腺黏液性非囊性腺癌

    朱明华; 胡先贵; 倪灿荣; 张顺民; 席鹏程; 于观贞


    目的探讨胰腺黏液性非囊性腺癌的病理形态学特征和相关蛋白表达状态与生物学行为的关系.方法对249例胰腺外分泌癌中6例符合黏液性非囊性腺癌病例进行形态学观察,应用免疫组织化学EnVision法检测了p21ras、p21WAF1、p16、p33ING1、p53、ATM、MDM2、增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)和细胞周期蛋白(Cy)D1、D3、A、B和E的表达,AB-PAS染色观察细胞内外黏液分布,同时对6例进行生存期随访.结果 6例全部位于胰头部位,4例有十二指肠浸润, 2例肝转移, 2例局部淋巴结转移,1例周围神经浸润, 具有相似的组织学特征.免疫组织化学染色阳性为p21ras 5例,p21WAF1 3例,p16 1例,p33ING1 4例,p53 2例,ATM 3例,MDM2 3例,PCNA6例,CyA 3例,CyD1 3例,CyD3 4例,CyB 4例,CyE 6例.AB-PAS染色见细胞内、外黏液分布.随访结果2例死亡(分别为术后14、20个月),3例存活(分别为28、49、87个月),1例失访.结论胰腺黏液性非囊性腺癌具有一些独特的病理形态学特征和生物学行为,肿瘤细胞存在多种肿瘤相关蛋白的改变和细胞周期蛋白的过表达,显示较差的生物学行为和较强的侵袭能力,但预后可能比普通导管腺癌好.

  18. MLN0264 in Previously Treated Asian Participants With Advanced Gastrointestinal Carcinoma or Metastatic or Recurrent Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma Expressing Guanylyl Cyclase C


    Advanced Gastrointestinal Carcinoma; Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoma

  19. Giant star seismology

    Hekker, S


    The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-interrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.

  20. Spectrum of mucin-producing neoplastic conditions of the abdomen and pelvis: Cross-sectional imaging evaluation

    Nam Kyung Lee; Suk Kim; Hyun Sung Kim; Tae Yong Jeon; Gwang Ha Kim; Dong Uk Kim; Do Youn Park; Tae Un Kim; Dae Hwan Kang


    Various mucin-producing neoplasms originate in differ-ent abdominal and pelvic organs. Mucinous neoplasms differ from non-mucinous neoplasms because of the differences in clinical outcome and imaging appear-ance. Mucinous carcinoma, in which at least 50% of the tumor is composed of large pools of extracellular mucin and columns of malignant cells, is associated with a worse prognosis. Signet ring cell carcinoma is characterized by large intracytoplasmic mucin vacuoles that expand in the malignant cells with the nucleus displaced to the periphery. Its prognosis is also gener-ally poor. In contrast, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct and pancreas, which is characterized by proliferation of ductal epithelium and variable mucin production, has a better prognosis than other malignancies in the pancreaticobiliary tree. Im-aging modalities play a critical role in differentiating mucinous from non-mucinous neoplasms. Due to high water content, mucin has a similar appearance to wa-ter on ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging, except when thick and proteinaceous, and then it tends to be hypoechoic with fine internal echoes or have complex echogenicity on US, hyperdense on CT, and hyperintense on T1- and hypointense on T2-weighted images, compared to water. Therefore, knowledge of characteristic mucin imaging features is helpful to diagnose various mucin-producing neoplastic conditions and to facilitate appro-priate treatment.

  1. Baseline Goblet Cell Mucin Secretion in the Airways Exceeds Stimulated Secretion over Extended Time Periods, and Is Sensitive to Shear Stress and Intracellular Mucin Stores.

    Yunxiang Zhu

    Full Text Available Airway mucin secretion studies have focused on goblet cell responses to exogenous agonists almost to the exclusion of baseline mucin secretion (BLMS. In human bronchial epithelial cell cultures (HBECCs, maximal agonist-stimulated secretion exceeds baseline by ~3-fold as measured over hour-long periods, but mucin stores are discharged completely and require 24 h for full restoration. Hence, over 24 h, total baseline exceeds agonist-induced secretion by several-fold. Studies with HBECCs and mouse tracheas showed that BLMS is highly sensitive to mechanical stresses. Harvesting three consecutive 1 h baseline luminal incubations with HBECCs yielded equal rates of BLMS; however, lengthening the middle period to 72 h decreased the respective rate significantly, suggesting a stimulation of BLMS by the gentle washes of HBECC luminal surfaces. BLMS declined exponentially after washing HBECCs (t1/2 = 2.75 h, to rates approaching zero. HBECCs exposed to low perfusion rates exhibited spike-like increases in BLMS when flow was jumped 5-fold: BLMS increased >4 fold, then decreased within 5 min to a stable plateau at 1.5-2-fold over control. Higher flow jumps induced proportionally higher BLMS increases. Inducing mucous hyperplasia in HBECCs increased mucin production, BLMS and agonist-induced secretion. Mouse tracheal BLMS was ~6-fold higher during perfusion, than when flow was stopped. Munc13-2 null mouse tracheas, with their defect of accumulated cellular mucins, exhibited similar BLMS as WT, contrary to predictions of lower values. Graded mucous metaplasia induced in WT and Munc13-2 null tracheas with IL-13, caused proportional increases in BLMS, suggesting that naïve Munc13-2 mouse BLMS is elevated by increased mucin stores. We conclude that BLMS is, [i] a major component of mucin secretion in the lung, [ii] sustained by the mechanical activity of a dynamic lung, [iii] proportional to levels of mucin stores, and [iv] regulated differentially from agonist

  2. PAX2, PAX8 and CDX2 Expression in Metastatic Mucinous, Primary Ovarian Mucinous and Seromucinous Tumors and Review of the Literature.

    Ates Ozdemir, D; Usubutun, A


    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecologic cancer death. Both morphologically and immunohistochemically, metastatic mucinous tumors are the best mimickers of mucinous ovarian tumors; its pathogenesis still remains a mystery. PAX2 and PAX8 immunohisyochemistries are useful for differentiating numerous primary tumour types from metastatic ones. There are few studies in literature about PAX expressions in mucinous and seromucinous tumors. None of these are takes into account the histologic type (whether it is seromucinous or mucinous) or the metastatic origin. With this purpose hematoxylin and eosine slides of ovarian mucinous and seromucinous tumors were re-evaluated and one block was chosen for each case. The study included 76 ovarian mucinous and seromucinous tumors of the ovary reported in Hacettepe University department of pathology between 2000 and 2013. Tissue microarray (TMA) was designed from the chosen blocks, PAX2, PAX8, CDX2 immunostains was preformed to the TMA slides. As a result, most of the metastatic cases were negative for PAX2 (91.2 %) and PAX8 (86.3 %), many were diffusely and strongly positive for CDX2 (68.2 %). Seromucinous tumors were devoid of CDX2 expression; but all cases (except one) displayed strong and diffuse positivity with PAX8. In other words differing from mucinous tumors, seromucinous tumors show strong PAX8 positivity-similar to serous tumors. This study shows that PAX8 and CDX2 could be useful in differentiating primary mucinous from metastatic tumor. Furthermore unlike the homogeneity in seromucinous tumors for PAX8 and CDX2 mucinous tumors shows heterogeneity with different expression patterns.

  3. Multidisciplinary management of colorectal adenocarcinoma associated with anal fistula: an Indian series.

    Pai, V D; Jatal, S; Engineer, R; Ostwal, V; Saklani, A P


    Adenocarcinomas associated with anal fistula are rare and often present at an advanced stage. They are often mistaken for commonly occurring benign diseases, leading to delayed diagnosis. Previous reports have predicted inferior oncological outcomes for these cases compared with sporadic rectal cancers. We are presenting our series of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma associated with anal fistula who were treated with multimodality therapy at a tertiary cancer centre in India. This was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of patients treated at our centre between 1 July 2013 and 31 March 2015. Of the 15 patients included in the study, 11 had prior intervention in the form of seton placement or fistulotomy. Fourteen patients had circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement at initial workup and hence were given neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT). None of the patients had distant metastasis and only 15% had regional nodal involvement. All 13 patients included in the final analysis underwent abdominoperineal excision (APE). Ten patients (73%) underwent extralevator APE. Plastic reconstruction in the form of a V-Y advancement flap for perineal closure was required in six patients (46%). On histopathological examination, a mucinous component was found to be present in 11 patients (73%). The quality of total mesorectal excision was complete in 92% patients. The CRM was free in 92% of patients. Median overall survival and disease-free survival were not reached. Colorectal adenocarcinomas associated with fistula are locally aggressive malignancies with a low incidence of lymph node involvement and distant metastasis. NACRT, wider resection in the form of extralevator APE, and liberal use of plastic reconstruction may result in favourable outcomes. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Decreased expression of the GATA3 gene is associated with poor prognosis in primary gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Rajiv Prasad Keshari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3 was recently proposed to function as a tumor suppressor gene in some types of human cancer. This study aims to investigate GATA3 expression and its prognostic significance in primary gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical staining methods, GATA3 expression was analyzed in tissue samples from a consecutive series of 402 gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent resections between 2003 and 2006. The relationship between GATA3 expression, clinicopathological factors, and patient survival was investigated. The expression status of GATA3 was shown to be clearly reduced in the tumor tissue samples compared with that in the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue samples by RT-qPCR (P = 0.0014. Immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that GATA3 expression was significantly decreased in 225 of the 402 (56% gastric adenocarcinoma cases. Reduced GATA3 expression was also observed in patients with large tumors (P = 0.017, signet ring cell carcinoma or mucinous carcinoma (P = 0.005 and tumors with lymphatic or venous invasion (P = 0.040. Additionally, reduced expression of GATA3 was more commonly observed in tumors that were staged as T4a/b (P<0.001, N3 (P<0.001, or M1 (P<0.001. Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that reduced expression of GATA3 was associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients (P<0.001. Multivariate Cox analysis identified GATA3 expression as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 5.375, 95% CI = 3.647-7.921, P<0.001. To investigate the predictive ability of the models with and without containing GATA3 gene expression, Harrell's c-index was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy of survival outcome. The c-index values revealed that model containing GATA3 expression (c-index = 0.897 had superior discrimination ability to the model without containg it (c-index = 0

  5. Preoperative evaluation of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Khanna, Lauren G; Gress, Frank G


    The preoperative evaluation of oesophageal adenocarcinoma involves endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET). With routine Barrett's oesophagus surveillance, superficial cancers are often identified. EUS, CT and PET have a limited role in the staging of superficial tumours. Standard EUS has limited accuracy, but high frequency ultrasound miniprobes are valuable for assessing tumour stage in superficial tumours. However, the best method for determining depth of invasion, and thereby stage of disease, is endoscopic mucosal resection. In contrast, in advanced oesophageal cancers, a multi-modality approach is crucial. Accurate tumour staging is very important since the treatment of advanced cancers involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. EUS is very useful for staging of the tumour and nodes. High frequency ultrasound miniprobes provide the ability to perform staging when the lesion is obstructing the oesophageal lumen. CT and PET provide valuable information regarding node and metastasis staging.

  6. [An unusual secondary localization of bronchial adenocarcinoma].

    Mirallie, E; Courant, O; Sagan, C; Letessier, E; Paineau, J; Visset, J


    The authors report a rare case of metastatic carcinoma of the large bowel, secondary to a primary bronchogenic adenocarcinoma. Abdominal pain developed in a 44-year old man 5 months after lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis of a large caecal extraluminal mass was established by means of sonography, scanner and laparoscopy. Palliative resection (brain metastases) was performed. Postoperative histological examination revealed the resected tumor to be identical to the lung adenocarcinoma. The patient eventually died 4 months after resection (complication of intracranial hypertension). Diagnosis and therapeutic features of metastatic extra-thoracic lung carcinoma are discussed.

  7. [Why oesophageal adenocarcinoma is occurring more frequently].

    Doorakkers, Eva; Brusselaers, Nele


    The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased rapidly over the past decades in the Western world. The prognosis is poor with a mean 5-year survival rate of 19% in the Netherlands. Important risk factors that might account for this rising incidence are reflux, obesity and the absence of Helicobacter pylori. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is 9 times more likely in men than in women. The reason for this much higher incidence of adenocarcinoma in men is still unclear, but sex hormones may play a role.

  8. MicroRNA expression profiles associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ampullary adenocarcinoma

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Werner, Jens; Willenbrock, Hanni;


    MicroRNAs have potential as diagnostic cancer biomarkers. The aim of this study was (1) to define microRNA expression patterns in formalin-fixed parafin-embedded tissue from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, ampullary adenocarcinoma, normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis without using micro......, normal pancreas and duodenal adenocarcinoma. In all, 43 microRNAs had higher and 41 microRNAs reduced expression in pancreatic cancer compared with normal pancreas. In all, 32 microRNAs were differently expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared with chronic pancreatitis (17 higher; 15 reduced......-dissection and (2) to discover new diagnostic microRNAs and combinations of microRNAs in cancer tissue. The expression of 664 microRNAs in tissue from 170 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and 107 ampullary adenocarcinomas were analyzed using a commercial microRNA assay. Results were compared with chronic pancreatitis...

  9. "Ductal adenocarcinoma in anular pancreas".

    Benassai, Giacomo; Perrotta, Stefano; Furino, Ermenegildo; De Werra, Carlo; Aloia, Sergio; Del Giudice, Roberto; Amato, Bruno; Vigliotti, Gabriele; Limite, Gennaro; Quarto, Gennaro


    The annular pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue partially or completely surrounds the second portion of the duodenum. Its often located above of papilla of Vater (85%), rarely below (15%). This pancreatic tissue is often easily dissociable to the duodenum but there is same cases where it the tissue is into the muscolaris wall of the duodenum. We describe three case of annular pancreas hospitalized in our facility between January 2004 and January 2009. There were 2 male 65 and 69 years old respectively and 1 female of 60 years old, presented complaining of repeated episodes of mild epigastric pain. Laboratory tests (including tumor markers), a direct abdomen X-ray with enema, EGDS and total body CT scan were performed to study to better define the diagnosis. EUS showed the presence of tissue infiltrating the muscle layer all around the first part of duodenum. Biopsies performed found the presence of pancreatic tissue with focal areas of adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy with Roux was performed. The histological examinations shows an annular pancreas of D1 with multiple focal area of adenocarcinoma. (T1aN0M0). We performed a follow up at 5 years. One patients died after 36 months for cardiovascular hit. Two patients, one male and one female, was 5-years disease-free. Annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly which usually presents itself in infants and newborn. Rarely it can present in late adult life with wide range of clinical severities thereby making its diagnosis difficult. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. CT scan can illustrate the pancreatic tissue encircling the duodenum. ERCP and MRCP are useful in outlining the annular pancreatic duct. Surgery still remains necessary to confirm diagnosis and bypassing the obstructed segment. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is genomically distinct from invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type.

    Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Suarez, Paula H; MacKay, Alan; Lambros, Maryou B; Natrajan, Rachael; Savage, Kay; Geyer, Felipe C; Weigelt, Britta; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S


    Mucinous carcinomas are a rare entity accounting for up to 2% of all breast cancers, which have been shown to display a gene expression profile distinct from that of invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). Here, we have defined the genomic aberrations that are characteristic of this special type of breast cancer and have investigated whether mucinous carcinomas might constitute a genomic entity distinct from IDC-NSTs. Thirty-five pure and 11 mixed mucinous breast carcinomas were assessed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, cyclin D1, cortactin, Bcl-2, p53, E-cadherin, basal markers, neuroendocrine markers, and WT1. Fifteen pure mucinous carcinomas and 30 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs were microdissected and subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, the distinct components of seven mixed mucinous carcinomas were microdissected separately and subjected to aCGH. Pure mucinous carcinomas consistently expressed ER (100%), lacked HER2 expression (97.1%), and showed a relatively low level of genetic instability. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that pure mucinous carcinomas were homogeneous and preferentially clustered together, separately from IDC-NSTs. They less frequently harboured gains of 1q and 16p and losses of 16q and 22q than grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and no pure mucinous carcinoma displayed concurrent 1q gain and 16q loss, a hallmark genetic feature of low-grade IDC-NSTs. Finally, both components of all but one mixed mucinous carcinoma displayed similar patterns of genetic aberrations and preferentially clustered together with pure mucinous carcinomas on unsupervised clustering analysis. Our results demonstrate that mucinous carcinomas are more homogeneous between themselves at the genetic level than IDC-NSTs. Both components of mixed mucinous tumours are remarkably similar at the

  11. Mucins as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in a fish-parasite model: transcriptional and functional analysis.

    Jaume Pérez-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Mucins are O-glycosylated glycoproteins present on the apex of all wet-surfaced epithelia with a well-defined expression pattern, which is disrupted in response to a wide range of injuries or challenges. The aim of this study was to identify mucin gene sequences of gilthead sea bream (GSB, to determine its pattern of distribution in fish tissues and to analyse their transcriptional regulation by dietary and pathogenic factors. Exhaustive search of fish mucins was done in GSB after de novo assembly of next-generation sequencing data hosted in the IATS transcriptome database ( Six sequences, three categorized as putative membrane-bound mucins and three putative secreted-gel forming mucins, were identified. The transcriptional tissue screening revealed that Muc18 was the predominant mucin in skin, gills and stomach of GSB. In contrast, Muc19 was mostly found in the oesophagus and Muc13 was along the entire intestinal tract, although the posterior intestine exhibited a differential pattern with a high expression of an isoform that does not share a clear orthologous in mammals. This mucin was annotated as intestinal mucin (I-Muc. Its RNA expression was highly regulated by the nutritional background, whereas the other mucins, including Muc2 and Muc2-like, were expressed more constitutively and did not respond to high replacement of fish oil (FO by vegetable oils (VO in plant protein-based diets. After challenge with the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei, the expression of a number of mucins was decreased mainly in the posterior intestine of infected fish. But, interestingly, the highest down-regulation was observed for the I-Muc. Overall, the magnitude of the changes reflected the intensity and progression of the infection, making mucins and I-Muc, in particular, reliable markers of prognostic and diagnostic value of fish intestinal health.

  12. Immunohistochemistry in the Diagnosis of Mucinous Neoplasms Involving the Ovary: The Added Value of SATB2 and Biomarker Discovery Through Protein Expression Database Mining.

    Strickland, Sarah; Wasserman, Jason K; Giassi, Ana; Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos


    Immunohistochemistry is frequently used to identify ovarian mucinous neoplasms as primary or metastatic; however, there is significant overlap in expression patterns. We compared traditional markers (CK7, CK20, CDX2, PAX8, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC) to 2 novel proteins identified through mining of the Human Protein Atlas expression database: SATB2 and POF1B. The study cohort included 49 primary gastrointestinal (GI) mucinous adenocarcinomas (19 colorectal, 15 gastric, 15 pancreatobiliary), 60 primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms (19 cystadenomas, 21 borderline tumors, 20 adenocarcinomas), and 19 metastatic carcinomas to the ovary (14 lower and 5 upper GI primaries). Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays, scored and interpreted as negative (absent or focal/weak) or positive. Metastatic tumors were frequently unilateral (42.8% of tumors from lower and 40% of tumors from upper tract) and ≥10 cm (85.7% of tumors from lower and 80% of tumors from upper tract). CK7 was positive in 88.5% upper GI and 88.3% primary ovarian compared with 24.3% lower GI neoplasms. CK20 and CDX2 were positive in 84.8% and 100% of lower GI tumors, respectively; however, expression was also common in upper GI (CK20 42.8%, CDX2 50%) and primary ovarian neoplasms (CK20 65.7%, CDX2 38.3%). Conversely, SATB2 was more specific for lower GI origin, being positive in 78.8% lower GI but only 11.5% upper GI and 1.7% primary ovarian neoplasms. PAX8 expression was common in primary ovarian neoplasms (75% of all neoplasms, 65% of carcinomas); only 1 (1.5%) GI tumor was positive. MUC2 and β-catenin were frequently positive in lower GI tumors (96.9% and 51.5%, respectively). Estrogen receptor expression was only seen in primary ovarian neoplasms (13.3%). Nuclear premature ovarian failure 1B (POF1B) expression was seen in malignant tumors regardless of their origin. A panel including CK7, SATB2, and PAX8 separated primary from secondary GI neoplasms with up to

  13. Lessons from McCune-Albright syndrome-associated intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: : GNAS-activating mutations in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

    Parvanescu, Alina; Cros, Jérôme; Ronot, Maxime; Hentic, Olivia; Grybek, Virginie; Couvelard, Anne; Levy, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Sauvanet, Alain; Gaujoux, Sebastien


    GNAS-activating mutations are reported in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and in McCune-Albright syndrome, characterized by fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, and café au lait spots. Recently, IPMNs have been described as a McCune-Albright syndrome-associated tumor, present in about 15% of patients. The aim of the present work was to assess the prevalence of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and McCune-Albright syndrome among patients operated on for presumptive sporadic IPMNs. All patients operated on for IPMNs between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012, with available imaging were retrospectively screened for polyostotic fibrous dysplasia based on their preoperative abdominal or thoracoabdominal spiral computed tomography images. Systematic screening of 272 patients operated on for IPMNs revealed 1 patient with axial and peripheral polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and café au lait spots on clinical examination suggestive of McCune-Albright syndrome. This patient had been operated on for an unusually large invasive colloid adenocarcinoma (pT3N0M0 R0) derived from an intestinal subtype GNAS-mutated IPMN. The patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine for 6 months and was alive without recurrence 6 years later. Besides providing additional evidence of a syndromic IPMN as a feature of McCune-Albright syndrome, this observation is further evidence of the functional oncogenic consequences of GNAS mutations in the pancreas.

  14. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Vipul Yagnik


    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  15. [Giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma].

    Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; El Messaoudi, Yasser Arafat; Fekak, Hamid; Rabii, Redouane; Marnissi, Farida; Karkouri, Mehdi; Salam, Siham; Iraki, Moulay Ahmed; Joual, Abdenbi; Meziane, Fathi


    The authors report a case of giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma. The diagnosis was suspected after scanography and magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by the histological analysis of the extracted piece after surgical treatment. Postoperative evolution was favourable after one year without recurrence or distant metastasis. The authors discuss the pathologic and therapeutic aspects and the prognosis of retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

  16. Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Kølle, Stig-Frederik Trojahn


    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) occur in 1:20,000 livebirths and are associated with increased risk of malignant transformation. The treatment of GCMN from 1981 to 2010 in a tertiary referral center was reviewed evaluating the modalities used, cosmetic results, associated complications...

  17. Waking the Sleeping Giant

    Ollenburger, Mary H.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Crane, Todd A.; Sanogo, Ousmane M.; Giller, Ken E.


    The World Bank argued that West Africa's Guinea Savannah zone forms part of “Africa's Sleeping Giant,” where increases in agricultural production could be an engine of economic growth, through expansion of cultivated land in sparsely populated areas. The district of Bougouni, in southern Mali,

  18. Rare coexistence of sarcoidosis and lung adenocarcinoma

    Amit Girish Kachalia


    Conclusion: While evidence is still lacking regarding association between sarcoidosis and lung adenocarcinoma, it is important for clinicians to exclude metastatic malignancy in patients exhibiting clinical and radiographic findings consistent with sarcoidosis.

  19. Mixed Mucinous and Infiltrating Carcinoma Occurring in Male Breast- Study of Clinico-Pathological Features: A Rare Case Report.

    Gupta, Kavita; Sharma, Swati; Kudva, Ranjini; Kumar, Sandeep


    Mucinous carcinoma is a less common histologic variant of breast cancer. Cases of mucinous carcinomas in male breast are extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of mixed mucinous carcinoma i.e. mucinous carcinoma with infiltrating ductal carcinoma component and showing apocrine differentiation in a 73-year-old man. This uncommon tumour entity has dismal prognosis and treatment depends largely on the tumour type, size, lymph node involvement and hormonal status.

  20. MUC5B is the major mucin in the gel phase of sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Kirkham, S.; Kolsum, U.; Rousseau, K.;


    RATIONALE: Overproduction of mucus is a contributory factor in the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The polymeric mucins are major macromolecules in the secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that the polymeric mucin composition or properties may be different in the spu......RATIONALE: Overproduction of mucus is a contributory factor in the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The polymeric mucins are major macromolecules in the secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that the polymeric mucin composition or properties may be different...

  1. Regulation of human corneal epithelial mucins by rebamipide.

    Itoh, Shinsaku; Itoh, Kuni; Shinohara, Hisashi


    Membrane-associated mucins (MAMs) play important roles in barrier function and tear stability, and their expression on the ocular surface is altered in dry eye disease. Rebamipide is a mucin secretagogue that promotes the production of mucin-like glycoproteins in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. However, the expression of MAMs on the corneal epithelia (MUC1, MUC4, MUC16), which is induced by rebamipide, is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of rebamipide on the regulation of MAM expression in HCE cells. MUC16, Ki67 and PCNA expression levels in HCE cells isolated at confluence and at 24 hours after confluence were examined by Western blotting to assess cell proliferation. HCE cells isolated at 24 hours after confluence were cultured in medium supplemented with 1-10 µM rebamipide or 0.3-30 nM of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis of MAMs were performed to evaluate the effect of rebamipide. Western blot analysis of cells treated with an EGF receptor inhibitor (AG1478) or MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) was performed to reveal the relationship between EGF receptor activation and rebamipide-induced MAM expression. HCE cells isolated at 24 hours after confluence had lower cell proliferation activity and increased MUC16 expression compared with cells isolated at confluence. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that rebamipide increased MAM gene expression for 2 hours and protein expression for 24 hours in HCE cells. EGF inhibitor treatment led to reduced levels of all three MAMs that are normally induced by rebamipide, whereas EGF induced the expression of all three MAMs. We suggested that rebamipide increased MUC1, MUC4 and MUC16 expression levels through signals involved in EGF receptor activation in the human corneal epithelia. These data suggest that rebamipide may improve subjective symptoms of dry eye disease by upregulating MAM expression.

  2. Ultrasonographic findings of pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast

    Seon, Hyun Ju; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Hak Hee [University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To identify the ultrasonographic findings characteristic of pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast. We reviewed the sonographic findings of 18 nodules in 15 patients which were diagnosed as pure mucinous breast carcinoma during surgery from January, 1995 to May, 2003. We analyzed the location, size, shape, orientation, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, and posterior acoustic features of the nodules, as well as changes of the surrounding tissue, associated calcification, axillary lymph nodes, and cystic changes in the tumor masses. All the patients were female. We also analyzed the preoperative mammographic findings of the 8 nodules that were available. The upper inner or upper outer quadrants of the breast were the most common involved sites. The longest diameter of the tumors was between 0.6 and 5.4 (mean, 2.1) cm. The ovoid shape was most frequently found(n=14), followed by round (n=2) and, irregular (n=2) shapes. Tumor margins were more commonly well-demarcated(n=10), followed by obscured (n=8) margins. Most lesions had parallel orientations (n=16) and abruptinterfaces (n=12). The internal echogenicity was most commonly complex (n=9) followed by hypoechogenicity(n=6). Most masses showed posterior acoustic enhancement (n=16), associated with posterior acoustic shadowing in 5 cases. Associated architectural distortion was seen in 3 cases. Microcalcification was associated in 3 cases. Enlarged axillary lymph nodes were associated in 2 cases. Nine masses showed cystic change in the mass. On mammography, the masses were mostly well-defined (n=3) or obscured (n=3) or, ovoid (n=6) or of a high density (n=5). On sonography, most mucinous breast carcinoma presented as a well-demarcated ovoid complex echoic mass with cystic change, and these characteristics were associated with posterior acoustic enhancement and abrupt interface.

  3. Primaert mucinøst karcinom i huden--en oversigt over litteraturen

    Breiting, Line Bro; Christensen, Lise; Dahlstrøm, Karin;


    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PKMK) is a rare malignant tumour of the sweat glands. It is often misdiagnosed as it has an uncharacteristic gross appearance - and may microscopically resemble a cutaneous metastasis from a mucinous carcinoma of the breast, gastrointestinal tract, lungs...

  4. Identification of new cancer biomarkers based on aberrant mucin glycoforms by in situ proximity ligation

    Pinto, Rita; Carvalho, Ana S; Conze, Tim


    Mucin glycoproteins are major secreted or membrane-bound molecules that, in cancer, show modifications in both the mucin proteins expression and in the O-glycosylation profile, generating some of the most relevant tumour markers in clinical use for decades. Thus far, the identification of these b...

  5. Mucin aggregation from a rod-like meso-scale model

    Moreno, Nicolas; Perilla, Jairo E.; Colina, Coray M.; Lísal, Martin


    Dissipative particle dynamics, a meso-scale particle-based model, was used to study the aggregation of mucins in aqueous solutions. Concentration, strength of the mucin-water interactions, as well as the effects of size, shape, and composition of the model molecules were studied. Model proteins were represented as rod-like objects formed by coarse-grained beads. In the first model, only one type of beads formed the mucin. It was found that all the surfaces were available to form aggregates and the conformation of the aggregates was a function of the strength of the mucin-water interaction. With this model, the number of aggregates was unaffected by the initial position of the mucins in the simulation box, except for the lowest mucin concentration. In a more refined mucin model, two kinds of beads were used in the molecule in order to represent the existence of cysteine-like terminal groups in the actual molecule. With this new scheme, aggregation took place by the interaction of the terminal groups between model molecules. The kinetic analysis of the evolution of the number of aggregates with time was also studied for both mucin models.

  6. Effect of reserpine on the histochemical and biochemical properties of rat intestinal mucin

    Forstner, J.; Roomi, N.; Khorasani, R.; Kuhns, W.; Forstner, G. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, (Canada))


    Biochemical and histochemical parameters of intestinal mucins were examined in control and reserpine-treated rats. An assay for intestinal mucin sulfotransferase was developed and the activity shown to increase 3.4 times over control levels in rats given intraperitonal reserpine (0.5 mg/kg body wt) daily for 7 days. Histochemical staining of intestinal sections revealed an increase in sulfomucins in goblet cells of reserpine-treated rats. The effects were prominent as early as 1 day following injection, particularly in the distal third of the small intestine, and during the next 6 days these changes spread progressively to the middle and proximal thirds. After 3 days of treatment mucins were purified from each intestinal segment and compared to control mucins with respect to composition and (35S)NaSO{sub 4} incorporation. Although individual amino acid and carbohydrate molar ratios were unchanged, the total carbohydrate and sulfate content of mucins in treated animals was elevated (two to three times above control) in the middle and distal thirds of the intestine. In vivo ({sup 35}S)SO{sub 4} incorporation into these mucins was also proportionaltely elevated, and was targetted to O-linked oligosaccharide side chains. These findings are consistent with an action of reserpine causing an increased production of mucin which is enriched in glycoprotein components bearing sulfated oligosaccharide chains. The relevance of these findings to the production of hypersulfated and hyperglycosylated mucins in cystic fibrosis is discussed.

  7. X-ray and ultrasound semiotics of mucinous carcinoma of the breast

    K. A. Lesko


    Full Text Available The article describes the main epidemiological, clinical and morphological diagnostic features of one of the rare breast cancer form – mucinous carcinoma of the breast. Current scientific data are followed by the results of own research the 9-year period of research.Authors draw attention to the very complex radiology peculiarities of the mucinous carcinoma of the breast.

  8. Comparison of breast cancer mucin (BCM) and CA 15-3 in human breast cancer

    Garcia, M.B.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Wall, E. van der; Nortier, J.W.R.; Schornagel, J.H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.


    The Breast Cancer Mucin (BCM) enzyme immunoassay utilizes two monoclonal antibodies (Mab), M85/34 and F36/22, for the identification of a mucin-like glycoprotein in serum of breast cancer patients. We have compared BCM with CA 15-3, another member of the human mammary epithelial antigen

  9. Mucinous subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma.

    Monsefi, Nahid; Nikpour, Hossein; Safavi, Moienadin; Lashkarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Dabiri, Shahriar


    Fibroadenoma is a common benign tumor observed during the second and third decades of life. Malignancy transformation in the epithelial component of a fibroadenoma is rare and can occur 20 years after its diagnosis. Mammographic findings in this phenomenon include indistinct margins and microcalcifications. Here we present a 58-year-old woman with a mobile, lateral upper quadrant mass that was rather firm when palpated. The mammography showed a lobulated mass without calcification suggestive of a benign process, most probably fibroadenoma. However the excisional biopsy contained both an intracanalicular fibroadenoma and invasive ductal carcinoma with mucinous components.

  10. Subnuclear globules in simple mucinous glands of the gastrointestinal tract

    Holck, Susanne; Ingeholm, P.


    Pyloric and duodenal Brunner glands may be the site of a peculiar cytoplasmic change characterized by clear vacuoles or glassy eosinophilic globules, occupying a subnuclear position with displacement of the nuclei towards the lumenal surface. To our knowledge this previously documented,5,6 althou...... rarely described cellular phenomenon has not previously been recorded in extrapyloric/duodenal sites. During a 5-year period, we have noticed 3 such cases involving the simple gastrointestinal mucinous glands, 2 of which occurring in sites outsides the pylorus and duodenum....

  11. Investigation of the surface adsorption and biotribological properties of mucins

    Madsen, Jan Busk

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear, adhesion and lubrication. Biotribology covers all aspects of tribology that are related to biological systems. Most organisms face tribological challenges where increased friction is often desirable, such as walking, gripping and lifting objects or adhering...... impacts their adsorption- and tribological properties in comparison to either no purification or mildly purifying dialysis treatment. We show that the properties of the mucins are influenced by the presence of other biomolecules. Bovine serum albumin was determined to be the main protein contaminant...

  12. Eosinophilic Mucin Otomastoiditis and Otopolyposis: A Progressive Form of Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Westra, William; Prasad, Sanjay


    The purpose of this study is to introduce and define a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media: eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis and otopolyposis. A case of a 66-year-old woman with complicated chronic otitis media is reported. A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's online database, with a focus on eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis, was performed. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and chronic otitis media who presented with allergic middle ear mucin and otic polyps. Treatment involved a tympanomastoidectomy with removal of otic polyps and steroid therapy. Eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis with otopolyposis is a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media. This disease process shares similarities with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis. Otic polypectomy and steroids are suggested therapeutic measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Molecular structure and Equilibrium forces of bovine submaxillary mucin adsorbed at a solid-liquid interface

    Zappone, Bruno; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Madsen, Jan Busk;


    By combining dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface force apparatus, the conformation of bovine submaxillary mucin in dilute solution and nanomechanical properties of mucin layers adsorbed on mica have been investigated. The samples were...... prepared by additional chromatographic purification of commercially available products. The mucin molecule was found to have a z-average hydrodynamic diameter of ca. 35 nm in phosphate buffered solution, without any particular secondary or tertiary structure. The contour length of the mucin is larger than......, yet of the same order of magnitude as the diameter, indicating that the molecule can be modeled as a relatively rigid polymeric chain due to the large persistence length of the central glycosylated domain. Mucin molecules adsorbed abundantly onto mica from saline buffer, generating polymer-like, long...

  14. Cytopathological Analysis of Cyst Fluid Enhances Diagnostic Accuracy of Mucinous Pancreatic Cystic Neoplasms.

    Utomo, Wesley K; Braat, Henri; Bruno, Marco J; van Eijck, Casper H J; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Krak, Nanda C; van de Vreede, Adriaan; Fuhler, Gwenny M; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Biermann, Katharina


    Widespread use of cross-sectional imaging and increasing age of the general population has increased the number of detected pancreatic cystic lesions. However, several pathological entities with a variety in malignant potential have to be discriminated to allow clinical decision making. Discrimination between mucinous pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) and nonmucinous pancreatic lesions is the primary step in the clinical work-up, as malignant transformation is mostly associated with mucinous PCN. We performed a retrospective analysis of all resected PCN in our tertiary center from 2000 to 2014, to evaluate preoperative diagnostic performance and the results of implementation of the consensus guidelines over time. This was followed by a prospective cohort study of patients with an undefined pancreatic cyst, where the added value of cytopathological mucin evaluation to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in cyst fluid for the discrimination of mucinous PCN and nonmucinous cysts was investigated. Retrospective analysis showed 115 patients operated for a PCN, with a correct preoperative classification in 96.2% of the patients. High-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma was observed in only 32.3% of mucinous PCN. In our prospective cohort (n = 71), 57.7% of patients were classified as having a mucinous PCN. CEA ≥ 192 ng/mL had an accuracy of 63.4%, and cytopathological mucin evaluation an accuracy of 73.0%. Combining these 2 tests further improved diagnostic accuracy of a mucinous PCN to 76.8%. CEA level and mucin evaluation were not predictive of the degree of dysplasia. These findings show that adding cytopathology to cyst fluid biochemistry improves discrimination between mucinous PCN and nonmucinous cysts.

  15. Mucin-electrolyte interactions at the solid-liquid interface probed by QCM-D.

    Feldötö, Zsombor; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Dedinaite, Andra


    The interaction between mucin and ions has been investigated by employing the quartz crystal microbalance technique with measurement of energy dissipation. The study was partially aimed at understanding the adsorption of mucin on surfaces with different chemistry, and for this purpose, surfaces exposing COOH, OH, and CH(3) groups were prepared. Mucin adsorbed to all three types of functionalized gold surfaces. Adsorption to the hydrophobic surface and to the charged hydrophilic surface (COOH) occured with high affinity despite the fact that in the latter case both mucin and the surface were negatively charged. On the uncharged hydrophilic surface exposing OH groups, the adsorption of mucin was very low. Another aim was to elucidate conformational changes induced by electrolytes on mucin layers adsorbed on hydrophobic surfaces from 30 mM NaNO(3). To this end, we investigated the effect of three electrolytes with increasing cation valance: NaCl, CaCl(2) and LaCl(3). At low NaCl concentrations, the preadsorbed layer expands, whereas at higher concentrations of NaCl the layer becomes more compact. This swelling/compacting of the mucin layer is fully reversible for NaCl. When the mucin layer instead is exposed to CaCl(2) or LaCl(3), compaction is observed at 1 mM. For CaCl(2), this process is only partially reversible, and for LaCl(3), the changes are irreversible within the time frame of the experiment. Finally, mucin interaction with the DTAB cationic surfactant in an aqueous solution of different electrolytes was evaluated with turbidimetry measurements. It is concluded that the electrolytes used in this work screen the association between mucin and DTAB and that the effect increases with increasing cation valency.

  16. Middle ear adenoma. A tumor displaying mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation.

    Wassef, M; Kanavaros, P; Polivka, M; Nemeth, J; Monteil, J P; Frachet, B; Tran Ba Huy, P


    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a distinctive, rare entity that appears to be derived from the lining epithelium of the middle ear mucosa. We report four cases of MEA displaying the typical histologic growth pattern. Two distinct tumor cell immunophenotypes were identified in all cases; the first type exhibited positivity with anti-epithelial membrane antigen and anti-keratin antibodies, and the second type showed immunoreactivity with anti-keratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-neuron-specific enolase antibodies. Ultrastructural studies revealed bidirectional mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation, demonstrated by the presence of two distinct cell types containing apically located mucous granules and basally concentrated neuroendocrine granules, respectively. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation was supported by the immunohistochemical detection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the tumor cells in one case and neuron-specific enolase in three cases. These findings suggest that the potential for mixed mucinous/neuroendocrine differentiation described in other endodermally derived tumors also exists in middle ear mucosa. We also believe that the rare lesions diagnosed as primary carcinoid tumors of the middle ear might in fact be MEA with predominant or only neuroendocrine differentiation. The clinical course of our four cases and our review of the pertinent literature confirm the benign nature of MEA and indicate that these tumors should be treated by complete local excision without additional therapy.

  17. CT features of malignant mucinous cystic tumors of the pancreas

    Procacci, C.; Carbognin, G.; Biasiutti, C.; Guarise, A.; Ghirardi, C.; Graziani, R.; Pagnotta, N. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Verona (Italy); Accordini, S.; De Marco, R. [Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Verona (Italy); Lombardo, F. [Dept. of Radiology, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)


    This study is aimed at evaluating which pre-operative findings at CT are prevailingly associated with histologically malignant appearance of mucinous cystic tumor (MCT) of the pancreas. The CT examinations of 52 female patients affected with pathologically proved MCT were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists, blinded to the histopathological assessment of the biologic behavior (either benign or malignant). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify the most important features associated with the malignant nature of MCT. Calcifications in the wall and/or in the septa, thick wall, and septations resulted in the most important features associated with malignancy. The simultaneous presence of all these radiological signs constitutes an almost ''certain'' marker of malignancy, being the risk equal to 0.95, whereas the simultaneous presence of at least two of them entails a risk of malignancy ranging from 0.56 to 0.74, according to the type of morphological features. On the other hand, the absence of the mentioned radiological features entails a negligible risk of malignancy (0.02). Mucinous cystic tumors characterized by multilocular macrocystic architecture, with thick wall and calcifications in the wall and/or the septa, present the highest risk of malignancy, and advocate prompt surgical intervention. When those signs are absent, the probability of malignancy is lower. In this case a non-operative management is possible. (orig.)

  18. Urothelial-Type adenocarcinoma of the prostate mimicking metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Brian P. Adley


    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma arising in urinary bladder or prostatic urethra is uncommon. When they occur, the tumor can be mistaken for metastatic lesions, especially from the colon. Here we report the fifth case of a primary urothelial-type adenocarcinoma arising in the prostate which showed enteric differentiation. The patient was a 55 year-old male whose prostatic needle core biopsy showed a high grade adenocarcinoma which was initially thought to be metastatic colon cancer. A follow-up colonoscopy was unremarkable. Subsequent prostatectomy revealed a high grade adenocarcinoma which was positive for cytokeratins 7 and 20, carcinoembryonic antigen, CDX2, and high molecular weight cytokeratin, and negative for prostate specific antigen, prostate specific acid phosphatase and AMACR. A diagnosis of urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of the prostate was rendered. We review the literature regarding this entity, and discuss the differential diagnosis, emphasizing utility of immunohistochemistry in making the diagnosis. Finally, we speculate on the behavior of these rare tumors.

  19. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma: the new epidemic in men?

    Rutegård, Martin; Lagergren, Pernilla; Nordenstedt, Helena; Lagergren, Jesper


    The last decades have witnessed an unprecedented rise in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. This rise has mainly affected men, and current male-to-female sex ratio estimates range from 7-10 to 1. Major risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma are gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and obesity, especially in combination. The prevalence of these risk factors has increased during the last decades, but there does not seem to be a marked differential distribution among men and women. However, reflux among men is more often associated with erosive reflux disease than it is among women. There is also evidence that male-type obesity, with a prominent abdominal distribution of fat, confers a greater risk increase for oesophageal adenocarcinoma than the female equivalent. Due to the marked male predominance and the finding that women tend to develop specialized intestinal metaplasia (Barrett's oesophagus) and adenocarcinoma at a later age than men, interest has been directed towards a potential aetiological role of reproductive factors and sex hormones. Breastfeeding has been found to be a protective factor for the development of adenocarcinoma, while no association has hitherto been established with other reproductive factors. Taken together, the male predominance in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma may partly be explained by the differential effect of the major risk factors reflux disease and obesity, but the mechanisms whereby this occurs need to be elucidated. Moreover, the association with breastfeeding indicates a need for extensive epidemiological studies to clarify a possible role of sex hormonal influence in the aetiology of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  20. Giant Cell Arteritis.

    Hoffman, Gary S


    This issue provides a clinical overview of giant cell arteritis, focusing on diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  1. Intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum

    Gupta R


    Full Text Available A case of intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum is reported in a 50- year- old Indian. He did not respond to topical application of podophyllin 20% but responded partially to electric cauterisation. Surgical excision was done to get rid of the warty growh completely. Since there were no skin or genital lesions and no history of marital or extramarital sexual contact the lesion was probably acquired from environmental sources. Nonsexual transmission should be considered especially when the lesions are extragenital.

  2. Giant Otters in Peru

    Schenk C.


    Full Text Available We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  3. A giant graviton genealogy

    Lozano, Yolanda; Prinsloo, Andrea


    In this article we extend the construction of giant gravitons from holomorphic surfaces [arXiv:hep-th/0010206] to the ABJM correspondence. We construct a new class of 1/6-BPS M5-branes wrapping 5-manifolds in S^7/Z_k and supported by a large angular momentum in the orbifold space. These orbifold giant gravitons undergo a supersymmetry enhancement to 1/3-BPS and 1/2-BPS configurations in special cases. The compactification of M-theory on AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k to type IIA superstring theory on AdS_4 x CP^3 then gives rise to another new class of 1/6-BPS D4 and NS5-branes wrapping 4 and 5-manifolds in CP^3. The D4-branes carry a combination of D0-brane charge and angular momentum in the complex projective space, while the NS5-branes are supported only by D0-brane charge. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of a one-parameter family of 1/2-BPS M5-brane orbifold giant gravitons, and their D4 and NS5-brane CP^3 descendants.

  4. Giant prolactinomas in women

    Delgrange, Etienne; Raverot, Gerald; Bex, Marie


    OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg/l and id......OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg....../l and identified 19 similar cases from the literature; a gender-based comparison of the frequency and age distribution was obtained from a literature review. RESULTS: The initial PubMed search using the term 'giant prolactinomas' identified 125 patients (13 women) responding to the inclusion criteria. The female......:male ratio was 1:9. Another six female patients were found by extending the literature search, while our own series added 15 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years in women compared with 35 years in men (Pwomen (n=34), we...

  5. The prevalence and prognostic significance of KRAS mutation subtypes in lung adenocarcinomas from Chinese populations

    Zheng DF


    Full Text Available Difan Zheng,1,2,* Rui Wang,1,2,* Yang Zhang,1,2 Yunjian Pan,1,2 Xinghua Cheng,3 Chao Cheng,1,2 Shanbo Zheng,1,2 Hang Li,1,2 Ranxia Gong,1,2 Yuan Li,2,4 Xuxia Shen,2,4 Yihua Sun,1,2 Haiquan Chen1–3,51Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 3Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 4Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 5Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: We performed this retrospective study to identify the prevalence of KRAS mutation in Chinese populations and make a comprehensive investigation of the clinicopathological features of KRAS mutation in these patients.Patients and methods: Patients from 2007 to 2013 diagnosed with primary lung adenocarcinoma who received a radical resection were examined for KRAS, EGFR, HER2, BRAF mutations, and ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions. Clinicopathological features, including sex, age, tumor–lymph node–metastasis stage, tumor differentiation, smoking status, histological subtypes, and survival information were analyzed.Result: KRAS mutation was detected in 113 of 1,368 patients. Nine different subtypes of KRAS mutation were identified in codon 12, codon 13, and codon 61. KRAS mutation was more frequently found in male patients and former/current smoker patients. Tumors with KRAS mutation had poorer differentiation. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma predominant and solid predominant subtypes were more frequent in KRAS mutant patients. No statistical significance was found in relapse-free survival or overall survival between patients with KRAS mutation and patients with other mutations.Conclusion: In Chinese populations, we identified KRAS mutation in 8.3% (113/1,368 of the patients with lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS mutation defines a molecular subset of

  6. EGFR Mutation Status in Uighur Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Li SHAN


    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, a transmembrane protein, is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. Gefitinib, an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, has shown a high response rate in the treatment of lung cancer in patients with EGFR mutation. However, significant differences in EGFR mutations exist among different ethnic groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of EGFR mutations in Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients by using a rapid and sensitive detection method and to analyze EGFR mutation differences compared with Han lung adenocarcinoma patients. Methods We examined lung adenocarcinoma tissues from 138 patients, including 68 Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients and 70 Han lung adenocarcinoma patients, for EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 by using the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR method. The mutation differences between Uighur and Han lung adenocarcinoma were compared by using the chi-square test method. Results EGFR mutations were detected in 43 (31.2% of the 138 lung adenocarcinoma patients. EGFR mutations were detected in 11 (16.2% of the 68 Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients and in 32 (45.7% of the 70 Han lung adenocarcinoma patients. Significant differences were observed in the EGFR mutations between Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients and Han lung adenocarcinoma patients (P<0.001. Conclusion Our results indicate that the EGFR mutation in Uighur lung adenocarcinoma patients (16.2% is significantly lower than that in Han lung adenocarcinoma patients (45.7%.

  7. MUC5B is the Major Mucin in the Gel-phase of Sputum in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Kirkham, Sara; Kolsum, Umme; Rousseau, Karine;


    RATIONALE: Overproduction of mucus is a contributory factor in the progression of COPD. The polymeric mucins are major macromolecules in the secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that the polymeric mucin composition or properties may be different in the sputum from individuals with COPD and smokers...... without airflow obstruction. OBJECTIVES: To determine the major polymeric mucins in COPD sputum and whether these are different in the sputum from individuals with COPD compared to smokers without airflow obstruction. METHODS: The polymeric mucin composition of sputum from patients with COPD and smokers...... without airflow obstruction was analysed by western blotting analysis. The tissue localisation of the mucins was determined by immunohistochemistry, and their size distribution was analysed by rate-zonal centrifugation. RESULTS: MUC5AC and MUC5B were the major mucins. MUC5AC was the predominant mucin...

  8. Mining the "glycocode"--exploring the spatial distribution of glycans in gastrointestinal mucin using force spectroscopy.

    Gunning, A Patrick; Kirby, Andrew R; Fuell, Christine; Pin, Carmen; Tailford, Louise E; Juge, Nathalie


    Mucins are the main components of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. Mucin glycosylation is critical to most intermolecular and intercellular interactions. However, due to the highly complex and heterogeneous mucin glycan structures, the encoded biological information remains largely encrypted. Here we have developed a methodology based on force spectroscopy to identify biologically accessible glycoepitopes in purified porcine gastric mucin (pPGM) and purified porcine jejunal mucin (pPJM). The binding specificity of lectins Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA), peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA), Maackia amurensis lectin II (MALII), and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA) was utilized in force spectroscopy measurements to quantify the affinity and spatial distribution of their cognate sugars at the molecular scale. Binding energy of 4, 1.6, and 26 aJ was determined on pPGM for RCA, PNA, and UEA. Binding was abolished by competition with free ligands, demonstrating the validity of the affinity data. The distributions of the nearest binding site separations estimated the number of binding sites in a 200-nm mucin segment to be 4 for RCA, PNA, and UEA, and 1.8 for MALII. Binding site separations were affected by partial defucosylation of pPGM. Furthermore, we showed that this new approach can resolve differences between gastric and jejunum mucins.

  9. Mucin dynamics in the chick small intestine are altered by starvation.

    Smirnov, Asya; Sklan, David; Uni, Zehava


    The absorptive surface of the small intestine is covered by a layer of mucus secreted by goblet cells. The secreted mucins and thickness of the adherent layer influence nutrient digestion and absorption processes as well as the functionality of the mucosa. In this study, methods for the analysis of mucin synthesis and dynamics in the chick small intestine are described. A fragment of chicken mucin cDNA was isolated and characterized; this fraction had 60% homology to human mucin MUC-5AC. The thickness of the mucus adherent layer and the relative amounts of mucin glycoprotein and mRNA were also examined in the small intestines of control and starved chicks. Relative amounts of intestinal mucin mRNA and protein increased in the duodenum and jejunum of starved chicks, and mucus adherent layer thickness decreased throughout the small intestine. In starved chicks, higher mRNA expression and protein concentrations with lower amounts of adherent mucus may be related to a higher rate of degradation of the mucus layer, a lower rate of mucus secretion, or an altered rate of mucin turnover. It thus appears that starvation alters mucus dynamics in the small intestine, and this may affect intestinal digestive function and defense.

  10. Rebamipide increases the mucin-like glycoprotein production in corneal epithelial cells.

    Takeji, Yasuhiro; Urashima, Hiroki; Aoki, Akihiro; Shinohara, Hisashi


    Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of tears and the ocular surface due to tear deficiency or excessive tear evaporation. Tear film instability is due to a disturbance in ocular surface mucin leading to a dysfunction of mucin, resulting in dry eye. In this study, we examined the effect of rebamipide, an anti-ulcer agent, on glycoconjugate production, as an indicator of mucin-like glycoprotein in cultured corneal epithelial cells. Further, we investigated the effect of rebamipide on the gene expression of membrane-associated mucins. Confluent cultured human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with rebamipide for 24 h. The glycoconjugate content in the supernatant and the cell extracts was measured by wheat germ agglutinin-enzyme-linked lectin assay combined gel-filtration method. In the experiment on mucin gene expression, cultured human corneal epithelial cells were collected at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h after administration of rebamipide. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the quantity of MUC1, MUC 4, and MUC16 gene expression. Rebamipide significantly increased the glycoconjugate contents in the supernatant and cell extract. In the mucin gene expression in the cells, rebamipide increased MUC1 and MUC4 gene expression, but did not increase MUC16 gene expression. Rebamipide promoted glycoconjugate, which has a property as a mucin-like glycoprotein, in human corneal epithelial cells. The increased production was mediated by MUC1 and MUC4 gene expression.

  11. Goblet Cells and Mucins: Role in Innate Defense in Enteric Infections

    Janice J. Kim


    Full Text Available Goblet cells reside throughout the gastrointestinal (GI tract and are responsible for the production and preservation of a protective mucus blanket by synthesizing and secreting high molecular weight glycoproteins known as mucins. The concept of the mucus layer functioning as a dynamic protective barrier is suggested by studies showing changes in mucins in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract, by the altered goblet cell response in germ-free animals, and by the enhanced mucus secretion seen in response to infections. The mucin-containing mucus layer coating the GI epithelium is the front line of innate host defense. Mucins are likely to be the first molecules that invading pathogens interact with at the cell surface and thus, can limit binding to other glycoproteins and neutralize the pathogen. This review will focus on what is known about goblet cell response in various GI infections and the regulatory networks that mediate goblet cell function and mucin production in response to intestinal insults. In addition, we describe the current knowledge on the role of mucins in intestinal innate defense. It is the aim of this review to provide the readers with an update on goblet cell biology and current understanding on the role of mucins in host defense in enteric infections.

  12. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in mucinous and nonmucinous colorectal carcinomas.

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira K; Abdel-Aziz, Azza


    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a major health problem all over the world. Mucinous CRCs are known to have a peculiar behavior and genetic derangements. This study aimed to investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression in mucinous and nonmucinous CRCs. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with mucinous and nonmucinous CRC who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using MMP-13. Statistical analysis was performed for clinical and pathological data of all studied cases together with MMP-13 expression in mucinous and nonmucinous groups. Mucinous carcinoma was significantly associated with young age, more depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and less peritumoral and intratumoral neutrophils. Nonmucinous carcinomas showed higher MMP-13 expression compared with mucinous carcinomas. Despite the negative or low expression of MMP-13, mucinous carcinomas had more depth of invasion and more frequency of lymph node metastasis than did nonmucinous carcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural history of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN): current evidence and implications for management.

    Bassi, Claudio; Sarr, Michael G; Lillemoe, Keith D; Reber, Howard A


    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) show varying degrees of dysplasia throughout the neoplasm that can range from adenoma to invasive carcinoma, with dysplastic changes of borderline neoplasms and carcinoma in situ in between. An understanding of the natural history, and especially the required time to transform into either carcinoma in situ or an invasive adenocarcinoma, is critically important for management policy. This topic serves as the rationale for the present analysis. At the beginning of February 2007, using the key word "IPMN" in PubMed, we initially selected 119 publications using the principal criteria as defined by the WHO classification. We identified 20 appropriate original reports and one consensus paper. Neither randomized control trials (RCT) or systematic reviews of RCTs (level 1 evidence) nor cohort studies or reviews of cohort studies (level 2 evidence) have been published. Only one report fit the criteria for level 3 evidence (case control study). Nineteen papers satisfied criteria for level 4 (cases series) and two for level 5 (expert opinion publication). After additional review and analysis, we considered only six reports to be "cornerstone papers" of merit for the final review. Clues to the natural history of IPMNs can be gained by using several methods to examine the articles: (a) to verify different prognoses between main and side branch duct subtypes; (b) to compare the average age of patients with benign vs. malignant IPMNs; (c) to summarize the findings of nonoperative, observational studies based on follow up by clinical, biochemical, and imaging techniques without operative resection; (d) to determine the prognostic importance of the status of the resection margin; and (e) to follow patients clinically after surgical resection. Although important aspects of the natural history of IPMN are still unknown, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Branch-duct IPMNs are less aggressive than main-duct IPMNs. (2

  14. Synchronous Ovarian and Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Nonbacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism: Adenocarcinoma with Thrombotic Events

    N. K. Erturk


    Full Text Available Introduction. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE is a rare manifestation of hypercoagulability in patients with malignant neoplasms. Case Report. A fifty-six-year-old woman presented to the emergency service; the clinical workup revealed deep vein thrombosis in right leg and bilateral massive PTE. As the abdominal sections on the spiral CT revealed a giant pelvic mass of ovarian origin, she was referred to our hospital’s gynecologic oncology department. She was scheduled for surgery under enoxaparin. She described numbness on one side of her face. Cranial imaging findings revealed acute ischemic cerebral lesions and transesophageal echocardiogram showed vegetation on the aortic cusp. Under anticoagulation treatment, she underwent hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and infracolic omentectomy. After tumor resection, her neurological symptoms dissolved with aggressive anticoagulant treatment. Pathology result was synchronous endometrial and ovarian adenocarcinoma. Discussion. NBTE is a rare condition often associated with advanced malignancies. Peripheral embolism and venous thrombosis are complications that have been associated with NBTE due to hypercoagulable state. These disorders could be resistant to routine anticoagulant treatment. In case of a thrombotic complication due to ovarian malignancy, surgical resection of the primary tumor may increase the effect of anticoagulant treatment.

  15. Giant bullae mimicking tension pneumothorax

    Ahmet Erbey


    Full Text Available Giant bullae may mimic tension pneumothorax radiologicallyso that it may expand completely to hemithorax,increase of radiolucency mediastinal shift, flattening ofdiaphragm and printing on trachea. Sixty one year oldmale patient with giant bullae misdiagnosed as tensionpneumothorax and underwent to tube thoracostomy. Thedifferential diagnosis of giant bullae and tension pneumothoraxmay be confusing. The therapeutic approaches ofthese two radiologically similar entities differ significantly.Thus proper physical assessment and radiological examinationis crucial in the differential diagnosis and computedtomography examination should be performed before theadjustment of therapy. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 548-551Key words: Tension pneumothorax, giant bullae, computedtomography, tube thoracostomy

  16. Changes in Saliva Rheological Properties and Mucin Glycosylation in Dry Mouth.

    Chaudhury, N M A; Shirlaw, P; Pramanik, R; Carpenter, G H; Proctor, G B


    Saliva is vital for the maintenance of normal oral physiology and mucosal health. The loss of salivary function can have far-reaching consequences, as observed with dry mouth, which is associated with increased orodental disease, speech impairment, dysphagia, and a significant negative effect on quality of life. The timely diagnosis of oral dryness is vital for the management of orodental disease and any associated often-undiagnosed systemic disease (e.g., Sjögren syndrome). Our aim was to investigate differences in mucin glycoproteins and saliva rheological properties between sufferers and nonsufferers of dry mouth in order to understand the relationship between saliva composition, rheological properties, and dryness perception and provide additional potential diagnostic markers. All patients exhibited objective and subjective oral dryness, irrespective of etiology. Over half of the patients (n = 20, 58.8%) had a saliva secretion rate above the gland dysfunction cutoff of 0.1 mL/min. Mucin (MUC5B and MUC7) concentrations were generally similar or higher in patients. Despite the abundance of these moisture-retaining proteins, patients exhibited reduced mucosal hydration (wetness) and significantly lower saliva spinnbarkeit (stringiness), suggesting a loss of the lubricating and retention/adhesion properties of saliva, which, at least partially, are associated with mucin glycoproteins. Over 90% of patients with dry mouth (DMPs) consistently had unstimulated whole mouth saliva (UWMS) spinnbarkeit below the proposed normal cutoff (10 mm). Further analysis of mucins revealed the reduced glycosylation of mucins in DMPs compared to healthy controls. Our data indicate that UWMS mucin concentrations are not reduced in dry mouth but that the mucin structure (glycosylation) is altered. UWMS from DMPs had reduced spinnbarkeit, the assessment of which, in conjunction with sialometry, could improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of dry mouth. Additionally, it may be useful to

  17. Biochemical analysis of ocular surface mucin abnormalities in dry eye: the canine model.

    Hicks, S J; Corfield, A P; Kaswan, R L; Hirsh, S; Stern, M; Bara, J; Carrington, S D


    This study examines the canine model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, 'dry eye') in order to establish the biochemical basis of altered ocular mucin secretion in this condition. It follows a previous examination of ocular mucins in the normal dog. Mucus was collected by suction from the ocular surface of dogs with KCS, and dispersed in guanidine hydrochloride containing a cocktail of protease inhibitors. Caesium chloride density gradient centrifugation was used to separate floating 'rafts' of cell membranes from gradients containing secreted mucins. Gradient fractions were collected into pools on the basis of differential staining by Periodic Acid Schiff, Wheat Germ Agglutinin, and antibodies to MUC5AC peptide. High molecular weight glycoproteins were purified from the pooled material by gel filtration chromatography. Membrane-associated glycoproteins were also derived from the membrane rafts using octyl glucoside extraction and/or reduction and alkylation. Secreted mucins and membrane extracts from KCS samples were compared to equivalent material obtained from normal eyes. Density gradient staining profiles for normal and KCS mucus were similar over the buoyant density range typical for secreted mucins, enabling the collection of identical pools of gradient fractions for direct comparison. The following differences were observed in KCS secreted mucins compared to normal samples: an increase in the proportion of mucin with low buoyant density; a decrease in mannose content detected with Concanavalin A lectin; an increase in N-acetylglucosamine structures detected with Lycopersicon esculentum lectin; increased migration and lack of evidence for distinct subunit structure on agarose gels. In membrane extracts, the main difference was the presence of T antigen (Gal beta 1-3GalNAc) in KCS. These results demonstrate alterations in the subunit linkage of mucins in KCS, and suggest that glycosylation, core protein expression and/or post-synthetic modification of ocular

  18. Analysis of mucosal mucins separated by SDS-urea agarose polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis.

    Issa, Samah M A; Schulz, Benjamin L; Packer, Nicolle H; Karlsson, Niclas G


    Efficient separation of mucins (200 kDa-2 MDa) was demonstrated using gradient SDS agarose/polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis (SDS-AgPAGE). Inclusion of urea (SDS-UAgPAGE) in the gels casting were shown to have no effect on the migration of mucins in the gel and allowed casting of gel at room temperature. This simplified the procedure for multiple casting of agarose polyacrylamide gradients and increased reproducibility of these gels. Hence, the implementation of urea makes the technique applicable for high throughput isolation and screening of mucin oligosaccharides by LC-MS after releasing the oligosaccharides from isolated, blotted mucin subpopulations. It was also shown that the urea addition had no effect on other supporting applications such as western and lectin blotting. In addition, identification of the mucin protein after tryptic digestion and LC-MS was possible and no protein carbamylation due to the presence of urea in the gel was detected. LC-MS software developed for metabolomic analysis was used for O-linked oligosaccharide detection and differential display of various mucin samples. Using this method, heterogeneous glycosylation of mucins and mucin-type molecules isolated by SDS-AgPAGE and SDS-UAgPAGE was shown to consist of more than 80 different components in a single band, and in the extreme cases, up to 300-500 components (MUC5B/AC from saliva and sputum and). Metabolomic software was also used to show that the migration of mucin isoforms within the gel is due to heterogeneous size distribution of the oligosaccharides, with the slower migrating bands enriched in high-molecular-weight oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. AGR2 is induced in asthma and promotes allergen-induced mucin overproduction.

    Schroeder, Bradley W; Verhaeghe, Catherine; Park, Sung-Woo; Nguyenvu, Louis T; Huang, Xiaozhu; Zhen, Guohua; Erle, David J


    Mucins are gel-forming proteins that are responsible for the characteristic viscoelastic properties of mucus. Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of asthma, but the cellular requirements for airway mucin production are poorly understood. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein anterior gradient homolog 2 (AGR2) is required for production of the intestinal mucin MUC2, but its role in the production of the airway mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B is not established. Microarray data were analyzed to examine the relationship between AGR2 and MUC5AC expression in asthma. Immunofluorescence was used to localize AGR2 in airway cells. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to identify AGR2-immature MUC5AC complexes. Agr2(-/-) mice were used to determine the role of AGR2 in allergic airway disease. AGR2 localized to the ER of MUC5AC- and MUC5B-producing airway cells and formed a complex with immature MUC5AC. AGR2 expression increased together with MUC5AC expression in airway epithelium from "Th2-high" asthmatics. Allergen-challenged Agr2(-/-) mice had greater than 50% reductions in MUC5AC and MUC5B proteins compared with allergen-challenged wild-type mice. Impaired mucin production in Agr2(-/-) mice was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of mucins contained within the ER and by evidence of ER stress in airway epithelium. This study shows that AGR2 increases with mucin overproduction in individuals with asthma and in mouse models of allergic airway disease. AGR2 interacts with immature mucin in the ER and loss of AGR2 impairs allergen-induced MUC5AC and MUC5B overproduction.

  20. A Gastric Glycoform of MUC5AC Is a Biomarker of Mucinous Cysts of the Pancreas

    Sinha, Jessica; Cao, Zheng; Dai, Jianliang; Tang, Huiyuan; Partyka, Katie; Hostetter, Galen; Simeone, Diane M.; Feng, Ziding; Allen, Peter J.; Brand, Randall E.; Haab, Brian B.


    Molecular indicators to specify the risk posed by a pancreatic cyst would benefit patients. Previously we showed that most cancer-precursor cysts, termed mucinous cysts, produce abnormal glycoforms of the proteins MUC5AC and endorepellin. Here we sought to validate the glycoforms as a biomarker of mucinous cysts and to specify the oligosaccharide linkages that characterize MUC5AC. We hypothesized that mucinous cysts secrete MUC5AC displaying terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in either alpha or beta linkage. We used antibody-lectin sandwich assays to detect glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin in cyst fluid samples from three independent cohorts of 49, 32, and 66 patients, and we used monoclonal antibodies to test for terminal, alpha-linked GlcNAc and the enzyme that produces it. A biomarker panel comprising the previously-identified glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin gave 96%, 96%, and 87% accuracy for identifying mucinous cysts in the three cohorts with an average sensitivity of 92% and an average specificity of 94%. Glycan analysis showed that MUC5AC produced by a subset of mucinous cysts displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, a motif expressed in stomach glands. The alpha-linked glycoform of MUC5AC was unique to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), whereas terminal beta-linked GlcNAc was increased in both IPMNs and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN). The enzyme that synthesizes alpha-GlcNAc, A4GNT, was expressed in the epithelia of mucinous cysts that expressed alpha-GlcNAc, especially in regions with high-grade dysplasia. Thus IPMNs secrete a gastric glycoform of MUC5AC that displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, and the combined alpha-GlcNAc and beta-GlcNAc glycoforms form an accurate biomarker of mucinous cysts. PMID:27992432

  1. Expression of peanut agglutinin-binding mucin-type glycoprotein in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as a marker

    Balakrishnan Ramathilakam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TF (Thomson – Friedenreich blood group antigen behaves as an onco-foetal carcinoma-associated antigen, showing increased expression in malignancies and its detection and quantification can be used in serologic diagnosis mainly in adenocarcinomas. This study was undertaken to analyze the sera and tissue level detectable mucin-type glycoprotein (TF-antigen by Peanut agglutinin (PNA and its diagnostic index in serum as well tissues of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as marker. Results We examined 100 patients for serological analysis by Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay (ELISA and demonstrated a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 90% and a positive predictive value of 95%. The immuno-histochemical localization of TF antigen by Fluorescence Antigen Technique (FAT in 25 specimens of normal esophageal squamous epithelium specimens and 92 specimens with different grades of, allowed a quicker and more precise identification of its increased expression and this did not correlate with gender and tumor size. There was a positive correlation between membrane bound TF antigen expression with different histological progression, from well differentiated to poorly differentiated, determined by PNA binding. Specimens showed morphological changes and a pronounced increase in PNA binding in Golgi apparatus, secretory granules of the cytosol of well differentiated and an increased cell membrane labeling in moderately and poorly differentiated, when compared with ESCC and normal tissues. Conclusion The authors propose that the expression of TF-antigen in human may play an important role during tumorigenesis establishing it as a chemically well-defined carcinoma-associated antigen. Identification of the circulating TF-antigen as a reactive form and as a cryptic form in the healthy individuals, using PNA-ELLA and Immunohistochemical analysis of TF antigen by FAT is positively correlated with the different histological grades as a simple

  2. Identification of distinct phenotypes of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Teo, Minyuen


    A significant number of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma present as locally advanced disease. Optimal treatment remains controversial. We sought to analyze the clinical course of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPC) in order to identify potential distinct clinical phenotypes.

  3. Asymptomatic Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma with a Solid Mural Leiomyoma: Case report and brief review.

    Mathew, Mariam; Gonsalves, Hazel; Al-Azawi, Sinan; Saparamadu, P A M


    Mucinous neoplasms of the ovary may have associated benign or malignant mural nodules. A leiomyomatous mural nodule is a rare, benign lesion associated with mucinous tumors of the ovary. We report a case of a mural leiomyomatous nodule arising in a benign mucinous cystadenoma in a 29-year-old woman who presented with a large heterogenous abdominal mass. After pre-operative evaluation, exploratory laparotomy was performed upon suspicion of ovarian malignancy. A pathological examination confirmed the benign nature of the mural nodule.

  4. Refractory Jaundice From Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Treated With Cholangioscopy-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation.

    Brown, Nicholas G; Camilo, Joel; McCarter, Martin; Shah, Raj J


    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are epithelial neoplasms treated with surgical resection when appropriate. We present a 79-year-old man with jandice refractory to endoscopic stenting. Biliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with cholangioscopy was used as palliation of obstructive jaundice due to a mucin-producing pancreatic IPMN with fistulous biliary communication. Clinical improvement permitted surgery, and he returned to pre-illness status at 17 months. The use of cholangioscopy in the setting of mucinous filling defects can guide over-the-wire RFA for palliation and may be a bridge to surgery.

  5. A case of carcinoma of the male breast mimicking a mucinous carcinoma of the skin

    Sumihisa Imakado


    Full Text Available The authors report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast firstly diagnosed as a mucinous carcinoma of the skin. The immunohistochemical results of this tumor were as follows: cytokeratin7 (-, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (-, p63 (-, estrogen receptor (+, and progesterone receptor (+ for the primary nodule; cytokeratin7 (-, thyroid transcription factor-1 (-, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (-, p63 (-, cytokeratin8 (+, cytokeratin18 (+, and cytokeratin20 (+ for the recurrent nodule. The tumor cells had cytokeratin7 (-/ cytokeratin20 (+ phenotype and it was very unusual for mucinous carcinoma of the breast.

  6. Mucinous breast carcinoma presenting as Paget's disease of the nipple in a man: A case report

    Charalabopoulos Konstantinos


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Male breast cancer is rare compared to its female counterpart representing less than 1% of cancer in men. Moreover, mucinous carcinoma of the male breast is an extremely rare histological subtype of malignancy. Paget's disease of the nipple is rarely observed in males. Case report Herein, we describe a unique case of an 86 years old man with mucinous breast cancer presenting as Paget's disease of the nipple. According to the immunohistochemical evaluation the neoplastic cells were positive for estrogen (ER and progesterone receptors (PR. Conclusion To our best knowledge this is the first case of mucinous male breast cancer presenting as Paget's disease of the nipple.

  7. Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma penis: Case report

    Pablo Santiago Caicedo


    Full Text Available Objective: Describe a case report of a patient with prostatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to penis due to shortage reports of similar cases to perform a literature review. Methods: We identified a case of a patient with prostatic adenocarcinoma, who during de the course of a cystoscopy at Hospital Universitario San Jose (Third-level Public Hospital in Popayan, Colombia a suspicious nodule of malignancy was observed in the penis. We described the clinical case in order to proceed to a literature search for the discussion. Results: 72-year-old patient diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma Gleason Score 4+5=9, treated with bilateral orchiectomy and a suspicious nodule of malignancy incidentally observed in the penis, currently undergoing palliative care with Karnofsky score of 30 points. Conclusion: cutaneous metastases are rare; indicate longstanding disease and poor prognosis.

  8. Solitary AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing hepatoid gastric cancer with giant lymph node metastasis.

    Iso, Yukihiro; Sawada, Tokihiko; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Rokkaku, Kyu; Ohkura, Yasuo; Kubota, Keiichi


    A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and an abdominal mass. The patient had anemia and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (9630ng/mL) and PIVKA-II (91mAU/mL) levels. Roentgenographic examination revealed an extra-gastric tumor in the upper abdomen, and gastroscopy revealed Bormann type 2 gastric cancer in the lower portion of the stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was synchronous gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and surgery was performed. The extra-gastric tumor appeared to be an extra-hepatically growing HCC because the tumor was fed by vessels ramifying from the umbilical portion of the liver. Distal gastrectomy with resection of the extra-gastric tumor was performed, and histological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the gastric cancer was an AFP-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma and that the extra-gastric tumor was a lymph node metastasis. AFP-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma tends to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes and form a giant tumor. A giant tumor in the upper abdomen associated with gastric cancer may therefore be a clinical manifestation of AFP-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma.

  9. Mucin-like peptides from Echinococcus granulosus induce antitumor activity.

    Noya, Verónica; Bay, Sylvie; Festari, María Florencia; García, Enrique P; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Chiale, Carolina; Ganneau, Christelle; Baleux, Françoise; Astrada, Soledad; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Osinaga, Eduardo; Freire, Teresa


    There is substantial evidence suggesting that certain parasites can have antitumor properties. We evaluated mucin peptides derived from the helminth Echinococcus granulosus (denominated Egmuc) as potential inducers of antitumor activity. We present data showing that Egmuc peptides were capable of inducing an increase of activated NK cells in the spleen of immunized mice, a fact that was correlated with the capacity of splenocytes to mediate killing of tumor cells. We demonstrated that Egmuc peptides enhance LPS-induced maturation of dendritic cells in vitro by increasing the production of IL-12p40p70 and IL-6 and that Egmuc-treated DCs may activate NK cells, as judged by an increased expression of CD69. This evidence may contribute to the design of tumor vaccines and open new horizons in the use of parasite-derived molecules in the fight against cancer.

  10. Large mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas associated with pregnancy


    Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas occur mostly in females and are potentially sex hormone-sensitive. However, a MCN occurring during pregnancy is quite rare. A 30-year-old woman in the tenth week of pregnancy was referred to us because of a rapid increase in lett hypochondrial distending pain. On ultrasound, the patient had a large intra-abdominal cystic lesion. She was thereafter diagnosed with missed abortion and a computed tomography scan showed that the lesion was a cystic tumor 18 cm in diameter originating from the pancreatic tail. The patient subsequently underwent tumor resection with distal pancreatectomy, sparing the spleen. Histopathological analysis of the specimen revealed a pancreatic MCN with moderate dysplasia. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pancreatic MCN with moderate zysplasia in association with pregnancy. Our case strongly indicates that pancreatic MCN is female-hormone dependent.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of milk epithelial mucin of yaks

    ZHENG Yucai; ZHAO Xingbo; JIN Suyu; PENG Xianwen; BAI Wenlin


    Milk epithelial mucin (MUC1) of yaks was separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A total of nine types of MUC1 were revealed in 427 yaks from five yak breeds including Maiwa yak, Jiulong yak, Tianzhu white yak, Qinghai yak and Tibetan yak. The molecular weights of MUC1 are from 163 kD to 208 kD, most of which are larger than those of bovine. Population genetic analysis shows that the gene frequency and genotype frequency of yak MUC1 differ among breeds, with relatively high gene heterozygosity.The five yak breeds studied fall into two groups according to their milk MUC1 gene frequency, suggesting that milk MUC1 exhibits specificities for local yak groups.

  12. Generalized Lymphadenopathy: Unusual Presentation of Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    Bulent Cetin


    Full Text Available Generalized lymphadenopathy is a rare manifestation of metastatic prostate cancer. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with supraclavicular, mediastinal, hilar, and retroperitoneal and inguinal lymphadenopathy, which suggested the diagnosis of lymphoma. There were no urinary symptoms. A biopsy of the inguinal lymph node was compatible with adenocarcinoma, whose prostatic origin was shown by immunohistochemical staining with PSA. The origin of the primary tumor was confirmed by directed prostate biopsy. We emphasize that a suspicion of prostate cancer in men with adenocarcinoma of undetermined origin is important for an adequate diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  13. Adenocarcinoma of Meckel's cave: case report.

    Tacconi, L; Arulampalam, T; Johnston, F; Symon, L


    A rare localization of adenocarcinoma in Meckel's cave is reported in a 58-year-old woman, who had a 5-month history of pain and altered sensation in the second division of the left trigeminal nerve. Removal of the lesion was achieved by a subtemporal route. Histology showed this to be an adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent investigations for a primary tumor; the investigations were all negative, and the patient was subsequently treated with a course of radiotherapy. At 4-month follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence, and she remains symptomatically well. The various mechanisms of secondary localization are discussed.

  14. Spinal cord compression due to ethmoid adenocarcinoma.

    Johns, D R; Sweriduk, S T


    Adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus is a rare tumor which has been epidemiologically linked to woodworking in the furniture industry. It has a low propensity to metastasize and has not been previously reported to cause spinal cord compression. A symptomatic epidural spinal cord compression was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in a former furniture worker with widely disseminated metastases. The clinical features of ethmoid sinus adenocarcinoma and neoplastic spinal cord compression, and the comparative value of MRI scanning in the neuroradiologic diagnosis of spinal cord compression are reviewed.

  15. Skin Metastasis from an Occult Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    F Fereidooni


    Full Text Available Metastases to the skin from carcinoma arising in other organs are uncommon, yet they may be the first presentation of neoplastic disease. They usually originate from primary tumours in the breast, lung or colon. Skin metastases from esophageal adenocarcinoma are extremely rare. A unique case of an otherwise healthy patient who presented with a small, painless, mobile, clinically localized facial skin nodule is reported. A biopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma, and subsequent investigations detected the primary tumour in the esophagus, despite no symptoms.

  16. Strategies for the prevention of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Almond, L Max; Old, Oliver; Barr, Hugh


    The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased by 500% over the past 30 years [1]. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of neoplastic progression provides an opportunity to reverse this trend. A thorough review of emerging strategies aiming to prevent the formation of oesophageal malignancy is presented. These include dietary modification, chemoprevention, early endoscopic identification and treatment of premalignant disease, and the potential for a non-endoscopic screening test. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma has become a major public health problem in the West and it is essential that clinicians are fully informed of risk reduction strategies so that they can be actively promoted in the community.

  17. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Rare Tumors


    Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Anal Canal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Anal Canal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Appendix Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cholangiocarcinoma; Chordoma; Colorectal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Esophageal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fibromyxoid Tumor; Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Giant Cell Carcinoma; Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Sarcomatoid Carcinoma; Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Malignant Odontogenic Neoplasm; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Malignant Skin Neoplasm; Malignant Testicular Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm of Unknown Primary Origin; Mixed Mesodermal (Mullerian) Tumor; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Adenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Paraganglioma; Paranasal Sinus Adenocarcinoma; Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma; Parathyroid Gland Carcinoma; Pituitary Gland Carcinoma; Placental Choriocarcinoma; Placental-Site Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Scrotal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Seminal Vesicle Adenocarcinoma; Seminoma; Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Small Intestinal Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestinal Squamous

  18. Androgen-Dependent Regulation of Human MUC1 Mucin Expression

    Stephen Mitchell


    Full Text Available MUC1 mucin is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen, progesterone, and glucocorticoids. Our objective was to determine whether androgen receptor. (20AR activation regulates expression of MUC1. The following breast and prostatic cell lines were phenotyped and grouped according to AR and MUC1protein expression: 1 AR+MUCi + [DAR17+19. (20AR transfectants of DU-145, ZR-75-1, MDA-MB-453, and T47D]; 2 AR-MUCi+ [DZeoi. (20AR- vector control, DU-145, BT20, MDA-MB231, and MCF7]; 3 AIR +MUCi -. (20LNCaP and LNCaP-r. Cell proliferation was determined using the MTT assay in the presence of synthetic androgen R1881, 0.1 pM to 1 µM. Cell surface MUC1expression was determined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of oestradiol, medroxy progesterone acetate or R1881, with and without 4 hydroxy-flutamide. (204-OH, a nonsteroidal AR antagonist. The functional significance of MUC1expression was investigated with a cell-cell aggregation assay. Only AR+ MUC1 + cell lines showed a significant increase in MUC1expression with AR activation. (20P. (20range =.01 to .0001, reversed in the presence of 4-OHF. Cell proliferation was unaffected. Increased expression of MUC1was associated with a significant. (20P. (20range =.002 to .001 reduction in cell-cell adhesion. To our knowledge, this is the first description of androgen-dependent regulation of MUC1mucin. This is also functionally associated with decreased cell-cell adhesion, a recognised feature of progressive malignancy. These findings have important implications for physiological and pathological processes.

  19. Mucins and NCAM (CD56 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis

    Anna Beatriz Telles Esperança


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the hepatobiliary system. During cholangiocarcinogenesis phenotypic changes occur in the ductal epithelium, including the expression of mucins (MUC. However, the evaluating studies of the expression of mucins in the different stages of cholangiocarcinogenesis are scarce. CD56 has also contributed in differentiating benign ductal proliferation and cholangiocarcinoma; however, its expression has not been evaluated in dysplastic epithelium of the bile duct yet. Objective: To assess immunohistochemical profile of (MUC 1, 2, 5, 6, and CD56 in cholangiocarcinoma, pre-neoplastic and reactive lesions in the epithelium of intrahepatic bile ducts. Material and methods: Immunohistochemical expression of MUC 1, 2, 5, 6, and CD56 were studied for 11 cases of cholangiocarcinoma and 83 intrahepatic bile ducts (67 reactive and 16 dysplastic. Variables were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: The expression of MUC1 occurred in about 90% of the cholangiocarcinomas, contrasting with the low frequency of positive cases in reactive and dysplastic bile ducts (p < 0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the expression of MUC5, MUC6 and CD56 between the reactive or dysplastic lesions and cholangiocarcinoma. The anti-MUC2 antibody was negative in all cases. Conclusions: MUC1 contributed for the differential diagnosis between cholangiocarcinoma and pre-neoplastic and reactive/regenerative lesions of intrahepatic bile ducts, and it should compose the antibodies panel aiming at improvement of these differential diagnoses. In contrast, MUC2, MUC5, MUC6 and CD56 were not promising in differentiating all the phases of cholangiocarcinogenesis.

  20. Imaging Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Bowler, Brendan P.


    High-contrast adaptive optics (AO) imaging is a powerful technique to probe the architectures of planetary systems from the outside-in and survey the atmospheres of self-luminous giant planets. Direct imaging has rapidly matured over the past decade and especially the last few years with the advent of high-order AO systems, dedicated planet-finding instruments with specialized coronagraphs, and innovative observing and post-processing strategies to suppress speckle noise. This review summarizes recent progress in high-contrast imaging with particular emphasis on observational results, discoveries near and below the deuterium-burning limit, and a practical overview of large-scale surveys and dedicated instruments. I conclude with a statistical meta-analysis of deep imaging surveys in the literature. Based on observations of 384 unique and single young (≈5-300 Myr) stars spanning stellar masses between 0.1 and 3.0 M ⊙, the overall occurrence rate of 5-13 M Jup companions at orbital distances of 30-300 au is {0.6}-0.5+0.7 % assuming hot-start evolutionary models. The most massive giant planets regularly accessible to direct imaging are about as rare as hot Jupiters are around Sun-like stars. Dividing this sample into individual stellar mass bins does not reveal any statistically significant trend in planet frequency with host mass: giant planets are found around {2.8}-2.3+3.7 % of BA stars, planets spanning a broad range of masses and ages.


    Prashanth Kumar


    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.

  2. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W


    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  3. Giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma

    Pandya, Rajul; Tummala, Venkat [Hurley Medical Center One Hurley Plaza, Department of Radiology, Flint, MI (United States)


    We present a very unusual case of giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma presenting as a large solitary pulmonary mass. This was successfully managed with surgical resection. Histological examination revealed that the mass was positive for GLUT-1 receptor, a marker for infantile hemangioma. To our knowledge only a few cases of pulmonary hemangioma have been described previously in the literature. Pulmonary hemangiomas are very rare lesions, most of them presenting as a pulmonary mass. This case emphasizes the fact that this rare lesion should be considered in the differential of an enhancing pulmonary mass in an infant. (orig.)

  4. Giant Pandas and Their Conservation



    IT is paradoxical that themost well-known conservation symbol in the world,the giant panda, is a criti-cally endangered species.The estimated 1,600 thatremain live in the high-altitude for-ests of southwest China (within theprovinces of Sichuan, Gansu andShaanxi). Giant pandas are popularand elicit affection and admiration

  5. Famine Threatens the Giant Panda


    Large swathes of arrow bamboo groves at and above 2,700 meters in the Piankou Nature Reserve in Sichuan's Mianyang are producing purple blooms, and some groves have started to wither and die. An absence of bamboo means famine for giant pandas living there. Sichuan has consequently activated its giant panda contingency plan.

  6. MUC1 enhances tumor progression and contributes towards immunosuppression in a mouse model of spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Tinder, Teresa L.; Subramani, Durai B.; Basu, Gargi D.; Bradley, Judy M.; Schettini, Jorge; Million, Arefayene; Skaar, Todd


    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in >80% of human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has been elusive, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model. We report the characterization of a novel mouse model that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule (PDA.MUC1 mice). Pancreatic tumors arise in an appropriate MUC1-tolerant background within an immune competent host. Significant enhancement in the development of pancreatic intraepithelial pre-neoplastic lesions (PanINs) and progression to adenocarcinoma is observed in PDA.MUC1 mice, possibly due to increased proliferation. Tumors from PDA.MUC1 mice express higher levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and indoleamine 2,3, dioxygenase compared to PDA mice lacking MUC1, especially during early stages of tumor development. The increased pro-inflammatory milieu correlates with an increased percentage of regulatory T cells and myeloid suppressor cells in the pancreatic tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes. Data shows that during pancreatic cancer progression, MUC1-mediated mechanisms enhance the onset and progression of the disease which in turn regulate the immune responses. Thus, the mouse model is ideally-suited for testing novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer. PMID:18713982

  7. MUC1 enhances tumor progression and contributes toward immunosuppression in a mouse model of spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Tinder, Teresa L; Subramani, Durai B; Basu, Gargi D; Bradley, Judy M; Schettini, Jorge; Million, Arefayene; Skaar, Todd; Mukherjee, Pinku


    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in >80% of human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has been elusive, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model. We report the characterization of a novel mouse model that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule (PDA.MUC1 mice). Pancreatic tumors arise in an appropriate MUC1-tolerant background within an immune-competent host. Significant enhancement in the development of pancreatic intraepithelial preneoplastic lesions and progression to adenocarcinoma is observed in PDA.MUC1 mice, possibly due to increased proliferation. Tumors from PDA.MUC1 mice express higher levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and IDO compared with PDA mice lacking MUC1, especially during early stages of tumor development. The increased proinflammatory milieu correlates with an increased percentage of regulatory T cells and myeloid suppressor cells in the pancreatic tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes. Data shows that during pancreatic cancer progression, MUC1-mediated mechanisms enhance the onset and progression of the disease, which in turn regulate the immune responses. Thus, the mouse model is ideally suited for testing novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer.

  8. The cornerstone K-RAS mutation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: From cell signaling network, target genes, biological processes to therapeutic targeting.

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Vasseur, Romain; Van Seuningen, Isabelle


    RAS belongs to the super family of small G proteins and plays crucial roles in signal transduction from membrane receptors in the cell. Mutations of K-RAS oncogene lead to an accumulation of GTP-bound proteins that maintains an active conformation. In the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most deadly cancers in occidental countries, mutations of the K-RAS oncogene are nearly systematic (>90%). Moreover, K-RAS mutation is the earliest genetic alteration occurring during pancreatic carcinogenetic sequence. In this review, we discuss the central role of K-RAS mutations and their tremendous diversity of biological properties by the interconnected regulation of signaling pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, PI3K, Ral…). In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, transcriptome analysis and preclinical animal models showed that K-RAS mutation alters biological behavior of PDAC cells (promoting proliferation, migration and invasion, evading growth suppressors, regulating mucin pattern, and miRNA expression). K-RAS also impacts tumor microenvironment and PDAC metabolism reprogramming. Finally we discuss therapeutic targeting strategies of K-RAS that have been developed without significant clinical success so far. As K-RAS is considered as the undruggable target, targeting its multiple effectors and target genes should be considered as potential alternatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MicroRNA signature characterizes primary tumors that metastasize in an esophageal adenocarcinoma rat model.

    Zaidi, Ali H; Saldin, Lindsey T; Kelly, Lori A; Bergal, Linda; Londono, Ricardo; Kosovec, Juliann E; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Kasi, Pashtoon M; Shetty, Amit A; Keane, Timothy J; Thakkar, Shyam J; Huleihel, Luai; Landreneau, Rodney J; Badylak, Stephen F; Jobe, Blair A


    To establish a miRNA signature for metastasis in an animal model of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has dramatically increased and esophageal cancer is now the sixth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Mortality rates remain high among patients with advanced stage disease and esophagectomy is associated with high complication rates. Hence, early identification of potentially metastatic disease would better guide treatment strategies. The modified Levrat's surgery was performed to induce EAC in Sprague-Dawley rats. Primary EAC and distant metastatic sites were confirmed via histology and immunofluorescence. miRNA profiling was performed on primary tumors with or without metastasis. A unique subset of miRNAs expressed in primary tumors and metastases was identified with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) along with upstream and downstream targets. miRNA-linked gene expression analysis was performed on a secondary cohort of metastasis positive (n=5) and metastasis negative (n=28) primary tumors. The epithelial origin of distant metastasis was established by IF using villin (VIL1) and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) antibodies. miRNome analysis identified four down-regulated miRNAs in metastasis positive primary tumors compared to metastasis negative tumors: miR-92a-3p (p=0.0001), miR-141-3p (p=0.0022), miR-451-1a (p=0.0181) and miR133a-3p (p=0.0304). Six target genes identified in the top scoring networks by IPA were validated as significantly, differentially expressed in metastasis positive primary tumors: Ago2, Akt1, Kras, Bcl2L11, CDKN1B and Zeb2. In vivo metastasis was confirmed in the modified Levrat's model. Analysis of the primary tumor identified a distinctive miRNA signature for primary tumors that metastasized.

  10. MicroRNA signature characterizes primary tumors that metastasize in an esophageal adenocarcinoma rat model.

    Ali H Zaidi

    Full Text Available To establish a miRNA signature for metastasis in an animal model of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC.The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC has dramatically increased and esophageal cancer is now the sixth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Mortality rates remain high among patients with advanced stage disease and esophagectomy is associated with high complication rates. Hence, early identification of potentially metastatic disease would better guide treatment strategies.The modified Levrat's surgery was performed to induce EAC in Sprague-Dawley rats. Primary EAC and distant metastatic sites were confirmed via histology and immunofluorescence. miRNA profiling was performed on primary tumors with or without metastasis. A unique subset of miRNAs expressed in primary tumors and metastases was identified with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA along with upstream and downstream targets. miRNA-linked gene expression analysis was performed on a secondary cohort of metastasis positive (n=5 and metastasis negative (n=28 primary tumors.The epithelial origin of distant metastasis was established by IF using villin (VIL1 and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC antibodies. miRNome analysis identified four down-regulated miRNAs in metastasis positive primary tumors compared to metastasis negative tumors: miR-92a-3p (p=0.0001, miR-141-3p (p=0.0022, miR-451-1a (p=0.0181 and miR133a-3p (p=0.0304. Six target genes identified in the top scoring networks by IPA were validated as significantly, differentially expressed in metastasis positive primary tumors: Ago2, Akt1, Kras, Bcl2L11, CDKN1B and Zeb2.In vivo metastasis was confirmed in the modified Levrat's model. Analysis of the primary tumor identified a distinctive miRNA signature for primary tumors that metastasized.

  11. Osteosarcoma as Malignant Mural Nodule in Ovarian Mucinous Neoplasms of Intestinal Type: Report of 2 Cases.

    McFarland, Marie; Dina, Roberto; Fisher, Cyril; McCluggage, W Glenn


    Mural nodules, which may be benign or malignant, are well recognized in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, especially of borderline type. Malignant mural nodules most commonly comprise anaplastic carcinoma but sarcomas of various types have been reported. We report 2 cases of osteosarcoma occurring in young women (aged 18 and 34) as malignant mural nodules in a Grade 1 ovarian mucinous carcinoma of intestinal type and a borderline mucinous tumor of intestinal type. Primary osteosarcomas of the ovary have been described either arising within a teratoma or as a pure neoplasm but, to the best of our knowledge, osteosarcoma occurring as a mural nodule in an ovarian mucinous neoplasm has not been reported. In both our cases, the tumor was Stage 1 at presentation and the patients were treated with surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy. Both patients are free of disease with follow-up of 12 and 18 mo.

  12. Investigation of the Thermostability of Bovine Submaxillary Mucin (BSM) and its Impact on Lubrication

    Madsen, Jan Busk; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.; Lee, Seunghwan


    Bovine Submaxillary Mucin (BSM) generates thin film layers via spontaneous adsorption onto hydrophobic surfaces such as Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). A characteristic feature of mucin is its tribological- or lubricating properties. Circular dichroismspectrosc......Bovine Submaxillary Mucin (BSM) generates thin film layers via spontaneous adsorption onto hydrophobic surfaces such as Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). A characteristic feature of mucin is its tribological- or lubricating properties. Circular...... dichroismspectroscopyrevealed that BSM is thermally stable over a wide range of temperatures (5–85°C) in its conformation, and Pin-on-Disk tribometry at low speeds showed negligible influence on lubricating properties. Employing the Mini Traction Machine, BSM was found to retain comparable lubricating properties after heating...... to 80°C and subsequent cooling. Random coiled secondary- and lack of tertiary structure in BSM is believed to contribute to the heat tolerance observed with regards to its conformational and lubrication properties....

  13. Structural analysis of O-glycans of mucin from jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) containing 2-aminoethylphosphonate.

    Urai, Makoto; Nakamura, Takemichi; Uzawa, Jun; Baba, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Kayoko; Seki, Hiroko; Ushida, Kiminori


    The structure of O-glycan in qniumucin (Q-mucin), which is a novel mucin extracted from jellyfish, was analyzed by a combination of NMR and ESI-MS/MS. A previously unidentified monosaccharide involved in the glycan chains was determined to be N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) substituted by 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) at the C-6. The O-glycans in Q-mucin from Aurelia aurita were proved to be mainly composed of three monosaccharides: GalNAc, AEP-(O-->6)-GalNAc, and P-6-GalNAc. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of an O-glycan structure of glycoproteins containing AEP. This exceptionally simple structure of Q-mucin and its potential use in material science and technology are revealed.

  14. Histomorphological and mucin histochemical study of the alimentary canal of pangas catfish, Pangasius pangasius (Hamilton 1822

    Javd Sadeghinezhad


    Full Text Available The present study describes the histological and mucin histochemical properties of the alimentary canal (AC of the pangas catfish, Pangasius pangasius. The results revealed that the mucosa of the oesophagus was lined by a stratified epithelium containing chloride cells and taste buds which suggested mechanic, gustatory and physiologic roles of the oesophagus in this species. The stomach mucosa was lined by a simple columnar epithelium. The lamina propria-submucosa in cardiac and fundic stomach contained gastric glands. The pyloric stomach had the thickest muscularis layer among all the parts of the AC. The villi showed the maximum height and width in the middle intestine. The tunica muscularis and serosa showed the thinnest thickness among all parts of AC. The mucin histochemistry showed that the goblet cells of oesophagus and intestine contained both neutral and acidic with carboxylated and sulfated mucins and there was not acidic mucins in epithelial cells of the stomach.

  15. Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Occurring 5 Years after Resection of a Primary Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Relevant Differential Diagnosis

    R. F. Falkenstern-Ge


    Full Text Available Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is a lethal disease. Surgical extirpation only offers the slim chance for long-term survival in localized disease. We report on a 73 year old female patient who initially underwent successful resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in May 2005. She was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine. In October 2010 the patient noticed increasing dyspnea with haemoptysis. She was soon referred to our center. After the diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with widespread metastasis, she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. For a period of next three years, she was treated with different chemotherapy regimens due to repeated episodes of tumor progression. To the best of our knowledge after reviewing the literature, this case represents an unusually clinical course with metachronous pulmonary adenocarcinoma arising after treatment of a primary pancreatic cancer after a long latency period.

  16. Giant Intradiverticular Bladder Tumor

    Noh, Mohamad Syafeeq Faeez Md; Aziz, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Ghani, Khairul Asri Mohd; Siang, Christopher Lee Kheng; Yunus, Rosna; Yusof, Mubarak Mohd


    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Giant intradiverticular bladder tumor with metastasis Symptoms: Hematuria Medication:— Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Intradiverticular bladder tumors are rare. This renders diagnosis of an intradiverticular bladder tumor difficult. Imaging plays a vital role in achieving the diagnosis, and subsequently staging of the disease. Case Report: A 74-year-old male presented to our center with a few months history of constitutional symptoms. Upon further history, he reported hematuria two months prior to presentation, which stopped temporarily, only to recur a few days prior to coming to the hospital. The patient admitted to having lower urinary tract symptoms. However, there was no dysuria, no sandy urine, and no fever. Palpation of his abdomen revealed a vague mass at the suprapubic region, which was non tender. In view of his history and the clinical examination findings, an ultrasound of the abdomen and computed tomography (CT) was arranged. These investigations revealed a giant tumor that seemed to be arising from a bladder diverticulum, with a mass effect and hydronephrosis. He later underwent operative intervention. Conclusions: Intradiverticular bladder tumors may present a challenge to the treating physician in an atypical presentation; thus requiring a high index of suspicion and knowledge of tumor pathophysiology. As illustrated in our case, CT with its wide availability and multiplanar imaging capabilities offers a useful means for diagnosis, disease staging, operative planning, and follow-up. PMID:28246375

  17. Rapidly Evolving Giant Dermatofibroma

    K. J. Lang


    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma, also known as “fibrous histiocytoma”, is a benign dermal or subcutaneous poorly circumscribed proliferation of spindle-shaped fibroblasts and macrophages in the dermis. Although it is commonly present as a brownish nodule the legs of females, it may also arise on the upper extremities, trunk, and rarely on the head. The exact pathogenesis is unclear. However, it is widely believed that the originating insult to the dermis is a folliculitis, an arthropod bite, or an unspecified initial inflammatory condition. Giant dermatofibromas of greater than 5 cm in diameter are rare, with only 22 cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a rapidly evolving pedunculated mass in the groin of a male patient. Histological examination confirmed this to be a giant dermatofibroma. Though this specimen cannot is not confirmed as such, the cellular subtype is sometimes present as a larger lesion with anecdotal reports of local recurrence and distant metastases. The clinical and radiological features which were somewhat suspicious of malignancy are considered in the context of the definitive pathological diagnosis of a benign lesion.

  18. Biochemical imaging of normal, adenoma, and colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and morphological correlation by histopathological analysis: preliminary results

    Juliana Aparecida de Almeida Chaves Piva

    Full Text Available Introduction The colorectal cancer is a major health problem worldwide. Histology is considered the gold standard for differential diagnosis. However, it depends on the observer's experience, which can lead to discrepancies and poor results. Spectroscopic imaging by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR is a technique that may be able to improve the diagnosis, because it is based on biochemical differences of the structural constituents of tissue. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to explore the use of FTIR imaging technique in normal colon tissue, colorectal adenoma, and adenocarcinoma in order to correlate their morphological structures with their biochemical imaging. Methods Samples were collected from normal (n = 4, adenoma (n = 4, and adenocarcinoma human colorectal tissue (n = 4 from patients undergoing colonoscopy or surgical resection of colon lesions. The samples were sectioned with a cryostat in sequential sections; the first slice was placed on CaF2 slide and the second slice was placed on glass slide for histological analysis (HE staining. The cluster analyses were performed by the software Cytospec (1.4.02®. Results In normal samples, biochemical analysis classified six different structures, namely the lamina propria of mucous glands (epithelial cells and goblet cells, central lumen of the gland, mucin, and conjunctive tissue. In samples with adenoma and adenocarcinoma, altered regions could also be identified with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the potential and viability of using infrared spectroscopy to identify and classify colorectal tissues.

  19. Reinflating Giant Planets

    Kohler, Susanna


    Two new, large gas-giant exoplanets have been discovered orbiting close to their host stars. A recent study examining these planets and others like them may help us to better understand what happens to close-in hot Jupiters as their host stars reach the end of their main-sequence lives.OversizedGiantsUnbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-65b. [Adapted from Hartman et al. 2016]The discovery of HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, two new transiting hot Jupiters, is intriguing. These planets have periods of just under 3 days and masses of roughly 0.5 and 0.8 times that of Jupiter, but their sizes are whats really interesting: they have inflated radii of 1.89 and 1.59 times that of Jupiter.These two planets, discovered using the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network (HATNet) in Arizona and Hawaii, mark the latest in an ever-growing sample of gas-giant exoplanets with radii larger than expected based on theoretical planetary structure models.What causes this discrepancy? Did the planets just fail to contract to the expected size when they were initially formed, or were they reinflated later in their lifetimes? If the latter, how? These are questions that scientists are only now starting to be able to address using statistics of the sample of close-in, transiting planets.Unbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-66b. [Hartman et al. 2016]Exploring Other PlanetsLed by Joel Hartman (Princeton University), the team that discovered HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b has examined these planets observed parameters and those of dozens of other known close-in, transiting exoplanets discovered with a variety of transiting exoplanet missions: HAT, WASP, Kepler, TrES, and KELT. Hartman and collaborators used this sample to draw conclusions about what causes some of these planets to have such large radii.The team found that there is a statistically significant correlation between the radii of close-in giant planets and the fractional ages of their host stars (i.e., the stars age divided by its full

  20. Formulation and evaluation the bioadhesive properties of drug delivery system based on PEGylated mucin matrices

    Momohmumuni Audu; Adikwu Michael Umale; Ibezim Emmanuel Chinnedu


    Objective:To formulate and evaluate the application of PEGylated mucin in oral bioadhesive drug (OBD) delivery system. Methods:The bioadhesive strength of different formulation ratios of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and mucin was evaluated by tensiometry. Co polymer matrices containing mucin and PEG (PEGylated mucin) in the following ratios of 1:1 (A), 2:1 (B), 1:2 (C), 0:1 (D) and 1:0 (E) were prepared by co-precipitation. Microparticles were prepared from the matrices using a size reduction technique. Five different samples were prepared using direct mixtures in the appropriate solvenfs having mucin and PEG ratios of 1:1, 2:1 , 1:2, 0:1 , 1:0 and labeled as (A-E). The matrices were evaluated for their flow properties and the in vitro bioadhesion characteristics of the samples were examined. Results:The range of flow rates of the matrices was 1.35-2.23 g/sec. The angle of repose was in the range of 37.3-39.9 degree. The bulk and tapped densities were within the ranges of 0.41-0.49. The Hausner’s quotient (HQ) were 1.12, 1.24, 1.14, 1.25 and 1.2 for matrix batches A-E respectively, The bioadhesive strength of polymer matrices appeared to be directly related to amount of mucin. The order of bioadhesive strength is 2:1>1:1>1:0>1:2>0:1 of PEG:mucin in both simulated intestine fluid (SIF) and simulated gastrointestinal fluid (SGF). The physical properties of the micrometrics properties of the matrices were within the accepted values. Conclusions: OBD preparation containing PEGylated mucin can be prepared by direct compression and be used in drug delivery to the oral cavity.

  1. A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma causing virilization, preterm labor, and persistent supine hypotensive syndrome during pregnancy.

    Kucur, Suna Kabil; Acar, Canan; Temizkan, Osman; Ozagari, Aysim; Gozukara, Ilay; Akyol, Atif


    Mucinous cystadenoma (MC) of the ovary is an unilateral, multilocular cystic benign epithelial tumor. Supposed to be hormone responsive, MC reaches huge sizes during pregnancy. Aortocaval compression is common during pregnancy, especially when the pregnant woman is in the supine position. However, the compression recovers with a change in position. The authors report the first case of a huge mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary complicating pregnancy and causing virilization, premature labor, and persistent supine hypotensive syndrome.

  2. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. A case report and review of the literature

    Jørgensen, L J; Vibits, H


    A case of a primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a 38-year-old female is presented. The literature concerning primary retroperitoneal cystadenocarcinomas is reviewed and it is concluded that close postoperative follow-up is necessary.......A case of a primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a 38-year-old female is presented. The literature concerning primary retroperitoneal cystadenocarcinomas is reviewed and it is concluded that close postoperative follow-up is necessary....

  3. Characterization of human mucin (MUC15) and identification of ovine and caprine orthologs

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk;


    The glycoprotein MUC15 (mucin 15) was initially isolated from the bovine milk fat globule membrane. The present work demonstrates the existence of immunologically similar proteins ( approximately 130 kDa) in ovine, caprine, porcine, and buffalo milk samples. Purification and N-terminal amino acid...... (epidermal growth factor receptor and Src homology 2 domains) are identified in the intracellular region. Implication of the mucin in signal transduction and the potential physiological function of MUC15 are discussed....

  4. Predictive factors associated with malignancy of intraductal papillary mucinous pancreatic neoplasms

    Jin; Hee; Lee; Kyu; Taek; Lee; Jongwook; Park; Sun; Youn; Bae; Kwang; Hyuck; Lee; Jong; Kyun; Lee; Kee-Taek; Jang; Jin; Seok; Heo; Seong; Ho; Choi; Dong; Wook; Choi; Jong; Chul; Rhee


    AIM:To identify preoperative predictive factors associated with malignancy of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms(IPMNs) of the pancreas.METHODS:Between April 1995 and April 2010,129 patients underwent surgical resection for IPMNs at our institute and had confirmed pathologic diagnoses.The medical records were retrospectively reviewed and immunohistochemical staining for mucin(MUC) in pancreatic tissues was performed.RESULTS:Univariate analysis showed that the following five variables were closely asso...

  5. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma screening: New perspectives

    Raffaele Pezzilli; Dario Fabbri; Andrea Imbrogno


    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma accounts for more than 90% of all pancreatic cancers and its incidence has increased significantly worldwide.Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have a poor outcome and more than 95% of the people affected die from the disease within 12 mo after diagnosis.Surgery is the first-line treatment in the case of resectable neoplasm,but only 20% of patients are candidates for this approach.One of the reasons there are few candidates for surgery is that,during the early phases of the disease,the symptoms are poor or non-specific.Early diagnosis is of crucial importance to improve patient outcome; therefore,we are looking for a good screening test.The screening test must identify the disease in an early stage in order to be effective; having said this,a need exists to introduce the concept of "early" ductal adenocarcinoma.It has been reported that at least five additional years after the occurrence of the initiating mutation are required for the acquisition of metastatic ability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and patients die an average of two years thereafter.We have reviewed the most recent literature in order to evaluate the present and future perspectives of screening programs of this deadly disease.

  6. Epidemiology and risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Lepage, Côme; Drouillard, Antoine; Jouve, Jean-Louis; Faivre, Jean


    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma will soon cease to be a rare form of cancer for people born after 1940. In many Western countries, its incidence has increased more rapidly than other digestive cancers. Incidence started increasing in the Seventies in England and USA, 15 years later in Western Europe and Australia. The cumulative risk between the ages of 15 and 74 is particularly striking in the UK, with a tenfold increase in men and fivefold increase in women in little more than a single generation. Prognosis is poor with a 5-year relative survival rate of less than 10%. The main known risk factors are gastro-oesophageal reflux, obesity (predominantly mediated by intra-abdominal adipose tissues) and smoking. Barrett's oesophagus is a precancerous lesion, however, the risk of degeneration has been overestimated. In population-based studies the annual risk of adenocarcinoma varied between 0.12% and 0.14% and its incidence between 1.2 and 1.4 per 1000 person-years. Only 5% of subjects with Barrett's oesophagus die of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. On the basis of recent epidemiological data, new surveillance strategies should be developed. The purpose of this review is to focus on the epidemiology and risk factors of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  7. Analysis of the Distribution of Mucins in Adult Human Gastric Mucosa and Its Functional Significance


    Introduction Mucins are complex composition of carbohydrates seen in the epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Normal distribution of such mucins in different part of the GIT and its alteration in various inflammatory, benign and malignant lesions of GIT has aroused interest in the field of histochemistry. Aim By applying variety of histochemical techniques an attempt has been made to draw a map of mucin secretion by the different epithelial cell types in different parts of the stomach. Materials and Methods Fifty samples were taken each from different parts of the stomach like fundus, body and pylorus, from dissected fresh specimens (total of 150 specimens). Tissue samples were subjected for routine process and studied for histological and different histochemical staining. Results Mucin pattern in adult predominantly secretes neutral mucosubstances. Surface epithelium shows predominant neutral mucin while cardiac and gastric glands with foveolar cells show moderate amount. Sialomucin is present in a few cells of the surface epithelium, foveolar cells and in most of the mucous neck cells. Small amount of sialomucin and sulphomucin are found in surface epithelial foveolar cells while traces of sulphomucin are found in deep foveolar cells. Mucous neck cells secrete both sulphomucin and sialomucin. Conclusion Normal gastric mucosa adjacent to gastric ulcers and malignant tumours of stomach secretes mucins which differ histochemically and biochemically from that of normal. Early recognition of such changes could be useful in recognizing the different type of carcinomas and their prognosis. PMID:27042436

  8. Contribution of membrane mucins to tumor progression through modulation of cellular growth signaling pathways.

    Carraway, Kermit L; Funes, Melanie; Workman, Heather C; Sweeney, Colleen


    Mucins are large, heavily O-glycosylated proteins expressed by epithelial tissues. The canonical function of membrane mucins is to provide protection to vulnerable epithelia by forming a steric barrier against assault, and by contributing to the formation of protective extracellular mucin gels. The aberrant overexpression of mucins is thought to contribute to tumor progression by allowing tumor cells to evade immune recognition, and by aiding in the breakdown of cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts to facilitate migration and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that we should now modify our thinking about mucin function by considering their roles in signaling pathways leading to cellular growth control. Here we review the markedly divergent mechanisms by which membrane mucins, specifically MUC1 and MUC4, influence pathways contributing to cellular proliferation and survival. The cytoplasmic domain of MUC1 serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a variety of signaling proteins, while MUC4 influences the trafficking and localization of growth factor receptors, and hence their responses to external stimuli. We also discuss how tumor cells exploit these mechanisms to promote their own growth and metastasis.

  9. Inhibition of the anti-staphylococcal activity of the antiseptic polihexanide by mucin.

    Ansorg, Rainer; Rath, Peter-Michael; Fabry, Werner


    The antiseptic Lavasept (LS), containing the polymeric biguanide polihexanide (CAS 28757-48-4), possesses microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. It is used for antiseptic wound care in concentrations corresponding to 0.2-0.4 mg polihexanide per ml. To obtain basic data on its ability to eradicate S. aureus colonizing the nasal mucosa, the influence of mucin on the anti-staphylococcal activity was investigated. A disk agar-diffusion method was applied. Two reference strains of S. aureus (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus ATCC 29213 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 33591) and 20 fresh clinical isolates were used. In the absence of mucin, the growth of all strains was inhibited by polihexanide concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml. In the presence of 0.25% mucin in the test medium, a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml was necessary to inhibit all strains. Mucin concentrations of 0.5% and 1%, that are even lower than the mucin concentrations in healthy nasal secretions, abolished the activity of the therapeutic concentrations of polihexanide. It is concluded that the inactivation of LS by mucin obstructs a reliable clearance of nasal S. aureus carriage.

  10. RNF43 is a tumour suppressor gene mutated in mucinous tumours of the ovary.

    Ryland, Georgina L; Hunter, Sally M; Doyle, Maria A; Rowley, Simone M; Christie, Michael; Allan, Prue E; Bowtell, David D L; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G


    Mucinous carcinomas represent a distinct morphological subtype which can arise from several organ sites, including the ovary, and their genetic characteristics are largely under-described. Exome sequencing of 12 primary mucinous ovarian tumours identified RNF43 as the most frequently somatically mutated novel gene, secondary to KRAS and mutated at a frequency equal to that of TP53 and BRAF. Further screening of RNF43 in a larger cohort of ovarian tumours identified additional mutations, with a total frequency of 2/22 (9%) in mucinous ovarian borderline tumours and 6/29 (21%) in mucinous ovarian carcinomas. Seven mutations were predicted to truncate the protein and one missense mutation was predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis. Six tumours had allelic imbalance at the RNF43 locus, with loss of the wild-type allele. The mutation spectrum strongly suggests that RNF43 is an important tumour suppressor gene in mucinous ovarian tumours, similar to its reported role in mucinous pancreatic precancerous cysts.

  11. Biochemical characterization of rat colonic mucins secreted in response to Entamoeba histolytica.

    Tse, S K; Chadee, K


    Invasion of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites is preceded by colonic mucus depletion. The aim of our studies was to determine whether E. histolytica caused a differential secretion of mucin species in a rat colonic loop model. Mucus secretion in response to amoebae was followed by release of acid-precipitable 3H-glucosamine metabolically labelled glycoproteins and in vitro labelling of glycoprotein secretion with NaB3H4. The secretory response consisted of high-Mr goblet cell mucins and an increase in the secretion of low-Mr nonmucin glycoproteins as determined by Sepharose 4B column chromatography. High-Mr mucins subfractionated by Cellex-E (ECTEOLA) ion-exchange chromatography demonstrated a minor neutral and a major acidic mucin (greater than 98%) species. Marked differences between the neutral and acidic mucin species were indicated by immunogenicity and amino acid compositions. Thin-section histochemistry of rat colons confirmed secretion of neutral and acidic mucins in response to E. histolytica and demonstrated secretory activity from goblet cells from both the crypts and interglandular epithelium. E. histolytica mucus secretagogue activity was generalized and may function to deplete the host's protective mucus layer, facilitating invasion by the parasites.

  12. Stimulant effect of nitric oxide generator and roxatidine on mucin biosynthesis of rat gastric oxyntic mucosa.

    Ichikawa, T; Ishihara, K; Kusakabe, T; Kawakami, T; Hotta, K


    Although the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in an increasing gastric mucus metabolism has been reported, information on whether or not its activation is limited to the specific mucus-producing cells is lacking. In this paper, we report the effect of the exogenous NO-donor, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and second-generation histamine H2 receptor antagonist roxatidine (2-acetoxy-N-(3-[m-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]propyl)acetamide hydrochloride) which is demonstrated to accelerate the mucin metabolism mediated by endogenous NO, on the mucin biosynthesis in distinct sites and layers of the rat gastric mucosa using an organ culture technique. Radiolabeled mucin was obtained from the tissue of full-thickness and the deep corpus layer, and the antrum of the rat stomach incubated for 5 hr with [3H]glucosamine(GlcN) in vitro. With the addition of ISDN to the culture medium, 3H-labeled mucin in the full-thickness corpus mucosa increased to 124-145% of the control (proxatidine stimulated the mucin biosynthesis in the full-thickness corpus mucosa, but not in the gland mucous cell layer. These results suggest that the stimulation of the mucin biosynthesis mediated by NO is restricted to the surface mucous cells of the rat gastric oxyntic mucosa.

  13. Effect of pH on the rheological response of reconstituted gastric mucin

    Jonathan Argenis Caicedo


    Full Text Available The rheological response of reconstituted gastric mucin was studied by time dependent rheological experiments as function of pH. Mucin concentrations of 5% and 10% were prepared in buffer dispersions at pH of 1.15, 2.00, 2.55, 4.00 and 7.67.  The isoelectric point was identified by z-potential between pH 2.00 to 2.55. Dynamic light scattering showed that as pH reduced, a second population of larger mucin aggregates was formed indicating the presence of new structures. Steady shear rheological measurements reflected the pseudoplastic behavior of mucin dispersions and the effect of concentration on viscosity. Creep-recovery measurements were performed on the regenerated mucus at different levels of pH. By creep, it was possible to determine the values of zero-shear-viscosity of mucin suspensions, with higher precision and in a lower experimental time than steady shear measurements. Additionally, it was found that at pH ~1.15, the viscosity of the mucus increased to high values, which is an indicative of a gel-like structure. By recovery experiments, it was possible to find that even the very low viscosities the mucin suspensions at pH ~1.15 possessed a defined elastic character. By the use of a four-element mechanistic viscoelastic model, it was concluded that this elasticity underwent retardation due to the combined effect of viscous and elastic responses.

  14. Tensile bond strength of a polymeric intra-buccal bioadhesive: the mucin role.

    Pedrazzi, V; Lara, E H; Dal Ciampo, J O; Panzeri, H


    The intra-bucal polymeric bioadhesive systems that can stay adhered to the oral soft tissues for drug programmed release, with the preventive and/or therapeutic purpose have been employed for large clinical situations. A system based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/Carbopol 934TM/magnesium stearate (HPMC/Cp/StMg), was developed with the sodium fluoride as an active principle. This kind of system was evaluated according to its resistance to the removal by means of physical test of tensile strength. Swine buccal mucosa extracted immediately after animals' sacrifice was employed as a substrate for the physical trials to obtain 16 test bodies. Artificial saliva with or without mucin was used to involve the substrate/bioadhesive system sets during the trials. Artificial salivas viscosity were determined by means of Brookfield viscometer, and they showed 10.0 cP artificial saliva with mucin, and 7.5 cP artificial saliva without mucin. The tensile strength assays showed the following averages: 12.89 Pa for the group "artificial saliva with mucin", and 12.35 Pa for the group "without mucin". Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the assays for both artificial salivas, and we can conclude that the variable mucin did not interfere with the bioadhesion process for the polymeric devices.

  15. Secreted and membrane-bound mucins and idiopathic peptic ulcer disease.

    Niv, Yaron; Boltin, Doron


    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-negative peptic ulcer disease has increased over the last two decades, especially in the Western world and in countries with low H. pylori infection rates. Idiopathic peptic ulcer disease is a recently described entity which relates to peptic ulcers not caused by H. pylori, NSAID/aspirin therapy, other ulcerogenic organisms and drugs, or other rare malignant and benign diseases. Structural and secreted mucins create the unstirred gastric mucus layer and maintain a stable pH above the gastric mucosa. This mucous layer prevents enzymatic attack by acid and pepsin. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase by NSAID and aspirin inhibits prostaglandin production, inhibits mucin and bicarbonate secretion, and exposes the mucosa to the toxic effects of acid and intragastric enzymes. There is also a complex relationship between H. pylori and different mucin subtypes which on one hand facilitates mucin invasion but on the other hand protects the gastric mucosa. Genetic and epigenetic changes in the mucin molecule may be responsible for idiopathic peptic ulcer disease, but this hypothesis must be further investigated. Herein, the mucin hypothesis of idiopathic peptic ulcer disease is explored.

  16. Serum tumor markers not useful in screening patients with pancreatic mucinous cystic lesions associated with malignant changes

    Raffaele Pezzilli; Lucia Calculli; Gianvico Melzi d’Eril; Alessandra Barassi


    BACKGROUND: Serum cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) pro-vides additional information about mucinous cystic pancre-atic neoplasm (MPN). This study was undertaken to assess both CA19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum concentrations in consecutive patients affected by MPNs and other chronic benign and malignant pancreatic diseases. We also evaluated whether serum CA19-9 and CEA determina-tions provide additional information such as the presence of invasive carcinoma in MPN patients. METHODS: Serum CA19-9 and CEA from 91 patients with pancreatic diseases were tested by commercially available kits at the time of diagnosis. The upper reference limit of serum CA19-9 was 37 U/mL and that of serum CEA was 3 ng/mL. RESULTS: Thirty-ifve patients was diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis (CP), 32 with MPN, and 24 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) conifrmed histologically. Surgery was carried out in 5 CP patients, in 10 MPN patients (7 of them had severe dysplasia), and 9 PDAC patients. Serum CA19-9 activity was high in 12 (34.3%) CP patients, in 7 (21.9%) MPN patients, and in 12 (50.0%) PDAC patients (P=0.089). High se-rum CEA concentrations were noted in 6 (17.1%) CP patients, in 6 (18.8%) MPN patients, and in 12 (50.0%) PDAC patients (P=0.010). In the 7 MPN patients associated with histological-ly conifrmed severe dysplasia, 3 (42.9%) patients had elevated serum activity of serum CA19-9, and 2 (28.6%) patients had high levels of CEA. CONCLUSION: Serum determination of oncological markers is not useful in selecting MPN patients with malignant changes.

  17. Progression of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is significantly impeded with a combination of vaccine and COX-2 inhibition.

    Mukherjee, Pinku; Basu, Gargi D; Tinder, Teresa L; Subramani, Durai B; Bradley, Judy M; Arefayene, Million; Skaar, Todd; De Petris, Giovanni


    With a 5-year survival rate of <5%, pancreatic cancer is one of the most rapidly fatal malignancies. Current protocols for the treatment of pancreas cancer are not as effective as we desire. In this study, we show that a novel Mucin-1 (MUC1)-based vaccine in combination with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), and low-dose chemotherapy (gemcitabine) was effective in preventing the progression of preneoplastic intraepithelial lesions to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The study was conducted in an appropriate triple transgenic model of spontaneous pancreatic cancer induced by the KRAS(G12D) mutation and that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule. The combination treatment elicited robust antitumor cellular and humoral immune responses and was associated with increased apoptosis in the tumor. The mechanism for the increased immune response was attributed to the down-regulation of circulating prostaglandin E(2) and indoleamine 2, 3,-dioxygenase enzymatic activity, as well as decreased levels of T regulatory and myeloid suppressor cells within the tumor microenvironment. The preclinical data provide the rationale to design clinical trials with a combination of MUC1-based vaccine, celecoxib, and gemcitabine for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  18. MUC16 contributes to the metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through focal adhesion mediated signaling mechanism

    Chugh, Seema; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Lakshmanan, Imayavaramban; Gupta, Suprit; Seshacharyulu, Parthasarathy; Smith, Lynette M.; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Batra, Surinder K.


    MUC16, a heavily glycosylated type-I transmembrane mucin is overexpressed in several cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Previously, we have shown that MUC16 is significantly overexpressed in human PDAC tissues. However, the functional consequences and its role in PDAC is poorly understood. Here, we show that MUC16 knockdown decreases PDAC cell proliferation, colony formation and migration in vitro. Also, MUC16 knockdown decreases the tumor formation and metastasis in orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Mechanistically, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses confirms MUC16 interaction with galectin-3 and mesothelin in PDAC cells. Adhesion assay displayed decreased cell attachment of MUC16 knockdown cells with recombinant galectin-1 and galectin-3 protein. Further, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated MUC16 knockout cells show decreased tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (T and Tn) in PDAC cells. Importantly, carbohydrate antigens were decreased in the region that corresponds to MUC16 and suggests for the decreased MUC16-galectin interactions. Co-immunoprecipitation also revealed a novel interaction between MUC16 and FAK in PDAC cells. Interestingly, we observed decreased expression of mesenchymal and increased expression of epithelial markers in MUC16-silenced cells. Additionally, MUC16 loss showed a decreased FAK-mediated Akt and ERK/MAPK activation. Altogether, these findings suggest that MUC16-focal adhesion signaling may play a critical role in facilitating PDAC growth and metastasis. PMID:27382435

  19. Occult Breast Cancer Presenting as Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of Unknown Primary: Clinical Presentation, Immunohistochemistry, and Molecular Analysis

    Jue Wang


    Full Text Available We report a rare presentation of a 66-year-old female with diffuse metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary involving liver, lymphatic system and bone metastases. The neoplastic cells were positive for CK7 and OC125, while negative for CK20, thyroid transcription factor 1, CDX2, BRST-2, chromogranin, synaptophysin, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed no amplification of the HER2/neu gene. Molecular profiling reported a breast cancer origin with a very high confidence score of 98%. The absence of immunohistochemistry staining for ER, PR, and HER2/neu further classified her cancer as triple-negative breast cancer. Additional studies revealed high expression levels of topoisomerase (Topo I, androgen receptor, and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit; the results were negative for thymidylate synthase, Topo II-α and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The patient was initially treated with a combination regimen of cisplatin and etoposide, and she experienced a rapid resolution of cancer-related symptoms. Unfortunately, her therapy was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident (CVA, which was thought to be related to cisplatin and high serum mucin. After recovery from the CVA, the patient was successfully treated with second-line chemotherapy based on her tumor expression profile. We highlight the role of molecular profiling in the diagnosis and management of this patient and the implication of personalized chemotherapy in this challenging disease.

  20. Strategies for screening for pancreatic adenocarcinoma in high-risk patients.

    Canto, Marcia Irene


    Identification of high-risk individuals, genetic counseling, and informed consent are important components of a screening program for familial pancreatic cancer. Screening high-risk individuals with imaging tests, such endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography (CT), can lead to the detection and treatment of predominantly asymptomatic early pancreatic neoplasms, as well as extra-pancreatic tumors. These pancreatic neoplasms consist of resectable, mostly branch-type non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). EUS can visualize these very early IPMNs as focal duct ectasias or cysts. EUS features of chronic pancreatitis are highly prevalent in high-risk individuals and these directly correlate with multifocal lobulocentric parenchymal atrophy due to multifocal pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). No one molecular marker is ready for "prime time" screening of high-risk individuals. Translational studies are underway to discover novel biomarkers for IPMNs, PanIN-3 lesions, or microinvasive adenocarcinoma, which are likely to be cured by timely intervention. Long-term, multi-prospective studies are needed to determine if screening for early pancreatic neoplasia and timely intervention results in decreased pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in high-risk individuals.

  1. Pygmies, Giants, and Skins

    Piekarewicz, J


    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of energetic heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova all depend critically on the nuclear-matter EOS. In this contribution I focus on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I discuss how laboratory experiments on neutron skins as well as on Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of these fascinating objects.

  2. [Giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp].

    Palacios, Fernando; Contardo, Carlos; Guevara, Jorge; Vera, Augusto; Aguilar, Luis; Huamán, Manuel; Palomino, Américo; Yabar, Alejandro


    Fibrovascular polyps are extremely rare benign neoplasias of the esophagus, which usually originate in the lower cricoid area. They do not produce any discomfort in the patient for a long time, however it may make itself evident by the patient's regurgitation of the polyp, producing asphyxia or, more frequently, dysphagia. The case of a 58 year old male patient is presented herein, with a 9 month record of dysphagia, weight loss and intermittent melena. The barium x-ray showed a distended esophagus, with a tumor running from the upper esophageal sphincter to the cardia. The endoscopy confirmed the presence of a pediculated tumor, implanted in the cervical esophagus. Surgeons suspected the potential malignancy of the tumor and performed a transhiatal esophagectomy. The final pathologic diagnosis was giant fibrovascular esophageal polyp.

  3. A giant Ordovician anomalocaridid.

    Van Roy, Peter; Briggs, Derek E G


    Anomalocaridids, giant lightly sclerotized invertebrate predators, occur in a number of exceptionally preserved early and middle Cambrian (542-501 million years ago) biotas and have come to symbolize the unfamiliar morphologies displayed by stem organisms in faunas of the Burgess Shale type. They are characterized by a pair of anterior, segmented appendages, a circlet of plates around the mouth, and an elongate segmented trunk lacking true tergites with a pair of flexible lateral lobes per segment. Disarticulated body parts, such as the anterior appendages and oral circlet, had been assigned to a range of taxonomic groups--but the discovery of complete specimens from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale showed that these disparate elements all belong to a single kind of animal. Phylogenetic analyses support a position of anomalocaridids in the arthropod stem, as a sister group to the euarthropods. The anomalocaridids were the largest animals in Cambrian communities. The youngest unequivocal examples occur in the middle Cambrian Marjum Formation of Utah but an arthropod retaining some anomalocaridid characteristics is present in the Devonian of Germany. Here we report the post-Cambrian occurrence of anomalocaridids, from the Early Ordovician (488-472 million years ago) Fezouata Biota in southeastern Morocco, including specimens larger than any in Cambrian biotas. These giant animals were an important element of some marine communities for about 30 million years longer than previously realized. The Moroccan specimens confirm the presence of a dorsal array of flexible blades attached to a transverse rachis on the trunk segments; these blades probably functioned as gills.

  4. The Giant Magnetocaloric Effect

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.


    Since the discovery of the magnetocaloric effect in pure iron by E.Warburg in 1881, it has been measured experimentally on many magnetic metals and compounds. The majority of the materials studied order magnetically undergoing a second order phase transformation. The magnetocaloric effect, typically peaking near the Curie or the Néel temperature, generally ranges from 0.5 to 2 K (in terms of adiabatic temperature change) or at 1 to 4 J/kg K (in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change) per 1 T magnetic field change. The giant magnetocaloric effect recently discovered in Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where x refrigerant capacity, which is the measure of how much heat can be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir in one ideal thermodynamic cycle, is larger than that of the best second order phase transition materials by 25 to 100%. When the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys are compared with other known materials, which show first order magnetic phase transition, such as Dy, Ho, Er, HoCo_2, NdMn_2Si_2, Fe_0.49Rh_0.51, and (Hf_0.83Ta_0.17)Fe_2+x, only Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 has comparable magnetocaloric properties. However, the first order magnetic phase transition in Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 is irreversible, and the magnetocaloric effect disappears after one magnetizing/demagnetizing cycle. A study of the crystal structure, thermodynamics, and magnetism of the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where 0 basic relations between the composition, the crystal structure, and the change in thermodynamics and magnetocaloric properties, which occur in the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 system, and which brings about the giant magnetocaloric effect when x <= 0.5.

  5. Linfoma de células en anillo de sello que simula carcinoma mucosecretante Signet ing cell lymphoma mimicking mucin-producing carcinoma

    Ana María Saenz de Chirife


    Full Text Available El linfoma de células en anillo de sello es una neoplasia poco frecuente, caracterizada por la presensencia de grandes células de citoplasma vacuolado, claro, similar a los encontrados en adeno-carcinomas mucosecretantes. Se ha descripto en ganglios linfáticos y tejidos extralinfáticos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente varón de 59 años con linfoma de células en anillo de sello localizado en pared lateral de orofaringe. Esta localización creemos que no ha sido descripta anteriormente. La histología mostró células en anillo de sello y el inmunofenotipo tumoral fue: vimentina, CD45, CD20, Ig M y cadenas kappa positivos, siendo la fracción de crecimiento tumoral alta (Ki 67:70%. El paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente y falleció a los dos meses del diagnóstico sin recibir tratamiento.Signet ring cell lymphoma is a rare neoplasm caracterized by large, vacuolated and clear cells mimicking mucin-producing adenocarcinoma. It is localized in nodal and extranodal sites. A case of a 59 years old male, with a diffuse lymphoma signet ring cell type localized on oropharingeal mucosa is reported. The histopathology study showed signet ring cells and the immunophenotype was: vimentine(+, CD45(+, CD20(+, Ig M(+, Kappa chain(+ and high index proliferative activity of neoplastic cells (Ki 67:70%. After a review of the literature and previous reports, we could not find a similar case in this anatomic site. The patient had a unfavourable clinical course and died two months after the diagnosis without receiving any treatment.

  6. Laminin-5 is a biomarker of invasiveness in cervical adenocarcinoma

    Imura Johji


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glandular lesions are often problematic for diagnostic cervical pathology. The survival of patients with adenocarcinoma is significantly poorer than that of patient with squamous cell carcinoma. One reason for this increased risk is the aggressive invasiveness of adenocarcinoma. Therefore additional biomarkers, to supplement morphological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, are necessary. We have assessed the diagnostic utility of Laminin-5 (Laminin γ2 chain: Lam-5 in the diagnosis of the invasiveness of cervical adenocarcinoma and related glandular lesions. Methods Lam-5 immunohistochemistry was performed on archival specimens from 8 patients with uterine leiomyoma as a negative control group, 6 patients with endocervical gland hyperplasia, 6 patients with adenocarcinoma in situ, 6 patients with microinvasive adenocarcinoma and 24 patients with invasive adenocarcinoma. Results The expression of Lam-5 was not detected in normal mucosa, but was seen along the basement membrane in endocervical gland hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in situ and was observed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in microinvasive and invasive adenocarcinoma. Conclusion We conclude that Lam-5 is a useful biomarker in the evaluation of invasiveness in cervical adenocarcinoma. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here:

  7. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs.

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L


    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs.

  8. Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Invertebrates

    Erika Staudacher


    Full Text Available O-Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications of proteins. It takes part in protein conformation, protein sorting, developmental processes and the modulation of enzymatic activities. In vertebrates, the basics of the biosynthetic pathway of O-glycans are already well understood. However, the regulation of the processes and the molecular aspects of defects, especially in correlation with cancer or developmental abnormalities, are still under investigation. The knowledge of the correlating invertebrate systems and evolutionary aspects of these highly conserved biosynthetic events may help improve the understanding of the regulatory factors of this pathway. Invertebrates display a broad spectrum of glycosylation varieties, providing an enormous potential for glycan modifications which may be used for the design of new pharmaceutically active substances. Here, overviews of the present knowledge of invertebrate mucin-type O-glycan structures and the currently identified enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these oligosaccharides are presented, and the few data dealing with functional aspects of O-glycans are summarised.

  9. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; M. Lee, Janet; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqin; Spindler, Tassja J.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wlodzimierz, Sawicki; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Berchuck, Andrew


    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas (OC) but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Genotypes from OC cases and controls were imputed into the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. Analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls identified three novel risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10−8), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10−12) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10−13). Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis in ovarian and colorectal tumors (which are histologically similar to MOC) identified significant eQTL associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10−4, FDR = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors, and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease. PMID:26075790

  10. Dynamic force spectroscopy of parallel individual mucin1-antibody bonds

    Sulchek, T A; Friddle, R W; Langry, K; Lau, E; Albrecht, H; Ratto, T; DeNardo, S; Colvin, M E; Noy, A


    We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure the binding forces between Mucin1 (MUC1) peptide and a single chain antibody fragment (scFv) selected from a scFv library screened against MUC1. This binding interaction is central to the design of the molecules for targeted delivery of radioimmunotherapeutic agents for prostate and breast cancer treatment. Our experiments separated the specific binding interaction from non-specific interactions by tethering the antibody and MUC1 molecules to the AFM tip and sample surface with flexible polymer spacers. Rupture force magnitude and elastic characteristics of the spacers allowed identification of the bond rupture events corresponding to different number of interacting proteins. We used dynamic force spectroscopy to estimate the intermolecular potential widths and equivalent thermodynamic off rates for mono-, bi-, and tri-valent interactions. Measured interaction potential parameters agree with the results of molecular docking simulation. Our results demonstrate that an increase of the interaction valency leads to a precipitous decline in the dissociation rate. Binding forces measured for mono and multivalent interactions match the predictions of a Markovian model for the strength of multiple uncorrelated bonds in parallel configuration. Our approach is promising for comparison of the specific effects of molecular modifications as well as for determination of the best configuration of antibody-based multivalent targeting agents.

  11. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure.

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti


    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  12. Short mucin 6 alleles are associated with H pylori infection

    Thai V Nguyen; Marcel JR Janssen; Paulien Gritters; René HM te Morsche; Joost PH Drenth; Henri van Asten; Robert JF Laheij; Jan BMJ Jansen


    AIM: To investigate the relationship between mucin 6(MUC6) VNTR length and H pylori infection.METHODS: Blood samples were collected from patients visiting the Can Tho General Hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. DNA was isolated from whole blood, the repeated section was cut out using a restriction enzyme (Pvu Ⅱ) and the length of the allele fragments was determined by Southern blotting. H pylori infection was diagnosed by 14C urea breath test. For analysis, MUC6 allele fragment length was dichotomized as being either long (> 13.5 kbp) or short (≤ 13.5 kbp)and patients were classified according to genotype [long-long (LL), long-short (LS), short-short (SS)].RESULTS: 160 patients were studied (mean age 43years, 36% were males, 58% H pylori positive). MUC6Pvu Ⅱ-restricted allele fragment lengths ranged from 7 to 19 kbp. Of the patients with the LL, LS, SS MUC6genotype, 43% (24/56), 57% (25/58) and 76% (11/46)were infected with H pylori, respectively (P = 0.003).CONCLUSION: Short MUC6 alleles are associated with H pylori infection.

  13. Blood group type antigens in pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms

    Adriana H; ra-Luca


    BACKGROUND: There are few data on blood group (BG) types and types of pancreatic cancers. The aims of this study were to study BG types and BG-antigens in pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). METHODS: BG  type  and  tumor  BG-antigen  (glycoprotein) expression  (studied  by  immunohistochemistry  on  tissue microarrays) were analyzed with regard to characteristics of 101 surgically resected pancreatic IPMNs. RESULTS: Non-O  BG  type  predicted  invasive  carcinoma independently from high serum CA19-9 and male gender. BG type A was observed more frequently in women than in men. Chronic pancreatitis was more frequently seen in patients with BG type B or AB. Aberrant tumor expression (with regard to BG type) of loss of A antigen expression type occurred in 15.0% of IPMNs and of loss of B antigen expression type in 62.5% of IPMNs. Intraneoplasm BG-antigen expression was not related to dysplasia grade or invasion. CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that in pancreatic IPMN, non-O BG type predicted invasive carcinoma, whereas for intratumor BG-antigen expression no speciifc patterns were detected with regard to the progression of glandular epithelial dysplasia or invasion.

  14. The tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, is involved in bronchial mucin production during oxidative stress.

    Jang, Min Kyoung; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Keun Ae; Park, Chan Sun; Bae, Yun Jeong; Zhu, Zhou; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook


    Mucus hypersecretion is a clinically important manifestation of chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucin production in airway epithelia is increased under conditions of oxidative stress. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 suppression is related to the development of airway inflammation and increased ROS levels. In this study, we investigated the role of SHP-1 in mucin secretion triggered by oxidative stress. Human lung mucoepidermoid H292 carcinoma cells were transfected with specific siRNA to eliminate SHP-1 gene expression. Cultured cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and Mucin 5AC(MUC5AC) gene expression and mucin production were determined. Activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in association with MUC5AC production was evaluated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was employed to determine whether antioxidants could block MUC5AC production. To establish the precise role of p38, mucin expression was observed after pre-treatment of SHP-1-depleted H292 cells with the p38 chemical blocker. We investigated the in vivo effects of oxidative stress on airway mucus production in SHP-1-deficient heterozygous (mev/+) mice. MUC5AC expression was enhanced in SHP-1 knockdown H292 cells exposed to H(2)O(2), compared to that in control cells. The ratio between phosphorylated and total p38 was significantly increased in SHP-1-deficient cells under oxidative stress. Pre-treatment with NAC suppressed both MUC5AC production and p38 activation. Blockage of p38 MAPK led to suppression of MUC5AC mRNA expression. Notably, mucin production was enhanced in the airway epithelia of mev/+ mice exposed to oxidative stress. Our results clearly indicate that SHP-1 plays an important role in airway mucin production through regulating oxidative stress.

  15. Landscape of the lost giants


    The Pleistocene megafauna extinction erased a group of remarkable animals. Whether humans had a prominent role in the extinction remains controversial, but it is emerging that the disappearance of the giants has markedly affected the environment.

  16. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Marley, M S; Seager, S; Barman, T; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan; Seager, Sara; Barman, Travis


    The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum--and hence its detectability and evolution--lies with its atmosphere. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets are in hand, atmosphere models can be used to constrain atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important physical processes that influence the atmospheric structure and evolution of extrasolar giant planets and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and atmospheric chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a ...

  17. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Marley, Mark


    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  18. DNA methylation changes in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, and lung adenocarcinoma.

    Suhaida A Selamat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation is common in lung adenocarcinoma, but its timing in the phases of tumor development is largely unknown. Delineating when abnormal DNA methylation arises may provide insight into the natural history of lung adenocarcinoma and the role that DNA methylation alterations play in tumor formation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used MethyLight, a sensitive real-time PCR-based quantitative method, to analyze DNA methylation levels at 15 CpG islands that are frequently methylated in lung adenocarcinoma and that we had flagged as potential markers for non-invasive detection. We also used two repeat probes as indicators of global DNA hypomethylation. We examined DNA methylation in 249 tissue samples from 93 subjects, spanning the putative spectrum of peripheral lung adenocarcinoma development: histologically normal adjacent non-tumor lung, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH, adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, formerly known as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, and invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Comparison of DNA methylation levels between the lesion types suggests that DNA hypermethylation of distinct loci occurs at different time points during the development of lung adenocarcinoma. DNA methylation at CDKN2A ex2 and PTPRN2 is already significantly elevated in AAH, while CpG islands at 2C35, EYA4, HOXA1, HOXA11, NEUROD1, NEUROD2 and TMEFF2 are significantly hypermethylated in AIS. In contrast, hypermethylation at CDH13, CDX2, OPCML, RASSF1, SFRP1 and TWIST1 and global DNA hypomethylation appear to be present predominantly in invasive cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The gradual increase in DNA methylation seen for numerous loci in progressively more transformed lesions supports the model in which AAH and AIS are sequential stages in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. The demarcation of DNA methylation changes characteristic for AAH, AIS and adenocarcinoma begins to lay out a possible roadmap for aberrant DNA

  19. Salivary mucins induce a Toll-like receptor 4-mediated pro-inflammatory response in human submandibular salivary cells: are mucins involved in Sjögren's syndrome?

    Barrera, María-José; Aguilera, Sergio; Veerman, Enno; Quest, Andrew F G; Díaz-Jiménez, David; Urzúa, Ulises; Cortés, Juan; González, Sergio; Castro, Isabel; Molina, Claudio; Bahamondes, Verónica; Leyton, Cecilia; Hermoso, Marcela A; González, María-Julieta


    A hallmark characteristic of SS patients is the ectopic presence of the mucins MUC5B and MUC7 in the extracellular matrix of salivary glands that have lost apical-basolateral acinar-cell polarity. This study aims to determine whether exogenous salivary mucins induce gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as to evaluate whether the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) pathway is involved in this response. Differentiated human submandibular gland (HSG) cells were stimulated with mucins or oligosaccharide residues at different concentrations and for different periods of time. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors was determined by semi-quantitative real time PCR (sqPCR). TLR4-mediated responses induced by mucin were evaluated with the Toll-IL-1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) inhibitory peptide or using anti-hTLR4 blocking antibody. TLR4-receptor expression was also determined in SS patients, controls and HSG cells. Mucins induced a significant increase in CXCL8, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-6 and IL-1β, but not B cell activating factor (BAFF). Cytokine induction was mediated by TLR4, as shown using TIRAP or using anti-hTLR4 antibody. Sugar residues present in MUC5B, such as sulpho-Lewis (SO3-3Galβ1-3GlcNAc), also induced cytokines. Unexpectedly, mucins induced MUC5B, but not MUC7 expression. Salivary mucins were recognized by TLR4 in epithelial cells initiating a pro-inflammatory response that could attract inflammatory cells to amplify and perpetuate inflammation and thereby contribute to the development of a chronic state characteristic of SS. The ectopic localization of MUC5B and MUC7 in the salivary gland extracellular matrix from SS patients and the current results reveal the importance of salivary epithelial cells in innate immunity, as well as in SS pathogenesis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  20. Annular Elastolytic Giant Cell Granuloma

    Khandpur Sujay


    Full Text Available The clinical and histopathological features of annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in a 42â€"year-old female patient are described. The condition presented as annular erythematous plaques over sun- exposed skin sparing the face. Histopathology revealed dense granulomatous infiltrate consisting of numerous giant cells and lymphohistiocytes without any palisading arrangement or necrobiosis. The features differentiating it from other similar granulomatous disorders are discussed.

  1. Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum with Cutaneous Metastases

    Nohad Hanbala


    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastases of rectal carcinoma is a rare event. It occurs in fewer than 4% of all patients with rectal cancer. When present, it typically signifies a disseminated disease with a poor prognosis. Early detection and proper diagnosis of metastatic rectal cancer can significantly alter treatment and prognosis. We report a 70-year-oldmale who underwent rectal resection with permanent colostomy for rectal adenocarcinoma since seven years. The patient recently developed multiple skin nodules, mainly in his face, scalp, and upper trunk, associated with itching. Fine needle aspiration cytology from a face nodule was done which revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma associated with severe inflammation. Cutaneous metastasis of rectaladenocarcinoma is an unusual event that presents mainly in the form of skin nodules and could be the first sign of metastasis. Early diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis in these patients is important because it can alter treatment and prognosis.

  2. Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma Presenting as a Rectal Polyp

    Erin Fitzgerald


    Full Text Available Appendiceal adenocarcinoma typically presents as an incidentally noted appendiceal mass, or with symptoms of right lower quadrant pain that can mimic appendicitis, but local involvement of adjacent organs is uncommon, particularly as the presenting sign. We report on a case of a primary appendiceal cancer initially diagnosed as a rectal polyp based on its appearance in the rectal lumen. The management of the patient was in keeping with standard practice for a rectal polyp, and the diagnosis of appendiceal adenocarcinoma was made intraoperatively. The operative strategy had to be adjusted due to this unexpected finding. Although there are published cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma inducing intussusception and thus mimicking a cecal polyp, there are no reports in the literature describing invasion of the appendix through the rectal wall and thus mimicking a rectal polyp. The patient is a 75-year-old female who presented with spontaneous hematochezia and, on colonoscopy, was noted to have a rectal polyp that appeared to be located within a diverticulum. When endoscopic mucosal resection was not successful, she was referred to colorectal surgery for a low anterior resection. Preoperative imaging was notable for an enlarged appendix adjacent to the rectum. Intraoperatively, the appendix was found to be densely adherent to the right lateral rectal wall. An en bloc resection of the distal sigmoid colon, proximal rectum and appendix was performed, with pathology demonstrating appendiceal adenocarcinoma that invaded through the rectal wall. The prognosis in this type of malignancy weighs heavily on whether or not perforation and spread throughout the peritoneal cavity have occurred. In this unusual presentation, an en bloc resection is required for a complete resection and to minimize the risk of peritoneal spread. Unusual appearing polyps do not always originate from the bowel wall. Abnormal radiographic findings adjacent to an area of

  3. Bone and brain metastases from ampullary adenocarcinoma

    Ioannis A Voutsadakis; Stergios Doumas; Konstantinos Tsapakidis; Maria Papagianni; Christos N Papandreou


    Ampullary carcinoma is the second most common cancer of the peri-ampullary area after pancreatic carcinoma and metastasizes mostly intra-abdominally and to the liver. Extra-abdominal metastases are less frequent. In this report we describe the case of a patient with resected adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater who developed skeletal metastases in the lower extremity and brain metastases. We briefly discuss aspects of this comparatively rare gastrointestinal malignancy.

  4. Treatment of urachal adenocarcinoma-case report

    Mekić-Abazović Alma


    Full Text Available In this case, we have presented a 55-year old patient with dysuria and bloody urine. He was hospitalized at the Urology Department of County Zenica Hospital due to obstructive uropathy. Diagnostics showed the cause is a large bleeding mass in prostatic part of urethra. After cystectomy, immunohistochemistry revealed urachal adenocarcinoma, rare type of urogenital carcinomas, presented only in 5% of all cancer types. He was treated with dual modality, chemotherapy and radiotherapy

  5. Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma

    Kamel A. Gharaibeh


    Full Text Available Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations.

  6. Rare Endoscopic Manifestation of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Haritha Chelimilla


    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer secondary to direct invasion from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is rare. Metastases to the stomach have been commonly reported with melanoma and with primary tumors of the breast, lung, ovary, liver, colon and testis. We report a patient who presented with epigastric pain and in whom subsequently upper endoscopy showed a malignant gastric ulcer secondary to direct invasion from pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the body. An 81-year-old female presented to our hospital with epigastric pain and subsequently underwent endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasound for evaluation of a pancreatic body mass. She had a large gastric ulcer in the fundus which was in direct continuity with the pancreatic mass. Pathology from biopsy of the ulcer revealed invasive well-to-moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma, and immunohistochemical stains were strongly positive for CA19-9, CK7, CK19 and carcinoembryonic antigen. These findings were consistent with a histopathological diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma of the pancreas. Patients with gastrointestinal metastases usually have advanced malignancy with poor prognosis. Endoscopic evaluation with adequate biopsies should be performed for symptomatic patients.

  7. Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: time for a new synthesis.

    Reid, Brian J; Li, Xiaohong; Galipeau, Patricia C; Vaughan, Thomas L


    The public health importance of Barrett's oesophagus lies in its association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has risen at an alarming rate over the past four decades in many regions of the Western world, and there are indications that the incidence of this disease is on the rise in Asian populations in which it has been rare. Much has been learned of host and environmental risk factors that affect the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and data indicate that patients with Barrett's oesophagus rarely develop oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Given that 95% of oesophageal adenocarcinomas arise in individuals without a prior diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus, what strategies can be used to reduce late diagnosis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma?

  8. Microstructural evaluation of the mucin balls and their relations to the corneal surface-Insights by in vivo confocal microscopy.

    Grupcheva, Christina N; Grupchev, Dimitar I; Radeva, Mladena N; Vankova, Desislava I; Manolova, Yana M


    The purpose of the current study was to observe and correlate the characteristics of mucin balls to the ocular surface properties, and furthermore, to report the effect of different mucin balls size and number on structural alteration of the anterior cornea. The study included, two groups of patients fitted with one-month continuous, extended wear lenses for therapeutic (group 1) and optical (group 2) purposes; the later serving as a control group. Group 1 was comprised of patients with recurrent erosion syndrome, while group 2 included subjects with mild myopia and voluntary use of continuous wear lenses. The examination was performed when mucin balls were encountered during a routine visit. Clinical examination was reinforced with laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy, which provided microstructural observations. The appearance and size of the mucin balls were described and measured at two independent time points. Qualitative analysis included shape (round, elliptical and irregular) and reflectivity (bright, homogenous and dark, heterogonous). Clinically 1460 mucin balls were encountered (822 in group 1 and 638 in group 2). The number of mucin balls analyzed by in vivo confocal microscopy was 820. Diversity was higher in group 1. The mucin balls of group 2, were more uniform - rounded in shape 81,2% and regular in reflectivity 98%. Qualitative analysis revealed a negative correlation between the size of the balls and impact on the basal epithelium morphology and also "activation" of the anterior stroma in adjacent areas. Mucin balls affect corneal surface including both epithelia disintegration as well as keratocyte "activation". The main predisposing factor for mucin ball formation appear to be the corneal surface irregularity. As structural alterations of the cornea are transient, mucin balls might be beneficial for corneal restoration due to mechanical and/or biochemical stimulation. In vivo, confocal microscopy is an innovative tool for evaluating mucin

  9. Gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma

    Bang Wool Eom; So-Youn Jung; Hongman Yoon; Myeong-Cherl Kook; Keun Won Ryu; Jun Ho Lee; Young-Woo Kim


    We report a case of gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an α-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma .A 70-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer that was detected during screening by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Initial laboratory data showed the increased serum level of AFP and EGD revealed a 5-cm ulcerofungating mass in the greater curvature of the gastric antrum.The patient underwent radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection and Billroth Ⅱ gastrojejunostomy. Histopathological evaluation confirmed double primary gastric cancer: gastric choriocarcinoma admixed with an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma and separated adenocarcinoma. At 2 wk postoperatively, his human chorionic gonadotropin and AFP levels had reduced and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were initiated. No recurrence or distant metastasis was observed at 4 years postoperatively.

  10. Probing the interaction of nanoparticles with mucin for drug delivery applications using dynamic light scattering.

    Griffiths, Peter Charles; Cattoz, Beatrice; Ibrahim, Mervat Shafik; Anuonye, Josephine Chibuzor


    Drug delivery via the eye, nose, gastrointestinal tract and lung is of great interest as they represent patient-compliant and facile methods to administer drugs. However, for a drug to reach the systemic circulation it must penetrate the "mucus barrier". An understanding of the characteristics of the mucus barrier is therefore important in the design of mucus penetrating drug delivery vehicles e.g. nanoparticles. Here, a range of nanoparticles - silica, aluminium coated silica, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PEGylated PLGA - each with known but different physicochemical characteristics were examined in the presence of mucin to identify those characteristics that engender nanoparticle/mucin interactions and thus, to define "design rules" for mucus penetrating (nano)particles (MPP), at least in terms of the surface characteristics of charge and hydrophilicity. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and rheology have been used to assess the interaction between such nanoparticles and mucin. It was found that negatively charged and hydrophilic nanoparticles do not exhibit an interaction with mucin whereas positively charged and hydrophobic nanoparticles show a strong interaction. Surface grafted poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains significantly reduced this interaction. This study clearly demonstrates that the established colloid science techniques of DLS and rheology are very powerful screening tools to probe nanoparticle/mucin interactions.

  11. Synthesis of mucin-type glycoprotein; Muchingata to tanbakushitsu no gosei

    Kitamura, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)


    A mucin-type glycoprotein has a configuration in which serine or threonine is bonded at 1-position of N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) with a sugar chain of galactose or sialic acid bonded thereto. The mucin-type glycoprotein is paid attention in researches in respect to the progress and dislocation of carcinoma. A method used in conventional synthesis of such a kind of compounds is to introduce an amino acid residue after the whole sugar chain portion is constructed. However, there is risk in this synthesis that great loss in yield may occur in the final stage. Danishefsky et al. noticed that, for a mucin-type protein, the first sugar bonded to the amino acid is GalNAc, and therefore suggested a new synthesizing method named mucin-type cassette approach. Specifically, this method is characterized in introducing serine or threonine to 1-position of a GalNAc derivative to obtain GalNAc{alpha}l-Ser/Thr derivative, and then extending a sugar chain thereto. As a consequence, cassette approach shows effectiveness in syntheses of mucin-type proteins. (NEDO)

  12. Effect of guaifenesin on mucin production, rheology, and mucociliary transport in differentiated human airway epithelial cells.

    Seagrave, JeanClare; Albrecht, Helmut; Park, Yong Sung; Rubin, Bruce; Solomon, Gail; Kim, K Chul


    Guaifenesin is widely used to alleviate symptoms of excessive mucus accumulation in the respiratory tract. However, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that guaifenesin improves mucociliary clearance in humans by reducing mucin release, by decreasing mucus viscoelasticity, and by increasing mucociliary transport. To test these hypotheses, human differentiated airway epithelial cells, cultured at an air-liquid interface, were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of guaifenesin by addition to the basolateral medium. To evaluate the effect on mucin secretion, the authors used an anzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the amounts of MUC5AC protein in apical surface fluid and cell lysates. To measure mucociliary transportability, additional cultures were treated for 1 or 6 hours with guaifenesin, and the movement of cell debris was measured from video data. Further, the authors measured mucus dynamic viscoelasticity using a micro cone and plate rheometer with nondestructive creep transformation. Guaifenesin suppressed mucin production in a dose-dependent manner at clinically relevant concentrations. The reduced mucin production was associated with increased mucociliary transport and decreased viscoelasticity of the mucus. Viability of the cultures was not significantly affected. These results suggest that guaifenesin could improve mucociliary clearance in humans by reducing the release and/or production of mucins, thereby altering mucus rheology.

  13. Barrier role of actin filaments in regulated mucin secretion from airway goblet cells.

    Ehre, Camille; Rossi, Andrea H; Abdullah, Lubna H; De Pestel, Kathleen; Hill, Sandra; Olsen, John C; Davis, C William


    Airway goblet cells secrete mucin onto mucosal surfaces under the regulation of an apical, phospholipase C/G(q)-coupled P2Y(2) receptor. We tested whether cortical actin filaments negatively regulate exocytosis in goblet cells by forming a barrier between secretory granules and plasma membrane docking sites as postulated for other secretory cells. Immunostaining of human lung tissues and SPOC1 cells (an epithelial, mucin-secreting cell line) revealed an apical distribution of beta- and gamma-actin in ciliated and goblet cells. In goblet cells, actin appeared as a prominent subplasmalemmal sheet lying between granules and the apical membrane, and it disappeared from SPOC1 cells activated by purinergic agonist. Disruption of actin filaments with latrunculin A stimulated SPOC1 cell mucin secretion under basal and agonist-activated conditions, whereas stabilization with jasplakinolide or overexpression of beta- or gamma-actin conjugated to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) inhibited secretion. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, a PKC-activated actin-plasma membrane tethering protein, was phosphorylated after agonist stimulation, suggesting a translocation to the cytosol. Scinderin (or adseverin), a Ca(2+)-activated actin filament severing and capping protein was cloned from human airway and SPOC1 cells, and synthetic peptides corresponding to its actin-binding domains inhibited mucin secretion. We conclude that actin filaments negatively regulate mucin secretion basally in airway goblet cells and are dynamically remodeled in agonist-stimulated cells to promote exocytosis.

  14. Mucinous versus nonmucinous solitary pulmonary nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: CT and FDG PET findings and pathologic comparisons.

    Lee, Ho Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Joungho; Kim, Byung-Tae; Cho, Young-Seok; Shim, Young Mog; Kim, Jhingook


    We aimed to evaluate the CT, PET, and pathologic findings of solitary pulmonary nodular mucinous and nonmucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BACs). From August 2003 to March 2008, we saw 24 patients with solitary pulmonary nodular mucinous (n=6) or nonmucinous (n=18) BACs that were resected. CT and PET findings of the lesions were assessed in terms of size, solidity, morphologic characteristics, attenuation and maximum standardized uptake value (mSUV). All nonmucinous BACs appeared as a pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodule, whereas mucinous BACs appeared as solid (n=4) or part-solid (n=2) nodules. CT attenuation values were significantly higher for mucinous BACs (-21.0 HU+/-4.9) than for nonmucinous BACs (-491.8 HU+/-172.5) (PBACs and 0.5+/-0.8 for nonmucinous BACs (P=.007), but mSUVs were not statistically different after size adjustment (r=0.371, P=.081). Mucinous BACs appear as solid or part-solid nodules at CT, whereas nonmucinous BACs present as pure GGO nodules. Both subtypes of tumors show scant FDG uptake at PET.

  15. Biopolymeric Mucin and Synthetic Polymer Analogs: Their Structure, Function and Role in Biomedical Applications

    Sundar P. Authimoolam


    Full Text Available Mucin networks are viscoelastic fibrillar aggregates formed through the complex self-association of biopolymeric glycoprotein chains. The networks form a lubricious, hydrated protective shield along epithelial regions within the human body. The critical role played by mucin networks in impacting the transport properties of biofunctional molecules (e.g., biogenic molecules, probes, nanoparticles, and its effect on bioavailability are well described in the literature. An alternate perspective is provided in this paper, presenting mucin’s complex network structure, and its interdependent functional characteristics in human physiology. We highlight the recent advances that were achieved through the use of mucin in diverse areas of bioengineering applications (e.g., drug delivery, biomedical devices and tissue engineering. Mucin network formation is a highly complex process, driven by wide variety of molecular interactions, and the network possess structural and chemical variations, posing a great challenge to understand mucin’s bulk behavior. Through this review, the prospective potential of polymer based analogs to serve as mucin mimic is suggested. These analog systems, apart from functioning as an artificial model, reducing the current dependency on animal models, can aid in furthering our fundamental understanding of such complex structures.

  16. Bringing Low the Giants


    Their work goes on unseen, because they a hundred metres beneath your feet. But while the race against the clock to build the LHC has begun on the surface, teams underground are feverishly engaged to dismantle LEP and its experiments. Four months after the start of dismantling, the technical coordinators of the different experiments discuss the progress of work. Little men attack the giant ALEPH. The barrel and its two endcaps have been removed to the end of the cavern and stripped of their cables. The breaking up of the detector can now begin. At ALEPH, counting rooms removed all in one go Jean-Paul Fabre, technical coordinator at ALEPH:'After making safe the structure, the first step was to remove the wiring and cables. Some 210 cubic metres were brought out. Then the counting rooms all round the detector were taken out. They were brought up from the cavern all in one go, up through the shaft, which is 10 metres wide and 150 metres deep. They made it with 15 centimetres to spare. They have been emptied of...

  17. Giant high occipital encephalocele

    Agrawal Amit


    Full Text Available Encephaloceles are rare embryological mesenchymal developmental anomalies resulting from inappropriate ossification in skull through with herniation of intracranial contents of the sac. Encephaloceles are classified based on location of the osseous defect and contents of sac. Convexity encephalocele with osseous defect in occipital bone is called occipital encephalocele. Giant occipital encephaloceles can be sometimes larger than the size of baby skull itself and they pose a great surgical challenge. Occipital encephaloceles (OE are further classified as high OE when defect is only in occipital bone above the foramen magnum, low OE when involving occipital bone and foramen magnum and occipito-cervical when there involvement of occipital bone, foramen magnum and posterior upper neural arches. Chiari III malformation can be associated with high or low occipital encephaloceles. Pre-operatively, it is essential to know the size of the sac, contents of the sac, relation to the adjacent structures, presence or absence of venous sinuses/vascular structures and osseous defect size. Sometimes it becomes imperative to perform both CT and MRI for the necessary information. Volume rendered CT images can depict the relation of osseous defect to foramen magnum and provide information about upper neural arches which is necessary in classifying these lesions.

  18. Giant cell arteritis.

    Ninan, Jem; Lester, Susan; Hill, Catherine


    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common vasculitis of the elderly. The diagnosis can be challenging at times because of the limitation of the American Rheumatology Association (ARA) classification criteria and the significant proportion of biopsy-negative patients with GCA. We discuss the role of advanced imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, in establishing diagnosis and improved histopathology techniques to improve the sensitivity of temporal artery biopsy. There have been significant advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of GCA, particularly the role of cytokine pathways such as the interleukins, IL-6-IL-17 axis, and the IL-12-interferon-γ axis and their implication for new therapies. We highlight that glucocorticoids remain the primary treatment for GCA, but recognize the risk of steroid-induced side effects. A number of pharmacotherapies to enable glucocorticoid dose reduction and prevent relapse have been studied. Early diagnosis and fast-track pathways have improved outcomes by encouraging adherence to evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rotation of Giant Stars

    Kissin, Yevgeni


    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5 and $5\\,M_\\odot$, taking into account mass loss on the giant branches and the partitioning of angular momentum between the outer and inner envelope. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag as well as the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles $\\Omega(r)$ is considered in the deep convective envelope, ranging from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force on the inward pumping of angular momentum, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core ro...

  20. Imaging Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Bowler, Brendan P


    High-contrast adaptive optics imaging is a powerful technique to probe the architectures of planetary systems from the outside-in and survey the atmospheres of self-luminous giant planets. Direct imaging has rapidly matured over the past decade and especially the last few years with the advent of high-order adaptive optics systems, dedicated planet-finding instruments with specialized coronagraphs, and innovative observing and post-processing strategies to suppress speckle noise. This review summarizes recent progress in high-contrast imaging with particular emphasis on observational results, discoveries near and below the deuterium-burning limit, and a practical overview of large-scale surveys and dedicated instruments. I conclude with a statistical meta-analysis of deep imaging surveys in the literature. Based on observations of 384 unique and single young ($\\approx$5--300~Myr) stars spanning stellar masses between 0.1--3.0~\\Msun, the overall occurrence rate of 5--13~\\Mjup \\ companions at orbital distances ...

  1. Higher prevalence of obesity in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma compared to gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma.

    Cho, Yuri; Lee, Dong Ho; Oh, Hong Sang; Seo, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Nayoung; Jeong, Sook Hyang; Kim, Jin Wook; Hwang, Jin Hyuk; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Hyub; Shin, Cheol Min; Jo, Hyun Jin; Jung, Hyun Chae; Yoon, Yong Bum; Song, In Sung


    Obesity is one of the main risk factors for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) in the West. Also, recent studies have suggested that GCA is distinct from distal stomach tumor, with differing risk factors, tumor characteristics, and biological behavior. The objective of our research was to evaluate the relationship between obesity and GCA compared to non-cardia adenocarcinoma. A total of 298 patients who were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma and underwent surgery at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were evaluated. Ninety-one cases were GCA, and 207 cases were non-cardiac adenocarcinoma. Obesity was estimated by body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)). The degree of obesity was determined by using BMI obese, respectively. Association with obesity was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Obesity was more prevalent in patients with GCA at the time of diagnosis for gastric cancer. Among obese persons with a BMI of 28 kg/m(2) or higher, the OR was 3.937 (95% CI, 1.492-10.389; p = 0.006) for GCA compared to non-cardia adenocarcinoma. For overweight individuals, the OR was 2.194 (95% CI, 1.118-4.305; p = 0.022). Multivariate analysis of age, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, stage, and BMI with logistic regression was performed. BMI was an independent risk factor for GCA (OR, 1.123; 95% CI, 1.037-1.217; p = 0.004). Obesity was more prevalent in patients with GCA compared to that in patients with gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. Also, BMI was an independent risk factor for GCA.

  2. Analysis of a Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTB) and Human Mucin 1 (MUC1) Conjugate Protein in a MUC1 Tolerant Mouse Model

    Pinkhasov, Julia; Alvarez, M. Lucrecia; Pathangey, Latha B.; Tinder, Teresa L.; Mason, Hugh S.; Walmsley, Amanda M.; Gendler, Sandra J.; Mukherjee, Pinku


    Since epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) is associated with several adenocarcinomas at mucosal sites, it is pertinent to test the efficacy of a mucosally targeted vaccine formulation. The B subunit of the Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin (CTB) has great potential to act as a mucosal carrier for subunit vaccines. In the present study we evaluated whether a MUC1 tandem repeat (TR) peptide chemically linked to CTB would break self-antigen tolerance in the transgenic MUC1 tolerant mouse model (MUC1.Tg) through oral or parenteral immunizations. We report that oral immunization with the CTB-MUC1 conjugate along with mucosal adjuvant, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12), did not break self-antigen tolerance in MUC1.Tg mice, but induced a strong humoral response in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, self-antigen tolerance in the MUC1.Tg mouse model was broken after parenteral immunizations with different doses of the CTB-MUC1 conjugate protein and with the adjuvant CpG ODN co-delivered with CTB-MUC1. Importantly, mice immunized systemically with CpG ODN alone and with CTB-MUC1 exhibited decreased tumor burden when challenged with a mammary gland tumor cell line that expresses human MUC1. PMID:20824430

  3. Analysis of a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and human mucin 1 (MUC1) conjugate protein in a MUC1-tolerant mouse model.

    Pinkhasov, Julia; Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Mason, Hugh S; Walmsley, Amanda M; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku


    Since epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) is associated with several adenocarcinomas at the mucosal sites, it is pertinent to test the efficacy of a mucosally targeted vaccine formulation. The B subunit of the Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin (CTB) has great potential to act as a mucosal carrier for subunit vaccines. In the present study we evaluated whether a MUC1 tandem repeat (TR) peptide chemically linked to CTB would break self-antigen tolerance in the transgenic MUC1-tolerant mouse model (MUC1.Tg) through oral or parenteral immunizations. We report that oral immunization with the CTB-MUC1 conjugate along with mucosal adjuvant, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) did not break self-antigen tolerance in MUC1.Tg mice, but induced a strong humoral response in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, self-antigen tolerance in the MUC1.Tg mouse model was broken after parenteral immunizations with different doses of the CTB-MUC1 conjugate protein and with the adjuvant CpG ODN co-delivered with CTB-MUC1. Importantly, mice immunized systemically with CpG ODN alone and with CTB-MUC1 exhibited decreased tumor burden when challenged with a mammary gland tumor cell line that expresses human MUC1.

  4. Pre-neoplastic lesion, mucin-depleted foci, reveals de novo high-grade dysplasia in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Cui, Changxu; Takamatsu, Reika; Doguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Akiko; Saio, Masanao; Yoshimi, Naoki


    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) have recently been recognized as pre-neoplastic lesions in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents. In the present study, we analyzed the sequential development of ACF and MDF histopathologically in the colon of rats from 5 to 40 weeks after DMH treatment. The numbers of ACF per colon increased over time during the experiment, and were much higher than the number in tumors, while the number of MDF per colon remained unchanged from the early stage (the 5th week after carcinogen exposure), and approximate to those in tumors. The incidence of ACF, which was much higher than that of tumors, also increased gradually in a time-dependent manner. The incidence of MDF, however, was similar to that of tumors and did not change significantly during the whole experiment. No lesion as dysplasia with high-grade (DHG) or adenocarcinoma (AC) were found in any large ACF from the 5th to 40th week histopathologically, whereas all of the large MDF showed DHG or AC features. Even at 5 weeks, MDF showed features of DHG. We classified these into two forms of MDF: flat and protruded MDF. At 40 weeks, the number of flat MDF per colon decreased significantly compared with that at 20 weeks (pMDF per colon increased (pMDF lesion decreased but that of AC increased remarkably. In conclusion, MDF may develop into cancer through the so-called 'de novo cancer' pathway.

  5. Digital next-generation sequencing identifies low-abundance mutations in pancreatic juice samples collected from the duodenum of patients with pancreatic cancer and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

    Yu, Jun; Sadakari, Yoshihiko; Shindo, Koji; Suenaga, Masaya; Brant, Aaron; Almario, Jose Alejandro Navarro; Borges, Michael; Barkley, Thomas; Fesharakizadeh, Shahriar; Ford, Madeline; Hruban, Ralph H; Shin, Eun Ji; Lennon, Anne Marie; Canto, Marcia Irene; Goggins, Michael


    Secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice contains DNA shed from cells lining the pancreatic ducts. Genetic analysis of this fluid may form a test to detect pancreatic ductal neoplasia. We employed digital next-generation sequencing ('digital NGS') to detect low-abundance mutations in secretin-stimulated juice samples collected from the duodenum of subjects enrolled in Cancer of the Pancreas Screening studies at Johns Hopkins Hospital. For each juice sample, digital NGS necessitated 96 NGS reactions sequencing nine genes. The study population included 115 subjects (53 discovery, 62 validation) (1) with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), (2) intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), (3) controls with non-suspicious pancreata. Cases with PDAC and IPMN were more likely to have mutant DNA detected in pancreatic juice than controls (both pcancer despite close surveillance had SMAD4/TP53 mutations from their cancer detected in juice samples collected over 1 year prior to their pancreatic cancer diagnosis when no suspicious pancreatic lesions were detected by imaging. The detection in pancreatic juice of mutations important for the progression of low-grade dysplasia to high-grade dysplasia and invasive pancreatic cancer may improve the management of patients undergoing pancreatic screening and surveillance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  6. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN). Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". Orlando, FL, USA. January 22-24, 2010.

    Bussom, Scott; Saif, Muhammad Wasif


    The diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMN) of the pancreas has evolved over the last decade. IPMN is a disease of the ductal epithelium and represent a spectrum of disease, ranging from benign to malignant lesions, making the early detection and characterization of these lesions important. As with villous adenomas of the colon, not all IPMNs will develop into adenocarcinoma. Definitive management is surgical resection for appropriate candidates, as benign lesions harbor malignant potential. Growing controversy revolves around issues of natural history, management of small-branch-duct lesions, ability to predict malignancy and/or progression, and surveillance strategies. Given these controversies, novel methods are needed to help in detecting and classifying IPMNs' malignant potential so that appropriate treatment can be administered. The authors review abstracts from the 2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium held in January 2010, including biomarkers helping to classify IPMNs: IL-8 and IL-1beta from IPMN cyst aspirates (Abstract #133), and Foxp3/CD4/CD25 cells (Abstract #148) in peripheral blood. Future studies will hopefully provide insight into the many unanswered questions.

  7. Imaging patterns of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: an illustrated discussion of the International Consensus Guidelines for the Management of IPMN.

    Campbell, Naomi M; Katz, Seth S; Escalon, Joanna G; Do, Richard K


    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are being diagnosed with increasing frequency, necessitating an algorithm to help stratify patients into low- and high-risk groups, for follow-up versus more invasive evaluation. New evidence concerning their natural history and overall risk of malignancy has emerged since the 2006 International Association of Pancreatology consensus guidelines, prompting an update in 2012, that distinguishes radiologic 'worrisome features' from 'high-risk stigmata'. The aim of this article is to illustrate, with case examples, the variable imaging patterns of IPMN and how their radiologic features, such as cyst size and mural nodules, are interpreted in the context of the new 2012 guidelines. The 2012 and 2006 guidelines will be compared and discussed with reference to additional studies that have since been published. Despite these guidelines, lingering uncertainty remains about the natural history of IPMN, a source of unease to both radiologists and referring clinicians alike, mandating further refinement of clinical and radiologic parameters predictive of malignancy. Emerging data regarding the risk of extrapancreatic malignancy, as well as synchronous or metachronous pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remote in location from a branch duct IPMN are also reviewed. With the expanding research and evolving understanding of this clinicopathologic entity across the globe, radiologists will continue to play an important role in the management of patients with IPMN.

  8. Association of visceral adiposity with oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinomas.

    Beddy, P


    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, in particular Siewert types I and II. This study compared abdominal fat composition in patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma with that in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, and in controls. METHOD: In total, 194 patients (110 with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, 38 with gastric adenocarcinoma and 46 with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma) and 90 matched control subjects were recruited. The abdominal fat area was assessed using computed tomography (CT), and the total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma had significantly higher TFA and VFA values compared with controls (both P < 0.001), patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.006 respectively) and patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (both P < 0.001). For junctional tumours, the highest TFA and VFA values were seen in patients with Siewert type I tumours (respectively P = 0.041 and P = 0.033 versus type III; P = 0.332 and P = 0.152 versus type II). CONCLUSION: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, in particular oesophageal and Siewert type I junctional tumours, have greater CT-defined visceral adiposity than patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, or controls.

  9. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ...

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    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http...:// ...

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    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ...

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    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ...

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    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ...

  14. File list: Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http...:// ...

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    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http...:// ...

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    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 Unclassified Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http...:// ...

  17. File list: Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ...

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    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ...

  19. File list: Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ...

  20. File list: DNS.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ...