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Sample records for giant dipole built

  1. The Giant Dipole Resonance built on highly excited states - results of the MEDEA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Le Faou, J.H.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, P.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardhoeje, J.J.; Garron, J.P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J.C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Smerzi, A.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-rays, light charged particles and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the 36 Ar + 90 Zr reaction at 27 MeV/u have been measured with a nearly 4π barium fluoride multidetector. It is shown that hot Sn-like nuclei with a range of excitation energies between 300 and 600 MeV are produced. The γ-ray yield from the decay of the Giant Dipole Resonance in these nuclei is shown to remain constant over this excitation energy range. The measured γ-ray spectra are compared with statistical calculations encompassing several recent theoretical models for the quenching of gamma-ray emission from the dipole resonance at very high temperatures. (orig.)

  2. The Giant Dipole Resonance built on highly excited states - results of the MEDEA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Le Faou, J.H.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, P.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardhoeje, J.J.; Garron, J.P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J.C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Smerzi, A. (Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 Orsay (France) INFN-Lab. Nazionale del Sud, Catania (Italy) SEPhN, DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, 91 Gif sur Yvette (France) GANIL, 14 Caen (France) Niels Bohr Inst., Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark) Dipt. di Fisica dell' Univ., Catania (Italy))

    1994-03-07

    Gamma-rays, light charged particles and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the [sup 36]Ar + [sup 90]Zr reaction at 27 MeV/u have been measured with a nearly 4[pi] barium fluoride multidetector. It is shown that hot Sn-like nuclei with a range of excitation energies between 300 and 600 MeV are produced. The [gamma]-ray yield from the decay of the Giant Dipole Resonance in these nuclei is shown to remain constant over this excitation energy range. The measured [gamma]-ray spectra are compared with statistical calculations encompassing several recent theoretical models for the quenching of gamma-ray emission from the dipole resonance at very high temperatures. (orig.)

  3. Giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    Giant resonances built on an excited state of the nucleus at a finite temperature T are studied. The following questions are investigated: how long such collective effects occur in a nucleus when T increases. How the properties of the giant resonances vary when the temperature increases. How the study of giant resonances in hot nuclei can give information on the structure of the nucleus in a highly excited state. The special case of the giant dipole resonance is studied. Some of the experimental results are reviewed and in their theoretical interpretation is discussed. (K.A.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Giant Primeval Magnetic Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Macroscopic magnetic dipoles are considered cosmic dark matter. Permanent magnetism in relativistic field structures can involve some form of superconductivity, one example being current-carrying string loops (“springs”) with vanishing net tension. We derive the cross-section for free classical dipoles to collide, finding it depends weakly on orientation when mutual precession is rapid. The collision rate of “spring” loops with tension { T }˜ {10}-8{c}4/G in galactic halos approaches the measured rate of fast radio bursts (FRBs) if the loops compose most of the dark matter. A large superconducting dipole (LSD) with mass ˜1020 g and size ˜1 mm will form a ˜100 km magnetosphere moving through interstellar plasma. Although hydromagnetic drag is generally weak, it is strong enough to capture some LSDs into long-lived rings orbiting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that form by the direct collapse of massive gas clouds. Repeated collisions near young SMBHs could dominate the global collision rate, thereby broadening the dipole mass spectrum. Colliding LSDs produce tiny, hot electromagnetic explosions. The accompanying paper shows that these explosions couple effectively to propagating low-frequency electromagnetic modes, with output peaking at 0.01-1 THz. We describe several constraints on, and predictions of, LSDs as cosmic dark matter. The shock formed by an infalling LSD triggers self-sustained thermonuclear burning in a C/O (ONeMg) white dwarf (WD) of mass ≳1 M ⊙ (1.3 M ⊙). The spark is generally located off the center of the WD. The rate of LSD-induced explosions matches the observed rate of Type Ia supernovae.

  5. Giant dipole resonance by many levels theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    The many levels theory is applied to photonuclear effect, in particular, in giant dipole resonance. A review about photonuclear dipole absorption, comparing with atomic case is done. The derivation of sum rules; their modifications by introduction of the concepts of effective charges and mass and the Siegert theorem. The experimental distributions are compared with results obtained by curve adjustment. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures–New ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-05

    Apr 5, 2014 ... Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/082/05/0779-0787. Keywords. Low-temperature giant dipole resonance width; adiabatic thermal shape fluctuation model; BaF2 detectors. Abstract. High energy photons from the decay of giant dipole resonances (GDR) built on excited states provide ...

  7. Photon scattering by the giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, T.J.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; McKeown, R.D.; Specht, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Although many features of the giant dipole resonance are well known, the coupling between the basic dipole oscillation and other nuclear collective degrees of freedom such as surface vibrations and rotations is poorly understood. This aspect was investigated by elastic and inelastic bremsstrahlung scattering of tagged photons over the energy range 15 to 22 MeV. Target nuclei were 60 Ni, 52 Cr, 56 Fe, 92 Mo, and 96 Mo. Scattering and absorption cross sections are tabulated, along with parameters obtained from a two-Lorentzian analysis of the scattering cross sections; measured spectra are shown. It was necessary to remove Thomson scattering from the experimental results. It was found that coupling to surface vibrations in the giant dipole resonance is much weaker than the dynamic collective model suggests. The elastic scattering cross section for all targets but 60 Ni showed structure that is not evident in the absorption cross section measurement. 12 figures, 2 tables

  8. Fragmentation of giant dipole resonance at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the main part of a width of a collective giant resonance built on the ground state in heavy nuclei is due to coupling of one-phonon vibrational states with more complex ones like two phonon or two-particle - two-hole. So it seems natural that the same idea was also explored in studying of the formation and dependence on temperature of a width of giant resonances built on a compound nuclear state. The first microscopic calculations of a giant dipole resonance width at finite temperature have demonstrated its weak dependence on T whereas the experimental width Γ exp strongly increases up to T≤3 MeV. The observed thermal behaviour of Γ exp was attributed mainly to thermal fluctuations of a nuclear shape at finite T . However, further theoretical studies of the problem have shown a strengthening of the GDR spreading with T. We calculate a fragmentation of the giant dipole resonance in hot spherical nuclei within the approach based on the quasiparticle-phonon model extended to finite temperature in with the formalism of thermofield dynamics. The fragmentation of collective giant dipole vibrations at finite T is due to the coupling with 'two-thermal phonon' configurations. The energies and structures of thermal phonon states are calculated from the thermal RPA temperature dependence of the variance σ th of a theoretical E1 strength function and the experimental GDR width Γ exp in 120 Sn. The coupling of thermal phonons is determined by their fermionic structure. The variance σ th of the E1 strength function is found continuously increasing with temperature. The main reason of this behavior is the coupling of the dipole phonons with very low-lying particle-particle (hole-hole) thermal phonons. These phonons are noncollective ones and they appear only at T≠0. The calculated T dependence of σ th is quite similar to that of the experimental width Γ exp in 120 Sn and 208 Pb

  9. Temperature dependence of giant dipole resonance width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model extended to finite temperature within the framework of the thermo field dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Γ d own of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for 12S n and 208 Pb nuclei. It is found that the width Γ d own increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones existing in the literature

  10. A Green's function approach to giant-dipole systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stielow, Thomas; Scheel, Stefan; Kurz, Markus

    2018-01-01

    In this work we perform a Green’s function analysis of giant-dipole systems. First, we derive the Green’s functions of different magnetically field-dressed systems, in particular of electronically highly excited atomic species in crossed electric and magnetic fields—so-called giant-dipole states. We determine the dynamical polarizability of atomic giant-dipole states as well as the adiabatic potential energy surfaces of giant-dipole molecules in the framework of the Green’s function approach. Furthermore, we perform an comparative analysis of the latter to an exact diagonalization scheme and show the general divergence behavior of the widely applied Fermi-pseudopotential approach. Finally, we derive the giant-dipole’s regularized Green’s function representation.

  11. Isovector giant dipole resonance in hot rotating light nuclei in the calcium region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, G.; Thiagasundaram, M.

    1989-01-01

    The isovector giant dipole resonances in hot rotating light nuclei in the calcium region are studied using a rotating anisotropic harmonic oscillator potential and a separable dipole-dipole residual interaction. The influence of temperature on the isovector giant dipole resonance is assumed to occur through the change of deformation of the average field only. Calculations are performed for the three nuclei /sup 40,42/Ca and /sup 46/Ti which have spherical, oblate, and prolate ground states, respectively, to see how their shape transitions at higher excited states affect the isovector giant resonance frequencies built on them. It is seen that, while the width fluctuations present at T = 0 vanish at T = 0.5 MeV in /sup 40,42/Ca, they persist up to T = 1.5 MeV in the case of /sup 46/Ti. This behavior brings out the role of temperature on shell effects which in turn affects the isovector giant dipole resonance widths

  12. 'Bi-modal' isoscalar giant dipole strength in 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, B.K.; Garg, U.; Hedden, M.; Koss, M.; Li, T.; Liu, Y.; Madhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Zhu, S.; Itoh, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Uchida, M.; Yasuda, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Kawabata, T.; Akimune, H.; Harakeh, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The strength distribution of the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) in 58 Ni has been obtained over the energy range 10.5-49.5 MeV via extreme forward angle scattering (including 0 deg.) of 386 MeV α particles. We observe a 'bi-modal' E1 strength distribution for the first time in an A<90 nucleus. The observed ISGDR strength distribution is in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a recent RPA calculation

  13. Giant Dipole Resonance in Highly Excited Lead and Thorium Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoennessen, Michael Robert

    The giant dipole resonance (GDR) built on highly excited states was measured in neutron deficient Pb and Th isotopes in order to study nuclear deformation at high excitation energies and spins, and to search for the presence of a compound nucleus GDR even in the heaviest masses. This was achieved by measuring high energy gamma -rays in heavy ion fusion reactions. The compound nuclei were formed with ^{16} O and ^{19}F beams on W, ^{181}Ta, and ^{208}Pb targets with excitation energies from 57 to 102MeV and mean spins from 14 to 44 hbar. In this mass region, fission is a major decay channel and the total gamma -ray spectrum is a sum of gamma -rays emitted from the compound system and gamma -rays emitted from the excited fission fragments. High energy gamma-rays were measured in "singles" as well as in coincidence with fission fragments. The fission fragment direction determined the compound nuclear spin axis and allowed gamma -ray angular distribution measurements with respect to this axis. The data analysis was performed using the evaporation code CASCADE, which was extensively modified to calculate the decay of these heavy systems and to include the subsequent decay of the fission fragments. In the Pb isotopes, which are spherical in the ground state, the dipole strength function showed two components indicating a strongly deformed nucleus (beta ~ 0.3). Large gamma -ray anisotropies were measured for the compound nucleus GDR from which a deformed shape could be unambiguously established. At 105MeV the fission coincidence data yield a prolate deformation of beta~ 0.43 in agreement with a predicted superdeformed shape. However, at 141MeV, the ambiguity between the prolate and noncollective oblate shape could not be resolved. The gamma-ray energy spectra in the heavy mass region of Th isotopes required an enhancement of the GDR gamma-rays over the statistical model predictions from the pre-fission nuclei. This is explained by a reduction of the fission probability by

  14. The giant dipole resonance at very high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomijaervi, T. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay (France); Le Faou, J.H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay (France); Blumenfeld, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay (France); Piattelli, P. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Agodi, C. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Alamanos, N. [SEPhN, DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Alba, R. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Auger, F. [SEPhN, DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Bellia, G. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Chomaz, P. [GANIL, BP 5027, 14021 Caen (France); Coniglione, R. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Del Zoppo, A. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Frascaria, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay (France); Gaardhoeje, J.J. [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2100 Oe (Denmark); Garron, J.P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay (France); Gillibert, A. [SEPhN, DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Lamehi-Rachti, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay (France); Liguori-Neto, R. [SEPhN, DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Loukachine, K. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Maiolino, C. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Migneco, E. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Montironi, S. [INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Russo, G.

    1995-02-06

    Gamma-rays emitted from hot nuclei of mass around 115 and excitation energies above 300MeV, formed in the {sup 36}Ar+{sup 90}Zr at 27MeV/u, {sup 36}Ar+{sup 94}Zr at 32MeV/u and {sup 36}Ar+{sup 98}Mo at 37MeV/u, have been measured with the MEDEA multidetector in coincidence with evaporation residues. The {gamma}-ray yield from the decay of the Giant Dipole Resonance is independent of excitation energy and of bombarding energy. ((orig.)).

  15. The giant dipole resonance at very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Le Faou, J.H.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, P.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardhoeje, J.J.; Garron, J.P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Montironi, S.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J.C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Smerzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-rays emitted from hot nuclei of mass around 115 and excitation energies above 300MeV, formed in the 36 Ar+ 90 Zr at 27MeV/u, 36 Ar+ 94 Zr at 32MeV/u and 36 Ar+ 98 Mo at 37MeV/u, have been measured with the MEDEA multidetector in coincidence with evaporation residues. The γ-ray yield from the decay of the Giant Dipole Resonance is independent of excitation energy and of bombarding energy. ((orig.))

  16. The natural line shape of the giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, E.F.; Pitthan, R.

    1977-01-01

    Investigation of photoabsorption experiments in the spherical nucleus 141 Pr, the quasispherical dynamically deformed 197 Au, and the statically deformed 165 Ho showed that the function which describes best the energy dependence of the reduced transition probability is given by the Breit-Wigner form rather than the Lorentz form. However, the form of the resulting measured cross section is approximately of the Lorentz type. The dependence of the giant resonance width GAMMA on the excitation energy was also investigated, and found to be less than 1% per MeV if one considered the known isovector E2 resonance above the giant dipole resonance. Best fit values of the reduced transition probabilities for the three nuclei are given and compared to (e,e') results. (Auth.)

  17. Electromagnetic excitation of the two-phonon giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emling, H.

    1994-03-01

    It is the aim of this article to summarize our present knowledge on the double isovector giant dipole resonance (DGDR) and our understanding of the electromagnetic excitation mechanism in heavy ion collisions in the relativistic energy regime. In the following chapter, a brief resume on the history of giant resonances is given and, based on their understanding, conclusions on the expected properties of multi-phonon resonances are drawn. In chapter 2, the essential features of electromagnetic heavy ion interactions at (near) relativistic velocities will be illuminated and the theoretical framework is presented, which describes such processes. New experimental methods were required for an appropriate study of Coulomb dissociation processes, which are discussed in chapter 3 together with the experimental results. Chapter 4 is dedicated to summarize the results from electromagnetic excitation studies, to compare with those from alternative methods and, in particular, to contrast experimental findings with theoretical predictions and to address open problems. (orig.)

  18. Giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei of mass A≅115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Le Faou, J.H.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, P.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardho/je, J.J.; Garron, J.P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J.C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Smerzi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma rays, light charged particles, and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the 36 Ar+ 90 Zr reaction at 27 MeV/nucleon have been measured at the GANIL facility with the 4π barium fluoride multidetector MEDEA. The combination of the residue and particle measurements shows that nuclei with masses around 115 and excitation energies between 350 and 550 MeV are produced. The γ spectra measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues exhibit three components: a low-energy statistical component, a high-energy contribution due to nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung during the initial stages of the collision, and a contribution from the decay of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The characteristics of the bremsstrahlung component are in agreement with previously published systematics. The γ yield from the decay of the giant dipole resonance remains constant over the excitation energy range studied. A comparison with other experiments shows that the N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel does not affect the γ yield. Statistical calculations performed using the code CASCADE and supposing a fixed width and full sum rule strength for the dipole resonance strongly overpredict the data. The hypothesis of a continuously increasing width of the resonance with temperature gives a better agreement with experiment near the centroid of the resonance but overpredicts the γ spectra at higher energies. The best account of the data is given by assuming a cutoff of γ emission from the resonance above an excitation energy of approximately 250 MeV. This cutoff is discussed in terms of the time necessary to equilibrate the dipole oscillations with the hot compound nucleus. Finally, some evidence is given for a possible new low-energy component of the dipole strength at very high temperatures. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei of mass A~=115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomijärvi, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Le Faou, J. H.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, Ph.; Coniglione, R.; del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Garron, J. P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J. C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Smerzi, A.

    1996-05-01

    Gamma rays, light charged particles, and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the 36Ar+90Zr reaction at 27 MeV/nucleon have been measured at the GANIL facility with the 4π barium fluoride multidetector MEDEA. The combination of the residue and particle measurements shows that nuclei with masses around 115 and excitation energies between 350 and 550 MeV are produced. The γ spectra measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues exhibit three components: a low-energy statistical component, a high-energy contribution due to nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung during the initial stages of the collision, and a contribution from the decay of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The characteristics of the bremsstrahlung component are in agreement with previously published systematics. The γ yield from the decay of the giant dipole resonance remains constant over the excitation energy range studied. A comparison with other experiments shows that the N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel does not affect the γ yield. Statistical calculations performed using the code CASCADE and supposing a fixed width and full sum rule strength for the dipole resonance strongly overpredict the data. The hypothesis of a continuously increasing width of the resonance with temperature gives a better agreement with experiment near the centroid of the resonance but overpredicts the γ spectra at higher energies. The best account of the data is given by assuming a cutoff of γ emission from the resonance above an excitation energy of approximately 250 MeV. This cutoff is discussed in terms of the time necessary to equilibrate the dipole oscillations with the hot compound nucleus. Finally, some evidence is given for a possible new low-energy component of the dipole strength at very high temperatures.

  20. Giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei of mass {ital A}{approx_equal}115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Le Faou, J.H.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, P.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardho/je, J.J.; Garron, J.P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J.C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Smerzi, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay, France INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123, Catania, Italy SPhN, DAPNIA, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France GANIL, BP 5027, 14021 Caen, France The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 O/ (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    Gamma rays, light charged particles, and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the {sup 36}Ar+{sup 90}Zr reaction at 27 MeV/nucleon have been measured at the GANIL facility with the 4{pi} barium fluoride multidetector MEDEA. The combination of the residue and particle measurements shows that nuclei with masses around 115 and excitation energies between 350 and 550 MeV are produced. The {gamma} spectra measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues exhibit three components: a low-energy statistical component, a high-energy contribution due to nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung during the initial stages of the collision, and a contribution from the decay of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The characteristics of the bremsstrahlung component are in agreement with previously published systematics. The {gamma} yield from the decay of the giant dipole resonance remains constant over the excitation energy range studied. A comparison with other experiments shows that the {ital N}/{ital Z} asymmetry in the entrance channel does not affect the {gamma} yield. Statistical calculations performed using the code CASCADE and supposing a fixed width and full sum rule strength for the dipole resonance strongly overpredict the data. The hypothesis of a continuously increasing width of the resonance with temperature gives a better agreement with experiment near the centroid of the resonance but overpredicts the {gamma} spectra at higher energies. The best account of the data is given by assuming a cutoff of {gamma} emission from the resonance above an excitation energy of approximately 250 MeV. This cutoff is discussed in terms of the time necessary to equilibrate the dipole oscillations with the hot compound nucleus. Finally, some evidence is given for a possible new low-energy component of the dipole strength at very high temperatures. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Influence of complex particle emission on properties of giant dipole resonance of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Wanxin; Jin Genming

    2003-01-01

    The possible reasons for the discrepancy between calculation results based on the statistical evaporation model and experimental data of giant dipole resonance of very hot nuclei are discussed. Both of simulations with the standard CASCADE code and the code coupling complex particle emission are carried out. It is shown that the complex particle emission affects the properties of giant dipole resonance of very hot nuclei

  2. Self-consistent calculations of the electric giant dipole resonances in light and heavy nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutorovich, N; Tselyaev, V I; Speth, J; Krewald, S; Grümmer, F; Reinhard, P-G

    2012-08-31

    While bulk properties of stable nuclei are successfully reproduced by mean-field theories employing effective interactions, the dependence of the centroid energy of the electric giant dipole resonance on the nucleon number A is not. This problem is cured by considering many-particle correlations beyond mean-field theory, which we do within the quasiparticle time blocking approximation. The electric giant dipole resonances in 16O, 40Ca, and 208Pb are calculated using two new Skyrme interactions.

  3. Quench performance of Fermilab/General Dynamics built full length SSC collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Orris, D.; Mazur, P.O.; Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.W.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.J.; Ozelis, J.; Wake, M.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Kuzminski, J.; Nah, W.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we present results of quench testing of full length SSC dipole magnets at Fermilab. The data are from the first six of a series of thirteen 15 m long, 50 mm aperture SSC dipole magnets which are being built and tested at Fermilab. These magnets were designed jointly by Fermilab, Brookhaven Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the SSC Laboratory. Among the major goals for this series of magnets are to transfer magnet production technology to the lead vendor for the Collider Dipole Magnet, the General Dynamics Corporation, and to demonstrate industrial production by the vendor. The first magnet in the series, DCA311, was built by Fermilab technicians to establish assembly procedures. The second magnet, DCA312, was the technology transfer magnet and was built jointly by Fermilab and General Dynamics technicians. The next seven, DCA313-319 are being built by General Dynamics personnel using Fermilab facilities and procedures. However, Fermilab personnel still operate the major tooling, provide the welders, perform assembly of items that would not be part of production magnets (e.g. voltage taps), and oversee the QA program. Five of these 7 GD-built magnets will be used in the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) to be carried out in Dallas later this year. The last four magnets, DCA320-323, are being built by Fermilab alone

  4. Construction experience with Fermilab-built full length 50mm SSC dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessing, M.J.; Hoffman, D.E.; Packer, M.D. (General Dynamics Corp., San Diego, CA (United States). Space Systems Div.); Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Delchamps, S.; Ewald, K.D.; Fulton, H.J.; Haggard, J.E.; Jensen, R.H.; Koska, W.; Rihel, R.K.; Robotham, W.F.; Smith, B.E.; Smith, D.J.; Strait, J.B.; Tassotto, G.; Tinsley, D.A.; Wake, M.; Winters, M.; Zimmerman, W.F. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Ba

    1992-03-01

    Fourteen full length SSC dipole magnets are being built and tested at Fermilab. Their purpose is to verify the magnet design as well as transfer the construction technology to industry. Magnet design is summarized. Construction problems and their solutions are discussed. Topics include coil winding, curing and measuring, collaring, instrumentation, end clamp installation, yoking and electrical and mechanical interconnection.

  5. Test results of BNL built 40-mm aperture, 17-m-long SSC collider dipole magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminski, J.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.C.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)); Ogitsu, T. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States) National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.

    1991-06-01

    Eleven 17 m long, 40 mm aperture SSC R D superconducting collider dipole magnets, built at BNL, have been extensively tested at BNL and Fermilab during 1990--91. Quench performance of these magnets and details of their mechanical behavior are presented. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Construction experience with Fermilab-built full length 50mm SSC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, M.J.; Hoffman, D.E.; Packer, M.D.; Gordon, M.; Higinbotham, W.; Sims, R.

    1992-03-01

    Fourteen full length SSC dipole magnets are being built and tested at Fermilab. Their purpose is to verify the magnet design as well as transfer the construction technology to industry. Magnet design is summarized. Construction problems and their solutions are discussed. Topics include coil winding, curing and measuring, collaring, instrumentation, end clamp installation, yoking and electrical and mechanical interconnection

  7. Test results of BNL built 40-mm aperture, 17-m-long SSC collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.

    1992-01-01

    Eleven 17 m long, 40 mm aperture SSC R and D superconducting collider dipole magnets, built at BNL, have been extensively tested at BNL and Fermilab during 1990-91. In this paper quench performance of these magnets and details of their mechanical behavior are presented

  8. Test results of BNL built 40-mm aperture, 17-m-long SSC collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.C.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H.; Ogitsu, T.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Gosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1991-06-01

    Eleven 17 m long, 40 mm aperture SSC R ampersand D superconducting collider dipole magnets, built at BNL, have been extensively tested at BNL and Fermilab during 1990--91. Quench performance of these magnets and details of their mechanical behavior are presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  9. Quench performance of 50-mm aperture, 15-m-long SSC dipole magnets built at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.

    1992-07-01

    The quench performance, ramp rate dependence, and mechanical behavior of ten full-length, 50-mm-aperture, SSC dipole magnets built at Fermilab are discussed. Cold testing of these magnets shows that the quench plateau established at 4.35 K exceeds the design value by more than 10%, virtually without training

  10. Mechanical behavior of Fermilab-built 1.5 m model SSC collider dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Coulter, K.J.; Delchamps, S.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Gourlay, S.; Lamm, M.J.; Wake, M.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.

    1991-09-01

    Several model SSC collider dipole magnets (50 mm aperture, 1.5 m magnetic length) have been built and tested at Fermilab. These magnets are instrumented with strain gauges to measure stresses in the coil, the cold mass shell, and the coil end clamp assembly. Measurements are made of these quantities during assembly, cooldown, excitation, and warmup. Additional mechanical measurements are made on magnet sub-assemblies during manufacturing. Data from these measurements are presented and compared with expectations from the design calculations

  11. Giant dipole resonances in 55,57,59Co using polarized proton capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.P.; Roberson, N.R.; Rickel, D.G.; Ledford, R.D.; Weller, H.R.; Blue, R.A.; Tilley, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for the 58 Fe(p, γ 0 ) 59 Co reactions throughout the giant dipole resonance regions of 55 , 57 , 59 Co. In addition, the 90degree yield curve has been measured for the 58 Fe(p, γ 0 ) 59 Co reaction for E/subp/ from 5.0 to 16.0 MeV in 100 keV steps. The data are analyzed to deduce the amplitudes and phases of the T matrix elements involved. The preferred solution indicates that the major change occurring in crossing the giant dipole resonance occurs in the relative phase between the d 5 / 2 and g 9 / 2 amplitudes. The implications of these results are discussed vis a vis the isospin splitting of the giant dipole resonance

  12. Giant dipole resonances in hot nuclear matter in the model of self-relaxing mean field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okolowicz, J.; Ploszajczak, M.; Drozdz, S.; Caurier, E.

    1989-01-01

    The extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach is applied for the description of the isovector giant dipole resonance in 40 Ca at finite temperatures. The thermalization process is described using the relaxation-time ansatz for the collision integral. Strong inhibition of the giant-dipole-resonance γ-decay is found due to the fast vaporization of the nuclear surface for thermal excitation energies above E * /A ≅ 4.5 MeV. This pre-equilibrium emission of particles in the vapor phase is associated with the radial expansion of nucleus and with the vanishing particle binding energies mainly for protons. (orig.)

  13. Study of the hot giant dipole resonance with the Medea detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Le Faou, J.H.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Frascaria, N.; Garron, J.P.; Roynette, J.C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Lamehi-Rachti, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Teheran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Piattelli, P.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Smerzi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Bellia, G.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy)]|[Catania Univ. (Italy); Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Gillibert, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Liguori-Neto, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Chomaz, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Gaardhoeje, J.J. [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1992-12-31

    The characteristics of the giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei formed by incomplete fusion of {sup 36}Ar + {sup 90}Zr at 27 MeV/u have been measured at GANIL with the MEDEA detector. This set up allows the simultaneous measurement of {gamma}rays, light charged particles, and fusion residues. Preliminary results indicate that the giant dipole resonance shows up prominently in coincidence with the incomplete fusion residues which have a mean excitation energy of 550 MeV. A comparison of the spectra with statistical calculations using the code CASCADE is presented.

  14. Can we learn about the spin-flip giant dipole resonances with pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Data and calculations for the 40 Ca(π+-,π 0 ) reactions at 164 MeV are shown which indicate that pion scattering possesses a unique signature for separately identifying the 1 - and 2 - spin-isospin components of the giant dipole resonance

  15. The temperature dependence of the width of the giant-dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormand, W.E.; Bortignon, P.F.; Broglia, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The giant-dipole resonance (GDR) in 120 Sn and 208 Pb is studied as a function of excitation energy, angular momentum, and intrinsic width within the context of the adiabatic model. Theoretical evaluations of the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) for the GDR strength function are compared with recent experimental data and are found to be in good agreement. (orig.)

  16. Data systematics and semidirect decay probability of the giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishkhanov, B.S.; Kapitonov, I.M.; Tutyn', I.A.

    1998-01-01

    Information on probability of semidirect decay of giant dipole resonance of nuclei of sd- and fp-shells (A = 16-58) is elaborated on the base of the recent (γ, χγ ' ) experimental results. The shell effect in A-dependence of this probability is discovered

  17. Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Stuhl, L.; Csatlós, M.; Algora, A.; Gulyás, J.; Timár, J.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Boretzky, K.; Heil, M.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Rossi, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Weick, H.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Blasi, N.; Camera, F.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Wieland, O.; Altstadt, S.; Fonseca, M.; Glorius, J.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Koloczek, A.; Kräckmann, S.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Rastrepina, G.; Reifarth, R.; Schmidt, S.; Sonnabend, K.; Weigand, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Rigollet, C.; Bagchi, S.; Najafi, M. A.; Aumann, T.; Atar, L.; Heine, M.; Holl, M.; Movsesyan, A.; Schrock, P.; Volkov, V.; Wamers, F.; Fiori, E.; Löher, B.; Marganiec, J.; Savran, D.; Johansson, H. T.; Fernández, P. Diaz; Garg, U.; Balabanski, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) has been measured to the isobaric analog state excited in the p(124Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent random-phase

  18. Mechanical behavior of Fermilab/General Dynamics built 15M SSC collider dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, M.; Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.; Mazur, P.; Orris, D.; Strait, J.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Kuzminski, J.; Nah, W.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Thompkins, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    1992-04-01

    A series of full-scale demonstration SSC collider dipole magnets were built for the ASST. These magnets, DCA311 through DCA319, have 50 mm aperture and 15 m magnetic length with 6.6 Tesla uniform field. For the support structure of the W6733B cross section, the Fermilab design uses a vertical split in the yoke. The end sections of the magnet have solid spacers and are supported by collet clamps. The splices between inner and outer coils are made in preforms which lie outside of the high field region. The magnets were produced in pipeline fashion with no intentional major changes between magnets. As a part of the technology transfer program, the last 7 magnets were built by General Dynamics personnel using the magnet construction facilities of Fermilab, while the first two magnets were built entirely by Fermilab personnel. At present, the magnets up to DCA316 have been tested at Fermilab. The general characteristics of the magnets have been quite satisfactory. Both of the Fermilab built magnets have reached the conductor limited field strength with no significant training. Two of the General Dynamics built magnets each required a single training quench. However, all of the magnets tested up to date meet the ASST specifications. This report describes the mechanical properties of the ASST magnets at Fermilab based on the currently available test results

  19. Mechanical behavior of Fermilab/General Dynamics built 15M SSC collider dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, M.; Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.W.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Strait, J.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Kuzminski, J.; Nah, W.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    1992-01-01

    A series of full-scale demonstration SSC collider dipole magnets were built for the ASST (Accelerator System String Test). These magnets, DCA311 through DCA319, have 50 mm aperture and 15 m magnetic length with 6.6 Tesla uniform field. For the support structure of the W6733B cross section, the Fermilab design uses a vertical split in the yoke. The end sections of the magnet have solid spacers and are supported by collet clamps. The splices between inner and outer coils are made in preforms which lie outside of the high field region. The magnets were produced in pipeline fashion with no intentional major changes between magnets. As a part of the technology transfer program, the last 7 magnets were built by General Dynamics personnel using the magnet construction facilities of Fermilab, while the first two magnets were built entirely by Fermilab personnel. At present, the magnets up to DCA316 have been tested at Fermilab. The general characteristics of the magnets have been quite satisfactory. Both of the Fermilab built magnets have reached the conductor limited field strength with no significant training. Two of the General Dynamics built magnets (DCA313 and DCA314) each required a single training quench. However, all of the magnets tested up to date meet the ASST specifications. This report describes the mechanical properties of the ASST magnets at Fermilab based on the currently available test results

  20. Test of Fermilab built 40 mm aperture full length SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.J.; Mantsch, P.

    1992-01-01

    Several 40 mm aperture, 17 m long dipoles have been built by Fermilab as developmental prototypes for the Superconducting Super Collider. These magnets differ from those manufactured at Brookhaven National Laboratory in that they have an external inner-outer coil splice design, a collet style end clamp assembly, a new, analytically designed minimum stress coil end design, and a new insulation system which does not employ shims or shoes. In addition, the magnets were built using production-style tooling. The magnets were tested at the Fermilab Magnet Testing Facility. In this paper quench testing and mechanical measurement results are presented and analyzed with emphasis on the design and fabrication features of these magnets

  1. Tests of Fermilab built 40 mm aperture full length SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.J.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.C.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Kahn, S.; Herrera, J.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1991-09-01

    Several 40 mm aperture, 17 m long dipoles have been built by Fermilab as developmental prototypes for the Superconducting Super Collider. These magnets differ from those manufactured at Brookhaven National Laboratory in that they have an external inner-outer coil splice design, a collet style end clamp assembly, a new, analytically designed minimum stress coil end design, and a new insulation system which does not employ shims or ''shoes''. In addition, the magnets were built using production-style tooling. The magnets were tested at the Fermilab Magnet Testing Facility. Quench testing and mechanical measurement results are presented and analyzed with emphasis on the new design and fabrication features of these magnets. 13 refs., 5 figs

  2. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The resonance width. GDR is defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the GDR lineshape and is related to various damping mechanisms of the collective motion inside nuclear matter. The damping of giant collective vibration inside the nuclear medium occurs either due to escape of resonance energy by means ...

  3. Structure of the giant dipole resonance in 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naggar, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new scheme is devised to study the giant resonance in the heavy magic nucleus 208 Pb. The effect of the 4 + and 5 - collective excitations of the nucleus core is demonstrated. The calculated cross section is compared with the experimental data. (author)

  4. Test of Fermilab built, post-ASST, 50-mm-aperture, full length SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.; Akhmetov, A.; Bossert, R.

    1993-05-01

    During 1992 at Fermilab, a series of nine 50-mm-aperture, 15-m-long, SSC superconducting dipole magnets, designed jointly by Fermilab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and the SSC Laboratory, have been built and successfully cold tested. Seven of these dipole magnets, designate for the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) carried out at SSCL in Dallas, were assembled Fermilab by General Dynamics personnel, and have achieved the nominal operating current level without significant training. In addition, a series of four R ampersand D magnets (DCA320 323) we manufactured at Fermilab to test an alternative insulation schemes. In this paper we present th quench performance of these four R ampersand D magnets, which were cold tested at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility at nominal temperatures of 4.35 K, 3.85 K, and 3.50 K. An extended characterization test was performed on one of these magnets (DCA322). During this test the magnet was successfully cooled down to superfluid He temperature (1.8 K) and reached a field B ≥ 9.5 T

  5. Thermal and rotational effect on giant dipole resonances in rotating nuclei at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara-Tanabe, Kazuko; Tanabe, Kosai.

    1986-01-01

    Microscopic calculations are carried out for the giant dipole resonances excited on the thermal high spin states in 162 Er and 166 Er based on the thermal linear response theory with realistic forces and large single-particle space. The dynamical strength function is compared with the experimental γ-ray absorption cross section. The general trend that the resonance energy decreases and the resonance width increases with increasing angular momentum and temperature is well reproduced by the calculations. (author)

  6. Breaking of axial symmetry in excited heavy nuclei as identified in giant dipole resonance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.

    2017-11-01

    A recent theoretical prediction of a breaking of axial symmetry in quasi all heavy nuclei is confronted to a new critical analysis of photon strength functions of nuclei in the valley of stability. For the photon strength in the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) regime a parameterization of GDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians (TLO) is extrapolated to energies below and above the IVGDR. The impact of non-GDR modes adding to the low energy slope of photon strength is discussed including recent data on photon scattering and other radiative processes. These are shown to be concentrated in energy regions where various model calculations predict intermediate collective strength; thus they are obviously separate from the IVGDR tail. The triple Lorentzian (TLO) ansatz for giant dipole resonances is normalized in accordance to the dipole sum rule. The nuclear droplet model with surface dissipation accounts well for positions and widths without local, nuclide specific, parameters. Very few and only global parameters are needed when a breaking of axial symmetry already in the valley of stability is admitted and hence a reliable prediction for electric dipole strength functions also outside of it is expected.

  7. Limiting Temperatures for Collective Motion: The Giant Dipole Resonance in Very Hot Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piattelli, P.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Le Faou, J. H.; Suomijärvi, T.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, Ph.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Garron, J. P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Roynette, J. C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J. A.

    1996-02-01

    The study of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) excited in hot nuclei allows to follow the evolution of collective motion with increasing nuclear temperature. A brief review of the characteristics of the GDR excited in nuclei with excitation energies up to ˜ 500 MeV is given. The results of recent experiments in which very hot nuclei have been studied with a nearly 4π detector are presented. Gamma-rays, light charged particles and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei of mass around 115 and excitation energies above 300 MeV, formed in the 36Ar + 90Zr at 27 MeV/u and 36Ar + 98Mo at 37 MeV/u reactions, have been measured with the MEDEA multidetector. The γ-ray yield from the decay of the Giant Dipole Resonance in these nuclei has been found to be independent of excitation energy and bombarding energy. The measured γ-ray spectra are compared with statistical calculations encompassing several recent theoretical models for the quenching of gamma-ray emission from the dipole resonance at very high temperatures. The best agreement with the data is obtained by assuming a cut-off of the resonance γ-emission above an excitation energy of 250 MeV.

  8. Time-dependent shape fluctuations and the giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei: Realistic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Bush, B.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1990-01-01

    The effects of time-dependent shape fluctuations on the giant dipole resonance (GDR) in hot rotating nuclei are investigated. Using the framework of the Landau theory of shape transitions we develop a realistic macroscopic stochastic model to describe the quadrupole time-dependent shape fluctuations and their coupling to the dipole degrees of freedom. In the adiabatic limit the theory reduces to a previous adiabatic theory of static fluctuations in which the GDR cross section is calculated by averaging over the equilibrium distribution with the unitary invariant metric. Nonadiabatic effects are investigated in this model and found to cause structural changes in the resonance cross section and motional narrowing. Comparisons with experimental data are made and deviations from the adiabatic calculations can be explained. In these cases it is possible to determine from the data the damping of the quadrupole motion at finite temperature. (orig.)

  9. A study of the giant dipole resonance in doubly even tellurium and cerium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepretre, A.; Beil, H.; Bergere, R.; Carlos, P.; Fagot, J.; Miniac, A. de; Veyssiere, A.

    1976-01-01

    The partial photoneutron cross sections [sigma(γ,n)+sigma(γ,pn)] and sigma(γ,2n) of 124 Te, 126 Te, 128 Te, 130 Te and 140 Ce, 142 Ce were measured in the giant dipole resonance region by means of the monochromatic photon beam installation at SACLAY. Absolute total photoneutron cross sections, Lorentz line parameters and integrated cross sections are evaluated. The experimental behaviour of the GDR for the above nuclei and in particular its spreading, is then tentatively interpreted in terms of the improved dynamic collective model using the concept of potential energy surfaces. (Auth.)

  10. Atlas of giant dipole resonances. Parameters and graphs of photonuclear reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, A.V.; Varlamov, V.V.; Rudenko, D.S.; Stepanov, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Parameters of giant dipole resonances (GDR) observed in photonuclear reaction cross sections using various beams of incident photons are presented. Data, given for 200 stable isotopes from 2 H to 243 Am including their natural compositions, were collected from papers published over the years 1951-1996. GDR parameters, such as energy positions, amplitudes and widths, are included into the table and organized by element, isotope and reaction. Graphs of the majority of the photonuclear reaction cross sections, included in the international nuclear data library EXFOR by the end of 1998, are presented. The graphs are provided for 182 stable isotopes and natural compositions. (author)

  11. Time scale of quasifission from giant dipole resonance γ-ray yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, J.; Back, B. B.; Drese, K. S.; Hofman, D. J.; Schadmand, S.; Varma, R.; Paul, P.

    1995-04-01

    Giant dipole resonance (GDR) γ rays were measured in coincidence with reaction fragments in 58Ni+165Ho at 368 MeV where deep inelastic scattering and quasifission dominate the reaction. The γ spectrum associated with deep inelastic scattering events is well fitted by statistical cooling of projectile and target-like fragments with close to equal initial energy sharing. The γ spectrum associated with quasifission events is well described by statistical emission from the fission fragments alone, with only weak evidence for GDR emission from the mononucleus. A 1σ limit of τmononucleus lifetime which is consistent with the lifetimes obtained from quasifission fragment angular distributions.

  12. Damping of isovector giant dipole resonances in hot even-even spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on the finite temperature quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (FT-QPNM) with the couplings to (2p2h) states at finite temperature taken into account is suggested for calculations of the damping of giant multipole resonances in hot even-even spherical nuclei. The strength functions for the isovector giant dipole resonance (IV-GDR) are calculated in 58 Ni and 90 Zr for a range of temperatures up to 3 MeV. The results show that the contribution of the interactions with (2p2h) configurations to the IV-GDR spreading width changes weakly with varying temperature. The IV-GDR centroid energy decreases slightly with increasing temperature. The nonvanishing superfluid pairing gap due to thermal fluctuations is included. (orig.)

  13. Correlated ground state and E2 giant resonance built on it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Mitsuru

    1995-01-01

    Taking 16 O as an example of realistic nuclei, we demonstrate that a correlated ground state can be obtained as a long time solution of a time-dependent density-matrix formalism (TDDM) when the residual interaction is adiabatically treated. We also study in TDDM the E2 giant resonance of 16 O built on the correlated ground state and compare it with that built on the Hartree-Fock ground state. It is found that a spurious mixing of low frequency components seen in the latter is eliminated by using the correlated ground state. (author)

  14. Magnetic field measurements of Fermilab/General Dynamics built full scale SSC collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchamps, S.; Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Kuzminski, J.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of magnetic field measurements made on a series of 50 mm aperture 15 m long SSC collider dipole magnets designed and manufactured at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) for use in the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) Accelerator System String Test. The magnets were assembled by Fermilab and General Dynamics personnel, and were tested at the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) at Fermilab. Measurements of the dipole field angle, dipole field strength, and field shape parameters at various stages in magnet construction and testing are described

  15. Survey of the (3He,t) reaction: Excitation of the isobaric analog of the giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, S.L.; Chang, C.C.; Collins, M.T.; Wagner, G.J.; Wu, J.R.; Halderson, D.W.; Petrovich, F.

    1982-01-01

    The ( 3 He,t) reaction at 130 and 170 MeV has been investigated on targets of 12 C, 16 O, 27 Al, 28 Si, 40 Ca, 46 Ti, and 90 Zr. Data for the ( 3 He, 3 He') reaction were measured simultaneously for reference purposes. Structure is observed in the spectra from the ( 3 He, 3 He') and ( 3 He,t) reaction at the expected positions of the giant quadrupole resonance and the isobaric analog of the giant dipole resonance, respectively. An angular distribution was measured for the suspected giant dipole resonance structure in the 40 Ca( 3 He,t) 40 Sc reaction at 130 MeV. The data are reasonably described by a collective model calculation based on the Goldhaber-Teller model for the giant dipole resonance. Several other strong peaks at excitation energies below the giant dipole resonance are observed in the ( 3 He,t) spectra. Most notable of these are the ones at the expected positions for analogs of well known 1 + states and 1hω stretched states in the targets

  16. Remarks to the problem of the isomeric state production in (gamma, gamma') reactions in the giant dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Demekhina, N A; Karapetyan, G S

    2001-01-01

    The population of the isomeric states is considered in nuclei sup 1 sup 1 sup 5 In and sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 Hf in photonuclear (gamma, gamma') reactions at giant dipole resonance energies. The comparison with the earlier published experimental and theoretical data is made. The behavior of the excitation function gives an evidence for possible increase of the high-spin state population in the giant resonance range

  17. Evidence for the isoscalar giant dipole resonance in Pb-208 using inelastic alpha scattering at and near 0 degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, BF; Garg, U; Reviol, W; Harakeh, MN; Bacher, A; Berg, GPA; Foster, CC; Stephenson, EJ; Wang, Y; Janecke, J; Pham, K; Roberts, D; Akimune, H; Fujiwara, M; Lisantti, J

    1997-01-01

    The isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) in Pb-208 has been investigated using inelastic scattering of 200 MeV alpha particles at and near 0 degrees where the angular distribution of the ISGDR can be clearly differentiated from those of other modes. The ''difference of spectra'' technique was

  18. Damping width of giant dipole resonances of cold and hot nuclei: A macroscopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenological macroscopic model of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) damping width of cold and hot nuclei with ground-state spherical and near-spherical shapes is developed. The model is based on a generalized Fermi liquid model which takes into account the nuclear surface dynamics. The temperature dependence of the GDR damping width is accounted for in terms of surface and volume components. Parameter-free expressions for the damping width and the effective deformation are obtained. The model is validated with GDR measurements of the following nuclides: 39,40 K, 42 Ca, 45 Sc, 59,63 Cu, 109-120 Sn, 147 Eu, 194 Hg, and 208 Pb, and is compared with the predictions of other models

  19. Giant magnons and spiky strings in the Schrödinger/dipole-deformed CFT correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George; Zoakos, Dimitrios

    2018-02-01

    We construct semi-classical string solutions of the Schrödinger Sch 5 × S 5 spacetime, which is conjectured to be the gravity dual of a non-local dipole-deformed CFT. They are the counterparts of the giant magnon and spiky string solutions of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 to which they flow when the deformation parameter is turned off. They live in an S 3 subspace of the five-sphere along the directions of which the B-field has non-zero components, having also extent in the Sch 5 part of the metric. Finally, we speculate on the form of the dual field theory operators.

  20. Measurement of giant dipole resonance width at low temperature: A new experimental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, Deepak; Pal, Surajit; Bhattacharya, Srijit; De, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T.K.; Mukherjee, G.; Pandey, R.; Gohil, M.; Pai, H.; Meena, J.K.; Banerjee, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The systematic evolution of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) width in the temperature region of 0.9-1.4 MeV has been measured experimentally for 119 Sb using alpha induced fusion reaction and employing the LAMBDA high energy photon spectrometer. The temperatures have been precisely determined by simultaneously extracting the vital level density parameter from the neutron evaporation spectrum and the angular momentum from gamma multiplicity filter using a realistic approach. The systematic trend of the data seems to disagree with the thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM). The model predicts the gradual increase of GDR width from its ground state value whereas the measured GDR widths appear to remain constant at the ground state value till T∼1 MeV and increase thereafter, indicating towards a failure of the adiabatic assumption of the model at low temperature.

  1. Extreme nuclear shapes examined via giant dipole resonance lineshapes in hot light-mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, Deepak; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, Surajit; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Dey, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Ghosh, T.; Banerjee, S. R.; Bhattacharya, Srijit; De, A.; Gupta, D.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of α clustering on nuclear reaction dynamics is investigated using the giant dipole resonance (GDR) lineshape studies in the reactions 20 Ne (E lab =145,160 MeV) + 12 C and 20 Ne (E lab =160 MeV) + 27 Al, populating 32 S and 47 V, respectively. The GDR lineshapes from the two systems are remarkably different from each other. Whereas, the non-α-like 47 V undergoes Jacobi shape transition and matches exceptionally well with the theoretical GDR lineshape estimated under the framework rotating liquid drop model (RLDM) and thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM) signifying shape equilibration, for the α cluster 32 S an extended prolate kind of shape is observed. This unusual deformation, seen directly via γ decay for the first time, is predicted to be due to the formation of orbiting dinuclear configuration or molecular structure of 16 O + 16 O in the 32 S superdeformed band.

  2. The 132Sn giant dipole resonance as a constraint on nuclear matter properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Brandon; Bonasera, Giacomo; Shlomo, Shalom

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear giant resonances provide a sensitive method for constraining the properties of nuclear matter (NM) - many of which have large uncertainties - and thereby improve the nuclear energy-density functional. In this work, self-consistent Hartree-Fock random-phase approximation (HF-RPA) theory was employed to calculate the strength function and energy of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) in the doubly-magic 132Sn nucleus. Several (17) commonly-used Skyrme-type interactions were employed. The correlations between the IVGDR centroid energy and each nuclear matter property were explored, as were correlations between the nuclear matter properties and the 132Sn neutron skin thickness rn -rp . Experimental data for the IVGDR centroid energy was used to constrain the symmetry energy density, the symmetry energy, and its first and second derivatives, respectively, of NM. Further investigation, particularly of nuclides far from stability, will be needed to extend the nuclear energy-density functional to the extremes of density and neutron abundance found in neutron stars and astrophysical nucleosynthesis environments.

  3. Cold mass mechanical design, quench and mechanical test results for full length 50 mm aperture SSC model dipoles built at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodzeit, C.; Radusewicz, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thomas, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1992-07-01

    A series of seven 50 mm aperture, 15-meter long dipole magnets was built and assembled at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Their design embodies features for evaluation for the final selection of the design for the SSC Collider dipole magnets. This paper discusses mechanical design of the cold mass and presents test results such as quench histories and mechanical parameters during construction and testing

  4. Main channels of the decay of the giant dipole resonance in the 20,22Ne nuclei and isospin splitting of the giant dipole resonance in the 22Ne nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, V.V.; Stepanov, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Data published in the literature on various photonuclear reactions for the 20,22 Ne isotopes and for their natural mixture are analyzed with the aim of exploring special features of the decay of giant-dipole-resonance states in these two isotopes. With the aid of data on the abundances of the isotopes and on the energy reaction thresholds, the cross sections for the reactions 20,22 Ne[(γ, n) + (γ, np)] and 20,22 Ne[(γ, p) + (γ, np)] are broken down into the contributions from the one-nucleon reactions (γ, n) and (γ, p) and the contributions from the reactions (γ, np). The cross sections evaporation model used here to treat the deexcitation of residual nucle(γ, p) 19,21 F in the energy range E γ = 16.0-28.0 MeV and the cross sections for the reactions 20,22 Ne(γ, np) 18,20 F in the energy range E γ = 23.3-28.0 MeV are estimated. The behavior of the cross-section ratio r = σ(γ, p)/σ(γ, n) for the 22 Ne nucleus as a function of energy is analyzed, and the isospin components of the giant dipole resonance in the 22 Ne nucleus are identified. The contributions of the isospin components of the giant dipole resonance in the 22 Ne nucleus to the cross sections for various photonuclear reactions are determined on the basis of an analysis of the diagram of the excitation and decay of pure isospin states in the 22 Ne nucleus and in nuclei neighboring it, which are members of the corresponding isospin multiplets. The isospin splitting of the giant dipole resonance and the ratio of the intensities of the isospin components are determined to be ΔE = 4.57 ± 0.69 MeV and R = 0.24 ± 0.04, respectively

  5. Quenching of the Giant Dipole Resonance Strength at High Excitation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonocito, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Delaunay, F.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Hongmei, F.; Lima, V.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    The evolution with excitation energy of the Giant Dipole Resonance features in nuclei of mass A≈108-136 is reviewed. We first discuss the results of the experiments performed with MEDEA studying the GDR gamma decay from hot nuclei populated at excitation energies above 300 MeV. The focus of the paper is on the excitation energy region between 160 and 290 MeV. This region has been investigated through the study of the reactions 116Sn + 12C at 17 and 23 A MeV, and 116Sn + 24Mg at 17 A MeV. Gamma-rays were detected using MEDEA in coincidence with evaporation residues detected in MACISTE. The analysis of the gamma-ray spectra and their comparison with statistical calculations are presented. The comparison with γ-ray spectra from the reaction 36Ar + 98Mo at higher excitation energies shows a coherent scenario where a progressive reduction of γ multiplicity relative to predictions for 100% of the Energy Weighted Sum Rule is observed above 200 MeV excitation energy. Finally, the existence of a link between disappearance of collective motion and the liquid-gas phase transitions is discussed.

  6. Quenching of the Giant Dipole Resonance Strength at High Excitation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santonocito, D. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Blumenfeld, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay (France); Agodi, C. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Alba, R. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Bellia, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Coniglione, R. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Delaunay, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay (France); Del Zoppo, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Frascaria, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay (France); Hongmei, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lima, V. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay (France); Maiolino, C. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Migneco, E. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Piattelli, P. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sapienza, P. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Scarpaci, J.A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2007-05-15

    The evolution with excitation energy of the Giant Dipole Resonance features in nuclei of mass A{approx}108-136 is reviewed. We first discuss the results of the experiments performed with MEDEA studying the GDR gamma decay from hot nuclei populated at excitation energies above 300 MeV. The focus of the paper is on the excitation energy region between 160 and 290 MeV. This region has been investigated through the study of the reactions {sup 116}Sn + {sup 12}C at 17 and 23A MeV, and {sup 116}Sn + {sup 24}Mg at 17A MeV. Gamma-rays were detected using MEDEA in coincidence with evaporation residues detected in MACISTE. The analysis of the gamma-ray spectra and their comparison with statistical calculations are presented. The comparison with {gamma}-ray spectra from the reaction {sup 36}Ar + {sup 98}Mo at higher excitation energies shows a coherent scenario where a progressive reduction of {gamma} multiplicity relative to predictions for 100% of the Energy Weighted Sum Rule is observed above 200 MeV excitation energy. Finally, the existence of a link between disappearance of collective motion and the liquid-gas phase transitions is discussed.

  7. Quenching of the Giant Dipole Resonance Strength at High Excitation Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santonocito, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Delaunay, F.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Hongmei, F.; Lima, V.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution with excitation energy of the Giant Dipole Resonance features in nuclei of mass A∼108-136 is reviewed. We first discuss the results of the experiments performed with MEDEA studying the GDR gamma decay from hot nuclei populated at excitation energies above 300 MeV. The focus of the paper is on the excitation energy region between 160 and 290 MeV. This region has been investigated through the study of the reactions 116 Sn + 12 C at 17 and 23A MeV, and 116 Sn + 24 Mg at 17A MeV. Gamma-rays were detected using MEDEA in coincidence with evaporation residues detected in MACISTE. The analysis of the gamma-ray spectra and their comparison with statistical calculations are presented. The comparison with γ-ray spectra from the reaction 36 Ar + 98 Mo at higher excitation energies shows a coherent scenario where a progressive reduction of γ multiplicity relative to predictions for 100% of the Energy Weighted Sum Rule is observed above 200 MeV excitation energy. Finally, the existence of a link between disappearance of collective motion and the liquid-gas phase transitions is discussed

  8. Time scales for fusion-fission and quasifission from giant dipole resonance decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsch, R.; Hofman, D. J.; Montoya, C. P.; Paul, P.; Thoennessen, M.

    1991-10-01

    Giant dipole resonance (GDR) γ rays in coincidence with fission fragments were measured in the reactions 16O+208Pb at 120 and 140 MeV, 24Mg+196Pt at 150 MeV, and 32S+natW at 185 MeV. γ-ray-fission angular correlation measurements for 16O+208Pb (120 and 140 MeV) and 32S+natW confirm the strong contribution of prescission γ rays to the total γ-ray spectrum. The data were analyzed with a modified statistical model code which includes the effects of nuclear dissipation in the fission process, γ decay at equilibrium and between saddle and scission, and the decay of the mononucleus formed in quasifission reactions. The extracted value for the nuclear friction coefficient of γ=10+/-3 at temperatures between 1 and 2 MeV is much larger than the upper limit for the ground state and indicates strongly overdamped large-scale mass motion. The extracted total fission time scale τfiss(γ=10)~=2.9×10-19 s at 64 MeV excitation energy agrees with that extracted from recent neutron multiplicity experiments. A strong dependence of the GDR γ-ray yield on the target-projectile mass asymmetry is interpreted in terms of the quasifission process. γ-ray spectra and correlations could be fitted with the assumption of a GDR contribution from the mononucleus but required an arbitrary reduction of the total fission fragment excitation energy by 30 MeV. The quasifission lifetime was estimated to τqf=(2-9)×10-20 s.

  9. Onset of quenching of the giant dipole resonance at high excitation energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonocito, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Delaunay, F.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Hongmei, F.; Lima, V.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Wieland, O.

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) properties in nuclei of mass A =120 to 132 has been investigated in an excitation energy range between 150 and 270 MeV through the study of complete and nearly complete fusion reactions using 116Sn beams at 17 A and 23 A MeV from the cyclotron of the Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud impinging on 12C and 24Mg targets. γ rays and light charged particles were detected using the multi-element detector array MEDEA in coincidence with evaporation residues detected by using mass and charge identification spectrometry with telescope (MACISTE). Light-charged-particle energy spectra were analyzed within the framework of a multiple-source-emission scenario by using a fitting procedure to determine the amount of pre-equilibrium emission and deduce the excitation energies reached in the compound nuclei. A detailed analysis of the γ -ray spectra and their comparison with statistical model calculations is presented. Evidence of a quenching of the GDR gamma yield was found at 270 MeV excitation energy. The quenching effect becomes progressively more important with increasing excitation energy, as observed when the comparison is extended to data from the reaction 36Ar+96Mo at 37 A MeV where hot nuclei were populated up to 430 MeV excitation energy. A coherent scenario emerges indicating the existence of a limiting excitation energy for the collective motion of about E*/A =2.1 MeV for systems of mass A =105 to 111 while a slightly lower value was observed for nuclei of mass A ˜132 . The existence of a possible link between GDR disappearance and the liquid-gas phase transition is discussed.

  10. Dipole strength distribution below the giant dipole resonance in {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusev, G.Y.

    2006-07-01

    Investigations of the dipole-strength distributions in {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo were carried out by means of the method of nuclear resonance fluorescence. The low-lying excitations in the nuclides {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo have been studied in photon-scattering experiments at an electron energy of 6 MeV at the ELBE accelerator and at electron energies from 3.2 to 3.8 MeV at the Dynamitron accelerator. Five levels were observed in {sup 92}Mo. Five levels in {sup 98}Mo and 14 in {sup 100}Mo were identified for the first time in the energy range from 2 to 4 MeV. Dipole-strength distributions up to the neutron-separation energies in the nuclides {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo have been investigated at the ELBE accelerator. Because of the possible observation of transitions in the neighboring nuclei produced via ({gamma},n) reaction, additional measurements at electron energies of 8.4 and 7.8 MeV, below the neutron-separation energy, were performed on {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo, respectively. The number of transitions assigned to {sup 92}Mo, {sup 98}Mo and {sup 100}Mo is 340, 485 and 499, respectively, the main part of them being dipole transitions. Statistical properties of the observed transitions are obtained. The continuum contains the ground-state transitions as well as the branching transitions to the low-lying levels and the subsequent deexcitations of these levels. (orig.)

  11. Study of the giant dipole resonances of 16O and 15N by means of radiative captures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degre, Andre.

    1976-01-01

    The giant dipole resonance in 16 O and 15 N is studied with reactions 14 N(d,γ 0 ) 16 O, 13 C( 3 He,γ 0 ) 16 O and 11 B(α,γ 0 ) 15 N. The same energy range is observed with transfert reactions as 12 C( 7 Li,αγ) 15 N. A comparative study of radiative captures leading to 16 O and 15 N point out the importance of nsub(p)-nsub(t) configurations. Apparatus and experimental techniques developed are also described [fr

  12. Heavy ion coulomb excitation and gamma decay studies of the one and two phonon giant dipole resonances in 208Pb and 209Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.E.; Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E.; Halbert, M.L.; Olive, D.H.; Varner, R.L.; Sherrill, B.; Thoennessen, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lefevre, F.; Marques, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Mittig, W.; Ostendorf, R.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Schutz, Y.; Pol, J. van; Wilschut, H.W.; Diaz, J.; Ferrero, J.L.; Marin, A.

    1994-01-01

    Projectile - phonon coincidences were measured for the scattering of an 80 MeV/nucleon 64 Zn beam from 208 Pb and 209 Bi targets at the GANIL heavy ion accelerator facility. Projectile-like particles between 0.5 and 4.5 relative to the incident beam direction were detected in the SPEG energy loss spectrometer where their momentum, charge, and mass were determined. Photons were detected in the BaF 2 scintillation detector array TAPS. Light charged particles produced in the reaction were detected in the KVI Forward Wall. The analysis of the data acquired in this experiment is focused on three different phenomena: (1) the two phonon giant dipole resonance, (2) time dependence of the decay of the one phonon giant dipole resonance, and (3) giant resonance strength in projectile nuclei. (orig.)

  13. TESTING CONVECTIVE-CORE OVERSHOOTING USING PERIOD SPACINGS OF DIPOLE MODES IN RED GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalban, J.; Noels, A.; Dupret, M.-A.; Scuflaire, R. [Institut d' Astrophysique et Geophysique de l' Universite de Liege, Allee du six Aout, 17 B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Miglio, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ventura, P. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma-INAF, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    Uncertainties on central mixing in main-sequence (MS) and core He-burning (He-B) phases affect key predictions of stellar evolution such as late evolutionary phases, chemical enrichment, ages, etc. We propose a test of the extension of extra-mixing in two relevant evolutionary phases based on period spacing ({Delta}P) of solar-like oscillating giants. From stellar models and their corresponding adiabatic frequencies (respectively, computed with ATON and LOSC codes), we provide the first predictions of the observable {Delta}P for stars in the red giant branch and in the red clump (RC). We find (1) a clear correlation between {Delta}P and the mass of the helium core (M{sub He}); the latter in intermediate-mass stars depends on the MS overshooting, and hence it can be used to set constraints on extra-mixing during MS when coupled with chemical composition; and (2) a linear dependence of the average value of the asymptotic period spacing (({Delta}P){sub a}) on the size of the convective core during the He-B phase. A first comparison with the inferred asymptotic period spacing for Kepler RC stars also suggests the need for extra-mixing during this phase, as evinced from other observational facts.

  14. Self-consistent treatment of nuclear collective motion with an application to the giant-dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liran, S.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of Physics)

    1977-01-01

    This paper extends the recent theory of Liran, Scheefer, Scheid and Greiner on non-adiabatic cranking and nuclear collective motion. In the present work we show the self-consistency conditions for the collective motion, which are indicated by appropriate time-dependent Lagrange multipliers, can be treated explicitly. The energy conservation and the self-consistency condition in the case of one collective degree of freedom are expressed in differential form. This leads to a set of coupled differential equations in time for the many-body wave function, for the collective variable and for the Lagrange multiplier. An iteration procedure similar to that of the previous work is also presented. As an illustrative example, we investigate Brink's single-particle description of the giant-dipole resonance. In this case, the important role played by non-adiabaticity and self-consistency in determining the collective motion is demonstrated and discussed. We also consider the fact that in this example of a fast collective motion, the adiabatic cranking model of Inglis gives the correct mass parameter. (orig.) [de

  15. Effects of thermal and particle-number fluctuations on the giant isovector dipole modes for the 58Ni nucleus in the finite-temperature random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Dinhdang; Nguyen Zuythang

    1988-01-01

    Using the realistic single-particle energy spectrum obtained in the Woods-Saxon nucleon mean-field potential, we calculate the BCS pairing gap for 58 Ni as a function of temperature taking into account the thermal and particle-number fluctuations. The strength distributions of the electric dipole transitions and the centroids of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IV-GDR) are computed in the framework of the finite-temperature random-phase approximation (RPA) based on the Hamiltonian of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with separate dipole forces. It is shown that the change of the pairing gap at finite temperature can noticeably influence the IV-GDR localisation in realistic nuclei. By taking both thermal and quasiparticle fluctuations in the pairing gap into account the effect of the phase transition from superfluid to normal in the temperature dependence of the IV-GDR centroid is completely smeared out. (author)

  16. Comment on 'Angular momentum gated giant dipole resonance measurements in the reaction 28Si+58Ni at E(28Si)=100 and 125 MeV'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, P.; Thoennessen, M.

    2003-01-01

    In a recent paper, the giant dipole resonance width was studied as a function of angular momentum in the nucleus 86 Mo. The width of the resonance was found to be constant over a spin range of (0-40)(ℎ/2π). It was concluded that the angular momentum dependence for 86 Mo differs from that of Sn isotopes. We compared both datasets with a phenomenological formula based on the thermal fluctuation theory. The 86 Mo data are inconsistent with the formula in contrast to the previously analyzed Sn data, which seems to indicate that the angular momentum dependence of the phenomenological model is not universally applicable

  17. Giant and pigmy dipole resonances in 4He, 16,22O, and 40Ca from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacca, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Barnea, Nir [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Hagen, Gaute [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miorelli, Mirko [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Orlandini, Giuseppina [Univ. of Trento (Italy); Papenbrock, Thomas F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-24

    We combine the coupled-cluster method and the Lorentz integral transform for the computation of inelastic reactions into the continuum. We show that the bound-state-like equation characterizing the Lorentz integral transform method can be reformulated based on extensions of the coupled-cluster equation-of-motion method, and we discuss strategies for viable numerical solutions. Starting from a chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order, we compute the giant dipole resonances of 4He, 16,22O, and 40Ca, truncating the coupled-cluster equation-of-motion method at the two-particle–two-hole excitation level. Within this scheme, we find a low-lying E1 strength in the neutron-rich 22O nucleus, which compares fairly well with data from Leistenschneider et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5442 (2001)]. We also compute the electric dipole polarizability in 40Ca. Deficiencies of the employed Hamiltonian lead to overbinding, too-small charge radii, and a too-small electric dipole polarizability in 40Ca.

  18. Quantum calculation of dipole excitation in fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenel, C.; Chomaz, Ph.; De France, G.

    2000-01-01

    The excitation of the giant dipole resonance by fusion is studied with N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel. The TDHF solution exhibits a strong dipole vibration which can be associated with a giant vibration along the main axis of a fluctuating prolate shape. The consequences on the gamma-ray emission from hot compound nuclei are discussed. (author)

  19. Dipole and spin-dipole strength distributions in isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Necla Cakmak

    2018-01-03

    Jan 3, 2018 ... and 14 and the giant resonances in the energy region of. 19–27 MeV were found to be predominantly excited by. L = 1 transition [19]. Also, the angular distributions of double differential cross-section were measured for. 40Ca(p, p ) reaction at 319 MeV [20]. The spin-dipole resonance has a total measured ...

  20. The ALICE muon spectrometer dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE detector consists of two large magnets, the huge red solenoid which can be seen on the right, and the blue dipole magnet. The solenoid was used for the L3 experiment when LEP was in use between 1989 and 2000, but the dipole has been built especially for the new ALICE detector. The dipole was successfully tested on 14 July 2005 when it ran at the operating current of 6 kiloamps for 24 hours.

  1. Isotopic effect giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.

    1981-10-01

    The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models

  2. Spreading effects on the isovector dipole strength distribution in 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, S.; Nguyen van Giai

    1984-01-01

    There is seemingly a difficulty with all Hartree-Fock RPA calculations to describe correctly the distribution of dipole strength in heavy nuclei above the giant dipole region. We investigate in a consistent framework the effects of damping into more complex configurations. We show that in 208 Pb, this damping leads to a smooth distribution at higher energies while it gives a satisfactory description of the spreading width of the giant dipole resonance. (orig.)

  3. Hydrodynamic models for the giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda Neto, J.D.T.

    1983-01-01

    The interplay between the experimental photonuclear E1-form factors and the theoretical predictions of the Goldhaber-Teller, Steinwedel-Jensen, and Droplet models was investigated. It was found that the Goldhaber-Teller displacement mode alone describes the main trend of the experimental form factors, as a function of the mass number. Also, it was verified that the Droplet model, while describing well the centroid energy of the E1-resonances, does not describe the form factors in terms of a mixture of the Goldhaber-Teller and Steinwedel-Jensen modes. (Author) [pt

  4. SSC collider dipole magnet end mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.; Ewald, K.; Fulton, H.; Kerby, J.; Koska, W.; Strait, J.; Wake, S.M. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Leung, K.K. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the ends of Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnets to be constructed and tested at Fermilab. Coil end clamps, end yoke configuration, and end plate design are discussed. Loading of the end plate by axial Lorentz forces is discussed. Relevant data from 40 mm and 50 mm aperture model dipole magnets built and tested at Fermilab are presented. In particular, the apparent influence of end clamp design on the quench behavior of model SSC dipoles is described. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.

    2001-01-01

    A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)

  6. Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.

    1999-01-01

    A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)

  7. 5cm aperture dipole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lundy, R.; Mantech, P.; Strait, J.

    1986-01-01

    The results obtained during the evolution of the design, construction, and testing program of the design ''B'' dipole are presented here. Design ''B'' is one of the original three competing designs for the Superconducting Super Collider ''SSC'' arc dipoles. The final design parameters were as follows: air cored (less than a few percent of the magnetic field derived from any iron present), aluminum collared, two layered winding, 5.5T maximum operating field, and a 5 cm cold aperture. There have been fourteen 64 cm long 5 cm aperture model dipoles cold tested (at 4.3K and less) in this program so far. There was a half length full size (6m) mechanical analog (M-10) built and tested to check the cryostat's mechanical design under ramping and quench conditions. Several deviations from the ''Tevatron'' dipole fabrication technique were incorporated, for example the use of aluminum collars instead of stainless steel. The winding technique variations explored were ''dry welding,'' a technique with the cable covered with Kapton insulation only and ''wet winding'' where the Kapton was covered with a light coat of ''B'' stage epoxy. Test data include quench currents, field quality (Fourier multipole co-efficients), coil magnetization, conductor current performance, and coil loading. Quench current, loss per cycle, and harmonics were measured as a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the magnetic field, and helium bath temperature

  8. Solvents level dipole moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenkel; Li, Xiaosong; Dalton, Larry R; Robinson, Bruce H; Eichinger, Bruce E

    2011-11-03

    The dipole moments of highly polar molecules measured in solution are usually smaller than the molecular dipole moments that are calculated with reaction field methods, whereas vacuum values are routinely calculated in good agreement with available vapor phase data. Whether from Onsager's theory (or variations thereof) or from quantum mechanical methods, the calculated molecular dipoles in solution are found to be larger than those measured. The reason, of course, is that experiments measure the net dipole moment of solute together with the polarized (perturbed) solvent "cloud" surrounding it. Here we show that the reaction field charges that are generated in the quantum mechanical self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method give a good estimate of the net dipole moment of the solute molecule together with the moment arising from the reaction field charges. This net dipole is a better description of experimental data than the vacuum dipole moment and certainly better than the bare dipole moment of the polarized solute molecule.

  9. Measurement of the b hadron lifetime with the dipole method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barbeiro, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1993-09-01

    A measurement of the average lifetime of b hadrons has been performed with dipole method on a sample of 260 000 hadronic Z decays recorded with the ALEPH detector during 1991. The dipole is the distance between the vertices built in the opposite hemispheres. The mean dipole is extracted from all the events without attempting b enrichment. Comparing the average of the data dipole distribution with a Monte Carlo calibration curve obtained with different b lifetimes, an average b hadron lifetime of 1.51±0.08 ps is extracted.

  10. Electric dipole moments reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupertsberger, H.

    1989-01-01

    The electric dipole moments of elementary particles, atoms, molecules and their connection to the electric susceptibility are discussed for stationary states. Assuming rotational invariance it is emphasized that for such states only in the case of a parity and time reversal violating interaction the considered particles can obtain a nonvanishing expectation value for the electric dipole moment. 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)

  11. Overtones of isoscalar giant resonances studied in direct particle decay measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunyadi, M; van den Berg, AM; Csatlos, M; Csige, L; Davids, B; Garg, U; Gulyas, J; Harakeh, MN; de Huu, MA; Krasznahorkay, A; Sohler, D; Wortche, HJ

    The isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR), which is the lowest-energy overtone mode of the isoscalar giant resonances, has been studied in some medium-heavy and heavy nuclei in coincidence measurements. The observation of the direct nucleon decay channels significantly helped to enhance giant

  12. Isoscalar and isovector collective dipole states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelhekken, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study on the excitation of isoscalar and isovector dipole collective states by inelastic alpha scattering. In ch. 2 the experimental techniques and the characteristics of the α-particle and the γ-ray detection system are summarized. The details of the relevant theory, such as the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) formalism, the energy-weighted sum rules and the α-γ angular correlations are given in ch. 3. Ch. 4 presents the results of the search for low-energy isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISLEDR) strength by studying inelastic scattering at very forward angles, including 0 deg, of 120 MeV α-particles in coincidence with γ-ray decay. For the identification of these ISLEDR states use has been made of the fact that the α-γ angular correlations show a very characteristic pattern for γ-decay to the ) + ground state of the nuclei. Results are shown for 208 Pb, 90 Zr, 58 Ni and 40 Ca. A second experiment used the same reaction but focussed on the excitation of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) in 208 Pb, located in a different excitation energy region (ch. 5). With the help of the (α,α'γ)-reaction it could be shown that at most 12 (± 4) % of the observed resonance strength around 13.6MeV in 208 Pb could be caused by IVGDR excitation. Finally a summary is presented in ch. 6 together with the future prospects for this particular branch in the field of giant resonances. (author). 209 refs.; 68 figs.; 42 tabs

  13. Lepton dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Marciano, William J

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a self-contained description of the measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and muon, along with a discussion of the measurements of the fine structure constant, and the theory associated with magnetic and electric dipole moments. Also included are the searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron, muon, neutron and atomic nuclei. The related topic of the transition moment for lepton flavor violating processes, such as neutrinoless muon or tauon decays, and the search for such processes are included as well. The papers, written by many o

  14. Multipole giant resonances in highly excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Keding; Cai Yanhuang

    1989-01-01

    The isoscalar giant surface resonance and giant dipole resonance in highly excited nuclei are discussed. Excitation energies of the giant modes in 208 Pb are calculated in a simplified model, using the concept of energy wieghted sum rule (EWSR), and the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation at the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature equilibrium state. It is shown that EWSR and the energy of the resonance depend only weakly on temperature in the system. This weak dependence is analysed

  15. LHC dipoles: the countdown has begun

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    At the entrance to the fourth floor corridor of the LHC-MMS (Main Magnets and Superconductors) Group in building 30, the Director-General has unveiled an electronic information panel indicating the number of LHC dipoles still to be delivered and the days remaining to the deadline (30 June 2006). The panel was the idea of Lucio Rossi, leader of the MMS Group, which is responsible for the construction of the dipole magnets. The unveiling ceremony took place on the morning of Friday 11 October 2002, at the end of a drink held to celebrate with MMS group and the LHC top management the exceptional performance of the latest dipoles, built by the French consortium Alstom-Jeumont. They are the first dipoles to achieve a magnetic field of 9 tesla in one go without quenching, thus exceeding the nominal operating field of 8.3 tesla. The challenge is now to increase the production rate from 2 to 35 dipoles per month by 2004 in order to meet the deadline, while maintaining this quality. Photo 01: The Director-General Luci...

  16. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  17. Some dipole shower studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabouat, Baptiste; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2018-03-01

    Parton showers have become a standard component in the description of high-energy collisions. Nowadays most final-state ones are of the dipole character, wherein a pair of partons branches into three, with energy and momentum preserved inside this subsystem. For initial-state showers a dipole picture is also possible and commonly used, but the older global-recoil strategy remains a valid alternative, wherein larger groups of partons share the energy-momentum preservation task. In this article we introduce and implement a dipole picture also for initial-state radiation in Pythia, and compare with the existing global-recoil one, and with data. For the case of Deeply Inelastic Scattering we can directly compare with matrix element expressions and show that the dipole picture gives a very good description over the whole phase space, at least for the first branching.

  18. Semimicroscopic description of basic properties of isoscalar monopole and dipole excitations in medium-mass spherical nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorelik, ML; Urin, MH

    2003-01-01

    A description of basic properties (strength function, transition density, probabilities of direct nucleonic decays) of isoscalar giant monopole (including an overtone) and dipole resonances in medium-mass spherical nuclei is proposed within a semimicroscopic approach. The approach relies on

  19. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  20. Electron scattering studies of selected electric and magnetic dipole and quadrupole transitions in light and heavy nuclei, the new multipole giant resonances and atomic transitions - recent results from the DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experimental work from the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (DALINAC) is briefly summarized. Particular emphasis is given to the following topics: high resolution inelastic electron scattering (ΔE approximately 30 keV FWHM) has been used to study the radiative width and magnetization density of the 2 + , T = 1 state at 16.11 MeV in 12 C, E2 strength distribution in 28 Si below an excitation energy of 13 MeV and the isospin forbidden E1 electroexcitation of the 1 - , T = 0 state at 6.95 MeV in 40 Ca. High resolution inelastic electron scattering was also employed to determine certain M1 transitions in 14 N, 28 Si, 39 K, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb and the M2 strength distribution in the two heaviest nuclei. At medium energy resolution (ΔE approximately 200 keV FWHM) spectra at various angles and bombarding energies have been measured from (4-31) MeV for 208 Pb. They are being analyzed in order to determine E0, E1, E2, E3 and M1 giant resonance strength in the continuum. The Z and E dependence and the scaling behaviour of the atomic inner shell ionization cross section at relativistic electron impact is studied on gaseous and solid targets. (orig./BJ) [de

  1. Initial results from 50mm short SSC dipoles at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Coulter, K.; Delchamps, S.; Ewald, K.D.; Fulton, H.; Gonczy, I.; Gourlay, S.A.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.B.; Wake, M.; Gordon, M.; Hassan, N.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.

    1991-03-01

    Several short model SSC 50 mm bore dipoles are being built and tested at Fermilab. Mechanical design of these magnets has been determined from experience involved in the construction and testing of 40 mm dipoles. Construction experience includes coil winding, curing and measuring, coil end part design and fabrication, ground insulation, instrumentation, collaring and yoke assembly. Fabrication techniques are explained and construction problems are discussed. Similarities and differences from the 40 mm dipole tooling and management components are outlined. Test results from the first models are presented. 19 refs., 12 figs

  2. Dipole-dipole dispersion interactions between neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Babb, James F.; Higa, Renato; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the long-range interactions between two neutrons utilizing recent data on the neutron static and dynamic electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities. The resulting long-range potentials are used to make quantitative comparisons between the collisions of a neutron with a neutron and a neutron with a proton. We also assess the importance of the first pion production threshold and first excited state of the nucleon, the $\\Delta$-resonance ($J^{\\pi}$ = + 3/2, I = 3/2). We found b...

  3. New properties of giant resonances in highly excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsch, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Studies on the giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei investigated in heavy ion-induced particle-γ coincidence experiments are reviewed. A signature is found in the γ-decay of excited nuceli which shows direct decay of the giant dipole resonance. This provides a new dimension in giant resonance studies and the possibility to study the dependence of giant resonance energy, width and sum rule strength on excitation energy and rotation of the system. Further, the fact that the giant resonance splits in deformed nuclei provides a unique way to get information on the shape of hot nuclei. First results are obtained on the following questions: (i)What is the nuclear shape at high temperature (T≥2 MeV)? (ii)Is there a phase transition in the nuclear shape at T∼1.7 MeV? (iii)Does motional narrowing exist in hot nuclei? (author). 19 refs., 11 figs

  4. Nuclear reactor built, being built, or planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1990. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE, from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations, from US and foreign embassies, and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly

  5. Giant resonances on excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besold, W.; Reinhard, P.G.; Toepffer, C.

    1984-01-01

    We derive modified RPA equations for small vibrations about excited states. The temperature dependence of collective excitations is examined. The formalism is applied to the ground state and the first excited state of 90 Zr in order to confirm a hypothesis which states that not only the ground state but every excited state of a nucleus has a giant resonance built upon it. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear isovector giant resonances excited by pion single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.H.

    1993-07-01

    This thesis is an experimental study of isovector giant resonances in light nuclei excited by pion single charge exchange reactions. Giant dipole resonances in light nuclei are known to be highly structured. For the mass 9 and 13 giant dipole resonances, isospin considerations were found to be very important to understanding this structure. by comparing the excitation functions from cross section measurements of the (π + , π 0 ) and (π, π 0 ) inclusive reactions, the authors determined the dominant isospin structure of the analog IVGR's. The comparison was made after decomposing the cross section into resonant and non-resonant components. This decomposition is made in the framework of strong absorption and quasi-free scattering. Measurements in the region of the isovector giant dipole resonances (IVGDR) were made to cover the inclusive angular distributions out to the second minimum. Study of the giant resonance decay process provides further understanding of the resonances. This study was carried out by observing the (π + , π 0 p) coincident reactions involving the resonances of 9 B and 13 N excited from 9 Be and 13 C nuclei. These measurements determined the spectra of the decay protons. This method also permitted a decomposition of the giant resonances into their isospin components. The multipolarities of the resonances were revealed by the decay proton angular correlations which, for dipoles, are of the form 1 + A 2 P 2 (cos θ)

  7. Finite temperature effects on monopole and dipole excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Y F; Paar, N; Vretenar, D; Meng, J

    2011-01-01

    The relativistic random phase approximation based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings has been extended to finite temperature and employed in studies of multipole excitations within the temperature range T = 1 - 2 MeV. The model calculations showed that isoscalar giant monopole and isovector giant dipole resonances are only slightly modified with temperature, but additional transition strength appears at low energies because of thermal unblocking of single-particle orbitals close to the Fermi level. The analysis of low-lying states shows that isoscalar monopole response in 132 Sn results from single particle transitions, while the isovector dipole strength for 60 Ni, located around 10 MeV, is composed of several single particle transitions, accumulating a small degree of collectivity.

  8. Dipole-dipole dispersion interactions between neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babb, James F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Higa, Renato [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hussein, Mahir S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate the long-range interactions between two neutrons utilizing recent data on the neutron static and dynamic electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities. The resulting long-range potentials are used to make quantitative comparisons between the collisions of a neutron with a neutron and a neutron with a proton. We also assess the importance of the first pion production threshold and first excited state of the nucleon, the Δ-resonance (J{sup π} = +3/2, I = 3/2). We found both dynamical effects to be quite relevant for distances r between ∝ 50 fm up to ∝ 10{sup 3} fm in the nn system, the neutron-wall system and in the wall-neutron-wall system, reaching the expected asymptotic limit beyond that. Relevance of our findings to the confinement of ultra cold neutrons inside bottles is discussed. (orig.)

  9. The pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Nguyen Quang; Kiet, Hoang Anh Tuan; Duc, Huynh Ngoc; Chuong, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR), which has been observed via the enhancement of the electric dipole strength E 1 of atomic nuclei, is studied within a microscopic collective model. The latter employs the Hartree-Fock (HF) method with effective nucleon-nucleon interactions of the Skyrme types plus the random-phase approximation (RPA). The results of the calculations obtained for various even-even nuclei such as 16-28 O, 40-58 Ca, 100-120 Sn, and 182-218 Pb show that the PDR is significantly enhanced when the number of neutrons outside the stable core of the nucleus is increased, that is, in the neutron-rich nuclei. As the result, the relative ratio between the energy weighted sum of the strength of the PDR and that of the GDR (giant dipole resonance) does not exceed 4%. The collectivity of the PDR and GDR states will be also discussed. (paper)

  10. Dissecting an LHC dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The cold mass of a 15-metre main dipole magnet has some fifteen different components. All the main components are manufactured under CERN's direct responsibility. Four of them transit through CERN before being shipped to the dipole assembly contractors, namely the cable, which constitutes the magnet's superconducting core (see Bulletin 14/2004), the beam screens, the heat exchanger tubes and the cold bore beam tubes. The two latter components transit via Building 927 where they undergo part of the production process. The 58-mm diameter heat exchanger tubes will remove heat from the magnets using superfluid helium. The 53-mm diameter cold bore tubes will be placed under vacuum to allow the twin beams to circulate around the LHC.

  11. ALICE dipole and decoration

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE cavern receives a painting made specially to mark the 50th anniversary of CERN that is mounted on the L3 solenoid magnet, reused from the LEP experiment that ran from 1989 to 2000. The dipole, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid. These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter allowing them to be studied at large distances from the interaction point.

  12. Dipole defects in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R

    2010-01-01

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  13. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  14. New results on multiple excitations of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordechai, S.; Texas Univ., Austin, TX; Moore, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Exotic excitations like the double giant dipole were predicted for many years but not observed experimentally until recently. Several experiments have been carried out at Los Alamos National laboratory to search for these new collective modes of the nucleus. The results discover two previously unobserved types of double giant resonances. This work presents the recent pion double charge exchange data and the analysis that support the existence of two such exotic vibrational nuclear modes

  15. Giant Magnetoresistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 4. Giant Magnetoresistance - Nobel Prize in Physics 2007. Debakanta Samal P S Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 13 Issue 4 April 2008 pp 343-354. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Correction of magnetization sextupole and decapole in a 5 centimeter bore SSC dipole using passive superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    Higher multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor in four and five centimeter bore Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) superconducting dipole magnets have been observed. The use of passive superconductor to correct out the magnetization sextupole has been demonstrated on two dipoles built by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This reports shows how passive correction can be applied to the five centimeter SSC dipoles to remove sextupole and decapole caused by magnetization of the dipole superconductor. Two passive superconductor corrector options will be presented. The change in magnetization sextupole and decapole due to flux creep decay of the superconductor during injection can be partially compensated for using the passive superconductor. 9 refs; 5 figs

  17. The Giant Dipole Resonance in hot nuclei. Experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.

    1994-12-01

    Some of the most recent experimental results on the GDR in hot nuclei are presented. All data on the γ-decay of the GDR show a saturation of the apparent width and a saturation of the yield. However, it is not clear until now, if these effects are related to a GDR width which either saturates or increases continuously with the excitation energy. Very new data associated to selected exit channels could help to clarify the situation. (author). 14 refs., 7 figs

  18. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    techniques. Several experiments have been performed by bombarding 7–12 MeV/nucleon alpha beam on various targets (63Cu, 115In and 197Au) and new datasets ... appears to be constant at its ground state value until a critical temperature is reached and subse- ..... it was 38.6 MeV for 63Cu at 35 MeV incident energy.

  19. Built environment and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasala, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, Allam Appa; Sridhar, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is influenced by built environment, which is, ‘the environments that are modified by humans, including homes, schools, workplaces, highways, urban sprawls, accessibility to amenities, leisure, and pollution.’ Built environment contributes to diabetes through access to physical activity and through stress, by affecting the sleep cycle. With globalization, there is a possibility that western environmental models may be replicated in developing countries such as India, where the underlying genetic predisposition makes them particularly susceptible to diabetes. Here we review published information on the relationship between built environment and diabetes, so that appropriate modifications can be incorporated to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. PMID:20535308

  20. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... a too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation...... to current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  1. Diffractive open charm production from the dipole model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, A.; Golec-Biernat, K.

    2009-01-01

    The most promising QCD based approach to DIS diffraction is formulated in terms of dipole models. In this analysis, we consider two important parameterizations of the dipole scattering amplitude, called GBW and CGC in which parton saturation results are built in. We present a precise comparison of the results of the dipole models using these two parameterizations with the newest data from HERA. The comparison we performed prompt us to discuss some subtle points of the dipole models, mostly related to the qqg component, and connect them to the approach based on the diffractive parton distributions evolved with the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) equations. Within the latter approach, the diffractive open charm production, which is the main goal of this analysis, is particularly interesting since it is sensitive to a diffractive gluon distribution. Thus, we extracted the diffractive gluon distribution from the dipole model formulae to use it for the computation of the charm contribution to F 2 D . We found good agreement with the HERA data on the diffractive open charm production both for the the gluon distributions from the considered dipole models and the DGLAP fits to HERA data from our earlier analysis for diffractive parton distributions with higher twist. (authors)

  2. Isotopic dependence of the giant quadrupole resonance in the stable even-mass molybdenum nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, A.; Gaillard, Y.; Bemolle, A.M.; Buenerd, M.; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; de Saintignon, P.

    1979-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of 110 MeV 3 He particles is used to probe the quadrupole strength in the even Mo isotopes. The peak position of the giant quadrupole resonance is found to decrease more rapidly than predicted by the A/sup -1/3/ law, a behavior very similar to that exhibited by the photonuclear giant dipole resonance. The width and strength of the giant quadrupole resonance are practically constant in 92 Mo through 100 Mo

  3. Electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions in carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hagino, Kouichi

    2003-01-01

    We carry out shell model calculations to study electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions of C isotopes. We point out the configuration dependence of the quadrupole and magnetic moments of the odd C isotopes, which will be useful to find out the deformations and the spin parities of the ground states of these nuclei. We also study the electric dipole states of C isotopes, focusing on the interplay between low energy pigmy strength and giant dipole resonances. As far as the energies of the resonances are concerned, reasonable agreement is obtained with available experimental data for the photoreaction cross sections in 12 C, 13 C, and 14 C, both in the low energy region below (ℎ/2π)ω=14 MeV and in the high energy giant resonance region (14 MeV 15 C is found to exhaust about 12-16 % of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule value and 50-80 % of the cluster sum rule value

  4. Excitation of giant resonances through inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kailas, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years, exciting developments have taken place in the study of giant resonances (GR). In addition to the already well known gjant dipole resonance (GDR), the presence of at least two more new GRs viz. giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) and giant monopole resonance (GMR) has been experimentally established. The systematics covering these GRs is found to be consistent with the theoretical expectation. Though the existence of higher multipoles has been predjcted by theory, so far only some of these have been found to be excited experimentally. Various probe particles - electrons, protons (polarized and unpolarized), light and heavy ions and pions - at different bombarding energies have been used to excite the GR region, primarily through the inelastic scattering process. Detailed experiments, looking at the decay modes of GR region, have also been performed. These studies have contributed significantly to a better understanding of the phenomenon of nuclear collective excitation. In this report, the current status of 'GR' research is reviewed. (author)

  5. Backfire antennas with dipole elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø; Pontoppidan, Knud

    1970-01-01

    A method is set up for a theoretical investigation of arbitrary backfire antennas based upon dipole structures. The mutual impedance between the dipole elements of the antenna is taken into account, and the field radiated due to a surface wave reflector of finite extent is determined by calculating...

  6. Magnetic dipoles and electric currents

    OpenAIRE

    Corbó, Guido; Testa, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We discuss several similarities and differences between the concepts of electric and magnetic dipoles. We then consider the relation between the magnetic dipole and a current loop and show that in the limit of a pointlike circuit, their magnetic fields coincide. The presentation is accessible to undergraduate students with a knowledge of the basic ideas of classical electromagnetism.

  7. A sum rule description of giant resonances at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.; Quentin, P.; Brack, M.

    1983-01-01

    A generalization of the sum rule approach to collective motion at finite temperature is presented. The m 1 and msub(-1) sum rules for the isovector dipole and the isoscalar monopole electric modes have been evaluated with the modified SkM force for the 208 Pb nucleus. The variation of the resulting giant resonance energies with temperature is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Electric dipole strength and dipole polarizability in 48Ca within a fully self-consistent second random–phase approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gambacurta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The second random–phase–approximation model corrected by a subtraction procedure designed to cure double counting, instabilities, and ultraviolet divergences, is employed for the first time to analyze the dipole strength and polarizability in 48Ca. All the terms of the residual interaction are included, leading to a fully self-consistent scheme. Results are illustrated with two Skyrme parametrizations, SGII and SLy4. Those obtained with the SGII interaction are particularly satisfactory. In this case, the low-lying strength below the neutron threshold is well reproduced and the giant dipole resonance is described in a very satisfactory way especially in its spreading and fragmentation. Spreading and fragmentation are produced in a natural way within such a theoretical model by the coupling of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations. Owing to this feature, we may provide for the electric polarizability as a function of the excitation energy a curve with a similar slope around the centroid energy of the giant resonance compared to the corresponding experimental results. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to previous theoretical predictions obtained with the random–phase approximation or with several ab-initio models. In such cases, the spreading width of the excitation cannot be reproduced and the polarizability as a function of the excitation energy displays a stiff increase around the predicted centroid energy of the giant resonance.

  9. Electric dipole strength and dipole polarizability in 48Ca within a fully self-consistent second random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Vasseur, O.

    2018-02-01

    The second random-phase-approximation model corrected by a subtraction procedure designed to cure double counting, instabilities, and ultraviolet divergences, is employed for the first time to analyze the dipole strength and polarizability in 48Ca. All the terms of the residual interaction are included, leading to a fully self-consistent scheme. Results are illustrated with two Skyrme parametrizations, SGII and SLy4. Those obtained with the SGII interaction are particularly satisfactory. In this case, the low-lying strength below the neutron threshold is well reproduced and the giant dipole resonance is described in a very satisfactory way especially in its spreading and fragmentation. Spreading and fragmentation are produced in a natural way within such a theoretical model by the coupling of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations. Owing to this feature, we may provide for the electric polarizability as a function of the excitation energy a curve with a similar slope around the centroid energy of the giant resonance compared to the corresponding experimental results. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to previous theoretical predictions obtained with the random-phase approximation or with several ab-initio models. In such cases, the spreading width of the excitation cannot be reproduced and the polarizability as a function of the excitation energy displays a stiff increase around the predicted centroid energy of the giant resonance.

  10. Results of magnetic field measurements of 40 mm aperture 17-m long SSC model collider dipole magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J. (Fermi Nati

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been made on twelve 17 m-long, 40 mm-aperture R D superconducting dipoles. Data on dipole field strength, multipole coefficients, and alignment have been obtained. The data indicate that the magnets as built are generally within the expectations for this design. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Results of magnetic field measurements of 40 mm aperture 17-m long SSC model collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been made on twelve 17 m-long, 40 mm-aperture R ampersand D superconducting dipoles. Data on dipole field strength, multipole coefficients, and alignment have been obtained. The data indicate that the magnets as built are generally within the expectations for this design. 7 refs., 5 figs

  12. LHC Dipoles Accelerate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Andrezej Siemko (left), Peter Sievers (centre), and Lucio Rossi (right), have the exciting challenge of preparing and testing 2000 magnets for the LHC. The LHC is going to require a lot of powerful magnets by the time it begins operation in 2006. More specifically, it is going to need 130 special magnets, 400 quadrupoles, and a whopping 1250 dipoles! Preparing and testing these magnets for the conditions they will encounter in the LHC is not an easy task. But evaluation of the most recently received magnet, from the German company Noell, is showing that while the monumental task of receiving and testing nearly 2000 magnets is going to be exhausting, the goals are definitely attainable. At the moment and over the next year, pre-series magnets (the magnets that CERN uses to fine tune performance) are arriving slowly (90 in total will arrive), but by 2003 the rate of series magnet arrival will accelerate to 9 per week, that's over 450 in a single year! And working with these magnets when they arrive is tough. ...

  13. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  14. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.H.; Beard, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.2 0 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  15. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus......When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  16. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  17. Testing of the large bore single aperture 1-meter superconducting dipoles made with phenolic inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Dubbeldam, R L; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Taylor, T M; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1998-01-01

    Two identical single aperture 1-metre superconducting dipoles have been built in collaboration with HMA Power Systems and tested at CERN. The 87.8 mm aperture magnets feature a single layer coil wound using LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic spacer type collars, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. The magnets are designed as models of the D1 separation dipole in the LHC experimental insertions, whose nominal field is 4.5 T at 4.5 K. In this report we present the test results of the two magnets at 4.3 K and 1.9 K.

  18. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served

  19. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  20. Low-lying dipole response in stable and unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenna, M; Colò, G; Bortignon, P F; Pozzi, G; Roca-Maza, X; Mizuyama, K

    2013-01-01

    The presence of some low-lying (pygmy) strength in the dipole spectrum, at excitation energy well below the isovector giant dipole energy, has been confirmed in several nuclei. The microscopic structure and the nature of these states, in particular the possible collective nature and the isospin character, are currently under strong debate. In addition, a relation with the isovector properties of the equation of state of nuclear matter, such as the symmetry energy or its slope, has been proposed. We present a detailed analysis of Skyrme Hartree–Fock plus random phase approximation (RPA) predictions for both the isoscalar and isovector dipole responses, of different neutron-rich nuclei ( 68 Ni, 132 Sn and 208 Pb). All of them show a low-energy peak that increases in magnitude with increasing values of the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation. Eventually, the collectivity associated with the RPA states contributing to this peak is more pronounced in the isoscalar than in the isovector channel. (paper)

  1. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  2. Isotopic dependence of giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar Touv, J.; Moalem, A.; Shlomo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is presented which allows the application of linear response theory and the random phase approximation to an open shell. The procedure is applied to Ca isotopes. The general features of giant multipole resonances are found to vary smoothly with the mass. The resonances exhibit more structure in the open lfsub(7/2) shell nuclei. While the energy-weighted dipole sum is practically constant in all isotopes, the isoscalar quadrupole and octupole energy weighted sums increase continuously by approx. 30% from 40 Ca to 48 Ca. (orig.)

  3. Electroexcitation of giant resonances in 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.S.; Auer, I.P.; Bergstrom, J.C.; Caplan, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The giant resonance region of 181 Ta has been investigated by means of inelastic electron scattering with primary electron energies of 79.1 to 118.3 MeV. A peak-fitting procedure was employed to separate the measured spectrum into nine different resonance components. Multipolarity and strength assignments were deduced using DWBA analysis with the Goldhaber-Teller and Steinwedel-Jensen models. In addition to the well-known giant dipole structure, other resonances were identified at 23.2+-0.3 MeV (E2), 9.5+-0.2 and 11.5+-0.2 MeV (E2 or E0), 19.5+-0.8 MeV (E3), 3.70+-0.14 MeV (E3 or E4), and 5.40+-0.15 MeV (E4 or E5). The model dependence of the analysis is discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Study of giant resonances in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldi, M.I.C.

    1986-01-01

    The electrodisintegration cross section for 181 Ta, 208 Pb and 209 Bi was measured by counting the emitted neutrons, with incident electrons in the energy range 8-22 MeV. The data was analysed using the virtual photon method, in order to obtain a multipole decomposition and the intensities of Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole, isoscalar and isovector, in the Giant Resonance. The results obtained for the isovector Giant Quadrupole Resonance are compared with the measured photodisintegration cross section, using data from Saclay and Livermore. This comparision indicates that the photodisintegration data can be well explained assuming an isovector E2 Resonance located between 120 and 130 A -1/3 MeV, with an intensity of one isovector E2 sum. (author) [pt

  5. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  6. Giant congenital nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nevus; Giant hairy nevus; Giant pigmented nevus; Bathing trunk nevus; Congenital melanocytic nevus - large ... the spine) Involvement of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord when the nevus affects a ...

  7. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1992. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. Information is presented on five parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export and Critical Assembly

  8. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1989. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE, from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations, from US and foreign embassies, and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly facilities

  9. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1992. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. Information is presented on five parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export and Critical Assembly.

  10. Dipole response in neutron-rich nuclei within self-consistent approaches using realistic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Iudice N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nucleon-nucleon chiral potential with a corrective density dependent term simulating a three-body force is used in a self-consistent calculation of the dipole strength distribution in neutron-rich nuclei, with special attention to the low-lying spectra associated to the pygmy resonance. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov basis is generated and adopted in Tamm-Dancoff and random-phase approximations and, then, in an equation of motion approach which includes a basis of two-phonon states. The direct use of the mentioned chiral potential improves the description of both giant and pygmy dipole modes with respect to other realistic interactions. Moreover, the inclusion of the two-phonon states induces a pronounced fragmentation of the giant resonance and enhances the density of the low-lying levels in the pygmy region in agreement with recent experiments.

  11. Raising the last LEP dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 3280 dipole magnets from the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider is seen on its journey to the surface on 12 February 2002. The LEP era, which began at CERN in 1989 and ended 2000, comes to an end.

  12. Particle electric dipole-moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendlebury, J.M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.

  13. Dipole and spin-dipole strength distributions in isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Necla Cakmak

    2018-01-03

    Jan 3, 2018 ... isotopes. NECLA CAKMAK1, SADIYE CAKMAK2, CEVAD SELAM3 and SERDAR UNLU4,∗. 1Department of Physics, Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey. 2Department of Physics ... and 14 and the giant resonances in the energy region of. 19–27 MeV were ... even–even nuclei [21]. The restoration of this ...

  14. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where...

  15. Statistical contribution in the giant multipolar resonance decay in hevay nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, N.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical calculations are made for the decay in the electric monopole giant resonance in 208 Pb and electric dipole giant resonance in 209 Bi, using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism. Calculations are done using the experimental energy levels of the corresponding residual nuclei. The particle-vibrator model is used for those experimental levels without spin and parity determination. The influence of different parametrizations of the optical potential in the statistical calculation result is also studied. (L.C.) [pt

  16. Dipole corrector magnets for the LBNE beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, M.; Velev, G.; Harding, D.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The conceptual design of a new dipole corrector magnet has been thoroughly studied. The planned Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) beam line will require correctors capable of greater range and linearity than existing correctors, so a new design is proposed based on the horizontal trim dipole correctors built for the Main Injector synchrotron at Fermilab. The gap, pole shape, length, and number of conductor turns remain the same. To allow operation over a wider range of excitations without overheating, the conductor size is increased, and to maintain better linearity, the back leg thickness is increased. The magnetic simulation was done using ANSYS to optimize the shape and the size of the yoke. The thermal performance was also modeled and analyzed.

  17. An automated coil winding machine for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, S.; Iwase, T.; Inoue, I.; Fukui, I.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, S.; Sato, Y.; Yoshihara, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Johnson, E.; Gibson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have finished the preliminary design of a fully automated coil winding machine that can be used to manufacture the large number of SSC dipole magnets. The machine aims to perform all coil winding operations including coil parts inserting without human operators at a high productive rate. The machine is composed of five industrial robots. In order to verify the design, they built a small winding machine using an industrial robot and successfully wound a 1 meter long coil using SSC dipole magnet wire. The basic design for the full length coil and the robot winding technique are described in this paper. A fully automated coil winding machine using standard industrial components would be very useful if duplicate production lines are used. 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1993. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly

  19. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1993. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly.

  20. Features of 10-M-long, 50-MM-Twin-aperture LHC dipole magnet prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1998-03-01

    In 1991, the Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des particules (CERN) has launched the fabrication in industry of seven 10-m long, 50-mm-twin-aperture dipole magnet prototypes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Three of these prototypes were built in Italy, in collaboration with the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, by Ansaldo Energia Spa, two were built in Germany by Noell GmbH, one was built in France by a consortium constituted by Jeumont Industries and GEC Alsthom, and the last one was built by a consortium constituted by Elin in Austria and Holec in the Netherlands. In this paper, we review the design and specific features of the seven LHC dipole magnet prototypes. (author)

  1. Features of 10-M-long, 50-MM-Twin-aperture LHC dipole magnet prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[CERN, Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des Particules, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1998-03-01

    In 1991, the Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des particules (CERN) has launched the fabrication in industry of seven 10-m long, 50-mm-twin-aperture dipole magnet prototypes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Three of these prototypes were built in Italy, in collaboration with the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, by Ansaldo Energia Spa, two were built in Germany by Noell GmbH, one was built in France by a consortium constituted by Jeumont Industries and GEC Alsthom, and the last one was built by a consortium constituted by Elin in Austria and Holec in the Netherlands. In this paper, we review the design and specific features of the seven LHC dipole magnet prototypes. (author) 21 refs.

  2. Dynamics of a nonlinear dipole vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Nielsen, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    A localized stationary dipole solution to the Euler equations with a relationship between the vorticity and streamfunction given as omega=-psi+psi(3) is presented. By numerical integration of the Euler equations this dipole is shown to be unstable. However, the initially unstable dipole reorganiz...

  3. Descent of the last LHC dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The last of 1746 superconducting magnets is lowered into the LHC tunnel via a specially constructed pit at 12:00 on 26 April. This 15-m long dipole magnet is one of 1232 dipoles positioned around the 27-km circumference of the collider. Dipole magnets produce a magnetic field that bends the particle beams around the circular accelerator.

  4. Fluid dynamics of giant resonances on high spin states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nardo, M.; Di Toro, M.; Giansiracusa, G.; Lombardo, U.; Russo, G.

    1983-01-01

    We describe giant resonances built on high spin states along the yrast line as scaling solutions of a linearized Vlasov equation in a rotating frame obtained from a TDHF theory in phase space. For oblate cranked solutions we get a shift and a splitting of the isoscalar giant resonances in terms of the angular velocity. Results are shown for 40 Ca and 168 Er. The relative CM strengths are also calculated. (orig.)

  5. Nonperturbative study of the damping of giant resonances in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Blasio, F.V.; Cassing, W.; Tohyama, M.; Bortignon, P.F.; Broglia, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The damping of dipole and quadrupole motion in 16 O and 40 Ca at zero and finite temperature is studied including particle-particle and particle-hole interactions to all orders of perturbation. We find that the dipole dynamics in these light nuclei is well described in terms of mean-field theory (time-dependent Hartree-Fock), while the quadrupole motion is strongly damped through the coupling to more complicated configurations. Both the centroid and the damping width of the quadrupole and dipole giant resonances show a clear stability with temperature as a consequence of the weakening of the interaction, which contrasts with the increase of the phase space

  6. Two-phonon giant resonances in 136Xe, 208Pb, and 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boretzky, K.; Gruenschloss, A.; Ilievski, S.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bertulani, C.A.; Cub, J.; Dostal, W.; Eberlein, B.; Elze, T.W.; Emling, H.; Fallot, M.; Holeczek, J.; Holzmann, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Leifels, Y.; Leistenschneider, A.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Mordechai, S.; Ohtsuki, T.; Reiter, P.; Simon, H.; Stelzer, K.; Stroth, J.; Suemmerer, K.; Surowiec, A.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W.

    2003-07-01

    The excitation of the double-phonon giant dipole resonance was observed in heavy projectile nuclei impinging on targets of high nuclear charge with energies of 500-700 MeV/nucleon. New experimental data are presented for 136 Xe and 238 U together with further analysis of earlier data on 208 Pb. Differential cross sections dσ/dE * and dσ/dθ for electromagnetic excitations were deduced. Depending on the isotope, cross sections appear to be enhanced in comparison to those expected from a purely harmonic nuclear dipole response. The cumulative effect of excitations of two-phonon states composed of one dipole and one quadrupole phonon, of predicted anharmoniticies in the double-phonon dipole response, and of damping of the dipole resonance during the collision may account for the discrepancy. In addition, decay properties of two-phonon resonances were studied and compared to that of a statistical decay. (orig.)

  7. Dipole resonances in light neutron-rich nuclei studied with time-dependent calculations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanada-En'yo, Y.; Kimura, M.

    2005-01-01

    To study isovector dipole responses of neutron-rich nuclei, we applied a time-dependent method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The dipole resonances in Be, B, and C isotopes were investigated. In 10 Be, 15 B, and 16 C, collective modes of the vibration between a core and valence neutrons cause soft resonances at the excitation energy E x =10-15 MeV below the giant dipole resonance (GDR). In 16 C, we found that a remarkable peak at E x =14 MeV corresponds to the coherent motion of four valence neutrons against a 12 C core, whereas the GDR arises in the E x >20 MeV region because of vibration within the core. In 17 B and 18 C, the dipole strengths in the low-energy region decline compared with those in 15 B and 16 C. We also discuss the energy-weighted sum rule for the E1 transitions

  8. Technology of superconducting accelerator dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Meuser, R.B.; Taylor, C.

    1983-06-01

    We discuss accelerator dipoles and their characteristics. Other types of magnets, in particular bubble chamber magnets have been quite successful. Their performance is based on cryogenic stability which is addressed only briefly in this chapter. This type of stability is not available to the accelerator designer because of the large quantities of copper or other stabilizer that would reduce the current density in the windings to an unacceptably low value

  9. Aperture measurements with AC dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, Nuria; Dilly, Joschua Werner; Nevay, Laurence James; Bruce, Roderik; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Redaelli, Stefano; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    During the MDs performed on the 15th of September and 29th of November 2017, we measured the LHC global aperture at injection with a new AC dipole method as well as using the Transverse Damper (ADT) blow-up method used during the 2017 LHC commissioning for benchmarking. In this note, the MD procedure is presented as well as the analysis of the comparison between the two methods. The possible benefits of the new method are discussed.

  10. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1987. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually for Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear regulatory Commission; from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The major change in this revision involves the data related to shutdown and dismantled facilities. Because this information serves substantially different purposes, it has been accumulated in a separate section, ''Reactors and Facilities Shutdown or Dismantled.'' Cancelled reactors or reactors whose progress has been terminated at some stage before operation are included in this section

  11. Electrified BPS giants: BPS configurations on giant gravitons with static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad Mahdi

    2007-01-01

    We consider D3-brane action in the maximally supersymmetric type IIB plane-wave background. Upon fixing the light-cone gauge, we obtain the light-cone Hamiltonian which is manifestly supersymmetric. The 1/2 BPS solutions of this theory (solutions which preserve 16 supercharges) are either of the form of spherical three branes, the giant gravitons, or zero size point like branes. We then construct specific classes of 1/4 BPS solutions of this theory in which static electric field on the brane is turned on. These solutions are deformations about either of the two 1/2 BPS solutions. In particular, we study in some detail 1/4 BPS configurations with electric dipole on the three sphere giant, i.e. BIons on the giant gravitons, which we hence call BIGGons. We also study BPS configurations corresponding to turning on a background uniform constant electric field. As a result of this background electric field the three sphere giant is deformed to squashed sphere, while the zero size point like branes turn into circular or straight fundamental strings in the plane-wave background, with their tension equal to the background electric field

  12. Pollutant dispersion in built environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ming, Tingzhen; Gong, Tingrui; Li, Zhengtong

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses energy transfer, fluid flow and pollution in built environments. It provides a comprehensive overview of the highly detailed fundamental theories as well as the technologies used and the application of heat and mass transfer and fluid flow in built environments, with a focus on the mathematical models and computational and experimental methods. It is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of buildings and environment, heat transfer and global warming.

  13. RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.

  14. Slice of the LHC prototype beam tubes in dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A slice of the LHC accelerator prototype beam tubes surrounded by magnets. The LHC will accelerate two proton beams in opposite directions. The high bending and accelerating fields needed can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built, a unique challenge for CERN and its industrial partners. About dipole magnets: There will be 1232 dipole magnets in the LHC, used to guide the particles around the 27 km ring. Dipole magnets must have an extremely uniform field, which means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. The temperature is measured to five thousandths of a degree, the current to one part in a million. The current creating the magnetic field will pass through superconducting wires at up to 12 500 amps, about 30 000 times the current flowing ...

  15. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This publication contains unclassified information about facilities, built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1996. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters, and field offices of DOE; from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the U. S. reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from U.S. and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled.

  16. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.

    1992-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5)

  17. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1988. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington Headquarters and field offices of DOE, from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations, from US and foreign embassies, and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables. Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned. Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled

  18. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.

    1992-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  19. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This publication contains unclassified information about facilities, built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1996. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters, and field offices of DOE; from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the U. S. reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from U.S. and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled

  20. Gravity modes as a way to distinguish between hydrogen- and helium-burning red giant stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedding, Timothy R.; Mosser, Benoit; Huber, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    -precision photometry obtained by the Kepler spacecraft over more than a year to measure oscillations in several hundred red giants. We find many stars whose dipole modes show sequences with approximately regular period spacings. These stars fall into two clear groups, allowing us to distinguish unambiguously between......Red giants are evolved stars that have exhausted the supply of hydrogen in their cores and instead burn hydrogen in a surrounding shell. Once a red giant is sufficiently evolved, the helium in the core also undergoes fusion. Outstanding issues in our understanding of red giants include....... Asteroseismology offers a way forward, being a powerful tool for probing the internal structures of stars using their natural oscillation frequencies. Here we report observations of gravity-mode period spacings in red giants that permit a distinction between evolutionary stages to be made. We use high...

  1. AutoDipole - Automated generation of dipole subtraction terms -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S.; Uwer, P.

    2010-10-01

    We present an automated generation of the subtraction terms for next-to-leading order QCD calculations in the Catani-Seymour dipole formalism. For a given scattering process with n external particles our Mathematica package generates all dipole terms, allowing for both massless and massive dipoles. The numerical evaluation of the subtraction terms proceeds with MadGraph, which provides Fortran code for the necessary scattering amplitudes. Checks of the numerical stability are discussed. Program summaryProgram title: AutoDipole Catalogue identifier: AEGO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 042 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 117 665 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica and Fortran Computer: Computers running Mathematica (version 7.0) Operating system: The package should work on every Linux system supported by Mathematica. Detailed tests have been performed on Scientific Linux as supported by DESY and CERN and on openSUSE and Debian. RAM: Depending on the complexity of the problem, recommended at least 128 MB RAM Classification: 11.5 External routines: MadGraph (including HELAS library) available under http://madgraph.hep.uiuc.edu/ or http://madgraph.phys.ucl.ac.be/ or http://madgraph.roma2.infn.it/. A copy of the tar file, MG_ME_SA_V4.4.30, is included in the AutoDipole distribution package. Nature of problem: Computation of next-to-leading order QCD corrections to scattering cross sections, regularization of real emission contributions. Solution method: Catani-Seymour subtraction method for massless and massive partons [1,2]; Numerical evaluation of subtracted matrix elements interfaced to MadGraph [3-5] (stand-alone version) using

  2. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network.......Various effects of coupling between crossed-dipole antennas are analyzed and by using an arbitrary feeding network some generality is preserved. With one cross excited and another cross acting as a parasitic loaded antenna, coupling losses and gain and polarization losses are presented...

  3. Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The stringent limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron forced the issue on the strong CP-problem. The most elegant solution of which is the axion field proposed by Peccei and Quinn. The current limit on the QCD parameter theta coming from the limit on the neutron EDM is of order 10-10. I am going to describe the present status on the neutron EDM searches and further prospects on getting down to theta_qcd sensitivity of 10-13 with the new deuteron EDM in storage rings proposal. For completeness the current status and prospects of the muon g-2 experiment will also be given.

  4. Numerical Based Linear Model for Dipole Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,Y.; Krinsky, S.; Rehak, M.

    2009-05-04

    In this paper, we discuss an algorithm for constructing a numerical linear optics model for dipole magnets from a 3D field map. The difference between the numerical model and K. Brown's analytic approach is investigated and clarified. It was found that the optics distortion due to the dipoles' fringe focusing must be properly taken into account to accurately determine the chromaticities. In NSLS-II, there are normal dipoles with 35-mm gap and dipoles for infrared sources with 90-mm gap. This linear model of the dipole magnets is applied to the NSLS-II lattice design to match optics parameters between the DBA cells having dipoles with different gaps.

  5. Muon Dipole Moment Experiments Interpretation and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the prospects for discovering new physics through muon dipole moments. The current deviation in $g_{\\mu}-2$ may be due entirely to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. We note that the precession frequency in the proposed BNL muon EDM experiment is also subject to a similar ambiguity, but this can be resolved by up-down asymmetry measurements. We then review the theoretical expectations for the muon's electric dipole moment in supersymmetric models.

  6. Stochastic resonance in a surface dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinsalu, E., E-mail: els@ifisc.uib-csic.es [IFISC, Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (CSIC-UIB), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Raevala 10, 15042 Tallinn (Estonia); Patriarca, M. [IFISC, Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (CSIC-UIB), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Raevala 10, 15042 Tallinn (Estonia); Marchesoni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2010-10-05

    The dynamics of a neutral dipole diffusing on a one-dimensional symmetric periodic substrate is numerically investigated in the presence of an ac electric field. It is observed that the amplitude of the forced oscillations of the dipole can be enhanced by tuning the noise strength, i.e., the substrate temperature. Such a manifestation of stochastic resonance turns out to be extremely sensitive to the mechanical properties of the dipole. This phenomenon has immediate applications in surface physics and nanodevice technology.

  7. Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, A.

    1983-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the CO, HB, HF and LiH molecules are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. The possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment is discussed. (Author) [pt

  8. Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, A.

    1983-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the molecules CO, HB, HF and LiH are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. It is discussed the possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment. (Author) [pt

  9. Nanodielectrics with giant permittivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Following the prediction, during the last couple of years we have investigated the effect of giant permittivity in one-dimensional systems of conventional metals and conjugated polymer chains. In this article, we have tried to summarize the works on giant permittivity and finally the fabrication of nanocapacitor using metal ...

  10. Status of the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn Dipole Project for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savary, F.; et al.

    2015-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system includes additional collimators in the LHC lattice. The longitudinal space for the collimators could be obtained by replacing some LHC main dipoles with shorter but stronger dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems. A joint development program with the goal of building a 5.5 m long two-in-one aperture Nb_3Sn dipole prototype suitable for installation in the LHC is being conducted by FNAL and CERN magnet groups. As part of the first phase of the program, 1 m long and 2 m long single aperture models are being built and tested, and the collared coils from these magnets will be assembled and tested in two-in-one configuration in both laboratories. In parallel with the short model magnet activities, the work has started on the production line in view of the scale-up to 5.5 m long prototype magnet. The development of the final cryo-assembly comprising two 5.5 m long 11 T dipole cold masses and the warm collimator in the middle, fully compatible with the LHC main systems and the existing machine interfaces, has also started at CERN. This paper summarizes the progress made at CERN and FNAL towards the construction of 5.5 m long 11 T Nb_3Sn dipole prototype and the present status of the activities related to the integration of the 11 T dipole and collimator in the LHC.

  11. Neutral dipole-dipole dimers: A new field in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosower, Edward M.; Borz, Galina

    2018-03-01

    Dimer formation with dipole neutralization produces species such as low polarity water (LPW) compatible with hydrophobic surfaces (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 24895-24900) Dimerization and dipole neutralization occurs for N-methylacetamide on polyethylene, a behavior drastically different from its contortions in acetonitrile on AgBr:AgCl planar crystals (AgX) (ChemPhysChem 2014, 15, 3598-3607). The weak infrared absorption of the amide dimer on polyethylene is shown experimentally. Dimerization of palmitic acid is shown along with some of the many ramifications for intracellular systems. Polyoligomers of water are present on polyethylene surfaces. Some high resolution spectra of three of the polyoligomers of water are shown along with a mechanistic scheme for polyoligomer formation and dissolution. The structures of some of the oligomers are known from spectroscopic studies of water on AgX. The scope of the article begins with PE, generally accepted as hydrophobic. The IR of PE revealed not only that water was present but that it appeared in two forms, oligomers (O) and polyoligomers (PO). How did we recognize what they were? These species had been observed as especially strong "marker" peaks in the spectra1 of water placed on planar AgX, a platform developed by Katzir and his coworkers [6]. But there was a problem: the proximity to PE of oligomers with substantial (calculated) dipole moments and thus polarity, including cyclic hexamers of water (chair and boat forms), the cyclic pentamer, the books I and II, and the cyclic trimer [7a]. Another link was needed, a role perfectly fit by the already cited low polarity water (LPW). The choice was experimentally supported by the detection of low intensity absorption in the bending region.Some important generalities flow from these results. What other dimers might be present in the biological or chemical world? Palmitic acid dimer (PAD) would be a candidate for decreasing the polarity of the acid (PA). Another

  12. Solitary excitations in discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with dispersive dipole-dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with long-range dispersive interactions is investigated. In particular, we focus on the cases where the dispersion arises from a dipole-dipole interaction, assuming the dipole moments at each lattice site to be aligned either...

  13. ESF AS-BUILT CONFIGURATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The calculations contained in this document were developed by the ''Mining Group of the Design and Engineering Organization'' and are intended solely for the use of the ''Design and Engineering Organization'' in its work regarding the subsurface repository. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the ''Mining Group'' should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the ''Design and Engineering Organization''. The purpose of this calculation is to provide design inputs that can be used to develop an as-built drawing of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) for the planning and development of the subsurface repository. This document includes subsurface as-built surveys, recommendation to complete as-built surveys, and Management and Operating Contractor (M andO) Subsurface Design Drawings as inputs. This calculation is used to provide data and information for an as-built ESF subsurface drawing and is not used in the development of results or conclusions, therefore all inputs are considered as indirect

  14. Schools Built with Fallout Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Fallout protection can be built into a school building with little or no additional cost, using areas that are in continual use in the normal functioning of the building. A general discussion of the principles of shelter design is given along with photographs, descriptions, drawings, and cost analysis for a number of recently constructed schools…

  15. Built environment assessment: Multidisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Handy, Susan L; Henderson, Kathryn E; Slater, Sandy J; Davis, Erica L; Powell, Lisa M

    2016-12-01

    As obesity has become increasingly widespread, scientists seek better ways to assess and modify built and social environments to positively impact health. The applicable methods and concepts draw on multiple disciplines and require collaboration and cross-learning. This paper describes the results of an expert team׳s analysis of how key disciplinary perspectives contribute to environmental context-based assessment related to obesity, identifies gaps, and suggests opportunities to encourage effective advances in this arena. A team of experts representing diverse disciplines convened in 2013 to discuss the contributions of their respective disciplines to assessing built environments relevant to obesity prevention. The disciplines include urban planning, public health nutrition, exercise science, physical activity research, public health and epidemiology, behavioral and social sciences, and economics. Each expert identified key concepts and measures from their discipline, and applications to built environment assessment and action. A selective review of published literature and internet-based information was conducted in 2013 and 2014. The key points that are highlighted in this article were identified in 2014-2015 through discussion, debate and consensus-building among the team of experts. Results focus on the various disciplines׳ perspectives and tools, recommendations, progress and gaps. There has been significant progress in collaboration across key disciplines that contribute to studies of built environments and obesity, but important gaps remain. Using lessons from interprofessional education and team science, along with appreciation of and attention to other disciplines׳ contributions, can promote more effective cross-disciplinary collaboration in obesity prevention.

  16. Excitation and photon decay of giant multipole resonances - the role and future of medium-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.; Horen, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon 17 O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the 208 Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented

  17. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the US for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1995. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company--working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5)

  18. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the US for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1995. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company--working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  19. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1994. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  20. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1994. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5)

  1. Radiation forces in the discrete dipole approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Frijlink, M.O.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for light scattering is extended to allow for the calculation of radiation forces on each dipole in the DDA model. Starting with the theory of Draine and Weingartner [Astrophys. J. 470, 551 (1996)] we derive an expression for the radiation force

  2. Iron saturation control in RHIC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 360 dipoles of 80 mm bore. This paper discusses the field perturbations produced by the saturation of the yoke iron. Changes have been made to the yoke to reduce these perturbations, in particular, decapole -4 . Measurements and calculations for 6 series of dipole magnets are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Vutha, Amar C.

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.

  4. Measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.; Perrin, P.; Miller, P.D.; Pendlebury, J.M.; Ramsey, N.F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments have been performed in view of improving the accuracy in measuring the electric dipole moment of the neutron (EDM). This EDM is written as eD where e is the electron charge and D the dipole length. The analysis of the data indicates that /D/ 24 cm with 90% confidence [fr

  5. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mauel, Michael [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier et al., Physics of Plasmas, 13 (2006) 056111]. High- beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability made LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment operating in the U.S. fusion program. A significant measure of progress in the LDX research program was the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole and the resulting observations of confinement improvement. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements were made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma was created by multi frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 GHz, 6.4 GHz, 10.5 GHz and 28 GHz allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole was levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature was estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities to approach 1e18 m-3. We have found that levitation causes a strong inwards density pinch [Boxer et al., Nature Physics, 6 (2010) 207] and we have observed the central plasma density increase dramatically indicating a significant improvement in the confinement of a thermal plasma species.

  6. High-field dipoles for future accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents the concept for building superconducting accelerator dipoles with record high fields. Economic considerations favor the highest possible current density in the windings. Further discussion indicates that there is an optimal range of pinning strength for a superconducting material and that it is not likely for multifilamentary conductors to ever equal the potential performance of tape conductors. A dipole design with a tape-wound, inner high-field winding is suggested. Methods are detailed to avoid degradation caused by flux jumps and to overcome problems with the dipole ends. Concerns for force support structure and field precision are also addressed. An R and D program leading to a prototype 11-T dipole is outlined. Past and future importance of superconductivity to high-energy physics is evident from a short historical survey. Successful dipoles in the 10- to 20-T range will allow interesting options for upgrading present largest accelerators.

  7. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  8. Features of the giant E1 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergere, R.

    1976-01-01

    Since most of the available experimental data concerning the giant dipole E1 resonance (GDR) have been obtained with real photons, the characteristics of real photon sources are reviewed with an attempt to connect the experimental particularities of each of them to the specific parameters of the GDR which it is best suited to reach. Some systematic properties gathered from experimental data of GDR (average energy, splitting and broadening of the GDR) are compared with the predictions of the static and dynamic collective models of the nuclei. The position in energy and the fine structure of the GDR are more closely connected to shell model predictions as nuclei get lighter, the various experimental integrated cross sections being also more easily understood by comparisons with microscopic models. Most of the reported data refer to the doorway state through which GDR is excited, however the competition between the decay channels for GDR states is also emphasized

  9. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  10. Silvics of Giant Sequoia

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Phillip Weatherspoon

    1986-01-01

    Ecological relationships-including habitat and life history---of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) in natural stands are summarized. Such silvical information provides an important foundation for sound management of the species.

  11. Giant CP stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Giant Earlobe Epidermoid Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Scilletta, Alessandra; Cabrera-Sánchez, Emilio; Rioja, Luis F; Perrotta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation. PMID:22557855

  13. Giant earlobe epidermoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pérez-Guisado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation.

  14. Giant distal humeral geode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, M.M.; Kennedy, J.; Hynes, D.; Murray, J.G.; O'Connell, D.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the imaging features of a giant geode of the distal humerus in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, which presented initially as a pathological fracture. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing this diagnosis is emphasized. (orig.)

  15. Residual strain in the Nb3Sn 11 T dipole magnet coils for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerlein, C.; Di Michiel, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lorentzon, M.; Lackner, F.; Flükiger, R.; Savary, F.; Bottura, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nb3Sn magnets are presently built for the HL-LHC accelerator upgrade and are developed for the Future Circular Collider study. The knowledge of the Nb3Sn strain state distribution in these magnets is required in order to predict their ultimate performance limit. We have measured the Nb3Sn residual strain distribution in an 11 T dipole accelerator magnet coil. Ambient temperature Nb3Sn strain maps across 11 T dipole coil cross sections were acquired by means of fast high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Using complementary neutron diffraction measurements the Nb3Sn residual strain and stress was measured in the four largest conductor blocks of a massive 11 T dipole coil segment.

  16. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay; Mauel, Michael

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier, Phys. Plasmas, v13, p. 056111, 2006]. High-beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability makes LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment now operating in the U.S. fusion program. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements are made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole is levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature is estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities reach 1.0E18 (1/m3). Several significant discoveries resulted from the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole. For the first time, toroidal plasma with pressure approaching the pressure of the confining magnetic field was well-confined in steady-state without a toroidal magnetic field. Magnetic levitation proved to be reliable and is now routine. The dipole's cryostat allows up to three hours of "float time" between re-cooling with liquid helium and providing scientists unprecedented access to the physics of magnetizd plasma. Levitation eliminates field-aligned particle sources and sinks and results in a toroidal, magnetically-confined plasma where profiles are determined by cross

  17. Constraints on exotic dipole-dipole couplings between electrons at the micron scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2015-05-01

    Until recently, the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling between electrons had not been directly observed experimentally. This is because at the atomic scale dipole-dipole coupling is dominated by the exchange interaction and at larger distances the dipole-dipole coupling is overwhelmed by ambient magnetic field noise. In spite of these challenges, the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between two electron spins separated by 2.4 microns was recently measured using the valence electrons of trapped Strontium ions [S. Kotler, N. Akerman, N. Navon, Y. Glickman, and R. Ozeri, Nature 510, 376 (2014)]. We have used this measurement to directly constrain exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micron scale. For light bosons (mass 0.1 eV), we find that coupling constants describing pseudoscalar and axial-vector mediated interactions must be | gPegPe/4 πℏc | <= 1 . 5 × 10-3 and | gAegAe/4 πℏc | <= 1 . 2 × 10-17 , respectively, at the 90% confidence level. These bounds significantly improve on previous constraints in this mass range: for example, the constraints on axial-vector interactions are six orders of magnitude stronger than electron-positron constraints based on positronium spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation, I-Core: the Israeli excellence center, and the European Research Council.

  18. Quench Performance and Field Quality of FNAL Twin-Aperture 11 T Nb3Sn Dipole Model for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Stoynev, S; Apollinari, G; Auchmann, B; Barzi, E; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Bossert, R; Chlachidze, G; DiMarco, J; Karppinen, M; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Rossi, F; Savary, F; Smekens, D; Strauss, T; Turrioni, D; Velev, G; Zlobin, A V

    2016-01-01

    A 2 m long single-aperture dipole demonstrator and two 1 m long single-aperture models based on Nb3Sn superconductor have been built and tested at FNAL. The two 1 m long collared coils were then assembled in a twin-aperture Nb3Sn dipole demonstrator compatible with the LHC main dipole and tested in two thermal cycles. This paper summarizes the quench performance of the FNAL twin-aperture Nb3Sn 11 T dipole in the temperature range of 1.9-4.5 K. The results of magnetic measurements for one of the two apertures are also presented. Test results are compared to the performance of coils in a single-aperture configuration. A summary of quench propagation studies in both apertures is given.

  19. The neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Pakvasa, S.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study was made of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of neutron D n in various models of CP violation. It was found that in the standard KM model with 3 families the neutron EDM is in the range 1.4x10 -33 ≤ D n ≤ 1.6x10 -31 ecm; that the two Higgs doublet model has approximately the same value of D n as the standard model; that D n in the Weinberg model is predicted to satisfy D n > 10 -25 ecm; that in a class of left-right symmetric models D n is of the order of 10 -26-11 ecm; that in supersymmetric models D n is of the order 10 -22 φ ecm with φ being the possible phase difference of the phases of gluino mass and the gluino-quark-smark mixing matrix and that the strong CP parameter θ is found to be θ -9 , using the present experimental limit that D n -25 ecm with 90% confidence. 65 refs., 10 figs

  20. On verifying magnetic dipole moment of a magnetic torquer by experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyyakanont, Aekjira; Kuntanapreeda, Suwat; Fuengwarodsakul, Nisai H.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic torquers are used for the attitude control of small satellites, such as CubeSats with Low Earth Orbit (LEO). During the design of magnetic torquers, it is necessary to confirm if its magnetic dipole moment is enough to control the satellite attitude. The magnetic dipole moment can affect the detumbling time and the satellite rotation time. In addition, it is also necessary to understand how to design the magnetic torquer for operation in a CubeSat under the space environment at LEO. This paper reports an investigation of the magnetic dipole moment and the magnetic field generated by a circular air-coil magnetic torquer using experimental measurements. The experiment testbed was built on an air-bearing under a magnetic field generated by a Helmholtz coil. This paper also describes the procedure to determine and verify the magnetic dipole moment value of the designed circular air-core magnetic torquer. The experimental results are compared with the design calculations. According to the comparison results, the designed magnetic torquer reaches the required magnetic dipole moment. This designed magnetic torquer will be applied to the attitude control systems of a 1U CubeSat satellite in the project “KNACKSAT.”

  1. Summary of construction details and test performance of recent series of 1.8 meter SSC dipoles at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodzeit, C.; Wanderer, P.

    1990-01-01

    Certain design features of the SSC dipole magnets are evaluated with 1.8-meter models built and tested at BNL. We report the results of recent tests of such magnets relating quench performance and field quality measurements to mechanical design and assembly features such as collar material, collared coil dimensions and fit with the yoke and coil prestress level. 9 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Mechanical behaviour of a closed collar model for an 11.5 T dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emden, W. van; Daum, C.; Geerinck, J.

    1992-03-01

    A 10 cm long model of an 11.5 T Nb 3 Sn accelerator dipole magnet, which will be built in the Netherlands, with a closed ring shaped collar has been constructed. Measurements of the collar deformation and the prestress at the poles have been made with a structural analysis using the Finite Element Method (FEM) of the code ANSYS. (author). 11 refs.; 18 figs.; 7 tabs

  3. Magnetic field measurements of full length 50 mm aperture SSC dipole magnets at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.W.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J.; Wake, M.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.; Ogitsu, T.

    1992-09-01

    Thirteen 16 m long, 50 mm aperture SSC dipole magnets, designed jointly by Fermilab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the SSC Laboratory, have been built at Fermilab. The first nine magnets have been fully tested to date. The allowed harmonics are systematically shifted from zero by amounts larger than the specification. The unallowed harmonics, with the exception of the skew sextupole, are consistent with zero. The magnet-to-magnet RMS variation of all harmonics is much smaller than the specification

  4. Plasmonic functionalities based on detuned electrical dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders Lambertus; Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the concept of detuned electrical dipoles (DED) that originates from the plasmonic realization of the dressed-state picture of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic physics. Numerically and experimentally analyzing DED metamaterials consisting of unit cells...

  5. Magnetic dipole interactions in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of magnetic dipole interactions (MDIs) on the magnetic properties of local-moment Heisenberg spin systems is investigated. A general formulation is presented for calculating the eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors μ ̂ of the MDI tensor of the magnetic dipoles in a line (one dimension, 1D), within a circle (2D) or a sphere (3D) of radius r surrounding a given moment μ⃗i for given magnetic propagation vectors k for collinear and coplanar noncollinear magnetic structures on both Bravais and non-Bravais spin lattices. Results are calculated for collinear ordering on 1D chains, 2D square and simple-hexagonal (triangular) Bravais lattices, 2D honeycomb and kagomé non-Bravais lattices, and 3D cubic Bravais lattices. The λ and μ ̂ values are compared with previously reported results. Calculations for collinear ordering on 3D simple tetragonal, body-centered tetragonal, and stacked triangular and honeycomb lattices are presented for c /a ratios from 0.5 to 3 in both graphical and tabular form to facilitate comparison of experimentally determined easy axes of ordering on these Bravais lattices with the predictions for MDIs. Comparisons with the easy axes measured for several illustrative collinear antiferromagnets (AFMs) are given. The calculations are extended to the cycloidal noncollinear 120∘ AFM ordering on the triangular lattice where λ is found to be the same as for collinear AFM ordering with the same k. The angular orientation of the ordered moments in the noncollinear coplanar AFM structure of GdB4 with a distorted stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland spin-lattice geometry is calculated and found to be in disagreement with experimental observations, indicating the presence of another source of anisotropy. Similar calculations for the undistorted 2D and stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland lattices are reported. The thermodynamics of dipolar magnets are calculated using the Weiss molecular field theory for quantum spins, including the magnetic transition

  6. Conduction cooled high temperature superconducting dipole magnet for accelerator applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, N.; Nielsen, G.; Hauge, N.

    2012-01-01

    A 3T proof-of-principle dipole magnet for accelerator applications, based on 2nd generation high temperature superconducting tape was designed, built, and tested by a consortium under the lead of Danfysik. The magnet was designed to have a straight, circular bore with a good field region of radius...... = 25 mm, and a magnetic length of 250 mm. A total length of 2.5 km YBCO-based copper stabilized conductor supplied by SuperPower Inc., NY, USA, was isolated with 0.025 mm of epoxy and subsequently wound into 14 saddle coils and 4 racetrack coils with a cosine theta like configuration. The coils were......-liquid free operation of an HTS accelerator magnet was demonstrated. The cold mass support design permits magnet orientation under arbitrary angles. Careful choice of materials in terms of magnetic, heat conducting and mechanical properties resulted in a robust and compact solution which opens up...

  7. Straight ends for superconducting dipole magnet using constant perimeter geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ends of the SSC Dipole magnets are a very critical aspect of the superconducting cable windings needed for this large project. The internal coils, where the radius at the pole is as small as 3/10 of an inch for the first turn, are difficult to form with the very stiff cable, and a high tension is needed. The curing operation on the coils is performed in a heated forming press which applies an important additional stress on the superconducting wire and insulation. A new design of this sensitive region of the magnets was performed at LBL, and several prototypes were built and tested. In this paper the construction method used to solve some of the most critical problems is exposed along with a description of the experimental work in progress. 3 refs., 2 figs

  8. Dipole Map For Divertor Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh; Boozer, Allen

    2003-01-01

    Heat flux impinging on the collector plates of divertor tokamaks can be prodigious. Therefore, the problem of spreading the heat flux on plates is a crucial issue for divertor tokamaks such as ITER. Here we use method of maps /1,2/ to investigate this problem. Magnetic field lines in non-axisymmetric divertor tokamaks are a one and a half degree of freedom Hamiltonian system /1-3/. We represent the unperturbed magnetic topology by the Symmetric Simple Map (SSM) /4/ given by yn+1 = yn + 2kxn - 2k2yn (1 - yn), xn+1 = xn - kyn (1 - yn) - 2k2yn+1 (1 - yn+1). The effects of a current carrying coil placed externally across from X-point is represented by Dipole Map (DP) /4,5/ given by x n+1 = x n + 2δs 3 x n+1 (y n - y s + s/[x n+1 2 + (y n - y s + s) 2 ] 2 ), y n+1 = y n + δs 3 x n+1 ((y n - y s + s) 2 - x n+1 2 /[x n+1 2 + (y n - y s + s) 2 ] 2 ) δ is amplitude of high MN magnetic perturbation, s is the distance of coil from last good surface across from X point, and is the y coordinate of last good surface where it crosses the axis joining X point and O point across from X point. We fix k=0.3 and s = (1/2)|y s |. We calculate the increase in width of stochastic layer and area of footprint of field lines on divertor plate as δ is increased. We also calculate how connection length, toroidal and poloidal circuits and their fractal structures, the number, location and density of hot spots change with δ. Finally, we make conclusions about how the heat flux can be possibly controlled and reduced by applying external magnetic perturbation in divertor tokamaks

  9. Giant dipole resonance decay and bremsstrahlung emission as a source of high-energy gamma-rays in sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 4 sup , sup 2 sup 6 Mg and sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 5 sup 8 sup , sup 6 sup 4 Ni reactions at 6-11 MeV/u

    CERN Document Server

    Kicinska-Habior, M; Maj, A; Kelly, M P; Schagen, J P S; Snover, K A

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that in the mass-asymmetric reactions, sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 4 sup , sup 2 sup 6 Mg and sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 5 sup 8 sup , sup 6 sup 4 Ni, at E sub p /A = 6-11 MeV/u, the two types of gamma-ray emission, statistical GDR decay and bremsstrahlung radiation, may be disentangled using angular distribution measurements. The analyzed data give information on the GDR built on excited states as well as on the bremsstrahlung process. The extracted GDR parameters and bremsstrahlung parameters for sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 4 sup , sup 2 sup 6 Mg are in general in agreement with the systematics. However, the inverse slope parameter, E sub 0 , depends on gamma-ray energy and as a result the bremsstrahlung cross-section at low and high E subgamma energies is lower than expected for constant E sub 0 value.

  10. Congenital giant melanocytic nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Khan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nevi are common skin tumors caused by abnormal overgrowth of cells from the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin. Most nevi are benign, but some pre-cancerous nevi must be monitored or removed. The giant congenital nevus is greater than 10 cm in size, pigmented and often hairy. Between 4% and 6% of these lesions will develop into a malignant melanoma. Since approximately 50% of the melanoma develop by the age of two, and 80% by the age of seven, early removal is recommended. The objective of this paper is to present a unique case of giant nevi and their surgical management.

  11. Spreading widths of giant resonances in spherical nuclei: Damped transient response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severyukhin, A. P.; Åberg, S.; Arsenyev, N. N.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.

    2017-06-01

    We propose a general approach to describe spreading widths of monopole, dipole, and quadrupole giant resonances in heavy and superheavy spherical nuclei. Our approach is based on the ideas of the random matrix distribution of the coupling between one-phonon and two-phonon states generated in the random-phase approximation. We use the Skyrme interaction SLy4 as our model Hamiltonian to create a single-particle spectrum and to analyze excited states of the doubly magic nuclei 132Sn, 208Pb, and 310126. Our results demonstrate that the approach enables to us to describe a gross structure of the spreading widths of the giant resonances considered.

  12. Dynamic dipole-dipole interactions between excitons in quantum dots of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2004-01-01

    A model of the resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between excitons confined in quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes at close enough distance is given in terms of parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons. Microphotoluminescence spectra of GaAs-AlGaAs coupled QDs are proposed to...

  13. Smart built-in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dale W.

    1990-03-01

    The work which built-in test (BIT) is asked to perform in today's electronic systems increases with every insertion of new technology or introduction of tighter performance criteria. Yet the basic purpose remains unchanged -- to determine with high confidence the operational capability of that equipment. Achievement of this level of BIT performance requires the management and assimilation of a large amount of data, both realtime and historical. Smart BIT has taken advantage of advanced techniques from the field of artificial intelligence (AI) in order to meet these demands. The Smart BIT approach enhances traditional functional BIT by utilizing AI techniques to incorporate environmental stress data, temporal BIT information and maintenance data, and realtime BIT reports into an integrated test methodology for increased BIT effectiveness and confidence levels. Future research in this area will incorporate onboard fault-logging of BIT output, stress data and Smart BIT decision criteria in support of a singular, integrated and complete test and maintenance capability. The state of this research is described along with a discussion of directions for future development.

  14. Waking the Sleeping Giant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollenburger, Mary H.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Crane, Todd A.; Sanogo, Ousmane M.; Giller, Ken E.

    2016-01-01

    The World Bank argued that West Africa's Guinea Savannah zone forms part of “Africa's Sleeping Giant,” where increases in agricultural production could be an engine of economic growth, through expansion of cultivated land in sparsely populated areas. The district of Bougouni, in southern Mali,

  15. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  16. from the Giant Panda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... RPS28 is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS28 gene, which is specific to eukaryotes. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS28 were cloned successfully from the Giant. Panda using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. Both sequences were ...

  17. Nanodielectrics with giant permittivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    But the main limitation of the composite materials is its use in nanodevices. Therefore, few efforts have been ... an enormously high permittivity value of a sufficiently minute metal particle having discrete energy levels ... the present article is to assemble works on nanodielectrics with giant permittivity value, which have been ...

  18. Giant vesical calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant vesical calculus. A case report. H. H. LAUBSCHER. Summary. An exceptional case of bladder stone is presented. The case is unusual as regards the size of the stone and the fact that the patient did··not seek medical assistance much earlier, as this was readily avail- able. Furthermore, recovery after removal of the.

  19. Graphenes–Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphenes - Aromatic Giants. Ivan Gutman Boris Furtula. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1238-1245. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1238-1245. Keywords. Graphenes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polyphenyls; condensed benzenes.

  20. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-27

    Mar 27, 2015 ... Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions. Familiarity with their ...

  1. Giant resonances in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, O.

    1980-01-01

    The giant resonances: electric dipolar E1, T=1, isoscalar electric quadrupolar E2, T=0 and isoscalar electric monopolar E0, T=0 are presented. The experimental facts are reviewed and some examples are given of the kind of information supplied by experimental data [fr

  2. Double giant resonances in time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, P.; Podobnik, B.

    1996-01-01

    Collective vibrations in spherical nuclei are described in the framework of time-dependent relativistic mean-field theory (RMFT). Isoscalar quadrupole and isovector dipole oscillations that correspond to giant resonances are studied, and possible excitations of higher modes are investigated. We find evidence for modes which can be interpreted as double resonances. In a quantized RMFT they correspond to two-phonon states. (orig.)

  3. Dipole moment dark matter at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, Vernon [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Keung, Wai-Yee [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Marfatia, Danny, E-mail: marfatia@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tseng, Po-Yan [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-22

    Monojet and monophoton final states with large missing transverse energy (E/{sub T}) are important for dark matter (DM) searches at colliders. We present analytic expressions for the differential cross sections for the parton-level processes, qq{sup Macron }(qg){yields}g(q){chi}{chi}{sup Macron} and qq{sup Macron }{yields}{gamma}{chi}{chi}{sup Macron }, for a neutral DM particle with a magnetic dipole moment (MDM) or an electric dipole moment (EDM). We collectively call such DM candidates dipole moment dark matter (DMDM). We also provide monojet cross sections for scalar, vector and axial-vector interactions. We then use ATLAS/CMS monojet+E/{sub T} data and CMS monophoton+E/{sub T} data to constrain DMDM. We find that 7 TeV LHC bounds on the MDM DM-proton scattering cross section are about six orders of magnitude weaker than on the conventional spin-independent cross section.

  4. Perturbative odderon in the dipole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Szymanowski, Lech; Wallon, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We show that, in the framework of Mueller's dipole model, the perturbative QCD odderon is described by the dipole model equivalent of the BFKL equation with a C-odd initial condition. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the odderon solution are the same as for the dipole BFKL equation and are given by the functions E n,ν and χ(n,ν) correspondingly, where the C-odd initial condition allows only for odd values of n. The leading high-energy odderon intercept is given by α odd -1=((2α s N c )/(π))χ(n=1,ν=0)=0 in agreement with the solution found by Bartels, Lipatov and Vacca. We proceed by writing down an evolution equation for the odderon including the effects of parton saturation. We argue that saturation makes the odderon solution a decreasing function of energy

  5. What is the dual of a dipole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.f.alday@phys.uu.nl; Boer, Jan de [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jdeboer@science.uva.nl; Messamah, Ilies [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: imessama@science.uva.nl

    2006-07-03

    We study gravitational solutions that admit a dual CFT description and carry non-zero dipole charge. We focus on the black ring solution in AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3} and extract from it the one-point functions of all CFT operators dual to scalar excitations of the six-dimensional metric. In the case of small black rings, characterized by the level N, angular momentum J and dipole charge q{sub 3}, we show how the large N and J dependence of the one-point functions can be reproduced, under certain assumptions, directly from a suitable ensemble in the dual CFT. Finally we present a simple toy model that describes the thermodynamics of the small black ring for arbitrary values of the dipole charge.

  6. Transportation studies: 40-MM collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.

    1992-01-01

    Several fully functional 40-mm Collider Dipole Magnets (CDM) were instrumented with accelerometers to monitor shock and vibration loads during transport. The magnets were measured with optical tooling telescopes before and after transport. Changes in mechanical alignment due to shipping and handling were determined. The mechanical stability of the cryogen lines were checked using the same method. Field quality and dipole angle were measured warm before and after transport to determine changes in these parameters. Power spectra were calculated for accelerometers located on the cold mass, vacuum vessel, and trailer bed. Where available, plots of field quality and dipole roll both before and after were created. Shipping loads measured were largest in the vertical direction, where most of the structural deformation of the magnet was evident. It was not clear that magnetic performance was affected by the shipping and handling environment

  7. Perturbative odderon in the dipole model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Szymanowski, Lech; Wallon, Samuel

    2004-04-29

    We show that, in the framework of Mueller's dipole model, the perturbative QCD odderon is described by the dipole model equivalent of the BFKL equation with a C-odd initial condition. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the odderon solution are the same as for the dipole BFKL equation and are given by the functions E{sup n,{nu}} and {chi}(n,{nu}) correspondingly, where the C-odd initial condition allows only for odd values of n. The leading high-energy odderon intercept is given by {alpha}{sub odd}-1=((2{alpha}{sub s}N{sub c})/({pi})){chi}(n=1,{nu}=0)=0 in agreement with the solution found by Bartels, Lipatov and Vacca. We proceed by writing down an evolution equation for the odderon including the effects of parton saturation. We argue that saturation makes the odderon solution a decreasing function of energy.

  8. Installation Strategy for the LHC Main Dipoles

    CERN Multimedia

    Fartoukh, Stephane David

    2004-01-01

    All positions in the LHC machine are not equivalent in terms of beam requirements on the geometry and the field quality of the main dipoles. In the presence of slightly or strongly out-of tolerance magnets, a well-defined installation strategy will therefore contribute to preserve or even optimize the performance of the machine. Based on the present status of the production, we have anticipated a list of potential issues (geometry, transfer function, field direction and random b3) which, combined by order of priority, have been taken into account to define a simple but efficient installation algorithm for the LHC main dipoles. Its output is a prescription for installing the available dipoles in sequence while reducing to an absolute minimum the number of holes required by geometry or FQ issues.

  9. Design, Fabrication and Initial Testing of a Large Bore Single Aperture 1 m Long Superconducting Dipole Made with Phenolic Inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC magnet development programme, a large bore single aperture 1-meter long superconducting dipole has been built in collaboration with HOLEC. The magnet features a single layer coil wound using the LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic inserts, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. This paper presents the magnetic and mechanical design and optimisation of the magnet. We describe the coil winding and curing, and present the construction and assembly procedures. Finally we report on the mechanical behaviour during assembly and cooling, and present the magnet training behaviour.

  10. Photoelectron spectroscopy and the dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmers, O.; Hansen, D.L.; Wang, H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful technique because it directly probes, via the measurement of photoelectron kinetic energies, orbital and band structure in valence and core levels in a wide variety of samples. The technique becomes even more powerful when it is performed in an angle-resolved mode, where photoelectrons are distinguished not only by their kinetic energy, but by their direction of emission as well. Determining the probability of electron ejection as a function of angle probes the different quantum-mechanical channels available to a photoemission process, because it is sensitive to phase differences among the channels. As a result, angle-resolved photoemission has been used successfully for many years to provide stringent tests of the understanding of basic physical processes underlying gas-phase and solid-state interactions with radiation. One mainstay in the application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is the well-known electric-dipole approximation for photon interactions. In this simplification, all higher-order terms, such as those due to electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions, are neglected. As the photon energy increases, however, effects beyond the dipole approximation become important. To best determine the range of validity of the dipole approximation, photoemission measurements on a simple atomic system, neon, where extra-atomic effects cannot play a role, were performed at BL 8.0. The measurements show that deviations from {open_quotes}dipole{close_quotes} expectations in angle-resolved valence photoemission are observable for photon energies down to at least 0.25 keV, and are quite significant at energies around 1 keV. From these results, it is clear that non-dipole angular-distribution effects may need to be considered in any application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy that uses x-ray photons of energies as low as a few hundred eV.

  11. Electron-pinned defect-dipoles for high-performance colossal permittivity materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanbiao; Liu, Yun; Withers, Ray L; Frankcombe, Terry J; Norén, Lasse; Snashall, Amanda; Kitchin, Melanie; Smith, Paul; Gong, Bill; Chen, Hua; Schiemer, Jason; Brink, Frank; Wong-Leung, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    The immense potential of colossal permittivity (CP) materials for use in modern microelectronics as well as for high-energy-density storage applications has propelled much recent research and development. Despite the discovery of several new classes of CP materials, the development of such materials with the required high performance is still a highly challenging task. Here, we propose a new electron-pinned, defect-dipole route to ideal CP behaviour, where hopping electrons are localized by designated lattice defect states to generate giant defect-dipoles and result in high-performance CP materials. We present a concrete example, (Nb+In) co-doped TiO₂ rutile, that exhibits a largely temperature- and frequency-independent colossal permittivity (> 10(4)) as well as a low dielectric loss (mostly density functional theory modelling suggests that 'triangular' In₂(3+)Vo(••)Ti(3+) and 'diamond' shaped Nb₂(5+)Ti(3+)A(Ti) (A = Ti(3+)/In(3+)/Ti(4+)) defect complexes are strongly correlated, giving rise to large defect-dipole clusters containing highly localized electrons that are together responsible for the excellent CP properties observed in co-doped TiO₂. This combined experimental and theoretical work opens up a promising feasible route to the systematic development of new high-performance CP materials via defect engineering.

  12. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner V.

    2015-01-01

    76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  13. On the dipole approximation with error estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boßmann, Lea; Grummt, Robert; Kolb, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The dipole approximation is employed to describe interactions between atoms and radiation. It essentially consists of neglecting the spatial variation of the external field over the atom. Heuristically, this is justified by arguing that the wavelength is considerably larger than the atomic length scale, which holds under usual experimental conditions. We prove the dipole approximation in the limit of infinite wavelengths compared to the atomic length scale and estimate the rate of convergence. Our results include N-body Coulomb potentials and experimentally relevant electromagnetic fields such as plane waves and laser pulses.

  14. ALICE Muon Arm Dipole Magnet - Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, D; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    A large Dipole Magnet is required for the Muon Arm spectrometer of the ALICE experiment 1,2[Figure 1]. The main parameters and basic design options of the dipole magnet have been described in 3. The absence of criteria for the necessary symmetry and homogeneity of the magnetic field has lead to a design dominated by economical and feasibility considerations. List of Figures: Figure 1 ALICE Experiment. Figure 2 Dipole Magnet Assembly. Figure 3 Dipole Magnet Yoke. Figure 4 Dipole Magnet Coil System. Figure 5 Schematic of Heat Screen. Figure 6 Dipole Magnet Moving Base.

  15. Further Development of the Sextupole Dipole Corrector (MSCB) Magnet for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Z; Bajko, M; Bottura, L; Coxill, D; Giloux, C; Ijspeert, Albert; Karppinen, M; Landgrebe, D; Walckiers, L

    2000-01-01

    Combined sextupole-dipole corrector magnets (MSCB) will be mounted in each half cell of the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) being built at CERN. The dipole part, used for particle orbit corrections, will be powered individually and is designed for low current, originally 30 A but now 55 A. The sextupole part, used for chromaticity corrections, is connected via cold busbars in families of 12 or 13 magnets and is powered with 550 A. Several versions of this corrector magnet were tested as model magnets in order to develop the final design for the series. In the first design the coils are nested, with the dipole coil wound around the sextupole coil to obtain as short a magnet as possible, accepting the slight cross-talk between the coils due to persistent currents, and increased saturation effects. The design has evolved and an alternative design, in which the dipole and sextupole coils are separated, is now favored. Tests at 4.5 K and at 1.9 K were conducted to determine the training behavior, the field qualit...

  16. Giant Otters in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk C.; Staib E.

    1992-01-01

    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  17. Intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum is reported in a 50- year- old Indian. He did not respond to topical application of podophyllin 20% but responded partially to electric cauterisation. Surgical excision was done to get rid of the warty growh completely. Since there were no skin or genital lesions and no history of marital or extramarital sexual contact the lesion was probably acquired from environmental sources. Nonsexual transmission should be considered especially when the lesions are extragenital.

  18. Giant prolactinomas in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgrange, Etienne; Raverot, Gerald; Bex, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg/l and id......OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg....../l and identified 19 similar cases from the literature; a gender-based comparison of the frequency and age distribution was obtained from a literature review. RESULTS: The initial PubMed search using the term 'giant prolactinomas' identified 125 patients (13 women) responding to the inclusion criteria. The female......:male ratio was 1:9. Another six female patients were found by extending the literature search, while our own series added 15 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years in women compared with 35 years in men (Pwomen (n=34), we...

  19. LHC Dipoles: The countdown has begun

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    One of the LHC dipole magnets has just achieved a record magnetic field of 9 Tesla in one go without quenching. The challenge now is to increase the production rate to 35 magnets a month by 2004. As a new information panel in Building 30 shows, the countdown has begun.

  20. Results on Fermilab main injector dipole measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Baiod, R.; DiMarco, J.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Mishra, S.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.F.; russell, O.A.; Tompkins, J.C.; Walbridge, D.G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the Productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B/I) vs. I in providing insight into the measured results

  1. Dipole operator constraints on composite Higgs models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Matthias; Neubert, Matthias; Straub, David M

    Flavour- and CP-violating electromagnetic or chromomagnetic dipole operators in the quark sector are generated in a large class of new physics models and are strongly constrained by measurements of the neutron electric dipole moment and observables sensitive to flavour-changing neutral currents, such as the [Formula: see text] branching ratio and [Formula: see text]. After a model-independent discussion of the relevant constraints, we analyze these effects in models with partial compositeness, where the quarks get their masses by mixing with vector-like composite fermions. These scenarios can be seen as the low-energy limit of composite Higgs or warped extra dimensional models. We study different choices for the electroweak representations of the composite fermions motivated by electroweak precision tests as well as different flavour structures, including flavour anarchy and [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] flavour symmetries in the strong sector. In models with "wrong-chirality" Yukawa couplings, we find a strong bound from the neutron electric dipole moment, irrespective of the flavour structure. In the case of flavour anarchy, we also find strong bounds from flavour-violating dipoles, while these constraints are mild in the flavour-symmetric models.

  2. Forced flow cooling of ISABELLE dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Aggus, J.; Brown, D.P.; Kassner, D.A.; Sondericker, J.H.; Strobridge, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The superconducting magnets for ISABELLE will use a forced flow supercritical helium cooling system. In order to evaluate this cooling scheme, two individual dipole magnets were first tested in conventional dewars using pool boiling helium. These magnets were then modified for forced flow cooling and retested with the identical magnet coils. The first evaluation test used a l m-long ISA model dipole magnet whose pool boiling performance had been established. The same magnet was then retested with forced flow cooling, energizing it at various operating temperatures until quench occurred. The magnet performance with forced flow cooling was consistent with data from the previous pool boiling tests. The next step in the program was a full-scale ISABELLE dipole ring magnet, 4.25 m long, whose performance was first evaluated with pool boiling. For the forced flow test the magnet was shrunk-fit into an unsplit laminated core encased in a stainless steel cylinder. The high pressure gas is cooled below 4 K by a helium bath which is pumped below atmospheric pressure with an ejector nozzle. The performance of the full-scale dipole magnet in the new configuration with forced flow cooling, showed a 10 percent increase in the attainable maximum current as compared to the pool boiling data

  3. Installation of the ALICE dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The large dipole magnet is installed on the ALICE detector at CERN. This magnet, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid (in the background). These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter, allowing them to traverse the main section of the detector.

  4. Fringing field measurement of dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongyou; Jiang Weisheng; Mao Naifeng; Mao Xingwang

    1985-01-01

    The fringing field of a dipole magnet with a C-type circuit and homogeneous field in the gap has been measured including the distributions of fringing fields with and without magnetic shield. The measured data was analyzed by using the concept of virtual field boundary

  5. Scattering properties of point dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Alexander; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Iermakova, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    dipole interactions with a renormalized coupling constant are analysed. Depending on the parameter values, all these interactions being self-adjoint extensions of the one-dimensional Schrodinger operator are shown to be divided into four types: (i) interactions will full transparency, (ii) non...

  6. Supersymmetric relations among electromagnetic dipole operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesser, Michael; Thomas, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Supersymmetric contributions to all leptonic electromagnetic dipole operators have essentially identical diagrammatic structure. With approximate slepton universality this allows the muon anomalous magnetic moment to be related to the electron electric dipole moment in terms of supersymmetric phases, and to radiative flavor changing lepton decays in terms of small violations of slepton universality. If the current discrepancy between the measured and standard model values of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is due to supersymmetry, the current bound on the electron electric dipole moment then implies that the phase of the electric dipole operator is less than 2x10 -3 . Likewise the current bound on μ→eγ decay implies that the fractional selectron-smuon mixing in the left-left mass squared matrix, δm μ-tildee-tilde) 2 /m l-tilde) 2 , is less than 10 -4 . These relations and constraints are fairly insensitive to details of the superpartner spectrum for moderate to large tan β

  7. Toroidal Dipole Moment of a Massless Neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Perez, E. Reyes

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the toroidal dipole moment of a massless neutrino τ v l M using the results for the anapole moment of a massless Dirac neutrino a v l D , which was obtained in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions (SM)SU(2) L x U(1) Y .

  8. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the Unites States as of June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulden, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of June 30, 1981, which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or pupose: civilian, military, production, export, and critical assembly facilities

  9. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the United States as of December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1980, which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, military, production, export, and critical assembly facilities

  10. From Gauss graphs to giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; Nkumane, Lwazi

    2018-02-01

    We identify the operators in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory that correspond to 1/8 -BPS giant gravitons in AdS5 × S 5. Our evidence for the identification comes from (1) counting these operators and showing agreement with independent counts of the number of giant graviton states, and (2) by demonstrating a correspondence between correlation functions of the super Yang-Mills operators and overlaps of the giant graviton wave functions.

  11. Giant oilfields and civil conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hsiang Lei; Guy Michaels

    2012-01-01

    We use new data to examine the effects of giant oilfield discoveries around the world since 1946. On average, these discoveries increase per capita oil production and oil exports by up to 50 percent. But these giant oilfield discoveries also have a dark side: they increase the incidence of internal armed conflict by about 5-8 percentage points. This increased incidence of conflict due to giant oilfield discoveries is especially high for countries that had already experienced armed conflicts o...

  12. Design and management of sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is believed to be a great challenge to built environment professionals in design and management. An integrated approach in delivering a sustainable built environment is desired by the built environment professional institutions. The aim of this book is to provide an advanced understanding of the key subjects required for the design and management of modern built environments to meet carbon emission reduction targets. In Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments, an international group of experts provide comprehensive and the most up-to-date knowledge, covering sustainable urban and building design, management and assessment. The best practice case studies of the implementation of sustainable technology and management from the BRE Innovation Park are included. Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments will be of interest to urban and building designers, environmental engineers, and building performance assessors.  It will be particularly useful as a reference book ...

  13. Simulation of structure and annihilation of screw dislocation dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Vegge, Tejs; Leffers, Torben

    2000-01-01

    Large scale atomistic simulations are used to investigate the properties of screw dislocation dipoles in copper. Spontaneous annihilation is observed for dipole heights less than 1 nm. Equilibrated dipoles of heights larger than 1 nm adopt a skew configuration due to the elastic anisotropy of Cu....... The equilibrium splitting width of the screw dislocations decreases with decreasing dipole height, as expected from elasticity theory. The energy barriers, and corresponding transition states for annihilation of stable dipoles are determined for straight and for flexible dislocations for dipole heights up to 5.......2 nm. In both cases the annihilation is initiated by cross-slip of one of the dislocations. For straight dislocations the activation energy shows a linear dependence on the inverse dipole height, and for flexible dislocations the dependence is roughly linear for the dipoles investigated....

  14. Pygmy and core polarization dipole modes in 206Pb: Connecting nuclear structure to stellar nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Tsoneva, N.; Bhatia, C.; Arnold, C. W.; Goriely, S.; Hammond, S. L.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Lenske, H.; Piekarewicz, J.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Shizuma, T.; Tornow, W.

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution study of the electromagnetic response of 206Pb below the neutron separation energy is performed using a (γ → ,γ‧) experiment at the HI γ → S facility. Nuclear resonance fluorescence with 100% linearly polarized photon beams is used to measure spins, parities, branching ratios, and decay widths of excited states in 206Pb from 4.9 to 8.1 MeV. The extracted ΣB (E 1) ↑ and ΣB (M 1) ↑ values for the total electric and magnetic dipole strength below the neutron separation energy are 0.9 ± 0.2 e2fm2 and 8.3 ± 2.0 μN2, respectively. These measurements are found to be in very good agreement with the predictions from an energy-density functional (EDF) plus quasiparticle phonon model (QPM). Such a detailed theoretical analysis allows to separate the pygmy dipole resonance from both the tail of the giant dipole resonance and multi-phonon excitations. Combined with earlier photonuclear experiments above the neutron separation energy, one extracts a value for the electric dipole polarizability of 206Pb of αD = 122 ± 10 mb /MeV. When compared to predictions from both the EDF+QPM and accurately calibrated relativistic EDFs, one deduces a range for the neutron-skin thickness of Rskin206 = 0.12- 0.19 fm and a corresponding range for the slope of the symmetry energy of L = 48- 60 MeV. This newly obtained information is also used to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged radiative cross section 205Pb (n , γ)206Pb at 30 keV to be σ = 130 ± 25 mb. The astrophysical impact of this measurement-on both the s-process in stellar nucleosynthesis and on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter-is discussed.

  15. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  16. Dipole-dipole interaction in cavity QED: The weak-coupling, nondegenerate regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, M.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.; Nieto, L. M.

    2017-10-01

    We compute the energies of the interaction between two atoms placed in the middle of a perfectly reflecting planar cavity, in the weak-coupling nondegenerate regime. Both inhibition and enhancement of the interactions can be obtained by varying the size of the cavity. We derive exact expressions for the dyadic Green's function of the cavity field which mediates the interactions and apply time-dependent quantum perturbation theory in the adiabatic approximation. We provide explicit expressions for the van der Waals potentials of two polarizable atomic dipoles and the electrostatic potential of two induced dipoles. We compute the van der Waals potentials in three different scenarios: two atoms in their ground states, two atoms excited, and two dissimilar atoms with one of them excited. In addition, we calculate the phase-shift rate of the two-atom wave function in each case. The effect of the two-dimensional confinement of the electromagnetic field on the dipole-dipole interactions is analyzed. This effect depends on the atomic polarization. For dipole moments oriented parallel to the cavity plates, both the electrostatic and the van der Waals interactions are exponentially suppressed for values of the cavity width much less than the interatomic distance, whereas for values of the width close to the interatomic distance, the strength of both interactions is higher than their values in the absence of cavity. For dipole moments perpendicular to the plates, the strength of the van der Waals interaction decreases for values of the cavity width close to the interatomic distance, while it increases for values of the width much less than the interatomic distance with respect to its strength in the absence of cavity. We illustrate these effects by computing the dipole-dipole interactions between two alkali atoms in circular Rydberg states.

  17. Fast representation of dipole-dipole geoelectrical data with pseudosections for regional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giudici

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available I propose a fast method for constructing pseudosections of apparent resistivity from geoelectrical data collected for deep studies with continuous polar dipole-dipole arrays. Once a vertical section is fixed, each value of apparent resistivity is assigned to a point on the section and finally pseudosections are obtained by interpolation. This allows the geophysicist to represent a large amount of data in a fast and simple way, to perform a qualitative interpretation and to facilitate the quantitative interpretation.

  18. Status of 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long SSC dipole magnet R ampersand D program at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Spigo, G.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H.; Ogitsu, T.; Anarella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1991-06-01

    Over the last year-and-a-half, several 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contract with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R ampersand D program, carried out in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main ring dipole magnets. They also prepare the way of the 5-cm-aperture dipole magnet program to be started soon. In this paper, we analyze the mechanical behavior of the BNL prototypes during cool-down and excitation, and we attempt to relate this behavior to the magnet features. The data reveal that the mechanical behavior is sensitive to the vertical collar-yoke interference, and that the magnets exhibited somewhat erratic changes in coil end-loading during cool-down. 9 refs., 6 figs

  19. Status of 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long SSC dipole magnet R D program at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Spigo, G.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)); Ogitsu, T. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States) National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Anarella,

    1991-06-01

    Over the last year-and-a-half, several 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contract with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R D program, carried out in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main ring dipole magnets. They also prepare the way of the 5-cm-aperture dipole magnet program to be started soon. In this paper, we analyze the mechanical behavior of the BNL prototypes during cool-down and excitation, and we attempt to relate this behavior to the magnet features. The data reveal that the mechanical behavior is sensitive to the vertical collar-yoke interference, and that the magnets exhibited somewhat erratic changes in coil end-loading during cool-down. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Exploring magnetic dipole contribution on radiative flow of ferromagnetic Williamson fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present article is to analyze the impacts of thermal radiation and magnetic dipole in flow of ferromagnetic Williamson liquid over a stretched surface. Appropriate transformations are utilized to obtain the relevant nonlinear differential system. The obtained differential system is tackled numerically with the help of built-in-shooting method. Influence of viscous dissipation, ferromagnetic interaction parameter, cure temperature, Prandtl number, Weissenberg number (material parameter and thermal radiation are observed on temperature and velocity fields. Further velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed graphically. The obtained outcomes declare that surface drag force and heat transfer rate enhance for higher estimation of thermal radiation and Prandtl number. Moreover velocity field decays verses Weissenberg number. Keywords: Ferromagnetic Williamson liquid, Magnetic dipole, Thermal radiation, Viscous dissipation

  1. Risk Assessment of the Chopper Dipole Kicker Magnets for the MedAustron Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Barnes, M J; Benedikt, M; Fowler, T

    2011-01-01

    The MedAustron facility, to be built in Wiener Neustadt (Austria), will provide protons and ions for both cancer therapy and research [1]. Different types of kicker magnets will be used in the accelerator complex, including fast beam chopper dipoles: these allow the beam to be switched on and off for routine operational reasons or in case of emergency. Main requirements for the beam chopper system are safety and reliability. A criticality analysis, to chart the probability of failure modes against the severity of their consequences of the fault, has been carried out for the chopper dipole system. This "Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis" (FMECA), has been used to highlight failure modes with relatively high probability and severity of consequences: conservative ratings of critical components and appropriate redundancy, together with measurements and interlocks, have been used to reduce the probability and criticality of faults. This paper gives an overview of the Risk Assessment approach and pres...

  2. Test results from recent 1.8-m SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] model dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Cottingham, J.G.; Dahl, P.

    1988-01-01

    We report results from four 1.8 m-long dipoles built as part of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) RandD program. Except for length, these models have the features of the SSC design, which is based on a two-layer cosine theta coil with 4 cm aperture. As compared to the 17 m design length SSC dipoles, these 1.8 m magnets are a faster and more economical way of testing design changes in field shape, conductor support in the coil straight-section and ends, etc. The four magnets reported here all reach fields in excess of 7.5T with little training and have excellent field shape. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Field quality in the twin aperture D2 dipoles for LHC under asymmetric excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, A; Willen, E

    1999-01-01

    Twin aperture D2 magnets are one of the several types of dipoles to be built by BNL for the interaction regions of LHC. To minimize the number of dipole correctors required in the interaction regions, D2 will also be used as part of the steering system. Consequently, the operating fields in the two apertures may differ by up to ~10at 7 TeV operation and ~33at injection in order to compensate for the strengths of the correctors that would otherwise be required. Such asymmetric excitation of the two apertures may induce undesirable field harmonics. The saturation behavior of various harmonics is studied using POISSON and OPERA-2D. It is shown that the changes in harmonics resulting from the anticipated asymmetry are within tolerable limits. (2 refs).

  4. Design of the multilayer insulation system for the Superconducting Super Collider 50mm dipole cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Schoo, C.J.

    1991-03-01

    The development of the multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 50 mm collider dipole cryostat is an ongoing extension of work conducted during the 40 mm cryostat program. While the basic design of the MLI system for the 50 mm cryostat resembles that of the 40 mm cryostat, results from measurements of MLI thermal performance below 80K have prompted a re-design of the MLI system for the 20K thermal radiation shield. Presented is the design of the MLI system for the 50 mm collider dipole cryostat, with discussion focusing on system performance, blanket geometry, cost-effective fabrication techniques, and built-in quality control measures that assure consistent thermal performance throughout the SSC accelerator. 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Electron inelastic scattering by compound nuclei and giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhavadov, A.V.; Mukhtarov, A.I.; Mirabutalybov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Multipole giant resonances in heavy nuclei have been investigated with the application of the Danos-Greiner dynamic collective theory to the Tassi model. The monopole giant resonance has been studied in 158 Gd, 166 Er, 184 W, 232 Th and 238 V nuclei at the incident electron energy E=200 MeV. Dependences of the form factor square of electron scattering by a 166 Er nucleus on the scattering angle obtained in the distorted-wave high-energy approximation (DWHEA) are presented. Giant dipole and quadrupole resonances in 60 Ni and 90 Zr nuclei have been studied. A comparison has been made of theoretical results obtained in the DWHEA for the dependence of the form factor square on the effective momentum transfer with the experimental data. The analysis of the obtained results led to the following conclusions. To draw a conclusion about the validity of one or another nuclear model and methods for calculating form factors, it is necessary to investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, electron scattering at great angles (THETA>=70 deg). To obtain a good agreement it is necessary to take account of the actual proton and neutron distributions in the ground state and their dynamic properties in an excited state [ru

  6. Evidence of dynamical dipole excitation in the fusion-evaporation of the 40Ca+152Sm heavy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alba, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Agodi, C.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Emanuele, U.; Farinon, F.; Guglielmetti, A.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Mazzocchi, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2016-04-01

    The excitation of the dynamical dipole mode along the fusion path was investigated for the first time in the formation of a heavy compound nucleus in the A ˜190 mass region. The compound nucleus was formed at identical conditions of excitation energy and spin from two entrance channels: the charge-asymmetric 40Ca+152Sm and the nearly charge-symmetric 48Ca+144Sm at Elab=11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. High-energy γ rays and light charged particles were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues by means of the MEDEA multidetector array (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Italy) coupled to four parallel plate avalanche counters. The charged particle multiplicity spectra and angular distributions were used to pin down the average excitation energy, the average mass, and the average charge of the compound nucleus. The γ -ray multiplicity spectrum and angular distribution related to the nearly charge-symmetric channel were employed to obtain new data on the giant dipole resonance in the compound nucleus. The dynamical dipole mode excitation in the charge-asymmetric channel was evidenced, in a model-independent way, by comparing the γ -ray multiplicity spectra and angular distributions of the two entrance channels with each other. Calculations of the dynamical dipole mode in the 40Ca+152Sm channel, based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics, are presented. Possible interesting implications in the superheavy-element quest are discussed.

  7. Dipole strength in {sup 89}Y and {sup 90}Zr up to the neutron-separation energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwengner, R.; Beyer, R.; Doenau, F.; Erhard, M.; Junghans, A.R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Nair, C.; Schilling, K.D.; Wagner, A. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Rusev, G. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]|[Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Tsoneva, N. [Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Benouaret, N. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]|[Universite d' Alger, 16111 Alger, Algerie (Algeria); Grosse, E. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]|[Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Dipole and quadrupole excitations in the semimagic N=50 nuclei {sup 89}Y and {sup 90}Zr were investigated at the superconducting electron linear accelerator ELBE with bremsstrahlung produced at electron energies from 9 to 13 MeV. About 200 {gamma} transitions in {sup 89}Y and 180 in {sup 90}Zr were identified up to about 11 and 12 MeV, respectively. Statistical methods were applied to estimate the contributions of inelastic transitions and to correct the intensities of the ground-state transitions for their branching ratios. The photoabsorption cross sections obtained in this way provide information about the dipole-strength function on the tail of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) towards energies below the neutron-separation energy. We observed extra dipole strength with respect to a smooth extrapolation of the GDR in the energy range from about 6 - 11 MeV. The observed extra strength is compared with results of calculations within the Quasiparticle-Phonon Model, which also make predictions about the nature of the strength.

  8. Integrated conservation of cultural built heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Bizzarro, Francesca

    1996-01-01

    This paper will focus on integrated conservation of cultural built heritage starting from the analysis of related European policies in an economic perspective. Integrated conservation of cultural built heritage allows either a city or country to undertake socieconomic and cultural promotion and to

  9. Built Environment Education in Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoil, Joanne K., Ed.; Sandler, Alan R., Ed.

    This anthology brings the study of the built environment, its design, social and cultural functions, and the criticism thereof into focus. Following a preface and introduction, 22 essays are organized in three parts. Part 1 includes: (1) "Landscape Art and the Role of the Natural Environment in Built Environment Education" (Heather…

  10. Present State of the Single and Twin Aperture Short Dipole Model Program for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, N I; Kurtyka, T; Leroy, D; Oberli, L R; Perini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siegel, N; Siemko, A; Tommasini, D; Vanenkov, I; Walckiers, L; Weterings, W

    1998-01-01

    The LHC model program for main dipoles is based on the design, fabrication and testing at CERN of a number of single and twin aperture 1m long magnets. So far, a number of single aperture models, each with specific characteristics, were tested at 2 K at a rate of about one per month. These magnets are the main tool used to check coil performance as a function of design and assembly options in view of optimizing and finalizing choices of components and procedures. Initial quenching field levels of 8.8 T were obtained and the short sample limit of the cable at 1.9 K was reached corresponding to a central bore field of 10 T. A few twin aperture dipole models were also built and tested, using the same structural components as for the long magnets which are now being built in industry. The paper discusses the main characteristics of the models built so far, the instrumentation developed to date and the experience obtained. Finally it describes the plans aimed at continuing a vigorous program to provide input to th...

  11. Giant paraganglioma in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Gupta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine catecholamine producing tumour in childhood which arises outside the adrenal medulla. We present a 12 year old girl with giant paraganglioma with severe hypertension and end organ damage. Diagnosis was confirmed with 24 h urinary Vanillymandelic Acid (VMA and CT scan. Preoperative blood pressure was controlled with intravenous nitroprusside, and oral prazosin, amlodepine, labetalol and metoprolol. General anaesthesia with epidural analgesia was given. Intra operative blood pressure rise was managed with infusion of nitriglycerine (NTG, esmolol, nitroprusside and propofol.

  12. GIANT INTRACANALICULAR FIBROADENOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clyn; Parsons, Robert J.; Bogart, William M.

    1951-01-01

    Five cases of giant intracanalicular fibroadenoma (“cystosarcoma phylloides”) were observed at one hospital in a period of three years. In a search of the literature, additional reports of breast tumors of this kind, not included in previous reviews, were noted. As there is record of 229 cases, it would appear that this rapidly growing benign tumor should be kept in mind in the diagnosis of masses in the breast. If removal is incomplete, there may be recurrence. Simple mastectomy is the treatment of choice. Radical mastectomy should be avoided. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2.Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:14848732

  13. Giant Ulcerative Dermatofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Karlidag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma is a slowly growing common benign cutaneous tumor characterized by hard papules and nodules. The rarely seen erosions and ulcerations may cause difficulties in the diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, which is clinically and histopathologically of malignant character, displays difficulties in the diagnosis since it has similarities with basal cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, and sarcomas. Head and neck involvement is very rare. In this study, a giant dermatofibroma case, which is histopathologically, ulcerative dermatofibroma, the biggest lesion of the head and neck region and seen rarely in the literature that has characteristics similar to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, has been presented.

  14. GIANT PROSTHETIC VALVE THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.

  15. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

    2014-01-01

    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  16. Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Kølle, Stig-Frederik Trojahn

    2015-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) occur in 1:20,000 livebirths and are associated with increased risk of malignant transformation. The treatment of GCMN from 1981 to 2010 in a tertiary referral center was reviewed evaluating the modalities used, cosmetic results, associated complications......% versus 44% required unplanned additional surgery, respectively. Complications were noted in 25% and 67% of the patients, respectively. Cosmetic result was satisfying in 76% of patients without difference between the groups. No malignant transformation was found during a mean follow-up of 11 years....... Curettage is a gentle alternative to excision with a lower complication rate and good cosmetic outcome....

  17. Integral Cross-Sections of the Photonuclear Reactions in the Region of Giant Dipole Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Belov, A G; Gudima, K K; Zuzaan, P

    2000-01-01

    The cross-sections of the photonuclear reactions (gamma, n) were measured for the 12 nuclei in the region between {45}Sc and {208}Pb. The measurements were performed by the activation method on the bremsstrahlung of the microtron with the boundary energy of 25 MeV. The integral cross-sections were calculated using the modificated model of the preequilibrium decay. The satisfactory agreament of the experimental and calculated cross-section was observed.

  18. Is there a fundamental cosmological dipole?

    CERN Document Server

    Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2014-01-01

    Early hints for deviation from the cosmological principle and statistical isotropy are being accumulated. After reviewing these hints, I focus on four cosmologically observed axes which appear to be either marginally consistent or in conflict with the standard ΛCDM isotropic and homogeneous cosmology. These axes are abnormally aligned with each other and include: (a) The Fine Structure Constant α Dipole (b) the Dark Energy Dipole (c) the Dark Velocity Flow and (d) the CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry. I also discuss a simple physical model (extended topological quintessence) that has the potential to explain the existence and alignment of these axes. The model is based on the recent formation of a global monopole with Hubble scale core by an O(3) symmetric scalar field, non-minimally coupled to electromagnetism.

  19. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Martin, B.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Inglima, G.; Glodariu, T.; La Commara, M.; Maiolino, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Pagano, A.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Signorini, C.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the dynamical dipole mode, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40Ar+92Zr and 36Ar+96Zr fusion reactions at Elab = 15.1 A and 16 A MeV, respectively. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the A = 126 mass energy region, identical spin distribution at an average excitation energy of about 280 MeV. The compound nucleus average excitation energy and average mass were deduced by the analysis of the light charged particle energy spectra. By studying the γ-ray energy spectra and the γ-ray angular distributions of the considered reactions, the dynamical nature of the prompt radiation related to the dynamical dipole mode was evidenced. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  20. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Glodariu, T.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the dynamical dipole mode, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40 Ar+ 92 Zr and 36 Ar+ 96 Zr fusion reactions at E lab = 15.1 A and 16 A MeV, respectively. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the A = 126 mass energy region, identical spin distribution at an average excitation energy of about 280 MeV. The compound nucleus average excitation energy and average mass were deduced by the analysis of the light charged particle energy spectra. By studying the γ-ray energy spectra and the γ-ray angular distributions of the considered reactions, the dynamical nature of the prompt radiation related to the dynamical dipole mode was evidenced. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  1. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  2. THE SNS RING DIPOLE MAGNETIC FIELD QUALITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANDERER,P.; JACKSON,J.; JAIN,A.; LEE,Y.Y.; MENG,W.; PAPAPHILIPPOU,I.; SPATARO,C.; TEPIKIAN,S.; TSOUPAS,N.; WEI,J.

    2002-06-03

    The large acceptance and compact size of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring implies the use of short, large aperture dipole magnets, with significant end field errors. The SNS will contain 32 such dipoles. We report magnetic field measurements of the first 16 magnets. The end field errors have been successfully compensated by the use of iron bumps. For 1.0 GeV protons, the magnets have been shimmed to meet the 0.01% specification for rms variation of the integral field. At 1.3 GeV, the rms variation is 0.036%. The load on the corrector system at 1.3 GeV will be reduced by the use of sorting.

  3. Trapped field internal dipole superconducting motor generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A motor generator including a high temperature superconductor rotor and an internally disposed coil assembly. The motor generator superconductor rotor is constructed of a plurality of superconductor elements magnetized to produce a dipole field. The coil assembly can be either a conventional conductor or a high temperature superconductor. The superconductor rotor elements include a magnetization direction and c-axis for the crystals of the elements and which is oriented along the magnetization direction.

  4. The LHC AC Dipole system: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The LHC AC Dipole is an instrument to study properties of the LHC lattice by inducing large transverse displacements in the beam. These displacements are generated by exciting the beam with an oscillating magnetic field at a frequency close to the tune. This paper presents the system requirements and the technical solution chosen to meet them, based of high-power audio amplifiers and a resonant parallel RLC circuit.

  5. Electric dipole moment of light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Afnan, I R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the sensitivity of the deuteron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In particular, we write the EDM as a sum of two terms, one depends on the target wave function, the second on intermediate multiple scattering states in the {sup 3}P{sub 1} channel. This second contribution is sensitive to off-shell behavior of the {sup 3}P{sub 1} amplitude.

  6. Dipole operator constraints on composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg University, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); Neubert, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg University, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); Cornell University, Department of Physics, LEPP, Ithaca, NY (United States); Straub, David M. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Flavour- and CP-violating electromagnetic or chromomagnetic dipole operators in the quark sector are generated in a large class of new physics models and are strongly constrained by measurements of the neutron electric dipolemoment and observables sensitive to flavour-changing neutral currents, such as the B→ X{sub s}γ branching ratio and ε'/ε. After a model-independent discussion of the relevant constraints, we analyze these effects in models with partial compositeness, where the quarks get their masses by mixing with vector-like composite fermions. These scenarios can be seen as the low-energy limit of composite Higgs or warped extra dimensional models. We study different choices for the electroweak representations of the composite fermions motivated by electroweak precision tests as well as different flavour structures, including flavour anarchy and U(3){sup 3} or U(2){sup 3} flavour symmetries in the strong sector. In models with ''wrong-chirality'' Yukawa couplings, we find a strong bound from the neutron electric dipole moment, irrespective of the flavour structure. In the case of flavour anarchy, we also find strong bounds from flavour-violating dipoles, while these constraints are mild in the flavour-symmetric models. (orig.)

  7. SPS Dipole Multipactor Test and TEWave Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F; Edwards, P; Federmann, S; Holz, M; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    Electron cloud accumulation in particle accelerators can be mitigated by coating the vacuum beam pipe with thin films of low secondary electron yield (SEY) material. The SEY of small coated samples are usually measured in the laboratory. To further test the properties of different coating materials, RF-induced multipacting in a coaxial waveguide configuration can be performed. The technique is applied to two main bending dipoles of the SPS, where the RF power is fed through a tungsten wire stretched along the vacuum chamber (6.4 m). A dipole with a bare stainless steel chamber shows a clear power threshold initiating an abrupt rise in reflected power and pressure. The effect is enhanced at RF frequencies corresponding to electron cyclotron resonances for given magnetic fields. Preliminary results show that the dipole with a carbon coated vacuum chamber does not exhibit any pressure rise or reflected RF power up to the maximum available input power. In the case of a large scale coating production this techniqu...

  8. Bent Solenoids with Superimposed Dipole Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.

    2000-03-21

    A conceptual design and manufacturing technique were developed for a superconducting bent solenoid magnet with a superimposed dipole field that would be used as a dispersion device in the cooling channel of a future Muon Collider. The considered bent solenoid is equivalent to a 180° section of a toroid with a major radius of ~610 mm and a coil aperture of ~416 mm. The required field components of this magnet are 4 tesla for the solenoid field and 1 tesla for the superimposed dipole field. A magnet of this size and shape, operating at these field levels, has to sustain large Lorentz forces resulting in a maximum magnetic pressure of about 2,000 psi. A flexible round mini-cable with 37 strands of Cu-NbTi was selected as the superconductor. Detailed magnetic analysis showed that it is possible to obtain the required superimposed dipole field by tilting the winding planes of the solenoid by ~25°. A complete structural analysis of the coil support system and the helium containment vessel under thermal, pressure, and Lorentz force loads was carried out using 3D finite element models of the structures. The main technical issues were studied and solutions were worked out so that a highly reliable magnet of this type can be produced at an affordable cost.

  9. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  10. 56 mm twin aperture model dipole magnet for the large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikaeheimo, J.; Savelainen, M.

    1996-08-01

    A 56 mm twin aperature model dipole magnet for the Large Hadron Collider has been built at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). The magnet design incorporates stainless steel collars and a special yoke structure to minimize saturation induced field errors. The magnet has proved to be the most successful model prototype constructed so far. In the tests the design field of 10.0 Telsa was achieved with a record-short training. In this paper, the quench performance and the electromagnetic behavior of the magnet are presented and discussed.

  11. Effect of prestress on performance of a 1.8 m SSC R ampersand D dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, G.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.; Goodzeit, C.

    1991-01-01

    A series of 1.8 SSC dipoles is being built and tested as part of the R ampersand D program. One of the 40 mm - aperture magnets was tested with a standard assembly and then reassembled and retested in a special configuration which had significantly less azimuthal prestress than the initial assembly. We report quench, coil stress, end force, and harmonics data for each of the assemblies. Quench performance was not degraded for the low-prestress assembly. 4 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Design of the Nb3Sn dipole D20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orco, D.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.E.

    1992-08-01

    The design of a 50 mm bore superconducting Nb 3 Sn dipole with a short sample field of 13 T at 4.3 K and a current of 5500 A/turn is presented. The magnet is composed by two double pancake layers. The inner cable has 37 strands with a strand diameter of 0.75 mm and a Cu/Sc ratio of 0.4; the outer cable has 47 strands with a diameter of 0.48 mm and a Cu/Sc ratio of 1.15. In order to obtain a high transfer function and low saturation effects on the multipoles, the stainless steel collar is elliptical and the iron yoke is ''close-in.'' The thin collar itself provides only a minimum prestress and the full prestress of 100 MPa is given by a 25 mm welded stainless steel shell or by winding a wire around the yoke. Aluminum spacers are used as assembly tools and as a means to control the gap size in the vertically split iron yoke. This paper presents the magnetic design and the calculated stress and strain distribution in structure and coils. A 1 m model called D20 is to be built and tested at LBL

  13. Pygmy dipole resonance in stable nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the ∆L = 0 spin-flip M1 resonance. A case study of the 208Pb(p, p ) reaction at. E = 295 MeV was performed. A background-subtracted spectrum measured at 0◦ spectrometer angle is displayed in the top part of figure 3. In the giant resonance region, prominent excitation of the GDR is observed. Because of the excellent.

  14. CSIR eNews: Built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR's research activities in the built environment are aimed at supporting South Africa's competitive performance, infrastructure, the welfare and quality of life of its people through knowledge-generation for the development of an efficient...

  15. Built Environment Analysis Tool: April 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.

    2013-05-01

    This documentation describes the tool development. It was created to evaluate the effects of built environment scenarios on transportation energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This documentation also provides guidance on how to apply the tool.

  16. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  17. A giant testicular teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangana, Abdulqadir M.; Razak, Awodan B.

    2007-01-01

    We report a giant testicular in a 36-year-old farmer man, of 18-month duration admitted to the Surgical Department Erbil Teaching Hospital, Iraq. The tumor was invading the penis and lower part of abdominal wall including bilateral groin lymph nodes. Histological examination revealed mature and immature teratoma. Further investigations showed no evidence of any metastatic lesions apart from a solitary pulmonary nodule on the right side of the chest which proved by ultra sonic guide fine needle aspiration biopsy. Radical excisions of the tumor including the shaft of the penis, combined with bilateral block dissection of the inguinal nodes and resection of the lower anterior abdominal wall was performed. Six weeks later after a course of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient underwent resection of metastatic lung lesion. (author)

  18. Built-In Potentials Induced by Molecular Order in Amorphous Organic Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Pascal; Rodin, Vadim; von Wrochem, Florian; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2018-01-17

    Many molecules used to fabricate organic semiconductor devices carry an intrinsic dipole moment. Anisotropic orientation of such molecules in amorphous organic thin films during the deposition process can lead to the spontaneous buildup of an electrostatic potential perpendicular to the film. This so-called giant surface potential (GSP) effect can be exploited in organic electronics applications and was extensively studied in experiment. However, presently, an understanding of the molecular mechanism driving the orientation is lacking. Here, we model the physical vapor deposition process of seven small organic molecules employed in organic light-emitting diode applications with atomistic simulations. We are able to reproduce experimental results for a wide range of strength of the GSP effect. We find that the electrostatic interaction between the dipole moments of the molecules limits the GSP strength and identify short-range van der Waals interactions between the molecule and the surface during deposition as the driving force behind the anisotropic orientation. We furthermore show how the GSP effect influences the energy levels responsible for charge transport, which is important for the design of organic semiconductors and devices.

  19. Magnetic Design and Code Benchmarking of the SMC (Short Model Coil) Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Manil, P; Rochford, J; Fessia, P; Canfer, S; Baynham, E; Nunio, F; de Rijk, G; Védrine, P

    2010-01-01

    The Short Model Coil (SMC) working group was set in February 2007 to complement the Next European Dipole (NED) program, in order to develop a short-scale model of a Nb3Sn dipole magnet. In 2009, the EuCARD/HFM (High Field Magnets) program took over these programs. The SMC group comprises four laboratories: CERN/TE-MSC group (CH), CEA/IRFU (FR), RAL (UK) and LBNL (US). The SMC magnet is designed to reach a peak field of about 13 Tesla (T) on conductor, using a 2500 A/mm2 Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strand. The aim of this magnet device is to study the degradation of the magnetic properties of the Nb3Sn cable, by applying different levels of pre-stress. To fully satisfy this purpose, a versatile and easy-to-assemble structure has been realized. The design of the SMC magnet has been developed from an existing dipole magnet, the SD01, designed, built and tested at LBNL with support from CEA. The goal of the magnetic design presented in this paper is to match the high field region with the high stress region, located alo...

  20. The Development of the Inner Triplet Dipole Corrector (MCBX) for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Karppinen, M; Hauge, N; Nielsen, B R

    1999-01-01

    A prototype of the MCBX correction dipole magnet is being built in industry. It features a horizontal dipole nested inside a vertical dipole The coils of the 0.6 m long single-bore magnet are wound with 7 or 9 rectangular superconducting wires pre-assembled as flat cables. As the end fields contribute for more than 50 % to the field integral an optimisation in 3D was required. The impregnated coils containing CNC-machined end spacers are pre-compressed with an aluminium shrinking cylinder. The yoke consists of scissor-laminations to back up the coil rigidity and to centre the coil assembly. These laminations move inward during the cooldown and the movement is blocked at a pre-defined temperature building-up a circumferential stress in the stainless steel outer shell. This paper describes the magnetic and mechanical design of this magnet. The expected performance from the calculations is presented. The assembly procedure is reviewed and the experience with the 250 mm long mechanical model is reported.

  1. Decay of the giant monopole resonance in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, S.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis an experimental study of the properties of the giant monopole resonance (GMR) in nuclei is described. The main subject is the study of the neutron decay of the GMR in 208 Pb, and the fission decay of the GMR in 238 U. Furthermore the strength distribution and decay properties of the monopole strength in 24 Mg and 40 Ca were studied. The strength distribution of the isoscalar monopole (and also of the isoscalar dipole) strength as obtained from the angular distribution of the excited strength at small scattering angles are discussed. For the excitation of the GMR inelastic scattering at very small scattering angles, including 0 0 , of 120 MeV α-particles was employed. The experimental technique for performing this type of measurements at the KVI was developed in the course of this study and is the subject of a separate chapter. (Auth.)

  2. Evolution of the Prompt Dipole γ-RAY Emission with Incident Energy in Fusion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; Boiano, A.; de Rosa, A.; di Pietro, M.; La Commara, M.; Mordente, R.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Trotta, M.; Vardaci, E.; Glodariu, T.; Mazzocco, M.; Signorini, C.; Stroe, L.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; di Toro, M.; Maiolino, C.; Pellegriti, N.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Cardella, G.; de Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Pirrone, S.; Baran, V.

    2005-12-01

    We studied the prompt dipole γ-ray emission, associated with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, as a function of incident energy in the 32,36S + 100,96Mo (Elab=6 MeV/nucleon) and 36,40Ar + 96,92Zr fusion reactions (Elab= 16 and 15 MeV/nucleon, respectively). With the above reaction pairs the 132Ce compound nucleus was formed, from entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, at an excitation energy of 117 and 304 MeV with identical spin distribution. By studying the differential γ-ray multiplicity spectra related to the above fusion reactions, it was shown that at the higher compound nucleus excitation energy the Giant Dipole Resonance γ-ray intensity increases by ~14% for the more charge asymmetric system while at the lower one no difference between the data was seen within the experimental uncertainties. Calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics are presented and compared with the experimental findings.

  3. Prototype steel-concrete LEP dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. The excitation coils were also very simple: aluminium bars insulated by polyester boxes in this prototype, by glass-epoxy in the final magnets. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233 1980. See also 8111529,7908528X.

  4. Direct photons and dileptons via color dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Rezaeian, A.H.; Pirner, H.J.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Drell-Yan dilepton pair production and inclusive direct photon production can be described within a unified framework in the color dipole approach. The inclusion of non-perturbative primordial transverse momenta and DGLAP evolution is studied. We successfully describe data for dilepton spectra from 800-GeV pp collisions, inclusive direct photon spectra for pp collisions at RHIC energies √(s)=200 GeV, and for pp-bar collisions at tevatron energies √(s)=1.8 TeV, in a formalism that is free from any extra parameters

  5. Effective gluon operators and neutron dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.; Ural'tsev, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the purely gluon CP odd six-dimension effective arising in various CP-breaking models is discussed. This operators of most interest in the nonminimal Higgs sector models, the right W models and supersymmetric theories, where it may induce the neutron dipole moment at the level of the experimental restriction. The method for evaluating the magnitude d n is proposed and the reasons are given in favor that the original Weiberg's estimate based on the naive Dimensional Analysis is overdone significantly. The Peccei -Quinn mechanism, impact on the magnitude of d n , which generally may be very essential, is discussed

  6. Electric dipole moment of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.; Fabre de la Ripelle, M.

    1986-01-01

    The contribution of a CP-nonconserving nucleon-nucleon interaction to the electric dipole moment of 3 He is evaluated in view of a recent proposal for its experimental detection. We use two models of CP-nonconserving interactions in combination with a Reid soft-core strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. In the Kobayashi-Maskawa model of CP nonconservation the order of magnitude is 10 -30 eX while the presence of the theta term in the QCD Langrangian contributes an order of magnitude 10 -16 theta-bar e cm

  7. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Inglima, G.; Glodariu, T.; La Commara, M.; Maiolino, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Pagano, A.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.

    2008-01-01

    The prompt γ-ray emission is investigated in the 16A MeV energy region by means of the 36,40 Ar + 96,92 Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of 132 Ce. The dynamical nature of this radiation is confirmed. We show that the prompt γ radiation has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics

  8. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Pierroutsakou, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: pierroutsakou@na.infn.it; Agodi, C.; Alba, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Baran, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); University of Bucharest (Romania); NIPNE-HH, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Boiano, A. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Cardella, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Colonna, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Coniglione, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); De Filippo, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Del Zoppo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Di Toro, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica, Universita di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Inglima, G. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Glodariu, T. [NIPNE-HH, 077125 Magurele (Romania); La Commara, M. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maiolino, C. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mazzocco, M. [Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Pagano, A. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Piattelli, P. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pirrone, S. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-06-12

    The prompt {gamma}-ray emission is investigated in the 16A MeV energy region by means of the {sup 36,40}Ar + {sup 96,92}Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of {sup 132}Ce. The dynamical nature of this radiation is confirmed. We show that the prompt {gamma} radiation has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  9. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Inglima, G.; Glodariu, T.; La Commara, M.; Maiolino, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Pagano, A.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Signorini, C.

    2008-06-01

    The prompt γ-ray emission is investigated in the 16 A MeV energy region by means of the 36,40Ar + 96,92Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of 132Ce. The dynamical nature of this radiation is confirmed. We show that the prompt γ radiation has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  10. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment on the Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Boram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the neutron to have an electric dipole moment (EDM, the theory of nature must have T, or equivalently CP, violation. Neutron EDM is a very good probe of novel CP violation in beyond the standard model physics. To leverage the connection between measured neutron EDM and novel mechanism of CP violation, one requires the calculation of matrix elements for CP violating operators, for which lattice QCD provides a first principle method. In this paper, we review the status of recent lattice QCD calculations of the contributions of the QCD Θ-term, the quark EDM term, and the quark chromo-EDM term to the neutron EDM.

  11. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment on the Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Boram; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Gupta, Rajan

    2018-03-01

    For the neutron to have an electric dipole moment (EDM), the theory of nature must have T, or equivalently CP, violation. Neutron EDM is a very good probe of novel CP violation in beyond the standard model physics. To leverage the connection between measured neutron EDM and novel mechanism of CP violation, one requires the calculation of matrix elements for CP violating operators, for which lattice QCD provides a first principle method. In this paper, we review the status of recent lattice QCD calculations of the contributions of the QCD Θ-term, the quark EDM term, and the quark chromo-EDM term to the neutron EDM.

  12. Electric dipole moment: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, E.

    2002-01-01

    There are 2 motivations for studying electric dipole moments (EDM): 1) EDM is deeply connected to CP violation (since it violates T symmetry) and to the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, and 2) EDM is effectively zero in standard model but big enough to measure in non-standard models and serves as a direct test of physics beyond the standard model. In this series of slides the author reviews various experiments concerning EDM: the mercury EDM experiment, the neutron EDM experiment, the thallium EDM experiment and the ytterbium EDM experiment, and considers the implications of their results on supersymmetry

  13. EDM: Neutron electric dipole moment measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fierlinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An electric dipole moment (EDM of the neutron would be a clear sign of new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. The search for this phenomenon is considered one of the most important experiments in fundamental physics and could provide key information on the excess of matter versus antimatter in the universe. With high measurement precision, this experiment aims to ultimately achieve a sensitivity of 10-28 ecm, a 100-fold improvement in the sensitivity compared to the state-of-the-art. The EDM instrument is operated by an international collaboration based at the Technische Universität München.

  14. Dipole Magnetization Effect to Kerosene Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Chalid; Nelson Saksono; Adiwar Adiwar; Nono Darsono

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of kerosene characteristics has been done by ex-situ dipole magnetization. The results  show that magnetization technique can be able to influence kerosene characteristics. Polarity and viscosity of the kerosene are observed by measuring refractive index and viscosity. An hour of 4330 Gauss flux magnetic will increase refractive index from 1.447 to 1.449 and decrease the viscosity from 1.278 to 1.256. Those changing support de-clustering occurrence and polarity increment of...

  15. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  16. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions at 16 MeV/nucleon and beam energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; Commara, M. La; Parascandolo, C.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Cardella, G.; Filippo, E. De

    2009-01-01

    High-energy γ rays and light charged particles from the 36 Ar+ 96 Zr and 40 Ar+ 92 Zr reactions at E lab =16 and 15.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively, were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues by means of the MEDEA multidetector array coupled to four parallel plate avalanche counters. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the prompt γ radiation, emitted in the decay of the dynamical dipole mode, in the ∼16 MeV/nucleon energy range and to map its beam energy dependence, comparing the present results with our previous ones obtained at lower energies. The studied reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the region of Ce under the same conditions of excitation energy and spin. Light charged particle energy spectra were used to pin down the average excitation energy and the average mass of the system. By studying the γ-ray spectra of the charge symmetric reaction 40 Ar+ 92 Zr, the statistical giant dipole resonance (GDR) parameters and angular distribution were extracted, and a comparison of the linearized 90 deg. γ-ray spectra of the two reactions revealed a 12% extra yield in the GDR energy region for the more charge asymmetric system. The center-of-mass angular distribution data of this extra γ yield, compatible with a dipole oscillating along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system, support its dynamical nature. The experimental findings are compared with theoretical predictions performed within a Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov transport model and based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the entrance channel reaction dynamics. An interesting sensitivity to the symmetry term of the equation of state and to in-medium effects on nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross sections is finally discussed.

  17. Dipole-magnet field models based on a conformal map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Walstrom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In general, generation of charged-particle transfer maps for conventional iron-pole-piece dipole magnets to third and higher order requires a model for the midplane field profile and its transverse derivatives (soft-edge model to high order and numerical integration of map coefficients. An exact treatment of the problem for a particular magnet requires use of measured magnetic data. However, in initial design of beam transport systems, users of charged-particle optics codes generally rely on magnet models built into the codes. Indeed, if maps to third order are adequate for the problem, an approximate analytic field model together with numerical map coefficient integration can capture the important features of the transfer map. The model described in this paper is based on the fact that, except at very large distances from the magnet, the magnetic field for parallel pole-face magnets with constant pole gap height and wide pole faces is basically two dimensional (2D. The field for all space outside of the pole pieces is given by a single (complex analytic expression and includes a parameter that controls the rate of falloff of the fringe field. Since the field function is analytic in the complex plane outside of the pole pieces, it satisfies two basic requirements of a field model for higher-order map codes: it is infinitely differentiable at the midplane and also a solution of the Laplace equation. It is apparently the only simple model available that combines an exponential approach to the central field with an inverse cubic falloff of field at large distances from the magnet in a single expression. The model is not intended for detailed fitting of magnetic field data, but for use in numerical map-generating codes for studying the effect of extended fringe fields on higher-order transfer maps. It is based on conformally mapping the area between the pole pieces to the upper half plane, and placing current filaments on the pole faces. An

  18. Spontaneous dipole-dipole interactions in many-body, driven, dissipative Rydberg systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslek, James; Boulier, Thomas; Magnan, Eric; Bracamontes, Carlos; Young, Jeremy; Gorshkov, Alexey; Rolston, Steve; Porto, Trey

    We observe unexpected dipole-dipole interactions leading to the violation of a forbidden transition to the 18s manifold of ultra-cold 87 Rb atoms in a 3D optical lattice, as well as an increase in the linewidth of the allowed two photon rydberg transition. At increasing two photon Rabi frequency, a new resonance appears 10 MHz detuned from the main rydberg transition. Due to the selection rules of the circularly-polarized 2-photon excitation, the | F = 1 , mF = - 1 > state, which lies roughly 10 MHz away, should be inaccessible, and is not present at rabi frequencies less than 60kHz. We interpret this as a mixing of both the accessible and forbidden 18s states, which comes from the dipole-dipole interaction between these states and the populations of nearby p states, which are induced from blackbody decay from the. | 18 s , F = 2 , mF = - 2 > state. These p states are created faster than the timescales of the experiment, making their effect instant. We observe that the pumping rates of these resonances tend to the same value as the rabi frequency gets large enough, showing a complete mixing of the states. This phenomenon occurs due to the finite lifetimes of rydberg atoms and occurs in highly excited many-body systems. It is relevant for a wide array of proposals, including rydberg dressing

  19. Long-term dipole-dipole resistivity monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Sasaki, Y.

    1984-04-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and reservoir monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on approximately an annual basis since then. Two 20 km-long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at 1-km spacings were established over the field area. Resistivity remeasurements have been made on one line at 6- to 18-month intervals using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor-controlled signal-averaging receiver. This high-power, low-noise system provides highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points. Results from four years of monitoring (1979-1983) indicate a 5% average annual increase in apparent resistivity over the present production area, and larger decreases in apparent resistivity in the region to the east. The increase in resistivity in the production zone is most likely due to dilution of reservoir fluids with fresher water, as evidenced by a drop in chloride content of produced waters. The area of decreasing resistivity east of the reservoir is associated with a steeply dipping conductive body, a zone of higher thermal gradients and an increase in shale thickness in the section. Decreasing resistivity in this area may be caused by an influx of high temperature, saline water from depths of 3/sup +/ km through a sandy gap in the shales.

  20. Iron ore deposits model using geoelectrical resistivity method with dipole-dipole array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octova Adree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining industry is an industry with very high risk (losses. In order that mining activities can be run well, then the potential of the Earth’s resources must be known for sure. one of the Earth’s resources of high economic value is the iron ore. Iron ore is rarely found in a free state in nature, it is usually associated with other minerals and exposed randomly. With these properties, iron ore needs to be modeled before doing mining activities in order to avoid large losses. Iron ore deposits can be modeled with geoelectrical resistivity method. Dipole-dipole array will produce good imaging both vertically and laterally. From the measurement results of geoelectrical resistivity with dipole-dipole array will be obtained the value of measuring the current and potential difference. This value will generate into 2D and 3D model of the cross section of the iron ore deposits. One of the areas in West Sumatra has the potential for iron ore. Five lines were applied in this area. The result of cross section got the iron minerals associated with quartzite at 30 meters depth below the surface.

  1. Emitter-Wrap-Through Photovoltaic Dipole Antenna with Solar Concentrator

    OpenAIRE

    Roo Ons, Maria; Shynu, S.; Ammann, Max; McCormack, Sarah; Norton, Brian

    2009-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic dipole antenna employing a solar concentrator as a reflector is proposed. Four identical emitter-wrap-through rear contact solar cells connected in series as a folded dipole are simultaneously used for power generation and as the antenna radiating element, which is located in the focal line of a parabolic solar concentrator. The parabolic structure acts as a solar concentrator for the photovoltaic cells as well as a reflector for the folded dipole antenna. Full-wave elect...

  2. Electric Dipole Antenna: A Source of Gravitational Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the gravitational scalar potential due to an oscillating electric dipole antenna placed in empty space is derived. The gravitational potential obtained propagates as a wave. The gravitational waves have phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum (c at the equatorial plane of the electric dipole antenna, unlike electromagnetic waves from the dipole antenna that cancel out at the equatorial plane due to charge symmetry.

  3. SSC superconducting dipole magnet cryostat model style B construction experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, N.H.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Sorensen, D.; Zink, R.

    1989-03-01

    A program to upgrade the full scale SSC dipole magnet cryostat model function and assembly methods has resulted in a series of dipole magnets designated as style B construction. New design features and assembly techniques have produced a magnet and cryostat assembly that is the basis for Phase 1 of the SSC dipole magnet industrialization program. Details of the assembly program, assembly experience, and comparison to previous assembly experiences are presented. Improvements in magnet assembly techniques are also evaluated. 6 refs., 5 figs

  4. Corrected electrostatic model for dipoles adsorbed on a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschhoff, B.L.; Cowin, J.P. (Enviornmental and Molecular Science Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories Box 999 MS K2-14, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States))

    1994-11-01

    We present a dipole--dipole interaction model for polar molecules vertically adsorbed on a idealized metal surface in an approximate analytic form suitable for estimating the coverage dependence of the work function, binding energies, and thermal desorption activation energies. In contrast to previous treatments, we have included all contributions to the interaction energy within the dipole model, such as the internal polarization energy and the coverage dependence of the self-image interaction with the metal. We show that these can contribute significantly to the total interaction energy. We present formulae for both point and extended dipole cases.

  5. Enhanced terahertz magnetic dipole response by subwavelength fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atakaramians, Shaghik; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.

    2018-01-01

    Dielectric sub-wavelength particles have opened up a new platform for realization of magnetic light. Recently, we have demonstrated that a dipole emitter by a sub-wavelength fiber leads to an enhanced magnetic response. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an enhanced magnetic dipole source......-fiber system excited by a magnetic source. This coupled magnetic dipole and optical fiber system can be considered a unit cell of metasurfaces for manipulation of terahertz radiation and is a proof-of-concept of a possibility to achieve enhanced radiation of a dipole source in proximity of a sub...

  6. LCA of Buildings and the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    How we design human settlements has a profound influence on society’s environmental pressures. This chapter explores the current state of LCA applied to two scales of human settlements; individual buildings and the built environment, where the built environment is understood as a collection...... of the building tends to dominate environmental impacts, though as buildings become increasingly energy efficient, life cycle impacts shift towards other stages. LCA of built environments has been a useful supplement to mass-based urban environmental assessments, highlighting the importance of embodied...... environmental impacts in imported goods and showing interesting trade-offs between dense urban living and the greater purchasing power of wealthy urbanites. LCAs of human settlements also face difficult challenges; the long use stage (often decades) introduces high uncertainty regarding the end-of-life stage...

  7. Effects of dipole-dipole interaction between cigar-shaped BECs of cold alkali atoms: towards inverse-squared interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Luo, Zhuxi; Wang, Ziqiang

    2014-07-01

    We show that the dipole-dipole coupling between Wannier modes in cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is significantly enhanced while the short-range coupling is strongly suppressed. As a result, the dipole-dipole interaction can become the dominant interaction between ultracold alkali Bose atoms. In the long length limit of a cigar-shaped BEC, the resulting effective one-dimensional models possess an effective inverse squared interacting potential, the Calogero-Sutherland potential, which plays a fundamental role in many fields of contemporary physics; but its direct experimental realization has been a challenge for a long time. We propose to realize the Calogero-Sutherland model in ultracold alkali Bose atoms and study the effects of the dipole-dipole interaction.

  8. National Conference on Sustainable Built Environment 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Arindam; Khare, Ajay; Sen, Joy

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive document visualizing the future of built environment from a multidisciplinary dimension, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario. The multidisciplinary focus would be helpful for the readers to cross-refer and understand others' perspectives. The text also includes case studies substantiating theoretical research. This method of composition helps the book to maintain rational balance among theory, research and its contextual application. The book comprises selected papers from the National Conference on Sustainable Built Environment. The chapters provide varied viewpoints on the core issues of urbanization and planning, especially in the economically diverse Indian market. This compilation would be of interest to students, researchers, professionals and policy makers.

  9. Design, fabrication and testing of a 56 mm bore twin-aperture 1 m long dipole magnet made with SSC type cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostler, J.; Perini, D.; Russenschuck, S.; Siegel, N.; Siemko, A.; Trinquart, G.; Walckiers, L.; Weterings, W. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    In the framework of the LHC superconducting dipole magnet model program, a 56 mm bore, twin-aperture dipole model 1 m long, using existing cables of the standard SSC type, was launched to initiate studies of lower field magnets with smaller strand size cables for a 7 TeV collider. This model was designed, built, assembled and tested at CERN and reached a peak field of 9.7 T at 1.8 K. The paper reviews the main design principles, presents the fabrication and assembly procedures and finally discusses the overall test results.

  10. Design, fabrication and testing of a 56 mm bore twin-aperture 1 m long dipole magnet made with SSC type cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostler, J.; Perini, D.; Russenschuck, S.; Siegel, N.; Siemko, A.; Trinquart, G.; Walckiers, L.; Weterings, W.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC superconducting dipole magnet model program, a 56 mm bore, twin-aperture dipole model 1 m long, using existing cables of the standard SSC type, was launched to initiate studies of lower field magnets with smaller strand size cables for a 7 TeV collider. This model was designed, built, assembled and tested at CERN and reached a peak field of 9.7 T at 1.8 K. The paper reviews the main design principles, presents the fabrication and assembly procedures and finally discusses the overall test results

  11. Giant high occipital encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Encephaloceles are rare embryological mesenchymal developmental anomalies resulting from inappropriate ossification in skull through with herniation of intracranial contents of the sac. Encephaloceles are classified based on location of the osseous defect and contents of sac. Convexity encephalocele with osseous defect in occipital bone is called occipital encephalocele. Giant occipital encephaloceles can be sometimes larger than the size of baby skull itself and they pose a great surgical challenge. Occipital encephaloceles (OE are further classified as high OE when defect is only in occipital bone above the foramen magnum, low OE when involving occipital bone and foramen magnum and occipito-cervical when there involvement of occipital bone, foramen magnum and posterior upper neural arches. Chiari III malformation can be associated with high or low occipital encephaloceles. Pre-operatively, it is essential to know the size of the sac, contents of the sac, relation to the adjacent structures, presence or absence of venous sinuses/vascular structures and osseous defect size. Sometimes it becomes imperative to perform both CT and MRI for the necessary information. Volume rendered CT images can depict the relation of osseous defect to foramen magnum and provide information about upper neural arches which is necessary in classifying these lesions.

  12. Bringing Low the Giants

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Their work goes on unseen, because they a hundred metres beneath your feet. But while the race against the clock to build the LHC has begun on the surface, teams underground are feverishly engaged to dismantle LEP and its experiments. Four months after the start of dismantling, the technical coordinators of the different experiments discuss the progress of work. Little men attack the giant ALEPH. The barrel and its two endcaps have been removed to the end of the cavern and stripped of their cables. The breaking up of the detector can now begin. At ALEPH, counting rooms removed all in one go Jean-Paul Fabre, technical coordinator at ALEPH:'After making safe the structure, the first step was to remove the wiring and cables. Some 210 cubic metres were brought out. Then the counting rooms all round the detector were taken out. They were brought up from the cavern all in one go, up through the shaft, which is 10 metres wide and 150 metres deep. They made it with 15 centimetres to spare. They have been emptied of...

  13. Giant necrotic pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Andrew A; Quigley, Edward P; Chin, Steven S; Couldwell, William T

    2013-10-01

    Apoplexy of the pituitary gland is a rare complication of pituitary adenomas, involving hemorrhage with or without necrosis within the tumor. This condition may be either asymptomatic or may present with severe headache, visual impairment, ophthalmoplegia, and pituitary failure. Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice, and early intervention is usually required to ensure reversal of visual impairment. Reports of pituitary apoplectic lesions exceeding 60.0mm in diameter are very rare. A 39-year-old man with long-standing history of nasal congestion, decreased libido and infertility presented with a sudden onset of severe headache and diplopia. MRI of the head demonstrated a massive skull base lesion of 70.0 × 60.0 × 25.0mm, compatible with a giant pituitary macroadenoma. The lesion failed to enhance after administration of a contrast agent, suggesting complete necrotic apoplexy. Urgent surgical decompression was performed, and the lesion was resected via a transnasal transsphenoidal approach. Pathological analysis revealed evidence of necrotic pituitary apoplexy. At the 2 month follow-up, the patient had near-complete to complete resolution of his visual impairment. To the authors' knowledge, this report is unique as the patient demonstrated complete necrotic apoplexy and it underlines the diagnostic dilemma in such a case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of the giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions

  15. Electroexcitation of giant multipole resonances in 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, M.; Torizuka, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Electroexcitation of the nuclear continuum for 208 Pb at excitation energies up to 100 MeV has been measured at momentum transfers in the range from 0.45 to 1.2 fm -1 . Unfolding of the radiation tail was performed using a tail function which takes into account the multiple-photon emission effect. The spectra at these momentum transfers deviate significantly from the prediction of the Fermi-gas model but are consistent with the sum of the multipole strengths of the random-phase approximation; the excess cross section on the low excitation energy side indicates the excitation of multipole resonances. A series of 208 Pb spectra at low momentum transfers was expanded into E1, E2 (E0), E3, and higher multipole components using the q dependence of the Tassie model for isoscalar modes and the Goldhaber-Teller or Steinwedel-Jensen model for isovector modes. The giant dipole resonance thus obtained is consistent with that from photoreactions. Isoscalar and isovector giant quadrupole resonances are seen, respectively, at 11 and 22.5 MeV and an octupole resonance at 16 MeV. A monopole resonance is suggested at 13.5 MeV. The reduced 2 > 2 , B (E1), B (E2), and B (E3) consume most of the corresponding energy weighted sum rule if the q dependences of the Tassie and Goldhaber-Teller models are assumed. The results with these models are consistent with the random-phase approximation

  16. New bispyrazoline derivatives built around aliphatic chains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bispyrazolines 3a-3h built around the alkyl chains of varying lengths have been synthesized from the cyclization reactions of bischalcones with phenyl hydrazine. The bischalcones 2a-2h were obtained from the Claisen-Schmidt reactions of acetophenone with various bisaldehydes 1a-1h. The intermediate ...

  17. Democratizing Authority in the Built Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael P [UC Berkeley; Kolb, John [UC Berkeley; Chen, Kaifei [UC Berkeley; Culler, David [UC Berkeley; Katz, Randy [UC Berkeley

    2017-11-08

    Operating systems and applications in the built environment have relied upon central authorization and management mechanisms which restrict their scalability, especially with respect to administrative overhead. We propose a new set of primitives encompassing syndication, security, and service execution that unifies the management of applications and services across the built environment, while enabling participants to individually delegate privilege across multiple administrative domains with no loss of security or manageability. We show how to leverage a decentralized authorization syndication platform to extend the design of building operating systems beyond the single administrative domain of a building. The authorization system leveraged is based on blockchain smart contracts to permit decentralized and democratized delegation of authorization without central trust. Upon this, a publish/subscribe syndication tier and a containerized service execution environment are constructed. Combined, these mechanisms solve problems of delegation, federation, device protection and service execution that arise throughout the built environment. We leverage a high-fidelity city-scale emulation to verify the scalability of the authorization tier, and briefly describe a prototypical democratized operating system for the built environment using this foundation.

  18. Schooling Built on the Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    This article features a school built on multiple intelligences. As the first multiple intelligences school in the world, the Key Learning Community shapes its students' days to include significant time in the musical, spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences, as well as the more traditional areas of logical-mathematical and linguistics. In…

  19. CSIR eNews: Built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR's research activities in the built environment are aimed at supporting South Africa's competitive performance and the welfare and quality of life of its people through knowledge-generation for the development of an efficient and globally...

  20. CSIR eNews: Built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR's research activities in the built environment are aimed at supporting South Africa's competitive performance and the welfare and quality of life of its people through knowledge-generation for the development of an efficient and globally...

  1. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This booklet contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of Apr. 30, 1984, which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, military, production, export, and critical assembly facilities

  2. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.P.

    1985-09-01

    This publication contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of March 1985, which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly facilities

  3. Carbon coating of the SPS dipole chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P.; Chiggiato, P.; Edwards, P.; Mensi, M.; Neupert, H.; Taborelli, M.; Yin-Vallgren, C.

    2013-04-22

    The Electron Multipacting (EM) phenomenon is a limiting factor for the achievement of high luminosity in accelerators for positively charged particles and for the performance of RF devices. At CERN, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) must be upgraded in order to feed the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 25 ns bunch spaced beams. At such small bunch spacing, EM may limit the performance of the SPS and consequently that of the LHC. To mitigate this phenomenon CERN is developing a carbon thin film coating with low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) to coat the internal walls of the SPS dipoles beam pipes. This paper presents the progresses in the coating technology, the performance of the carbon coatings and the strategy for a large scale production.

  4. Dipole-sheet multipole magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dipole-sheet formalism can be used to describe both cylindrical current-sheet multipole magnets and cylindrical-bore magnets made up of permanent magnet blocks. For current sheets, the formalism provides a natural way of finding a finite set of turns that approximate a continuous distribution. The formalism is especially useful In accelerator applications where large-bore, short, high-field-quality magnets that are dominated by fringe fields are needed. A further advantage of the approach is that in systems with either open or cylindrically symmetric magnetic boundaries, analytical expressions for the three-dimensional fields that are suitable for rapid numerical evaluation can be derived. This development is described in some detail. Also, recent developments in higher-order particle-beam optics codes based on the formalism are described briefly

  5. Exotic fermions and electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshipura, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The contributions of mirror fermions to the electric dipole moments (EDM's) of leptons and neutrons are studied using the available limits on the mixing of the relevant fermions to their mirror partners. These limits imply EDM's several orders of magnitude larger than the current experimental bounds in the case of the electron and the neutron if the relevant CP-violating phases are not unnaturally small. If these phases are large, then the bounds on the EDM's can be used to improve upon the limits on mixing between the ordinary (f) and the mirror (F) fermions. In the specific case of the latter mixing angle being given by (m f /M F ) 1/2 , one can obtain the electron and the neutron EDM's close to experimental bounds

  6. Directional Dipole Model for Subsurface Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Hachisuka, Toshiya; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rendering translucent materials using Monte Carlo ray tracing is computationally expensive due to a large number of subsurface scattering events. Faster approaches are based on analytical models derived from diffusion theory. While such analytical models are efficient, they miss out on some...... translucency effects in the rendered result. We present an improved analytical model for subsurface scattering that captures translucency effects present in the reference solutions but remaining absent with existing models. The key difference is that our model is based on ray source diffusion, rather than...... similar to that of the standard dipole model, but we now have positive and negative ray sources with a mirrored pair of directions. Our model is as computationally efficient as existing models while it includes single scattering without relying on a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the rendered images...

  7. Concentric Titled Double-Helix Dipole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer Meinke, Ph.D; Carl Goodzeit; Millicent Ball, Ph.D

    2003-01-01

    The high magnetic fields required for future accelerator magnets can only be achieved with Nb3Sn, other A15 or HTS type conductors, which are brittle and sensitive to mechanical strain. The traditional ''cosine-theta'' dipole configuration has intrinsic drawbacks that make it difficult and expensive to employ such conductors in these designs. Some of these problems involve (1) difficulty in applying enough pre-stress to counteract Lorentz forces without compromising conductor performance; (2) small minimum bend radii of the conductor necessitating the intricate wind-and-react coil fabrication; (3) complex spacers in particular for coil ends and expensive tooling for coil fabrication; (4) typically only 2/3 of the coil aperture can be used with achievable field uniformity

  8. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1992-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far

  9. Neutrino structure functions in the QCD dipole picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay Ducati, M.B.; Machado, M.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. High Energy Physics Phenomenology Group - GFPAE; Machado, M.V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    In this contribution we present an exploratory QCD analysis of the neutrino structure functions in charged current DIS using the color dipole formalism. The corresponding dipole cross sections are taken from recent phenomenological and theoretical studies in deep inelastic inclusive production, including nuclear shadowing corrections. The theoretical predictions are compared to the available experimental results in the small-x region. (author)

  10. Helical dipole magnets for polarized protons in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.

    1997-01-01

    Superconducting helical dipole magnets will be used in the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to maintain polarization of proton beams and to perform localized spin rotations at the two major experimental detector regions. Requirements for the helical dipole system are discussed, and magnet prototype work is reported

  11. The status of the electric dipole moment of the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1990-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of particles in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory is discussed. Furthermore, calculations of the neutron electric dipole moment in the standard model and several of its low-energy extensions are reviewed. 47 refs., 7 figs. (Author)

  12. Understanding hydrogen bonding and determination of in-crystal dipol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    asparaginium ion and the picrate in the other complex. We have additionally performed theoretical calcu- lations at the density functional theory (DFT) level to understand the origin of enhancement of the dipole moments in the two systems. Keywords. X-ray diffraction; experimental charge density; hydrogen bonding; dipole ...

  13. A summary of SSC dipole magnet field quality measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thomas, R.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.; Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Nah, W.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.; Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports results of field quality measurements of the initial 15 m-long, 50 mm- aperture SSC Collider dipoles tested at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Laboratory. These data include multipole coefficients and the dipole angle at room temperature and 4.35 K, 4.35 K integral field measurements, and time-dependent effects. Systematic uncertainties are also discussed

  14. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f˜20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  15. Formation of giant planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perri, F.

    1975-01-01

    When a planetary core composed of condensed matter is accumulated in the primitive solar nebula, the gas of the nebula becomes gravitationally concentrated as an envelope surrounding the planetary core. Models of such gaseous envelopes have been constructed subject to the assumption that the gas everywhere is on the same adiabat as that in the surrounding nebula. The gaseous envelope extends from the surface of the core to the distance at which the gravitational attraction of core plus envelope becomes equal to the gradient of the gravitational potential in the solar nebula; at this point the pressure and temperature of the gas in the envelope are required to attain the background values characteristic of the solar nebula. In general, as the mass of the condensed core increases, increasing amounts of gas became concentrated in the envelope, and these envelopes are stable against hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the core mass then goes through a maximum and starts to decrease. In most of the models tested the envelopes were hydrodynamically unstable beyond the peak in the core mass. An unstable situation was always created if it was insisted that the core mass contain a larger amount of matter than given by these solutions. For an initial adiabat characterized by a temperature of 450 0 K and a pressure of 5 x 10 -6 atmospheres, the maximum core mass at which instability occurs is approximately 115 earth masses. It is concluded that the giant planets obtained their large amounts of hydrogen and helium by a hydrodynamic collapse process in the solar nebula only after the nebula had been subjected to a considerable period of cooling

  16. Quantum transfer energy in the framework of time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Haddon, Robert C.; Al-Heniti, Saleh H.; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.; Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.; Al-Hadeethi, Yas F.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we examine the process of the quantum transfer of energy considering time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction in a dimer system characterized by two-level atom systems. By taking into account the effect of the acceleration and speed of the atoms in the dimer coupling, we demonstrate that the improvement of the probability for a single-excitation transfer energy extremely benefits from the incorporation of atomic motion effectiveness and the energy detuning. We explore the relevance between the population and entanglement during the time-evolution and show that this kind of nonlocal correlation may be generated during the process of the transfer of energy. Our work may provide optimal conditions to implement realistic experimental scenario in the transfer of the quantum energy.

  17. Applicability of the dipole-dipole method for structural studies: examples from the Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfano

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We present some results of a geoelectrical investigation program conducted in the Northern Apennines, namely in the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window and surrounding areas. Field activity included the execution of more than 50 vertical electrical soundings with continuous polar dipole-dipole spread. We image the geometries of some deep geological structures; in particular we found a resistive background, whose resistivity is different along the geoelectrical profiles. In our interpretation the resistive background consists of subligurid and tuscan units underlying the alloctone Ligurid units in the area surrounding the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window. The resistive background was not found, at least at the same depths, toward north-east. Therefore, the geoelectrical survey revealed the position of the front of the subligurid and Tuscan nappes toward the plain for a depth of about one kilometer.

  18. Identifikasi Daerah Patahan dengan Metode Geolistrik Konfigurasi Dipole-Dipole di Desa Renokenongo Porong Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Cahyo Wahyono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fault is already occurred in Renokenongo, Porong - Sidoarjo. These fault’s have destroyed some building and public facilities. Existence of these fault’s have been detected by using 2D resistivity method. In this research, measurement of 2D resistivity is conducted by using Dipole-Dipole configuration. Configuration has been done in two lines. The first line is length of measurement 200 meters and direction E 98° S and second line the path lenght of 120 meters and direction N 50 E. From the resistivity section, position of fault is founded. For first line, position of fault stays at point 25; 43; 57; 97,5; 110 and 136 m. While for second line position of fault stays at point 33; 50 and 100 m.

  19. Spin-flip measurements in the proton inelastic scattering on 12C and giant resonance effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leo, R.; D'Erasmo, G.; Ferrero, F.; Pantaleo, A.; Pignanelli, M.

    1975-01-01

    Differential cross sections and spin-flip probabilities (SFP) for the inelastic scattering of protons, exciting the 2 + state at 4.43 MeV in 12 C, have been measured at several incident energies between 15.9 and 37.6 MeV. The changes in the shape of the SFP angular distributions are rather limited, while the absolute values show a pronounced increase, resonant like, in two energy regions centered at about 20 and 29 MeV. The second resonance reproduces very closely the energy dependence of the E2 giant quadrupole strength found in a previous experiment. The resonance at 20 MeV should correspond to a substructure of the E1 giant dipole resonance. (Auth.)

  20. Dramatic distortion of the 4d giant resonance by the C{sub 60} fullerene shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Baltenkov, A S [Arifov Institute of Electronics, Akademgorodok, 700125 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Chernysheva, L V [A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Felfli, Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Msezane, A Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)

    2005-05-28

    The photoionization cross section for the endohedral Xe at C{sub 60} atom is investigated within the framework of representing the C{sub 60} by a delta-type potential. Results demonstrate that in Xe at C{sub 60}, the 4d giant resonance is distorted significantly when compared with that of the isolated Xe atom. The reflection of the photoelectron waves by the C{sub 60} causes strong oscillations in the photoionization cross section resulting in the replacement of the Xe 4d giant resonance by four prominent peaks. The approximation of C{sub 60} by an infinitely thin real potential preserves reasonably well the sum rule for the 4d electrons but modifies the dipole polarizability of the 4d shell. (letter to the editor)

  1. On the state space of the dipole ghost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binegar, B.

    1984-01-01

    A particular representation of SO(4, 2) is identified with the state space of the free dipole ghost. This representation is then given an explicit realization as the solution space of a 4th-order wave equation on a spacetime locally isomorphic to Minkowski space. A discrete basis for this solution space is given, as well as an explicit expression for its SO(4, 2) invariant inner product. The connection between the modes of dipole field and those of the massless scalar field is clarified, and a recent conjecture concerning the restriction of the dipole representation to the Poincare subgroup is confirmed. A particular coordinate transformation then reveals the theory of the dipole ghost in Minkowski space. Finally, it is shown that the solution space of the dipole equation is not unitarizable in a Poincare invariant manner. (orig.)

  2. Effects of dipole magnet inhomogeneities on the beam ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Colman, J.; Levine, M.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.; Ward, T.; Grand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The RAYTRACE computer code has been modified to accept magnetic fields measured in the median plane of a dipole magnet. This modification allows one to study the effects of a non-ideal dipole magnet on the beam ellipsoid (as defined by the TRANSPORT code manual). The effects on the beam ellipsoid are due to: field inhomogeneities in the interior region of the dipole, and discrepancies from design conditions of the magnetic field values in the fringe field region. The results of the RAYTRACE code calculations based on experimentally measured fields will be compared with the results derived using both an ideal (no inhomogeneities) dipole with SCOFF boundaries and an ideal dipole with perfect (according to design) fringe fields

  3. The dipole anisotropy of AllWISE galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameez, M.; Mohayaee, R.; Sarkar, S.; Colin, J.

    2018-03-01

    We determine the dipole in the WISE galaxy catalogue. After reducing star contamination to reduces but stabilises at ˜0.012, corresponding to a velocity >1000 km/s if it is solely of kinematic origin. However, previous studies have shown that only ˜70% of the velocity of the Local Group as inferred from the CMB dipole is due to sources at z 240 km/s extending to z > 0.03) that we do. We construct mock catalogues in the neighbourhood of such peculiar observers in order to mimic our final galaxy selection and quantify the residual clustering dipole. After subtracting this the remaining dipole is 0.0048 ± 0.0022, corresponding to a velocity of 420 ± 213 km/s which is consistent with the CMB. However the sources (at z > 0.03) of such a large clustering dipole remain to be identified.

  4. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  5. Purpose-built mosques in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    The paper comes out of a case study within the framework of a larger project titled “Paradoxical spaces: Encountering the Other in public space”. The case is developed around the cross-cultural encounters provoked by the enhanced public visibility of Islam occasioned by the recent construction...... of purpose-built mosques in Copenhagen. The public visibility is a manifestation of religious differences that cannot be thought independent of the materiality of culture; namely aesthetic forms, dress codes and architectural genres. Cultural encounters are mediated through the materiality, the aesthetic...... form and the location of the mosques. In the paper we explore both similarities and differences in the way the material culture of the mosques are planned and received by the public. Today, three purpose-built mosques exist in the Copenhagen area, and they differ in terms of architectural form, age...

  6. Resilience engineering and the built environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The possible relations between resilience engineering and built environments are explored. Resilience engineering has been concerned with the safe and efficient functioning of large and small industrial systems. These may be described as built systems or artefacts. The resilience engineering...... approach argues that if the performance of systems is to be resilient, then they must be able to respond, monitor, learn and anticipate. The last ability in particular means that they must be able to consider themselves vis-a-vis their environment, i.e. be sentient and reflective systems. In practice...... important to understand the range of conditions about why and how the system functions in the desired' mode as well as unwanted' modes. Resilience is the capacity to sustain operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. The unexpected conditions are not only threats but also opportunities....

  7. Concentrated solar power in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenon, Alaric C.; Fylaktos, Nestor; Montagnino, Fabio; Paredes, Filippo; Papanicolas, Costas N.

    2017-06-01

    Solar concentration systems are usually deployed in large open spaces for electricity generation; they are rarely used to address the pressing energy needs of the built environment sector. Fresnel technology offers interesting and challenging CSP energy pathways suitable for the built environment, due to its relatively light weight (system into the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) system of a recently constructed office & laboratory building, the Novel Technologies Laboratory (NTL). The multi-generative system will support cooling, heating and hot water production feeding the system of the NTL building, as a demonstration project, part of the STS-MED program (Small Scale Thermal Solar District Units for Mediterranean Communities) financed by the European Commission under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), CBCMED program.

  8. CSIR eNews: Built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available by researchers and industry experts from Belgium, Brazil, Holland, South Africa, Sweden, the UK and the USA. Extensive use of cncPave, a mechanistically-based road design method used by road designers and authorities, has created an awareness... performance of concrete pavements wins award A research paper co-authored by CSIR Built Environment researcher Louw du Plessis has won the award for best paper presented at an international workshop on best practices for concrete pavements, held...

  9. Isoscalar and isovector giant resonances in a self-consistent phonon coupling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lyutorovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present fully self-consistent calculations of isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole as well as isovector giant dipole resonances in heavy and light nuclei. The description is based on Skyrme energy-density functionals determining the static Hartree–Fock ground state and the excitation spectra within random-phase approximation (RPA and RPA extended by including the quasiparticle-phonon coupling at the level of the time-blocking approximation (TBA. All matrix elements were derived consistently from the given energy-density functional and calculated without any approximation. As a new feature in these calculations, the single-particle continuum was included thus avoiding the artificial discretization usually implied in RPA and TBA. The step to include phonon coupling in TBA leads to small, but systematic, down shifts of the centroid energies of the giant resonances. These shifts are similar in size for all Skyrme parametrizations investigated here. After all, we demonstrate that one can find Skyrme parametrizations which deliver a good simultaneous reproduction of all three giant resonances within TBA.

  10. Giant fields in southwest Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    According to Petroleos Mexicanos southeastern Mexico's Isthmus Saline basin holds five new giant fields - Tonala-El Burro, El Plan, Cinco Presidentes, Oraggio, and Magallanes - producing oil and gas from Tertiary sandstones. Numerous normal faults resulting from salt intrusion have given rise to multiple blocks, each with its own reservoir conditions. Previously discovered basins in the area include the Macuspana, which holds three giant gas- and condensate-producing fields: Jose Colomo, Chilapilla, and Hormiquero. The 3100-mi/sup 2/ Campeche marine platform, extending offshore nearby, contains the Cantarell complex, Mexico's most productive hydrocarbon province.

  11. Percolation with multiple giant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2005-01-01

    We study mean-field percolation with freezing. Specifically, we consider cluster formation via two competing processes: irreversible aggregation and freezing. We find that when the freezing rate exceeds a certain threshold, the percolation transition is suppressed. Below this threshold, the system undergoes a series of percolation transitions with multiple giant clusters ('gels') formed. Giant clusters are not self-averaging as their total number and their sizes fluctuate from realization to realization. The size distribution F k , of frozen clusters of size k, has a universal tail, F k ∼ k -3 . We propose freezing as a practical mechanism for controlling the gel size. (letter to the editor)

  12. Giant resonances: reaction theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de; Foglia, G.A.

    1989-09-01

    The study of giant resonances through the use of reaction theory approach is presented and discussed. Measurements of cross-sections to the many available decay channels following excitation of giant multipole resonances (GMR) led one to view these phenomena as complicated dynamical syndromes so that theoretical requirements for their study must be extended beyond the traditional bounds of nuclear structure models. The spectra of decay products following GMR excitation in heavy nuclei are well described by statistical model (Hauser-Feshback, HF) predictions indicated that spreading of the collective modes plays a major role in shaping exclusive cross-sections. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  13. Awakening a sleeping coal giant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, B.

    2007-08-15

    Botswana, a southern African country that in the 1980s could not economically land a tonne of coal at the closest export terminal and even today mines no more than 1 million tpa, is to increase production to beyond 30 million tpa. A first ever coal conference in Gaborone called it the awakening of a coal giant. The alarm call for the coal giant is the realisation that without more generating capacity than its power utility Eskom can itself build in time, South Africa will in four to five years face a severe shortage of power. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Built-Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Forsyth, T.; Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

    2012-11-01

    Although only a small contributor to total electricity production needs, built-environment wind turbines (BWTs) nonetheless have the potential to influence the public's consideration of renewable energy, and wind energy in particular. Higher population concentrations in urban environments offer greater opportunities for project visibility and an opportunity to acquaint large numbers of people to the advantages of wind projects on a larger scale. However, turbine failures will be equally visible and could have a negative effect on public perception of wind technology. This roadmap provides a framework for achieving the vision set forth by the attendees of the Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The BWT roadmap outlines the stakeholder actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers identified. The actions are categorized as near-term (0 - 3 years), medium-term (4 - 7 years), and both near- and medium-term (requiring immediate to medium-term effort). To accomplish these actions, a strategic approach was developed that identifies two focus areas: understanding the built-environment wind resource and developing testing and design standards. The authors summarize the expertise and resources required in these areas.

  15. Status of 4-cm aperture, 17-m-long SSC dipole magnet R and D program at BNL. Part 1: Magnet assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H.; Ogitsu, T.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last year, several 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contract with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R and D program, carried out in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main ring magnets. They also lay the ground for the 5-cm aperture dipole magnet program to be started soon. After reviewing the design features of the BNL 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnets, the authors describe in detail the various steps of their fabrication. For each step, they discuss the parameters that need to be mastered, and they compare the values that were achieved for the five most recent prototypes. The data appear coherent and reproducible, demonstrating that the assembly process is under control

  16. Charting the Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    zero expansion asymptotically after an infinite time and has a flat geometry). All three observational tests by means of supernovae (green), the cosmic microwave background (blue) and galaxy clusters converge at a Universe around Ωm ~ 0.3 and ΩΛ ~ 0.7. The dark red region for the galaxy cluster determination corresponds to 95% certainty (2-sigma statistical deviation) when assuming good knowledge of all other cosmological parameters, and the light red region assumes a minimum knowledge. For the supernovae and WMAP results, the inner and outer regions corespond to 68% (1-sigma) and 95% certainty, respectively. References: Schuecker et al. 2003, A&A, 398, 867 (REFLEX); Tonry et al. 2003, ApJ, 594, 1 (supernovae); Riess et al. 2004, ApJ, 607, 665 (supernovae) Galaxy clusters are far from being evenly distributed in the Universe. Instead, they tend to conglomerate into even larger structures, "super-clusters". Thus, from stars which gather in galaxies, galaxies which congregate in clusters and clusters tying together in super-clusters, the Universe shows structuring on all scales, from the smallest to the largest ones. This is a relict of the very early (formation) epoch of the Universe, the so-called "inflationary" period. At that time, only a minuscule fraction of one second after the Big Bang, the tiny density fluctuations were amplified and over the eons, they gave birth to the much larger structures. Because of the link between the first fluctuations and the giant structures now observed, the unique REFLEX catalogue - the largest of its kind - allows astronomers to put considerable constraints on the content of the Universe, and in particular on the amount of dark matter that is believed to pervade it. Rather interestingly, these constraints are totally independent from all other methods so far used to assert the existence of dark matter, such as the study of very distant supernovae (see e.g. ESO PR 21/98) or the analysis of the Cosmic Microwave background (e

  17. A Study of Beam Position Diagnostics with Beam-excited Dipole Higher Order Modes using a Downconverter Test Electronics in Third Harmonic 3.9 GHz Superconducting Accelerating Cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Baboi, N. [DESY; Eddy, N. [Fermilab; Fellenz, B. [Fermilab; Jones, R. M. [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Lorbeer, B. [DESY; Wamsat, T. [DESY; Wendt, M. [Fermilab

    2012-08-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to define a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 {\\mu}m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 {\\mu}m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  18. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jones, R.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  19. Investigation of the dipole response of nickel isotopes in the presence of a high-frequency electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Dominic M.

    2010-01-01

    The electric dipole response of neutron-rich nickel isotopes has been investigated using the LAND setup at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany). Relativistic secondary beams of 56-57 Ni and 67-72 Ni at approximately 500 AMeV have been generated using projectile fragmentation of stable ions on a 4 g/cm 2 Be target and subsequent separation in the magnetic dipole fields of the FRagment Separator (FRS). After reaching the LAND setup in Cave C, the radioactive ions were excited electromagnetically in the electric field of a Pb target. The decay products have been measured in inverse kinematics using various detectors. Neutron-rich 67-69 Ni isotopes decay by the emission of neutrons, which are detected in the LAND detector. The present analysis concentrates on the (γ,n) and (γ,2n) channels in these nuclei, since the proton and three-neutron thresholds are unlikely to be reached considering the virtual photon spectrum for nickel ions at 500 AMeV. A measurement of the stable 58 Ni isotope is used as a benchmark to check the accuracy of the present results with previously published data. The measured (γ,n) and (γ,np) channels are compared with an inclusive photoneutron measurement by Fultz and coworkers, which are consistent within the respective errors. The measured excitation energy distributions of 67-69 Ni contain a large portion of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) strength predicted by the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn energy-weighted sum rule, as well as a significant amount of low-lying E1 strength, that cannot be attributed to the GDR alone. The GDR distribution parameters are calculated using well-established semi-empirical systematic models, providing the peak energies and widths. The GDR strength is extracted from the χ 2 minimization of the model GDR to the measured data of the (γ,2n) channel, thereby excluding any influence of eventual low-lying strength. The subtraction of the obtained GDR distribution from the total measured E1 strength provides the low-lying E1 strength

  20. Electromagnetic dipole and Gamow-Teller responses of even and odd {sup 90-94}{sub 40}Zr isotopes in QRPA calculations with the D1M Gogny force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deloncle, I. [CSNSM, CNRS et Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Peru, S. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Martini, M. [ESNT, CEA-Saclay, DSM, Irfu, Service de Physique Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-08-15

    In this paper we present theoretical results on the dipole response in the proton spin-saturated {sup 90-94}Zr isotopes. The electric and magnetic dipole excitations are obtained in Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov plus Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) calculations performed with the D1M Gogny force. A pnQRPA charge exchange code is used to study the Gamow-Teller response. The results on the pygmy, the giant dipole resonances as well as those on the magnetic nuclear spin-flip excitation and the Gamow-Teller transitions are compared with available experimental or theoretical information. In our approach, the proton pairing plays a role in the phonon excitations, in particular in the M1 nuclear spin-flip resonance. (orig.)

  1. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Chen, H. H.; Deng, R. D.; Yan, Q. X.

    2016-02-01

    A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  2. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Ku

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  3. Internal dipole radiation as a tool for particle identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yu; Kattawar, George W; Li, Changhui; Yang, Ping

    2006-12-20

    A numerical approach for the calculation of the internal dipole radiation associated with particles of arbitrary morphology is investigated by using the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method. The DDA and analytical solutions for the total radiated power and radiation pattern are compared in the case of spherical host particles. It is shown that the DDA can be quite accurate under the condition that m lambda is the wavenumber in vacuum, and d is the distance between two adjacent dipoles in the DDA cubic dipole array. Furthermore, the DDA solutions for the dipole radiation patterns associated with nonspherical host particles are compared with their corresponding counterparts obtained from the finite-difference time-domain method. Excellent agreement between the two results is noted. The DDA method is also applied to the computation of the internal dipole radiation associated with simulated nonspherical sporelike particles. The results suggest that the internal dipole radiation patterns contain a great deal of information about the morphology and composition of the host particle.

  4. Giant gravitons-with strings attached (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the free field theory limit of operators dual to giant gravitons with open strings attached, are studied. We introduce a graphical notation, which employs Young diagrams, for these operators. The computation of two point correlation functions is reduced to the application of three simple rules, written as graphical operations performed on the Young diagram labels of the operators. Using this technology, we have studied gravitational radiation by giant gravitons and bound states of giant gravitons, transitions between excited giant graviton states and joining of open strings attached to the giant

  5. Pathogenesis of giant colonic diverticula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhletaler, C.A.; Berger, J.L.; Robinette, C.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings of 3 patients with giant colonic diverticula are presented. Although several theories have been proposed for the formation of these diverticula, they have not been fully documented. One of our cases illustrates the evolution of this disorder following typical colonic diverticulitis. The pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of this unusual entity are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  7. Michigan has a sleeping giant

    CERN Multimedia

    Brock, Raymond; Nichols, Sue

    2007-01-01

    "That giant is 750 miles of fiber optic cable that lassoes its three biggest research universities and Van Andel Institute to the future. Its mission: to uncover the nature of the Big Bang by connecton U.S. physicists to their huge experiment ATLAS in Geneva.." (4 pages)

  8. A Giant or a Dwarf?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Herman

    2005-01-01

    EU may appear to be a giant when it can act on behalf of a united Europe, but usually it is hampered by conflicting member state interests. The EU economic and administrative resources for foreign and trade policy are quite small (on level with one of its major member states) and the hopes in man...

  9. Giant lipomas of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand are very rare and may cause compressions and other complications. Thus, they require a careful preoperative evaluation in order to make a proper differential diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 8-11

  10. LAGO: The Latin American giant observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidelnik, Iván; Asorey, Hernán; LAGO Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) is an extended cosmic ray observatory composed of a network of water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) spanning over different sites located at significantly different altitudes (from sea level up to more than 5000 m a.s.l.) and latitudes across Latin America, covering a wide range of geomagnetic rigidity cut-offs and atmospheric absorption/reaction levels. The LAGO WCD is simple and robust, and incorporates several integrated devices to allow time synchronization, autonomous operation, on board data analysis, as well as remote control and automated data transfer. This detection network is designed to make detailed measurements of the temporal evolution of the radiation flux coming from outer space at ground level. LAGO is mainly oriented to perform basic research in three areas: high energy phenomena, space weather and atmospheric radiation at ground level. It is an observatory designed, built and operated by the LAGO Collaboration, a non-centralized collaborative union of more than 30 institutions from ten countries. In this paper we describe the scientific and academic goals of the LAGO project - illustrating its present status with some recent results - and outline its future perspectives.

  11. Design, construction, and field mapping of the HISTRAP prototype dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, B.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Lord, R.S.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    HISTRAP is a proposed 2.67 T-m synchrotron-cooler-storage ring having eight 45/degree/, C-design dipole magnets. A prototype dipole has been designed, fabricated, and mapped. The magnet design utilizes curved and angled coil ends to compensate for end effects in the field. Construction of the prototype dipole has been completed by the FNAL magnet factory. The magnetic field has been mapped using a Hall-effect probe afixed to a newly constructed, PC-based, horizontal positioning system. Results of the field mapping are presented. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs

  12. Analysis and design of short, iron-free dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Iron-free, dipole magnets are used extensively as steering magnets to correct for the bending, induced by extraneous magnetic fields, of particle beams that are being transported in vacuum. Generally, the dipoles are long enough that the space occupied by the end conductors is small compared to the overall magnet length. In a recent application, however, this criteria did not apply. This has motivated a reanalysis of the characteristics of a system of small aspect ratio (length/diameter) dipoles that are spaced at relatively large axial distances

  13. Ocular dominance affects magnitude of dipole moment: An MEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Shima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nomura, Motohiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Ozaki, Yuzo; Kawai, Jun; Higuchi, Masanori; Kado, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the ocular dominance affects laterality in the activity of the primary visual cortex, we examined the relationship between the ocular dominance and latency or dipole moment measured by checkerboard-pattern and magnetoencephalography in 11 right-handed healthy male participants. Participants with left-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 21.5±6.1 nAm with left-eye stimulation and 16.1±3.6 nAm with right, whereas those with right-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of...

  14. Electric Dipole Moments in the MSSM Reloaded

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Thallium, neutron, Mercury and deuteron electric dipole moments (EDMs) in the CP-violating Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). We take into account the complete set of one-loop graphs, the dominant Higgs-mediated two-loop diagrams, the complete CP-odd dimension-six Weinberg operator and the Higgs-mediated four-fermion operators. We improve upon earlier calculations by including the resummation effects due to CP-violating Higgs-boson mixing and to threshold corrections to the Yukawa couplings of all up- and down-type quarks and charged leptons. As an application of our study, we analyse the EDM constraints on the CPX, trimixing and Maximally CP- and Minimally Flavour-Violating (MCPMFV) scenarios. Cancellations may occur among the CP-violating contributions to the three measured EDMs arising from the 6 CP-violating phases in the MCPMFV scenario, leaving open the possibility of relatively large contributions to other CP-violating observables. The anal...

  15. Dipole localization using simulated intracerebral EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nathalie; Gulrajani, Ramesh; Gotman, Jean

    2005-11-01

    In the clinical interpretation of intracerebral EEGs, epileptic foci are commonly identified by visually analyzing the amplitude of the potentials. This is potentially misleading since electrodes record activity from several sources, but the nearest ones generate large amplitudes that can overpower distant sources. Our objective was to improve foci detection in intracerebral recordings by applying source localization methods. Data were simulated by placing 3 sources in a semi-infinite medium near 3 intracerebral electrodes. Potentials were generated and contaminated with white and correlated noise. Two inverse problem algorithms, beamforming and RAP-MUSIC, were used to calculate equivalent dipoles. Simulations for each noise types showed that the two methods detected the source locations accurately, with RAP-MUSIC reporting lower orientation errors. With correlated noise, beamforming reconstructed original source waveforms poorly. A spatial resolution analysis was performed, in which beamforming adequately distinguished sources separated by 1.2 cm, whereas RAP-MUSIC separated sources as close as 0.4-0.6 cm. Both source localization methods proved useful in detecting the location of dipolar sources based on simulated intracerebral potentials. For all simulations, RAP-MUSIC was more accurate than beamforming. It is possible to use source localization methods traditionally applied to scalp recordings for improving source detection from intracerebral recordings.

  16. Full length prototype SSC dipole test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b 2 and b 8 are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b 2 and b 8 result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench

  17. Electric dipole moment of 13C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Yamada, Taiichi; Hiyama, Emiko; Funaki, Yasuro

    2017-06-01

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of 13C generated by the isovector charge conjugation-parity (CP)-odd pion exchange nuclear force in the α -cluster model, which describes well the structures of low-lying states of the 13C nucleus. The linear dependence of the EDM of 13C on the neutron EDM and the isovector CP-odd nuclear coupling is found to be d13C=-0.33 dn-0.0020 G¯π(1 ) . The linear enhancement factor of the CP-odd nuclear coupling is smaller than that of the deuteron, due to the difference of the structure between the 1 /21- state and the opposite-parity (1 /2+ ) states. We clarify the role of the structure played in the enhancement of the EDM. This result provides good guiding principles to search for other nuclei with large enhancement factor. We also mention the role of the EDM of 13C in determining the new physics beyond the standard model.

  18. Experimental constraint on quark electric dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Gao, Haiyan

    2018-04-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons are sensitive probes of additional C P violation sources beyond the standard model to account for the baryon number asymmetry of the universe. As a fundamental quantity of the nucleon structure, tensor charge is also a bridge that relates nucleon EDMs to quark EDMs. With a combination of nucleon EDM measurements and tensor charge extractions, we investigate the experimental constraint on quark EDMs, and its sensitivity to C P violation sources from new physics beyond the electroweak scale. We obtain the current limits on quark EDMs as 1.27 ×10-24 e .cm for the up quark and 1.17 ×10-24 e .cm for the down quark at the scale of 4 GeV2 . We also study the impact of future nucleon EDM and tensor charge measurements, and show that upcoming new experiments will improve the constraint on quark EDMs by about 3 orders of magnitude leading to a much more sensitive probe of new physics models.

  19. Looking for permanent electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Exploration of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) is one of the important ways to promote the research of fundamental symmetries and interactions. In this paper the progress of the exploration up to the present is overviewed and then the present status and expectation in future of the experiment using cooled unstable atoms which is the hopeful method to measure electron EDM is presented. At first the physical meaning of the CPT symmetry breaking is introduced and the upper limit of EDM of electron, muon, tau, proton, neutron, Λ hyperon and 199 Hg are tabulated. It is explained how EDM appears in the theory beyond the standard model, the supersymmetry model e.g. The on-going experiments of EDM exploration of neutrons, nuclei, electrons, molecules and charged particles are briefly reviewed. Finally the experiment to use the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) to produce ultra low temperature of nK range by using the laser to cool down radioactive element is presented. Since the amplification of EDM is expected to be large in heavy unstable atoms, francium isotopes which are obtained by heavy ion fusion of 197 Au target bombarded with 18 O beam are chosen in this experiment. It has been confirmed that Rb can be kept in the instrument for 20 minutes up to the present. Progress toward trapping Fr is under way by optimizing numbers of experimental parameters. Experiments by the groups in foreign countries are overviewed briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  20. Electric dipole moments of light nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereghetti, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Electric dipole moments (EDMs) are extremely sensitive probes of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). A vibrant experimental program is in place, with the goal to improve the existing neutron EDM bound by one/two orders of magnitude, and to test new ideas for the measurement of EDMs of light ions, such as deuteron and helium, at a comparable level. The success of this program, and its implications for physics beyond the SM, relies on the precise calculation of the EDMs in terms of the couplings of CP-violating operators. In light of the non-perturbative nature both of QCD at low energy and of the nuclear interactions, these calculations have proven difficult, and are affected by large theoretical uncertainties. In this talk I will review the progress that in recent years has been achieved on different aspects of the calculation of hadronic and nuclear EDMs. In particular, I will discuss how the interplay between lattice QCD and Chiral Effective Field Theory (EFT) has allowed to reduce a set of hadronic uncertainties. Finally, I will discuss how the measurements of th EDMs of one, two and three nucleon systems can be used to discriminate between various possible mechanisms of time-reversal violation at high energy.

  1. Stability of high field superconducting dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinger, J.; Danby, G.; Foelsche, H.; Jackson, J.; Prodell, A.; Stevens, A.

    1977-01-01

    Superconducting dipole magnets of the window-frame type were constructed and operated successfully at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Examples of this type of magnet are the 6 T ''Model T'' magnet, and the 4 T 8 0 superconducting bending magnet. The latter magnet operated reliably since October 1973 as part of the proton beam transport to the north experimental area at the BNL AGS with intensities of typically 8 x 10 12 protons at 28.5 GeV/c passing through the magnet in a curved trajectory with the proton beam center only 2.0 cm from the beam pipe at both ends and the middle of each of the two units comprising the magnet. The energy in the beam is approximately 40 kJ per 3 μsec pulse. Targets were inserted in the beam at locations 2 m and 5.6 m upstream of the first magnet unit to observe the effects of radiation heating. The 8 0 magnet demonstrated ultrastability, surviving 3 μsec thermal pulses delivering up to 1 kJ into the cold magnet at repetition periods as short as 1.3 sec

  2. The Rise of a Giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    European astronomy has received a tremendous boost with the decision from ESO's governing body to proceed with detailed studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope. This study, with a budget of 57 million euro, will make it possible to start, in three years time, the construction of an optical/infrared telescope with a diameter around 40m that will revolutionise ground-based astronomy. The chosen design is based on a revolutionary concept specially developed for a telescope of this size. "The decision by the ESO Council to go ahead with the design study for an European Extremely Large Telescope is a very exciting one for European astronomy,", said Richard Wade, President of the ESO Council. "Today is a great day because the ESO Council has authorised us to go forward with the final design of the next flagship telescope of ESO,", says Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. ESO PR Photo 46/06 ESO PR Photo 46/06 The European Extremely Large Telescope (Artist's Impression) Since the end of last year, ESO has been working together with its user community of European astronomers and astrophysicists to define the new giant telescope needed by the middle of the next decade [1]. More than one hundred astronomers from all European countries have been involved throughout 2006, helping the ESO Project Offices to produce a novel concept, in which performance, cost, schedule and risk were carefully evaluated. This fast pace has also been possible thanks to early conceptual studies in Europe (such as the ESO OWL and the EURO-50 studies) and research and development done in collaboration with a large number of European institutes and high-tech industries to develop critical enabling technologies within the framework of the EU FP6 programme and with significant contributions from all partners. Provisionally dubbed E-ELT for the European Extremely Large Telescope, ESO's innovative concept was presented in detail two weeks ago to more than 250 European astronomers at a

  3. Building Information Modelling for Smart Built Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM provides architectural 3D visualization and a standardized way to share and exchange building information. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in using BIM, not only for design and construction, but also the post-construction management of the built facility. With the emergence of smart built environment (SBE technology, which embeds most spaces with smart objects to enhance the building’s efficiency, security and comfort of its occupants, there is a need to understand and address the challenges BIM faces in the design, construction and management of future smart buildings. In this paper, we investigate how BIM can contribute to the development of SBE. Since BIM is designed to host information of the building throughout its life cycle, our investigation has covered phases from architecture design to facility management. Firstly, we extend BIM for the design phase to provide material/device profiling and the information exchange interface for various smart objects. Next, we propose a three-layer verification framework to assist BIM users in identifying possible defects in their SBE design. For the post-construction phase, we have designed a facility management tool to provide advanced energy management of smart grid-connected SBEs, where smart objects, as well as distributed energy resources (DERs are deployed.

  4. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  5. The dipole representation of vector meson electroproduction beyond leading twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2013-01-01

    We link the recent computation beyond leading twist of the impact factor of the transition γ T ⁎ →ρ T performed in the light-cone collinear approach, to the dipole picture by expressing the hard part of the process through its Fourier transform in coordinate space. We show that in the Wandzura–Wilczek approximation the impact factor up to twist 3 factorises in the wave function of the photon combined with the distribution amplitudes of the ρ-meson and the colour dipole scattering amplitude with the t-channel gluons. We show also that beyond the Wandzura–Wilczek approximation, the hard contribution of the amplitude still exhibits the signature of the interaction of a single colour dipole with the t-channel gluons. This result allows a phenomenological approach of the helicity amplitudes of the leptoproduction of vector meson, by combining our results to a dipole/target scattering amplitude model.

  6. Initial tests of an AC dipole for the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; /Texas U.; Jansson, A.; /Fermilab; Kopp, S.; /Texas U.; Syphers, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to diagnose transverse motions of a beam. It can achieve large-amplitude oscillations without two inevitable problems of conventional kicker/pinger magnets: decoherence and emittance growth. While not the first synchrotron to operate with an AC dipole, the Tevatron can now make use of its recently upgraded BPM system, providing unprecedented resolution for use with an AC dipole, to measure both linear and nonlinear properties of the accelerator. Plans are to provide AC dipole systems for both transverse degrees of freedom. Preliminary tests have been done using an audio power amplifier with an existing vertical pinger magnet, producing oscillation amplitudes up to 2{sigma} at 150 GeV. In this paper, we will present the configuration of this system. We also show the analysis of a first few data sets, including the direct measurement of beta functions at BPM locations.

  7. Ocular dominance affects magnitude of dipole moment: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nomura, Motohiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Ozaki, Yuzo; Kawai, Jun; Higuchi, Masanori; Kado, Hisashi

    2010-08-23

    To investigate whether the ocular dominance affects laterality in the activity of the primary visual cortex, we examined the relationship between the ocular dominance and latency or dipole moment measured by checkerboard-pattern and magnetoencephalography in 11 right-handed healthy male participants. Participants with left-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 21.5+/-6.1 nAm with left-eye stimulation and 16.1+/-3.6 nAm with right, whereas those with right-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 18.0+/-5.2 and 21.5+/-2.7 nAm with left-eye and right-eye stimulation of the infero-medial quadrant visual field, respectively. Thus, the dipole moment was higher when the dominant eye was stimulated, which implies that ocular dominance is regulated by the ipsilateral occipital lobe.

  8. Detection of Cavities Using Pole-Dipole Resistivity Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Elawadi, Eslam; El-Qady, Gad; Salem, Ahmed; Ushijima, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Using pole-dipole array, electrical resistivity survey was conducted to investigate the subsurface under a subsiding building located in Kita Kyushu area, Japan. The resistivity measurements were acquired along two traverse lines and interpreted using a g

  9. Dipole localization in Moon rocks from sparse magnetic data

    OpenAIRE

    Chevillard , Sylvain; Leblond , Juliette; Mavreas , Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We consider dipole recovery issues from sparse magnetic data, with the use of best quadratic rational approximation techniques, together with geometrical and algebraic properties of the poles of the approximants.

  10. On the functioning of folded dipole antennas on conducting masts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mcnamara, DA

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The radiation properties of individual folded dipole antennas mounted at various radial distances from the centre of conducting masts of different diameters are described in compact fashion....

  11. Fourier-positivity constraints on QCD dipole models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand G. Giraud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-positivity (F-positivity, i.e. the mathematical property that a function has a positive Fourier transform, can be used as a constraint on the parametrization of QCD dipole-target cross-sections or Wilson line correlators in transverse position space r. They are Bessel transforms of positive transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions. Using mathematical F-positivity constraints on the limit r→0 behavior of the dipole amplitudes, we identify the common origin of the violation of F-positivity for various, however phenomenologically convenient, dipole models. It is due to the behavior r2+ϵ, ϵ>0 softer, even slightly, than color transparency. F-positivity seems thus to conflict with the present dipole formalism when it includes a QCD running coupling constant α(r.

  12. A 50 mm bore superconducting dipole with a unique iron yoke structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orco, D.; Caspi, S.; O'Neill, J.; Lietzke, A.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.E.; Wandesforde, A.

    1992-08-01

    A 50 mm bore superconducting dipole with a thin stainless steel collar and a close in elliptical iron yoke was designed in order to obtain a high transfer function SW low saturation effects on the multipoles, and a one meter model was built and tested. Training behavior of the first 1 m model, called D19, is presented at 4.3 K and 1.8 K. At 1.8 K it reached the record field of 10.06 T. The two layer cos θ winding uses 30 and 36 strand cables identical to the cables of the 50 mm bore SSC dipole and it has an operating field of 6.6 T at 4.35 K with a current of 5800 A. To evaluate behavior at high fields, the mechanical structure for the model was designed for 10 T. The thin collar itself provides only a minimum prestress of 10 MPa. and the full prestress of 70 MPa is given by the iron yoke. An aluminum spacer is used to control the gap size in the vertically split iron yoke. The tapered gap in the yoke is determined by the size of the Al spacer so that during cooldown there is no loss of coil prestress and the gap remains closed when the magnet is energized

  13. Collarless, close-in, shaped iron aperture designs for the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Morgan, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The nominal-design SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole encloses the coil in an iron yoke having a circular aperture. The radial gap between the coil and the iron is about 15 mm to provide space for a strong annular collar around the coil, and also to reduce the effects of iron saturation on central field harmonics. The 15 mm gap also reduces the desirable dipole field contributed by the iron. The present paper gives a coil and aperture configuration in which the gap is reduced to 5 mm at the midplane, in which the aperture is shaped to reduce the unwanted effects of iron saturation. The transfer function is increased about 5% at 6.6 Tesla and the unwanted harmonics are within SSC tolerances at all field levels. These designs would require that the yoke and containment vessel absorb the stresses due to assembly and magnetic forces. A short magnet is being built with a close-in shaped iron aperture and existing coil geometry to assess the benefits of this concept. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Test results from Fermilab 1.5 m model SSC collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Coulter, K.J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Ozelis, J.P.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.

    1991-09-01

    We will present results from tests of 1.5 m model SSC collider dipole magnets. These R ampersand D magnets are identical to the 15 m full length dipoles currently being assembled at Fermilab in all important aspects except length. Because of their small size they can be built faster and tested more extensively than the long magnets. The model magnets are used to optimize design parameters for, and to indicate the performance which can be expected from, the 15 m magnets. The are instrumented with voltage taps over the first two current blocks for quench localization and with several arrays of strain gauge transducers for the study of mechanical behavior. The stress at the poles of the inner and outer coils is monitored during construction and, along with end force and shell strain, during excitation. Magnetic measurements are made several times during each magnet's lifetime, including at operating temperature and field. We will report on studies of the quench performance, mechanical behavior and magnetic field of these magnets

  15. Proton structure functions in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.; Wallon, S.; Royon, Ch.

    1996-06-01

    The proton structure functions are derived in the QCD dipole picture. Assuming k T and renormalization-group factorization, deep-inelastic proton scattering is related to deep-inelastic onium scattering. A three parameter fit of the 1994 H1 data in the low-x, moderate Q 2 range has been obtained. The dipole picture of BFKL dynamics is shown to provide a relevant model for quantitatively describing the proton structure functions at HERA. (author)

  16. Effect of scalar nonlinearity on the dipole vortex solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, X; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Pavlenko, V.P.

    1988-07-01

    The dipole vortex solutions of the Hasegawa-Mima drift wave or equivalently, the quasi-geostrophic Rossby wave equation are shown to be split up into long-lived monopole vortices (cyclones and anticyclones) in the presence of a small scalar, i.e. KdV type, nonlinearity. The lifetime of the dipole vortex varies inversely with the strength of the scalar nonlinearity. 12 refs., 4 figs

  17. Measurements of ground motion and SSC dipole vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shiltsev, V.D.; Weaver, H.J.

    1993-06-01

    The results of seismic ground measurements at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site and investigations of vibrational properties of superconducting dipoles for the SSC are presented. Spectral analysis of the data obtained in the large frequency band from 0.05 Hz to 2000 Hz is done. Resonant behavior and the dipole-to-ground transform ratio are investigated. The influence of measured vibrations on SSC operations is considered

  18. A summary of SSC dipole magnet field quality measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thomas, R.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Nah, W.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Wake, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports results of field quality measurements of the initial 15 m-long, 50 mm-aperture SSC Collider dipoles tested at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Laboratory. These data include multipole coefficients and the dipole angle at room temperature and 4.35 K, 4.35 K integral field measurements, and time-dependent effects. Systematic uncertainties are also discussed.

  19. Magnetic dipole moments of the heavy tensor mesons in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Barakat, T.; Savci, M.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic dipole moments of the D 2 , and D S 2 , B 2 , and B S 2 heavy tensor mesons are estimated in framework of the light cone QCD sum rules. It is observed that the magnetic dipole moments for the charged mesons are larger than that of its neutral counterpart. It is found that the SU(3) flavor symmetry violation is about 10 % in both b and c sectors. (orig.)

  20. Lack of screening in the continuous dipole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.M.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1979-01-01

    We study continuos statistical systems interacting via a regularized dipole potential in the grand canonical ensemble. In the explicity given region of high temperature (or low density) we show that the effective potential between two parallel dipoles is not absolutely integrable (it is, however, square integrable), which implies that the effective potential does not fall faster than /x/ -3 in some directions. (orig.) 891 HJ/orig. 892 MKO

  1. Formation and temporal evolution of the Lamb-dipole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The formation and dynamics of dipolar vortex structures in two-dimensional flows are studied. Localized initial structures possessing a finite linear momentum are found to develop into dipoles by direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The detailed structure......, is well described by an adiabatic theory. During the expansion the dipole is found to trap fluid as it evolves. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  2. The BFKL pomeron calculus in the dipole approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, M.; Levin, E.; Prygarin, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we continue to pursue a goal of finding an effective theory for high energy interaction in QCD based on the colour dipole approach, for which the BFKL pomeron calculus gives a low energy limit. The key problem, that we try to solve in this paper is the probabilistic interpretation of the BFKL pomeron calculus in terms of the colourless dipoles and their interactions. We demonstrate that the BFKL pomeron calculus has two equivalent descriptions: (i) one is the generating functional which gives a clear probabilistic interpretation of the processes of high energy scattering and also provides a Hamiltonian-like description of the system of interacting dipoles; (ii) the second is the Langevin equation with a specific noise term which is rather complicated. We found that at high energies this Langevin equation can be reduced to the Langevin equation for directed percolation in the momentum space if the impact parameter is large, namely, b1/k, where k is the transverse momentum of a dipole. Unfortunately, this simplified form of Langevin equation is not applicable for summation of pomeron loops, where one integrates over all possible values of impact parameter. We show that the BFKL pomeron calculus with two vertices (splitting P->P+P and merging P+P->P of pomerons) can be interpreted as a system of colourless dipoles with two processes: the decay of one dipole into two and the merging of two dipoles into one dipole. However, a number of assumptions we have to make on the way to simplify the noise term in the Langevin equation and/or to apply the probabilistic interpretation, therefore, we can consider both of these approaches in the present form only as the QCD motivated models

  3. Electric dipole moments of highly excited molecular vibrational states

    OpenAIRE

    Theulé, Patrice; Rizzo, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In this work, new spectroscopic techniques have been developed to measure electric dipole moments of highly excited rovibrational states of small polyatomic molecules in the gas phase. These techniques make use of lasers arid of microwave synthesizers. They enable one to measure the change on a molecular system caused by applying an external electric field, which is called Stark effect and from this, extract the dipole moment. The first technique, called microwave Stark spectroscopy, makes us...

  4. Electric dipole polarizability: from few- to many-body systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miorelli Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the Lorentz integral transform coupled-cluster method for the calculation of the electric dipole polarizability. We benchmark our results with exact hyperspherical harmonics calculations for 4He and then we move to a heavier nucleus studying 16O. We observe that the implemented chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order underestimates the electric dipole polarizability.

  5. Technology transfer considerations for the collider dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodzeit, C.; Fischer, R.

    1991-03-01

    The R ampersand D program at the national laboratories has resulted in significant advances in design and fabrication methods for the Collider Dipole Magnets. The status of the transfer of the technology developed by the laboratories is reviewed. The continuation of the technology transfer program is discussed with a description of: (1) the relation of technology transfer activities to collider dipole product development; (2) content of the program relating to key magnet performance issues; and (3) methods to implement the program. 5 refs

  6. Novel epoxy-free construction method for fabricating dipole magnets and test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Althaus, R.; Caspi, S.; Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.; Warren, R.

    1981-01-01

    Three model superconducting dipole magnets, lm length and having a bore diameter of 76mm, fabricated without epoxy resins or other adhesives, have been built and the first two have been tested in He I and He II. The conductor is the 23-strand Rutherford-type cable used in the Fermilab Doubler/Saver magnets, and is insulated with Mylar and Kapton. The two-layer winding is highly compessed by a system of structural support rings and tapered collets. Little training was required. Quench currents greater than 95% of short sample were obtained in He I with rise-times of 15 to 20 seconds to a central field of 4.6 T; 6.0 T in Helium II

  7. submitter Status of the EuCARD 5.4-T REBCO Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Borgnolutti, F; Debray, F; Rifflet, J -M; De Rijk, G; Tixador, P; Tudela, J -M

    2016-01-01

    A 5.4-T REBCO insert dipole magnet is being built at CEA Saclay to study the viability of hybrid accelerator magnets made of high- and low-temperature superconductors to generate magnetic fields in the range of 20 T, which is a field level of interest for future circular colliders. In this paper, we present the electromechanical design of the insert. It is a mechanically more robust version of the baseline design, which was produced in the framework of the former EuCARD program. The fabrication of a prototype made with dummy coils is discussed, and the impact of persistent currents on the central magnetic field is estimated using a 2-D electromagnetic model

  8. Exploring magnetic dipole contribution on radiative flow of ferromagnetic Williamson fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Ahmad, Salman; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of present article is to analyze the impacts of thermal radiation and magnetic dipole in flow of ferromagnetic Williamson liquid over a stretched surface. Appropriate transformations are utilized to obtain the relevant nonlinear differential system. The obtained differential system is tackled numerically with the help of built-in-shooting method. Influence of viscous dissipation, ferromagnetic interaction parameter, cure temperature, Prandtl number, Weissenberg number (material parameter) and thermal radiation are observed on temperature and velocity fields. Further velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed graphically. The obtained outcomes declare that surface drag force and heat transfer rate enhance for higher estimation of thermal radiation and Prandtl number. Moreover velocity field decays verses Weissenberg number.

  9. Tests of 40 mm SSC dipole model magnets with vertically split yokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Bossert, R.; Coulter, K.J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Kinney, W.; Jaffery, T.S.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.

    1991-05-01

    Several 1 meter long, 40 mm aperture model SSC dipole magnets with vertically split yokes have been built and tested at Fermilab. In addition to the yoke design, these magnets were used to evaluate several variants of the collet clamps which apply prestress to the magnet ends. The magnets were instrumented with voltage taps for quench localization and strain gage based devices for measuring stresses, forces and deflections resulting from cooldown and excitation. Test were carried out in a vertical dewar at temperatures from 3.8 degree K to 4.4 degree K. The quench and mechanical behavior of these magnets will be presented and magnetic field measurements will be shown. A comparison with an earlier series of magnets with horizontally split yokes will be made. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment: simultaneous spin analysis and preliminary data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helaine, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the neutron Electric Dipole Moment (nEDM) experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland), this thesis deals with the development of a new system of spin analysis. The goal here is to simultaneously detect the two spin components of ultracold neutrons in order to increase the number of detected neutrons and therefore lower the nEDM statistical error. Such a system has been designed using Geant4-UCN simulations, built at LPC Caen and then tested as part of the experiment. In parallel to this work, the 2013 nEDM data taken at PSI have been analysed. Finally, methods to recover magnetic observables of first interest to control nEDM systematic errors have been studied and possible improvements are proposed. (author) [fr

  11. Many particle magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions in magnetizable stent assisted magnetic drug targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregg, P.J.; Murphy, Kieran; Mardinoglu, Adil; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2010-01-01

    The implant assisted magnetic targeted drug delivery system of Aviles, Ebner and Ritter is considered both experimentally (in vitro) and theoretically. The results of a 2D mathematical model are compared with 3D experimental results for a magnetizable wire stent. In this experiment a ferromagnetic, coiled wire stent is implanted to aid collection of particles which consist of single domain magnetic nanoparticles (radius ∼10nm). In order to model the agglomeration of particles known to occur in this system, the magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions for multiple particles are included. Simulations based on this mathematical model were performed using open source C++ code. Different initial positions are considered and the system performance is assessed in terms of collection efficiency. The results of this model show closer agreement with the measured in vitro experimental results and with the literature. The implications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine are based on the prediction of the particle efficiency, in conjunction with the magnetizable stent, for targeted drug delivery.

  12. Constraints on Exotic Dipole-Dipole Couplings between Electrons at the Micrometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Kimball, Derek F Jackson

    2015-08-21

    New constraints on exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micrometer scale are established, based on a recent measurement of the magnetic interaction between two trapped 88Sr(+) ions. For light bosons (mass≤0.1  eV) we obtain a 90% confidence interval for an axial-vector-mediated interaction strength of |g(A)(e)g(A)(e)/4πℏc|≤1.2×10(-17). Assuming CPT invariance, this constraint is compared to that on anomalous electron-positron interactions, derived from positronium hyperfine spectroscopy. We find that the electron-electron constraint is 6 orders of magnitude more stringent than the electron-positron counterpart. Bounds on pseudoscalar-mediated interaction as well as on torsion gravity are also derived and compared with previous work performed at different length scales. Our constraints benefit from the high controllability of the experimental system which contained only two trapped particles. It therefore suggests a useful new platform for exotic particle searches, complementing other experimental efforts.

  13. Ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnes, Alexandre; Nicolis, Stamatios; Carré, Bernard; Willmann, Patrick; Lemordant, Daniel

    2003-06-16

    An algorithm is proposed for calculating the energy of ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes. The ion-dipole interactions increase with increasing salt concentration and must be taken into account when the activation energy for the conductivity is calculated. In this case, the contribution of ion-dipole interactions to the activation energy for this transport process is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution of ion-ion interactions. The ion-dipole interaction energy was calculated for a cell of eight ions, alternatingly anions and cations, placed on the vertices of an expanded cubic lattice whose parameter is related to the mean interionic distance (pseudolattice theory). The solvent dipoles were introduced randomly into the cell by assuming a randomness compacity of 0.58. The energy of the dipole assembly in the cell was minimized by using a Newton-Raphson numerical method. The dielectric field gradient around ions was taken into account by a distance parameter and a dielectric constant of epsilon = 3 at the surfaces of the ions. A fair agreement between experimental and calculated activation energy has been found for systems composed of gamma-butyrolactone (BL) as solvent and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6), and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as salts.

  14. Continuous millennial decrease of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Wilbor; Biggin, Andrew J.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Terra-Nova, Filipe

    2018-01-01

    Since the establishment of direct estimations of the Earth's magnetic field intensity in the first half of the nineteenth century, a continuous decay of the axial dipole component has been observed and variously speculated to be linked to an imminent reversal of the geomagnetic field. Furthermore, indirect estimations from anthropologically made materials and volcanic derivatives suggest that this decrease began significantly earlier than direct measurements have been available. Here, we carefully reassess the available archaeointensity dataset for the last two millennia, and show a good correspondence between direct (observatory/satellite) and indirect (archaeomagnetic) estimates of the axial dipole moment creating, in effect, a proxy to expand our analysis back in time. Our results suggest a continuous linear decay as the most parsimonious long-term description of the axial dipole variation for the last millennium. We thus suggest that a break in the symmetry of axial dipole moment advective sources occurred approximately 1100 years earlier than previously described. In addition, based on the observed dipole secular variation timescale, we speculate that the weakening of the axial dipole may end soon.

  15. Comparison of electric dipole and magnetic dipole models for electromagnetic pulse generated by nuclear detonation in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Meng; Zhou Hui; Cheng Yinhui; Li Baozhong; Wu Wei; Li Jinxi; Ma Liang; Zhao Mo

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse can be generated by the nuclear detonation in space via two radiation mechanisms. The electric dipole and magnetic dipole models were analyzed. The electric radiation in the far field generated by two models was calculated as well. Investigations show that in the case of one hundred TNT yield detonations, when electrons are emitted according to the Gaussian shape, two radiation models can give rise to the electric field in great distances with amplitudes of kV/m and tens of V/m, independently. Because the geomagnetic field in space is not strong and the electrons' angular motion is much weaker than the motion in the original direction, radiations from the magnetic dipole model are much weaker than those from the electric dipole model. (authors)

  16. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover......) within the creation of Virtual Environments, what will be the next challenge within Urban simulation and modelling to overcome? It will certainly not be to create the models as real as possible or refine details in the texturing. The challenge will be to do a proper object-orientation and thereby secure...... the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...

  17. The Large Built Water Clock Of Amphiaraeion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Katsiotis, M.; Manimanis, V. N.; Mantarakis, P.

    A very well preserved ancient water clock was discovered during excavations at the Amphiaraeion, in Oropos, Greece. The Amphiaraeion, a famous religious and oracle center of the deified healer Amphiaraus, was active from the pre-classic period until the replacement of the ancient religion by Christianity in the 5th Century A.D.. The foretelling was supposedly done through dreams sent by the god to the believers sleeping in a special gallery. In these dreams the god suggesting to them the therapy for their illness or the solution to their problems. The patients, then threw coins into a spring of the sanctuary. In such a place, the measurement of time was a necessity. Therefore, time was kept with both a conical sundial and a water clock in the form of a fountain. According to archeologists, the large built structure that measured the time for the sanctuary dates from the 4th Century B.C.

  18. Built cultural heritage facing climate change risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Roger-Alexandre; Martin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The built cultural heritage would face important risks in the frame of climate change. They are well identified by the major international organizations, but only in a qualitative manner, and mainly refer on the action of water or on its absence. The most active research is supported by the European Commission. The results obtained by the European project 'Noah's Ark' are the most important at the day. Dose-Response Functions with predictive climate models are used to produce vulnerability maps at a European scale of which one example is presented. The recommendations of the Council of Europe for policy makers and researchers are developed as a conclusion. Three case studies are synthesized in annex of this article: Venice, London and Paris. (authors)

  19. Stress Hormones mediated by the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fich, Lars Brorson; Wallergård, Mattias; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-01-01

    is a neurodegenerative disease that starts in the hippocampus structure in the brain’s limbic system. The hippocampus has three interconnected functions; it holds the cognitive map we use for way-finding, it creates new memories and it forms part of the feedback mechanism that controls the stress hormone cortisol....... In the early stages of the disease, the impairment of way-finding and memory is particularly evident. These symptoms are therefore most often prioritized in design proposals and guidelines for AD patients. However, in this paper we argue that perhaps the most important impairment to address is the weakening...... of the hippocampus’ function in the stress system, as the lack of control of cortisol levels during stress can lead to further degradation of the hippocampus. We refer to a stress experiment suggesting that is possible through the built environment to influence the release of cortisol during stress. This again...

  20. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulden, A.M.

    1983-08-01

    This semiannual compilation provides current information about facilities for domestic use or export which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Civilian, production, and military reactors are listed, as are reactors for export and critical assembly facilities. Information given includes location, owner, principal nuclear contractor, type, power rating, docket number, and start-up and shutdown dates. Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned is also available on standing order (PB83-903000) through a deposit account with the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161

  1. Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum from the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Tanney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungi, especially Aspergillus species, are prevalent in the built environment. In this study, we employed a combined culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing and culture-dependent (dilution-to-extinction approach to investigate the mycobiota of indoor dust collected from 93 buildings in 12 countries worldwide. High and low water activity (aw media were used to capture mesophile and xerophile biodiversity, resulting in the isolation of approximately 9 000 strains. Among these, 340 strains representing seven putative species in Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum were isolated, mostly from lowered aw media, and tentatively identified based on colony morphology and internal transcribed spacer rDNA region (ITS barcodes. Further morphological study and phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS, β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2, DNA topoisomerase 1 (TOP1, and a pre-mRNA processing protein homolog (TSR1 confirmed the isolation of seven species of subgenus Polypaecilum, including five novel species: A. baarnensis, A. keratitidis, A. kalimae sp. nov., A. noonimiae sp. nov., A. thailandensis sp. nov., A. waynelawii sp. nov., and A. whitfieldii sp. nov. Pyrosequencing detected six of the seven species isolated from house dust, as well as one additional species absent from the cultures isolated, and three clades representing potentially undescribed species. Species were typically found in house dust from subtropical and tropical climates, often in close proximity to the ocean or sea. The presence of subgenus Polypaecilum, a recently described clade of xerophilic/xerotolerant, halotolerant/halophilic, and potentially zoopathogenic species, within the built environment is noteworthy.

  2. Photocatalytic oxide films in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österlund, Lars; Topalian, Zareh

    2014-11-01

    The possibility to increase human comfort in buildings is a powerful driving force for the introduction of new technology. Among other things our sense of comfort depends on air quality, temperature, lighting level, and the possibility of having visual contact between indoors and outdoors. Indeed there is an intimate connection between energy, comfort, and health issues in the built environment, leading to a need for intelligent building materials and green architecture. Photocatalytic materials can be applied as coatings, filters, and be embedded in building materials to provide self-cleaning, antibacterial, air cleaning, deodorizing, and water cleaning functions utilizing either solar light or artificial illumination sources - either already present in buildings, or by purposefully designed luminaries. Huge improvements in indoor comfort can thus be made, and also alleviate negative health effects associated with buildings, such as the sick-house syndrome. At the same time huge cost savings can be made by reducing maintenance costs. Photocatalytic oxides can be chemically modified by changing their acid-base surface properties, which can be used to overcome deactivation problems commonly encountered for TiO2 in air cleaning applications. In addition, the wetting properties of oxides can be tailored by surface chemical modifications and thus be made e.g. oleophobic and water repellent. Here we show results of surface acid modified TiO2 coatings on various substrates by means of photo-fixation of surface sulfate species by a method invented in our group. In particular, we show that such surface treatments of photocatalytic concrete made by mixing TiO2 nanoparticles in reactive concrete powders result in concrete surfaces with beneficial self-cleaning properties. We propose that such approaches are feasible for a number of applications in the built environment, including glass, tiles, sheet metals, plastics, etc.

  3. Photocatalytic oxide films in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Österlund, Lars; Topalian, Zareh

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to increase human comfort in buildings is a powerful driving force for the introduction of new technology. Among other things our sense of comfort depends on air quality, temperature, lighting level, and the possibility of having visual contact between indoors and outdoors. Indeed there is an intimate connection between energy, comfort, and health issues in the built environment, leading to a need for intelligent building materials and green architecture. Photocatalytic materials can be applied as coatings, filters, and be embedded in building materials to provide self-cleaning, antibacterial, air cleaning, deodorizing, and water cleaning functions utilizing either solar light or artificial illumination sources – either already present in buildings, or by purposefully designed luminaries. Huge improvements in indoor comfort can thus be made, and also alleviate negative health effects associated with buildings, such as the sick-house syndrome. At the same time huge cost savings can be made by reducing maintenance costs. Photocatalytic oxides can be chemically modified by changing their acid-base surface properties, which can be used to overcome deactivation problems commonly encountered for TiO 2 in air cleaning applications. In addition, the wetting properties of oxides can be tailored by surface chemical modifications and thus be made e.g. oleophobic and water repellent. Here we show results of surface acid modified TiO 2 coatings on various substrates by means of photo-fixation of surface sulfate species by a method invented in our group. In particular, we show that such surface treatments of photocatalytic concrete made by mixing TiO 2 nanoparticles in reactive concrete powders result in concrete surfaces with beneficial self-cleaning properties. We propose that such approaches are feasible for a number of applications in the built environment, including glass, tiles, sheet metals, plastics, etc

  4. Long-range Order in One-dimensional Spinless Fermi Gas with Attractive Dipole-Dipole Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zhongbo; Chen, Liang; Wan, Shaolong

    2013-01-01

    One-dimensional spinless Fermi gas with attractive dipole-dipole interaction is investigated. Results obtained show when the interaction is weak, the excitation spectrum is linear and the superconducting correlation function decays as power law, indicating the validity of the Tomonaga-Luttinger (TL) liquid picture. However, when the interaction reaches a critical value, the excitation spectrum is nonlinear and the superconducting correlation function keeps finite for infinity separation, indi...

  5. Transitions landau-zener de paires d'atomes de Rydberg froids en interaction dipole-dipole

    OpenAIRE

    Cournol, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the study of dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg atoms, in particular of Landau-Zener transitions around a Förster resonance for Rydberg atoms pairs. The adiabaticity of the transition depends of the interatomic distance and is controlled by a time-dependant electric field. The adiabatic transition efficiency is the control knob to probe the nearest neighbour distribution. We infer a new and original method to measure the density of a gas very accurately by probin...

  6. Giant first-forbidden resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmpotic, F.; Nakayama, K.; Sao Paulo Univ.; Pio Galeao, A.; Sao Paulo Univ.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental data on first-forbidden charge-exchange resonances are discussed in the framework of a schematic model. We also evaluate the screening of the weak coupling constants induced by both the giant resonances and the δ-isobar. It is shown that the last effect does not depend on the multipolarity of the one-particle moment. Due to the same reason, the fraction of the reaction strength pushed up into the δ-resonance region is always the same regardless of the quantum numbers carried by the excitation. Simple expressions are derived for the dependence of the excitation energies of the first-forbidden giant resonances on the mass number and isospin of the target. The model reproduces consistently both the Gamow-Teller and the first-forbidden resonances. (orig.)

  7. Spinal cord giant arteriovenous fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymard, A.; Reizine, D.; Marciano, S.; Cervigon, E.G.; Gelbert, F.; Merland, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Giant extramedullary arteriovenous fistulas fed by spinal arteries are a rare type of spinal cord arteriovenous malformation. Among 11 patient (mean age, 20 years) with spinal hemorrhage in childhood, progressive paraplegia, and myelographic and angiographic diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the precised extramedulary location and complications (thrombosis 1). Angiography showed dilated spinal arteries feeding giant, high flow fistulas with much venous drainage. Endovascular treatment was performed in 11 cases, with balloons in seven, particulate embolization in three, and polymerizing agents in one. Complete closures of the shunt with clinical improvement was achieved in seven cases and partial closure with partial clinical recovery in two; there was one case each of paraplegia due to involuntary venous blockage by the balloon, and fatal bulbomedullary stroke in particulate embolization of cervical location. Careful endovascular techniques represent a valuable treatment in this severe pathology

  8. Giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ramiz Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, A 23 year old married woman who was diagnosed as a case of giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva measuring about 15 x 8 x 3 cm, irregular surface with multiple projections, oval in shape, firm to hard in consistency, mildly tender, exophytic, cauliflower like growth involving the whole vulva (lower part of mons pubis, labia, vestibule, clitoris, around vaginal opening. Another multiple small lesions were present at perineal region but there was no inguinal lymphadenopathy. She underwent a combined electro cauterization and cryotherapy for small to moderate size multiple primary and recurrent warty lesions and wide surgical excision with fasciocutaneous advancement flaps procedure for a giant lesions in the vulva. Excisional biopsies were performed to detect potential malignancy but malignancy was not found histologically. The patient was advised to first follow-up 1 month after operation when multiple small warty lesions were developed and treated and the subsequent follow-ups for 3 months.

  9. Giant Magnetoresistance in Nanogranular Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Glatz, A.; Beloborodov, I. S.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the giant magnetoresistance of nanogranular magnets in the presence of an external magnetic field and finite temperature. We show that the magnetization of arrays of nanogranular magnets has hysteretic behaviour at low temperatures leading to a double peak in the magnetoresistance which coalesces at high temperatures into a single peak. We numerically calculate the magnetization of magnetic domains and the motion of domain walls in this system using a combined mean-field approach and...

  10. Giant thermoelectric effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, D.; Dragoman, M.

    2007-11-01

    The paper predicts a giant thermoelectric coefficient in a nanostructure consisting of metallic electrodes periodically patterned over graphene, which is deposited on a silicon dioxide substrate. The Seebeck coefficient in this device attains 30mV/K, this value being among the largest reported ever. The calculations are based on a transfer matrix approach that takes a particular form for graphene-based devices. The results are important for future nanogenerators with applications in the area of sensors, energy harvesting, and scavenging.

  11. Giant pediatric cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzou, Salma; Boulaadas, Malik; Essakalli, Leila

    2013-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are benign lesions. Most of them are found in head and neck regions as asymptomatic mass, but giant lymphangiomas may affect breathing or swallowing and constitute a major therapeutic challenge. A retrospective analysis of giant head and neck LMs with impairment of respiration or swallow for the past 11 years was performed in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and ENT of the Avicenne Medical University Center. Seven patients with large and extensive LMs of the head and neck were identified. There were 3 males and 4 females with a mean age of 6 years. The predominant reason for referral was airway compromise necessitating tracheostomy (57%) and dysphagia (43%). Three patients had macrocystic lesions; others were considered mixed or microcystic. All the patients underwent surgical excision as a primary treatment modality. Complete surgical resection was realized in 4 patients, and subtotal resection in 3 patients. Of 7 patients, 4 patients had complications including nerve damage and recurrence of the disease. The majority of the patients underwent only a single surgical procedure. Cervicofacial LMs in children should be managed in multidisciplinary setting. Surgery remains the first treatment for managing giant, life-threatening lesions.

  12. Guiding the Giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    New ESO Survey Provides Targets for the VLT Giant astronomical telescopes like the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) must be used efficiently. Observing time is expensive and there are long waiting lines of excellent research programmes. Thus the work at the telescope must be very well prepared and optimized as much as possible - mistakes should be avoided and no time lost! Astronomers working with the new 8-m class optical/infrared telescopes must base their observations on detailed lists of suitable target objects if they want to perform cutting-edge science. This is particularly true for research programmes that depend on observations of large samples of comparatively rare, distant objects. This type of work requires that extensive catalogues of such objects must be prepared in advance. One such major catalogue - that will serve as a very useful basis for future VLT observations - has just become available from the new ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). The Need for Sky Surveys Astronomers have since long recognized the need to carry out preparatory observations with other telescopes in order to "guide" large telescopes. To this end, surveys of smaller or larger parts of the sky have been performed by wide-field telescopes, paving the way for subsequent work at the limits of the largest available ground-based telescopes. For instance, a complete photographic survey of the sourthern sky (declination project is known as the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). It is supervised by a Working Group with members from the European astronomical community ( [1]) that has been responsible for defining the survey strategy and for monitoring the progress. It has been a major challenge to carry out such a public survey in the very short time available. The work by the EIS Team has involved the survey observations at the NTT, development of a pipeline to process the raw data, advanced data reduction, identification of large samples of astronomically "interesting" targets and, not least, the

  13. Giant Planets: Good Neighbors for Habitable Worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Eggl, Siegfried; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2018-04-01

    The presence of giant planets influences potentially habitable worlds in numerous ways. Massive celestial neighbors can facilitate the formation of planetary cores and modify the influx of asteroids and comets toward Earth analogs later on. Furthermore, giant planets can indirectly change the climate of terrestrial worlds by gravitationally altering their orbits. Investigating 147 well-characterized exoplanetary systems known to date that host a main-sequence star and a giant planet, we show that the presence of “giant neighbors” can reduce a terrestrial planet’s chances to remain habitable, even if both planets have stable orbits. In a small fraction of systems, however, giant planets slightly increase the extent of habitable zones provided that the terrestrial world has a high climate inertia. In providing constraints on where giant planets cease to affect the habitable zone size in a detrimental fashion, we identify prime targets in the search for habitable worlds.

  14. Interaction of counter-streaming plasma flows in dipole magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikhislamov, I F; Posukh, V G; Melekhov, A V; Prokopov, P A; Boyarintsev, E L; Zakharov, Yu P; Ponomarenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    Transient interaction of counter-streaming super-sonic plasma flows in dipole magnetic dipole is studied in laboratory experiment. First quasi-stationary flow is produced by teta-pinch and forms a magnetosphere around the magnetic dipole while laser beams focused at the surface of the dipole cover launch second explosive plasma expanding from inner dipole region outward. Laser plasma is energetic enough to disrupt magnetic field and to sweep through the background plasma for large distances. ...

  15. Status of 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long SSC dipole magnet R ampersand D program at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H.; Ogitsu, T.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1991-03-01

    Over the last year, several 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contract with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R ampersand D program, carried out in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main ring magnets. They also lay the ground for the 5-cm aperture dipole magnet program to be started soon. After reviewing the design features of the BNL 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnets, we describe in detail the various steps of their fabrication. For each step, we discuss the parameters that need to be mastered, and we compare the values that were achieved for the five most recent prototypes. The data appear coherent and reproducible, demonstrating that the assembly process in under control. 23 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  17. Knowledge bases built on web languages from the point of view of predicate logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajgl, Marek; Lukasová, Alena; Žáček, Martin

    2017-06-01

    The article undergoes evaluation of formal systems created on the base of web (ontology/concept) languages by simplifying the usual approach of knowledge representation within the FOPL, but sharing its expressiveness, semantic correct-ness, completeness and decidability. Evaluation of two of them - that one based on description logic and that one built on RDF model principles - identifies some of the lacks of those formal systems and presents, if possible, corrections of them. Possibilities to build an inference system capable to obtain new further knowledge over given knowledge bases including those describing domains by giant linked domain databases has been taken into account. Moreover, the directions towards simplifying FOPL language discussed here has been evaluated from the point of view of a possibility to become a web language for fulfilling an idea of semantic web.

  18. Domestic offset projects in the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W. [Joint Implementation Network, Laan Corpus den Hoorn 300, 9728JT Groningen (Netherlands); Flamos, A.; Spyridaki, N.A. [Department of Industrial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80 Str, 185 34 Piraeus (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Emission reduction activities in the European Union (EU) in- and outside the European Trading System (ETS) thus far have largely taken place separately. One possibility to combine the two is through linking Non-ETS offset project-based crediting schemes in the form of Joint Implementation or domestic offset (DO) projects with the EU ETS. Linking would allow non-ETS offset project-based CO2 credits to be traded within the ETS market. This paper discusses the merits and drawbacks of the implementation of a DO scheme in the built environment in the Netherlands. The built environment can be characterised as a sector with a great diversity and significant energy savings potential. Emphasis is paid on the modalities for estimating energy savings under DO projects. The authors discuss if next to existing EU, national or regional policies in the Netherlands, DO could spur initiatives in sub-sectors or market areas that are difficult to reach with conventional policy instruments. Thus, despite the existing policy framework in this sector, there could be still space for DO to reach the untapped energy savings potential. DO can support activities and technologies that are not covered by other policy instruments, either because they are not part of the instruments focus or are above the minimum requirements of the incumbent policy targets. It is expected that some lessons from this study in the Netherlands can be taken into account also by other countries facing similar market circumstances, which have implemented several policy instruments and are considering DO schemes as an alternative for capturing part of the untapped energy saving potential in their end use sectors. Another possible advantage of DO is that it has the potential to reduce public spending on existing policy goals, when it is considered in conjunction with existing public financing instruments. In order to tap into this potential, there are a series of hurdles in place, like additionality and the current CO2

  19. LHC dipoles flood into CERN : the dipole nr 154 crowns the efforts of the LHC teams for increasing the fabrication rate of the magnets.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    On 3 December the "tableau" on the 4th floor in building 30 indicated 1078 dipoles to completion - or in other words, 154 dipoles had by this day been delivered to CERN, enough to complete the first octant of the machine. CERN has also now received enough superconducting cable - the "heart" of the magnets - for 600 dipoles, nearly half the total number of 1232.

  20. National Built Environment Health Impact Assessment Model ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavioral (activity, diet, social interaction) and exposure (air pollution, traffic injury, and noise) related health impacts of land use and transportation investment decisions are becoming better understood and quantified. Research has shown relationships between density, mix, street connectivity, access to parks, shops, transit, presence of sidewalks and bikeways, and healthy food with physical activity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some mental health outcomes. This session demonstrates successful integration of health impact assessment into multiple scenario planning tool platforms. Detailed evidence on chronic disease and related costs associated with contrasting land use and transportation investments are built into a general-purpose module that can be accessed by multiple platforms. Funders, researchers, and end users of the tool will present a detailed description of the key elements of the approach, how it has been applied, and how will evolve. A critical focus will be placed on equity and social justice inherent within the assessment of health disparities that will be featured in the session. Health impacts of community design have significant cost benefit implications. Recent research is now extending relationships between community design features and chronic disease to health care costs. This session will demonstrate the recent application of this evidence on health impacts to the newly adopted Los Angeles Regional Transpo

  1. Effect translational invariance in low-lying electric dipole excitations in 236U and 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertugral, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the translational invariant QRPA approach suggested by Pyatov [1] for the spherical nuclei has been extended to describe the 1 - states in deformed nuclei. The role of spurious centre-of-motion state on the Pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) has been investigated in the deformed 236 U and 238 U nuclei. It has been shown that the effect of taking into account the translational invariance of the Hamiltonians in the QRPA with separation of zero energy spurious solutions are noticeable in both the low energy density of 1 - states and in the PDR. Present investigation demonstrates the advantage of the translational invariant QRPA over the non translational invariant one. Within the translational invariant model the effect of removing spurious states on the E1 strength distribution is stronger than in none invariant QRPA (∼20%) for the states up to the neutron binding energy. It is found that the spurious state is spread over many levels, the largest admixture being situated in the region of the energy spacing between nuclear shells o w h . The giant resonance states contain, as a rule, very small admixtures of the spurious state

  2. Book Review: Leadership and Sustainability in the Built Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elmualim, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Leadership and Sustainability in the Built Environment Opoku, A. and Ahmed, V. (ed.), 2015. Leadership and Sustainability in the Built Environment. Routledge, London. ISBN (hbk): 978-1-13-877842-9, Hardback: $155.00.

  3. Tools for estimating VMT reductions from built environment changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Built environment characteristics are associated with walking, bicycling, transit use, and vehicle : miles traveled (VMT). Developing built environments supportive of walking, bicycling, and transit use : can help meet state VMT reduction goals. But ...

  4. The dipoles reach the half-way mark

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    With the positioning of the 616th magnet, installation of the LHC dipoles has reached the half-way mark. Only half the dipoles remain to be installed! The 616th dipole out of a total of 1232 was installed at 3 a.m on Wednesday 12 July. Night and day, the tunnel is the setting for a never-ending series of carefully choreographed installation operations. At a rate of around twenty per week, there has been a steady underground flow of dipole magnets, each measuring 15 metres in length and weighing 34 tonnes. 'In order to recover the accumulated delays, installation is proceeding three times faster than planned', confides Claude Hauviller, who is supervising LHC installation. Four dipoles can be transported underground at the same time. It is a real challenge, which the 65-man team responsible for this difficult task faces on a daily basis. This is because there is very little space in the tunnel and there are no passing places for the magnet transport vehicles. The room for manoeuvre can sometimes be measured ...

  5. Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the description of the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipole moments of a homologous series of phenyl alcohols. Linear and non-linear correlation models are obtained. The new charge-transfer indices improve the multivariable non-linear regression equations for the dipole moment. When comparing with previous results, the variance decreases 92%. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jk and GkV – JkV pairs is observed. This diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Inclusion of the oxygen atom in the p-electron system is beneficial for the description of the dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by the heteroatom or the role of steric factors in the p-electron conjugation. Linear and non-linear correlations between the fractal dimension and various descriptors point not only to a homogeneous molecular structure but also to the ability to predict and tailor drug properties.

  6. Magnetic field measurements of model SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Gilbert, W.S.; Green, M.I.; Barale, P.J.

    1986-10-01

    To qualify for use in the Superconducting Super Collider, the 8000 or so 16 m long dipole magnets must pass a series of tests. One of these will be a set of warm measurements of field quality, which must be precise to about 0.001% of the 100 G field produced by 10 A, the maximum current the coils are allowed to carry for an extended period at room temperature. Field measurements of better than this accuracy have already been carried out on 1 m long model dipoles. These measurements have included determinations of the dipole fields and the higher harmonics in the central or two dimensional region and in the total magnet. In addition, axial scans of the dipole and higher harmonic magnetic fields have been made to determine the local variations, which might reflect fabrication and assembly tolerances. This paper describes the equipment developed for these measurements, the results of a representative set of measurements of the central and integral fields and axial scans, and a comparison between warm and cold measurements. Reproducibility, accuracy and precision will be described for some of the measurements. The significance of the warm measurements as a part of the certification process for the SSC dipoles will be discussed

  7. Sequestering CO2 in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    Calera’s Carbonate Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation (CMAP) technology with beneficial reuse has been called, “game-changing” by Carl Pope, Director of the Sierra Club. Calera offers a solution to the scale of the carbon problem. By capturing carbon into the built environment through carbonate mineralization, Calera provides a sound and cost-effective alternative to Geologic Sequestration and Terrestrial Sequestration. The CMAP technology permanently converts carbon dioxide into a mineral form that can be stored above ground, or used as a building material. The process produces a suite of carbonate-containing minerals of various polymorphic forms. Calera product can be substituted into blends with ordinary Portland cements and used as aggregate to produce concrete with reduced carbon, carbon neutral, or carbon negative footprints. For each ton of product produced, approximately half a ton of carbon dioxide can be sequestered using the Calera process. Coal and natural gas are composed of predominately istopically light carbon, as the carbon in the fuel is plant-derived. Thus, power plant CO2 emissions have relatively low δ13C values.The carbon species throughout the CMAP process are identified through measuring the inorganic carbon content, δ13C values of the dissolved carbonate species, and the product carbonate minerals. Measuring δ13C allows for tracking the flue gas CO2 throughout the capture process. Initial analysis of the capture of propane flue gas (δ13C ˜ -25 ‰) with seawater (δ13C ˜ -10 ‰) and industrial brucite tailings from a retired magnesium oxide plant in Moss Landing, CA (δ13C ˜ -7 ‰ from residual calcite) produced carbonate mineral products with a δ13C value of ˜ -20 ‰. This isotopically light carbon, transformed from flue gas to stable carbonate minerals, can be transferred and tracked through the capture process, and finally to the built environment. CMAP provides an economical solution to global warming by producing

  8. Effect of giant plasmon excitations in single and double ionization of C60 in fast heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhane, Umesh; Kelkar, A.; Misra, D.; Kumar, Ajay; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2007-04-01

    Single and multiple ionization of C60 in collisions with highly charged fast oxygen ions have been studied using the recoil-ion time-of-flight technique. The dependence of multiple-ionization cross sections on projectile charge state (qp) was found to be drastically different from those for an atomic target, such as Ne. A model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance explains quite well the observed qp dependence for the single- and-double-ionization cross sections. But the same model deviates for triple and quadruple ionizations.

  9. Built leadership: women administrators in architectural education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Dale Woosnam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the 114 accredited architecture programs within colleges and universities across America, only 18 (or 16% employed females at the highest administrative positions as deans, directors, chairs, or heads at the time this study was conducted. Despite this statistic, nearly 50% of all graduates from architecture programs are female. Little is known about women administrators in architectural education, perhaps because of the fact that there are so few. The central question that guided this research study is as follows: What personal and professional factors characterize 10 women employed as administrators in nationally accredited architecture programs, departments, schools, and colleges in American institutions of higher education? Additionally, this study identified the women’s career paths, and obstacles they overcame andsacrifices they made in order to advance in their careers. The qualitative case study tradition was employed for this study. Ten women administrators of accredited architecture programs, departments, schools, and colleges within American institutions of higher education participated in the study. Interviews, documents, and observations were collected and included in the data analysis. While feminist leadership theories were used as a lens and guided the current research, themes emerged from the study that point toward a potentially new, emerging theoretical construct. This emerging construct requires that pioneering female leaders in male-dominated fields be characterized differently than female leaders in other contexts. Specifically, the conclusions drawn from this study require characterizing pioneering female leaders in male-dominated fields as built leaders or leaders who have systematically developed professionally as a result of unwavering ambition but who employa post-heroic style of leadership. In other words, these women fought their way to the top, but once there, use an up, down, and across hierarchical leadership

  10. Biofilms in churches built in grottoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cennamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.cennamo@unisob.na.it [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Montuori, Naomi [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy); Trojsi, Giorgio; Fatigati, Giancarlo [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Moretti, Aldo [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We investigated microorganisms dwelling on rocks, walls and paintings in two votive chapels built in grottoes in the Region of Campania, Italy. One grotto was near the coast in an area with a Mediterranean climate, and the other grotto was inland on a mountain in an area with a cold continental climate. Color and distribution of biofilms in various areas of the grottoes were examined. Microbial components of biofilms were identified by light and electron microscopy and by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and Automatic rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis). Biofilms were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction to detect inorganic constituents deriving from rocks in the grottoes and walls of the churches and by X-ray fluorescence to detect the elements that made up the pigments of the mural paintings; optical cross sections were used to observe their relationships with substrata. Species of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and green algae were identified. Some of these species occurred in both grottoes, while others were exclusive to only one of the grottoes. The diversity of species, their common or exclusive occurrence in the grottoes, the relationships among microbial communities and the differences in color and distribution of biofilms were discussed on the basis of the different climatic factors affecting the two grottoes and the different inorganic components of substrata. - Highlights: • Biofilms concur to the degradation of cultural heritage. • Microorganisms cause esthetic and structural damage in votive churches. • Biofilm features vary on different substrata, as limestone, plaster and paintings. • Features of biofilms mainly depend on environmental conditions. • Molecular biology techniques are indispensable in the study of biodegradation.

  11. The giant multipole resonance collisional widths in heated nuclei based on the Vlasov-Landau kinetic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomietz, V.M.; Plujko, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Damping of nuclear collective vibration is studied within the framework of the Vlasov-Landau equation including retardation (memory) effects in the collision integral. The expressions for the nuclear viscosity and the width of the giant multipole resonances in a heated nucleus are obtained by taking into account quadrupole dynamic distortion of the Fermi surface. These expressions allow for a transition between the regimes of rare and frequent two-body collisions. An interpolation formula for the width is proposed in which allowance for all multipolarities of the distortion of the Fermi sphere is made. The width of the giant dipole resonance as a function of excitation energy is calculated using this formula for the Sn nuclei region. The results for the width variation with temperature are in a qualitative agreement with the experimental data. They show a smoother behavior with increasing temperature compared to that of the zero sound model

  12. Theoretical Expectations for the Muon's Electric Dipole Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the muon's electric dipole moment $\\dmu$ from a variety of theoretical perspectives. We point out that the reported deviation in the muon's g-2 can be due partially or even entirely to a new physics contribution to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. In fact, the recent g-2 measurement provides the most stringent bound on $\\dmu$ to date. This ambiguity could be definitively resolved by the dedicated search for $\\dmu$ recently proposed. We then consider both model-independent and supersymmetric frameworks. Under the assumptions of scalar degeneracy, proportionality, and flavor conservation, the theoretical expectations for $\\dmu$ in supersymmetry fall just below the proposed sensitivity. However, non-degeneracy can give an order of magnitude enhancement, and lepton flavor violation can lead to $\\dmu$ of order $10^{-22}$ e cm, two orders of magnitude above the sensitivity of the $\\dmu$ experiment. We present compact expressions for leptonic dipole moments and lepton flavor violating amplitudes. ...

  13. Deeply virtual compton scattering in color dipole formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Magno V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    In this contribution we summarize recent investigations on the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) within the color dipole approach. The color dipole cross section is implemented through the phenomenological saturation model. The role played by its QCD evolution and skewedness effects in the DVCS cross section are discussed. The results are compared with the recent H1 and ZEUS Collaborations data. The skewing factor, defined as the ratio of the imaginary parts of the amplitudes Im A({gamma}* p {yields} {gamma}* p)/ Im A({gamma}* p {yields} {gamma} p) can be extracted from the data using recent DVCS and the inclusive inelastic cross section measurements at DESY-HERA. We report on this experimental extraction and compare the results to the theoretical predictions for NLO QCD and the color dipole approach. (author)

  14. Status of the LHC Short Dipole Model Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Sanfilippo, S; Siemko, A; Vanenkov, I; Wyss, C

    2000-01-01

    The 1-m model program for the main LHC dipoles is now mainly focussed on double-aperture magnets. In the past years an intensive program based on single-aperture dipoles allowed to select the series-design features among several variants for the coil cross section, the material of the collars and of the coil end spacers, the coil pre-stress and the cable insulation. The recent double-aperture models are dedicated to the fine-tuning of the baseline design and the manufacture of the coil ends. This paper reports about the fabrication and testing of these magnets and the results relevant for the series production of the 15-m long full-size dipole cold masses.

  15. Overview and Status of the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, D. T.; Hansen, A. K.; Mauel, M. E.; Ortiz, E.; Sunn-Pedersen, T.; Dagen, S.; Ellsworth, J.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Minervini, J.; Michael, P.; Zhukovsky, A.

    2002-11-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is the first experiment designed to study high-β plasmas confined by a magnetic dipole with near classical energy confinement. The primary goal of the initial phase of LDX operation is the study of plasma behavior near marginal stability for interchange modes at high-β. Other areas of investigation include dipole confinement characteristics, the formation of convective cells within the closed field line geometry and the possibility of non-local transport. LDX consists of three superconducting magnets and highlights the role of innovative magnetic technology that makes possible explorations of entirely new confinement concepts. We describe the LDX machine design and detail the fabrication status of the superconducting floating-coil, charging-coil, and levitation-coil as LDX nears plasma operations. An overview of the project goals, overall program plan, and current status of the experiment will also be presented.

  16. State of the Short Dipole Model Program for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, N I; Kurtyka, T; Oberli, L R; Perini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siegel, N; Siemko, A; Tommasini, D; Vanenkov, I; Walckiers, L

    1998-01-01

    Superconducting single and twin aperture 1-m long dipole magnets are currently being fabricated at CERN at a rate of about one per month in the framework of the short dipole model program for the LHC. The program allows to study performance improvements coming from refinements in design, components and assembly options and to accumulate statistics based on a small-scale production. The experience thus gained provides in turn feedback into the long magnet program in industry. In recent models initial quenching fields above 9 T have been obtained and after a short training the conductor limit at 2 K is reached, resulting in a central bore field exceeding 10 T. The paper describes the features of recent single aperture models, the results obtained during cold tests and the plans to ensure the continuation of a vigorous model program providing input for the fabrication of the main LHC dipoles.

  17. On the Purcell effect beyond the dipole approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We investigate spontaneous emission from excitons in quantum dots beyond the dipole approximation and show how the symmetry of the exciton wavefunction plays a crucial role. We show explicitly that for spherically symmetric excitons, the Purcell effect is independent of the exciton size and is go......We investigate spontaneous emission from excitons in quantum dots beyond the dipole approximation and show how the symmetry of the exciton wavefunction plays a crucial role. We show explicitly that for spherically symmetric excitons, the Purcell effect is independent of the exciton size...... and is governed by the local density of optical states at the center of the exciton only, which is identical to the result derived with the dipole approximation. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorem of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides new insights...

  18. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  19. Analysis of giant electrorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwook P; Seo, Yongsok

    2013-07-15

    The yield stress dependence on electric field strength for giant electrorheological (GER) fluids over the full range of electric fields was examined using Seo's scaling function which incorporated both the polarization and the conductivity models. If a proper scaling was applied to the yield stress data to collapse them onto a single curve, the Seo's scaling function could correctly fit the yield stress behavior of GER suspensions, even at very high electric field strengths. The model predictions were also compared with recently proposed Choi et al.'s model to allow a consideration of the universal framework of ER fluids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigations of dipole localization accuracy in MEG using the bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvas, F; Rautiainen, M; Pantazis, D; Baillet, S; Benali, H; Mosher, J C; Garnero, L; Leahy, R M

    2005-04-01

    We describe the use of the nonparametric bootstrap to investigate the accuracy of current dipole localization from magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies of event-related neural activity. The bootstrap is well suited to the analysis of event-related MEG data since the experiments are repeated tens or even hundreds of times and averaged to achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The set of repetitions or epochs can be viewed as a set of independent realizations of the brain's response to the experiment. Bootstrap resamples can be generated by sampling with replacement from these epochs and averaging. In this study, we applied the bootstrap resampling technique to MEG data from somatotopic experimental and simulated data. Four fingers of the right and left hand of a healthy subject were electrically stimulated, and about 400 trials per stimulation were recorded and averaged in order to measure the somatotopic mapping of the fingers in the S1 area of the brain. Based on single-trial recordings for each finger we performed 5000 bootstrap resamples. We reconstructed dipoles from these resampled averages using the Recursively Applied and Projected (RAP)-MUSIC source localization algorithm. We also performed a simulation for two dipolar sources with overlapping time courses embedded in realistic background brain activity generated using the prestimulus segments of the somatotopic data. To find correspondences between multiple sources in each bootstrap, sample dipoles with similar time series and forward fields were assumed to represent the same source. These dipoles were then clustered by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) clustering algorithm using their combined normalized time series and topographies as feature vectors. The mean and standard deviation of the dipole position and the dipole time series in each cluster were computed to provide estimates of the accuracy of the reconstructed source locations and time series.