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Sample records for gi function recovery

  1. Beliefs About GI Medications and Adherence to Pharmacotherapy in Functional GI Disorder Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Benjamin; Gyawali, C. Prakash; Kushnir, Vladimir M.; Gott, Britt M.; Nix, Billy D.; Sayuk, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Pharmacotherapy is a mainstay in functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (FGID) management, but little is known about patient attitudes toward medication regimens. Understanding patient concerns and adherence to pharmacotherapy is particularly important for off-label medication use (e.g., anti-depressants) in FGID. METHODS Consecutive tertiary GI outpatients completed the Beliefs About Medications questionnaire (BMQ). Subjects were categorized as FGID and structural GI disease (SGID) using clinician diagnoses and Rome criteria; GI-specific medications and doses were recorded, and adherence to medication regimens was determined by patient self-report. BMQ domains (overuse, harm, necessity, and concern) were compared between FGID and SGID, with an interest in how these beliefs affected medication adherence. Psychiatric measures (depression, anxiety, and somatization) were assessed to gauge their influence on medication beliefs. RESULTS A total of 536 subjects (mean age 54.7±0.7 years, range 22–100 years; n=406, 75.7% female) were enrolled over a 5.5-year interval: 341 (63.6%) with FGID (IBS, 64.8%; functional dyspepsia, 51.0%, ≥2 FGIDs, 38.7%) and 142 (26.5%) with SGID (IBD, 28.9%; GERD, 23.2%). PPIs (n=231, 47.8%), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (n=167, 34.6%), and anxiolytics (n=122, 25.3%) were common medications prescribed. FGID and SGID were similar across all BMQ domains (P>0.05 for overuse, harm, necessity, and concern). SGID subjects had higher necessity-concern framework (NCF) scores compared with FGID subjects ( P=0.043). FGID medication adherence correlated negatively with concerns about medication harm (r=−0.24, P<0.001) and overuse (r=−0.15, P=0.001), whereas higher NCF differences predicted medication compliance (P=0.006). Medication concern and overuse scores correlated with psychiatric comorbidity among FGID subjects (P<0.03 for each). FGID patients prescribed TCAs (n=142, 41.6%) expressed a greater medication necessity (17.4

  2. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research

  3. Long-term functional outcomes of PPPD in children--Nutritional status, pancreatic function, GI function and QOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwon-Ham; Kim, Hyun-Young; Jung, Sung-Eun; Lee, Seong-Cheol; Park, Kwi-Won

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the long-term outcomes, such as nutritional status, pancreatic function, gastrointestinal (GI) function, and quality of life (QOL), in children who underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). Between 1992 and 2013, there were 15 children who underwent PPPD at Seoul National University Children's Hospital, and 10 of them participated in this study. A retrospective review of the patients' medical records and follow-up was done. Their nutritional statuses were estimated by height, body weight, weight for age Z-score, body mass index (BMI), and serum protein, albumin levels. The endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas were estimated by diabetes mellitus (DM), steatorrhea, and Bristol stool chart. The GI function and QOL were evaluated via questionnaires. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 18years. There were no severe growth disturbances, 6 patients experienced mild steatorrhea and 3 showed above the category 6 in Bristol stool chart. All the patients experienced mild GI symptoms. As for the QOL, there were no significant negative answers, except for one patient with DM. Almost all the study subjects, who underwent PPPD in their childhood, did not present significant problems except for one patient with DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Demonstration of fully functional MIMO wireless LAN transmission over GI-MMF for in-building networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, S.; Chen, H.; Huijskens, F.M.; Cao, Z.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a low-cost optically-fed architecture capable of increasing the capacity and overall coverage of IEEE 802.11n MIMO WLAN system for in-building networks. A fully functional transmission over GI-MMF was demonstrated employing 2×3 MIMO configuration.

  5. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, Micheal

    2014-07-25

    The term functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) describes various aggregations of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms not explained by identifiable organic pathology; accordingly, their diagnosis rests on symptom-based criteria and a process of exclusion. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate use of abdominal imaging studies (AIS) in FGIDs.

  6. Functional activity of Gi alpha protein in detergent resistant membrane domains from rat brain cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stöhr, Jiří; Rudajev, Vladimír; Bouřová, Lenka; Lisý, Václav; Novotný, Jiří; Svoboda, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, Suppl.1 (2007), s. 52-52 ISSN 0022-3042. [European Society for Neurochemistry Meeting /17./. 19.05.2007-22.05.2007, Salamanca] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * GABAB receptor * Gi protein * membrane domains Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  7. Adoga, GI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoga, GI. Vol 3 (2001) - Articles Fluorometric Assessment Of Lysosomal Enzymes In Garlic Oil Treated Diabetic Rats Abstract. ISSN: 9783-1230. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  8. Roentgenosemiotics of GI tract functional obstruction determined by birth injuries of the spinal column and spinal cord in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akberov, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments on animals and the results of combined clinico-roentgenological investigation of 150 children with birth injuries of the spinal column and cord and 40 children with invagination and consequences of the cervical spine and cord, made it possible to study roentgenosemiotics and to establish pathogenetic interrelationship of natal injuries of the spinal column, spinal cord and GI tract functional obstruction in the form of polyspasm, spastic-hypo- and atonic intestinal dyskenesia, gastroesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia with the development of intestinal invagination

  9. Variation in gastric pH may determine kiwifruit's effect on functional GI disorder: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Bruce; Rush, Elaine; Young, Owen; Winger, Ray

    2014-04-11

    Consumption of kiwifruit is reported to relieve symptoms of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. The effect may be related to the proteases in kiwifruit. This in vitro study aimed to measure protein hydrolysis due to kiwifruit protease under gastric and duodenal conditions. A sequence of experiments incubated meat protein, with and without kiwifruit, with varying concentrations of pepsin and hydrochloric acid, at 37 °C for 60 min over the pH range 1.3-6.2 to simulate gastric digestion. Duodenal digestion was simulated by a further 120 min incubation at pH 6.4. Protein digestion efficiency was determined by comparing Kjeldahl nitrogen in pre- and post-digests. Where acid and pepsin concentrations were optimal for peptic digestion, hydrolysis was 80% effective and addition of kiwifruit made little difference. When pH was increased to 3.1 and pepsin activity reduced, hydrolysis decreased by 75%; addition of kiwifruit to this milieu more than doubled protein hydrolysis. This in vitro study has shown, when gastric pH is elevated, the addition of kiwifruit can double the rate of hydrolysis of meat protein. This novel finding supports the hypothesis that consumption of kiwifruit with a meal can increase the rate of protein hydrolysis, which may explain how kiwifruit relieves functional GI disorder.

  10. Variation in Gastric pH May Determine Kiwifruit’s Effect on Functional GI Disorder: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Donaldson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of kiwifruit is reported to relieve symptoms of functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder. The effect may be related to the proteases in kiwifruit. This in vitro study aimed to measure protein hydrolysis due to kiwifruit protease under gastric and duodenal conditions. A sequence of experiments incubated meat protein, with and without kiwifruit, with varying concentrations of pepsin and hydrochloric acid, at 37 °C for 60 min over the pH range 1.3–6.2 to simulate gastric digestion. Duodenal digestion was simulated by a further 120 min incubation at pH 6.4. Protein digestion efficiency was determined by comparing Kjeldahl nitrogen in pre- and post-digests. Where acid and pepsin concentrations were optimal for peptic digestion, hydrolysis was 80% effective and addition of kiwifruit made little difference. When pH was increased to 3.1 and pepsin activity reduced, hydrolysis decreased by 75%; addition of kiwifruit to this milieu more than doubled protein hydrolysis. This in vitro study has shown, when gastric pH is elevated, the addition of kiwifruit can double the rate of hydrolysis of meat protein. This novel finding supports the hypothesis that consumption of kiwifruit with a meal can increase the rate of protein hydrolysis, which may explain how kiwifruit relieves functional GI disorder.

  11. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  12. Functional Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John

    2014-01-01

    recovery was best modeled with linear, cubic, and quadratic components: relatively steep recovery was followed by deceleration of improvement, which attenuated prior to discharge. Slower recovery was associated with older age, longer coma, and interruptions to rehabilitation. Patients admitted at lower...... multi-disciplinary teams were recorded daily in 15-minute units provided to patients and family members, separately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Motor and Cognitive FIM measured on admission, discharge, and every 2 weeks in between, analyzed with Individual Growth Curve methodology. RESULTS: Inpatient...... functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery...

  13. Diagnostic Approach to Functional Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Christensen, Hanne Krarup

    2013-01-01

    available and does not pose any adverse effects, repeated fMRI measurements provide unprecedented possibilities to prospectively assess the time course of reorganization in functional neural networks after stroke and relate the temporospatial dynamics of reorganization at the systems level to functional...

  14. Plasma profile recovery by function parameterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, P.J.; Sexton, M.C.

    1986-11-01

    The use of Function Parameterisation for the recovery of plasma profiles as a function of flux surface area from spatial point data directly combined with external magnetic measurements is demonstrated in the case of ASDEX electron temperature and density profiles. The extrapolated temperature on the magnetic axis is shown to be more reliable than that obtained from a conventional fitting procedure. (orig.)

  15. Functional recovery following vitreoretinal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerlinck, LME

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate functional outcome following vitreoretinal surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membranes (iERM) and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Idiopathic epiretinal membrane Pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the iERM is considered to be the standard

  16. Changes in expression of a functional Gi protein in cultured rat heart cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, I.S.; Gaa, S.T.; Rogers, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    The muscarinic cholinergic agonist, carbachol, and pertussis toxin were used to examine the functional status of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein that inhibits adenylate cyclase (G i ) in cultured neonatal rat heart myocytes. The isoproterenol stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in myocyte membranes and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation in intact cells (4 days in culture) were insensitive to carbachol. However, in cells cultured for 11 days, carbachol inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation by 30%. Angiotensin II (ANG II) was also found to inhibit isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation in day 11 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pertussis toxin treatment reversed the inhibitory effects of both ANG II and carbachol, suggesting a role for G i in the process. Carbachol binding to membranes from day 4 cells was relatively insensitive to guanine nucleotides when compared with binding to membranes from day 11 or adult cells. Furthermore, pertussis toxin-mediated 32 P incorporation into a 39- to 41-kDa substrate in day 11 membranes was increased 3.2-fold over that measured in day 4 membranes. These findings support the view that, although G i is expressed, it is nonfunctional in 4-day-old cultured neonatal rat heart myocytes and acquisition of functional G i is dependent on culture conditions. Furthermore, the ANG II receptor can couple to G i in heart

  17. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, Micheal; O'Neill, Siobhan B.; O'Donovan, Joanne P.; McWilliams, Sebastian; Murphy, Kevin P.; Maher, Michael M.; Desmond, Alan N.; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M.

    2014-01-01

    The term functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) describes various aggregations of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms not explained by identifiable organic pathology; accordingly, their diagnosis rests on symptom-based criteria and a process of exclusion. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate use of abdominal imaging studies (AIS) in FGIDs. We investigated the utilisation of AIS (site, modality, diagnostic yield/significance) at a tertiary FGID clinic over an 11-year period. Of 1,621 patients, 507 (31 %; 67.5 % women, mean age 43.9 ± 17.37 years) referred from primary care had 997 AIS (1.7 per patient): ultrasonography (US) 36.1 %, fluoroscopy (FLS) 28.8 %, computed tomography (CT) 19.6 %, plain radiography (PR) 13.5 %, nuclear medicine (NM) 1 %. Of the 997 AIS, 55.6 % (554/997) were normal. Of the AIS with positive findings, 9.9 % (62/625) were deemed 'probably significant' and 14.7 % (92/625) 'significant'. Of the CT and FLS studies, 12.3 % and 13.6 %, respectively, yielded 'significant' abnormalities compared to 2.2 % of the US studies and 2.1 % of the PR studies. CT identified five of seven neoplasms, associated with male sex, increasing age and symptom onset after age 50 years. This study confirmed low use of AIS in tertiary FGID clinics and a high proportion of normal studies. Barium swallow/meal and CT were more likely to identify 'probably significant' or 'significant' findings, including neoplasms. (orig.)

  18. Predicting functional recovery after acute ankle sprain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R O'Connor

    Full Text Available Ankle sprains are among the most common acute musculoskeletal conditions presenting to primary care. Their clinical course is variable but there are limited recommendations on prognostic factors. Our primary aim was to identify clinical predictors of short and medium term functional recovery after ankle sprain.A secondary analysis of data from adult participants (N = 85 with an acute ankle sprain, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken. The predictive value of variables (age, BMI, gender, injury mechanism, previous injury, weight-bearing status, medial joint line pain, pain during weight-bearing dorsiflexion and lateral hop test recorded at baseline and at 4 weeks post injury were investigated for their prognostic ability. Recovery was determined from measures of subjective ankle function at short (4 weeks and medium term (4 months follow ups. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association between the aforementioned variables and functional recovery.Greater age, greater injury grade and weight-bearing status at baseline were associated with lower function at 4 weeks post injury (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.34. Greater age, weight-bearing status at baseline and non-inversion injury mechanisms were associated with lower function at 4 months (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.20. Pain on medial palpation and pain on dorsiflexion at 4 weeks were the most valuable prognostic indicators of function at 4 months (p< 0.01; adjusted R square=0.49.The results of the present study provide further evidence that ankle sprains have a variable clinical course. Age, injury grade, mechanism and weight-bearing status at baseline provide some prognostic information for short and medium term recovery. Clinical assessment variables at 4 weeks were the strongest predictors of recovery, explaining 50% of the variance in ankle function at 4 months. Further prospective research is required to highlight the factors

  19. Miscellaneous GI studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansell, J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of radiotracers has served as a valuable adjunct to the myriad of methods available to the physiologist and clinician for measuring various parameters of gastrointestinal (GI) function. The advantage of the technique that employs a radioactive label is the ability to measure function by noninvasive means with relatively little discomfort to the subject. Procedures of this type consist usually of administration of a radioactive form of a substance, by either the oral or intravenous route, followed by radioassay of postadministration samples of body fluids, excreta, or breath. On occasion the body itself is used as the definitive sample for radioassay

  20. Functional connectivity metrics during stroke recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Schmah, Tanya; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    We explore functional connectivity in nine subjects measured with 1 5T fMRI-BOLD in a longitudinal study of recovery from unilateral stroke affecting the motor area (Small et al, 2002) We found that several measures of complexity of covariance matrices show strong correlations with behavioral mea...

  1. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic abstract of the thesis for the library for the acquisitions department of Wageningen UR library (published as a html file so hyperlinks may be included)

    In English, one or 2 pages.

    Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    Currently in the

  2. Undiagnosed pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and chronic pancreatitis in functional GI disorder patients with diarrhea or abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Nicholas J; Holtmann, Gerald; Nguyen, Quoc Nam; Gibson, Peter; Bampton, Peter; Veysey, Martin; Wong, James; Philcox, Stephen; Koloski, Natasha; Bunby, Lisa; Jones, Michael

    2017-11-01

    A previous UK study showed that 6.1% of patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) had evidence of severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), but these findings need replication. We aimed to identify the prevalence of PEI based on fecal elastase stool testing in consecutive outpatients presenting with chronic unexplained abdominal pain and/or diarrhea and/or IBS-D. Patients aged over 40 years presenting to hospital outpatient clinics from six sites within Australia with unexplained abdominal pain and/or diarrhea for at least 3 months and/or IBS-D were studied. Patients completed validated questionnaires and donated a stool sample in which elastase concentration was measured by ELISA. A concentration of abdominal CT. Two hundred eighteen patients (mean age of 60 years, 29.4% male) were studied. PEI was found in 4.6% (95% CI 2.2-8.3%) (n = 10), with five patients (2.3% (95% CI 0.8-5.3%) having severe PEI. Only male sex and heavy alcohol use were significantly associated with abnormal versus normal pancreatic functioning. Of seven patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound or CT, two had features indicative of chronic pancreatitis. One in 50 patients with IBS-D or otherwise unexplained abdominal pain or diarrhea have an abnormal fecal elastase, but unexpected pancreatic insufficiency was detected in only a minority of these. This study failed to confirm the high prevalence of PEI among patients with unexplained GI symptoms previously reported. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; O' Neill, Siobhan B.; O' Donovan, Joanne P.; McWilliams, Sebastian [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, Kevin P.; Maher, Michael M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Desmond, Alan N. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland); Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-12-15

    The term functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) describes various aggregations of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms not explained by identifiable organic pathology; accordingly, their diagnosis rests on symptom-based criteria and a process of exclusion. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate use of abdominal imaging studies (AIS) in FGIDs. We investigated the utilisation of AIS (site, modality, diagnostic yield/significance) at a tertiary FGID clinic over an 11-year period. Of 1,621 patients, 507 (31 %; 67.5 % women, mean age 43.9 ± 17.37 years) referred from primary care had 997 AIS (1.7 per patient): ultrasonography (US) 36.1 %, fluoroscopy (FLS) 28.8 %, computed tomography (CT) 19.6 %, plain radiography (PR) 13.5 %, nuclear medicine (NM) 1 %. Of the 997 AIS, 55.6 % (554/997) were normal. Of the AIS with positive findings, 9.9 % (62/625) were deemed 'probably significant' and 14.7 % (92/625) 'significant'. Of the CT and FLS studies, 12.3 % and 13.6 %, respectively, yielded 'significant' abnormalities compared to 2.2 % of the US studies and 2.1 % of the PR studies. CT identified five of seven neoplasms, associated with male sex, increasing age and symptom onset after age 50 years. This study confirmed low use of AIS in tertiary FGID clinics and a high proportion of normal studies. Barium swallow/meal and CT were more likely to identify 'probably significant' or 'significant' findings, including neoplasms. (orig.)

  4. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  5. Brain plasticity and recovery of cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Čuš

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Through its capacity of plastic changes, the adult brain enables successful dealing with new demands of everyday life and recovery after an acquired brain damage either spontaneously or by the help of rehabilitation interventions. Studies which explored the effects of cognitive training in the normal population report on different types of changes in the performance of cognitive tasks as well as different types of changes in brain activation patterns.Following practice, brain activation can change in its extent, intensity or location, while cognitive processes can become more efficient or can be replaced by different processes.After acquired brain damage plastic changes are somewhat different. After the injury, the damaged brain area can either gradually regain its previous function, or different brain regions are recruited to perform that function.Studies of spontaneous and guided recovery of cognitive functions have revealed both types of plastic changes that follow each other, as well as significant correlations between these changes and improvement on the behavioural level.

  6. Personality, functioning, and recovery from major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, P; Meagher, D; Butler, E

    1996-04-01

    The effect of personality on the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in those with severe depressive illness has been investigated in a few studies, and the results are conflicting, with some demonstrating no effect and others the opposite. These studies, however, used hospital readmission as the only outcome measure, and the methods of personality assessment varied. To study this question in further detail, 40 patients were assessed while receiving inpatient electroconvulsive therapy, at the time of discharge, every 6 weeks for 6 months, and at 1 year after discharge. A number of outcome variables were assessed, including both symptomatic and social functioning measures as well as readmission to hospital. Premorbid personality was also assessed after discharge. The results demonstrate that personality is a predictor of social function at the time of discharge from hospital. In those patients with personality disorders, social recovery is slower than in those with normal personalities. Personality status did not distinguish the speed of symptomatic recovery or of readmission. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  7. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  8. Anesthesia related Complications in Pediatric GI Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabzevari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elective upper and lower GI endoscopy is usually performed in children on an outpatient basis with the child under sedation or general anesthesia (GA. The objective of this study was to describe Anesthesia related complications in   children undergoing elective GI endoscopy.   Materials and Methods: The study design was descriptive on 1388 patients undergoing elective GI endoscopy in Sheikh Hospital from 2009 to 2013. All patient received propofol or standard inhalational anesthesia. We examined patients’ demographic data  ,  location of GI endoscopy ,  perioperative vital singe ,  recovery time , respiratory and cardiac complications , post operative nausea and vomiting , agitation , diagnosis and outcome   Results: Pediatric patients aged 2 to 17 years. 29 % of elective GI endoscopy was upper GI endoscopy and 70.3 % was lower GI endoscopy and 0.7 was both of them. 47.7 % of Pediatric patients were female and 52.3 % was male. We haven’t significant or fatal anesthesia related respiratory and cardiac complications (no apnea, no cardiac arrest. 8 patients (0.5% have transient bradicardia in post operative care Unit. 83 patients (5.9% have post operative nausea and vomiting controlled by medication.  6 patients (0.4% have post operative agitation controlled by medication.   Conclusions: General anesthesia and deep sedation in children undergoing elective GI endoscopy haven’t significant or fatal anesthesia related complications. We suggest Anesthesia for infants, young children, children with neurologic impairment, and some anxious older children undergoing elective GI endoscopy. Keyword: Anesthesia, Complication, Endoscopy, Pediatric.

  9. GI bleeding - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100162.htm GI bleeding - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Gastrointestinal Bleeding A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  10. The GI Bilk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risener, Randall

    1976-01-01

    What to do about the billion-dollar GI Bill overpayment problem is a question confronting many community college administrators and the Veterans' Administration. Legal and administrative technicalities are reviewed, and it is suggested that many Vietnam era veterans may have no qualms about accepting checks from a government they feel has betrayed…

  11. Dynamics of functional failures and recovery in complex road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianyuan; Ukkusuri, Satish V.; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new framework for modeling the evolution of functional failures and recoveries in complex networks, with traffic congestion on road networks as the case study. Differently from conventional approaches, we transform the evolution of functional states into an equivalent dynamic structural process: dual-vertex splitting and coalescing embedded within the original network structure. The proposed model successfully explains traffic congestion and recovery patterns at the city scale based on high-resolution data from two megacities. Numerical analysis shows that certain network structural attributes can amplify or suppress cascading functional failures. Our approach represents a new general framework to model functional failures and recoveries in flow-based networks and allows understanding of the interplay between structure and function for flow-induced failure propagation and recovery.

  12. GI-conf: A configuration tool for the GI-cat distributed catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeschi, F.; Boldrini, E.; Bigagli, L.; Mazzetti, P.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we present a configuration tool for the GI-cat. In an Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) framework, GI-cat implements a distributed catalog service providing advanced capabilities, such as: caching, brokering and mediation functionalities. GI-cat applies a distributed approach, being able to distribute queries to the remote service providers of interest in an asynchronous style, and notifies the status of the queries to the caller implementing an incremental feedback mechanism. Today, GI-cat functionalities are made available through two standard catalog interfaces: the OGC CSW ISO and CSW Core Application Profiles. However, two other interfaces are under testing: the CIM and the EO Extension Packages of the CSW ebRIM Application Profile. GI-cat is able to interface a multiplicity of discovery and access services serving heterogeneous Earth and Space Sciences resources. They include international standards like the OGC Web Services -i.e. OGC CSW, WCS, WFS and WMS, as well as interoperability arrangements (i.e. community standards) such as: UNIDATA THREDDS/OPeNDAP, SeaDataNet CDI (Common Data Index), GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) services, and SibESS-C infrastructure services. GI-conf implements user-friendly configuration tool for GI-cat. This is a GUI application that employs a visual and very simple approach to configure both the GI-cat publishing and distribution capabilities, in a dynamic way. The tool allows to set one or more GI-cat configurations. Each configuration consists of: a) the catalog standards interfaces published by GI-cat; b) the resources (i.e. services/servers) to be accessed and mediated -i.e. federated. Simple icons are used for interfaces and resources, implementing a user-friendly visual approach. The main GI-conf functionalities are: • Interfaces and federated resources management: user can set which interfaces must be published; besides, she/he can add a new resource, update or remove an already federated

  13. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi [Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  14. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi (Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  15. Gastrointestinal (GI) permeability correlates with trait anxiety and urinary norepinephrine/creatinine (CR)ratio in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP)and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but not in controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAP and IBS affect 10–15% of school age children and bear many similarities to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults (e.g., functional pain, visceral hyperalgesia). Animal models of IBS have suggested a relationship between neonatal stress/anxiety and increased GI permeability later in life. We h...

  16. Recovery of Motor Function After Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nikhil; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to adapt in response to changing anatomical (e.g., aging) or environmental modifications. This form of neuroplasticity is important at all stages of life but is critical in neurological disorders such as amblyopia and stroke. This review focuses upon our new understanding of possible mechanisms underlying functional deficits evidenced after adult-onset stroke. We review the functional interactions between different brain regions that may contribu...

  17. Reliability measures in managing GI bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2012-06-01

    Multiple procedures and devices are used in a complex interplay to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. To model how a large variety of diagnostic and therapeutic components interact in the successful management of GI bleeding. The analysis uses the concept of reliability block diagrams from probability theory to model management outcome. Separate components of the management process are arranged in a serial or parallel fashion. If the outcome depends on the function of each component individually, such components are modeled to be arranged in series. If components complement each other and can mutually compensate for each of their failures, such components are arranged in a parallel fashion. General endoscopy practice. Patients with GI bleeding of unknown etiology. All available endoscopic and radiographic means to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. Process reliability in achieving hemostasis. Serial arrangements tend to reduce process reliability, whereas parallel arrangements increase it. Whenever possible, serial components should be bridged and complemented by additional alternative (parallel) routes of operation. Parallel components with low individual reliability can still contribute to overall process reliability as long as they function independently of other pre-existing alternatives. Probability of success associated with individual components is partly unknown. Modeling management of GI bleeding by a reliability block diagram provides a useful tool in assessing the impact of individual endoscopic techniques and administrative structures on the overall outcome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Challenges in postdischarge function and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Luna, I E; Kehlet, H

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review updates the recent advances in our understanding of the multifactorial pathogenesis for reduced postdischarge physical and cognitive function after fast-track surgery, using total hip and knee arthroplasty as surgical models. Relevant factors discussed include the surgical...... stress responses and potential methods for controlling postsurgical inflammation, pain, and cognitive dysfunction. The continuation of moderate to severe pain in up to 30% of patients for 2-4 weeks calls for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and development of effective multimodal opioid......-sparing analgesic regimens. The need for the development of effective physiotherapy programmes on a patient-specific basis is discussed, along with the need for optimal assessment of postoperative function to guide rehabilitation. Other relevant factors discussed include the role of orthostatic intolerance, sleep...

  19. Recovery of motor function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2012-04-01

    The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to adapt in response to changing anatomical (e.g., aging) or environmental modifications. This form of neuroplasticity is important at all stages of life but is critical in neurological disorders such as amblyopia and stroke. This review focuses upon our new understanding of possible mechanisms underlying functional deficits evidenced after adult-onset stroke. We review the functional interactions between different brain regions that may contribute to motor disability after stroke and, based on this information, possible interventional approaches to motor stroke disability. New information now points to the involvement of non-primary motor areas and their interaction with the primary motor cortex as areas of interest. The emergence of this new information is likely to impact new efforts to develop more effective neurorehabilitative interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that may be relevant to other neurological disorders such as amblyopia. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Patient-specific prediction of functional recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douiri, Abdel; Grace, Justin; Sarker, Shah-Jalal; Tilling, Kate; McKevitt, Christopher; Wolfe, Charles DA; Rudd, Anthony G

    2017-07-01

    Background and aims Clinical predictive models for stroke recovery could offer the opportunity of targeted early intervention and more specific information for patients and carers. In this study, we developed and validated a patient-specific prognostic model for monitoring recovery after stroke and assessed its clinical utility. Methods Four hundred and ninety-five patients from the population-based South London Stroke Register were included in a substudy between 2002 and 2004. Activities of daily living were assessed using Barthel Index) at one, two, three, four, six, eight, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after stroke. Penalized linear mixed models were developed to predict patients' functional recovery trajectories. An external validation cohort included 1049 newly registered stroke patients between 2005 and 2011. Prediction errors on discrimination and calibration were assessed. The potential clinical utility was evaluated using prognostic accuracy measurements and decision curve analysis. Results Predictive recovery curves showed good accuracy, with root mean squared deviation of 3 Barthel Index points and a R 2 of 83% up to one year after stroke in the external cohort. The negative predictive values of the risk of poor recovery (Barthel Index <8) at three and 12 months were also excellent, 96% (95% CI [93.6-97.4]) and 93% [90.8-95.3], respectively, with a potential clinical utility measured by likelihood ratios (LR+:17 [10.8-26.8] at three months and LR+:11 [6.5-17.2] at 12 months). Decision curve analysis showed an increased clinical benefit, particularly at threshold probabilities of above 5% for predictive risk of poor outcomes. Conclusions A recovery curves tool seems to accurately predict progression of functional recovery in poststroke patients.

  1. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view your large intestine . The barium will make your large intestine more visible on ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI ...

  2. Enabling interoperability in Geoscience with GI-suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Santoro, Mattia; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    GI-suite is a brokering framework targeting interoperability of heterogeneous systems in the Geoscience domain. The framework is composed by different brokers each one focusing on a specific functionality: discovery, access and semantics (i.e. GI-cat, GI-axe, GI-sem). The brokering takes place between a set of heterogeneous publishing services and a set of heterogeneous consumer applications: the brokering target is represented by resources (e.g. coverages, features, or metadata information) required to seamlessly flow from the providers to the consumers. Different international and community standards are now supported by GI-suite, making possible the successful deployment of GI-suite in many international projects and initiatives (such as GEOSS, NSF BCube and several EU funded projects). As for the publisher side more than 40 standards and implementations are supported (e.g. Dublin Core, OAI-PMH, OGC W*S, Geonetwork, THREDDS Data Server, Hyrax Server, etc.). The support for each individual standard is provided by means of specific GI-suite components, called accessors. As for the consumer applications side more than 15 standards and implementations are supported (e.g. ESRI ArcGIS, Openlayers, OGC W*S, OAI-PMH clients, etc.). The support for each individual standard is provided by means of specific profiler components. The GI-suite can be used in different scenarios by different actors: - A data provider having a pre-existent data repository can deploy and configure GI-suite to broker it and making thus available its data resources through different protocols to many different users (e.g. for data discovery and/or data access) - A data consumer can use GI-suite to discover and/or access resources from a variety of publishing services that are already publishing data according to well-known standards. - A community can deploy and configure GI-suite to build a community (or project-specific) broker: GI-suite can broker a set of community related repositories and

  3. Evaluation of recovery in hydronephrosis using renal functional CT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kiyotaka

    1985-01-01

    Using renal functional CT studies, we studied 22 patients who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral hydronephrosis. The tissue-plasma ratio of contrast enhancement (TPR), which is an indicator of renal function per unit of parenchymal volume, improved after the operation. On the other hand, the renal parenchymal volume (PV) decreased in proportion to the shrinkage of the kidney. The pre and postoperative values of renal functional index (RFI), the product of the TPR and PV, showed a good correlation (r=0.928, p<0.01). Therefore, RFI values were found to be useful for assessing the recovery of hydronephrosis. (author)

  4. Renal Function Recovery with Total Artificial Heart Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, Mohammed A; Goodreau, Adam M; Shah, Keyur B; Katlaps, Gundars; Cooke, Richard; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna F; Wolfe, Luke G; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure patients requiring total artificial heart (TAH) support often have concomitant renal insufficiency (RI). We sought to quantify renal function recovery in patients supported with TAH at our institution. Renal function data at 30, 90, and 180 days after TAH implantation were analyzed for patients with RI, defined as hemodialysis supported or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m. Between January 2008 and December 2013, 20 of the 46 (43.5%) TAH recipients (age 51 ± 9 years, 85% men) had RI, mean preoperative eGFR of 48 ± 7 ml/min/1.73 m. Renal function recovery was noted at each follow-up interval: increment in eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m) at 30, 90, and 180 days was 21 ± 35 (p = 0.1), 16.5 ± 18 (p = 0.05), and 10 ± 9 (p = 0.1), respectively. Six patients (30%) required preoperative dialysis. Of these, four recovered renal function, one remained on dialysis, and one died. Six patients (30%) required new-onset dialysis. Of these, three recovered renal function and three died. Overall, 75% (15 of 20) of patients' renal function improved with TAH support. Total artificial heart support improved renal function in 75% of patients with pre-existing significant RI, including those who required preoperative dialysis.

  5. Brisk walking can promote functional recovery in chronic stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Batcho, Sèbiyo Charles; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether regular brisk walking can promote functional recovery in community-dwelling stroke patients. Patients: A total of 44 chronic stroke patients, recruited in Belgium and Benin, respectively European high-income and African low-income countries. Methods: This longitudinal, single-cohort, observational study with 1 intervention period and 4 time-points of assessments (2 baseline, 1 post-intervention and 1 follow-up) was structured in 3 periods: pre-intervention peri...

  6. Sensorimotor integration for functional recovery and the Bobath approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Mindy F; Panturin, Elia

    2011-04-01

    Bobath therapy is used to treat patients with neurological disorders. Bobath practitioners use hands-on approaches to elicit and reestablish typical movement patterns through therapist-controlled sensorimotor experiences within the context of task accomplishment. One aspect of Bobath practice, the recovery of sensorimotor function, is reviewed within the framework of current motor control theories. We focus on the role of sensory information in movement production, the relationship between posture and movement and concepts related to motor recovery and compensation with respect to this therapeutic approach. We suggest that a major barrier to the evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of the Bobath concept is the lack of a unified framework for both experimental identification and treatment of neurological motor deficits. More conclusive analysis of therapeutic effectiveness requires the development of specific outcomes that measure movement quality.

  7. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Pişkin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Methods: Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S or the Neostigmine group (Group N. The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. After baseline assessment 12-24 h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1 h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Results: Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p > 0.05. The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19 min in Group S and 6.47 min in Group N (p < 0.0001. Recovery time was 8.26 min in Group S and 16.93 min in Group N (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: We showed that the surgical procedure and/or accompanying anesthetic procedure may cause a temporary or permanent regression in cognitive function in the early postoperative period. However, better cognitive performance could not be proved in the Sugammadex compared to the Neostigmine.

  8. Functional neurologic recovery in two dogs diagnosed with severe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the vertebral column, spinal cord, and cauda equina nerve roots occur frequently in human and veterinary medicine and lead to devastating consequences. Complications include partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and visceral functions, which are among the main causes of euthanasia in dogs. The present case report describes neurological functional recovery in two dogs that were treated surgically for severe spinal fracture and vertebral luxation. In the first case, a stray, mixed breed puppy was diagnosed with thoracolumbar syndrome and Schiff-Scherrington posture, as well as a T13 caudal epiphyseal fracture with 100% luxation between vertebrae T13 and L1; despite these injuries, the animal did show deep pain sensation in the pelvic limbs. Decompression through hemilaminectomy and spinal stabilization with vertebral body pins and bone cement were performed, and the treatment was supplemented with physiotherapy and acupuncture . In the second case, a mixed breed dog was diagnosed with a vertebral fracture and severe luxation between L6 and L7 after a vehicular trauma, but maintained nociception and perineal reflex. Surgical stabilization of the spine was performed using a modified dorsal segmental fixation technique Both patients showed significant recovery of neurological function. Complete luxation of the spinal canal observed radiographically does not mean a poor prognosis, and in some cases, motor, sensory, and visceral functions all have the potential for recovery. In the first case the determining factor for good prognosis was the presence of deep pain perception, and in the second case the prognosis was determined by the presence of sensitivity and anal sphincter tone during the initial neurological examination

  9. WHO Class of Obesity Influences Functional Recovery Post-TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Rajesh N; Maniar, Parul R; Singhi, Tushar; Gangaraju, Bharat Kumar

    2018-03-01

    No study in the literature has compared early functional recovery following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the obese with the nonobese using World Health Organization (WHO) classes of obesity. Our aim was to compare functional scores and flexion post-TKA in each class of obesity as per WHO classification against a matched control group of nonobese patients. Records of 885 consecutive primary TKA patients (919 knees) operated by a single surgeon were reviewed. The first 35 knees in each class I, class II and class III obesity group during the study period were then matched with a similar number of knees in nonobese TKA patients during the same period. Functional scores recorded pre- and postoperatively at 3 months and 1 year were Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) score, and Knee Society Score (KSS). There was no difference in any parameter between the class I obese and matched nonobese at any assessment point. In the class II obese, as compared to the nonobese, there was no difference in any parameter preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. However, 1 year postoperatively, the SF-12 physical subscore was lower in the class II obese than the nonobese (44.7 vs. 48.6, p = 0.047) and the WOMAC score was significantly higher (15.8 vs. 9.7, p = 0.04). In the class III obese, the WOMAC score was significantly higher than the nonobese (58.1 vs. 44.3, p lower (83.5 vs. 96.5, p = 0.049 preoperatively; 172 vs. 185; p = 0.003 at 1 year). Knee flexion was significantly lower in the class III obese than the nonobese (95 vs. 113; p class I obese can expect good early and late functional recovery as the nonobese. The class II obese can expect comparable early functional recovery as the nonobese but their late function may be lesser. The class III obese would have poorer functional scores and lesser knee flexion postoperatively compared to the nonobese. However, compared to their own preoperative status, there is

  10. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, Özcan; Küçükosman, Gamze; Altun, Deniz Utku; Çimencan, Murat; Özen, Banu; Aydın, Bengü Gülhan; Okyay, Rahşan Dilek; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S) or the Neostigmine group (Group N). The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). After baseline assessment 12-24h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p>0.05). The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19min in Group S and 6.47min in Group N (pSugammadex compared to the Neostigmine. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional recovery and surgical indication in putaminal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitsu, Kazuhiko

    1983-01-01

    Forty-one cases of varied sized putaminal hemorrhage were classified into 4 types according to the precise localization on CT (Fig. 1). All cases with large-sized hemorrhage (more than 4-5 cm in the actual diameter) were treated surgically regardless of their types in CT classification. ADL was assessed 6 months after the onset in all 41 cases, and in 17 of these Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA) was also given 1 to 3 months after the dominant hemispheric hemorrhage. Type I hemorrhage usually showed excellent ADL independently of the size of the hemorrhage (Table 3). In type II hemorrhage, the ADL is determined by the extent of the lesion and tended to deteriorate as the size of the hemorrhage increased (Table 4). Type III hemorrhage resumed less favorable ADL than the type II did (Table 5), and there was scarcely any functional recovery in Type IV hemorrhage (Table 6). On SLTA, impairment of the speaking ability was the prominant feature when the hemorrhage was primarily located in the anterior portion of the insula, while the hearing ability was more markedly impaired in the posteriorly located lesion. These location-dependent specific patterns of impairment on SLTA are schematically presented in Fig. 12. From these results described above, the author's CT classification is considered to be very useful not only in forecasting the prospects of functional recovery, but in determining the surgical indication in putaminal hemorrhage. (author)

  12. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  13. Functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury : An evidence-based review for clinical practice and research - Functional recovery outcome measures work group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Kim; Aito, Sergio; Atkins, Michal; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; Curt, Armin; Ditunno, John; Glass, Clive; Marino, Ralph; Marshall, Ruth; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Post, Marcel; Savic, Gordana; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Catz, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: The end goal of clinical care and clinical research involving spinal cord injury (SCI) is to improve the overall ability of persons living with SCI to function on a daily basis. Neurologic recovery does not always translate into functional recovery. Thus, sensitive outcome

  14. Prognosis for recovery of function in acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, T.H. Jr.; Hiesterman, D.R.; Robinson, R.G.; Cross, D.E.; Whittier, F.C.; Diederich, D.A.; Grantham, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-four survivors of acute, nonobstructive, nonnephritic renal failure had a renal scan using iodohippurate sodium I 131 performed early in the acute illness. Scans were judged according to whether the renal images were prominent, faint, or absent during the first 30 minutes after intravenous injection of 100 to 250 microcuries of iodohippurate sodium I 131. All ten patients with prominent renal images attained life-sustaining renal function with an average postrecovery creatinine clearance of 80 ml/min. Of the seven patients with faint renal images, six recovered life-sustaining renal function (average creatinine clearance of 39 ml/min), and one required chronic hemodialysis. Seven patients had no renal image initially; four recovered life-sustaining renal function with an average creatinine clearance of 25 ml/min; three required chronic hemodialysis. We conclude that, for patients with acute renal failure, the appearance of the renal image obtained using this substance is an important indicator of renal viability and of the likelihood for functional recovery

  15. Transcranial brain stimulation to promote functional recovery after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2014-01-01

    as a therapeutic tool. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent meta-analyses showed that the treatment effects of NIBS in patients with stroke are rather inconsistent across studies and the evidence for therapeutic efficacy is still uncertain. This raises the question of how NIBS can be developed further to improve its...... therapeutic efficacy. SUMMARY: This review addressed six questions: How does NIBS facilitate the recovery of function after stroke? Which brain regions should be targeted by NIBS? Is there a particularly effective NIBS modality that should be used? Does the location of the stroke influence the therapeutic...... will be critical to fully unfold the therapeutic effects of NIBS and will pave the way towards adaptive NIBS protocols, in which NIBS is tailored to the individual patient....

  16. Brisk walking can promote functional recovery in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcho, Charles Sèbiyo; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-09-01

    To determine whether regular brisk walking can promote functional recovery in community-dwelling stroke patients. A total of 44 chronic stroke patients, recruited in Belgium and Benin, respectively European high-income and African low-income countries. This longitudinal, single-cohort, observational study with 1 intervention period and 4 time-points of assessments (2 baseline, 1 post-intervention and 1 follow-up) was structured in 3 periods: pre-intervention period (1 month), intervention period (3 months) and follow-up period (3 month). Intervention consisted of a 3 times/week group-based brisk walking programme. Primary outcome measures were ACTIVLIM-Stroke questionnaire and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Secondary outcome measures were the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). All outcome measures were stable during the pre-intervention period (p ≥ 0.16). They all improved significantly after intervention (p ≤ 0.01), except the HADS (p = 0.058). However, during the follow-up period, SIAS (p = 0.002) and BBS (p = 0.001) decreased, while ACTIVLIM-Stroke, 6MWT and HADS showed no significant change (p ≥ 0.13). This study suggests regular brisk walking as an effective approach to promote functional recovery in chronic stroke survivors. However, further studies are required before generalizing these results to the whole stroke population.

  17. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Pişkin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Methods: Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S or the Neostigmine group (Group N. The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. After baseline assessment 12–24 h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1 h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Results: Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p > 0.05. The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19 min in Group S and 6.47 min in Group N (p  0,05. O tempo para atingir TOF 0.9 foi de 2,19 min no Grupo S e de 6,47 min no Grupo N (p < 0,0001. O tempo de recuperação foi de 8,26 min no Grupo S e de 16,93 min no Grupo N (p < 0,0001 Conclusão: Mostramos que o procedimento cirúrgico e/ou procedimento anestésico de acompanhamento pode causar uma regressão temporária ou permanente da função cognitiva no pós-operatório imediato. No entanto, um desempenho cognitivo melhor não pode ser provado no grupo sugamadex em comparação com o grupo neostigmina. Keywords: Sugammadex, Neostigmine, Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, MMSE, MoCA, Palavras-chave: Sugamadex, Neostigmina, Disfunção cognitiva no p

  18. Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

    2011-04-30

    Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events were assessed as predictors of concurrent vs. delayed recovery of role functioning in 4 domains (friends, family, home duties, work/school). Despite clinical recovery, a subset of patients experienced delayed functional recovery in various role domains. Moreover, delayed functional recovery was significantly associated with presence of one or more stressors in the prior 3 months, even after controlling for mood symptoms. Presence of a stressor predicted longer time to functional recovery in life domains, up to 112 days in work/school. Interventions that provide monitoring, support, and problem-solving may be needed to help prevent or mitigate the effects of stress on functional recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extending the GI Brokering Suite to Support New Interoperability Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, E.; Papeschi, F.; Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The GI brokering suite provides the discovery, access, and semantic Brokers (i.e. GI-cat, GI-axe, GI-sem) that empower a Brokering framework for multi-disciplinary and multi-organizational interoperability. GI suite has been successfully deployed in the framework of several programmes and initiatives, such as European Union funded projects, NSF BCube, and the intergovernmental coordinated effort Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Each GI suite Broker facilitates interoperability for a particular functionality (i.e. discovery, access, semantic extension) among a set of brokered resources published by autonomous providers (e.g. data repositories, web services, semantic assets) and a set of heterogeneous consumers (e.g. client applications, portals, apps). A wide set of data models, encoding formats, and service protocols are already supported by the GI suite, such as the ones defined by international standardizing organizations like OGC and ISO (e.g. WxS, CSW, SWE, GML, netCDF) and by Community specifications (e.g. THREDDS, OpenSearch, OPeNDAP, ESRI APIs). Using GI suite, resources published by a particular Community or organization through their specific technology (e.g. OPeNDAP/netCDF) can be transparently discovered, accessed, and used by different Communities utilizing their preferred tools (e.g. a GIS visualizing WMS layers). Since Information Technology is a moving target, new standards and technologies continuously emerge and are adopted in the Earth Science context too. Therefore, GI Brokering suite was conceived to be flexible and accommodate new interoperability protocols and data models. For example, GI suite has recently added support to well-used specifications, introduced to implement Linked data, Semantic Web and precise community needs. Amongst the others, they included: DCAT: a RDF vocabulary designed to facilitate interoperability between Web data catalogs. CKAN: a data management system for data distribution, particularly used by

  20. Functional and morphological recovery of the T-cell compartment in lethally irradiated and reconstituted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraal, G.; Hilst, B. van der; Boden, D.

    1979-01-01

    The recovery of the T-cell compartment in mice after lethal irradiation and reconstitution was studied using functional and morphological parameters. T-helper cell activity, determined by the direct SRBC-plaque-forming cell (PFC) response, recovered in a similar fashion as T-memory function which was studied by adoptive transfer of carrier-primed cells. Both functions returned to control levels in 2.5 to 3 months. Using immunoperoxidase staining of frozen sections with anti-T cell serum, the morphological recovery of the T-cell dependent areas in the white pulp of the spleen could be studied and compared with the functional recovery. (author)

  1. Structural and functional reorganization of propriospinal connections promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linard Filli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Axonal regeneration and fiber regrowth is limited in the adult central nervous system, but research over the last decades has revealed a high intrinsic capacity of brain and spinal cord circuits to adapt and reorganize after smaller injuries or denervation. Short-distance fiber growth and synaptic rewiring was found in cortex, brain stem and spinal cord and could be associated with restoration of sensorimotor functions that were impaired by the injury. Such processes of structural plasticity were initially observed in the corticospinal system following spinal cord injury or stroke, but recent studies showed an equally high potential for structural and functional reorganization in reticulospinal, rubrospinal or propriospinal projections. Here we review the lesion-induced plastic changes in the propriospinal pathways, and we argue that they represent a key mechanism triggering sensorimotor recovery upon incomplete spinal cord injury. The formation or strengthening of spinal detour pathways bypassing supraspinal commands around the lesion site to the denervated spinal cord were identified as prominent neural substrate inducing substantial motor recovery in different species from mice to primates. Indications for the existence of propriospinal bypasses were also found in humans after cortical stroke. It is mandatory for current research to dissect the biological mechanisms underlying spinal circuit remodeling and to investigate how these processes can be stimulated in an optimal way by therapeutic interventions (e.g., fiber-growth enhancing interventions, rehabilitation. This knowledge will clear the way for the development of novel strategies targeting the remarkable plastic potential of propriospinal circuits to maximize functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

  2. Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on and ongoing study concerning non-professional users` understanding of GI. Online access to GI are offered by many public authorities, in order to make the public able to serve them selves online and gain insight in the physical planning and area administration. The aim...... of this project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen...

  3. Non-invasive brain stimulation to promote motor and functional recovery following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Gunduz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic review of studies using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS as a research and clinical tool aimed at improving motor and functional recovery or spasticity in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI under the assumption that if the residual corticospinal circuits could be stimulated appropriately, the changes might be accompanied by functional recovery or an improvement in spasticity. This review summarizes the literature on the changes induced by NIBS in the motor and functional recovery and spasticity control of the upper and lower extremities following SCI.

  4. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2004-01-01

    .... Even less is known about the cerebral effects of recovery sleep. The overarching objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 2 full nights of sleep loss and 2 full nights of recovery sleep on cognitive performance and brain function...

  5. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillin, J

    2003-01-01

    ..... Even less is known about the cerebral effects of recovery sleep. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 2 full nights of sleep loss and 2 full nights of recovery sleep on cognitive performance and brain function...

  6. Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringelstein Erich B

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days. In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. However, little is known about cortical changes and compensation mechanisms accompanying swallowing pathology. Methods In this study, we applied whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG in order to study changes in cortical activation in a 27-year-old patient suffering from wound botulism during recovery from dysphagia. An age-matched group of healthy subjects served as control group. A self-paced swallowing paradigm was performed and data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM. Results The first MEG measurement, carried out when the patient still demonstrated severe dysphagia, revealed strongly decreased activation of the somatosensory cortex but a strong activation of the right insula and marked recruitment of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC. In the second measurement performed five days later after clinical recovery from dysphagia we found a decreased activation in these two areas and a bilateral cortical activation of the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortex comparable to the results seen in a healthy control group. Conclusion These findings indicate parallel development to normalization of swallowing related cortical activation and clinical recovery from dysphagia and highlight the importance of the insula and the PPC for the central coordination of swallowing. The results suggest that MEG examination of swallowing can reflect short-term changes in patients suffering from neurogenic dysphagia.

  7. Inpatient Burden of Childhood Functional GI Disorders in the United States: An Analysis of National Trends in the U.S. from 1997 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Richard; Mikami, Sage; LeClair, Jack; Bollom, Andrea; Lembo, Cara; Sethi, Saurabh; Lembo, Anthony; Jones, Mike; Cheng, Vivian; Friedlander, Elizabeth; Nurko, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs) are among the most common outpatient diagnoses in pediatric primary care and gastroenterology. There is limited data on the inpatient burden of childhood FGIDs in the U.S. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inpatient admission rate, length of stay, and associated costs related to FGIDs from 1997–2009. METHODS We analyzed the Kids’ Inpatient Sample Database (KID) for all subjects in which constipation (ICD-9 codes: 564.0–564.09), abdominal pain (ICD-9 codes: 789.0–789.09), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (ICD-9 code: 564.1), abdominal migraine (ICD-9 code:346.80 and 346.81)dyspepsia (ICD-9 code: 536.8) or fecal incontinence (ICD-codes: 787.6–787.63) was the primary discharge diagnosis from 1997–2009. The KID is the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient database in the U.S., containing data from 2–3 million pediatric hospital stays yearly. KEY RESULTS From 1997–2009, the number of discharges with a FGID primary diagnosis increased slightly from 6,348,537 to 6,393,803. The total mean cost per discharge increased significantly from $6115 to $18,058 despite the length of stay remaining relatively stable. Constipation and abdominal pain were the most common FGID discharge diagnoses. Abdominal pain and abdominal migraine discharges were most frequent in the 10–14 year age group. Constipation and fecal incontinence discharges were most frequent in the 5–9 year age group. IBS discharge was most common for the 15–17 year age group. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES Hospitalizations and associated costs in childhood FGIDs have increased in number and cost in the U.S. from 1997–2009. Further studies to determine optimal methods to avoid unnecessary hospitalizations and potentially harmful diagnostic testing are indicated. PMID:25809794

  8. Inpatient burden of childhood functional GI disorders in the USA: an analysis of national trends in the USA from 1997 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R; Mikami, S; LeClair, J; Bollom, A; Lembo, C; Sethi, S; Lembo, A; Jones, M; Cheng, V; Friedlander, E; Nurko, S

    2015-05-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are among the most common outpatient diagnoses in pediatric primary care and gastroenterology. There is limited data on the inpatient burden of childhood FGIDs in the USA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inpatient admission rate, length of stay (LoS), and associated costs related to FGIDs from 1997 to 2009. We analyzed the Kids' Inpatient Sample Database (KID) for all subjects in which constipation (ICD-9 codes: 564.0-564.09), abdominal pain (ICD-9 codes: 789.0-789.09), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (ICD-9 code: 564.1), abdominal migraine (ICD-9 code: 346.80 and 346.81) dyspepsia (ICD-9 code: 536.8), or fecal incontinence (ICD-codes: 787.6-787.63) was the primary discharge diagnosis from 1997 to 2009. The KID is the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient database in the USA, containing data from 2 to 3 million pediatric hospital stays yearly. From 1997 to 2009, the number of discharges with a FGID primary diagnosis increased slightly from 6,348,537 to 6,393,803. The total mean cost per discharge increased significantly from $6115 to $18,058 despite the LoS remaining relatively stable. Constipation and abdominal pain were the most common FGID discharge diagnoses. Abdominal pain and abdominal migraine discharges were most frequent in the 10-14 year age group. Constipation and fecal incontinence discharges were most frequent in the 5-9 year age group. IBS discharge was most common for the 15-17 year age group. Hospitalizations and associated costs in childhood FGIDs have increased in number and cost in the USA from 1997 to 2009. Further studies to determine optimal methods to avoid unnecessary hospitalizations and potentially harmful diagnostic testing are indicated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omidvari, A.-H. (Amir-Houshang); R.G.S. Meester (Reinier); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal

  10. Intestinal recovery in pigs irradiated at high doses. Enzymological, histological and functional data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Remy, J.; Villiers, P.-A.; Gregond, J.-C.; Tricaud, Y.; Sevignac, M.; Haag, J.

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and possible recovery of intestinal injuries were studied in pigs following 60 Co γ exposure of the hind part, in the dose range between 800 and 1,250rd; histological, enzymological and functional aspects were investigated successively. Following 800-950rd exposure, good recovery occured within less than a month as to histology and enzymology of the intestinal mucosa, but malabsorption of lipids and calcium was long lasting. Following 1,250rd exposure, incipient recovery led to permanently atrophic and non-functional mucosa impairing enteral nutrition [fr

  11. IBS and Non-GI Functional Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of IBS patients have at least one coexisting somatic symptom and many IBS patients meet diagnostic criteria ... up-to-date on the latest news, stories, tips, research highlights, and more! Sign up for eNewsletter: ...

  12. Inhibition of CXCL12 signaling attenuates the postischemic immune response and improves functional recovery after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruscher, Karsten; Kuric, Enida; Liu, Yawei

    2013-01-01

    cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12). To mimic beneficial effects of EE, we studied the impact of inhibiting CXCL12 action on functional recovery after transient MCAO (tMCAO). Rats treated with the specific CXCL12 receptor antagonist 1-[4-(1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclotetradec-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]methyl]-1......After stroke, brain inflammation in the ischemic hemisphere hampers brain tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Housing rats in an enriched environment (EE) dramatically improves recovery of lost neurologic functions after experimental stroke. We show here that rats housed in EE after......,4,8,11-tetrazacyclo-tetradecan (AMD3100) showed improved recovery compared with saline-treated rats after tMCAO, without a concomitant reduction in infarct size. This was accompanied by a reduction of infiltrating immune cells in the ischemic hemisphere, particularly cluster of differentiation 3-positive (CD3...

  13. Functional recovery of older people with hip fracture: does malnutrition make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsiao-Juan; Cheng, Huey-Shinn; Liang, Jersey; Wu, Chi-Chuan; Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus

    2013-08-01

    To report a study of the effects of protein-energy malnutrition on the functional recovery of older people with hip fracture who participated in an interdisciplinary intervention. It is not clear whether protein-energy malnutrition is associated with worse functional outcomes or it affects the interdisciplinary intervention program on the functional recovery of older people with hip fracture. A randomized experimental design. Data were collected between 2002-2006 from older people with hip fracture (N = 162) in Taiwan. The generalized estimating equations approach was used to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on the functional recovery of older people with hip fracture. The majority of older patients with hip fracture were malnourished (48/80, 60% in the experimental group vs. 55/82, 67% in the control group) prior to hospital discharge. The results of the generalized estimating equations analysis demonstrated that subjects suffering from protein-energy malnutrition prior to hospital discharge appeared to have significantly worse performance trajectories for their activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and recovery of walking ability compared with those without protein-energy malnutrition. In addition, it was found that the intervention is more effective on the performance of activities of daily living and recovery of walking ability in malnourished patients than in non-malnourished patients. Healthcare providers should develop a nutritional assessment/management system in their interdisciplinary intervention program to improve the functional recovery of older people with hip fracture. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Delayed gastrointestinal recovery after abdominal operation – role of alvimopan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger NG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas G Berger, Timothy J Ridolfi, Kirk A LudwigDivision of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin USAAbstract: Postoperative Ileus (POI, which occurs after surgical manipulation of the bowel during abdominal operations, is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increasing medical costs, and delayed advancement of enteral diet, which contributes to a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. The use of accelerated care pathways has shown to positively impact gut function, but inevitable postoperative opioid use contributes to POI. Alvimopan is a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist designed to mitigate antimotility effects of opioids. In our review, we examined ten trials on alvimopan's use after abdominal operations. Several of the earlier studies on patients undergoing bowel resection showed correlations between the study group and GI recovery as defined by passage of flatus, first bowel movement, and time to readiness for discharge. Data in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy showed similarly decreased GI recovery time. Additionally, data within the past few years shows alvimopan is associated with more rapid GI recovery time in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Based on our review, use of alvimopan remains a safe and potentially cost-effective means of reducing POI in patients following open GI surgery, radical cystectomy, and total abdominal hysterectomy, and should be employed following these abdominal operations.Keywords: postoperative ileus, alvimopan, ileus, bowel resection, return of bowel function

  15. Resource-recovery facilities: Production and cost functions, and debt-financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the fiscal questions relating to resource-recovery, or trash-burning, facilities are addressed. Production and cost functions for resource-recovery facilities are estimated using regression analysis. Whether or not there are returns to scale are addressed using the production and cost-function framework. Production functions are also estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and results are compared to the regression results. DEA is a linear-program-based technique that can provide information about the production process. The data used to estimate the production and cost functions were collected from the Resource Recovery Yearbook. Once the decision is made to construct a resource-recovery facility, it needs to be financed. The high cost of these facilities usually prohibits financing construction out of regular operating revenues. Therefore, the issues a government faces when debt is used to finance a resource-recovery facility are analyzed. The most important public policy finding is that increasing economies of scale do not seem to be present for resource-recovery facilities

  16. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2018-01-01

    Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).

  17. Rapid Recovery of Visual Function Associated with Blue Cone Ablation in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Gordon F.; Noel, Nicole C. L.; Cao, Sylvia Y.; DuVal, Michèle G.; Oel, A. Phillip; Allison, W. Ted

    2016-01-01

    Hurdles in the treatment of retinal degeneration include managing the functional rewiring of surviving photoreceptors and integration of any newly added cells into the remaining second-order retinal neurons. Zebrafish are the premier genetic model for such questions, and we present two new transgenic lines allowing us to contrast vision loss and recovery following conditional ablation of specific cone types: UV or blue cones. The ablation of each cone type proved to be thorough (killing 80% of cells in each intended cone class), specific, and cell-autonomous. We assessed the loss and recovery of vision in larvae via the optomotor behavioural response (OMR). This visually mediated behaviour decreased to about 5% or 20% of control levels following ablation of UV or blue cones, respectively (Pvision recovery following UV cone ablation was robust, as measured by both assays, returning to control levels within four days. In contrast, robust functional recovery following blue cone ablation was unexpectedly rapid, returning to normal levels within 24 hours after ablation. Ablation of cones led to increased proliferation in the retina, though the rapid recovery of vision following blue cone ablation was demonstrated to not be mediated by blue cone regeneration. Thus rapid visual recovery occurs following ablation of some, but not all, cone subtypes, suggesting an opportunity to contrast and dissect the sources and mechanisms of outer retinal recovery during cone photoreceptor death and regeneration. PMID:27893779

  18. The sigma-1 receptor enhances brain plasticity and functional recovery after experimental stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruscher, Karsten; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Rickhag, Karl Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Stroke leads to brain damage with subsequent slow and incomplete recovery of lost brain functions. Enriched housing of stroke-injured rats provides multi-modal sensorimotor stimulation, which improves recovery, although the specific mechanisms involved have not been identified. In rats housed in ...... of biomolecules required for brain repair, thereby stimulating brain plasticity. Pharmacological targeting of the sigma-1 receptor provides new opportunities for stroke treatment beyond the therapeutic window of neuroprotection....

  19. Oomägi 1941 / Mart Mõniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mõniste, Mart

    2016-01-01

    Oomägi on koht, kus 1941. aastal toimusid hukkamised. 1988. aastal avati Hiiumaa Muinsuskaitse Seltsi korraldusel Ristimäel (Oomäel) mälestusrist 1941. aasta hukkamis- ja matmispaiga tähistamiseks

  20. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10°C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The Impact of Timing and Dose of Rehabilitation Delivery on Functional Recovery of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Chen Huang

    2009-05-01

    Conclusion: There is a dose-dependent effect of rehabilitation on functional improvement of stroke patients for the first 6 months post-stroke, and earlier delivery of rehabilitation has lasting effects on the functional recovery of stroke patients up to 1 year.

  2. Electroacupuncture for Bladder Function Recovery in Patients Undergoing Spinal Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yinqiu; Zhou, Xinyao; Dong, Xichen; Jia, Qing; Xie, Shen; Pang, Ran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of electroacupuncture on recovering postanesthetic bladder function. Materials and Methods. Sixty-one patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia were recruited and allocated into electroacupuncture or control group randomly. Patients in electroacupuncture group received electroacupuncture therapy whereas ones in control group were not given any intervention. Primary endpoint was incidence of bladder overdistension and postoperative urinary retention. Secondary ...

  3. American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Postoperative Gastrointestinal Dysfunction Within an Enhanced Recovery Pathway for Elective Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Traci L; McEvoy, Matthew D; Mythen, Michael Monty G; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Gupta, Ruchir; Holubar, Stefan D; Senagore, Anthony J; Gan, Tong Joo; Shaw, Andrew D; Thacker, Julie K M; Miller, Timothy E; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Carli, Franco; Evans, David C; Guilbert, Sarah; Kozar, Rosemary; Pryor, Aurora; Thiele, Robert H; Everett, Sotiria; Grocott, Mike; Abola, Ramon E; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Kent, Michael L; Feldman, Liane S; Fiore, Julio F

    2018-06-01

    The primary driver of length of stay after bowel surgery, particularly colorectal surgery, is the time to return of gastrointestinal (GI) function. Traditionally, delayed GI recovery was thought to be a routine and unavoidable consequence of surgery, but this has been shown to be false in the modern era owing to the proliferation of enhanced recovery protocols. However, impaired GI function is still common after colorectal surgery, and the current literature is ambiguous with regard to the definition of postoperative GI dysfunction (POGD), or what is typically referred to as ileus. This persistent ambiguity has impeded the ability to ascertain the true incidence of the condition and study it properly within a research setting. Furthermore, a rational and standardized approach to prevention and treatment of POGD is needed. The second Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together a group of international experts to review the published literature and provide consensus recommendations on this important topic with the goal to (1) develop a rational definition for POGD that can serve as a framework for clinical and research efforts; (2) critically review the evidence behind current prevention strategies and provide consensus recommendations; and (3) develop rational treatment strategies that take into account the wide spectrum of impaired GI function in the postoperative period.

  4. Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Yamada, Sumio; Omori, Yoshitsugu; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2) = 0.676, PLogarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice.

  5. Recovery to Preinterventional Functioning, Return-to-Work, and Life Satisfaction After Treatment of Unruptured Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Daan; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Nij Bijvank, Jenny A; Verweij, Bon H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Post, Marcel W; Algra, Ale; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2015-06-01

    The eventual goal of preventive treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is to increase the number of life years with high life satisfaction. Insight in the time with reduced functioning, working capacity, and life satisfaction after aneurysm treatment is pivotal to balance the pros and cons of preventive aneurysm occlusion. We sent a questionnaire on time-to-recovery to preintervention functioning and return-to-work and life satisfaction to patients treated for an unruptured aneurysm between 2000 and 2013. Changes in life satisfaction before treatment, during recovery, and at follow-up were assessed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The questionnaire was sent to 159 patients of whom 110 (69%) responded. The mean follow-up time after aneurysm treatment was 6 years (SD 4). Fifty-four patients had endovascular and 56 had microsurgical occlusion. Complete recovery to preintervention functioning was reported by 81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74-88) of patients, with a median time-to-recovery of 3 months (range 0-48). Complete work recovery was reported by 78% (95% CI, 66-87) of patients. The proportion of patients with high life satisfaction reduced from 76% (95% CI, 67-84) before treatment to 52% (95% CI, 43-61) during the period of recovery (PLife satisfaction is significantly reduced during the period of recovery after treatment of unruptured aneurysms. In the long-term, ≈1 out of 5 patients reports incomplete recovery. These treatment effects should be kept in mind when considering preventive aneurysm treatment. Prospective studies are needed to better compare these losses in patients treated for unruptured aneurysms with those who had subarachnoid hemorrhage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Exercise enhanced functional recovery and expression of GDNF after photochemically induced cerebral infarction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Ikeda, Satoshi; Harada, Katsuhiro; Kamikawa, Yurie; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Exercise has been considered to affect the functional recovery from central nervous damage. Neurotrophic factors have various effects on brain damage. However, the effects of exercise for expression of GDNF on functional recovery with brain damage are not well known. We investigated the difference in functional recovery between non-exercise and beam-walking exercise groups, and the expression of GDNF in both groups after photochemical infarction. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 64) were used. Animals were divided into two groups: non-exercise (N = 35), and beam-walking exercise (N = 29). All rats underwent surgical photochemical infarction. The rats of the beam-walking group were trained every day to walk on a narrow beam after a one-day recovery period and those of the non-exercise group were left to follow a natural course. Animals were evaluated for hind limb function every day using a beam-walking task with an elevated narrow beam. The number of GDNF-like immunoreactive cells in the temporal cortex surrounding the lesion was counted 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after the infarction. Functional recovery of the beam-walking exercise group was significantly earlier than that of the non-exercise group. At 3 days after infarction, the number of GDNF-positive cells in the temporal cortex surrounding the infarction was significantly increased in the beam-walking exercise group compared with that in the non-exercise group. In the exercise group, motor function was remarkably recovered with the increased expression of GDNF-like immunoreactive cells. Our results suggested that a rehabilitative approach increased the expression of GDNF and facilitated functional recovery from cerebral infarction.

  7. Approximated Function Based Spectral Gradient Algorithm for Sparse Signal Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerical algorithms for the l0-norm regularized non-smooth non-convex minimization problems have recently became a topic of great interest within signal processing, compressive sensing, statistics, and machine learning. Nevertheless, the l0-norm makes the problem combinatorial and generally computationally intractable. In this paper, we construct a new surrogate function to approximate l0-norm regularization, and subsequently make the discrete optimization problem continuous and smooth. Then we use the well-known spectral gradient algorithm to solve the resulting smooth optimization problem. Experiments are provided which illustrate this method is very promising.

  8. Incomplete functional recovery after delirium in elderly people: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freter Susan H

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium often has a poor outcome, but why some people have incomplete recovery is not well understood. Our objective was to identify factors associated with short-term (by discharge and long-term (by 6 month incomplete recovery of function following delirium. Methods In a prospective cohort study of elderly patients with delirium seen by geriatric medicine services, function was assessed at baseline, at hospital discharge and at six months. Results Of 77 patients, vital and functional status at 6 months was known for 71, of whom 21 (30% had died. Incomplete functional recovery, defined as ≥10 point decline in the Barthel Index, compared to pre-morbid status, was present in 27 (54% of the 50 survivors. Factors associated with death or loss of function at hospital discharge were frailty, absence of agitation (hypoactive delirium, a cardiac cause and poor recognition of delirium by the treating service. Frailty, causes other than medications, and poor recognition of delirium by the treating service were associated with death or poor functional recovery at 6 months. Conclusion Pre-existing frailty, cardiac cause of delirium, and poor early recognition by treating physicians are associated with worse outcomes. Many physicians view the adverse outcomes of delirium as intractable. While in some measure this might be true, more skilled care is a potential remedy within their grasp.

  9. Factors affecting functional recovery after surgery and hand therapy in patients with Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Christina; Krevers, Barbro; Kvist, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohort study. The evidence of the relationship between functional recovery and impairment after surgery and hand therapy are inconsistent. To explore factors that were most related to functional recovery as measured by DASH in patients with Dupuytren's disease. Eighty-one patients undergoing surgery and hand therapy were consecutively recruited. Functional recovery was measured by the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Explanatory variables: range of motion of the finger joints, five questions regarding safety and social issues of hand function, and health-related quality of life (Euroqol). The three variables "need to take special precautions", "avoid using the hand in social context", and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D index) explained 62.1% of the variance in DASH, where the first variable had the greatest relative effect. Safety and social issues of hand function and quality of life had an evident association with functional recovery. IV. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in behavioural flexibility and posttraumatic functional recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Hana Malá; Andersen, Lykke Grønbech; Christensen, Rie Friis

    2015-01-01

    -shifting. Postoperatively, the animals were trained to perform a spatial discrimination go-right task. This was followed by (1) a spatial reversal go-left task (reversal learning), or (2) a visual pattern discrimination task (set-shift). Neither single (PFC or FF) lesion nor combined (COMB) lesions affected the animals....... We conclude that both the PFC and the hippocampus contributed to the mediation of the reversal learning and set-shifting. During functional recovery of reversal learning, these two structures exhibited a mutual dependency, whilst the functional recovery of set-shifting was mediated by a substrate...

  11. Cardiac diastolic function after recovery from pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma-Pillay, P; Louw, M C; Adeyemo, A O; Makin, J; Pattinson, R C

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with significant changes to the cardiovascular system during pregnancy. Eccentric and concentric remodelling of the left ventricle occurs, resulting in impaired contractility and diastolic dysfunction. It is unclear whether these structural and functional changes resolve completely after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine cardiac diastolic function at delivery and one year post-partum in women with severe pre-eclampsia, and to determine possible future cardiovascular risk. This was a descriptive study performed at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Ninety-six women with severe preeclampsia and 45 normotensive women with uncomplicated pregnancies were recruited during the delivery admission. Seventy-four (77.1%) women in the pre-eclamptic group were classified as a maternal near miss. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed at delivery and one year post-partum. At one year post-partum, women with pre-eclampsia had a higher diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001) and body mass index (p = 0.02) than women in the normotensive control group. Women with early onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery prior to 34 weeks' gestation had an increased risk of diastolic dysfunction at one year post-partum (RR 3.41, 95% CI: 1.11-10.5, p = 0.04) and this was irrespective of whether the patient had chronic hypertension or not. Women who develop early-onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks are at a significant risk of developing cardiac diastolic dysfunction one year after delivery compared to normotensive women with a history of a low-risk pregnancy.

  12. Functional recovery of denervated skeletal muscle with sensory or mixed nerve protection: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Tian Li

    Full Text Available Functional recovery is usually poor following peripheral nerve injury when reinnervation is delayed. Early innervation by sensory nerve has been indicated to prevent atrophy of the denervated muscle. It is hypothesized that early protection with sensory axons is adequate to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following prolonged denervation of mixed nerve injury. In this study, four groups of rats received surgical denervation of the tibial nerve. The proximal and distal stumps of the tibial nerve were ligated in all animals except for those in the immediate repair group. The experimental groups underwent denervation with nerve protection of peroneal nerve (mixed protection or sural nerve (sensory protection. The experimental and unprotected groups had a stage II surgery in which the trimmed proximal and distal tibial nerve stumps were sutured together. After 3 months of recovery, electrophysiological, histological and morphometric parameters were assessed. It was detected that the significant muscle atrophy and a good preserved structure of the muscle were observed in the unprotected and protective experimental groups, respectively. Significantly fewer numbers of regenerated myelinated axons were observed in the sensory-protected group. Enhanced recovery in the mixed protection group was indicated by the results of the muscle contraction force tests, regenerated myelinated fiber, and the results of the histological analysis. Our results suggest that early axons protection by mixed nerve may complement sensory axons which are required for promoting functional recovery of the denervated muscle natively innervated by mixed nerve.

  13. Functional recovery of biofilm bacterial communities after copper exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, Marie-Elene Y.; Massieux, Boris; Breure, Anton M.; Greve, Gerdit D.; Rutgers, Michiel; Admiraal, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Potential of bacterial communities in biofilms to recover after copper exposure was investigated. Biofilms grown outdoor in shallow water on glass dishes were exposed in the laboratory to 0.6, 2.1, 6.8 μmol/l copper amended surface water and a reference and subsequently to un-amended surface water. Transitions of bacterial communities were characterised with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and community-level physiological profiles (CLPP). Exposure to 6.8 μmol/l copper provoked distinct changes in DGGE profiles of bacterial consortia, which did not reverse upon copper depuration. Exposure to 2.1 and 6.8 μmol/l copper was found to induce marked changes in CLPP of bacterial communities that proved to be reversible during copper depuration. Furthermore, copper exposure induced the development of copper-tolerance, which was partially lost during depuration. It is concluded that bacterial communities exposed to copper contaminated water for a period of 26 days are capable to restore their metabolic attributes after introduction of unpolluted water in aquaria for 28 days. - Genetically different bacterial communities can have similar functions and tolerance to copper

  14. Modifying Lipid Rafts Promotes Regeneration and Functional Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardos G. Tassew

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ideal strategies to ameliorate CNS damage should promote both neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The receptor Neogenin promotes neuronal apoptosis. Its ligand prevents death, but the resulting repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa-Neogenin interaction also inhibits axonal growth, countering any prosurvival benefits. Here, we explore strategies to inhibit Neogenin, thus simultaneously enhancing survival and regeneration. We show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP and RGMa-dependent recruitment of Neogenin into lipid rafts requires an interaction between RGMa and Neogenin subdomains. RGMa or Neogenin peptides that prevent this interaction, BMP inhibition by Noggin, or reduction of membrane cholesterol all block Neogenin raft localization, promote axon outgrowth, and prevent neuronal apoptosis. Blocking Neogenin raft association influences axonal pathfinding, enhances survival in the developing CNS, and promotes survival and regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve and spinal cord. Moreover, lowering cholesterol disrupts rafts and restores locomotor function after spinal cord injury. These data reveal a unified strategy to promote both survival and regeneration in the CNS.

  15. A new method for predicting functional recovery of stroke patients with hemiplegia: logarithmic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Kenji; Okuno, Taiji; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2005-10-01

    To examine the validity and applicability of logarithmic modelling for predicting functional recovery of stroke patients with hemiplegia. Longitudinal postal survey. Stroke patients with hemiplegia staying in a long-term rehabilitation facility, who had been referred from acute medical service 30-60 days after onset. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were periodically assessed during hospitalization. For each individual, a logarithmic formula that was scaled by an interval increase in FIM scores during the initial 2-6 weeks was used for predicting functional recovery. For the study, we recruited 18 patients who showed a wide variety of disability levels on admission (FIM scores 25-107). For each patient, the predicted FIM scores derived from the logarithmic formula matched the actual change in FIM scores. The changes predicted the recovery of motor rather than cognitive functions. Regression analysis showed a close fit between logarithmic modelling and actual FIM scores (across-subject R2 = 0.945). Provided with two initial time-point samplings, logarithmic modelling allows accurate prediction of functional recovery for individuals. Because the modelling is mathematically simple, it can be widely applied in daily clinical practice.

  16. Preliminary study on the mechanism of reading recovery in a pure alexia by using functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lin; Li Dejun; Weng Xuchu; Tang Yiyuan; Zhang Wutian; Sun Weijian; Feng Shiwen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of the brain function during reading recovery by using functional MRI (fMRI), and to provide the experimental data in elucidating the mechanism on the recovery of reading and language function. Methods: fMRI was performed in a native Chinese patient with pure alexia on the 45 th and 130 th day after the onset, respectively. Three kinds of Chinese characters were presented during the scan and the patient was asked to make the judgement weather he could recognize the characters or not. The brain activation maps were acquired after postprocessing, and the activated location and volume were compared between the first and second experiments. Results: In both experiments, Broca area, Wernicke area, and the right extrastriate were significantly activated, while the left extrastriate around the lesion was markedly activated only in the second experiment, and the volume of activation in the right extrastriate in the second experiment was about 3 times as large as that in the first experiment. Conclusion: The left extrastriate cortex is one of the key areas responsible for reading function in the brain. The recovery of reading function can be compensated in contralateral corresponding cortical area, or it can be the result of reorganization in ipsilateral peri-lesion cortex. Both mechanisms may simultaneously play important roles in reading recovery

  17. Effect of skilled and unskilled training on nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Pagnussat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most disabling aspect of human peripheral nerve injuries, the majority of which affect the upper limbs, is the loss of skilled hand movements. Activity-induced morphological and electrophysiological remodeling of the neuromuscular junction has been shown to influence nerve repair and functional recovery. In the current study, we determined the effects of two different treatments on the functional and morphological recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury. Adult Wistar male rats weighing 280 to 330 g at the time of surgery (N = 8-10 animals/group were submitted to nerve crush and 1 week later began a 3-week course of motor rehabilitation involving either "skilled" (reaching for small food pellets or "unskilled" (walking on a motorized treadmill training. During this period, functional recovery was monitored weekly using staircase and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric nerve analyses were used to assess nerve regeneration at the end of treatment. The functional evaluation demonstrated benefits of both tasks, but found no difference between them (P > 0.05. The unskilled training, however, induced a greater degree of nerve regeneration as evidenced by histological measurement (P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that both of the forelimb training tasks used in this study can accelerate functional recovery following brachial plexus injury.

  18. Experimental strategies to promote functional recovery after peripheral nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Sulaiman, Olawale; Boyd, J Gordon

    2003-12-01

    The capacity of Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nervous system to support axonal regeneration, in contrast to the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, has led to the misconception that peripheral nerve regeneration always restores function. Here, we consider how prolonged periods of time that injured neurons remain without targets during axonal regeneration (chronic axotomy) and that SCs in the distal nerve stumps remain chronically denervated (chronic denervation) progressively reduce the number of motoneurons that regenerate their axons. We demonstrate the effectiveness of low-dose, brain-derived neurotrophic and glial-derived neurotrophic factors to counteract the effects of chronic axotomy in promoting axonal regeneration. High-dose brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the other hand, acting through the p75 receptor, inhibits axonal regeneration and may be a factor in stopping regenerating axons from forming neuromuscular connections in skeletal muscle. The immunophilin, FK506, is also effective in promoting axonal regeneration after chronic axotomy. Chronic denervation of SCs (>1 month) severely deters axonal regeneration, although the few motor axons that do regenerate to reinnervate muscles become myelinated and form enlarged motor units in the reinnervated muscles. We found that in vitro incubation of chronically denervated SCs with transforming growth factor-beta re-established their growth-supportive phenotype in vivo, consistent with the idea that the interaction between invading macrophages and denervated SCs during Wallerian degeneration is essential to sustain axonal regeneration by promoting the growth-supportive SC phenotype. Finally, we consider the effectiveness of a brief period of 20 Hz electrical stimulation in promoting the regeneration of axons across the surgical gap after nerve repair.

  19. Miconazole enhances nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Qiu, Shuai; Yan, Liwei; Zhu, Shuang; Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin

    2018-05-01

    Improving axonal outgrowth and remyelination is crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Miconazole appears to enhance remyelination in the central nervous system. In this study we assess the effect of miconazole on axonal regeneration using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and miconazole groups. Nerve regeneration and myelination were determined using histological and electrophysiological assessment. Evaluation of sensory and motor recovery was performed using the pinprick assay and sciatic functional index. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Western blotting were used to assess the proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole promoted axonal regrowth, increased myelinated nerve fibers, improved sensory recovery and walking behavior, enhanced stimulated amplitude and nerve conduction velocity, and elevated proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole was beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Muscle Nerve 57: 821-828, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Meester, Reinier G S; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal adenoma, and pancreatic neoplasms. This review aims to provide an overview of the evidence on cost-effectiveness of surveillance of individuals with GI conditions predisposing them to cancer, specifically focussing on the aforementioned conditions. We searched the literature and reviewed 21 studies. Despite heterogeneity of studies in terms of settings, study populations, surveillance strategies and outcomes, most reviewed studies suggested at least some surveillance of patients with these GI conditions to be cost-effective. For some high-risk conditions frequent surveillance with 3-month intervals was warranted, while for other conditions, surveillance may only be cost-effective every 10 years. Further studies based on more robust effectiveness evidence are needed to inform and optimise surveillance programmes for GI cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury: Role of neurotrophin and glutamatergic signaling in phrenic motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Luther C; Gransee, Heather M; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2016-06-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts descending neural drive to phrenic motoneurons causing diaphragm muscle (DIAm) paralysis. Recent studies using a well-established model of SCI, unilateral spinal hemisection of the C2 segment of the cervical spinal cord (SH), provide novel information regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of functional recovery after SCI. Over time post-SH, gradual recovery of rhythmic ipsilateral DIAm activity occurs. Recovery of ipsilateral DIAm electromyogram (EMG) activity following SH is enhanced by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool. Delivery of exogenous BDNF either via intrathecal infusion or via mesenchymal stem cells engineered to release BDNF similarly enhance recovery. Conversely, recovery after SH is blunted by quenching endogenous BDNF with the fusion-protein TrkB-Fc in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool or by selective inhibition of TrkB kinase activity using a chemical-genetic approach in TrkB(F616A) mice. Furthermore, the importance of BDNF signaling via TrkB receptors at phrenic motoneurons is highlighted by the blunting of recovery by siRNA-mediated downregulation of TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons and by the enhancement of recovery evident following virally-induced increases in TrkB expression specifically in phrenic motoneurons. BDNF/TrkB signaling regulates synaptic plasticity in various neuronal systems, including glutamatergic pathways. Glutamatergic neurotransmission constitutes the main inspiratory-related, excitatory drive to motoneurons, and following SH, spontaneous neuroplasticity is associated with increased expression of ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in phrenic motoneurons. Evidence for the role of BDNF/TrkB and glutamatergic signaling in recovery of DIAm activity following cervical SCI is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasminogen deficiency causes reduced corticospinal axonal plasticity and functional recovery after stroke in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwu Liu

    Full Text Available Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and neurological recovery post stroke. tPA converts the zymogen plasminogen (Plg into plasmin. In this study, using plasminogen knockout (Plg-/- mice and their Plg-native littermates (Plg+/+, we investigated the role of Plg in axonal remodeling and neurological recovery after stroke. Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice (n = 10/group were subjected to permanent intraluminal monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. A foot-fault test and a single pellet reaching test were performed prior to and on day 3 after stroke, and weekly thereafter to monitor functional deficit and recovery. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA was injected into the left motor cortex to anterogradely label the corticospinal tract (CST. Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after stroke. Neurite outgrowth was also measured in primary cultured cortical neurons harvested from Plg+/+ and Plg-/- embryos. In Plg+/+ mice, the motor functional deficiency after stroke progressively recovered with time. In contrast, recovery in Plg-/- mice was significantly impaired compared to Plg+/+ mice (p0.82, p<0.01. Plg-/- neurons exhibited significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. Our data suggest that plasminogen-dependent proteolysis has a beneficial effect during neurological recovery after stroke, at least in part, by promoting axonal remodeling in the denervated spinal cord.

  3. Functional recovery after facial nerve cable grafting in a rodent model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohman, M.H.; Kleiss, I.J.; Knox, C.J.; Weinberg, J.S.; Heaton, J.T.; Hadlock, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Cable grafting is widely considered to be the preferred alternative to primary repair of the injured facial nerve; however, quantitative comparison of the 2 techniques has not been previously undertaken in a rodent model. OBJECTIVE: To establish functional recovery parameters after

  4. Functional recovery of gait and joint kinematics after right hemispheric stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, RB; Mulder, T; Brouwer, WH; Dekker, R; Postema, K; Hof, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the relation between changes in gait patterns over time and functional recovery of walking ability in stroke patients. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation center of a university hospital in the Netherlands. Participants: Thirteen stroke patients

  5. [Effect factors analysis of knee function recovery after distal femoral fracture operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Chaoyong; Wang, Ruiying; Tang, Jicun; Li, Qiang

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effect factors of knee function recovery after operation in distal femoral fractures. From January 2001 to May 2007, 92 cases of distal femoral fracture were treated. There were 50 males and 42 females, aged 20-77 years old (average 46.7 years old). Fracture was caused by traffic accident in 48 cases, by falling from height in 26 cases, by bruise in 12 cases and by tumble in 6 cases. According to Müller's Fracture classification, there were 29 cases of type A, 12 cases of type B and 51 cases of type C. According to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, there were 21 cases of grade I, 39 cases of grade II, 24 cases of grade III, and 8 cases of grade IV. The time from injury to operation was 4 hours to 24 days with an average of 7 days. Anatomical plate was used in 43 cases, retrograde interlocking intramedullary nail in 37 cases, and bone screws, bolts and internal fixation with Kirschner pins in 12 cases. After operation, the HSS knee function score was used to evaluate efficacy. Ten related factors were applied for statistical analysis, to knee function recovery after operation in distal femoral fractures, such as age, sex, preoperative ASA classification, injury to surgery time, fracture type, treatment, reduction quality, functional exercise after operation, whether or not CPM functional training and postoperative complications. Wound healed by first intention in 88 cases, infection occurred in 4 cases. All patients followed up 16-32 months with an average of 23.1 months. Clinical union of fracture was achieved within 3-7 months after operation. Extensor device adhesions and the scope of activities of fracture displacement in 6 cases, mild knee varus or valgus in 7 cases and implant loosening in 6 cases. According to HSS knee function score, the results were excellent in 52 cases, good in 15 cases, fair in 10 cases and poor in 15 cases with an excellent and good rate of 72.83%. Single factor analysis showed that age

  6. Stem cell mediation of functional recovery after stroke in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramos-Cabrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regenerative strategies of stem cell grafting have been demonstrated to be effective in animal models of stroke. In those studies, the effectiveness of stem cells promoting functional recovery was assessed by behavioral testing. These behavioral studies do, however, not provide access to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed functional outcome improvement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to address the underlying mechanisms of stem cell mediated functional improvement, this functional improvement after stroke in the rat was investigated for six months after stroke by use of fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials by electrophysiology, and sensorimotor behavior testing. Stem cells were grafted ipsilateral to the ischemic lesion. Rigorous exclusion of spontaneous recovery as confounding factor permitted to observe graft-related functional improvement beginning after 7 weeks and continuously increasing during the 6-month observation period. The major findings were i functional improvement causally related to the stem cells grafting; ii tissue replacement can be excluded as dominant factor for stem cell mediated functional improvement; iii functional improvement occurs by exclusive restitution of the function in the original representation field, without clear contributions from reorganization processes, and iv stem cells were not detectable any longer after six months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A delayed functional improvement due to stem cell implantation has been documented by electrophysiology, fMRI and behavioral testing. This functional improvement occurred without cells acting as a tissue replacement for the necrotic tissue after the ischemic event. Combination of disappearance of grafted cells after six months on histological sections with persistent functional recovery was interpreted as paracrine effects by the grafted stem cells being the dominant mechanism of cell activity underlying the observed

  7. Onset of Coagulation Function Recovery Is Delayed in Severely Injured Trauma Patients with Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Belinda H; Connelly, Christopher R; Fair, Kelly A; Holcomb, John B; Fox, Erin E; Wade, Charles E; Bulger, Eileen M; Schreiber, Martin A

    2017-07-01

    Altered coagulation function after trauma can contribute to development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Severe trauma impairs coagulation function, but the trajectory for recovery is not known. We hypothesized that enhanced, early recovery of coagulation function increases VTE risk in severely injured trauma patients. Secondary analysis was performed on data from the Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratio (PROPPR) trial, excluding patients who died within 24 hours or were on pre-injury anticoagulants. Patient characteristics, adverse outcomes, and parameters of platelet function and coagulation (thromboelastography) were compared from admission to 72 hours between VTE (n = 83) and non-VTE (n = 475) patients. A p value value (48 vs 24 hours), α-angle (no recovery), maximum amplitude (24 vs 12 hours), and clot lysis at 30 minutes (48 vs 12 hours). Platelet function recovery mediated by arachidonic acid (72 vs 4 hours), ADP (72 vs 12 hours), and collagen (48 vs 12 hours) was delayed in VTE patients. The VTE patients had lower mortality (4% vs 13%; p < 0.05), but fewer hospital-free days (0 days [interquartile range 0 to 8 days] vs 10 days [interquartile range 0 to 20 days]; p < 0.05) and higher complication rates (p < 0.05). Recovery from platelet dysfunction and coagulopathy after severe trauma were delayed in VTE patients. Suppressed clot lysis and compensatory mechanisms associated with altered coagulation that can potentiate VTE formation require additional investigation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  9. Cerebral Hemodynamics and Executive Function During Exercise and Recovery in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavres, Jon; Gerhart, Hayden D; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Glickman, Ellen L; Seo, Yongsuk

    2017-10-01

    Hypoxia and exercise each exhibit opposing effects on executive function, and the mechanisms for this are not entirely clear. This study examined the influence of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion on executive function during exercise and recovery in normobaric hypoxia (NH) and normoxia (N). There were 18 subjects who completed cycling trials in NH (12.5% FIo2) and N (20.93% FIo2). Right prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAbv) were collected during executive function challenges [mathematical processing and running memory continuous performance task (RMCPT)] at baseline, following 30 min of acclimation, during 20 min of cycling (60% Vo2max), and at 1, 15, 30, and 45 min following exercise. Results indicated effects of time for Math, RMCPT, and O2Hb; but not for MCAbv. Results also indicated effects of condition for O2Hb. Math scores were improved by 8.0% during exercise and remained elevated at 30 min of recovery (12.5%), RMCPT scores significantly improved at all time points (7.5-11.9%), and O2Hb increased by 662.2% and 440.9% during exercise in N and NH, respectively, and remained elevated through 15 min of recovery in both conditions. These results support the influence of PFC oxygenation and perfusion on executive function during exercise and recovery in N and NH.Stavres J, Gerhart HD, Kim J-H, Glickman EL, Seo Y. Cerebral hemodynamics and executive function during exercise and recovery in normobaric hypoxia. Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2017; 88(10):911-917.

  10. Evaluation of sensory function and recovery after replantation of fingertips at Zone I in children

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhao-wei; Zou, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yong-jun; Liu, Jiang-hui; Huang, Xi-jun; He, Bo; Wang, Zeng-tao

    2017-01-01

    Sensory function is the most significant criterion when evaluating the prognosis of replanted fingers. Current clinical research has focused on surgical techniques and indications for finger replantation; however, few studies have focused on recovery of finger sensory function after replantation. This study retrospectively assessed data of eight patients who had undergone nine Zone I replantations of the fingertips in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University of China from July ...

  11. Dose-Response Effects of Exercise Duration and Recovery on Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Elizabeth A; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-12-01

    We examined the effects of different acute exercise durations and recovery periods on cognitive function in a counterbalanced, cross-over randomized controlled experiment. We placed 352 participants, aged 18 to 35 years into one of 16 experimental groups. Each participant visited the laboratory twice, separated by a 1-week washout period. Either Visit 1 or 2 consisted of an acute bout of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise (10, 20, 30, 45, or 60 minutes) followed by a period of rest (5, 15, or 30 minutes) before taking a set of five cognitive tests; the other visit consisted only of completing the cognitive tests (no exercise). Cognitive tests sampled multiple cognitive parameters, including reasoning, concentration, memory, attention, and planning. We found that a short recovery period (i.e., 5 minutes) may have a less favorable effect on planning ability but may be beneficial for memory. In addition, for various exercise durations and recovery periods, a Group × Time × Resting (nonexercise) A cognitive interaction effect was observed such that for both memory and inhibitory cognitive ability, acute exercise (vs. no exercise) had an enhancement effect for those with lower resting cognitive functioning. The length of the acute exercise recovery period and resting cognitive ability most influenced the association between exercise and cognitive function.

  12. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation for motor recovery of upper limb function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdemann-Podubecká, Jitka; Bösl, Kathrin; Rothhardt, Sandra; Verheyden, Geert; Nowak, Dennis Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Changes in neural processing after stroke have been postulated to impede recovery from stroke. Transcranial direct current stimulation has the potential to alter cortico-spinal excitability and thereby might be beneficial in stroke recovery. We review the pertinent literature prior to 30/09/2013 on transcranial direct current stimulation in promoting motor recovery of the affected upper limb after stroke. We found overall 23 trials (they included 523 participants). All stimulation protocols pride on interhemispheric imbalance model. In a comparative approach, methodology and effectiveness of (a) facilitation of the affected hemisphere, (b) inhibition of the unaffected hemisphere and (c) combined application of transcranial direct current stimulation over the affected and unaffected hemispheres to treat impaired hand function after stroke are presented. Transcranial direct current stimulation is associated with improvement of the affected upper limb after stroke, but current evidence does not support its routine use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma YKL-40 and recovery of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, A.; Ripa, Maria Sejersten; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Plasma YKL-40 is increased early in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It is not known whether plasma YKL-40 is related to infarct size and recovery of ventricular function after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of STEMI and whether granulocyte...... colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy influence plasma YKL-40 concentration. Materials and methods: A total of 72 patients (age: 56 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD), 56 men and 16 women) with STEMI treated with PCI were included in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with subcutaneous G...... to LVEF recovery (p = 0.04) but not infarct size. G-CSF injections increased YKL-40 compared to placebo (p recovery. Conclusion: Plasma YKL-40 was significantly increased in STEMI patients at admission and G-CSF treatment caused a further increase...

  15. Stages of recovery in early psychosis: Associations with symptoms, function, and narrative development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, Geneviève; Lecomte, Tania; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to explore the links between recovery stages, symptoms, function, and narrative development among individuals with a recent onset of psychosis. A qualitative longitudinal study was conducted including quantitative data at baseline. Forty-seven participants were administered the Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview three times over 9 months and content analysis was performed. Participants also completed the Social Functioning Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale--Expanded, the California Verbal Learning Test, and the Trailing Making Test at baseline. Descriptive discriminant analysis was performed. Results suggested that participants were mostly in the first two stages of recovery (moratorium, awareness) and that being in the awareness, rather than moratorium, stage was associated, to a different extent, with richer narrative development, better levels of psychosocial function, less negative and positive symptoms, and more years of education. Furthermore, recovery appeared to be a stable process over the assessment period. Recovery is a complex concept including objective and subjective aspects. In the recovery path of persons recently diagnosed with psychosis, social engagement, narrative development, and occupational functioning seem to be particularly important aspects. This study is a first step, and future research is needed with larger and more diverse participant pools, and assessments conducted over longer periods of time. As greater level of social engagement was the most robust predictor of membership in the awareness versus moratorium stage, treatment of early psychosis should include interventions targeting social relations and social skills. As greater narrative development was the second most robust predictor, enhancing it via psychotherapy could be a pertinent clinical goal. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Electromyographic activity associated with spontaneous functional recovery after spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, Sibille; Schwab, Martin E; Dietz, Volker; Fouad, Karim

    2002-07-01

    This investigation was designed to study the spontaneous functional recovery of adult rats with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) at thoracic level during a time course of 2 weeks. Daily testing sessions included open field locomotor examination and electromyographic (EMG) recordings from a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL) and an ankle flexor muscle (tibialis anterior, TA) in the hindlimbs of treadmill walking rats. The BBB score (a locomotor score named after Basso et al., 1995, J. Neurotrauma, 12, 1-21) and various measures from EMG recordings were analysed (i.e. step cycle duration, rhythmicity of limb movements, flexor and extensor burst duration, EMG amplitude, root-mean-square, activity overlap between flexor and extensor muscles and hindlimb coupling). Directly after SCI, a marked drop in locomotor ability occurred in all rats with subsequent partial recovery over 14 days. The recovery was most pronounced during the first week. Significant changes were noted in the recovery of almost all analysed EMG measures. Within the 14 days of recovery, many of these measures approached control levels. Persistent abnormalities included a prolonged flexor burst and increased activity overlap between flexor and extensor muscles. Activity overlap between flexor and extensor muscles might be directly caused by altered descending input or by maladaptation of central pattern generating networks and/or sensory feedback.

  17. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  18. Kultuuritorm Tallinnas / Marko Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marko

    2001-01-01

    Linnakultuuri Festivalist 20.-27. novembrini Tallinna eri paikades. Muusikaüritustest Von Krahli Teatris: "Tallinn: psühhedeelne linn" ja samanimelise heliplaadi esitlusest; rockmaratonist Operation B; tribuutkontserdist Sven Grünbergile ja S. Grünbergi kolmikheliplaadist "Hukkunud alpinisti Hotell"; Raido Mägi ja Mart Kangro moderntantsuetendusest "Meelega. Start.based on a true story"

  19. Discovery of flare activity on the dwarf M stars, GI 375 and GI 431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, J.G.; Mathioudakis, M.; Panagi, P.M.; Butler, C.J. (Armagh Observatory, (IE))

    1990-12-01

    Optical and infrared photometry plus spectroscopic data is present for two new flare stars, GI 375 and GI 431. Both of these stars have the hydrogen Balmer lines strongly in emission. Several flares were detected on GI 375 implying a high level of flare activity. The H{alpha} surface flux of 1.0 x 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} for both stars is similar to that of other active flare stars. Fluxes are given for several of the higher Balmer lines.

  20. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  1. GI-POP: a combinational annotation and genomic island prediction pipeline for ongoing microbial genome projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe; Yao, Tzu-Jung; Ma, Cheng-Yu; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Tang, Chuan Yi

    2013-04-10

    Sequencing of microbial genomes is important because of microbial-carrying antibiotic and pathogenetic activities. However, even with the help of new assembling software, finishing a whole genome is a time-consuming task. In most bacteria, pathogenetic or antibiotic genes are carried in genomic islands. Therefore, a quick genomic island (GI) prediction method is useful for ongoing sequencing genomes. In this work, we built a Web server called GI-POP (http://gipop.life.nthu.edu.tw) which integrates a sequence assembling tool, a functional annotation pipeline, and a high-performance GI predicting module, in a support vector machine (SVM)-based method called genomic island genomic profile scanning (GI-GPS). The draft genomes of the ongoing genome projects in contigs or scaffolds can be submitted to our Web server, and it provides the functional annotation and highly probable GI-predicting results. GI-POP is a comprehensive annotation Web server designed for ongoing genome project analysis. Researchers can perform annotation and obtain pre-analytic information include possible GIs, coding/non-coding sequences and functional analysis from their draft genomes. This pre-analytic system can provide useful information for finishing a genome sequencing project. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-02-26

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults.

  3. Arterial Injury and Endothelial Repair: Rapid Recovery of Function after Mechanical Injury in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Tilling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Previous studies suggest a protracted course of recovery after mechanical endothelial injury; confounders may include degree of injury and concomitant endothelial dysfunction. We sought to define the time course of endothelial function recovery using flow-mediated dilation (FMD, after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR and mechanical injury in patients and healthy volunteers. The contribution of circulating CD133+/CD34+/VEGFR2+ “endothelial progenitor” (EPC or repair cells to endothelial repair was also examined. Methods. 28 healthy volunteers aged 18–35 years underwent transient forearm ischaemia induced by cuff inflation around the proximal biceps and radial artery mechanical injury induced by inserting a wire through a cannula. A more severe mechanical injury was induced using an arterial sheath and catheter inserted into the radial artery of 18 patients undergoing angiography. Results. IR and mechanical injury produced immediate impairment of FMD (from 6.5 ± 1.2% to 2.9 ± 2.2% and from 7.4 ± 2.3% to 1.5 ± 1.6% for IR and injury, resp., each P<0.001 but recovered within 6 hours and 2 days, respectively. FMD took up to 4 months to recover in patients. Circulating EPC did not change significantly during the injury/recovery period in all subjects. Conclusions. Recovery of endothelial function after IR and mechanical injury is rapid and not associated with a change in circulating EPC.

  4. Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen R; Harris, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running. Athletes (n = 33, age, 38.5 ± 7.2 years) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra, or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomized into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant. Thirty-three participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group, average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks after the marathon increased by 2.6% (52 ± 103 seconds). In the placebo group, run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62 ± 130 seconds), P = 0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared with placebo. The wearing of below-knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks after the event.

  5. The effects of memantine on recovery, cognitive functions, and pain after propofol anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku Emik

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction refers to the problems associated with thought and memory that are often experienced after major surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of intraperitoneally administered memantine on recovery, cognitive functions, and pain after propofol anesthesia. Methods: The study was conducted in Gazi University Animal Research Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey in January 2012. Twenty-four adult female Wistar Albino rats weighing 170-270 g were educated for 300 s in the radial arm maze (RAM over three days. Group P was administered 150 mg kg−1 of intraperitoneal (IP propofol; Group M was given 1 mg kg−1 of IP memantine; and Group MP was given 1 mg kg−1 of IP memantine before being administered 150 mg kg−1 of IP propofol. The control group received only IP saline. RAM and hot plate values were obtained after recovery from the groups that received propofol anesthesia and 30 min after the administration of drugs in other two groups. Results: The duration of recovery for Group MP was significantly shorter than Group P (p < 0.001, and the number of entries and exits in the RAM by Group MP was significantly higher during the first hour when compared to Group P (p < 0.0001. Hot plate values, on the other hand, were found to be significantly increased in all groups when compared to the control values, aside from Group C (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: In this study, memantine provided shorter recovery times, better cognitive functions, and reduced postoperative pain. From this study, we find that memantine has beneficial effects on recovery, cognitive functions, and pain after propofol anesthesia.

  6. Combination of diffusion tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging during recovery from the vegetative state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Espejo Davinia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of recovery from the vegetative state (VS is low. Currently, little is known of the mechanisms and cerebral changes that accompany those relatively rare cases of good recovery. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to study the evolution of one VS patient at one month post-ictus and again twelve months later when he had recovered consciousness. Methods fMRI was used to investigate cortical responses to passive language stimulation as well as task-induced deactivations related to the default-mode network. DTI was used to assess the integrity of the global white matter and the arcuate fasciculus. We also performed a neuropsychological assessment at the time of the second MRI examination in order to characterize the profile of cognitive deficits. Results fMRI analysis revealed anatomically appropriate activation to speech in both the first and the second scans but a reduced pattern of task-induced deactivations in the first scan. In the second scan, following the recovery of consciousness, this pattern became more similar to that classically described for the default-mode network. DTI analysis revealed relative preservation of the arcuate fasciculus and of the global normal-appearing white matter at both time points. The neuropsychological assessment revealed recovery of receptive linguistic functioning by 12-months post-ictus. Conclusions These results suggest that the combination of different structural and functional imaging modalities may provide a powerful means for assessing the mechanisms involved in the recovery from the VS.

  7. A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spake, Rebecca; Ezard, Thomas H G; Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Doncaster, C Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group-specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. © 2015 The Authors Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Functional motor recovery from motoneuron axotomy is compromised in mice with defective corticospinal projections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuetong Ding

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injury (BPI and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5-C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG, than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI.

  9. Ocular toxicity and functional vision recovery in a patient treated with hydroxychloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hurtado, Francisco Jorge; Sáez-Moreno, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferrer, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome, treated during 48 months with hydroxychloroquine that was removed after an ophthalmological evaluation showed bilateral vision loss associated with paracentral scotoma in the visual field, fundoscopic macular pigmentary changes, and severely impaired central multifocal electrorretinogram (mfERG). Twelve months after treatment withdrawal, visual acuity and central mfERG had surprisingly improved. This is an unusual case of functional recovery after treatment withdrawal. We consider that central mfERG is a more sensitive test than pattern electrorretinogram in the detection of retinal toxicity and functional vision recovery after hydroxychloroquine treatment cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. PMID:29024974

  11. Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders. II. Interpersonal relationships after sustained recovery from affective episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Antich, J; Lukens, E; Davies, M; Goetz, D; Brennan-Quattrock, J; Todak, G

    1985-05-01

    Psychosocial relationships with parents, peers, and siblings, as well as school functioning, were measured at two points in time by parental interview in 21 prepubertal children: during an episode of major depression and after they had sustained an affective recovery from the index episode for at least four months. School functioning was completely normalized, but deficits in the child's intrafamilial and extra-familial relationships had improved only partially. The pattern of improvement was merely quantitative. Moderate deficits during the depressive episode reached, after affective recovery, the level of the normal control group. In contrast, severe deficits only improved to a moderate level of severity. It is suggested that treating the affective disorder is not sufficient in many children with major depression and that efficacy studies of psychotherapeutic interventions in affectively recovered children are needed.

  12. Functional recovery in the irradiated kidney following removal of the contralateral unirradiated kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Hopewell, J.W.; Golding, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage to one kidney in the pig causes a fall in total renal function; this would be recognised and lead to a compensatory response in the unirradiated kidney. The presence of the unirradiated contralateral kidney may effectively prevent the irradiated kidney from expressing any potential for repair and/or recovery of function. If this were true then the question would obviously arise, does the irradiated kidney retain some capacity for recovery? In order to answer this question, the contralateral unirradiated kidney was removed from pigs 26 weeks after the irradiation of the other kidney. The subsequent response of the irradiated kidney to nephrectomy was assessed in terms of the changes in renal size and haemodynamics, i.e. GFR and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). (Auth.)

  13. Recovery of right and left ventricular function after acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klok, F.A., E-mail: f.a.klok@lumc.nl [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Romeih, S. [Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, L.J.M.; Westenberg, J.J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Huisman, M.V. [Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine-Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Roos, A. de [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To evaluate recovery of cardiac function after acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: Routine breath-held computed tomography (CT)-pulmonary angiography was performed in patients with suspected PE to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of PE at initial presentation. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered cardiac CT was performed to assess biventricular function. After 6 months, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. In total, 15 consecutive patients with PE and 10 without were studied. A significant change in ventricular volume was defined as a >15% change in end-diastolic or -systolic volumes (EDV, ESV), and significant ventricular function improvement as a >5% increase in ejection fraction (EF) as based on reported cut-off values. Results: Right and left ventricular (RV and LV) EDV and ESV changed non-significantly (<1.3%) in the patients without PE, indicating good comparability of those values measured by CT and MRI. PE patients with baseline normal RV function (RVEF {>=}47%) revealed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+5.4 {+-} 3.1%) due to a decrease in the RVESV. Patients with baseline abnormal RV function showed a >5% improvement in the RVEF (+14 {+-} 15%) due to decreases in both the RVESV and RVEDV. Furthermore, the LVEDV increased in this latter patient group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated an improvement in RV function in the majority of patients with PE, independent of baseline RV function. The degree of RV and LV recovery was dependent on the severity of baseline RV dysfunction.

  14. The Predictors of Mortality, Recurrence and Functional Recovery in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Türkel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: If the present data defining the prognostic predictors is examined carefully, a serious contradiction is noticed. In this study, we tried to determine which factors affect the sixth month mortality, recurrence and functional recovery measured quantitatively after ischemic stroke, among our own patients followed in a tertiary health care center. METHODS: Age, sex, the presence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, previous stroke, stroke subtype, admittance mean blood pressure, admittance blood sugar, hemotocrit, the presence of left ventricle hypertrophy and ejection fraction was recorded for 223 patients with ischemic stroke. The scores for National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale (mRS and Barthel Index (BI were recorded at the beginning and at the end of six months. The correlation of these 14 clinical and laboratory parameters with mortality, recurrence and recovery was examined statistically. RESULTS: Mortality rate was 33%, recurrence rate was 3.8%. Factors related with mortality were age, female gender, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, low ejection fraction, low hematocrit and high admittance blood glucose (p 0.05. In the multivariate analyses, only, the effect of age, gender and hyperlipidemia on mortality was persisting (p< 0.05. Considering NIHSS, patients with high mean admittance blood pressure, considering mRS and BI younger patients and patients with lacunar infarcts had better recovery levels, while patients with previous strokes had poorer recovery (p< 0.05. CONCLUSION: Higher age and high admittance blood sugar were the most important determinants of mortality after ischemic stroke. Hyperlipidemia reduces the risk of death after stroke probably because of the neuroprotective effects of lipid lowering drugs. None of these parameters clearly affect functional recovery at the end of six month

  15. The Predictors of Mortality, Recurrence and Functional Recovery in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Türkel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: If the present data defining the prognostic predictors is examined carefully, a serious contradiction is noticed. In this study, we tried to determine which factors affect the sixth month mortality, recurrence and functional recovery measured quantitatively after ischemic stroke, among our own patients followed in a tertiary health care center. METHODS: Age, sex, the presence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, previous stroke, stroke subtype, admittance mean blood pressure, admittance blood sugar, hemotocrit, the presence of left ventricle hypertrophy and ejection fraction was recorded for 223 patients with ischemic stroke. The scores for National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale (mRS and Barthel Index (BI were recorded at the beginning and at the end of six months. The correlation of these 14 clinical and laboratory parameters with mortality, recurrence and recovery was examined statistically. RESULTS: Mortality rate was 33%, recurrence rate was 3.8%. Factors related with mortality were age, female gender, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, low ejection fraction, low hematocrit and high admittance blood glucose (p 0.05. In the multivariate analyses, only, the effect of age, gender and hyperlipidemia on mortality was persisting (p< 0.05. Considering NIHSS, patients with high mean admittance blood pressure, considering mRS and BI younger patients and patients with lacunar infarcts had better recovery levels, while patients with previous strokes had poorer recovery (p< 0.05. CONCLUSION: Higher age and high admittance blood sugar were the most important determinants of mortality after ischemic stroke. Hyperlipidemia reduces the risk of death after stroke probably because of the neuroprotective effects of lipid lowering drugs. None of these parameters clearly affect functional recovery at the end of six month.

  16. Biomimetic hydrogels direct spinal progenitor cell differentiation and promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Sydney A.; Sabin, Alexandra L.; Besser, Rachel R.; Gooden, Olivia M.; Shirk, Bryce D.; Nguyen, Quan M.; Khaing, Zin Z.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Demyelination that results from disease or traumatic injury, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), can have a devastating effect on neural function and recovery. Many researchers are examining treatments to minimize demyelination by improving oligodendrocyte availability in vivo. Transplantation of stem and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is a promising option, however, trials are plagued by undirected differentiation. Here we introduce a biomaterial that has been optimized to direct the differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward oligodendrocytes as a cell delivery vehicle after SCI. Approach. A collagen-based hydrogel was modified to mimic the mechanical properties of the neonatal spinal cord, and components present in the developing extracellular matrix were included to provide appropriate chemical cues to the NPCs to direct their differentiation toward oligodendrocytes. The hydrogel with cells was then transplanted into a unilateral cervical contusion model of SCI to examine the functional recovery with this treatment. Six behavioral tests and histological assessment were performed to examine the in vivo response to this treatment. Main results. Our results demonstrate that we can achieve a significant increase in oligodendrocyte differentiation of NPCs compared to standard culture conditions using a three-component biomaterial composed of collagen, hyaluronic acid, and laminin that has mechanical properties matched to those of neonatal neural tissue. Additionally, SCI rats with hydrogel transplants, with and without NPCs, showed functional recovery. Animals transplanted with hydrogels with NPCs showed significantly increased functional recovery over six weeks compared to the media control group. Significance. The three-component hydrogel presented here has the potential to provide cues to direct differentiation in vivo to encourage regeneration of the central nervous system.

  17. Coronary wave energy: a novel predictor of functional recovery after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Kalpa; Foster, Paul; Guilcher, Antoine; Bandara, Asela; Jogiya, Roy; Lockie, Tim; Chowiencyzk, Phil; Nagel, Eike; Marber, Michael; Redwood, Simon; Plein, Sven; Perera, Divaka

    2013-04-01

    Revascularization after acute coronary syndromes provides prognostic benefit, provided that the subtended myocardium is viable. The microcirculation and contractility of the subtended myocardium affect propagation of coronary flow, which can be characterized by wave intensity analysis. The study objective was to determine in acute coronary syndromes whether early wave intensity analysis-derived microcirculatory (backward) expansion wave energy predicts late viability, defined by functional recovery. Thirty-one patients (58±11 years) were enrolled after non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Regional left ventricular function and late-gadolinium enhancement were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, before and 3 months after revascularization. The backward-traveling (microcirculatory) expansion wave was derived from wave intensity analysis of phasic coronary pressure and velocity in the infarct-related artery, whereas mean values were used to calculate hyperemic microvascular resistance. Twelve-hour troponin T, left ventricular ejection fraction, and percentage late-gadolinium enhancement mass were 1.35±1.21 µg/L, 56±11%, and 8.4±6.0%, respectively. The infarct-related artery backward-traveling (microcirculatory) expansion wave was inversely correlated with late-gadolinium enhancement infarct mass (r=-0.81; Pwave threshold of 2.8 W m(-2) s(-2)×10(5) predicted functional recovery with sensitivity and specificity of 0.91 and 0.82 (AUC 0.88). Hyperemic microvascular resistance correlated with late-gadolinium enhancement mass (r=0.48; P=0.03) but not left ventricular recovery (r=-0.34; P=0.07). The microcirculation-derived backward expansion wave is a new index that correlates with the magnitude and location of infarction, which may allow for the prediction of functional myocardial recovery. Coronary wave intensity analysis may facilitate myocardial viability assessment during cardiac catheterization.

  18. Exercise promotes motor functional recovery in rats with corticospinal tract injury: anti-apoptosis mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that exercise interventions can improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, we established a unilateral corticospinal tract injury model in rats by pyramidotomy, and used a single pellet reaching task and horizontal ladder walking task as exercise interventions postoperatively. Functional recovery of forelimbs and forepaws in the rat models was noticeably enhanced after the exercises. Furthermore, TUNEL staining revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the spinal cord of exercised rats, and western blot analysis showed that spinal cord expression of the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was significantly lower, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while the expression of Bax was not signifiantly changed after exercise, compared with the non-exercised group. Expression of these proteins decreased with time after injury, towards the levels observed in sham-operated rats, however at 4 weeks postoperatively, caspase-3 expression remained significantly greater than in sham-operated rats. The present findings indicate that a reduction in apoptosis is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of functional recovery by exercise interventions after corticospinal tract injury.

  19. Functional neural changes associated with acquired amusia across different stages of recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Leo, Vera; Saunavaara, Jani; Parkkola, Riitta; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, Seppo

    2017-09-12

    Brain damage causing acquired amusia disrupts the functional music processing system, creating a unique opportunity to investigate the critical neural architectures of musical processing in the brain. In this longitudinal fMRI study of stroke patients (N = 41) with a 6-month follow-up, we used natural vocal music (sung with lyrics) and instrumental music stimuli to uncover brain activation and functional network connectivity changes associated with acquired amusia and its recovery. In the acute stage, amusic patients exhibited decreased activation in right superior temporal areas compared to non-amusic patients during instrumental music listening. During the follow-up, the activation deficits expanded to comprise a wide-spread bilateral frontal, temporal, and parietal network. The amusics showed less activation deficits to vocal music, suggesting preserved processing of singing in the amusic brain. Compared to non-recovered amusics, recovered amusics showed increased activation to instrumental music in bilateral frontoparietal areas at 3 months and in right middle and inferior frontal areas at 6 months. Amusia recovery was also associated with increased functional connectivity in right and left frontoparietal attention networks to instrumental music. Overall, our findings reveal the dynamic nature of deficient activation and connectivity patterns in acquired amusia and highlight the role of dorsal networks in amusia recovery.

  20. Functional, electrophysiological recoveries of rats with sciatic nerve lesions following transplantation of elongated DRG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayawansa, Samantha; Zhang, Jun; Shih, Chung-Hsuan; Tharakan, Binu; Huang, Jason H

    2016-04-01

    Functional data are essential when confirming the efficacy of elongated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells as a substitute for autografting. We present the quantitative functional motor, electrophysiological findings of engineered DRG recipients for the first time. Elongated DRG neurons and autografts were transplanted to bridge 1-cm sciatic nerve lesions of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Motor recoveries of elongated DRG recipients (n=9), autograft recipients (n=9), unrepaired rats (n=9) and intact rats (n=6) were investigated using the angle board challenge test following 16 weeks of recovery. Electrophysiology studies were conducted to assess the functional recovery at 16 weeks. In addition, elongated DRGs were subjected to histology assessments. At threshold levels (35° angle) of the angle board challenge test, the autograft recipients', DRG recipients' and unrepaired group's performances were equal to each other and were less than the intact group (pDRG recipients' performance was similar to both the intact group and the autograft nerve recipients, and was better (pDRG constructs had intact signal transmission when recorded over the lesion, while the unrepaired rats did not. It was observed that elongated DRG neurons closely resembled an autograft during histological assessments. Performances of autograft and elongated DRG construct recipients were similar. Elongated DRG neurons should be further investigated as a substitute for autografting.

  1. Curcumin promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiong; Yu, Hailong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration in normal condition. However, it is unclear whether its beneficial effect on nerve regeneration still exists under diabetic mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes in rats was developed by a single dose of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg. Immediately after nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with curcumin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery was significantly enhanced by curcumin, which were significantly better than those in vehicle saline group. In addition, high doses of curcumin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than low dose (50 mg/kg). In conclusion, curcumin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature.

  3. Impact of preoperative change in physical function on postoperative recovery: argument supporting prehabilitation for colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Feldman, Liane; Scott, Susan; Zavorsky, Gerald; Kim, Do Jun; Charlebois, Patrick; Stein, Barry; Carli, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    Abdominal surgery represents a physiologic stress and is associated with a period of recovery during which functional capacity is often diminished. "Prehabilitation" is a program to increase functional capacity in anticipation of an upcoming stressor. We reported recently the results of a randomized trial comparing 2 prehabilitation programs before colorectal surgery (stationary cycling plus weight training versus a recommendation to increase walking coupled with breathing exercises); however, adherence to the programs was low. The objectives of this study were to estimate: (1) the extent to which physical function could be improved with either prehabilitation program and identify variables associated with response; and (2) the impact of change in preoperative function on postoperative recovery. This study involved a reanalysis of data arising from a randomized trial. The primary outcome measure was functional walking capacity measured by the Six-Minute Walk Test; secondary outcomes were anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life, and complications (Clavien classification). Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the extent to which key variables predicted change in functional walking capacity over the prehabilitation and follow-up periods. We included 95 people who completed the prehabilitation phase (median, 38 days; interquartile range, 22-60), and 75 who were also evaluated postoperatively (mean, 9 weeks). During prehabilitation, 33% improved their physical function, 38% stayed within 20 m of their baseline score, and 29% deteriorated. Among those who improved, mental health, vitality, self-perceived health, and peak exercise capacity also increased significantly. Women were less likely to improve; low baseline walking capacity, anxiety, and the belief that fitness aids recovery were associated with improvements during prehabilitation. In the postoperative phase, the patients who had improved during prehabilitation were also more likely to have

  4. Pomegranate supplementation improves cognitive and functional recovery following ischemic stroke: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, John A; Murray, Jeffrey R; Jorge, Paolo; Fogel, Travis G; Kim, Mary; Wallace, Desiree R; Hartman, Richard E

    2018-02-13

    We tested whether supplementing with pomegranate polyphenols can enhance cognitive/functional recovery after stroke. In this parallel, block-randomized clinical trial, we administered commercially-available pomegranate polyphenol or placebo pills twice per day for one week to adult inpatients in a comprehensive rehabilitation setting starting approximately 2 weeks after stroke. Pills contained 1 g of polyphenols derived from whole pomegranate, equivalent to levels in approximately 8 oz of juice. Placebo pills were similar to the pomegranate pills except that they contained only lactose. Of the 163 patients that were screened, 22 were eligible and 16 were randomized (8 per group). We excluded one subject per group from the neuropsychological analyses since they were lost to follow-up, but we included all subjects in the analysis of functional data since outcome data were available. Clinicians and subjects were blinded to group assignment. Neuropsychological testing (primary outcome: Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) and functional independence scores were used to determine changes in cognitive and functional ability. Pomegranate-treated subjects demonstrated more neuropsychological and functional improvement and spent less time in the hospital than placebo controls. Pomegranate polyphenols enhanced cognitive and functional recovery after stroke, justifying pursuing larger clinical trials.

  5. The functional connectivity of semantic task changes in the recovery from stroke aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Wu, Xia; Yao, Li; Li, Kun-Cheng; Shu, Hua; Dong, Qi

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about the difference of functional connectivity of semantic task between the recovery aphasic patients and normal subject. In this paper, an fMRI experiment was performed in a patient with aphasia following a left-sided ischemic lesion and normal subject. Picture naming was used as semantic activation task in this study. We compared the preliminary functional connectivity results of the recovery aphasic patient with the normal subject. The fMRI data were separated by independent component analysis (ICA) into 90 components. According to our experience and other papers, we chose a region of interest (ROI) of semantic (x=-57, y=15, z=8, r=11mm). From the 90 components, we chose one component as the functional connectivity of the semantic ROI according to one criterion. The criterion is the mean value of the voxels in the ROI. So the component of the highest mean value of the ROI is the functional connectivity of the ROI. The voxel with its value higher than 2.4 was thought as activated (pgyrus and inferior/middle temporal gyrus are larger than the ones of normal. The activated area of the right inferior frontal gyrus is smaller than the ones of normal. The functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient under semantic condition is different with the normal one. The focus of the stroke aphasic patient can affect the functional connectivity.

  6. Adsorption and Recovery of Polyphenolic Flavonoids Using TiO_2-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Arif; Wallace, William T.; Islam, Syed Z.; Nagpure, Suraj; Strzalka, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Exploiting specific interactions with titania (TiO_2) has been proposed for the separation and recovery of a broad range of biomolecules and natural products, including therapeutic polyphenolic flavonoids which are susceptible to degradation, such as quercetin. Functionalizing mesoporous silica with TiO_2 has many potential advantages over bulk and mesoporous TiO_2 as an adsorbent for natural products, including robust synthetic approaches leading to high surface area, stable separation platforms. Here, TiO_2 surface functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) are synthesized and characterized as a function of TiO_2 content (up to 636 mg TiO2/g). The adsorption isotherms of two polyphenolic flavonoids, quercetin and rutin, were determined (0.05-10 mg/ml in ethanol), and a 100-fold increase in the adsorption capacity was observed relative to functionalized nonporous particles with similar TiO_2 surface coverage. An optimum extent of functionalization (approximately 440 mg TiO_2/g particles) is interpreted from characterization techniques including grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption, which examined the interplay between the extent of TiO_2 functionalization and the accessibility of the porous structures. The recovery of flavonoids is demonstrated using ligand displacement in ethanolic citric acid solution (20% w/v), in which greater than 90% recovery can be achieved in a multistep extraction process. The radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the recovered and particle-bound quercetin as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay demonstrates greater than 80% retention of antioxidant activity by both particle-bound and recovered quercetin. In conclusion, these mesoporous titanosilicate materials can serve as a synthetic platform to isolate, recover, and potentially deliver degradation-sensitive natural products to biological systems.

  7. Accessibility of GI for Public Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette; Campagna, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports an ongoing comparative study on the accessibility of Geographic Information at public authorities’ websites in Denmark and Italy. The purpose of the study is twofold; to give an idea of the latest development and diffusion of GI on public authorities websites, and to identify...... critical factors for success or failure of the applications. First part of the study therefore consists of a mapping of the level of accessibility of GI in the two countries as a comparative analysis. The focus of the mapping is mainly on the use of geographic information as support to citizens......’ involvement in spatial e-government and planning processes. Then, in the reminder of the paper, a comparative analysis is proposed outlining similarities and divergences in critical success factors in the two examined domains....

  8. Visualization of the functional recovery process of brain and spinal cord after injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of spontaneous functional recovery of central nervous system (CNS) after injury like trauma and stroke is important to develop and conduct the better rehabilitation training to promote the recuperation. Authors have developed a macaque monkey model with an artificial injury of cervical corticospinal tract (CST), where its elaborative motor activity of fingers spontaneously recovers. This paper describes the selective CST injury procedure, its recovery process in finger movement and in CNS images by positron emission tomography (PET), and validation of the obtained images by nerve block. For the injury, CST is cut selectively at monkey's C4/C5 boundary to block the hand motion nerve and to preserve the 2-synapse pathway through the propriospinal neuron, which results in acute loss of grasping a piece of potato food. At 1-3 months after the treatment, the elaborative motor activity of fingers completely recovers. During this recovery period, PET is conducted to trace the brain blood flow change at the upper center of the motion in realizing/grasping food, where the dorsal pathway and cerebellar nuclei are activated at the motion in the untreated animal. At 1-2 months after operation, the blood flow is found increased in the two areas above and the increased area, widened relative to those before operation. At 3 months (at complete functional recovery), the activity in the ipsilateral primary motor area returns to normal level and in the contralateral area, is spread accompanying the increase in the bilateral dorsal premotor and secondary somatosensory areas. Imaging results are validated by nerve block with micro-injection of muscimol into the activated areas during the task motor. Findings are helpful for developing a method to promote the compensation of nervous function after injury. (K.T.)

  9. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on early functional recovery in ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Lutokhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitation potential in ischemic stroke depends both on the localization and size of cerebral infarction and on many other factors ensuring the restoration of neuron function in the ischemic penumbra. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB appears as intermittent episodes of apnea and hypopnea, which are accompanied by hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia, and may slow early functional recovery in patients.Objective: to evaluate the impact of SDB on early neurological recovery in patients with ischemic stroke and to identify predictors of unfavorable functional outcome.Patients and methods. A total of 56 patients (24 men, 32 women; mean age 62±15 years with ischemic stroke were examined. All the patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Neurological deficit was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale (mRS on admission and at 3 weeks. To identify SDB, cardiorespiratory monitoring was performed on 2–5 days after the onset of the disease. The total number of episodes of SDB, apnea, hypopnea, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, hypoxemia index, and the total time with arterial oxygen saturation < 90% (desaturation time < 90% were recorded. Results and discussion. At baseline, the median NIHSS score was 6 (range 4–10 and the median mRS score was 3 (range 2–5. After 3 weeks, the median NIHSS score was 3 (range 1.5–5 and the median mRS score was 1 (range 0–3. According to the degree of achieved functional independence, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 40 functionally independent patients (a mRS score of ≤2; 2 16 patients in need of assistance/care (a mRS score of ≥3. The groups were matched for age, sex, localization of cerebral infarction, degree of cerebral atherosclerosis, and incidence of cardiac pathology. At the same time, at baseline Group 2 had a more severity of neurological deficit (p=0.001 and respiratory disorders (p<0.04 and more frequently large and

  10. Psychological traits influence autonomic nervous system recovery following esophageal intubation in health and functional chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A D; Coen, S J; Kano, M; Worthen, S F; Rossiter, H E; Navqi, H; Scott, S M; Furlong, P L; Aziz, Q

    2013-12-01

    Esophageal intubation is a widely utilized technique for a diverse array of physiological studies, activating a complex physiological response mediated, in part, by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In order to determine the optimal time period after intubation when physiological observations should be recorded, it is important to know the duration of, and factors that influence, this ANS response, in both health and disease. Fifty healthy subjects (27 males, median age 31.9 years, range 20-53 years) and 20 patients with Rome III defined functional chest pain (nine male, median age of 38.7 years, range 28-59 years) had personality traits and anxiety measured. Subjects had heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), sympathetic (cardiac sympathetic index, CSI), and parasympathetic nervous system (cardiac vagal tone, CVT) parameters measured at baseline and in response to per nasum intubation with an esophageal catheter. CSI/CVT recovery was measured following esophageal intubation. In all subjects, esophageal intubation caused an elevation in HR, BP, CSI, and skin conductance response (SCR; all p < 0.0001) but concomitant CVT and cardiac sensitivity to the baroreflex (CSB) withdrawal (all p < 0.04). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that longer CVT recovery times were independently associated with higher neuroticism (p < 0.001). Patients had prolonged CSI and CVT recovery times in comparison to healthy subjects (112.5 s vs 46.5 s, p = 0.0001 and 549 s vs 223.5 s, p = 0.0001, respectively). Esophageal intubation activates a flight/flight ANS response. Future studies should allow for at least 10 min of recovery time. Consideration should be given to psychological traits and disease status as these can influence recovery. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Postoperative recovery of visual function after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Put, Mathijs A J; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M; Japing, Wouter J; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI) were obtained. Macular detachment was present for 2-32 (median 7) days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p = 0.0026) and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity) (p = 0.012). Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p = 0.0034). A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p = 1.7×10(-4) and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p = 0.0034). Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. trialregister.nl NTR839.

  13. Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-Ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI.

  14. Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kitamura

    Full Text Available Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI.

  15. Evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a new biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; denDunnen, WFA; Robinson, PH; Pennings, AJ; Schakenraad, JM

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional nerve recovery following reconstruction of a 1 cm gap in the sciatic nerve of a rat, using a new biodegradable p (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide. To evaluate both motor and sensory nerve recovery, walking track analysis and electrostimulation tests were

  16. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallowfield Joanne L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1, carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1 Placebo (flavoured water [PLA], (2 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086. During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091 and 48 h (P = 0.177, respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions.

  17. Renal PGC1α May Be Associated with Recovery after Delayed Graft Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Erika R; Zsengeller, Zsuzsanna K; Stillman, Isaac E; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Pavlakis, Martha; Parikh, Samir M

    2018-01-01

    Delayed renal graft function (DGF) contributes to the determination of length of hospitalization, risk of acute rejection, and graft loss. Existing tools aid the diagnosis of specific DGF etiologies such as antibody-mediated rejection, but markers of recovery have been elusive. The peroxisome proliferator gamma co-activator-1-alpha (PGC1α) is highly expressed in the renal tubule, regulates mitochondrial biogenesis, and promotes recovery from experimental acute kidney injury. We aimed to determine the association between renal allograft PGC1α expression and recovery from delayed graft function. We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing renal transplantation at a single center from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2014. PGC1α expression was assessed by immunostaining and ultrastructural characteristics by transmission electron microscopy. Of 34 patients who underwent renal biopsy for DGF within 30 days of transplant, 21 were included for analysis. Low PGC1α expression was associated with a significantly longer time on dialysis after transplant (median of 35.5 vs. 16 days, p < 0.05) and a significantly higher serum creatinine (sCr) at 4 weeks after transplantation among those who discontinued dialysis (5 vs. 1.65 mg/dL, p < 0.0001). Low PGC1α expression was not associated with higher sCr at 12 weeks after transplantation. Ultrastructural characteristics including apical membrane blebbing and necrotic luminal debris were not informative regarding clinical outcomes. These data suggest that higher PGC1α expression is associated with faster and more complete recovery from DGF. Mitochondrial biogenesis may be a therapeutic target for DGF. Larger studies are needed to validate these findings. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. GiA Roots: software for the high throughput analysis of plant root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Characterizing root system architecture (RSA) is essential to understanding the development and function of vascular plants. Identifying RSA-associated genes also represents an underexplored opportunity for crop improvement. Software tools are needed to accelerate the pace at which quantitative traits of RSA are estimated from images of root networks. Results We have developed GiA Roots (General Image Analysis of Roots), a semi-automated software tool designed specifically for the high-throughput analysis of root system images. GiA Roots includes user-assisted algorithms to distinguish root from background and a fully automated pipeline that extracts dozens of root system phenotypes. Quantitative information on each phenotype, along with intermediate steps for full reproducibility, is returned to the end-user for downstream analysis. GiA Roots has a GUI front end and a command-line interface for interweaving the software into large-scale workflows. GiA Roots can also be extended to estimate novel phenotypes specified by the end-user. Conclusions We demonstrate the use of GiA Roots on a set of 2393 images of rice roots representing 12 genotypes from the species Oryza sativa. We validate trait measurements against prior analyses of this image set that demonstrated that RSA traits are likely heritable and associated with genotypic differences. Moreover, we demonstrate that GiA Roots is extensible and an end-user can add functionality so that GiA Roots can estimate novel RSA traits. In summary, we show that the software can function as an efficient tool as part of a workflow to move from large numbers of root images to downstream analysis. PMID:22834569

  19. Transcriptional and Genomic Targets of Neural Stem Cells for Functional Recovery after Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels, and it is widely believed that neural cell death occurs after exposure to blood metabolites or subsequently damaged cells. Neural stem cells (NSCs, which maintain neurogenesis and are found in subgranular zone and subventricular zone, are thought to be an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism for these brain injuries. However, due to the complexity of NSCs and their microenvironment, current strategies cannot satisfactorily enhance functional recovery after hemorrhagic stroke. It is well known that transcriptional and genomic pathways play important roles in ensuring the normal functions of NSCs, including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and neural reconnection. Recently, emerging evidence from the use of new technologies such as next-generation sequencing and transcriptome profiling has provided insight into our understanding of genomic function and regulation of NSCs. In the present article, we summarize and present the current data on the control of NSCs at both the transcriptional and genomic levels. Using bioinformatics methods, we sought to predict novel therapeutic targets of endogenous neurogenesis and exogenous NSC transplantation for functional recovery after hemorrhagic stroke, which could also advance our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  20. EFFECT OF MODIFIED CONSTRAINT INDUCED THERAPY ON UPPERLIMB FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN YOUNG STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Prakash Pappala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of modified constraint induced therapy on upper limb functional recovery in young stroke subjects. Most of the stroke rehabilitation units following conventional rehabilitation methods for treatment of the stroke patients where these methods have been proved to be less useful especially in the young stroke subjects. Hence the purpose of this study is to see the effect of modified constraint induced therapy which is a task specific training method for upperlimb in young stroke subjects. Methods: Total of 40 young stroke subjects who is having minimal motor criterion and met other inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, g.s.l.general hospital. Pre and post intervention measures were taken using Wolf motor function test and Jebsen Taylor hand function test. Results: In this study had shown significant improvements in the modified constraint induced therapy group when compared to the conventional rehabilitation alone. P value between groups was < 0.05. Conclusion: In this study concludes that addition of 15 minutes modified constraint induced movement therapy to conventional physiotherapy is a useful adjunct in functional recovery of upper limb among young stroke subjects

  1. GI-SVM: A sensitive method for predicting genomic islands based on unannotated sequence of a single genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bingxin; Leong, Hon Wai

    2016-02-01

    Genomic islands (GIs) are clusters of functionally related genes acquired by lateral genetic transfer (LGT), and they are present in many bacterial genomes. GIs are extremely important for bacterial research, because they not only promote genome evolution but also contain genes that enhance adaption and enable antibiotic resistance. Many methods have been proposed to predict GI. But most of them rely on either annotations or comparisons with other closely related genomes. Hence these methods cannot be easily applied to new genomes. As the number of newly sequenced bacterial genomes rapidly increases, there is a need for methods to detect GI based solely on sequences of a single genome. In this paper, we propose a novel method, GI-SVM, to predict GIs given only the unannotated genome sequence. GI-SVM is based on one-class support vector machine (SVM), utilizing composition bias in terms of k-mer content. From our evaluations on three real genomes, GI-SVM can achieve higher recall compared with current methods, without much loss of precision. Besides, GI-SVM allows flexible parameter tuning to get optimal results for each genome. In short, GI-SVM provides a more sensitive method for researchers interested in a first-pass detection of GI in newly sequenced genomes.

  2. Effect of melatonin on the functional recovery from experimental traumatic compression of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiaveto-de-Souza, A.; Silva, C.A. da; Defino, H.L.A.; Bel, E.A.Del

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is an extremely severe condition with no available effective therapies. We examined the effect of melatonin on traumatic compression of the spinal cord. Sixty male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated animals and animals with 35 and 50% spinal cord compression with a polycarbonate rod spacer. Each group was divided into two subgroups, each receiving an injection of vehicle or melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 5 min prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after injury. Functional recovery was monitored weekly by the open-field test, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined plane test. Histological changes of the spinal cord were examined 35 days after injury. Motor scores were progressively lower as spacer size increased according to the motor scale and inclined plane test evaluation at all times of assessment. The results of the two tests were correlated. The open-field test presented similar results with a less pronounced difference between the 35 and 50% compression groups. The injured groups presented functional recovery that was more evident in the first and second weeks. Animals receiving melatonin treatment presented more pronounced functional recovery than vehicle-treated animals as measured by the motor scale or inclined plane. NADPH-d histochemistry revealed integrity of the spinal cord thoracic segment in sham-operated animals and confirmed the severity of the lesion after spinal cord narrowing. The results obtained after experimental compression of the spinal cord support the hypothesis that melatonin may be considered for use in clinical practice because of its protective effect on the secondary wave of neuronal death following the primary wave after spinal cord injury

  3. Effect of melatonin on the functional recovery from experimental traumatic compression of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schiaveto-de-Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury is an extremely severe condition with no available effective therapies. We examined the effect of melatonin on traumatic compression of the spinal cord. Sixty male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated animals and animals with 35 and 50% spinal cord compression with a polycarbonate rod spacer. Each group was divided into two subgroups, each receiving an injection of vehicle or melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal 5 min prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after injury. Functional recovery was monitored weekly by the open-field test, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined plane test. Histological changes of the spinal cord were examined 35 days after injury. Motor scores were progressively lower as spacer size increased according to the motor scale and inclined plane test evaluation at all times of assessment. The results of the two tests were correlated. The open-field test presented similar results with a less pronounced difference between the 35 and 50% compression groups. The injured groups presented functional recovery that was more evident in the first and second weeks. Animals receiving melatonin treatment presented more pronounced functional recovery than vehicle-treated animals as measured by the motor scale or inclined plane. NADPH-d histochemistry revealed integrity of the spinal cord thoracic segment in sham-operated animals and confirmed the severity of the lesion after spinal cord narrowing. The results obtained after experimental compression of the spinal cord support the hypothesis that melatonin may be considered for use in clinical practice because of its protective effect on the secondary wave of neuronal death following the primary wave after spinal cord injury.

  4. Effect of melatonin on the functional recovery from experimental traumatic compression of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiaveto-de-Souza, A. [Departamento de Morfofisiologia, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Silva, C.A. da [Departamento de Morfologia,Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Defino, H.L.A. [Departamento de Orthopedia e Traumatologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bel, E.A.Del [Departamento de Morfologia,Estomatologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-04-12

    Spinal cord injury is an extremely severe condition with no available effective therapies. We examined the effect of melatonin on traumatic compression of the spinal cord. Sixty male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated animals and animals with 35 and 50% spinal cord compression with a polycarbonate rod spacer. Each group was divided into two subgroups, each receiving an injection of vehicle or melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 5 min prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after injury. Functional recovery was monitored weekly by the open-field test, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined plane test. Histological changes of the spinal cord were examined 35 days after injury. Motor scores were progressively lower as spacer size increased according to the motor scale and inclined plane test evaluation at all times of assessment. The results of the two tests were correlated. The open-field test presented similar results with a less pronounced difference between the 35 and 50% compression groups. The injured groups presented functional recovery that was more evident in the first and second weeks. Animals receiving melatonin treatment presented more pronounced functional recovery than vehicle-treated animals as measured by the motor scale or inclined plane. NADPH-d histochemistry revealed integrity of the spinal cord thoracic segment in sham-operated animals and confirmed the severity of the lesion after spinal cord narrowing. The results obtained after experimental compression of the spinal cord support the hypothesis that melatonin may be considered for use in clinical practice because of its protective effect on the secondary wave of neuronal death following the primary wave after spinal cord injury.

  5. The effects of repeated rehabilitation “Tune-Ups” on functional recovery after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Jared; Mala, Hana; Windle, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    and rehabilitative reaching (i.e. “enriched/rehab”). Following 9 weeks of treatment, all animals were placed in standard housing for 5 weeks, after which they received 2 weeks of intensive therapy consisting of enhanced enriched environments and structured sensorimotor/cognitive rehabilitative activities (i.e. “Tune......Objectives: For the vast majority of stroke survivors, rehabilitation (i.e. physiotherapy and occupational therapy) is the only treatment option available. Following an initial phase of rehabilitation, many patients are sent home and return periodically for brief periods of therapy … often lasting...... just days. It is unclear what, if any, benefit this periodic return to therapy has for functional recovery, and if the type and intensity of therapy is optimal for maintaining or further enhancing functional gains. While the beneficial effects of early rehabilitation on neuroplasticity and functional...

  6. Functional neuroimaging of recovery from motor conversion disorder: A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, A M; Andersen, Kasper W.; Sellebjerg, F

    2018-01-01

    A patient with motor conversion disorder presented with a functional paresis of the left hand. After exclusion of structural brain damage, she was repeatedly examined with whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging, while she performed visually paced finger-tapping tasks. The dorsal premotor...... cortex showed a bilateral deactivation in the acute-subacute phase. Recovery from unilateral hand paresis was associated with a gradual increase in task-based activation of the dorsal premotor cortex bilaterally. The right medial prefrontal cortex displayed the opposite pattern, showing initial task...... that an excessive 'veto' signal generated in medial prefrontal cortex along with decreased premotor activity might constitute the functional substrate of conversion disorder. This notion warrants further examination in a larger group of affected patients....

  7. Effects of gentamicin on the recovery of renal function after unilateral hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Nobumitsu [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of complications in hydronephrosis, and antibiotics such as gentamicin are indicated for the treatment. However, gentamicin is known to cause drug-induced nephropathy. Using a rat kidney model, we investigated the effects of gentamicin treatment on the functional recovery from unilateral hydronephrosis. Quantitative separate renal function study by means of Technetium-99m DMSA renoscintigraphy revealed that contralateral kidney was affected by the treatment right after the release of complete ureteral obstruction. Moreover, in the case of incomplete ureteral obstruction, bilateral kidneys were affected by the treatment. Morphological studies using in situ DNA3' -end labeling and immunohistochemical methods showed that regeneration in the bilateral kidney followed gentamicin treatment right after the release. These results suggest that we should take account of separate renal function failure after gentamicin administration in the perihydronephrotic periods. (author)

  8. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R; Baker, Fiona C; Sugarbaker, David S; Colrain, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4 month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  9. Expected for acquisition movement exercise is more effective for functional recovery than simple exercise in a rat model of hemiplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Harada, Katsuhiro; Kamikawa, Yurie; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The use of novel rehabilitative approaches for effecting functional recovery following stroke is controversial. Effects of different but effective rehabilitative interventions in the hemiplegic patient are not clear. We studied the effects of different rehabilitative approaches on functional recovery in the rat photochecmical cerebral infarction model. Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats aged 8?weeks were used. The cranial bone was exposed under deep anesthesia. Rose b...

  10. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG1...

  11. No effect of fibrin sealant on drain output or functional recovery following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christian; Holm, Bente; Troelsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may lead to anemia, blood transfusions, and increased total costs. Also, bleeding into the periarticular tissue may cause swelling and a reduction in quadriceps strength, thus impairing early functional recovery. In this random...... in TKA showed no benefit in reducing drain output or in facilitating early functional recovery when used with a tourniquet, tranexamic acid, and a femoral bone plug....

  12. Functional recovery differences after stroke rehabilitation in patients with uni- or bilateral hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M.; Mawajdeh, Hussam M.; Vennu, Vishal S.; Alhaidary, Hisham M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the functional recovery differences after stroke rehabilitation in patients with uni- or bilateral hemiparesis. Methods: In this retrospective study, we included data from the medical record of all 383 patients with uni- or bilateral hemiparesis after stroke who were admitted to King Fahad Medical City-Rehabilitation Hospital between 2008 and 2014 in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. According to the site of hemiparesis, we classified patients into 3 groups: right hemiparesis (n=208), left hemiparesis (n=157), and bilateral hemipareses (n=18). The patients (n=49) who did not have either site of hemiparesis were excluded. The Functional Independence Measures (FIM) instrument was used to assess the score at admission and discharge. A post hoc test was conducted to examine the functional recovery differences between groups. Multiple regression analyses were used to confirm the findings. Results: Amongst the three groups, there were significant (phemiparesis group. Multiple regression analyses also confirmed that the site of hemiparesis significantly (phemiparesis after stroke. PMID:28678212

  13. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  14. Electroacupuncture promotes post-stroke functional recovery via enhancing endogenous neurogenesis in mouse focal cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the question of whether electroacupuncture (EA promotes functional recovery via enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs in ischemic stroke, EA stimulation with 2 Hz was applied at bilateral acupoints to Baihui (GV20 and Dazhui (GV14 in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO mice. EA stimulation improved neuromotor function and cognitive ability after ischemic stroke. EA stimulation resulted in an increase in the number of proliferated cells, especially in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Although a very limited number of NSCs survived and differentiated into neurons or astrocytes, EA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells and differentiated cells in the hippocampus and SVZ of the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to MCAO mice. EA stimulation resulted in significantly increased mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Protein levels of these factors were confirmed in the ipsilateral hippocampus and SVZ by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. Expression of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, BDNF, and VEGF-mediated down-stream were enhanced by EA stimulation in newly formed neuroblasts. These results indicate that EA treatment after ischemic stroke may promote post-stroke functional recovery by enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of NSCs via the BDNF and VEGF signaling pathway.

  15. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  16. PTT functional recovery in early stage II PTTD after tendon balancing and calcaneal lengthening osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhault, Jean; Noël, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The decision to offer surgery for Stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) is a difficult one since orthotic treatment has been documented to be a viable alternative to surgery at this stage. Taking this into consideration we limited our treatment to bony realignment by a lengthening calcaneus Evans osteotomy and tendon balancing. The goal of the study was to clinically evaluate PTT functional recovery with this procedure. The patient population included 17 feet in 13 patients. Inclusion was limited to early Stage II PTTD flatfeet with grossly intact but deficient PTT. Deficiency was assessed by the lack of hindfoot inversion during single heel rise test. The surgical procedure included an Evans calcaneal opening wedge osteotomy with triceps surae and peroneus brevis tendon lengthening. PTT function at follow up was evaluated by an independent examiner. Evaluation was performed at an average of 4 (range, 2 to 6.3) years. One case presented postoperative subtalar pain that required subtalar fusion. Every foot could perform a single heel rise with 13 feet having active inversion of the hindfoot during elevation. The results of this study provide evidence of PTT functional recovery without augmentation in early Stage II. It challenges our understanding of early Stage II PTTD as well as the surgical guidelines recommending PTT augmentation at this specific stage.

  17. Influence of 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy on recovery of facial nerve function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Tieli; Zheng Lei; Zhang Jie; Cai Zhigang; Yang Zhaohui; Yu Guangyan; Zhang Jianguo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of 125 I seed interstitial brachytherapy in parotid region on the recovery of facial nerve function. Methods: A total of the data of 21 patients with primary parotid carcinoma were treated with resection and 125 I interstitial brachytherapy. All the patients had no facial palsy before operation and the prescribed dose was 60 Gy. During 4 years of follow-up, the House-Brackmann grading scales and ENoG were used to evaluate the function of facial nerve. According to the modified regional House-Brackmann grading scales, the facial nerve branches of patients in affected side were divided into normal and abnormal groups, and were compared with those in contra-lateral side. Results: Post-operation facial palsy occurred in all the patients, but the facial palsy recovered within 6 months. The latency time differences between affected side and contralateral side were statistically significant in abnormal group from 1 week to 6 months after treatment (t=2.362, P=0.028), and were also different in normal group 1 week after treatment (t=2.522, P=0.027). Conclusions: 125 I interstitital brachytherapy has no influence on recovery of facial nerve function after tumor resection and no delayed facial nerve damage. (authors)

  18. Functional neuroimaging of recovery from motor conversion disorder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Kasper W; Sellebjerg, Finn; Schreiber, Karen; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2018-03-27

    A patient with motor conversion disorder presented with a functional paresis of the left hand. After exclusion of structural brain damage, she was repeatedly examined with whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging, while she performed visually paced finger-tapping tasks. The dorsal premotor cortex showed a bilateral deactivation in the acute-subacute phase. Recovery from unilateral hand paresis was associated with a gradual increase in task-based activation of the dorsal premotor cortex bilaterally. The right medial prefrontal cortex displayed the opposite pattern, showing initial task-based activation that gradually diminished with recovery. The inverse dynamics of premotor and medial prefrontal activity over time were found during unimanual finger-tapping with the affected and non-affected hand as well as during bimanual finger-tapping. These observations suggest that reduced premotor and increased medial prefrontal activity reflect an effector-independent cortical dysfunction in conversion paresis which gradually disappears in parallel with clinical remission of paresis. The results link the medial prefrontal and dorsal premotor areas to the generation of intentional actions. We hypothesise that an excessive 'veto' signal generated in medial prefrontal cortex along with decreased premotor activity might constitute the functional substrate of conversion disorder. This notion warrants further examination in a larger group of affected patients. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Kay; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2009-01-01

    . There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury....... change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not...

  20. Functional and Structural Network Recovery after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Dall’Acqua

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain connectivity after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has not been investigated longitudinally with respect to both functional and structural networks together within the same patients, crucial to capture the multifaceted neuropathology of the injury and to comprehensively monitor the course of recovery and compensatory reorganizations at macro-level. We performed a prospective study with 49 mTBI patients at an average of 5 days and 1 year post-injury and 49 healthy controls. Neuropsychological assessments as well as resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were obtained. Functional and structural connectome analyses were performed using network-based statistics. They included a cross-sectional group comparison and a longitudinal analysis with the factors group and time. The latter tracked the subnetworks altered at the early phase and, in addition, included a whole-brain group × time interaction analysis. Finally, we explored associations between the evolution of connectivity and changes in cognitive performance. The early phase of mTBI was characterized by a functional hypoconnectivity in a subnetwork with a large overlap of regions involved within the classical default mode network. In addition, structural hyperconnectivity in a subnetwork including central hub areas such as the cingulate cortex was found. The impaired functional and structural subnetworks were strongly correlated and revealed a large anatomical overlap. One year after trauma and compared to healthy controls we observed a partial normalization of both subnetworks along with a considerable compensation of functional and structural connectivity subsequent to the acute phase. Connectivity changes over time were correlated with improvements in working memory, divided attention, and verbal recall. Neuroplasticity-induced recovery or compensatory processes following mTBI differ between brain regions with respect to their time course and are

  1. Predictors of renal function recovery among patients undergoing renal replacement therapy following orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Maria Claudia Cruz; Souza, Nádia Karina Guimarães de; Ammirati, Adriano Luiz; Matsui, Thais Nemoto; Carneiro, Fabiana Dias; Ramos, Ana Claudia Mallet de Souza; Iizuca, Ilson Jorge; Coelho, Maria Paula Vilela; Afonso, Rogério Carballo; Ferraz-Neto, Ben-Hur; Almeida, Marcio Dias de; Durão, Marcelino; Batista, Marcelo Costa; Monte, Julio Cesar; Pereira, Virgílio Gonçalves; Santos, Oscar Pavão Dos; Santos, Bento Cardoso Dos

    2017-01-01

    Renal dysfunction frequently occurs during the periods preceding and following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in many cases, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. Information regarding the duration of RRT and the rate of kidney function recovery after OLT is crucial for transplant program management. We evaluated a sample of 155 stable patients undergoing post-intensive care hemodialysis (HD) from a patient population of 908 adults who underwent OLT. We investigated the average time to renal function recovery (duration of RRT required) and determined the risk factors for remaining on dialysis > 90 days after OLT. Log-rank tests were used for univariate analysis, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with the risk of remaining on HD. The results of our analysis showed that of the 155 patients, 28% had pre-OLT diabetes mellitus, 21% had pre-OLT hypertension, and 40% had viral hepatitis. Among the patients, the median MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score was 27 (interquartile range [IQR] 22-35). When they were listed for liver transplantation, 32% of the patients had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD, and 50% had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD at the time of OLT. Of the transplanted patients, 25% underwent pre-OLT intermittent HD, and 14% and 41% underwent continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) pre-OLT and post-OLT, respectively. At 90 days post-OLT, 118 (76%) patients had been taken off dialysis, and 16 (10%) patients had died while undergoing HD. The median recovery time of these post-OLT patients was 33 (IQR 27-39) days. In the multivariate analysis, fulminant hepatic failure as the cause of liver disease (prenal function after OLT, and those who were diagnosed with fulminant hepatic failure, had no pre-OLT hypertension, received a lower transfused volume of intraoperative FFP and did not undergo pre-OLT intermittent HD had a higher probability

  2. GiSAO.db: a database for ageing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillari Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related gene expression patterns of Homo sapiens as well as of model organisms such as Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are a basis for understanding the genetic mechanisms of ageing. For an effective analysis and interpretation of expression profiles it is necessary to store and manage huge amounts of data in an organized way, so that these data can be accessed and processed easily. Description GiSAO.db (Genes involved in senescence, apoptosis and oxidative stress database is a web-based database system for storing and retrieving ageing-related experimental data. Expression data of genes and miRNAs, annotation data like gene identifiers and GO terms, orthologs data and data of follow-up experiments are stored in the database. A user-friendly web application provides access to the stored data. KEGG pathways were incorporated and links to external databases augment the information in GiSAO.db. Search functions facilitate retrieval of data which can also be exported for further processing. Conclusions We have developed a centralized database that is very well suited for the management of data for ageing research. The database can be accessed at https://gisao.genome.tugraz.at and all the stored data can be viewed with a guest account.

  3. Understanding predictors of functional recovery and outcome 30 months following early childhood head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki A; Catroppa, Cathy; Dudgeon, Paul; Morse, Sue A; Haritou, Flora; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in school-age children; however, recovery in early childhood is less well understood. Some argue that such injuries should lead to good outcome, because of the plasticity of the developing brain. Other purport that the young brain is vulnerable, with injury likely to result in a substantial impairment (H. G. Taylor & J. Alden, 1997). The aim of this study was to examine outcomes following TBI during early childhood, to plot recovery over the 30 months postinjury, and to identify predictors of outcome. The study compared 3 groups of children sustaining mild, moderate, and severe TBI, ages 2.0 to 6.11 years at injury, with healthy controls. Groups were comparable for preinjury adaptive and behavioral function, psychosocial characteristics, age, and gender. Results suggested a strong association between injury severity and outcomes across all domains. Further, 30-month outcome was predicted by injury severity, family factors, and preinjury levels of child function. In conclusion, children with more severe injuries and lower preinjury adaptive abilities, and whose families are coping poorly, are at greatest risk of long-term impairment in day-to-day skills, even several years postinjury.

  4. The endogenous proteoglycan-degrading enzyme ADAMTS-4 promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauchi Ryoji

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are major inhibitory molecules for neural plasticity under both physiological and pathological conditions. The chondroitin sulfate degrading enzyme chondroitinase ABC promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury, and restores experience-dependent plasticity, such as ocular dominance plasticity and fear erasure plasticity, in adult rodents. These data suggest that the sugar chain in a proteoglycan moiety is essential for the inhibitory activity of proteoglycans. However, the significance of the core protein has not been studied extensively. Furthermore, considering that chondroitinase ABC is derived from bacteria, a mammalian endogenous enzyme which can inactivate the proteoglycans' activity is desirable for clinical use. Methods The degradation activity of ADAMTS-4 was estimated for the core proteins of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, that is, brevican, neurocan and phosphacan. To evaluate the biological significance of ADMATS-4 activity, an in vitro neurite growth assay and an in vivo neuronal injury model, spinal cord contusion injury, were employed. Results ADAMTS-4 digested proteoglycans, and reversed their inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Local administration of ADAMTS-4 significantly promoted motor function recovery after spinal cord injury. Supporting these findings, the ADAMTS-4-treated spinal cord exhibited enhanced axonal regeneration/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Conclusions Our data suggest that the core protein in a proteoglycan moiety is also important for the inhibition of neural plasticity, and provides a potentially safer tool for the treatment of neuronal injuries.

  5. Prediction of renal functional recovery after relief of upper urinary tract obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalika, V.; Bard, R.H.; Iloreta, A.; Freeman, L.M.; Heller, S.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Renal cortical regions of interest were used prospectively to predict recoverability of renal function in 27 patients with unilateral or bilateral urinary tract obstruction. In these 27 patients 36 kidneys with short-term or long-term obstruction were studied. The 131iodine radiohippuran renogram curves were generated from areas of interest from the renal cortex and from the whole kidney. Curves generated during obstruction were evaluated qualitatively to determine if regional cortical renograms exhibited a more normal appearance than total kidney curves. After relief of obstruction renograms generated from the whole kidney were evaluated for evidence of renal functional recovery. Cortical curves obtained before relief obstruction were judged normal, with an abnormal whole kidney renogram in 20 of 36 kidneys. The whole kidney renogram improved after relief of obstruction in all 20 cases. Cortical curves for the remaining 16 kidneys before relief of obstruction had the same abnormal appearance as the whole kidney renogram. After relief of obstruction no evidence of kidney function improvement as measured by the renogram was evident in 14 kidneys. The over-all accuracy of this test of renal functional recoverability was 94 per cent. These data support the hypothesis that when cortical curves appear more normal than total kidney curves there is a strong likelihood of postoperative improvement in renal function when the obstruction is relieved. Abnormal cortical curves are associated with a poor prognosis for renal functional improvement

  6. Aging impairs the recovery in mechanical muscle function following 4 days of disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L G; Suetta, C; Nielsen, J H

    2014-01-01

    As aged individuals are frequently exposed to short-term disuse caused by disease or musculoskeletal injury, it is important to understand how short-term disuse and subsequent retraining affect lower limb mechanical muscle function. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to investigate...... the effect of 4 days of lower limb disuse followed by 7 days of active recovery on mechanical muscle function of the knee extensors in young (24.3±0.9 years, n=11) and old (67.2±1.0 years, n=11) recreationally active healthy males. Slow and moderate dynamic muscle strength were assessed using isokinetic...... to disuse, marked age-related differences (p

  7. Preoperative prediction of inpatient recovery of function after total hip arthroplasty using performance-based tests: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Ellen; Hoogeboom, Thomas J; Appelman-de Vries, Suzan A; Swets, Adam; Dronkers, Jaap J; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of conventional factors, the Risk Assessment and Predictor Tool (RAPT) and performance-based functional tests as predictors of delayed recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA). A prospective cohort study in a regional hospital in the Netherlands with 315 patients was attending for THA in 2012. The dependent variable recovery of function was assessed with the Modified Iowa Levels of Assistance scale. Delayed recovery was defined as taking more than 3 days to walk independently. Independent variables were age, sex, BMI, Charnley score, RAPT score and scores for four performance-based tests [2-minute walk test, timed up and go test (TUG), 10-meter walking test (10 mW) and hand grip strength]. Regression analysis with all variables identified older age (>70 years), Charnley score C, slow walking speed (10 mW >10.0 s) and poor functional mobility (TUG >10.5 s) as the best predictors of delayed recovery of function. This model (AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91) performed better than a model with conventional factors and RAPT scores, and significantly better (p = 0.04) than a model with only conventional factors (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.87). The combination of performance-based tests and conventional factors predicted inpatient functional recovery after THA. Two simple functional performance-based tests have a significant added value to a more conventional screening with age and comorbidities to predict recovery of functioning immediately after total hip surgery. Patients over 70 years old, with comorbidities, with a TUG score >10.5 s and a walking speed >1.0 m/s are at risk for delayed recovery of functioning. Those high risk patients need an accurate discharge plan and could benefit from targeted pre- and postoperative therapeutic exercise programs.

  8. BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE (BNP: BIOMARKER FOR RISK STRATIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY PREDICTION IN ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANESCU Ioana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional outcome after cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events is traditionally predicted using demographic and clinical variables like age, gender, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, diabetes status, smoking habits or pre-existing morbidity. Identification of new variables will improve the risk stratification of specific categories of patients. Numerous blood-based biomarkers associated with increased cardiovascular risk have been identified; some of them even predict cardiovascular events. Investigators have tried to produce prediction models by incorporating traditional risk factors and biomarkers. (1. Widely-available, rapidly processed and less expensive biomarkers could be used in the future to guide management of complex cerebrovascular patients in order to maximize their recovery (2 Recently, studies have demonstrated that biomarkers can predict not only the risk for a specific clinical event, but also the risk of death of vascular cause and the functional outcome after cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. Early prediction of fatal outcome after stroke may improve therapeutic strategies (such as the use of more aggressive treatments or inclusion of patients in clinical trials and guide decision-making processes in order to maximize patient’s chances for survival and recovery. (3 Long term functional outcome after stroke is one of the most difficult variables to predict. Elevated serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP are powerful predictor of outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease (heart failure, atrial fibrillation. Potential role of BNP in predicting atrial fibrillation occurrence, cardio-embolic stroke and post-stroke mortality have been proved in many studies. However, data concerning the potential role of BNP in predicting short term and long term functional outcomes after stroke remain controversial.

  9. Frontal and temporal cortical functional recovery after electroconvulsive therapy for depression: A longitudinal functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Jinichi; Takamiya, Akihiro; Yamagata, Bun; Hotta, Syogo; Miyasaka, Yukiko; Pu, Shenghong; Iwanami, Akira; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-08-01

    While the efficacy and tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression has been well established, the acute effects of ECT on brain function remain unclear. Particularly, although cognitive dysfunction has been consistently observed after ECT, little is known about the extent and time course of ECT-induced brain functional changes, as observed during cognitive tasks. Considering the acute antidepressant effects of ECT on depression, aberrant brain functional responses during cognitive tasks in patients with depression may improve immediately after this treatment. To clarify changes in cortical functional responses to cognitive tasks following ECT, we used task-related functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess 30 patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar depression before and after an ECT series, as well as 108 healthy controls. Prior to ECT, patients exhibited significantly smaller [oxy-Hb] values in the bilateral frontal cortex during a letter verbal fluency task (VFT) compared with healthy controls. We found a significant increase in [oxy-Hb] values in the bilateral frontal cortex during the VFT after ECT in the patient group. A decrease in depression severity was significantly correlated with an increase in [oxy-Hb] values in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex following ECT. This is the first NIRS study to evaluate brain functional changes before vs. after ECT. Impaired functional responses, observed during the cognitive task in depressed patients, were normalized after ECT. Thus, recovery from abnormal functional responses to cognitive tasks in the frontal brain regions may be associated with the acute therapeutic effects of ECT for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Community-Based Rehabilitation to Improve Stroke Survivors' Rehabilitation Participation and Functional Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Xiaojuan; Dai, Hong; Jiang, Bin; Li, Ninghua; Zhao, Xingquan; Hong, Zhen; He, Li; Wang, Wenzhi

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based rehabilitation appropriate technique (CRAT) intervention program in increasing rehabilitation participation and improving functional recovery of stroke survivors. This study followed a quasi-experimental design. In each of 5 centers servicing approximately 50,000 individuals, 2 communities were designated as either the intervention or control community. A CRAT intervention program, including 2-year rehabilitation education and 3-month CRAT treatment, was regularly implemented in the intervention communities, whereas there was no special intervention in the control community. Two sampling surveys, at baseline and after intervention, were administered to evaluate the rehabilitation activity undertaken. In intervention communities, stroke survivor's motor function, daily activity, and social activity were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment, using the Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment, Barthel index, and Social Functional Activities Questionnaire. The proportion of individuals participating in rehabilitation-related activity was increased significantly (P rehabilitation (P 0.05). Community-based rehabilitation appropriate technique increases rehabilitation participation rates and enhances motor function, daily activity, and social activity of stroke survivors.

  11. Validation study of a web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Andrew J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good clinical care of prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy depends on careful assessment of post-operative morbidities, yet physicians do not always judge patient symptoms accurately. Logistical problems associated with using paper questionnaire limit their use in the clinic. We have implemented a web-interface ("STAR" for patient-reported outcomes after radical prostatectomy. Methods We analyzed data on the first 9 months of clinical implementation to evaluate the validity of the STAR questionnaire to assess functional outcomes following radical prostatectomy. We assessed response rate, internal consistency within domains, and the association between survey responses and known predictors of sexual and urinary function, including age, time from surgery, nerve sparing status and co-morbidities. Results Of 1581 men sent an invitation to complete the instrument online, 1235 responded for a response rate of 78%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84, 0.86 and 0.97 for bowel, urinary and sexual function respectively. All known predictors of sexual and urinary function were significantly associated with survey responses in the hypothesized direction. Conclusions We have found that web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy is practical and feasible. The instrument demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, suggested that validity is maintained when questions are transferred from paper to electronic format and when patients give responses that they know will be seen by their doctor and added to their clinic record. As such, our system allows ready implementation of patient-reported outcomes into routine clinical practice.

  12. Functional Recovery Measures for Spinal Cord Injury: An Evidence-Based Review for Clinical Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kim; Aito, Sergio; Atkins, Michal; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; Curt, Armin; Ditunno, John; Glass, Clive; Marino, Ralph; Marshall, Ruth; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Post, Marcel; Savic, Gordana; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Catz, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: The end goal of clinical care and clinical research involving spinal cord injury (SCI) is to improve the overall ability of persons living with SCI to function on a daily basis. Neurologic recovery does not always translate into functional recovery. Thus, sensitive outcome measures designed to assess functional status relevant to SCI are important to develop. Method: Evaluation of currently available SCI functional outcome measures by a multinational work group. Results: The 4 measures that fit the prespecified inclusion criteria were the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Quadriplegia Index of Function (QIF), and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The MBI and the QIF were found to have minimal evidence for validity, whereas the FIM and the SCIM were found to be reliable and valid. The MBI has little clinical utility for use in the SCI population. Likewise, the FIM applies mainly when measuring burden of care, which is not necessarily a reflection of functional recovery. The QIF is useful for measuring functional recovery but only in a subpopulation of people with SCI, and substantial validity data are still required. The SCIM is the only functional recovery outcome measure designed specifically for SCI. Conclusions: The multinational work group recommends that the latest version of the SCIM (SCIM III) continue to be refined and validated and subsequently implemented worldwide as the primary functional recovery outcome measure for SCI. The QIF may continue to be developed and validated for use as a supplemental tool for the nonambulatory tetraplegic population. PMID:18581660

  13. Progressive recovery of osseoperception as a function of the combination of implant-supported prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Mauro; Bonachela, Wellington; Soares, Janir

    2008-06-01

    The extraction of teeth involves the elimination of extremely sensitive periodontal mechanoreceptors, which play an important role in oral sensory perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of interocclusal sensory perception for micro-thickness in individuals with different types of implant-supported prostheses. Wearers of complete dentures (CDs) comprised the negative control group (group A, n=17). The experimental group consisted of wearers of prostheses supported by osseointegrated implants (Group B, n=29), which was subsequently divided into 4 subgroups: B(1) (n=5)--implant supported overdentures (ISO) occluding with CD; B(2) (n=6)--implant-supported fixed prostheses (ISFP) occluding with CD; B(3) (n=8)--wearers of maxillary and mandibular ISFP, and B(4) (n=10)--ISFP occluding with natural dentition (ND). Individuals with ND represented the positive control group (Group C, n=24). Aluminum foils measuring 10 microm, 24 microm, 30 microm, 50 microm, 80 microm, and 104 microm thickness were placed within the premolar area, adding up to 120 tests for each individual. The mean tactile thresholds of groups A, B1, B2, B3, B4, and C were 92 microm, 27 microm, 27 microm, 14 microm, 10 microm, and 10 microm, respectively. [Correction added after publication online 18 April 2008: in the preceding sentence 92 microm, 27 microm, 14 microm, 10 microm and 10 microm, was corrected to 92 microm, 27 microm, 27 microm, 14 microm, 10 microm and 10 microm]. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant difference among groups (P<0.05). The Dunn test revealed that group A was statistically different from groups C, B(3), and B(4), and that B(1) and B(2) were statistically different from group C. Progressive recovery of osseoperception as a function of the combination of implant-supported prostheses could be observed. Moreover, ISO and/or ISFP combinations may similarly maximize the recovery of osseoperception.

  14. Functional near infrared spectroscopy as a potential biological assessment of addiction recovery: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jared P; Harris, Kitty S; Shumway, Sterling T; Kimball, Thomas G; Herrera, J Caleb; Dsauza, Cynthia M; Bradshaw, Spencer D

    2015-03-01

    Addiction science has primarily utilized self-report, continued substance use, and relapse factors to explore the process of recovery. However, the entry into successful abstinence substantially reduces our assessment abilities. Advances in neuroscience may be the key to objective understanding, treating, and monitoring long-term success in addiction recovery. To explore functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) as a viable technique in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. Specifically, prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to alcohol cues was explored among formally alcohol-dependent individuals, across varying levels of successful abstinence. The aim of the investigation was to identify patterns of PFC activation change consistent with duration of abstinence. A total of 15 formally alcohol-dependent individuals, with abstinence durations ranging from 1 month to 10 years, viewed alcohol images during fNIR PFC assessment. Participants also subjectively rated the same images for affect and arousal level. Subjective ratings of alcohol cues did not significantly correlate with duration of abstinence. As expected, days of abstinence did not significantly correlate with neutral cue fNIR reactivity. However, for alcohol cues, fNIR results showed increased days of abstinence was associated with decreased activation within the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regions. The present results suggest that fNIR may be a viable tool in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. RESULTS also support previous findings on the importance of dorsolateral and dorsomedial PFC in alcohol-cue activation. The findings build upon these past results suggesting that fNIR-assessed activation may represent a robust biological marker of successful addiction recovery.

  15. GeoNetwork powered GI-cat: a geoportal hybrid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Alessio; Boldrini, Enrico; Santoro, Mattia; Mazzetti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    according to the interface protocols exposed by GI-cat into the multiple query dialects spoken by the resource service providers. Currently, a number of well-accepted catalog and inventory services are supported, including several OGC Web Services, THREDDS Data Server, SeaDataNet Common Data Index, GBIF and OpenSearch engines. A GeoNetwork powered GI-cat has been developed in order to exploit the best of the two frameworks. The new system uses a modified version of GeoNetwork web interface in order to add the capability of querying also the specified GI-cat catalog and not only the GeoNetwork internal database. The resulting system consists in a geoportal in which GI-cat plays the role of the search engine. This new system allows to distribute the query on the different types of data sources linked to a GI-cat. The metadata results of the query are then visualized by the Geonetwork web interface. This configuration was experimented in the framework of GIIDA, a project of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) focused on data accessibility and interoperability. A second advantage of this solution is achieved setting up a GeoNetwork catalog amongst the accessors of the GI-cat instance. Such a configuration will allow in turn GI-cat to run the query against the internal GeoNetwork database. This allows to have both the harvesting and the metadata editor functionalities provided by GeoNetwork and the distributed search functionality of GI-cat available in a consistent way through the same web interface.

  16. Transplantation of specific human astrocytes promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J A Davies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed to promote significant behavioral recovery or similarly robust neuronal survival and support of axon growth at sites of injury. Our studies thus demonstrate functional differences between human astrocyte populations and suggest that pre-differentiation of precursor cells into a specific astrocyte subtype is required to optimize astrocyte replacement therapies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show functional differences in ability to promote repair of the injured adult central nervous system between two distinct subtypes of human astrocytes derived from a common fetal glial precursor population. These findings are consistent with our previous studies of transplanting specific subtypes of rodent glial precursor derived astrocytes into sites of spinal cord injury, and indicate a remarkable conservation from rat to human of functional differences between astrocyte subtypes. In addition, our studies provide a specific population of human

  17. Recovery of facial expressions using functional electrical stimulation after full-face transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Çağdaş; Uysal, Hilmi; Özkan, Ömer; Özkan, Özlenen; Polat, Övünç; Bedeloğlu, Merve; Akgül, Arzu; Döğer, Ela Naz; Sever, Refik; Çolak, Ömer Halil

    2018-03-06

    We assessed the recovery of 2 face transplantation patients with measures of complexity during neuromuscular rehabilitation. Cognitive rehabilitation methods and functional electrical stimulation were used to improve facial emotional expressions of full-face transplantation patients for 5 months. Rehabilitation and analyses were conducted at approximately 3 years after full facial transplantation in the patient group. We report complexity analysis of surface electromyography signals of these two patients in comparison to the results of 10 healthy individuals. Facial surface electromyography data were collected during 6 basic emotional expressions and 4 primary facial movements from 2 full-face transplantation patients and 10 healthy individuals to determine a strategy of functional electrical stimulation and understand the mechanisms of rehabilitation. A new personalized rehabilitation technique was developed using the wavelet packet method. Rehabilitation sessions were applied twice a month for 5 months. Subsequently, motor and functional progress was assessed by comparing the fuzzy entropy of surface electromyography data against the results obtained from patients before rehabilitation and the mean results obtained from 10 healthy subjects. At the end of personalized rehabilitation, the patient group showed improvements in their facial symmetry and their ability to perform basic facial expressions and primary facial movements. Similarity in the pattern of fuzzy entropy for facial expressions between the patient group and healthy individuals increased. Synkinesis was detected during primary facial movements in the patient group, and one patient showed synkinesis during the happiness expression. Synkinesis in the lower face region of one of the patients was eliminated for the lid tightening movement. The recovery of emotional expressions after personalized rehabilitation was satisfactory to the patients. The assessment with complexity analysis of sEMG data can be

  18. Speaking-related changes in cortical functional connectivity associated with assisted and spontaneous recovery from developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Christian A; Neumann, Katrin; Behrens, Marion; von Gudenberg, Alexander W; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2018-03-01

    We previously reported speaking-related activity changes associated with assisted recovery induced by a fluency shaping therapy program and unassisted recovery from developmental stuttering (Kell et al., Brain 2009). While assisted recovery re-lateralized activity to the left hemisphere, unassisted recovery was specifically associated with the activation of the left BA 47/12 in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These findings suggested plastic changes in speaking-related functional connectivity between left hemispheric speech network nodes. We reanalyzed these data involving 13 stuttering men before and after fluency shaping, 13 men who recovered spontaneously from their stuttering, and 13 male control participants, and examined functional connectivity during overt vs. covert reading by means of psychophysiological interactions computed across left cortical regions involved in articulation control. Persistent stuttering was associated with reduced auditory-motor coupling and enhanced integration of somatosensory feedback between the supramarginal gyrus and the prefrontal cortex. Assisted recovery reduced this hyper-connectivity and increased functional connectivity between the articulatory motor cortex and the auditory feedback processing anterior superior temporal gyrus. In spontaneous recovery, both auditory-motor coupling and integration of somatosensory feedback were normalized. In addition, activity in the left orbitofrontal cortex and superior cerebellum appeared uncoupled from the rest of the speech production network. These data suggest that therapy and spontaneous recovery normalizes the left hemispheric speaking-related activity via an improvement of auditory-motor mapping. By contrast, long-lasting unassisted recovery from stuttering is additionally supported by a functional isolation of the superior cerebellum from the rest of the speech production network, through the pivotal left BA 47/12. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pituitary and adrenal involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with recovery of their function after chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Abe, Ichiro; Matsuda, Yayoi; Miyata, Noriyuki; Ohno, Hirofumi; Ikeda, Motohiko; Matsushima, Takamitsu; Nomura, Masatoshi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma sometimes involves the endocrine organs, but involvement of both the pituitary and adrenal glands is extremely rare. Involvement of these structures can lead to hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency, and subsequent recovery of their function is rarely seen. The present report describes an extremely rare case of pituitary and adrenal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with hypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency with subsequent recovery of p...

  20. Sleep disturbance and neurocognitive function during the recovery from a sport-related concussion in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Regina O; Milewski, Matthew D; Hafeez, Imran

    2015-03-01

    Sleep disturbances are a hallmark sign after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Poor sleep has been shown to adversely affect baseline neurocognitive test scores, but it is not comprehensively understood how neurocognitive function is affected by disrupted sleep during recovery from a concussion. To identify the correlation between adolescent athletes' neurocognitive function and their self-reported sleep quantity and sleep disturbance symptoms during recovery from SRC. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognition Testing (ImPACT) data were retrospectively collected for 545 adolescent athletes treated for SRC at a sports medicine concussion clinic. Patients were stratified into groups based on 2 criteria: self-reported sleep duration and self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms during postinjury ImPACT testing. Sleep duration was classified as short (9 hours). Sleep disturbance symptoms were self-reported as part of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) as either sleeping less than normal, sleeping more than normal, or having trouble falling asleep. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effects that sleep duration as well as self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms had on composite scores. A total of 1067 ImPACT tests were analyzed: test 1, 545; test 2, 380; and test 3, 142. Sleeping fewer than 7 hours the night before testing correlated with higher PCSS scores (P sleeping longer than 9 hours correlated with worse visual memory (P = .01), visual motor speed (P sleep disturbance symptoms, patients demonstrated worse composite scores during ImPACT testing when they self-reported sleeping more than normal (ImPACT test 1: verbal memory, P sleep had been disrupted. Adolescent patients who perceive that their sleep is somehow disrupted after SRC may report a greater number of concussion symptoms during their recovery. In addition, the study results suggest that sleeping more than normal may

  1. Evaluation of sensory function and recovery after replantation of fingertips at Zone I in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhao-Wei; Zou, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jiang-Hui; Huang, Xi-Jun; He, Bo; Wang, Zeng-Tao

    2017-11-01

    Sensory function is the most significant criterion when evaluating the prognosis of replanted fingers. Current clinical research has focused on surgical techniques and indications for finger replantation; however, few studies have focused on recovery of finger sensory function after replantation. This study retrospectively assessed data of eight patients who had undergone nine Zone I replantations of the fingertips in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University of China from July 2014 to January 2016. Variations in the extent of damage, with the residual vessels or nerves in some fingers being too short or even missing, prevented tension-free suture repair in some patients. Thus, repair of four of the nine fingertips included arteriovenous anastomosis, the remaining five undergoing arterial anastomosis during replantation of the amputated fingers. Three patients underwent nerve repair, whereas the remaining six cases did not. Fingertip replantations were successful in all eight patients. Compared with the patients without vascular anastomosis, no obvious atrophy was visible in the fingertips of patients who did undergo vascular anastomosis during replantation and their sensory function did recover. Fingertip replantation provides good sensory function and cosmetic outcomes when good artery and vein anastomoses have been created, even when digital nerves have not been repaired.

  2. Evaluation of sensory function and recovery after replantation of fingertips at Zone I in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-wei Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory function is the most significant criterion when evaluating the prognosis of replanted fingers. Current clinical research has focused on surgical techniques and indications for finger replantation; however, few studies have focused on recovery of finger sensory function after replantation. This study retrospectively assessed data of eight patients who had undergone nine Zone I replantations of the fingertips in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University of China from July 2014 to January 2016. Variations in the extent of damage, with the residual vessels or nerves in some fingers being too short or even missing, prevented tension-free suture repair in some patients. Thus, repair of four of the nine fingertips included arteriovenous anastomosis, the remaining five undergoing arterial anastomosis during replantation of the amputated fingers. Three patients underwent nerve repair, whereas the remaining six cases did not. Fingertip replantations were successful in all eight patients. Compared with the patients without vascular anastomosis, no obvious atrophy was visible in the fingertips of patients who did undergo vascular anastomosis during replantation and their sensory function did recover. Fingertip replantation provides good sensory function and cosmetic outcomes when good artery and vein anastomoses have been created, even when digital nerves have not been repaired.

  3. Assessment of recovery in older patients hospitalized with different diagnoses and functional levels, evaluated with and without geriatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Jenny Foss; Haugland, Cathrine; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate 1) the role of different admission diagnoses and 2) the degree of functional loss, on the rate of recovery of older patients after acute hospitalization. Furthermore, to compare the predictive value of simple assessments that can be carried out in a hospital lacking geriatric service, with assessments including geriatric screening tests. Prospective, observational cohort study, including 961community dwelling patients aged ≥ 70 years, transferred from medical, cardiac, pulmonary and orthopedic acute hospital departments to intermediate care in nursing home. Functional assessment with Barthel index (BI) was performed at admission to the nursing home and further geriatric assessment tests was performed during the first week. Logistic regression models with and without geriatric assessment were compared concerning the patients having 1) slow recovery (nursing home stay up to 2 months before return home) or, 2) poor recovery (dead or still in nursing home at 2 months). Slow recovery was independently associated with a diagnosis of non-vertebral fracture, BI subgroups 50-79 and model including geriatric assessment, also with cognitive impairment. Poor recovery was more complex, and independently associated both with BI model, cognitive impairment. Geriatric assessment is optimal for determining the recovery potential of older patients after acute hospitalization. As some hospitals lack geriatric services and ability to perform geriatric screening tests, a simpler assessment based on admission diagnoses and ADL function (BI), gives good information regarding the possible rehabilitation time and possibility to return home.

  4. Expected for acquisition movement exercise is more effective for functional recovery than simple exercise in a rat model of hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Harada, Katsuhiro; Kamikawa, Yurie; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The use of novel rehabilitative approaches for effecting functional recovery following stroke is controversial. Effects of different but effective rehabilitative interventions in the hemiplegic patient are not clear. We studied the effects of different rehabilitative approaches on functional recovery in the rat photochecmical cerebral infarction model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats aged 8 weeks were used. The cranial bone was exposed under deep anesthesia. Rose bengal (20 mg/kg) was injected intravenously, and the sensorimotor area of the cerebral cortex was irradiated transcranially for 20 min with a light beam of 533-nm wavelength. Animals were divided into 3 groups. In the simple-exercise group, treadmill exercise was performed for 20 min every day. In the expected for acquisition movement-training group, beam-walking exercise was done for 20 min daily. The control group was left to recover without additional intervention. Hindlimb function was evaluated with the beam-walking test. Following cerebral infarction, dysfunction of the contralateral extremities was observed. Functional recovery was observed earlier in the expected for acquisition training group than in the other groups. Although rats in the treadmill group recovered more quickly than controls, the beam-walking group had the shortest overall recovery time. Exercise facilitated functional recovery in the rat hemiplegic model, and expected for acquisition exercise was more effective than simple exercise. These findings are considered to have important implications for the future development of clinical rehabilitation programs.

  5. Time course of recovery of erectile function after radical retropubic prostatectomy: does anyone recover after 2 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Farhang; Schiff, Jeffrey; Piecuch, Michael; Yunis, Luis Herran; Eastham, James A; Scardino, Peter T; Mulhall, John P

    2010-12-01

    Given the paucity of literature on the time course of recovery of erectile function (EF) after radical prostatectomy (RP), many publications have led patients and clinicians to believe that erections are unlikely to recover beyond 2 years after RP. We sought to determine the time course of recovery of EF beyond 2 years after bilateral nerve sparing (BNS) RP and to determine factors predictive of continued improved recovery beyond 2 years. EF was assessed prospectively on a 5-point scale: (i) full erections; (ii) diminished erections routinely sufficient for intercourse; (iii) partial erections occasionally satisfactory for intercourse; (iv) partial erections unsatisfactory for intercourse; and (v) no erections. From 01/1999 to 01/2007, 136 preoperatively potent (levels 1-2) men who underwent BNS RP without prior treatment and who had not recovered consistently functional erections (levels 1-2) at 24 months had further follow-up regarding EF. Median follow-up after the 2-year visit was 36.0 months. Recovery of improved erections at a later date: recovery of EF level 1-2 in those with level 3 EF at 2 years and recovery of EF level 1-3 in those with level 4-5 EF at 2 years. The actuarial rates of further improved recovery of EF to level 1-2 in those with level 3 EF at 2 years and to level 1-3 in those with level 4-5 EF at 2 years were 8%, 20%, and 23% at 3, 4, and 5 years postoperatively, and 5%, 17%, and 21% at 3, 4, and 5 years postoperatively, respectively. Younger age was predictive of greater likelihood of recovery beyond 2 years. There is continued improvement in EF beyond 2 years after BNS RP. Discussion of this prolonged time course of recovery may allow patients to have a more realistic expectation. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Motor function recovery of people of mature years after stroke by means of physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khristova T.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of applying the complex technology of physical rehabilitation are described for patients with cerebral ischemic stroke during the phase of in-patient rehabilitation. The experiment involved 36 male patients aged 45-50 years. The rehabilitation program included treatment by changing position, complex of therapeutic gymnastics (based on sanogenetic approach to the problem of motor function recovery in accordance with the stages of postnatal ontogenesis, magnetic therapy, thermotherapy of large joints of the affected extremities. Findings show that the use of the mentioned methods of treatment leads to increase of the range of motion in the hip and shoulder joints: passive of 15-20%, and active of 10-30%, muscle strength of 10-30%, improvement of motor activity indices (scale of Bobaht and quality of life (scale of Barthel.

  7. A peripheral blood transcriptome biomarker test to diagnose functional recovery potential in advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mario C

    2018-05-08

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that causes systemic hypoperfusion and failure to meet the body's metabolic demands. In an attempt to compensate, chronic upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone leads to further myocardial injury, HF progression and reduced O 2 delivery. This triggers progressive organ dysfunction, immune system activation and profound metabolic derangements, creating a milieu similar to other chronic systemic diseases and presenting as advanced HF with severely limited prognosis. We hypothesize that 1-year survival in advanced HF is linked to functional recovery potential (FRP), a novel clinical composite parameter that includes HF severity, secondary organ dysfunction, co-morbidities, frailty, disabilities as well as chronological age and that can be diagnosed by a molecular biomarker.

  8. Wet and coarse diets in broiler nutrition: development of the GI tract and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoa, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Diet structure and conformation during the starter phase play an important role in the functional development of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of broiler chicken, in particular the foregut segment.\\\\u00a0Feed structure has a significant effect on the development of the foregut segments in broiler

  9. Maresin 1 Promotes Inflammatory Resolution, Neuroprotection, and Functional Neurological Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francos-Quijorna, Isaac; Santos-Nogueira, Eva; Gronert, Karsten; Sullivan, Aaron B; Kopp, Marcel A; Brommer, Benedikt; David, Samuel; Schwab, Jan M; López-Vales, Ruben

    2017-11-29

    Resolution of inflammation is defective after spinal cord injury (SCI), which impairs tissue integrity and remodeling and leads to functional deficits. Effective pharmacological treatments for SCI are not currently available. Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a highly conserved specialized proresolving mediator (SPM) hosting potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties with potent tissue regenerative actions. Here, we provide evidence that the inappropriate biosynthesis of SPM in the lesioned spinal cord hampers the resolution of inflammation and leads to deleterious consequences on neurological outcome in adult female mice. We report that, after spinal cord contusion injury in adult female mice, the biosynthesis of SPM is not induced in the lesion site up to 2 weeks after injury. Exogenous administration of MaR1, a highly conserved SPM, propagated inflammatory resolution after SCI, as revealed by accelerated clearance of neutrophils and a reduction in macrophage accumulation at the lesion site. In the search of mechanisms underlying the proresolving actions of MaR1 in SCI, we found that this SPM facilitated several hallmarks of resolution of inflammation, including reduction of proinflammatory cytokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CCL3, CCL4, IL6, and CSF3), silencing of major inflammatory intracellular signaling cascades (STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, p38, and ERK1/2), redirection of macrophage activation toward a prorepair phenotype, and increase of the phagocytic engulfment of neutrophils by macrophages. Interestingly, MaR1 administration improved locomotor recovery significantly and mitigated secondary injury progression in a clinical relevant model of SCI. These findings suggest that proresolution, immunoresolvent therapies constitute a novel approach to improving neurological recovery after acute SCI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Inflammation is a protective response to injury or infection. To result in tissue homeostasis, inflammation has to resolve over time. Incomplete or delayed

  10. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Bettina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC, that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts, t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds, and tau (curve of the model function, measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal. Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children, and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children. No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode.

  11. Intraspinal Delivery of Polyethylene Glycol-coated Gold Nanoparticles Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastefanaki, Florentia; Jakovcevski, Igor; Poulia, Nafsika; Djogo, Nevena; Schulz, Florian; Martinovic, Tamara; Ciric, Darko; Loers, Gabrielle; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Matsas, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Failure of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate effectively after injury leads to mostly irreversible functional impairment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising candidates for drug delivery in combination with tissue-compatible reagents, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG administration in CNS injury models has received interest for potential therapy, but toxicity and low bioavailability prevents clinical application. Here we show that intraspinal delivery of PEG-functionalized 40-nm-AuNPs at early stages after mouse spinal cord injury is beneficial for recovery. Positive outcome of hind limb motor function was accompanied by attenuated inflammatory response, enhanced motor neuron survival, and increased myelination of spared or regrown/sprouted axons. No adverse effects, such as body weight loss, ill health, or increased mortality were observed. We propose that PEG-AuNPs represent a favorable drug-delivery platform with therapeutic potential that could be further enhanced if PEG-AuNPs are used as carriers of regeneration-promoting molecules.

  12. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

  13. Combined pharmacological and motor training interventions for recovery of upper limb function in subacute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Stanescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor deficit, especially in the upper limb, is the primary contributor in post-stroke disability. Recovery of motor function relies on neural plasticity – cortical plastic reorganization – a spontaneous process, which could be enhanced from early phases by rehabilitative strategies. The subacute stage after stroke is the critical period during which the brain is most receptive to rehabilitation strategies. Based on the recent results of 2 trials in stroke rehabilitation using pharmacological intervention with Cerebrolysin in combination with standardized kinesitherapy, we conducted a pilot study of 4 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, treated with Cerebrolysin for 28 days after stroke, and with intensive task-specific kinesitherapy from day 7 to day 28 after stroke. We assessed stroke severity with NIHSS score, upper limb function with ARAT (Action Research Arm Test score, disability with modified Rankin scale and patient’s autonomy with Barthel Index, at day 0 and day 30 after stroke. After 28 days of combined therapy all 4 patients improved, most significant improvement was seen in upper limb function, measured by ARAT score and in autonomy measured by Barthel Index.

  14. Fertilizer nitrogen prescription for cotton by 15N recovery method under integrated nutrient management using soil test crop response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulmozhiselvan, K.; Govindaswamy, M.; Chellamuthu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Fertilizer efficiency is a vital parameter in prescription functions to compute fertilizer requirements of crops for achieving a specific yield target. In Soil Test Crop Response (STCR) function, nitrogen fertilizer efficiency is calculated by Apparent N Recovery (ANR) method, which includes the effect of added N interaction (ANI) on soil N reserves. In order to exclude soil effect and refine STCR function, the real efficiency of fertilizer N was estimated by 15 N recovery method. By fitting 15 N recovery in the function, the fertilizer N required for a specific yield target of cotton was estimated. The estimated N requirement by 15 N recovery method was lesser than ANR method when available soil N relatively increased. The approach also fine-tuned the N contributing efficiency of soil, farmyard manure and Azospirillum under Integrated Nutrient Management (INM). For achieving 25 q of seed cotton yield in a soil having 220 kg of available N ha -1 , the predicted N requirement was 159 kg ha -1 under ANR method, whereas in 15 N recovery method fertilizer N to be applied was 138 kg ha -1 with urea alone and 79 kg ha -1 with urea + FYM + Azospirillum. (author)

  15. Effects of robot-assisted training on upper limb functional recovery during the rehabilitation of poststroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunoraviciene, Kristina; Adomaviciene, Ausra; Grigonyte, Agne; Griškevičius, Julius; Juocevicius, Alvydas

    2018-05-18

    The study aims to determine the effectiveness of robot-assisted training in the recovery of stroke-affected arms using an exoskeleton robot Armeo Spring. To identify the effect of robot training on functional recovery of the arm. A total of 34 stroke patients were divided into either an experimental group (EG; n= 17) or a control group (n= 17). EG was also trained to use the Armeo Spring during occupational therapy. Both groups were clinically assessed before and after treatment. Statistical comparison methods (i.e. one-tailed t-tests for differences between two independent means and the simplest test) were conducted to compare motor recovery using robot-assisted training or conventional therapy. Patients assigned to the EG showed a statistically significant improvement in upper extremity motor function when compared to the CG by FIM (Peffect in the EG and CG was meaningful for shoulder and elbow kinematic parameters. The findings show the benefits of robot therapy in two areas of functional recovery. Task-oriented robotic training in rehabilitation setting facilitates recovery not only of the motor function of the paretic arm but also of the cognitive abilities in stroke patients.

  16. Causal Link between the Cortico-Rubral Pathway and Functional Recovery through Forced Impaired Limb Use in Rats with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Isa, Kaoru; Umeda, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kobayashi, Kenta; Hida, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation is believed to induce use-dependent plasticity in the injured nervous system; however, its causal relationship to functional recovery is unclear. Here, we performed systematic analysis of the effects of forced use of an impaired forelimb on the recovery of rats after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Forced limb use (FLU) group rats exhibited better recovery of skilled forelimb functions and their cortical motor area with forelimb representation was restored and enlarged on the ipsilesional side. In addition, abundant axonal sprouting from the reemerged forelimb area was found in the ipsilateral red nucleus after FLU. To test the causal relationship between the plasticity in the cortico-rubral pathway and recovery, loss-of-function experiments were conducted using a double-viral vector technique, which induces selective blockade of the target pathway. Blockade of the cortico-rubral tract resulted in deficits of the recovered forelimb function in FLU group rats. These findings suggest that the cortico-rubral pathway is a substrate for recovery induced by intensive rehabilitation after ICH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The research aimed at determining the causal linkage between reorganization of the motor pathway induced by intensive rehabilitative training and recovery after stroke. We clarified the expansion of the forelimb representation area of the ipsilesional motor cortex by forced impaired forelimb use (FLU) after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhaging (ICH) in rats. Anterograde tracing showed robust axonal sprouting from the forelimb area to the red nucleus in response to FLU. Selective blockade of the cortico-rubral pathway by the novel double-viral vector technique clearly revealed that the increased cortico-rubral axonal projections had causal linkage to the recovery of reaching movements induced by FLU. Our data demonstrate that the cortico-rubral pathway is responsible for the

  17. Primed Physical Therapy Enhances Recovery of Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerley, Suzanne J; Byblow, Winston D; Barber, P Alan; MacDonald, Hayley; McIntyre-Robinson, Andrew; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-05-01

    Recovery of upper limb function is important for regaining independence after stroke. To test the effects of priming upper limb physical therapy with intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation. Eighteen adults with first-ever chronic monohemispheric subcortical stroke participated in this randomized, controlled, triple-blinded trial. Intervention consisted of priming with real or sham iTBS to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex immediately before 45 minutes of upper limb physical therapy, daily for 10 days. Changes in upper limb function (Action Research Arm Test [ARAT]), upper limb impairment (Fugl-Meyer Scale), and corticomotor excitability, were assessed before, during, and immediately, 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired before and at one month after the intervention. Improvements in ARAT were observed after the intervention period when therapy was primed with real iTBS, but not sham, and were maintained at 1 month. These improvements were not apparent halfway through the intervention, indicating a dose effect. Improvements in ARAT at 1 month were related to balancing of corticomotor excitability and an increase in ipsilesional premotor cortex activation during paretic hand grip. Two weeks of iTBS-primed therapy improves upper limb function at the chronic stage of stroke, for at least 1 month postintervention, whereas therapy alone may not be sufficient to alter function. This indicates a potential role for iTBS as an adjuvant to therapy delivered at the chronic stage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eHoogewoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  19. Long-term follow-up of patients after acute kidney injury: patterns of renal functional recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Macedo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients who survive acute kidney injury (AKI, especially those with partial renal recovery, present a higher long-term mortality risk. However, there is no consensus on the best time to assess renal function after an episode of acute kidney injury or agreement on the definition of renal recovery. In addition, only limited data regarding predictors of recovery are available. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: From 1984 to 2009, 84 adult survivors of acute kidney injury were followed by the same nephrologist (RCRMA for a median time of 4.1 years. Patients were seen at least once each year after discharge until end stage renal disease (ESRD or death. In each consultation serum creatinine was measured and glomerular filtration rate estimated. Renal recovery was defined as a glomerular filtration rate value ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. A multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate factors independently associated with renal recovery. RESULTS: The median length of follow-up was 50 months (30-90 months. All patients had stabilized their glomerular filtration rates by 18 months and 83% of them stabilized earlier: up to 12 months. Renal recovery occurred in 16 patients (19% at discharge and in 54 (64% by 18 months. Six patients died and four patients progressed to ESRD during the follow up period. Age (OR 1.09, p<0.0001 and serum creatinine at hospital discharge (OR 2.48, p = 0.007 were independent factors associated with non renal recovery. The acute kidney injury severity, evaluated by peak serum creatinine and need for dialysis, was not associated with non renal recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Renal recovery must be evaluated no earlier than one year after an acute kidney injury episode. Nephrology referral should be considered mainly for older patients and those with elevated serum creatinine at hospital discharge.

  20. Functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury: an evidence-based review for clinical practice and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, K.; Aito, S.; Atkins, M.

    2008-01-01

    ), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Quadriplegia Index of Function (QIF), and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The MBI and the QIF were found to have minimal evidence for validity, whereas the FIM and the SCIM were found to be reliable and valid. The MBI has little clinical utility for use......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The end goal of clinical care and clinical research involving spinal cord injury (SCI) is to improve the overall ability of persons living with SCI to function on a daily basis. Neurologic recovery does not always translate into functional recovery. Thus, sensitive outcome...... measures designed to assess functional status relevant to SCI are important to develop. METHOD: Evaluation of currently available SCI functional outcome measures by a multinational work group. RESULTS: The 4 measures that fit the prespecified inclusion criteria were the Modified Barthel Index (MBI...

  1. Clenbuterol-Stimulated Glucose Uptake Activates both GS and GI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β2-adrenoceptors activated by adrenaline can also couple to both Gs and Gi proteins. The former is associated with an increase in cAMP to illicit the effect of the catecholamine. In the later, β2-AR induces PKA-catalysed phosphorylation of the receptor, which intends couples to Gi, at high concentration. We proposed that ...

  2. Õhuvägi loobus USA pakutud lennukitest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Eesti õhuvägi loobus USA poolt kingituseks pakutud kahest sõjaväe transportlennukist Sherpa C-23B+. Põhjalikuma analüüsi tulemusel on kaalumisel alternatiivsed variandid ja Sherpasid õhuvägi praeguse seisuga kasutusse ei võta, ütles kaitseväe peastaabi pressiesindaja

  3. Internationally recognised armed forces / Urmas Roosimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosimägi, Urmas

    1999-01-01

    Eesti Kaitseväe juhataja kohusetäitja kolonel Urmas Roosimägi Eesti kaitseväest, osalemisest NATO-PFP (NATO-Partnership for Peace) programmis ja sõjalisest koostööst NATO partnerriikidega. Urmas Roosimägi biograafia. Programm Partnerlus Rahu Nimel

  4. Nutritional Improvement and Energy Intake Are Associated with Functional Recovery in Patients after Cerebrovascular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Maria; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Shinta; Tanaka, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition affects the activities of daily living (ADLs) in convalescent patients with cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the relationship between nutritional improvement, energy intake at admission, and recovery of ADLs. We evaluated 67 patients with cerebrovascular disorders admitted to our rehabilitation hospital between April 2013 and April 2015. These patients received interventions from the rehabilitation nutritional support team according to the following criteria: weight loss of 2 kg or more and body mass index of 19 kg/m(2) or lower. Exclusion criteria included a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or higher, duration of intervention of less than 14 days, or transfer to an acute care hospital because of clinical deterioration. We assessed nutritional status using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and ADL using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, FIM gain, and FIM efficiency. The mean age of the patients was 78.7 ± 8.0 years. The numbers of patients in each category of cerebrovascular disorder were 39 with cerebral infarction, 16 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 8 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 4 others. Compared with the counterpart group, the group with an improvement in GNRI had a greater gain in FIM (median 17 and 20, respectively; P = .036) and a higher FIM efficiency (.14 and .22, respectively; P = .020). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that an improvement in GNRI, increasing energy intake at admission, and intracerebral hemorrhage were associated independently with greater FIM efficiency. This study suggested that nutritional improvement and energy intake at admission are associated with recovery of ADL after cerebrovascular disorders. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

    2002-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and

  6. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  7. Recovery coefficients for the quantification of the arterial input function from dynamic pet measurements: experimental and theoretical determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, G.; Bellemann, M.E.; Hauser, H.; Doll, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: For kinetic modelling of dynamic PET data, the arterial input function can be determined directly from the PET scans if a large artery is visualized on the images. It was the purpose of this study to experimentally and theoretically determine recovery coefficients for cylinders as a function of the diameter and level of background activity. Methods: The measurements were performed using a phantom with seven cylinder inserts (φ = 5-46 mm). The cylinders were filled with an aqueous 68 Ga solution while the main chamber was filled with a 18 F solution in order to obtain a varying concentration ratio between the cylinders and the background due to the different isotope half lives. After iterative image reconstruction, the activity concentrations were measured in the center of the cylinders and the recovery coefficients were calculated as a function of the diameter and the background activity. Based on the imaging properties of the PET system, we also developed a model for the quantitative assessment of recovery coefficients. Results: The functional dependence of the measured recovery data from the cylinder diameter and the concentration ratio is well described by our model. For dynamic PET measurements, the recovery correction must take into account the decreasing concentration ratio between the blood vessel and the surrounding tissue. Under the realized measurement and data analysis conditions, a recovery correction is required for vessels with a diameter of up to 25 mm. Conclusions: Based on the experimentally verified model, the activity concentration in large arteries can be calculated from the measured activity concentration in the blood vessel and the background activity. The presented approach offers the possibility to determine the arterial input function for pharmacokinetic PET studies non-invasively from large arteries (especially the aorta). (orig.) [de

  8. Functional recovery in rat spinal cord injury induced by hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Gang; Hu, Sheng-Li; Hu, Rong; Wu, Nan; Chen, Zhi; Meng, Hui; Lin, Jiang-Kai; Feng, Hua

    2012-12-01

    It is a common belief that neurosurgical interventions can cause inevitable damage resulting from the procedure itself in surgery especially for intramedullary spinal cord tumors. The present study was designed to examine if hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) was neuroprotective against surgical injuries using a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: HBO-PC group, hypobaric hypoxic preconditioning (HH-PC) control group, and normobaric control group. All groups were subjected to SCI by weight drop device. Rats from each group were examined for neurological behavior and electrophysiological function. Tissue sections were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry, TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, and axonal tract tracing. Significant neurological deficits were observed after SCI and HBO-PC and HH-PC improved neurological deficits 1 week post-injury. The latencies of motor-evoked potential and somatosensory-evoked potential were significantly delayed after SCI, which was attenuated by HBO-PC and HH-PC. Compared with normobaric control group, pretreatment with HBO and hypobaric hypoxia significantly reduced the number of TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells, and increased nestin-positive cells. HBO-PC and HH-PC enhanced axonal growth after SCI. In conclusion, preconditioning with HBO and hypobaric hypoxia can facilitate functional recovery and suppress cell apoptosis after SCI and may prove to be a useful preventive strategy to neurosurgical SCI.

  9. Functional Recovery in Chronic Stage of Spinal Cord Injury by Neurorestorative Approach: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI at an early age can be debilitating for the child’s growth. Current treatments show a level of stagnancy, after which the recovery is minimal. Cellular therapy is an emerging area of research and has been found to possess many benefits in the previous studies. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs has demonstrated therapeutic potential for many neurological conditions, including spinal cord injury. Here we report a case of 6-year-old girl with traumatic SCI at the level of C7-D1 4 years back, who underwent 2 doses of cell transplantation with autologous BMMNCs with an interval of 6 months along with standard rehabilitation. The patient did not have any major or minor side effects. The patient showed clinical improvements throughout the 6 months after transplantation, which was assessed using Functional Independence Measure (before: 82, after: 101 out of 126. There were patchy areas of sensory gain in bilateral feet recorded, with improvements in the bladder sensation and control. Improved gait was seen as a result of better strength in abdominals and back extensors. The fact that there was functional improvement in the chronic plateau phase indicates the potential of cell therapy in chronic SCI. Further clinical studies are warranted.

  10. A SOA broker solution for standard discovery and access services: the GI-cat framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    GI-cat ideal users are data providers or service providers within the geoscience community. The former have their data already available through an access service (e.g. an OGC Web Service) and would have it published through a standard catalog service, in a seamless way. The latter would develop a catalog broker and let users query and access different geospatial resources through one or more standard interfaces and Application Profiles (AP) (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP, CSW ebRIM/EO AP, etc.). GI-cat actually implements a broker components (i.e. a middleware service) which carries out distribution and mediation functionalities among "well-adopted" catalog interfaces and data access protocols. GI-cat also publishes different discovery interfaces: the OGC CSW ISO and ebRIM Application Profiles (the latter coming with support for the EO and CIM extension packages) and two different OpenSearch interfaces developed in order to explore Web 2.0 possibilities. An extended interface is also available to exploit all available GI-cat features, such as interruptible incremental queries and queries feedback. Interoperability tests performed in the context of different projects have also pointed out the importance to enforce compatibility with existing and wide-spread tools of the open source community (e.g. GeoNetwork and Deegree catalogs), which was then achieved. Based on a service-oriented framework of modular components, GI-cat can effectively be customized and tailored to support different deployment scenarios. In addition to the distribution functionality an harvesting approach has been lately experimented, allowing the user to switch between a distributed and a local search giving thus more possibilities to support different deployment scenarios. A configurator tool is available in order to enable an effective high level configuration of the broker service. A specific geobrowser was also naturally developed, for demonstrating the advanced GI-cat functionalities. This client

  11. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  12. Flourishing With Psychosis: A Prospective Examination on the Interactions Between Clinical, Functional, and Personal Recovery Processes on Well-being Among Individuals with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Randolph C H; Mak, Winnie W S; Chio, Floria H N; Tong, Alan C Y

    2017-09-08

    Well-being is not just the absence of mental disorder but also involves positive feelings and contentment (emotional well-being), meaningful engagement (psychological well-being), and contribution of one's community or society (social well-being). Recovery processes, which encompass mitigation of clinical symptomatology (clinical recovery), improvement in occupational, social, and adaptive functioning (functional recovery), and development of personally valued goals and identity (personal recovery), have demonstrated to be important markers of well-being. This study examined the relative contribution of clinical, functional, and personal recovery processes on well-being among individuals with schizophrenia and explored the effect of personal recovery on people with varying levels of symptom severity and functional ability. A longitudinal quantitative research design was used in which 181 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed at baseline and 6 months. At baseline, 28.2% of the participants were considered as flourishing. Around half of the participants (52.5%) were moderately mentally healthy, while 19.3% were identified as languishing. Results showed that clinical recovery was predictive of better well-being at 6-month postbaseline. Personal recovery was found to positively predict well-being, above and beyond the effects of clinical and functional recovery. Moderation analysis showed that the effect of personal recovery on well-being did not depend on clinical and functional recovery, which implied that people with schizophrenia can participate in the process of personal recovery and enjoy positive well-being regardless of their clinical stability and functional competence. Given the robust salutogenic effect of personal recovery, greater emphasis should be placed on developing person-centered, strength-based, recovery-oriented services. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research

  13. Impaired cerebrovascular function in coronary artery disease patients and recovery following cardiac rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udunna C Anazodo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD poses a risk to the cerebrovascular function of older adults and has been linked to impaired cognitive abilities. Using magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we investigated changes in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR to hypercapnia in 34 coronary artery disease (CAD patients and 21 age-matched controls. Gray matter volume images were acquired and used as a confounding variable to separate changes in structure from function. Compared to healthy controls, CAD patients demonstrated reduced CBF in the superior frontal, anterior cingulate, insular, pre- and post-central gyri, middle temporal and superior temporal regions. Subsequent analysis of these regions demonstrated decreased CVR in the anterior cingulate, insula, postcentral and superior frontal regions. Except in the superior frontal and precentral regions, regional reductions in CBF and CVR were identified in brain areas where no detectable reductions in gray matter volume were observed, demonstrating that these vascular changes were independent of brain atrophy. Because aerobic fitness training can improve brain function, potential changes in regional CBF were investigated in the CAD patients after completion of a 6-month exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program. Increased CBF was observed in the bilateral anterior cingulate, as well as recovery of CBF in the dorsal aspect of the right anterior cingulate, where the magnitude of increased CBF was roughly equal to the reduction in CBF at baseline compared to controls. These exercise-related improvements in CBF in the anterior cingulate is intriguing given the role of this area in cognitive processing and regulation of cardiovascular autonomic control.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P.; Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C.; Lyon, W.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ''functionally equivalent.'' The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator's carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers' specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times

  15. Understanding recovery: changes in the relationships of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) components over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Ibrahim, S; Hogg-Johnson, S; Wong, R; Badley, E M

    2012-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework describes human functioning through body structure and function, activity and participation in the context of a person's social and physical environment. This work tested the temporal relationships of these components. Our hypotheses were: 1) there would be associations among physical impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions within time; 2) prior status of a component would be associated with future status; 3) prior status of one component would influence status of a second component (e.g. prior activity limitations would be associated with current participation restrictions); and, 4) the magnitude of the within time relationships of the components would vary over time. Participants from Canada with primary hip or knee joint replacement (n = 931), an intervention with predictable improvement in pain and disability, completed standardized outcome measures pre-surgery and five times in the first year post-surgery. These included physical impairment (pain), activity limitations and participation restrictions. ICF component relationships were evaluated cross-sectionally and longitudinally using path analysis adjusting for age, sex, BMI, hip vs. knee, low back pain and mood. All component scores improved significantly over time. The path coefficients supported the hypotheses in that both within and across time, physical impairment was associated with activity limitation and activity limitation was associated with participation restriction; prior status and change in a component were associated with current status in another component; and, the magnitude of the path coefficients varied over time with stronger associations among components to three months post surgery than later in recovery with the exception of the association between impairment and participation restrictions which was of similar magnitude at all times. This work enhances understanding of the

  16. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  17. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  18. Executive Functions, Memory, and Social Cognitive Deficits and Recovery in Chronic Alcoholism: A Critical Review to Inform Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholism is a complex and dynamic disease, punctuated by periods of abstinence and relapse, and influenced by a multitude of vulnerability factors. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe, in executive functions, memory, and metacognitive abilities, with associated impairment in emotional processes and social cognition. These deficits can compromise efforts in initiating and sustaining abstinence by hampering efficacy of clinical treatment and can obstruct efforts in enabling good decision making success in interpersonal/social interactions, and awareness of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Despite evidence for differences in recovery levels of selective cognitive processes, certain deficits can persist even with prolonged sobriety. Herein is presented a review of alcohol-related cognitive impairments affecting component processes of executive functioning, memory, and the recently investigated cognitive domains of metamemory, social cognition, and emotional processing; also considered are trajectories of cognitive recovery with abstinence. Finally, in the spirit of critical review, limitations of current knowledge are noted and avenues for new research efforts are proposed that focus on (i) the interaction among emotion-cognition processes and identification of vulnerability factors contributing to the development of emotional and social processing deficits and (ii) the time line of cognitive recovery by tracking alcoholism's dynamic course of sobriety and relapse. Knowledge about the heterochronicity of cognitive recovery in alcoholism has the potential of indicating at which points during recovery intervention may be most beneficial. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: Sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  20. Predictive factors of hospital stay, mortality and functional recovery after surgery for hip fracture in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja Sierra, T; Bartolomé Martín, I; Rodríguez Solís, J; Bárcena Goitiandia, L; Torralba González de Suso, M; Morales Sanz, M D; Hornillos Calvo, M

    Due to its high prevalence and serious consequences it is very important to be well aware of factors that might be related to medical complications, mortality, hospital stay and functional recovery in elderly patients with hip fracture. A prospective study of a group of 130 patients aged over 75 years admitted for osteoporotic hip fracture. Their medical records, physical and cognitive status prior to the fall, fracture type and surgical treatment, medical complications and functional and social evolution after hospitalization were evaluated. Patients with greater physical disability, more severe cognitive impairment and those who lived in a nursing home before the fracture had worse functional recovery after surgery. Treatment with intravenous iron to reduce transfusions reduced hospital stay and improved walking ability. Infections and heart failure were the most frequent medical complications and were related to a longer hospital stay. The prescription of nutritional supplements for the patients with real indication improved their physical recovery after the hip fracture CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of physical, cognitive and social status prior to hip fracture should be the basis of an individual treatment plan because of its great prognostic value. Multidisciplinary teams with continuous monitoring of medical problems should prevent and treat complications as soon as possible. Intravenous iron and specific nutritional supplements can improve functional recovery six months after hip fracture. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of in vivo postexercise phosphocreatine recovery and resting ATP synthesis flux for the assessment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den N.M.A.; Ciapaite, J.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo by measuring 1) phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery after exercise or 2) resting ATP synthesis flux with saturation transfer (ST). In this study, we compared both parameters in a rat model of

  2. Profound differences in spontaneous long-term functional recovery after defined spinal tract lesions in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, William T J; Eggers, R.; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Blits, Bas; Hamers, Frank P T; Verhaagen, J.; Boer, Gerard J

    The purpose of this study was to compare spontaneous functional recovery after different spinal motor tract lesions in the rat spinal cord using three methods of analysis, the BBB, the rope test, and the CatWalk. We transected the dorsal corticospinal tract (CSTx) or the rubrospinal tract (RSTx) or

  3. Evaluation of functionalized silica's for the adsorptive recovery of homogeneous catalysts through interaction with the metal centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djekic, T.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the evaluation of functionalized silica's for the recovery of homogeneous catalysts by adsorption via its metal centre. As model catalysts, we selected bis(triphenylphosphine)cobalt(II)dichloride (CoCl2(PPh3)2), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)dichloride (PdCl2(PPh3)2)

  4. Evaluation of functionalized silica¿s for the adsorptive recovery of homogenous catalysts through interaction with the metal centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djekic, T.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the evaluation of functionalized silica's for the recovery of homogeneous catalysts by adsorption via its metal centre. As model catalysts, we selected bis(triphenylphosphine)cobalt(II)dichloride (CoCl2(PPh3)2), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)dichloride (PdCl2(PPh3)2)

  5. Combined polymer-curcumin conjugate and ependymal progenitor/stem cell treatment enhances spinal cord injury functional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo-Aguilar, Raquel; Alastrue-Agudo, Ana; Cases-Villar, Marta; Lopez-Mocholi, Eric; England, Richard; Vicent, María J; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) suffers from a lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Animal models of acute SCI have provided evidence that transplantation of ependymal stem/progenitor cells of the spinal cord (epSPCs) induces functional recovery, while systemic administration of the anti-inflammatory curcumin provides neuroprotection. However, functional recovery from chronic stage SCI requires additional enhancements in available therapeutic strategies. Herein, we report on a combination treatment for SCI using epSPCs and a pH-responsive polymer-curcumin conjugate. The incorporation of curcumin in a pH-responsive polymeric carrier mainchain, a polyacetal (PA), enhances blood bioavailability, stability, and provides a means for highly localized delivery. We find that PA-curcumin enhances neuroprotection, increases axonal growth, and can improve functional recovery in acute SCI. However, when combined with epSPCs, PA-curcumin also enhances functional recovery in a rodent model of chronic SCI. This suggests that combination therapy may be an exciting new therapeutic option for the treatment of chronic SCI in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walls, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality.

  7. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  8. A tulajdonnév funkciója a görög mitológiában. [The function of names in Greek mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slíz, Mariann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the mythological function of names in Greek myths, emphasizing though that most of the observed functions are not typical in mythology in general. Names were collected from the general work “Görög mitológia [Greek Mythology]” (1977/1997 by KÁROLY KERÉNYI, a scholarly book paying attention even to the different versions of the myths, and, occasionally, from the popular work “Görög regék [Greek Tales]” (1976 by IMRE TRENCSÉNYI-WALDAPFEL. The research focuses rather on the overall mythological function of names and name types, and also on the interrelations of names than on the etymologies of names. Topics presented in the paper include the specific transitionary state of mythological names between common and proper nouns and the frequent changes between these two categories; the synonymity of names (e.g. in connection with the several names of a god; names compressing the storyline of a myth; the appearance of a new name as a linguistic manifestation of the change in one’s mythological role; pseudonyms as indicators of temporary mythological roles; and the magic function of names.

  9. Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA) Using Generalized Radial Basis Function Neural Networks for Nonlinear Functional Connectivity Network Recovery in Resting-State Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Adora M; Abidin, Anas Zainul; Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-29

    We investigate the applicability of a computational framework, called mutual connectivity analysis (MCA), for directed functional connectivity analysis in both synthetic and resting-state functional MRI data. This framework comprises of first evaluating non-linear cross-predictability between every pair of time series prior to recovering the underlying network structure using community detection algorithms. We obtain the non-linear cross-prediction score between time series using Generalized Radial Basis Functions (GRBF) neural networks. These cross-prediction scores characterize the underlying functionally connected networks within the resting brain, which can be extracted using non-metric clustering approaches, such as the Louvain method. We first test our approach on synthetic models with known directional influence and network structure. Our method is able to capture the directional relationships between time series (with an area under the ROC curve = 0.92 ± 0.037) as well as the underlying network structure (Rand index = 0.87 ± 0.063) with high accuracy. Furthermore, we test this method for network recovery on resting-state fMRI data, where results are compared to the motor cortex network recovered from a motor stimulation sequence, resulting in a strong agreement between the two (Dice coefficient = 0.45). We conclude that our MCA approach is effective in analyzing non-linear directed functional connectivity and in revealing underlying functional network structure in complex systems.

  10. Polymer/reduced graphene oxide functionalized sponges as superabsorbents for oil removal and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Wu, Wen-Ping; Ravindranath, Rini; Roy, Prathik; Lin, Guan-Lin; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2017-01-30

    Polyurethane dish-washing (PU-DW) sponges are functionalized sequentially with polyethylenimine (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO) to form PEI/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) PU-DW sponges. The PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge consists of PEI/RGO sheets having numerous pores, with diameters ranging from 236 to 254nm. To further enhance hydrophobicity and absorption capacity of oil, PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge is further coated with 20% phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS). The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge absorbs various oils within 20s, with maximum absorption capacity values of 880% and 840% for bicycle chain oil and motorcycle engine oil, respectively. The absorbed oils were released completely by squeezing or immersed in hexane. The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge efficiently separates oil/water mixtures through a flowing system. Having the advantages of faster absorption rate, reusability, and low cost, the PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge holds great potential as a superabsorbent for efficient removal and recovery of oil spills as well as for the separation of oil/water mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY AFTER MINIMALLY INVASIVE OSTEOSYNTHESIS IN FRACTURES OF THE SHAFT OF THE RADIUS AND ULNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chelnokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Closed intramedullary nailing and external fixation are minimally invasive treatment options in radial and ulnar shaft fractures. We found no comparative studies of these methods in the current literature. Objective. A comparative analysis of both methods in radial and ulnar shaft fractures treated by closed intramedullary nailing and external fixation. Material and methods. 63 patients with forearm shaft fractures treated by closed intramedullary nailing (group I; 24 patients treated by external fixation (group II. All patients were operated within 30 days after injury. Postoperatively, all patients were evaluated clinically (range of motion of elbow and wrist, rotation of the forearm and radiologically. Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH score was used to assess the functional status and quality of life. Results. The average time of radiological bone union in the group I and group II was 12,6 ± 1,4 weeks. and 12,7 ± 0,6 weeks, accordingly. Statistically significant differences in range of motion in the elbow and wrist occurred in 1 month after the surgery with the advantage in Group I. Restoration of rotation was faster in Group I up to 1 year after surgery. DASH scores in 2 month after the surgery were 11,2±1,96 in the nailing group (as in healthy population and 45,2±6,7 in the external fixation group. In 6 months after surgery the subjective assessment of the quality of life did not differ in both groups. Conclusion. Both minimally invasive methods of surgical stabilization provide restoration of anatomy of the forearm and complete functional recovery in final outcome, but closed intramedullary nailing results with significantly more rapid restoration of range of motions and quality of life measures.

  12. Mechanisms underlying the promotion of functional recovery by deferoxamine after spinal cord injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deferoxamine, a clinically safe drug used for treating iron overload, also repairs spinal cord injury although the mechanism for this action remains unknown. Here, we determined whether deferoxamine was therapeutic in a rat model of spinal cord injury and explored potential mechanisms for this effect. Spinal cord injury was induced by impacting the spinal cord at the thoracic T10 vertebra level. One group of injured rats received deferoxamine, a second injured group received saline, and a third group was sham operated. Both 2 days and 2 weeks after spinal cord injury, total iron ion levels and protein expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β and the pro-apoptotic protein caspase-3 in the spinal cords of the injured deferoxamine-treated rats were significantly lower than those in the injured saline-treated group. The percentage of the area positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells were also significantly decreased both 2 days and 2 weeks post injury, while the number of NeuN-positive cells and the percentage of the area positive for the oligodendrocyte marker CNPase were increased in the injured deferoxamine-treated rats. At 14–56 days post injury, hind limb motor function in the deferoxamine-treated rats was superior to that in the saline-treated rats. These results suggest that deferoxamine decreases total iron ion, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and caspase-3 expression levels after spinal cord injury and inhibits apoptosis and glial scar formation to promote motor function recovery.

  13. Analysis of left ventricular function of the mouse heart during experimentally induced hyperthyroidism and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Neele Saskia; Merkle, Annette; Jung, Bernd; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Harsan, Laura-Adela

    2015-01-01

    Many of the clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism are due to the ability of thyroid hormones to alter myocardial contractility and cardiovascular hemodynamics, leading to cardiovascular impairment. In contrast, recent studies highlight also the potential beneficial effects of thyroid hormone administration for clinical or preclinical treatment of different diseases such as atherosclerosis, obesity and diabetes or as a new therapeutic approach in demyelinating disorders. In these contexts and in the view of developing thyroid hormone-based therapeutic strategies, it is, however, important to analyze undesirable secondary effects on the heart. Animal models of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism therefore represent important tools for investigating and monitoring changes of cardiac function. In our present study we use high-field cardiac MRI to monitor and follow-up longitudinally the effects of prolonged thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) administration focusing on murine left ventricular function. Using a 9.4 T small horizontal bore animal scanner, cinematographic MRI was used to analyze changes in ejection fraction, wall thickening, systolic index and fractional shortening. Cardiac MRI investigations were performed after sustained cycles of triiodothyronine administration and treatment arrest in adolescent (8 week old) and adult (24 week old) female C57Bl/6 N mice. Triiodothyronine supplementation of 3 weeks led to an impairment of cardiac performance with a decline in ejection fraction, wall thickening, systolic index and fractional shortening in both age groups but with a higher extent in the group of adolescent mice. However, after a hormonal treatment cessation of 3 weeks, only young mice are able to partly restore cardiac performance in contrast to adult mice lacking this recovery potential and therefore indicating a presence of chronically developed heart pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative [3H]BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of [3H]SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of [3H]sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of [3H]BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat

  15. The Effects of Repeated Rehabilitation “Tune-Ups” on Functional Recovery After Focal Ischemia in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Jared; Rytter, Hana Malá; Windle, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    of stroke recovery. Methods. Rats were exposed to focal ischemia (endothelin-1 applied to forelimb sensorimotor cortex and dorsolateral striatum) and allowed to recover either in standard housing or in a combination of enriched environment and rehabilitative reaching for 9 weeks. Animals were then exposed...... complexity in the contralesional forelimb motor cortex. Results. Although early enriched rehabilitation significantly improved sensorimotor function in both the beam and staircase tests, “tune-up” therapy had no effect on recovery. Golgi–Cox analysis revealed no effect of treatment on dendritic complexity...

  16. Expression of bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gI and gIII in transfected murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, D.R.; Zamb, T.; Parker, M.D.; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S.; Babiuk, L.A.; Lawman, M.J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Genes encoding two of the major glycoproteins of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), gI and gIII, were cloned into the eucaryotic expression vectors pRSVcat and pSV2neo and transfected into murine LMTK - cells, and cloned cell lines were established. The relative amounts of gI or gIII expressed from the two vectors were similar. Expression of gI was cell associated and localized predominantly in the perinuclear region, but nuclear and plasma membrane staining was also observed. Expression of gI was additionally associated with cell fusion and the formation of polykaryons and giant cells. Expression of gIII was localized predominantly in the nuclear and plasma membranes. Radioimmunoprecipitation in the presence or absence of tunicamycin revealed that the recombinant glycoproteins were proteolytically processed and glycosylated and had molecular weights similar to those of the forms of gI and gIII expressed in BHV-1 infected bovine cells. However, both recombinant glycoproteins were glycosylated to a lesser extent than were the forms found in BHV-1 infected bovine cells. For gI, a deficiency in N-linked glycosylated of the amino-terminal half of the protein was identified; for gIII, a deficiency in O-linked glycosylation was implicated. The reactivity pattern of a panel of gI- and gIII-specific monoclonal antibodies, including six which recognize conformation-dependent epitopes, was found to be unaffected by the glycosylation differences and was identical for transfected of BHV-1-infected murine cells. Use of the transfected cells as targets in immune-mediated cytotoxicity assays demonstrated the functional recognition of recombinant gI and gIII by murine antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes

  17. Effects of Dietary Yogurt on the Healthy Human Gastrointestinal (GI) Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Daniel J.; Johnston, G. Patricia; Johnston, Carl G.

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract performs key functions that regulate the relationship between the host and the microbiota. Research has shown numerous benefits of probiotic intake in the modulation of immune responses and human metabolic processes. However, unfavorable attention has been paid to temporal changes of the microbial composition and diversity of the GI tract. This study aimed to investigate the effects of yogurt consumption on the GI microbiome bacteria community composition, structure and diversity during and after a short-term period (42 days). We used a multi-approach combining classical fingerprinting techniques (T-RFLPs), Sanger analyses and Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to elucidate bacterial communities and Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria populations within healthy adults that consume high doses of yogurt daily. Results indicated that overall GI microbial community and diversity was method-dependent, yet we found individual specific changes in bacterial composition and structure in healthy subjects that consumed high doses of yogurt throughout the study. PMID:28212267

  18. Effects of Dietary Yogurt on the Healthy Human Gastrointestinal (GI Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Lisko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract performs key functions that regulate the relationship between the host and the microbiota. Research has shown numerous benefits of probiotic intake in the modulation of immune responses and human metabolic processes. However, unfavorable attention has been paid to temporal changes of the microbial composition and diversity of the GI tract. This study aimed to investigate the effects of yogurt consumption on the GI microbiome bacteria community composition, structure and diversity during and after a short-term period (42 days. We used a multi-approach combining classical fingerprinting techniques (T-RFLPs, Sanger analyses and Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to elucidate bacterial communities and Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria populations within healthy adults that consume high doses of yogurt daily. Results indicated that overall GI microbial community and diversity was method-dependent, yet we found individual specific changes in bacterial composition and structure in healthy subjects that consumed high doses of yogurt throughout the study.

  19. Functional Recovery Following Pertrochanteric Hip Fractures Fixated with the Dynamic Hip Screw vs. the Percutaneous Compression Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yocheved Laufer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS is currently the most frequently used implant for the treatment of pertrochanteric hip fractures. The Percutaneous Compression Plate (PCCP is a recently developed, alternative device that involves minimal invasive surgery. The objective of the present study was to compare functional recovery following these two surgical procedures. A total of 76 consecutive elderly subjects (mean age and standard deviation, 80.6 ± 5.5 following pertrochanteric hip fracture fixation were evaluated prospectively. Functional recovery was assessed 3 and 12 weeks and 2 years following surgery. Differences between groups 3 weeks postsurgery were found only in pain level during ambulation and in the weight-bearing capability of the operated extremity, which were both in favor of the PCCP. By 3 months, both groups had improved in all measures, but did not reach their preinjury level of independence. However, the PCCP group ambulated with fewer assistive devices and demonstrated better recovery of basic activities of daily living (BADL. While the majority of the subjects from both groups ambulated independently 2 years postsurgery, the PCCP group exhibited less pain during ambulation, was more independent in ADL, and required fewer assistive devices for ambulation. To summarize, the PCCP presents enhanced short- and long-term recovery of functional abilities in comparison to DHS. However, given the limited number of patients, further studies are necessary to substantiate these results.

  20. Obese Japanese Patients with Stroke Have Higher Functional Recovery in Convalescent Rehabilitation Wards: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Shinta; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Yoshida, Tomomi; Mori, Natsumi; Watanabe, Riko; Nishioka, Emi

    2016-01-01

    A protective effect of excessive body mass index (BMI) on mortality or functional outcome in patients with stroke is not well established in the Asian population. This study aimed to explore whether obese patients with stroke have advantages for functional improvement in Japanese rehabilitation wards. This retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients with stroke admitted and discharged from convalescent rehabilitation wards between 2011 and 2015. Demographic data, BMI, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, and nutritional status were analyzed. Participants were classified into 4 groups according to BMI (underweight stroke may have some advantages for functional recovery in rehabilitation wards. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of renal function among ESRD patients in the US medicare program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients started on long term hemodialysis have typically had low rates of reported renal recovery with recent estimates ranging from 0.9-2.4% while higher rates of recovery have been reported in cohorts with higher percentages of patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. STUDY DESIGN: Our analysis followed approximately 194,000 patients who were initiated on hemodialysis during a 2-year period (2008 & 2009 with CMS-2728 forms submitted to CMS by dialysis facilities, cross-referenced with patient record updates through the end of 2010, and tracked through December 2010 in the CMS SIMS registry. RESULTS: We report a sustained renal recovery (i.e no return to ESRD during the available follow up period rate among Medicare ESRD patients of > 5% - much higher than previously reported. Recovery occurred primarily in the first 2 months post incident dialysis, and was more likely in cases with renal failure secondary to etiologies associated with acute kidney injury. Patients experiencing sustained recovery were markedly less likely than true long-term ESRD patients to have permanent vascular accesses in place at incident hemodialysis, while non-White patients, and patients with any prior nephrology care appeared to have significantly lower rates of renal recovery. We also found widespread geographic variation in the rates of renal recovery across the United States. CONCLUSIONS: Renal recovery rates in the US Medicare ESRD program are higher than previously reported and appear to have significant geographic variation. Patients with diagnoses associated with acute kidney injury who are initiated on long-term hemodialysis have significantly higher rates of renal recovery than the general ESRD population and lower rates of permanent access placement.

  2. Orchestrating change: The thyroid hormones and GI-tract development in flatfish metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A S; Alves, R N; Rønnestad, I; Power, D M

    2015-09-01

    Metamorphosis in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) is a late post-embryonic developmental event that prepares the organism for the larval-to-juvenile transition. Thyroid hormones (THs) play a central role in flatfish metamorphosis and the basic elements that constitute the thyroid axis in vertebrates are all present at this stage. The advantage of using flatfish to study the larval-to-juvenile transition is the profound change in external morphology that accompanies metamorphosis making it easy to track progression to climax. This important lifecycle transition is underpinned by molecular, cellular, structural and functional modifications of organs and tissues that prepare larvae for a successful transition to the adult habitat and lifestyle. Understanding the role of THs in the maturation of organs and tissues with diverse functions during metamorphosis is a major challenge. The change in diet that accompanies the transition from a pelagic larvae to a benthic juvenile in flatfish is associated with structural and functional modifications in the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract). The present review will focus on the maturation of the GI-tract during metamorphosis giving particular attention to organogenesis of the stomach a TH triggered event. Gene transcripts and biological processes that are associated with GI-tract maturation during Atlantic halibut metamorphosis are identified. Gene ontology analysis reveals core biological functions and putative TH-responsive genes that underpin TH-driven metamorphosis of the GI-tract in Atlantic halibut. Deciphering the specific role remains a challenge. Recent advances in characterizing the molecular, structural and functional modifications that accompany the appearance of a functional stomach in Atlantic halibut are considered and future research challenges identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vasks: Cantabile per archi, Paul Mägi / Bernhard Uske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uske, Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Vasks: Cantabile per archi; Botschaft: Musica Dolorosa, Sinfonie für Streicher (Stimmen). Latvijas Nicionalais Simfoniskais Orkestris, Latvijas Filharmonijas Kamerorkestris. Pauls Megi [Paul Mägi]", Tovijs Lifsics. Wergo CD 6220-2

  4. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B E; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P; Shields, Christopher B

    2013-04-01

    Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG112 promotes remyelination and improves functional recovery in lysolecithin induced focal demyelination in the white matter of spinal cord in mice. A focal demyelination model was created by stereotaxically injecting lysolecithin into the bilateral ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) of T8 and T9 mouse spinal cords. Immediately after lysolecithin injection mice were treated with COG112, prefix peptide control or vehicle control for 21 days. The locomotor function of the mice was measured by the beam walking test and Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) assessment. The nerve transmission of the VLF of mice was assessed in vivo by transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (tcMMEPs). The histological changes were also examined by by eriochrome cyanine staining, immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscopy (EM) method. The area of demyelination in the spinal cord was significantly reduced in the COG112 group. EM examination showed that treatment with COG112 increased the thickness of myelin sheaths and the numbers of surviving axons in the lesion epicenter. Locomotor function was improved in COG112 treated animals when measured by the beam walking test and BMS assessment compared to controls. TcMMEPs also demonstrated the COG112-mediated enhancement of amplitude of evoked responses. The apoE-mimetic COG112 demonstrates a favorable combination of activities in suppressing inflammatory response, mitigating demyelination and in promoting remyelination and associated functional recovery in animal model

  5. Dehydration upon admission is a risk factor for incomplete recovery of renal function in children with haemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, José M; Kohout, Isolda; Cuestas, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute renal failure and the second leading cause of chronic renal failure in children. The factors that affect incomplete renal function recovery prior to hospital admission are poorly understood. To analyse the risk factors that determine incomplete recovery of renal function prior to hospitalisation in children with HUS. A retrospective case-control study. age, sex, duration of diarrhoea, bloody stools, vomiting, fever, dehydration, previous use of antibiotics, and incomplete recovery of renal function (proteinuria, hypertension, reduced creatinine clearance, and chronic renal failure during follow-up). Patients of both sexes under 15 years of age were included. Of 36 patients, 23 were males (65.3%; 95%CI: 45.8 to 80.9), with an average age of 2.5 ± 1.4 years. Twenty-one patients required dialysis (58%; 95% CI: 40.8 to 75.8), and 13 (36.1%; 95% CI: 19.0 to 53.1) did not recover renal function. In the bivariate model, the only significant risk factor was dehydration (defined as weight loss >5%) [(OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 1.4 to 12.3; P=.0220]. In the multivariate analysis (Cox multiple regression), only dehydration was marginally significant (HR: 95.823; 95% CI: 93.175 to 109.948; P=.085). Our data suggest that dehydration prior to admission may be a factor that increases the risk of incomplete recovery of renal function during long-term follow-up in children who develop HUS D+. Consequently, in patients with diarrhoea who are at risk of HUS, dehydration should be strongly avoided during outpatient care to preserve long-term renal function. These results must be confirmed by larger prospective studies.

  6. Excitation functions of 120Te(d,xn)121,120m,gI reactions from threshold up to 13.5 MeV: comparative studies on the production of 120gI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohn, A.; Coenen, H.H.; Qaim, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 120 Te(d,xn) 121,120m,g I were measured for the first time from their respective thresholds up to 13.5 MeV. Thin samples prepared by electrolytic deposition of 99.0% enriched 120 Te on Ti-backing were used. Integral yields of 121,120m,g I were calculated from the measured cross section data. A comparison of the 122 Te(p,3n)-, 120 Te(p,n)- and 120 Te(d,2n)-processes for the production of 120g I is given. The 120 Te(d,2n)-process is unsuitable for production purposes since the yield of 120g I is very low and the level of 121 I impurity very high. The choice lies either on the 122 Te(p,3n)- or the 120 Te(p,n)-reaction and is governed by the available proton energy and the financial resources for procuring the enriched target material

  7. Giant SEPs and SEP-recovery function in Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visani, E; Canafoglia, L; Rossi Sebastiano, D; Agazzi, P; Panzica, F; Scaioli, V; Ciano, C; Franceschetti, S

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between sensory hyperexcitability as revealed by giant SEPs and the SEP recovery function (SEP-R) in a series of patient with progressive myoclonic epilepsy of Unverricht-Lundborg type, identified as epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 1A (EPM1A), MIM #254800. We evaluated SEPs by applying median nerve stimuli and SEP-R using paired stimuli at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of between 20 and 600 ms in 25 patients and 20 controls. The SEPs were considered "giant" if the N20P25 and P25N33 amplitudes exceeded normal mean values by +3SD. During the paired-stimulus protocol, the SEPs elicited by the second stimulus (S2) were detectable at all ISIs but consistently suppressed in the 13 patients with giant SEPs reflecting a significantly delayed SEP-R. Maximal suppression roughly corresponded to the plateau of a broad middle latency (>100 ms) wave pertaining to the S1 response. The cortical processing dysfunction generating giant SEPs in EPM1A patients consistently combines with a long-lasting suppression of hyperexcitability that leads to a delayed giant SEP-R without obstructing the response to incoming stimuli. The delayed SEP-R is not due to true inhibition but the suppression of aberrant hyper-synchronisation sustaining giant SEPs. A broad middle latency SEP component adds a significantly suppressive effect. This suggests that cortico-subcortical circuitries contribute to both the gigantism and the delayed SEP-R. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaël Aubry

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR in endurance athletes.Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects before (Pre, and immediately after an overload training period (Mid and after a 2-week taper (Post. Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue. Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size. Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large, plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate. These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations.These findings suggest that i a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity.

  9. Muscle function recovery in golden retriever muscular dystrophy after AAV1-U7 exon skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulin, Adeline; Barthélémy, Inès; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Beley, Cyriaque; Griffith, Graziella; Benchaouir, Rachid; le Hir, Maëva; Unterfinger, Yves; Lorain, Stéphanie; Dreyfus, Patrick; Voit, Thomas; Carlier, Pierre; Blot, Stéphane; Garcia, Luis

    2012-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder resulting from lesions of the gene encoding dystrophin. These usually consist of large genomic deletions, the extents of which are not correlated with the severity of the phenotype. Out-of-frame deletions give rise to dystrophin deficiency and severe DMD phenotypes, while internal deletions that produce in-frame mRNAs encoding truncated proteins can lead to a milder myopathy known as Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Widespread restoration of dystrophin expression via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated exon skipping has been successfully demonstrated in the mdx mouse model and in cardiac muscle after percutaneous transendocardial delivery in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog (GRMD) model. Here, a set of optimized U7snRNAs carrying antisense sequences designed to rescue dystrophin were delivered into GRMD skeletal muscles by AAV1 gene transfer using intramuscular injection or forelimb perfusion. We show sustained correction of the dystrophic phenotype in extended muscle areas and partial recovery of muscle strength. Muscle architecture was improved and fibers displayed the hallmarks of mature and functional units. A 5-year follow-up ruled out immune rejection drawbacks but showed a progressive decline in the number of corrected muscle fibers, likely due to the persistence of a mild dystrophic process such as occurs in BMD phenotypes. Although AAV-mediated exon skipping was shown safe and efficient to rescue a truncated dystrophin, it appears that recurrent treatments would be required to maintain therapeutic benefit ahead of the progression of the disease.

  10. Poor functional immune recovery in aged HIV-1-infected patients following successfully treatment with antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Taissa M; Hygino, Joana; Andrade, Regis M; Monteiro, Clarice; Sacramento, Priscila M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2015-10-01

    Aging is now a well-recognized characteristic of the HIV-infected population and both AIDS and aging are characterized by a deficiency of the T-cell compartment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in recovering functional response of T cells to both HIV-1-specific ENV peptides (ENV) and tetanus toxoid (TT), in young and aged AIDS patients who responded to ARV therapy by controlling virus replication and elevating CD4(+) T cell counts. Here, we observed that proliferative response of T-cells to either HIV-1-specific Env peptides or tetanus toxoid (TT) was significantly lower in older antiretroviral (ARV)-treated patients. With regard to cytokine profile, lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-21, associated with elevated IL-10 release, were produced by Env- or TT-stimulated T-cells from older patients. The IL-10 neutralization by anti-IL-10 mAb did not elevate IFN-γ and IL-21 release in older patients. Finally, even after a booster dose of TT, reduced anti-TT IgG titers were quantified in older AIDS patients and it was related to both lower IL-21 and IFN-γ production and reduced frequency of central memory T-cells. Our results reveal that ARV therapy, despite the adequate recovery of CD4(+) T cell counts and suppression of viremia, was less efficient in recovering adequate immune response in older AIDS patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Potassium improves photosynthetic tolerance to and recovery from episodic drought stress in functional leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Rizwan; Zhao, Wenqing; Dong, Haoran; Snider, John L; Abid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Babar; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether potassium (K) application enhances the potential of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants to maintain physiological functions during drought and recovery, low K-sensitive (Siza 3) and -tolerant (Simian 3) cotton cultivars were exposed to three K rates (0, 150, and 300 K 2 O kg ha -1 ) and either well-watered conditions or severe drought stress followed by a recovery period. Under drought stress, cotton plants showed a substantial decline in leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and the maximum and actual quantum yield of PSII, resulting in greater non-photochemical quenching and lipid peroxidation as compared to well-watered plants. However, plants under K application not only showed less of a decline in these traits but also displayed greater potential to recover after rewatering as compared to the plants without K application. Plants receiving K application showed lower lipid peroxidation, higher antioxidant enzyme activities, and increased proline accumulation as compared to plants without K application. Significant relationships between rates of photosynthetic recovery and K application were observed. The cultivar Siza 3 exhibited a more positive response to K application than Simian 3. The results suggest that K application enhances the cotton plant's potential to maintain functionality under drought and facilitates recovery after rewatering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery from diabetes insipidus and preservation of thyroid function after craniopharyngioma removal and pituitary stalk sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-11-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor, but long-term tumor control with maintenance of quality of life is sometimes very difficult to achieve, and hypothalamic disturbance should be strictly avoided in the treatment. However, management of the pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk varies among surgeons and institutions. This retrospective review identified 44 patients, 24 males and 20 females with craniopharyngiomas who were initially treated by surgery through the extended transsphenoidal approach with pituitary stalk sectioning at a single institute. If the tumor bed involved the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, anterior and/or mid portion of the third ventricle floor, these structures were removed en-bloc together with the tumor. The closest attention was paid to preserve fine arteries running along the surface of optic chiasm and the lateral walls of the third ventricle. Surgical outcome and changes in postoperative endocrinological status were investigated. Gross total removal was achieved in 40 of 44 patients (91%), and all patients could discharge without autonomic and/or thermal disturbances. Tumor remnants were identified with tight adhesion to the perforating arteries in 2 cases, tight adhesion to mammillary bodies in 1, and optic chiasm in 1. Administration of anti-diuretic hormone could be discontinued in 23 of 44 patients (52.3%) with improved diabetes insipidus (DI), although no patient could discontinue glucocorticoid administration. Preservation of thyroid function was achieved in another 23 of 44 patients (52.3%), and recovery from DI was correlated with preservation of thyroid function (p=0.016). Pituitary dysfunction is partially reversible even with pituitary stalk sectioning. Regrowth of tumor in the anterior and/or mid portion of the third ventricle floor including pituitary stalk can possibly be prevented by aggressive tumor removal, and co-achievement of long-term tumor control with maintenance of quality of life

  13. Treadmill exercise induced functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair is associated with increased levels of neurotrophic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Park

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration.

  14. Effects of a constant rate infusion of detomidine on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauvliege, Stijn; Marcilla, Miguel Gozalo; Verryken, Kirsten; Duchateau, Luc; Devisscher, Lindsey; Gasthuys, Frank

    2011-11-01

    To examine the influence of a detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses undergoing elective surgery. Prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial. Twenty adult healthy horses. After sedation (detomidine, 10 μg kg(-1) intravenously [IV]) and induction of anaesthesia (midazolam 0.06 mg kg(-1) , ketamine 2.2 mg kg(-1) IV), anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen/air (inspiratory oxygen fraction 55%). When indicated, the lungs were mechanically ventilated. Dobutamine was administered when MAPdetomidine (5 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) (D) or saline (S) CRI, with the anaesthetist unaware of the treatment. Monitoring included end-tidal isoflurane concentration, arterial pH, PaCO(2) , PaO(2) , dobutamine administration rate, heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index and oxygen delivery index (ḊO(2) I). For recovery from anaesthesia, all horses received 2.5 μg kg(-1) detomidine IV. Recovery quality and duration were recorded in each horse. For statistical analysis, anova, Pearson chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used as relevant. Heart rate (p=0.0176) and ḊO(2) I (p= 0.0084) were lower and SVR higher (p=0.0126) in group D, compared to group S. Heart rate (p=0.0011) and pH (p=0.0187) increased over time. Significant differences in isoflurane requirements were not detected. Recovery quality and duration were comparable between treatments. A detomidine CRI produced cardiovascular effects typical for α(2) -agonists, without affecting isoflurane requirements, recovery duration or recovery quality. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  15. Recovery of Urinary Function after Radical Prostatectomy: Predictors of Urinary Function on Preoperative Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bodman, Christian; Matsushita, Kazuhito; Savage, Caroline; Matikainen, Mika P.; Eastham, James A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Rabbani, Farhang; Akin, Oguz; Sandhu, Jaspreet S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine if pelvic soft tissue and bony dimensions on endorectal MRI influence recovery of continence after radical prostatectomy (RP) and whether adding significant MRI variables to a statistical model improves prediction of continence recovery. Materials and Methods Between 2001 and 2004, 967 men undergoing RP had preoperative MRI. Soft tissue and bony dimensions were retrospectively measured by two raters blinded to clinical and pathological data. Patients who received neoadjuvant therapy, were preoperatively incontinent, or had missing followup for continence were excluded, leaving 600 patients eligible for analysis. No pad usage defined continent. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with continence recovery at 6 and 12 months. We evaluated whether predictive accuracy of a base model improved by adding independently significant MRI variables. Results Urethral length and urethral volume were both significantly associated with recovery of continence at 6 and 12 months. Larger inner and outer levator distances were significantly associated with a decreased probability of regaining continence at either 6 or 12 months; they did not reach statistical significance for the other time point. Addition of these four MRI variables to a base model including age, clinical stage, PSA and comorbidities marginally improved the discrimination (12 months AUC improved from 0.587 to 0.634). Conclusions Membranous urethral length, urethral volume and an anatomically close relation between the levator muscle and membranous urethra on preoperative MRI are independent predictors of continence recovery after RP. Addition of MRI variables to a base model improved the predictive accuracy for continence recovery but predictive accuracy remains low. PMID:22264458

  16. On the number of observable customers, served during he busy period of GI/GI/infinity queue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurechenskij, A.

    1982-01-01

    It is proved that the number of observable customers, served during the busy period of the GI/GI infinity queue with infinitely many servers has a geometric distribution. The parameter of this distribution is determined, too. It is shown that the normalized distributions converge to the exponential distribution. As a particular result is obtained that the distribution of the number of nonabsorbing streamers in a streamer blob has a geometric distribution

  17. The busy period of order n in the GI/D/infinity queue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurecenskij, A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of determination of the distribution function, integral equation and all moments of the busy period of order n, that is, the period when at least n servers are busy from infinitely many servers of the GI/D/infinity queueing system are investigated. The idle period of order n, i. e., the period between two neighbouring busy periods of order n is also studied. Those problems arise in the blob length determination in track chambers in high energy physics

  18. Sensory nerve cross-anastomosis and electrical muscle stimulation synergistically enhance functional recovery of chronically denervated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willand, Michael P; Holmes, Michael; Bain, James R; de Bruin, Hubert; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2014-11-01

    Long-term muscle denervation leads to severe and irreversible atrophy coupled with loss of force and motor function. These factors contribute to poor functional recovery following delayed reinnervation. The authors' previous work demonstrated that temporarily suturing a sensory nerve to the distal motor stump (called sensory protection) significantly reduces muscle atrophy and improves function following reinnervation. The authors have also shown that 1 month of electrical stimulation of denervated muscle significantly improves function and reduces atrophy. In this study, the authors tested whether a combination of sensory protection and electrical stimulation would enhance functional recovery more than either treatment alone. Rat gastrocnemius muscles were denervated by cutting the tibial nerve. The peroneal nerve was then sutured to the distal tibial stump following 3 months of treatment (i.e., electrical stimulation, sensory protection, or both). Three months after peroneal repair, functional and histologic measurements were taken. All treatment groups had significantly higher muscle weight (pstimulation or sensory protection alone. The combined treatment also produced motor unit counts significantly greater than sensory protection alone (p<0.05). The combination treatment synergistically reduces atrophy and improves reinnervation and functional measures following delayed nerve repair, suggesting that these approaches work through different mechanisms. The authors' research supports the clinical use of both modalities together following peripheral nerve injury.

  19. Recovery of function, peripheral sensitization and sensory neurone activation by novel pathways following axonal injury in Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, M F; Steffensen, I; Morris, C E; Walters, E T

    1995-10-01

    Recovery of behavioural and sensory function was examined following unilateral pedal nerve crush in Aplysia californica. Nerve crush that transected all axons connecting the tail to the central nervous system (CNS) eliminated the ipsilateral tail-evoked siphon reflex, whose sensory input travels in the crushed tail nerve (p9). The first reliable signs of recovery of this reflex were observed within 1 week, and most animals displayed tail-evoked siphon responses within 2 weeks. Wide-dynamic-range mechanosensory neurons with somata in the ventrocaudal (VC) cluster of the ipsilateral pleural ganglion exhibited a few receptive fields (RFs) on the tail 3 weeks after unilateral pedal nerve crush, indicating that the RFs had either regenerated or been reconnected to the central somata. These RFs were smaller and sensitized compared with corresponding RFs on the contralateral, uncrushed side. Centrally conducted axon responses of VC sensory neurones to electrical stimulation distal to the nerve crush site did not reappear until at least 10 days after the crush. Because the crush site was much closer to the CNS than to the tail, the failure of axon responses to be restored earlier than the behavioural responses indicates that early stages of reflex recovery are not due to regeneration of VC sensory neurone axons into the tail. Following nerve crush, VC sensory neurones often could be activated by stimulating central connectives or peripheral nerves that do not normally contain the sensory neurone's axons. These results suggest that recovery of behavioral function after nerve injury involves complex mechanisms, including regenerative growth of axotomized VC sensory neurones, sensitization of regenerating RFs and sprouting of VC sensory neurone fibres within the CNS. Furthermore, the rapidity of behavioural recovery indicates that its initial phases are mediated by additional mechanisms, perhaps centripetal regeneration of unidentified sensory neurones having peripheral

  20. Nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhea in childhood : Factors determining recovery and the relationship of systemic infections with intestinal function

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    Nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhea in childhood: factors determining recovery and the relationship of systemic infections with intestinal function Zulfiqar A. Bhutta Nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhea (PD), a major killer of children in the third world, poses an enormous challenge. We validated the efficacy of a traditional local weaning diet based on rice-lentils (Khitchri) and yogurt (K-Y diet) for nutritional rehabilitation of PD. ...

  1. Renal functional recovery of the hydronephrotic kidney predicted before relief of the obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougal, W.S.; Flanigan, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Employing technetium labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid, we predicted the inulin and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) clearances after recovery of an obstructed kidney before relief of the obstruction. Sixteen rabbits had one renal unit obstructed for varying period of time. The animals were scanned immediately before relief of the obstruction. After 4 to 6 months recovery, inulin and PAH clearances were measured in all animals. The scans were mathematically analyzed, and accurately predicted the inulin and PAH clearances obtained after complete recovery (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.001, respectively). Six rabbits were scanned at the time of the clearance measurements. By a different mathematical analysis, inulin and PAH clearance measured concurrently correlated with the scan

  2. Computerized tests to evaluate recovery of cognitive function after deep sedation with propofol and remifentanil for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrat, Xavier; Ubre, Marta; Risco, Raquel; Gambús, Pedro L; Pedroso, Angela; Iglesias, Aina; Fernandez-Esparrach, Gloria; Ginés, Àngels; Balust, Jaume; Martínez-Palli, Graciela

    2018-03-27

    The use of sedation for diagnostic procedures including gastrointestinal endoscopy is rapidly growing. Recovery of cognitive function after sedation is important because it would be important for most patients to resume safe, normal life soon after the procedure. Computerized tests have shown being accurate descriptors of cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the time course of cognitive function recovery after sedation with propofol and remifentanil. A prospective observational double blind clinical study conducted in 34 young healthy adults undergoing elective outpatient colonoscopy under sedation with the combination of propofol and remifentanil using a target controlled infusion system. Cognitive function was measured using a validated battery of computerized cognitive tests (Cogstate™, Melbourne, Australia) at different predefined times: prior to starting sedation (Tbaseline), and then 10 min (T10), 40 min (T40) and 120 min (T120) after the end of colonoscopy. Tests included the assessment of psychomotor function, attention, visual memory and working memory. All colonoscopies were completed (median time: 26 min) without significant adverse events. Patients received a median total dose of propofol and remifentanil of 149 mg and 98 µg, respectively. Psychomotor function and attention declined at T10 but were back to baseline values at T40 for all patients. The magnitude of psychomotor task reduction was large (d = 0.81) however 100% of patients were recovered at T40. Memory related tasks were not affected 10 min after ending sedation. Cognitive impairment in attention and psychomotor function after propofol and remifentanil sedation was significant and large and could be easily detected by computerized cognitive tests. Even though, patients were fully recovered 40 min after ending the procedure. From a cognitive recovery point of view, larger studies should be undertaken to propose adequate criteria for discharge

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells in renal function recovery after acute kidney injury: use of a differentiating agent in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Manna, Gaetano; Bianchi, Francesca; Cappuccilli, Maria; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Tarantino, Lucia; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Valente, Sabrina; Della Bella, Elena; Cantoni, Silvia; Claudia, Cavallini; Neri, Flavia; Tsivian, Matvey; Nardo, Bruno; Ventura, Carlo; Stefoni, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major health care condition with limited current treatment options. Within this context, stem cells may provide a clinical approach for AKI. Moreover, a synthetic compound previously developed, hyaluronan monoesters with butyric acid (HB), able to induce metanephric differentiation, formation of capillary-like structures, and secretion of angiogenic cytokines, was tested in vitro. Thereafter, we investigated the effects of human mesenchymal stem cells from fetal membranes (FMhMSCs), both treated and untreated with HB, after induction of ischemic AKI in a rat model. At reperfusion following 45-min clamping of renal pedicles, each rat was randomly assigned to one of four groups: CTR, PBS, MSC, and MSC-HB. Renal function at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days was assessed. Histological samples were analyzed by light and electron microscopy and renal injury was graded. Cytokine analysis on serum samples was performed. FMhMSCs induced an accelerated renal functional recovery, demonstrated by biochemical parameters and confirmed by histology showing that histopathological alterations associated with ischemic injury were less severe in cell-treated kidneys. HB-treated rats showed a minor degree of inflammation, both at cytokine and TEM analyses. Better functional and morphological recovery were not associated to stem cells' regenerative processes, but possibly suggest paracrine effects on microenvironment that induce retrieval of renal damaged tissues. These results suggest that FMhMSCs could be useful in the treatment of AKI and the utilization of synthetic compounds could enhance the recovery induction ability of cells.

  4. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massardo, Teresa [Universidad de Chile, Hospital Clinico. Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Hospital Clinico. Centros de Medicina Nuclear e Cardiovascular; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago [Chile

    2003-04-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  5. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M. Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  6. Cortical reorganization associated lower extremity motor recovery as evidenced by functional MRI and diffusion tensor tractography in a stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; You, Sung H; Kwon, Yong-Hyun; Hallett, Mark; Lee, Mi Young; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2005-01-01

    Recovery mechanisms supporting upper extremity motor recovery following stroke are well established, but cortical mechanism associated with lower extremity motor recovery is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess cortical reorganization associated with lower extremity motor recovery in a hemiparetic patient. Six control subjects and a 17 year-old woman with left intracerebral hemorrhage due to an arterio-venous malformation rupture were evaluated. The motor function of the paretic (left) hip and knee had recovered slowly to the extent of her being able to overcome gravity for 10 months after the onset of stroke. However, her paretic upper extremity showed no significant motor recovery. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI at 1.5 Tesla was used to determine the acutual location of cortical activation in the predefined regions of interest. Concurrently, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in combination with a novel 3D-fiber reconstruction algorithm was utilized to investigate the pattern of the corticospinal pathway connectivity between the areas of the motor stream. All subjects' body parts were secured in the scanner and performed a sequential knee flexion-extension with a predetermined angle of 0-60 degrees at 0.5 Hz. Controls showed anticipated activation in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and the descending corticospinal fibers stemming from motor cortex. In contrast to control normal subjects, the stroke patient showed fMRI activation only in the unaffected (right) primary SM1 during either paretic or nonparetic knee movements. DTT fiber tracing data showed that the corticospinal tract fibers were found only in the unaffected hemisphere but not in the affected hemisphere. Our results indicate that an ipsilateral motor pathway from the unaffected (right) motor cortex to the paretic (right) leg was present in this patient. This study raises the potential that the contralesional (ipsilateral) SM1 is involved in cortical

  7. Comparison of the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the tested functions was observed in both groups. However, in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits the degree of recovery of most language functions and some cognitive functions was higher. A significantly greater correlation was revealed within language and cognitive functions, as well as between language functions and other aspects of cognition in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits than in patients with aphasia following a stroke. Our results show that patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits have a different recovery pattern and a different pattern of correlation between language and cognitive functions compared to patients with aphasia following a stroke. (1) Better understanding of the differences in recovery of language and cognitive functions in patients who have suffered strokes and those who have experienced traumatic brain injury. (2) Better understanding of the relationship between language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. (3) Better understanding of the factors influencing recovery.

  8. Faster recovery of gastrointestinal transit after laparoscopy and fast-track care in patients undergoing colonic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, Sjoerd; Vlug, Malaika; Bemelman, Willem; Hollmann, Markus; Ubbink, Dirk; Zwinderman, Koos; de Jonge, Wouter; Snoek, Susanne; Bolhuis, Karen; van der Zanden, Esmerij; The, Frans; Bennink, Roel; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative ileus is characterized by delayed gastrointestinal (GI) transit and is a major determinant of recovery after colorectal surgery. Both laparoscopic surgery and fast-track multimodal perioperative care have been reported to improve clinical recovery. However, objective measures

  9. Strength Recovery Following Rhythmic or Sustained Exercise as a Function of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Jay T.

    The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…

  10. Evaluation of Morphological and Functional Nerve Recovery of Rat Sciatic Nerve with a Hyaff11-Based Nerve Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jansen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of a Hyaff11-based nerve guide was studied in rats. Functional tests were performed to study motor nerve recovery. A withdrawal reflex test was performed to test sensory recovery. Morphology was studied by means of histology on explanted tissue samples. Motor nerve recovery was established within 7 weeks. Hereafter, some behavioral parameters like alternating steps showed an increase in occurence, while others remained stable. Sensory function was observed within the 7 weeks time frame. Nerve tissue had bridged the 10-mm gap within 7 weeks. The average nerve fiber surface area increased significantly in time. In situ degradation of the nerve conduit was fully going on at week 7 and tubes had collapsed by then. At weeks 15 and 21, the knitted tube wall structure was completely surrounded by macrophages and giant cells, and matrix was penetrating the tube wall. We conclude that a Hyaff11-based nerve guide can be used to bridge short peripheral nerve defects in rat. However, adaptations need to be made.

  11. Design and Control of a Multi-Functional Energy Recovery Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS, an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS for electric vehicles (EVs was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection, suppression, reactive compensation and energy recovery. The ERPABPTS, which contains a bi-directional buck-boost direct current (DC-DC converter and a bi-directional alternating current (AC-DC converter with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL type filter interfacing to the AC-grid, is proposed. System configuration and operation principle of the combined system are discussed first, then, the reactive compensation and harmonic suppression controller under balanced grid-voltage condition are presented. Design of a fourth order band-pass Butterworth filter for current harmonic detection is put forward, and the reactive compensator design procedure considering the non-linear load is also illustrated. The proposed scheme is implemented in a 175-kW prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the combined configuration can effectively realize energy recovery for high accuracy current test requirement, meanwhile, can effectively achieve reactive compensation and current harmonic suppression.

  12. Functional MRI activation of somatosensory and motor cortices in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical sensorimotor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugroschl, C.; Denolin, V.; Schuind, F.; Holder, C. van; David, P.; Baleriaux, D.; Metens, T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate somatosensory and motor cortical activity with functional MRI (fMRI) in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical recovery. The patient had motor fMRI examinations before transplantation, and motor and passive tactile stimulations after surgery. His normal hand and a normal group were studied for comparison. A patient with complete brachial plexus palsy was studied to assess the lack of a fMRI signal in somatosensory areas in the case of total axonal disconnection. Stimulating the grafted hand revealed significant activation in the contralateral somatosensory cortical areas in all fMRI examinations. The activation was seen as early as 10 days after surgery; this effect cannot be explained by the known physiological mechanisms of nerve regeneration. Although an imagination effect cannot be excluded, the objective clinical recovery of sensory function led us to formulate the hypothesis that a connection to the somatosensory cortex was rapidly established. Additional cases and fundamental studies are needed to assess this hypothesis, but several observations were compatible with this explanation. Before surgery, imaginary motion of the amputated hand produced less intense responses than executed movements of the intact hand, whereas the normal activation pattern for right-handed subjects was found after surgery, in agreement with the good clinical motor recovery. (orig.)

  13. Human neural stem cells over-expressing VEGF provide neuroprotection, angiogenesis and functional recovery in mouse stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a lethal stroke type. As mortality approaches 50%, and current medical therapy against ICH shows only limited effectiveness, an alternative approach is required, such as stem cell-based cell therapy. Previously we have shown that intravenously transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs selectively migrate to the brain and induce behavioral recovery in rat ICH model, and that combined administration of NSCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF results in improved structural and functional outcome from cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We postulated that human NSCs overexpressing VEGF transplanted into cerebral cortex overlying ICH lesion could provide improved survival of grafted NSCs, increased angiogenesis and behavioral recovery in mouse ICH model. ICH was induced in adult mice by unilateral injection of bacterial collagenase into striatum. HB1.F3.VEGF human NSC line produced an amount of VEGF four times higher than parental F3 cell line in vitro, and induced behavioral improvement and 2-3 fold increase in cell survival at two weeks and eight weeks post-transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Brain transplantation of F3 human NSCs over-expressing VEGF near ICH lesion sites provided differentiation and survival of grafted human NSCs and renewed angiogenesis of host brain and functional recovery of ICH animals. These results suggest a possible application of the human neural stem cell line, which is genetically modified to over-express VEGF, as a therapeutic agent for ICH-stroke.

  14. Features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) may be reversible with recovery of menstrual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, Enrico; Fruzzetti, Franca; Lobo, Roger A

    2018-04-01

    Since features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been found to be prevalent in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA), we wished to determine what happens to these features after recovery of menstrual function in FHA Design: Prospective cohort study. Twenty-eight women with FHA and 30 age-matched ovulatory controls were studied. Twenty-eight women with FHA and 30 age-matched ovulatory controls were studied. We measured serum estradiol, LH, FSH, testosterone, DHEAS, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), body mass index, and ovarian morphology on transvaginal ultrasound. At baseline, 12 of the 28 women (43%) had increased AMH (>4.7 ng/mL), and higher testosterone and larger ovaries compared to the other 16 women with normal AMH. One year after recovery of menstrual function, in the 12 women with increased AMH, serum AMH, testosterone and ovarian size decreased, while LH and estradiol increased. At one year, only one of the 12 women in the high AMH group developed clinical features of PCOS. In the majority of women with FHA who have PCOS-like features, these features may be due to the hypothalamic state and appear to be reversible. Few women may develop clinical PCOS after recovery.

  15. Evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide, filled with modified denatured muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Den Dunnen, WFA; Schakenraad, JM; Robinson, PH

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon -CL) nerve guide, as filled with either modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To evaluate both motor and sensory nerve recovery,

  16. Development and validation of an instrument to predict functional recovery in tibial fracture patients: the somatic pre-occupation and coping (SPOC) questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Mark; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Walter, Stephen; Sprague, Sheila; Buckingham, Lisa; Leece, Pamela; Viveiros, Helena; Mignott, Tashay; Ansell, Natalie; Sidorkewicz, Natalie; Agel, Julie; Bombardier, Claire; Berlin, Jesse A.; Bosse, Michael; Browner, Bruce; Gillespie, Brenda; Jones, Alan; O'Brien, Peter; Poolman, Rudolf; Macleod, Mark D.; Carey, Timothy; Leitch, Kellie; Bailey, Stuart; Gurr, Kevin; Bartha, Charlene; Low, Isolina; MacBean, Leila V.; Ramu, Mala; Reiber, Susan; Strapp, Ruth; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Luitse, Jan; Kloen, Peter; Joosse, Pieter; Winkelhagen, Jasper

    2012-01-01

    To explore the role of patients' beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients' beliefs on functional recovery from injury: the Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At

  17. Whey Proteins Are More Efficient than Casein in the Recovery of Muscle Functional Properties following a Casting Induced Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sébastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n = 10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: − 19.0±8.2%; WHEY: − 21.7±8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: − 26.8±16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: − 13.5±21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500−700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion. PMID:24069411

  18. Recovery of adrenal function in a patient with confirmed Addison's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, M; Gorick, S; Swords, F M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Addison's disease is a condition characterised by immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal glands leading to a requirement of lifelong replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid. We present a case of a 53-year-old man who presented at the age of 37 years with nausea, fatigue and dizziness. He was found to have postural hypotension and buccal pigmentation. His presenting cortisol level was 43 nmol/l with no response to Synacthen testing. He made an excellent response to conventional replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone and then remained well for 16 years. On registering with a new endocrinologist, his hydrocortisone dose was revised downwards and pre- and post-dose serum cortisol levels were assessed. His pre-dose cortisol was surprisingly elevated, and so his dose was further reduced. Subsequent Synacthen testing was normal and has remained so for further 12 months. He is now asymptomatic without glucocorticoid therapy, although he continues on fludrocortisone 50 μg daily. His adrenal antibodies are positive, although his ACTH and renin levels remain elevated after treatment. Addison's disease is generally deemed to lead to irreversible cell-mediated immune destruction of the adrenal glands. For this reason, patients receive detailed counselling and education on the need for lifelong replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of spontaneous recovery of the adrenal axis in Addison's disease. Recovery may therefore be more common than previously appreciated, which may have major implications for the treatment and monitoring of this condition, and for the education given to patients at diagnosis. Learning points Partial recovery from Addison's disease is possible although uncommon.Patients with long-term endocrine conditions on replacement therapy still benefit from regular clinical and biochemical assessment, to revisit optimal management.As further reports of adrenal axis recovery

  19. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game

    OpenAIRE

    Indu Vedamurthy; Mor Nahum; Daphne Bavelier; Dennis M. Levi

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of ...

  20. Recovery of adrenal function in a patient with confirmed Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, M; Gorick, S; Swords, F M

    2013-01-01

    Addison's disease is a condition characterised by immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal glands leading to a requirement of lifelong replacement therapy with mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid. We present a case of a 53-year-old man who presented at the age of 37 years with nausea, fatigue and dizziness. He was found to have postural hypotension and buccal pigmentation. His presenting cortisol level was 43 nmol/l with no response to Synacthen testing. He made an excellent response to conventional replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone and then remained well for 16 years. On registering with a new endocrinologist, his hydrocortisone dose was revised downwards and pre- and post-dose serum cortisol levels were assessed. His pre-dose cortisol was surprisingly elevated, and so his dose was further reduced. Subsequent Synacthen testing was normal and has remained so for further 12 months. He is now asymptomatic without glucocorticoid therapy, although he continues on fludrocortisone 50 μg daily. His adrenal antibodies are positive, although his ACTH and renin levels remain elevated after treatment. Addison's disease is generally deemed to lead to irreversible cell-mediated immune destruction of the adrenal glands. For this reason, patients receive detailed counselling and education on the need for lifelong replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of spontaneous recovery of the adrenal axis in Addison's disease. Recovery may therefore be more common than previously appreciated, which may have major implications for the treatment and monitoring of this condition, and for the education given to patients at diagnosis. Partial recovery from Addison's disease is possible although uncommon.Patients with long-term endocrine conditions on replacement therapy still benefit from regular clinical and biochemical assessment, to revisit optimal management.As further reports of adrenal axis recovery emerge, this may

  1. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo Biraghi Letaif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion.METHODS:In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day.RESULTS:The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers.CONCLUSIONS:Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury.

  2. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de; Ferreira, Ricardo; Santos, Gustavo Bispo dos; Rocha, Ivan Dias da; Marcon, Raphael Martus

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion. In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day. The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers. Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury.

  3. SSAT Presidential Address 2017 "Passion and the GI Surgeon".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Nathaniel J

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is a dynamic, exciting field that has dramatically evolved over the past three decades. According to a survey of leaders in GI surgery, the development of minimally invasive surgery has been the most significant advance during this period of time. The author traces his pursuit of minimally invasive surgery and its impact on his career satisfaction. Discovering one's passion within surgery and developing "flow" during operative procedures is important to help prevent burnout. Surgical educators must transmit this sense of passion to their trainees such that they can understand the true meaning of the surgical vocation.

  4. Enabling the development of Community Extensions to GI-cat - the SIB-ESS-C case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, L.; Meier, N.; Boldrini, E.; Gerlach, R.

    2009-04-01

    GI-cat is a Java software package that implements discovery and access services for disparate geospatial resources. An instance of GI-cat provides a single point of service for querying and accessing remote, as well as local, heterogeneous sources of geospatial information, either through standard interfaces, or taking advantage of GI-cat advanced features, such as incremental responses, query feedback, etc. GI-cat supports a number of de-iure and de-facto standards, but can also be extended to additional community catalog/inventory services, by defining appropriate mediation components. The GI-cat and the SIB-ESS-C development teams collaborated in the development of a mediator to the Siberian Earth Science System Cluster (SIB-ESS-C), a web-based infrastructure to support the communities of environmental and Earth System research in Siberia. This activity resulted in the identification of appropriate technologies and internal mechanisms supporting the development of GI-cat extensions, that are the object of this work. GI-cat is actually built up of a modular framework of SOA components, that can be variously arranged to fit the needs of a community of users. For example, a particular GI-cat instance may be configured to provide discovery functionalities onto an OGC WMS; or to adapt a THREDDS catalog to the standard OGC CSW interface; or to merge a number of CDI repositories into a single, more efficient catalog. The flexibility of GI-cat framework is achieved thanks to its design, that follows the Tree of Responsibility (ToR) pattern and the Uniform Pipe and Filter architectural style. This approach allows the building of software blocks that can be flexibly reused and composed in multiple ways. In fact, the components that make up any GI-cat configuration all implement two common interfaces (i.e. IChainNode and ICatalogService), that support chaining one component to another . Hence, it would suffice to implement those interfaces (plus an appropriate factory

  5. EEG patterns from acute to chronic stroke phases in focal cerebral ischemic rats: correlations with functional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-jie; Ke, Zheng; Li, Le; Yip, Shea-ping; Tong, Kai-yu

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the neural activities from the ischemic penumbra provides critical information on neurological recovery after stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal alterations of neural activities using electroencephalography (EEG) from the acute phase to the chronic phase, and to compare EEG with the degree of post-stroke motor function recovery in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery followed by reperfusion for seven days (n = 58). The EEG signals were recorded at the pre-stroke phase (0 h), acute phase (3, 6 h), subacute phase (12, 24, 48, 72 h) and chronic phase (96, 120, 144, 168 h) (n = 8). This study analyzed post-stroke seizures and polymorphic delta activities (PDAs) and calculated quantitative EEG parameters such as the alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR). The ADR represented the ratio between alpha power and delta power, which indicated how fast the EEG activities were. Forelimb and hindlimb motor functions were measured by De Ryck's test and the beam walking test, respectively. In the acute phase, delta power increased fourfold with the occurrence of PDAs, and the histological staining showed that the infarct was limited to the striatum and secondary sensory cortex. In the subacute phase, the alpha power reduced to 50% of the baseline, and the infarct progressed to the forelimb cortical region. ADRs reduced from 0.23 ± 0.09 to 0.04 ± 0.01 at 3 h in the acute phase and gradually recovered to 0.22 ± 0.08 at 168 h in the chronic phase. In the comparison of correlations between the EEG parameters and the limb motor function from the acute phase to the chronic phase, ADRs were found to have the highest correlation coefficients with the beam walking test (r = 0.9524, p test (r = 0.8077, p < 0.05). This study measured EEG activities after focal cerebral ischemia and showed that functional recovery was closely correlated with the neural

  6. EEG patterns from acute to chronic stroke phases in focal cerebral ischemic rats: correlations with functional recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shao-jie; Ke, Zheng; Tong, Kai-yu; Li, Le; Yip, Shea-ping

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the neural activities from the ischemic penumbra provides critical information on neurological recovery after stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal alterations of neural activities using electroencephalography (EEG) from the acute phase to the chronic phase, and to compare EEG with the degree of post-stroke motor function recovery in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery followed by reperfusion for seven days (n = 58). The EEG signals were recorded at the pre-stroke phase (0 h), acute phase (3, 6 h), subacute phase (12, 24, 48, 72 h) and chronic phase (96, 120, 144, 168 h) (n = 8). This study analyzed post-stroke seizures and polymorphic delta activities (PDAs) and calculated quantitative EEG parameters such as the alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR). The ADR represented the ratio between alpha power and delta power, which indicated how fast the EEG activities were. Forelimb and hindlimb motor functions were measured by De Ryck's test and the beam walking test, respectively. In the acute phase, delta power increased fourfold with the occurrence of PDAs, and the histological staining showed that the infarct was limited to the striatum and secondary sensory cortex. In the subacute phase, the alpha power reduced to 50% of the baseline, and the infarct progressed to the forelimb cortical region. ADRs reduced from 0.23 ± 0.09 to 0.04 ± 0.01 at 3 h in the acute phase and gradually recovered to 0.22 ± 0.08 at 168 h in the chronic phase. In the comparison of correlations between the EEG parameters and the limb motor function from the acute phase to the chronic phase, ADRs were found to have the highest correlation coefficients with the beam walking test (r = 0.9524, p < 0.05) and De Ryck's test (r = 0.8077, p < 0.05). This study measured EEG activities after focal cerebral ischemia and showed that functional recovery was closely

  7. Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on promoting the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function. Methods: A total of 106 cases of patients received radical operation for gastric cancer in our hospital were selected as research subjects, and according to different ways of postoperative nutrition intervention, all patients were divided into observation group (n=50 and control group (n=56. Control group received conventional enteral nutrition intervention, observation group received postoperative early enteral immune nutrition support, and then differences in postoperative intestinal mucosa barrier function, gastrointestinal hormone levels, immune function levels and nutrition-related indicator values were compared between two groups. Results: After observation group received enteral immune nutrition intervention, serum DAO, PS and D-lactate levels as well as urine L/M ratio were lower than those of control group; serum GAS, CCK, MTL and SP values of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group, and GLU, VIP, GIP and SS values were lower than those of control group; CD4, IgG, NK cell, C3, C4, CH50 and S-IgA levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group; serum ALB, PRE, TRF and RBP levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer is conducive to the recovery of gastrointestinal function and the promotion of immune state, eventually promotes patients’ postoperative overall recovery and has active clinical significance.

  8. Interleukin-4 ameliorates the functional recovery of intracerebral hemorrhage through the alternative activation of microglia/macrophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjing eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-inflammation plays an important role in the recovery of brain injury after stroke. Microglia/macrophage is the major executor in the neuro-inflammation, which can be polarized into two distinct phenotypes: injurious/toxic classical activation (M1 phenotype and protective alternative activation (M2 phenotype. Here, we investigated whether intracerebral administration of interleukin-4 (IL-4 at an early stage could affect the activation of microglia/macrophage and the corresponding outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. The neuro-behavior was recorded between different groups in the rat ICH model. The M1 and M2 markers were then determined by qRT-PCR, western blotting, ELISA and immunofluorescence, respectively. We observed aberrant activation of microglia/macrophage after ICH. After intracerebral injection of IL-4, M1 activation was greatly inhibited while M2 activation was enhanced, along with improving neurobehavioral recovery from deficits after ICH. Our study showed that early intracerebral injection of IL-4 potentially promotes neuro-functional recovery, probably through enhancing the alternative activation of microglia/macrophage.

  9. Allotransplanted DRG neurons or Schwann cells affect functional recovery in a rodent model of sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayawansa, Samantha; Wang, Ernest W; Liu, Weimin; Markman, John D; Gelbard, Harris A; Huang, Jason H

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the functional recoveries of Sprague-Dawley rats following repair of a complete sciatic nerve transection using allotransplanted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons or Schwann cells were examined using a number of outcome measures. Four groups were compared: (1) repair with a nerve guide conduit seeded with allotransplanted Schwann cells harvested from Wistar rats, (2) repair with a nerve guide conduit seeded with DRG neurons, (3) repair with solely a nerve guide conduit, and (4) sham-surgery animals where the sciatic nerve was left intact. The results corroborated our previous reported histology findings and measures of immunogenicity. The Wistar-DRG-treated group achieved the best recovery, significantly outperforming both the Wistar-Schwann group and the nerve guide conduit group in the Von Frey assay of touch response (P DRG and Wistar-Schwann seeded repairs showed lower frequency and severity in an autotomy measure of the self-mutilation of the injured leg because of neuralgia. These results suggest that in complete peripheral nerve transections, surgical repair using nerve guide conduits with allotransplanted DRG and Schwann cells may improve recovery, especially DRG neurons, which elicit less of an immune response.

  10. Recovery of the Dirac system from the rectangular Weyl matrix function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, B; Kirstein, B; Roitberg, I Ya; Sakhnovich, A L

    2012-01-01

    Weyl theory for Dirac systems with rectangular matrix potentials is non-classical. The corresponding Weyl functions are rectangular matrix functions. Furthermore, they are non-expansive in the upper semi-plane. Inverse problems are studied for such Weyl functions, and some results are new even for the square Weyl functions. High-energy asymptotics of Weyl functions and Borg–Marchenko-type uniqueness results are derived too. (paper)

  11. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for glioma removal: prognostic value in motor function recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Tomokazu; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Manabu; Maruyama, Takashi; Nitta, Masayuki; Niki, Chiharu; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) as a prognostic predictor for upper-extremity motor functional recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits. METHODS Preoperative and postoperative nTMS studies were prospectively applied in 14 patients (mean age 39 ± 12 years) who had intraparenchymal brain neoplasms located within or adjacent to the motor eloquent area in the cerebral hemisphere. Mapping by nTMS was done 3 times, i.e., before surgery, and 1 week and 3 weeks after surgery. To assess the response induced by nTMS, motor evoked potential (nTMS-MEP) was recorded using a surface electromyography electrode attached to the abductor pollicis brevis (APB). The cortical locations that elicited the largest electromyography response by nTMS were defined as hotspots. Hotspots for APB were confirmed as positive responsive sites by direct electrical stimulation (DES) during awake craniotomy. The distances between hotspots and lesions (D HS-L ) were measured. Postoperative neurological deficits were assessed by manual muscle test and dynamometer. To validate the prognostic value of nTMS in recovery from upper-extremity paresis, the following were investigated: 1) the correlation between D HS-L and the serial grip strength change, and 2) the correlation between positive nTMS-MEP at 1 week after surgery and the serial grip strength change. RESULTS From the presurgical nTMS study, MEPs from targeted muscles were identified in 13 cases from affected hemispheres. In one case, MEP was not evoked due to a huge tumor. Among 9 cases from which intraoperative DES mapping for hand motor area was available, hotspots for APB identified by nTMS were concordant with DES-positive sites. Compared with the adjacent group (D HS-L < 10 mm, n = 6), the nonadjacent group (D HS-L ≥ 10 mm, n = 7) showed significantly better recovery of grip strength at 3 months after surgery (p < 0.01). There were

  12. Effects of various drugs on recovery of immunological function after x-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Sakae; Komori, Shoichiro; Aramaki, Shojiro; Tamai, Kazunori; Fuyuno, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    X-ray of 300 R was irradiation to the whole bodies of mice aged 6 to 8 weeks, and 0.2 mg of Cepharanthin, 0.2 mg of Leucon, 0.2 ml of Cytochrome-C, and 0.01 KE of Picibanil were given intraperitoneally for seven days from the next day of the irradiation. Three days after the administration of these drugs, 0.1 ml of 7% picrylchloride ethanol solution was painted on the shaven abdomen and its sensitization was examined. Next, 0.02 to 0.03 ml of 1% picrylchloride olive solution was painted on both ears 7 days after that, and swelling of them was measured with the thickness of ears 24 hours after the painting. Moreover, the sensitization was discussed from a viewpoint of the number of leukocyte and lymphocute. Delayed-type skin reaction which was an index of cellular immunity was influenced fairly by the whole body irradiation of x-ray, but it recovered from the damage 20 to 30 days after the irradiation, showing rebound-like phenomenon. Recovery of delayed-type skin reaction and the number of lymphocyte showed almost the same pattern. Accordingly, it was suspected that the number of lymphocyte was directly proportional to cellular immunological competence of the individual. Out of four drugs, there was not a drug particularly which activated delayed-type skin reaction. In contrast with this, Leucon and Cytochrome-C significantly inhibited the recovery. It was recognized that four drugs had a tendency to promote the recovery of the number of leucocyte, but they decreased it conversely from a viewpoint of percentage of lymphocyte. Therefore, it was suspected that the subject of this would be an increase of leukocyte except lymphocyte. (Ueda, J.)

  13. Human thermoregulatory function during exercise and immersion after 35 days of horizontal bed-rest and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Golja, Petra; Tipton, Michael J; Eiken, Ola

    2005-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of 35 days of experimental horizontal bed-rest on exercise and immersion thermoregulatory function. Fifteen healthy male volunteers were assigned to either a Control (n = 5) or Bed-rest (n = 10) group. Thermoregulatory function was evaluated during a 30-min bout of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, followed immediately by a 100-min immersion in 28 degrees C water. For the Bed-rest group, exercise and immersion thermoregulatory responses observed post-bed-rest were compared with those after a 5 week supervised active recovery period. In both trials, the absolute work load during the exercise portion of the test was identical. During the exercise and immersion, we recorded skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the forearm and third digit of the right hand (DeltaT(forearm-fingertip))--an index of skin blood flow, sweating rate from the forehead, oxygen uptake and heart rate at minute intervals. Subjects provided ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort at 5-min intervals. Exercise thermoregulatory responses after bed-rest and recovery were similar. Subjective ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort during immersion indicated that subjects perceived similar combinations of Tsk and Tre to be warmer and thermally less uncomfortable after bed-rest. The average (SD) exercise-induced increase in Tre relative to resting values was not significantly different between the Post-bed-rest (0.4 (0.2) degrees C) and Recovery (0.5 (0.2) degrees C) trials. During the post-exercise immersion, the decrease in Tre, relative to resting values, was significantly (P forearm-fingertip) was 5.2 (0.9) degrees C and 5.8 (1.0) degrees C at the end of the post-bed-rest and recovery immersions, respectively. The gain of the shivering response (increase in VO(2) relative to the decrease in Tre; VO(2)/Tre) was 1.19 l min(-1) degrees C(-1) in the Recovery trial, and was significantly

  14. The role of nutritional support in the physical and functional recovery of critically ill patients: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Danielle E; Wandrag, Liesl; Merriweather, Judith L; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Grocott, Michael P W

    2017-08-26

    The lack of benefit from randomised controlled trials has resulted in significant controversy regarding the role of nutrition during critical illness in terms of long-term recovery and outcome. Although methodological caveats with a failure to adequately appreciate biological mechanisms may explain these disappointing results, it must be acknowledged that nutritional support during early critical illness, when considered alone, may have limited long-term functional impact.This narrative review focuses specifically on recent clinical trials and evaluates the impact of nutrition during critical illness on long-term physical and functional recovery.Specific focus on the trial design and methodological limitations has been considered in detail. Limitations include delivery of caloric and protein targets, patient heterogeneity, short duration of intervention, inappropriate clinical outcomes and a disregard for baseline nutritional status and nutritional intake in the post-ICU period.With survivorship at the forefront of critical care research, it is imperative that nutrition studies carefully consider biological mechanisms and trial design because these factors can strongly influence outcomes, in particular long-term physical and functional outcome. Failure to do so may lead to inconclusive clinical trials and consequent rejection of the potentially beneficial effects of nutrition interventions during critical illness.

  15. Effect of levodopa in combination with physiotherapy on functional motor recovery after stroke: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidtmann, K; Fries, W; Müller, F; Koenig, E

    2001-09-08

    Functional disability is generally caused by hemiplegia after stroke. Physiotherapy used to be the only way of improving motor function in such patients. However, administration of amphetamines in addition to exercise improves motor recovery in animals, probably by increasing the concentration of norepinephrine in the central nervous system. Our aim was to ascertain whether levodopa could enhance the efficacy of physiotherapy after hemiplegia. We did a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in which we enrolled 53 primary stroke patients. For the first 3 weeks patients received single doses of levodopa 100 mg or placebo daily in combination with physiotherapy. For the second 3 weeks patients had only physiotherapy. We quantitatively assessed motor function every week with Rivermead motor assessment (RMA). Six patients were excluded from analyses because of non-neurological complications. Motor recovery was significantly improved after 3 weeks of drug intervention in those on levodopa (RMA improved by 6.4 points) compared with placebo (4.1), and the result was independent of initial degree of impairment (pstroke rehabilitation.

  16. EphA4 blockers promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Goldshmit

    Full Text Available Upregulation and activation of developmental axon guidance molecules, such as semaphorins and members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family and their ligands, the ephrins, play a role in the inhibition of axonal regeneration following injury to the central nervous system. Previously we have demonstrated in a knockout model that axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury is promoted in the absence of the axon guidance protein EphA4. Antagonism of EphA4 was therefore proposed as a potential therapy to promote recovery from spinal cord injury. To further assess this potential, two soluble recombinant blockers of EphA4, unclustered ephrin-A5-Fc and EphA4-Fc, were examined for their ability to promote axonal regeneration and to improve functional outcome following spinal cord hemisection in wildtype mice. A 2-week administration of either of these blockers following spinal cord injury was sufficient to promote substantial axonal regeneration and functional recovery by 5 weeks following injury. Both inhibitors produced a moderate reduction in astrocytic gliosis, indicating that much of the effect of the blockers may be due to promotion of axon growth. These studies provide definitive evidence that soluble inhibitors of EphA4 function offer considerable therapeutic potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury and may have broader potential for the treatment of other central nervous system injuries.

  17. Lenz, Eestis unustatud geenius / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2001-01-01

    Tartus toimunud rahvusvahelise Lenzi-konverentsi (Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz) publik nägi väljasõidul Põltsamaale Lenzi kirjutatud näidendit "Haavatud peigmees", mis esitati Tartu üliõpilasteatri poolt Põltsamaa lossihoovis. Lav. Kalev Kudu

  18. Eesti uued helid / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    Tristan Priimägi kuulab digitaalselt uusi kodumaiseid demosalvestisi: Nevesis "Demo", Queennaive "My Soul / EuroPop", DND "Den Rozhdenija EP", Uncandy "Lovecool / Diskobliss / Libidinal Economy", S.I.N. "Year Zero EP" (Omblu) / "Steppin Headz" (XDubz), Spice Mouse "Unreleased"

  19. The queue-length in GI/G/s queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gall Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the queue-length in the stationary symmetrical GI/G/s queue is given with an application to the M/G/s queue, particularly in the case of the combination of several packet traffics, with various constant service times, to dimension the buffer capacity.

  20. Empty Promise: Black American Veterans and the New GI Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Alford H.

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 GI Bill offers college funds for veterans. Yet Black male vets are not taking advantage of these benefits. This chapter examines personal and societal problems that hinder access to higher education for Black vets, and suggests some ways adult educators can advocate for these young men.

  1. G.I. Taylor and the Trinity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2011-01-01

    The story is often told of the calculation by G.I. Taylor of the yield of the first ever atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico in 1945. It has indeed become a staple of the classroom whenever dimensional analysis is taught. However, while it is true that Taylor succeeded in calculating this figure at a time when it was still classified, most versions…

  2. Partial recovery of adrenal function in a patient with autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smans, L C C J; Zelissen, P M J

    2008-07-01

    To our knowledge, no case of remission in autoimmune Addison's disease has previously been reported. We describe a patient with primary adrenal insufficiency caused by autoimmune adrenalitis in whom partial remission was observed after 7 yr. A 39-yr-old male was referred because of extreme fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, nausea, and bouts of fever. During physical examination hyperpigmentation was seen. Laboratory tests showed a plasma cortisol of 0.02 micromol/l (08:30 h). Cortisol failed to increase during the ACTH stimulation test (0.02 to 0.03 micromol/l) and ACTH was markedly elevated (920 pmol/l). Adrenal auto-antibodies were weakly positive. A CT-scan showed no evidence of calcifications or other abnormalities of the adrenal glands. The diagnosis of autoimmune Addison's disease was made and replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone was started. During the following years the dose of hydrocortisone was gradually decreased. Eventually, the patient decided to stop his medication completely. A repeated ACTH-stimulation test revealed a basal cortisol of 0.25 micromol/l and a peak cortisol of 0.30 micromol/l with a basal ACTH of 178 pmol/l. The patient did not have any complaints. Recovery of adrenal insufficiency, due to causes other than autoimmune adrenalitis, has been reported in the past. If our case of partial recovery of autoimmune adrenalitis is not unique this could have profound effects on treatment and follow-up of Addison's disease.

  3. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H J; Cousijn, Janna; den Uyl, Tess E; Goudriaan, Anna E; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Schilt, Thelma; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  4. CoGI: Towards Compressing Genomes as an Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaojing; Zhou, Shuigeng; Guan, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Genomic science is now facing an explosive increase of data thanks to the fast development of sequencing technology. This situation poses serious challenges to genomic data storage and transferring. It is desirable to compress data to reduce storage and transferring cost, and thus to boost data distribution and utilization efficiency. Up to now, a number of algorithms / tools have been developed for compressing genomic sequences. Unlike the existing algorithms, most of which treat genomes as one-dimensional text strings and compress them based on dictionaries or probability models, this paper proposes a novel approach called CoGI (the abbreviation of Compressing Genomes as an Image) for genome compression, which transforms the genomic sequences to a two-dimensional binary image (or bitmap), then applies a rectangular partition coding algorithm to compress the binary image. CoGI can be used as either a reference-based compressor or a reference-free compressor. For the former, we develop two entropy-based algorithms to select a proper reference genome. Performance evaluation is conducted on various genomes. Experimental results show that the reference-based CoGI significantly outperforms two state-of-the-art reference-based genome compressors GReEn and RLZ-opt in both compression ratio and compression efficiency. It also achieves comparable compression ratio but two orders of magnitude higher compression efficiency in comparison with XM--one state-of-the-art reference-free genome compressor. Furthermore, our approach performs much better than Gzip--a general-purpose and widely-used compressor, in both compression speed and compression ratio. So, CoGI can serve as an effective and practical genome compressor. The source code and other related documents of CoGI are available at: http://admis.fudan.edu.cn/projects/cogi.htm.

  5. Effectiveness of commercial gaming-based virtual reality movement therapy on functional recovery of upper extremity in subacute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Hwan; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Kim, Sun Mi; Im, Sang Hee; Lee, So Young; Hyun, Chul Woong

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of commercial gaming-based virtual reality (VR) therapy on the recovery of paretic upper extremity in subacute stroke patients. Twenty patients with the first-onset subacute stroke were enrolled and randomly assigned to the case group (n=10) and the control group (n=10). Primary outcome was measured by the upper limb score through the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UL) for the motor function of both upper extremities. Secondary outcomes were assessed for motor function of both upper extremities including manual function test (MFT), box and block test (BBT), grip strength, evaluated for activities of daily living (Korean version of Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI]), and cognitive functions (Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination [K-MMSE] and continuous performance test [CPT]). The case group received commercial gaming-based VR therapy using Wii (Nintendo, Tokyo, Japan), and the control group received conventional occupational therapy (OT) for 30 minutes a day during the period of 4 weeks. All patients were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. There were no significant differences in the baseline between the two groups. After 4 weeks, both groups showed significant improvement in the FMA-UL, MFT, BBT, K-MBI, K-MMSE, and correct detection of auditory CPT. However, grip strength was improved significantly only in the case group. There were no significant intergroup differences before and after the treatment. These findings suggested that the commercial gaming-based VR therapy was as effective as conventional OT on the recovery of upper extremity motor and daily living function in subacute stroke patients.

  6. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.P.; Iglesias, D.; Nicola, F.C.; Steffens, D.; Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G.; Achaval, M.; Pranke, P.; Netto, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 10 6 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 10 6 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation

  7. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, L.P. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Neurociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Iglesias, D. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nicola, F.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Steffens, D. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Achaval, M. [Departamento de Ciências Morfológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pranke, P. [Laboratório de Hematologia e Células-Tronco, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Netto, C.A. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-12-23

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 10{sup 6} cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 10{sup 6} cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation.

  8. Common data items in seven European oesophagogastric cancer surgery registries: towards a European upper GI cancer audit (EURECCA Upper GI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steur, W O; Henneman, D; Allum, W H; Dikken, J L; van Sandick, J W; Reynolds, J; Mariette, C; Jensen, L; Johansson, J; Kolodziejczyk, P; Hardwick, R H; van de Velde, C J H

    2014-03-01

    Seven countries (Denmark, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom) collaborated to initiate a EURECCA (European Registration of Cancer Care) Upper GI project. The aim of this study was to identify a core dataset of shared items in the different data registries which can be used for future collaboration between countries. Item lists from all participating Upper GI cancer registries were collected. Items were scored 'present' when included in the registry, or when the items could be deducted from other items in the registry. The definition of a common item was that it was present in at least six of the seven participating countries. The number of registered items varied between 40 (Poland) and 650 (Ireland). Among the 46 shared items were data on patient characteristics, staging and diagnostics, neoadjuvant treatment, surgery, postoperative course, pathology, and adjuvant treatment. Information on non-surgical treatment was available in only 4 registries. A list of 46 shared items from seven participating Upper GI cancer registries was created, providing a basis for future quality assurance and research in Upper GI cancer treatment on a European level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Localized Intrathecal Delivery of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Conditioned Medium Improves Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasa Cizkova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that the conditioned medium (CM of mesenchymal stem cells can enhance viability of neural and glial cell populations. In the present study, we have investigated a cell-free approach via CM from rat bone marrow stromal cells (MScCM applied intrathecally (IT for spinal cord injury (SCI recovery in adult rats. Functional in vitro test on dorsal root ganglion (DRG primary cultures confirmed biological properties of collected MScCM for production of neurosphere-like structures and axon outgrowth. Afterwards, rats underwent SCI and were treated with IT delivery of MScCM or vehicle at postsurgical Days 1, 5, 9, and 13, and left to survive 10 weeks. Rats that received MScCM showed significantly higher motor function recovery, increase in spared spinal cord tissue, enhanced GAP-43 expression and attenuated inflammation in comparison with vehicle-treated rats. Spared tissue around the lesion site was infiltrated with GAP-43-labeled axons at four weeks that gradually decreased at 10 weeks. Finally, a cytokine array performed on spinal cord extracts after MScCM treatment revealed decreased levels of IL-2, IL-6 and TNFα when compared to vehicle group. In conclusion, our results suggest that molecular cocktail found in MScCM is favorable for final neuroregeneration after SCI.

  10. Recovery of ovarian activity in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea who were treated with cognitive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga, Sarah L; Marcus, Marsha D; Loucks, Tammy L; Hlastala, Stefanie; Ringham, Rebecca; Krohn, Marijane A

    2003-10-01

    To determine whether cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) targeted to problematic attitudes common among women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea would restore ovarian function. Randomized, prospective, controlled intervention. Clinical research center in an academic medical institution. Sixteen women participated who had functional hypothalamic amenorrhea; were of normal body weight; and did not report psychiatric conditions, eating disorders, or excessive exercise. Subjects were randomized to CBT or observation for 20 weeks. Serum levels of E(2) and P and vaginal bleeding were monitored. Of eight women treated with CBT, six resumed ovulating, one had partial recovery of ovarian function without evidence of ovulation, and one did not display return of ovarian function. Of those randomized to observation, one resumed ovulating, one had partial return of ovarian function, and six did not recover. Thus, CBT resulted in a higher rate of ovarian activity (87.5%) than did observation (25.0%), chi(2) = 7.14. A cognitive behavioral intervention designed to minimize problematic attitudes linked to hypothalamic allostasis was more likely to result in resumption of ovarian activity than observation. The prompt ovarian response to CBT suggests that a tailored behavioral intervention offers an efficacious treatment option that also avoids the pitfalls of pharmacological modalities.

  11. Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McLellan, Tom M

    2014-05-01

    Protein supplements are frequently consumed by athletes and recreationally-active individuals, although the decision to purchase and consume protein supplements is often based on marketing claims rather than evidence-based research. To provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of literature examining the hypothesis that protein supplements enhance recovery of muscle function and physical performance by attenuating muscle damage and soreness following a previous bout of exercise. English language articles were searched with PubMed and Google Scholar using protein and supplements together with performance, exercise, competition and muscle, alone or in combination as keywords. Inclusion criteria required studies to recruit healthy adults less than 50 years of age and to evaluate the effects of protein supplements alone or in combination with carbohydrate on performance metrics including time-to-exhaustion, time-trial or isometric or isokinetic muscle strength and markers of muscle damage and soreness. Twenty-seven articles were identified of which 18 dealt exclusively with ingestion of protein supplements to reduce muscle damage and soreness and improve recovery of muscle function following exercise, whereas the remaining 9 articles assessed muscle damage as well as performance metrics during single or repeat bouts of exercise. Papers were evaluated based on experimental design and examined for confounders that explain discrepancies between studies such as dietary control, training state of participants, sample size, direct or surrogate measures of muscle damage, and sensitivity of the performance metric. High quality and consistent data demonstrated there is no apparent relationship between recovery of muscle function and ratings of muscle soreness and surrogate markers of muscle damage when protein supplements are consumed prior to, during or after a bout of endurance or resistance exercise. There also appears to be insufficient experimental data

  12. Recovery of rat muscle size but not function more than 1 year after a single botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samuel R; Minamoto, Viviane B; Suzuki, Kentaro P; Hulst, Jonah B; Bremner, Shannon N; Lieber, Richard L

    2018-03-01

    Neurotoxin injection is used to treat a wide variety of neuromuscular disorders. The purpose of this study was to measure the functional and structural properties of botulinum toxin-injected adult rat skeletal muscle over nearly the entire lifespan. Ten groups of animals were subjected to either neurotoxin injection [Botox, Type A (BT-A); Allergan, Irvine, California] or saline solution injection. Neurotoxin-injected animals (n = 90) were analyzed at different time-points: 1 week; 1 month; 3 months; 6 months; 12 months; or 18 months. In spite of the recovery of structural features, such as muscle mass and fiber area, dorsiflexion torque production remained significantly depressed by 25%, even at 12 months after neurotoxin injection. The data demonstrate that, after a single BT-A injection, although gross muscle morphology recovered over a 12-month time period, loss of contractile function did not recover. Muscle Nerve 57: 435-441, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Visual Restoration after Cataract Surgery Promotes Functional and Structural Brain Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haotian Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual function and brain function decline concurrently with aging. Notably, cataract patients often present with accelerated age-related decreases in brain function, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Optical structures of the anterior segment of the eyes, such as the lens and cornea, can be readily reconstructed to improve refraction and vision quality. However, the effects of visual restoration on human brain function and structure remain largely unexplored. Methods: A prospective, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Twenty-six patients with bilateral age-related cataracts (ARCs who underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation and 26 healthy controls without ARC, matched for age, sex, and education, were recruited. Visual functions (including visual acuity, visual evoke potential, and contrast sensitivity, the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional magnetic resonance imaging (including the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and grey matter volume variation were assessed for all the participants and reexamined for ARC patients after cataract surgery. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02644720. Findings: Compared with the healthy controls, the ARC patients presented decreased brain functionality as well as structural alterations in visual and cognitive-related brain areas preoperatively. Three months postoperatively, significant functional improvements were observed in the visual and cognitive-related brain areas of the patients. Six months postoperatively, the patients' grey matter volumes in these areas were significantly increased. Notably, both the function and structure in the visual and cognitive-related brain areas of the patients improved significantly and became comparable to those of the healthy controls 6 months postoperatively. Interpretation: We demonstrated that ocular reconstruction can functionally and structurally reverse cataract

  14. Radioimmunological study of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women during menstrual cycle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemodanov, V.I.; Likhacheva, T.M.; Sel'verova, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women atan early stage of pregnancy and a month after abortion has been studied. The results of the investigation testify to the fact that radioimmunoassay of horiones in blood plasma is rather a precise criterion for estimat+on of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland at an earby stage of pregnancy and after abortion

  15. Bobath Concept versus constraint-induced movement therapy to improve arm functional recovery in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseyinsinoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak; Krespi, Yakup

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of the Bobath Concept and constraint-induced movement therapy on arm functional recovery among stroke patients with a high level of function on the affected side. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy department of a stroke unit. A total of 24 patients were randomized to constraint-induced movement therapy or Bobath Concept group. The Bobath Concept group was treated for 1 hour whereas the constraint-induced movement therapy group received training for 3 hours per day during 10 consecutive weekdays. Main measures were the Motor Activity Log-28, the Wolf Motor Function Test, the Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients and the Functional Independence Measure. The two groups were found to be homogeneous based on demographic variables and baseline measurements. Significant improvements were seen after treatment only in the 'Amount of use' and 'Quality of movement' subscales of the Motor Activity Log-28 in the constraint-induced movement therapy group over the the Bobath Concept group (P = 0.003; P = 0.01 respectively). There were no significant differences in Wolf Motor Function Test 'Functional ability' (P = 0.137) and 'Performance time' (P = 0.922), Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients (P = 0.947) and Functional Independence Measure scores (P = 0.259) between the two intervention groups. Constraint-induced movement therapy and the Bobath Concept have similar efficiencies in improving functional ability, speed and quality of movement in the paretic arm among stroke patients with a high level of function. Constraint-induced movement therapy seems to be slightly more efficient than the Bobath Concept in improving the amount and quality of affected arm use.

  16. Pain-related fear and functional recovery in sciatica: results from a 2-year observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugen AJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AJ Haugen,1 L Grøvle,1 JI Brox,2 B Natvig,3 M Grotle4 1Department of Rheumatology, Østfold Hospital Trust, Grålum, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Division for Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, 3Department of General Practice, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, 4FORMI (Communication Unit for Musculoskeletal Disorders, Division of Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between pain-related fear, pain disability, and self-perceived recovery among patients with sciatica and disk herniation followed up for 2 years.Patients and methods: Pain-related fear was measured by the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire-Physical Activity (FABQ-PA subscale. Disability was measured by the Maine–Seattle Back Questionnaire. At 2 years, patients reported their sciatica/back problem on a global change scale ranging from completely gone to much worse. No specific interventions regarding pain-related fear were provided.Results: Complete data were obtained for 372 patients. During follow-up, most patients improved. In those who at 2 years were fully recovered (n=66, pain-related fear decreased substantially. In those who did not improve (n=50, pain-related fear remained high. Baseline levels of pain-related fear did not differ significantly between those who were fully recovered and the rest of the cohort. In the total cohort, the correlation coefficients between the 0–2-year change in disability and the changes in the TSK and the FABQ-PA were 0.33 and 0.38, respectively. In the adjusted regression models, the 0–2-year change in pain-related disability explained 15% of the variance in the change in both questionnaires.Conclusion: Pain-related fear decreased substantially in patients who recovered from sciatica and remained high in those who did not improve. Generally, the TSK and the FABQ

  17. Complete recovery of renal allograft function after six days of delay following living related transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arogundade, F.A.; Sanusi, A.A.; Badmus, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    Delayed graft function (DGF), a term employed when a newly transplanted organ does not function efficiently is commonly observed following cadaveric renal transplantation but is very rare after living related transplants. We present a 31-year-old female recipient of a related donor kidney (mother) who had DGF following transplantation due to acute tubular necrosis, probably caused by partial allograft arterial thrombosis, which recovered function after 60 days. Appropriate use of allograft biopsy should be encouraged even in resource-limited settings lest the allograft be assumed to have failed irreversibly. (author)

  18. Vector-free and transgene-free human iPS cells differentiate into functional neurons and enhance functional recovery after ischemic stroke in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Mohamad

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability in the adult population in the United States and around the world. While stroke treatment is limited, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising regenerative therapy to replace or repair damaged tissues and enhance functional recovery after stroke. Recently, the creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells through reprogramming of somatic cells has revolutionized cell therapy by providing an unlimited source of autologous cells for transplantation. In addition, the creation of vector-free and transgene-free human iPS (hiPS cells provides a new generation of stem cells with a reduced risk of tumor formation that was associated with the random integration of viral vectors seen with previous techniques. However, the potential use of these cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke has not been explored. In the present investigation, we examined the neuronal differentiation of vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells and the transplantation of hiPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs in an ischemic stroke model in mice. Vector-free hiPS cells were maintained in feeder-free and serum-free conditions and differentiated into functional neurons in vitro using a newly developed differentiation protocol. Twenty eight days after transplantation in stroke mice, hiPS-NPCs showed mature neuronal markers in vivo. No tumor formation was seen up to 12 months after transplantation. Transplantation of hiPS-NPCs restored neurovascular coupling, increased trophic support and promoted behavioral recovery after stroke. These data suggest that using vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells in stem cell therapy are safe and efficacious in enhancing recovery after focal ischemic stroke in mice.

  19. Contribution of the resting-state functional connectivity of the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex to motor recovery after subcortical stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Xu

    Full Text Available It remains uncertain if the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex (CL_PSMC contributes to motor recovery after stroke. Here we investigated longitudinal changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of the CL_PSMC and their association with motor recovery. Thirteen patients who had experienced subcortical stroke underwent a series of resting-state fMRI and clinical assessments over a period of 1 year at 5 time points, i.e., within the first week, at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after stroke onset. Thirteen age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited as controls. The CL_PSMC was defined as a region centered at the voxel that had greatest activation during hand motion task. The dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC within the whole brain were evaluated and correlated with the Motricity Index (MI scores. Compared with healthy controls, the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC with the bilateral PSMC were initially decreased, then gradually increased, and finally restored to the normal level 1 year later. Moreover, the dynamic change in the inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC in these patients was positively correlated with the MI scores. However, the intra-hemispheric rsFC of the CL_PSMC was not correlated with the MI scores. This study shows dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC after stroke and suggests that the increased inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC may facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. However, generalization of our findings is limited by the small sample size of our study and needs to be confirmed.

  20. Recovery of gait and other motor functions after stroke: novel physical and pharmacological treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S

    2004-01-01

    The gait-lab at Klinik Berlin developed and evaluated novel physical and pharmacological strategies promoting the repetitive practise of hemiparetic gait in line with the slogan: who wants to relearn walking, has to walk. Areas of research are treadmill training with partial body weight support, enabling wheelchair-bound subjects to repetitively practice gait, the electromechanical gait trainer GT I reducing the effort on the therapists as compared to the manually assisted locomotor therapy, and the future HapticWalker which will allow the additional practise of stair climbing up and down and of perturbations. Further means to promote gait practice after stroke was the application of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of lower limb spasticity and the early use of walking aids. New areas of research are also the study of D-Amphetamine, which failed to promote motor recovery in acute stroke patients as compared to placebo, and the development of a computerized arm trainer, Bi-Manu-T rack, for the bilateral treatment of patients with a severe upper limb paresis.

  1. functional motor recovery in stroke survivors-determinants in a sub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-01

    1.71}. P = 0.05) predicted ... Conclusion: In spite of the lean neurorehabilitation facilities in the setting of this study ... and affect) cognitive (executive function, speech and ..... visits to the physical therapists which is dependent on.

  2. Good Functional Recovery of Complex Elbow Dislocations Treated With Hinged External Fixation: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordens, Gijs I. T.; den Hartog, Dennis; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.; de Haan, Jeroen; Patka, Peter; Verhofstad, Michael H. J.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Bronkhorst, M. W. G. A.; de Vries, M. R.; Goslings, J. C.; Rhemrev, S. J.; Roukema, G. R.; van der Meulen, H. G. W. M.; Verleisdonk, E. J. M. M.; Vroemen, J. P. A. M.; Wittich, Ph

    2015-01-01

    After a complex dislocation, some elbows remain unstable after closed reduction or fracture treatment. Function after treatment with a hinged external fixator theoretically allows collateral ligaments to heal without surgical reconstruction. However, there is a lack of prospective studies that

  3. Good Functional Recovery of Complex Elbow Dislocations Treated With Hinged External Fixation: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.T. Iordens (Gijs); D. den Hartog (Dennis); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); J. de Haan (Jeroen); P. Patka (Peter); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); N.W.L. Schep (Niels)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: After a complex dislocation, some elbows remain unstable after closed reduction or fracture treatment. Function after treatment with a hinged external fixator theoretically allows collateral ligaments to heal without surgical reconstruction. However, there is a lack of

  4. Fluoxetine and vitamin C synergistically inhibits blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2016-10-01

    Recently we reported that fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) improves functional recovery by attenuating blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we investigated whether a low-dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/kg), separately not possessing any protective effect, prevents BSCB disruption and improves functional recovery when combined. After a moderate contusion injury at T9 in rat, a low-dose of fluoxetine and vitamin C, or the combination of both was administered intraperitoneally immediately after SCI and further treated once a day for 14 d. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C significantly attenuated BSCB permeability at 1 d after SCI. When only fluoxetine or vitamin C was treated after injury, however, there was no effect on BSCB disruption. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C also significantly inhibited the expression and activation of MMP-9 at 8 h and 1 d after injury, respectively, and the infiltration of neutrophils (at 1 d) and macrophages (at 5 d) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (at 2 h, 6 h, 8 h or 24 h after injury) were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C. Furthermore, the combination of fluoxetine and vitamin C attenuated apoptotic cell death at 1 d and 5 d and improved locomotor function at 5 weeks after SCI. These results demonstrate the synergistic effect combination of low-dose fluoxetine and vitamin C on BSCB disruption after SCI and furthermore support the effectiveness of the combination treatment regimen for the management of acute SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functioned silver nanoparticle loaded activated carbon for the recovery of bioactive molecule from bacterial fermenter for its bactericidal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivizhivendhan, Villalan; Mahesh, Mannacharaju; Boopathy, Ramasamy; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Mary, Rathanasamy Regina; Sekaran, Ganesan

    2018-01-01

    A novel continuous production and extraction of bacterial bioactive prodigiosin (PG) from fermented using silver nanoparticle impregnated functioned activated carbon composite is proposed for cost-effective and ecofriendly microbial technique. Hence, in this investigation silver nanoparticle was impregnated onto functioned activated carbon ([AC]F) as a support matrix and to enable the separation of PG conjugated silver nanoparticle from the fermented medium. A laboratory scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the continuous production and recovery of PG using [AC@Ag]F. Ag nanoparticle impregnated [AC]F ([AC@Ag]F) characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM. Instrumental analyses confirmed that Ag nanoparticles significantly impregnated on AC through the functionalization of AC with diethanolamine and it enhances the binding capacity between AC and Ag. The various process parameters, such as contact time, pH, and mass of [AC@Ag]F, were statistically optimized for the recovery of PG using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The maximum extraction of PG in [AC@Ag]F was found to be 16.2 ± 0.2 mg g-1, its twofold higher than [AC]F. Further, PG conjugated [AC@Ag]F and ([AC@Ag]F-PG) were checked for the growth inhibition of gram negative and gram positive bacteria without formation of biofilm upto 96 h. Hence, the developed matrix could be eco-friendly, viable and lower energy consumption step for separation of the bacterial bioactive PG from fermented broth. In additionally, [AC@Ag]F-PG was used as an antifouling matrix without formation of biofilm.

  6. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81 completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S, Knee Society Score (KSS, and HRQL (SF-36. At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05. SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001. Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI, and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05. The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05, but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05. The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05. In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.

  7. Non-neoplastic parenchymal changes in kidney cancer and post-partial nephrectomy recovery of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Wassim M; Chen, Ling Y; Cordon, Billy H; Mashni, Joseph; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Bernstein, Melanie; Russo, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To explore the association of non-neoplastic parenchymal changes (nNPC) with patients' health and renal function recovery after partial nephrectomy (PN). This retrospective review identified 800 pT1a patients who underwent PN at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2007 to 2012. Pathology reports were reviewed for nNPC graded as mild or severe: vascular sclerosis (VS), glomerulosclerosis (GS), and fibrosis/scarring. Correlations between nNPC and known preoperative predictors of renal function [age, sex, African-American race, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (HTN)] were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation (ρ). Multivariable linear regression, adjusted for the described known preoperative risk predictors, was performed to evaluate whether the parenchymal features were able to predict 6-month postoperative eGFR. In this study, 46 % of tumors had benign surrounding parenchyma. We noted statistically significant yet weak associations of VS with age (ρ = 0.19; p < 0.001), ASA (ρ = 0.09; p < 0.001), preoperative eGFR (ρ = -0.14; p < 0.001), and HTN (ρ = 0.14; p < 0.001). GS also significantly correlated with HTN, but the correlation was again small (ρ = 0.12; p < 0.001). After adjusting for known risk predictors, only GS was a significant predictor of 6-month postoperative eGFR. When compared with no GS, mild and severe GS were negatively associated with a decrease of 4.9 and 10.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 6-month postoperative eGFR, respectively. Presence of VS and GS correlated with patients' baseline health, and presence of GS predicted postoperative renal function recovery.

  8. Curcumin Increase the Expression of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells and Improves Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Woo-Seok; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Seo, Ye Jin; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung; Kim, Chi Heon

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigates the effect of curcumin on proliferation of spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cells (SC-NSPCs) and functional outcome in a rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model. Methods Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and blindly allocated into three groups (sham control group; curcumin treated group after SCI; vehicle treated group after SCI). Functional recovery was evaluated by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale during 6 weeks after SCI. The expression of SC-NSPC proliferation and astrogliosis were analyzed by nestin/Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining. The injured spinal cord was then examined histologically, including quantification of cavitation. Results The BBB score of the SCI-curcumin group was better than that of SCI-vehicle group up to 14 days (p<0.05). The co-immunoreactivity of nestin/BrdU in the SCI-curcumin group was much higher than that of the SCI-vehicle group 1 week after surgery (p<0.05). The GFAP immunoreactivity of the SCI-curcumin group was remarkably lower than that of the SCI-vehicle group 4 weeks after surgery (p<0.05). The lesion cavity was significantly reduced in the curcumin group as compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion These results indicate that curcumin could increase the expression of SC-NSPCs, and reduce the activity of reactive astrogliosis and lesion cavity. Consequently curcumin could improve the functional recovery after SCI via SC-NSPC properties. PMID:29354231

  9. Effects of virtual reality-based training with BTs-Nirvana on functional recovery in stroke patients: preliminary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Rosaria; Russo, Margherita; Naro, Antonino; Tomasello, Provvidenza; Leonardi, Simona; Santamaria, Floriana; Desireè, Latella; Bramanti, Alessia; Silvestri, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2018-02-02

    Cognitive impairment occurs frequently in post-stroke patients. This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality training (VRT) with BTs-Nirvana (BTsN) on the recovery of cognitive functions in stroke patients, using the Interactive-Semi-Immersive Program (I-SIP). We enrolled 12 subjects (randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (EG); and control group (CG)), who attended the Laboratory of Robotic and Cognitive Rehabilitation of IRCCS Neurolesi of Messina from January to June 2016. The EG underwent a VRT with BTsN, whereas CG received a standard cognitive treatment. Both the groups underwent the same conventional physiotherapy program. Each treatment session lasted 45 minutes and was repeated three times a week for 8 weeks. All the patients were evaluated by a specific clinical-psychometric battery before (T0), immediately (T1), and one month (T2) after the end of the training. At T1, the EG presented a greater improvement in the trunk control test (p = 0.03), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (p = 0.01), the selective attention assessment scores (p = 0.01), the verbal memory (p = 0.03), and the visuospatial and constructive abilities (p = 0.01), as compared to CG. Moreover, such amelioration persisted at T2 only in the EG. According to these preliminary data, VRT with I-SIP can be considered a useful complementary treatment to potentiate functional recovery, with regard to attention, visual-spatial deficits, and motor function in patients affected by stroke.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 EP2 Receptor Deletion Attenuates Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Brain Injury and Improves Functional Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L. Leclerc

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a devastating type of stroke characterized by bleeding into the brain parenchyma and secondary brain injury resulting from strong neuroinflammatory responses to blood components. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is significantly upregulated following ICH and contributes to this inflammatory response in part through its E prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2. Signaling through the EP2 receptor has been shown to affect outcomes of many acute and chronic neurological disorders; although, not yet explored in the context of ICH. Wildtype (WT and EP2 receptor knockout (EP2−/− mice were subjected to ICH, and various anatomical and functional outcomes were assessed by histology and neurobehavioral testing, respectively. When compared with age-matched WT controls, EP2−/− mice had 41.9 ± 4.7% smaller ICH-induced brain lesions and displayed significantly less ipsilateral hemispheric enlargement and incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage. Anatomical outcomes correlated with improved functional recovery as identified by neurological deficit scoring. Histological staining was performed to begin investigating the mechanisms involved in EP2-mediated neurotoxicity after ICH. EP2−/− mice exhibited 45.5 ± 5.8% and 41.4 ± 8.1% less blood and ferric iron accumulation, respectively. Furthermore, significantly less striatal and cortical microgliosis, striatal and cortical astrogliosis, blood–brain barrier breakdown, and peripheral neutrophil infiltration were seen in EP2−/− mice. This study is the first to suggest a deleterious role for the PGE2-EP2 signaling axis in modulating brain injury, inflammation, and functional recovery following ICH. Targeting the EP2 G protein-coupled receptor may represent a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke.

  11. Recovery of function renal post pyeloplasty, benefit of the prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquedano, P.; Orellana, P.; Varas, J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Prenatal detection of hydronephrosis has raised new questions upon the indications for operation. Moreover, there is controversy whether or not pyeloplasty improves renal function. Objective: to correlate improvement of the renal function after pyeloplasty with the demographic data, age of the surgery, the sex, the symptoms and the renal function initial. Materials and Methods: 58 children ( 55%). 12 kidneys improved after surgery (24,8%). The average age of surgery was 29 months. Results: Twelve kidneys improved after pyeloplasty (24%) and 46 kidney unimproved (76%). In the group with improvement of RRF after surgery the antenatal diagnosis is significantly more frequent (83%) and the age average at the moment of the surgery is smaller (4 months v/s 35 months) than the group without improvement. In the group with improvement 83% were operated before one year of age, however in the group without improvement only a 45% were operated before 1 year of age. On the contrary we don't find correlation among improvement and RRF initial. Not there was significant difference in the RRF initial in both groups. Conclusion: The improvement of renal function after pyeloplasty in the UPJ obstruction is independent of the renal function initial. Pyeloplasty improves the renal function in the group of prenatal diagnostic, improvement associated to a smaller surgical age

  12. Piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin: a GI safer piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpignato, C

    2013-01-01

    Although NSAIDs are very effective drugs, their use is associated with a broad spectrum of adverse reactions in the liver, kidney, cardiovascular (CV) system, skin and gut. Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects are the most common and constitute a wide clinical spectrum ranging from dyspepsia, heartburn and abdominal discomfort to more serious events such as peptic ulcer with life-threatening complications of bleeding and perforation. The appreciation that CV risk is also increased further complicates the choices of physicians prescribing anti-inflammatory therapy. Despite prevention strategies should be implemented in patients at risk, gastroprotection is often underused and adherence to treatment is generally poor. A more appealing approach would be therefore to develop drugs that are devoid of or have reduced GI toxicity. Gastro- duodenal mucosa possesses many defensive mechanisms and NSAIDs have a deleterious effect on most of them. This results in a mucosa less able to cope with even a reduced acid load. NSAIDs cause gastro-duodenal damage, by two main mechanisms: a physiochemical disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier and systemic inhibition of gastric mucosal protection, through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX, PG endoperoxide G/H synthase) activity of the GI mucosa. However, against a background of COX inhibition by anti-inflammatory doses of NSAIDs, their physicochemical properties, in particular their acidity, underlie the topical effect leading to short-term damage. It has been shown that esterification of acidic NSAIDs suppresses their gastrotoxicity without adversely affecting anti-inflammatory activity. Another way to develop NSAIDs with better GI tolerability is to complex these molecules with cyclodextrins (CDs), giving rise to so-called "inclusion complexes" that can have physical, chemical and biological properties very different from either those of the drug or the cyclodextrin. Complexation of NSAIDs with β-cyclodextrin potentially leads to a

  13. Treatment of GI dysmotility in scleroderma with the new enterokinetic agent prucalopride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Bartelsman, J. F. W. M.; Lauwers, L.; Tytgat, G. N. J.

    2002-01-01

    Scleroderma is a multisystem disorder frequently resulting in disturbed GI motility. Although, especially early in the disease, symptomatic improvement is achieved with prokinetic agents, more severe GI manifestations of scleroderma may be difficult to treat, leading to parenteral feeding and

  14. Prediction of functional recovery after revascularization using quantitative gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: a multi-center cohort study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuwabara, Yoichi; Kawano, Masaya; Matsunari, Ichiro; Taki, Junichi; Nishimura, Shigeyuki; Yamashina, Akira; Ishida, Yoshio; Tomoike, Hitonobu

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of left ventricular functional recovery is important after myocardial infarction. The impact of quantitative perfusion and motion analyses with gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on predictive ability has not been clearly defined in multi-center studies. A total of 252 patients with recent myocardial infarction (n = 74) and old myocardial infarction (n = 175) were registered from 25 institutions. All patients underwent resting gated SPECT using 99m Tc-hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) and repeated the study after revascularization after an average follow-up period of 132 ± 81 days. Visual and quantitative assessment of perfusion and wall motion were performed in 5,040 segments. Non-gated segmental percent uptake and end-systolic (ES) percent uptake were good predictors of wall motion recovery and significantly differed between improved and non-improved groups (66 ± 17% and 55 ± 18%, p 99m Tc-MIBI uptake provided a useful predictor of wall motion improvement. Application of quantitative approach with non-gated and ES percent uptake enhanced predictive accuracy over visual analysis particularly in a multi-center study. (orig.)

  15. Local injection of Lenti-Olig2 at lesion site promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo-Tao; Jiang, Long; Liu, Li; Yin, Ying; Luo, Ze-Ru-Xin; Long, Zai-Yun; Li, Sen; Yu, Le-Hua; Wu, Ya-Min; Liu, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Olig2 is one of the most critical factors during CNS development, which belongs to b-HLH transcription factor family. Previous reports have shown that Olig2 regulates the remyelination processes in CNS demyelination diseases models. However, the role of Olig2 in contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible therapeutic effects remain obscure. This study aims to investigate the effects of overexpression Olig2 by lentivirus on adult spinal cord injury rats. Lenti-Olig2 expression and control Lenti-eGFP vectors were prepared, and virus in a total of 5 μL (10 8 TU/mL) was locally injected into the injured spinal cord 1.5 mm rostral and caudal near the epicenter. Immunostaining, Western blot, electron microscopy, and CatWalk analyzes were employed to investigate the effects of Olig2 on spinal cord tissue repair and functional recovery. Injection of Lenti-Olig2 significantly increased the number of oligodendrocytes lineage cells and enhanced myelination after SCI. More importantly, the introduction of Olig2 greatly improved hindlimb locomotor performances. Other oligodendrocyte-related transcription factors, which were downregulated or upregulated after injury, were reversed by Olig2 induction. Our findings provided the evidence that overexpression Olig2 promotes myelination and locomotor recovery of contusion SCI, which gives us more understanding of Olig2 on spinal cord injury treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Recovery of microbial community structure and functioning after wildfire in semi-arid environments: optimising methods for monitoring and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In semi-arid areas such as northern Western Australia, wildfires are a natural part of the environment and many ecosystems in these landscapes have evolved and developed a strong relationship with fire. Soil microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem processes by regulating the cycling of nutrients via decomposition, mineralization, and immobilization processes. Thus, the structure (e.g. soil microbial biomass) and functioning (e.g. soil microbial activity) of microbial communities, as well as their changes after ecosystem disturbance, can be useful indicators of soil quality and health recovery. In this research, we assess the impacts of fire on soil microbial communities and their recovery in a biodiverse semi-arid environment of Western Australia (Pilbara region). New methods for determining soil microbial respiration as an indicator of microbial activity and soil health are also tested. Methodology Soil samples were collected from 10 similar ecosystems in the Pilbara with analogous native vegetation, but differing levels of post-fire disturbance (i.e. 3 months, 1 year, 5, 7 and 14 years after wildfire). Soil microbial activity was measured with the Solvita test which determines soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst of a dry soil after it is moistened. Soils were dried and re-wetted and a CO2 probe was inserted before incubation at constant conditions of 25°C during 24 h. Measurements were taken with a digital mini spectrometer. Microbial (bacteria and fungi) biomass and community composition were measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Results Immediately after the fire (i.e. 3 months), soil microbial activity and microbial biomass are similar to 14 years 'undisturbed' levels (53.18±3.68 ppm CO2-CO and 14.07±0.65 mg kg-1, respectively). However, after the first year post-fire, with larger plant productivity, microbial biomass and microbial activity increase rapidly, peaking after 5

  17. Effects of a virtual reality-based exercise program on functional recovery in stroke patients: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality exercise program using the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX) on the recovery of motor and cognitive function and the performance of activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] The study enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with stroke who received occupational therapy at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Hospital A between January and March 2014. [Methods] The patients took part in the virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for 4 weeks. Then, the patients were re-evaluated to determine changes in upper extremity function, cognitive function, and performance of activities of daily living 4 weeks after the baseline assessment. [Results] In the experimental group, there were significant differences in the Korea-Mini Mental Status Evaluation, Korean version of the modified Barthel index, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores between the baseline and endpoint. [Conclusion] The virtual reality exercise program was effective for restoring function in stroke patients. Further studies should develop systematic protocols for rehabilitation training with a virtual reality exercise program.

  18. Spontaneous Pregnancy and Partial Recovery of Pituitary Function in a Patient with Sheehan's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting See

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheehan's syndrome is caused by pregnancy-related hemorrhage leading to ischemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary gland and hypopituitarism. Spontaneous pregnancy in Sheehan's syndrome is very rare. We report the case of a patient with Sheehan's syndrome who suffered from anterior pituitary insufficiency, but with sparing of gonadotropic function. The patient became pregnant spontaneously and, after her second delivery, thyrotropic function recovered. However, the patient's growth hormone and cortisol levels remained unresponsive to an insulin-tolerance test. This case demonstrates that pituitary function may recover from less extensive pituitary ischemia. We emphasize the importance of early identification of pregnancy in such cases. It is crucial to institute adequate hormone-replacement therapy during pregnancy, since hypopituitarism is associated with high fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

  19. Improve the functional status of students using the proposed method recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtukh M.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - to improve the organizational and methodological foundations of physical education for the improvement of high school students in training. The study involved 152 students of the second year of the International Economics and Humanities University named after Stepan Demyanchuk. Students were divided into control (n = 76 and primary (n = 76 groups, which were similar in age and physical development. At the end of the study, through the application of the proposed technique improvement in students the core group, was able to restore the function of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems to the possibilities of healthy untrained people. A similar increase in the functionality of the core group of students registered with the definition of the index Skibinski - held a combined evaluation of functions of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of students and determine its growth with satisfactory to good level.

  20. Damage and recovery of skin barrier function after glycolic acid chemical peeling and crystal microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Youn; Kang, Hyun A; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2004-03-01

    Superficial chemical peeling and microdermabrasion have become increasingly popular methods for producing facial rejuvenation. However, there are few studies reporting the skin barrier function changes after these procedures. To evaluate objectively the degree of damage visually and the time needed for the skin barrier function to recover after glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Superficial chemical peeling using 30%, 50%, and 70% glycolic acid and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion were used on the volar forearm of 13 healthy women. The skin response was measured by a visual observation and using an evaporimeter, corneometer, and colorimeter before and after peeling at set time intervals. Both glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion induced significant damage to the skin barrier function immediately after the procedure, and the degree of damage was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with glycolic acid peeling. The damaged skin barrier function had recovered within 24 hours after both procedures. The degree of erythema induction was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with the glycolic acid peeling procedure. The degree of erythema induced after the glycolic acid peeling procedure was not proportional to the peeling solution concentration used. The erythema subsided within 1 day after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure and within 4 days after the glycolic acid peeling procedure. These results suggest that the skin barrier function is damaged after the glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure but recovers within 1 to 4 days. Therefore, repeating the superficial peeling procedure at 2-week intervals will allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function.

  1. The soil microbiome at the Gi-FACE experiment responds to a moisture gradient but not to CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Alexandre B; Müller, Christoph; Clipson, Nicholas; Doyle, Evelyn

    2016-09-01

    The soil bacterial community at the Giessen free-air CO2 enrichment (Gi-FACE) experiment was analysed by tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. No substantial effects of CO2 levels on bacterial community composition were detected. However, the soil moisture gradient at Gi-FACE had a significant effect on bacterial community composition. Different groups within the Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla were affected differently by soil moisture content. These results suggest that modest increases in atmospheric CO2 may cause only minor changes in soil bacterial community composition and indicate that the functional responses of the soil community to CO2 enrichment previously reported at Gi-FACE are due to factors other than changes in bacterial community composition. The effects of the moisture gradient revealed new information about the relationships between poorly known Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and soil moisture content. This study contrasts with the relatively small number of other temperate grassland free-air CO2 enrichment microbiome studies in the use of moderate CO2 enrichment and the resulting minor changes in the soil microbiome. Thus, it will facilitate the development of further climate change mitigation studies. In addition, the moisture gradient found at Gi-FACE contributes new knowledge in soil microbial ecology, particularly regarding the abundance and moisture relationships of the soil Verrucomicrobia.

  2. Recovery to Preinterventional Functioning, Return-to-Work, and Life Satisfaction After Treatment of Unruptured Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, Daan; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; van der Schaaf, Irene C.; Bijvank, Jenny A. Nij; Verweij, Bon H.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.; Post, Marcel W.; Algra, Ale; Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.

    Background and Purpose-The eventual goal of preventive treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is to increase the number of life years with high life satisfaction. Insight in the time with reduced functioning, working capacity, and life satisfaction after aneurysm treatment is pivotal to

  3. Recovery to Preinterventional Functioning, Return-to-Work, and Life Satisfaction After Treatment of Unruptured Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, D.; Rinkel, G.J.; Van der Schaaf, I.C.; Bijvank, J.A.; Verweij, B.H.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Post, Marcel W.M.; Algra, A.; Vergouwen, M.D.

    Background and Purpose—The eventual goal of preventive treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is to increase the number of life years with high life satisfaction. Insight in the time with reduced functioning, working capacity, and life satisfaction after aneurysm treatment is pivotal to

  4. Recovery of important physiological functions in 3D culture of immortal hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    to grow human liver cells in ‘3 dimensional’ cultures so that they behave very similar to the liver in our bodies. By growing the immortal hepatocytes in specially designed bioreactors they form small pieces of ‘pseudotissue’ which exhibit several of the functions seen in the adult liver. We have grown...

  5. Recovery of renal function after seven weeks of anuric acute kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is rapid decline in kidney function with rising creatinine and/or reduced urinary output. The urinary manifestation ranges from oliguria to anuria. Although the anuric AKI tends to have prolonged course, most are expected to recover within two to three weeks. We present the case of a 2 ...

  6. Functional recovery of regenerating motor axons is delayed in mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin protein P(0) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Mice with a heterozygous knock-out of the myelin protein P0 gene (P0+/-) develop a neuropathy similar to human Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. They are indistinguishable from wild-types (WT) at birth and develop a slowly progressing demyelinating neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate...... whether the regeneration capacity of early symptomatic P0+/- is impaired as compared to age matched WT. Right sciatic nerves were lesioned at the thigh in 7-8 months old mice. Tibial motor axons at ankle were investigated by conventional motor conduction studies and axon excitability studies using...... threshold tracking. To evaluate regeneration we monitored the recovery of motor function after crush, and then compared the fiber distribution by histology. The overall motor performance was investigated using Rotor-Rod. P0+/- had reduced compound motor action potential amplitudes and thinner myelinated...

  7. Accelerated Recovery of Endothelium Function after Stent Implantation with the Use of a Novel Systemic Nanoparticle Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin was reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities and significantly prevent smooth muscle cells migration. In the present study, a novel kind of curcumin loaded nanoparticles (Cur-NP has been prepared and characterized with the aim of inhibiting inflammation formation and accelerating the healing process of the stented arteries. Cur-NP was administrated intravenously after stent implantation twice a week and detailed tissue responses were evaluated. The results demonstrated that intravenous administration of Cur-NP after stent implantation accelerated endothelial cells restoration and endothelium function recovery and may potentially be an effective therapeutic alternative to reduce adverse events for currently available drug eluting stents.

  8. Evaluating compliance to a low glycaemic index (GI diet in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiomo William

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low Glycaemic Index (GI diet may decrease some long-term health risks in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS such as endometrial cancer. This study was performed to assess compliance to a low GI diet in women with PCOS. Food diaries prospectively collected over 6 months from women on a low GI diet or healthy eating diet were analysed retrospectively. The women were recruited for a pilot randomised control trial investigating whether a low GI diet decreased the risk of Endometrial Cancer. Nine women with PCOS completed 33 food diaries (17 from women on a low GI diet and 16 from women on a healthy eating diet recording 3023 food items (low GI group:n = 1457; healthy eating group:n = 1566. Data was analysed using Foster-Powell international values inserted into an SPSS database as no scientifically valid established nutrition software was found. The main outcome measures were mean item GI and Glyacemic Load (GL, mean meal GL, percentage high GI foods and mean weight loss. Findings Women allocated the low GI diet had a statistically significant lower GI of food items (33.67 vs 36.91, p Conclusion Women with PCOS on a low GI diet consumed food items with a significantly lower mean GI and GL compared to the healthy eating diet group. Longer term compliance needs evaluation in subsequent studies to ascertain that this translates to reduced long term health risks. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN86420258

  9. Recovery of balance function among individuals with total knee arthroplasty: Comparison of responsiveness among four balance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andy C M; Ouyang, Xi H; Jehu, Deborah A M; Chung, Raymond C K; Pang, Marco Y C

    2018-01-01

    Balance deficits are common after total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however the responsiveness of commonly used balance measurement tools has not been well defined. The objective of this prospective study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness of four measurement tools in assessing recovery of balance function following TKA. A total of 134 individuals with TKA (95 women; age: 66.3±6.6years) completed the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), Mini-BESTest, Brief-BESTest, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks post-TKA. The Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) served as the anchor measure, and was also measured across these time points. Internal responsiveness was indicated by the standardized response mean (SRM), while external responsiveness was reflected by the degree of association of the changes of balance scores with those of FGA. The SRM ranged from 0.60-1.14 for the BESTest, 0.40-0.94 for the Mini-BESTest, 0.27-0.91 for the Brief-BESTest, and 0.19-0.70 for the BBS, over time. The change in BESTest and Mini-BESTest scores predicted the change in the FGA scores across all time periods, except for the Mini-BESTest between weeks 12-24, accounting for 13-27%, and 12-24% of the variance, respectively. The Brief-BESTest scores only predicted FGA scores between the weeks 2-4 (R 2 =20%). The changes in BBS scores were not associated with the FGA. The BESTest is the most responsive in measuring recovery of balance among individuals with TKA. The Mini-BESTest is a reasonable option during time constraints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Methylprednisolone promotes recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury: association with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gong-biao; Niu, Fu-wen; Zhang, Ying-chun; Du, Lin; Liang, Zhi-yuan; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Ting-zhen; Nie, Zhi-kui; Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated following spinal cord injury, and expression levels of specific proteins, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, are significantly altered. We hypothesized that methylprednisolone treatment contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In the current study, 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone was injected into rats with spinal cord injury immediately post-injury and at 1 and 2 days post-injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores showed that methylprednisolone treatment significantly promoted locomotor functional recovery between 2 and 6 weeks post-injury. The number of surviving motor neurons increased, whereas the lesion size significantly decreased following methylprednisolone treatment at 7 days post-injury. Additionally, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax protein expression levels and the number of apoptotic cells were reduced at 3 and 7 days post-injury, while Bcl-2 levels at 7 days post-injury were higher in methylprednisolone-treated rats compared with saline-treated rats. At 3 and 7 days post-injury, methylprednisolone up-regulated expression and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These results indicate that methylprednisolone-induced neuroprotection may correlate with activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:28123427

  11. The Adhesion Molecule-Characteristic HNK-1 Carbohydrate Contributes to Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Hui-Fan; Shen, Yan-Qin; Schachner, Melitta

    2017-07-01

    The human natural killer cell antigen-1 (HNK-1) is functionally important in development, synaptic activity, and regeneration after injury in the nervous system of several mammalian species. It contains a sulfated glucuronic acid which is carried by neural adhesion molecules and expressed in nonmammalian species, including zebrafish, which, as opposed to mammals, spontaneously regenerate after injury in the adult. To evaluate HNK-1's role in recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI) of adult zebrafish, we assessed the effects of the two HNK-1 synthesizing enzymes, glucuronyl transferase and HNK-1 sulfotransferase. Expression of these two enzymes was increased at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level 11 days after injury in the brainstem nuclei that are capable of regrowth of severed axons, namely, the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle and intermediate reticular formation, but not at earlier time points after SCI. mRNA levels of glucuronyl transferase and sulfotransferase were increased in neurons, not only of these nuclei but also in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site at 11 days. Mauthner neurons which are not capable of regeneration did not show increased levels of enzyme mRNAs after injury. Reducing protein levels of the enzymes by application of anti-sense morpholinos resulted in reduction of locomotor recovery for glucuronyl transferase, but not for HNK-1 sulfotransferase. The combined results indicate that HNK-1 is upregulated in expression only in those neurons that are intrinsically capable of regeneration and contributes to regeneration after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish in the absence of its sulfate moiety.

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training After Stroke: An Opportunity to Promote Functional Recovery, Cardiovascular Health, and Neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Jennifer; Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Fung, Joyce; Ploughman, Michelle; Bailey, Damian M; Sweet, Shane N; Giacomantonio, Nicholas; Thiel, Alexander; Trivino, Michael; Tang, Ada

    2018-04-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Individuals poststroke possess less than half of the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as their nonstroke counterparts, leading to inactivity, deconditioning, and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Preserving cardiovascular health is critical to lower stroke risk; however, stroke rehabilitation typically provides limited opportunity for cardiovascular exercise. Optimal cardiovascular training parameters to maximize recovery in stroke survivors also remains unknown. While stroke rehabilitation recommendations suggest the use of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) to improve CRF, neither is it routinely implemented in clinical practice, nor is the intensity always sufficient to elicit a training effect. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a potentially effective alternative that encompasses brief high-intensity bursts of exercise interspersed with bouts of recovery, aiming to maximize cardiovascular exercise intensity in a time-efficient manner. HIIT may provide an alternative exercise intervention and invoke more pronounced benefits poststroke. To provide an updated review of HIIT poststroke through ( a) synthesizing current evidence; ( b) proposing preliminary considerations of HIIT parameters to optimize benefit; ( c) discussing potential mechanisms underlying changes in function, cardiovascular health, and neuroplasticity following HIIT; and ( d) discussing clinical implications and directions for future research. Preliminary evidence from 10 studies report HIIT-associated improvements in functional, cardiovascular, and neuroplastic outcomes poststroke; however, optimal HIIT parameters remain unknown. Larger randomized controlled trials are necessary to establish ( a) effectiveness, safety, and optimal training parameters within more heterogeneous poststroke populations; (b) potential mechanisms of HIIT-associated improvements; and ( c) adherence and psychosocial outcomes.

  13. Functional recovery after experimental RPE debridement, mfERG studies in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Buus; Lassota, Nathan; Kyhn, Maria Voss

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The correlation between histologically identified regeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and functional outcome measured by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) following surgical debridement is examined in a porcine model. In humans, visual acuity is reduced in diseases......, and by brushing the Bruch's membrane with a silicone catheter. Immediately following surgery (baseline) and after 2 and 6 weeks respectively, the animals were examined by mfERG, fundus photographs (FPs), fluorescein angiograms (FAs), and histopathology. RESULTS: The mfERG P1 amplitude was decreased 2 weeks (T2....... CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that the histological regeneration of hypopigmented RPE correlates to a return of the retinal function, measured by mfERG....

  14. Accelerated postoperative recovery programme after colonic resection improves physical performance, pulmonary function and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, L; Raskov, H H; Hjort Jakobsen, D

    2002-01-01

    receiving conventional care (group 1) and 14 patients who had multimodal rehabilitation (group 2) were studied before and 8 days after colonic resection. Outcome measures included postoperative mobilization, body composition by whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry, cardiovascular response to treadmill...... exercise, pulmonary function and nocturnal oxygen saturation. RESULTS: Defaecation occurred earlier (median day 1 versus day 4) and hospital stay was shorter (median 2 versus 12 days) in patients who had multimodal treatment. Lean body and fat mass decreased in group 1 but not in group 2. Exercise......-supply (HR/oxygen saturation ratio) increased in group 1 but not in group 2. CONCLUSION: Multimodal rehabilitation prevents reduction in lean body mass, pulmonary function, oxygenation and cardiovascular response to exercise after colonic surgery....

  15. Recovery of Myocardial Kinematic Function without the Time History of External Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-domain filtering algorithm is proposed to recover myocardial kinematic function using output-only measurements without the time history of external loads. The main contribution of this work is that the overall effect of all the external loads on the myocardium is treated as a random variable disturbed by the Gaussian white noise because the external loads of the myocardium are usually unknown in practical exercises. The kernel of our proposed algorithm is an iterative, multiframe, and sequential filtering procedure consisting of a Kalman filter and a least-squares filter. In our proposed implementation, the initial guess of myocardial kinematic function and residual innovation of all the state variables are first computed using a Kalman filter via state space equations only driven by the Gaussian white noise, and then the residual innovation is fed into a least-squares filter to estimate the total external loads of the myocardium. In the end, the initial guess of myocardial kinematic function is corrected using external loads provided by the least-squares filter. After the introduction of the whole structure of our algorithm, we demonstrate the ability of the framework on synthetic data and MR image sequences.

  16. Proteção da recuperação funcional do miocárdio pelo omeprazol após isquemia-reperfusão em corações isolados de ratos Myocardium functional recovery protection by omeprazole after ischemia-reperfusion in isolated rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otoni Moreira Gomes

    2010-09-01

    ischemia period induction. The following parameters were registered after the stabilization period (t0, and after the reperfusion period (t30: heart rate (HR, coronary flow (CoF, systolic pressure (SP, +dP/dt and -dP/dt. The Kruskal-Wallis test (P0.05 between groups among HR and CoF values. Differences (P<0.05 occurred between groups, I e II after the reperfusion period (t30 regarding systolic pressure reduced for 28.0±3.6% in the control group GI and for 79.0±5.9% in GII; The +dP/dtmax declined to be only 31.0±5.6% in GI, preserving 99.4±11.2% values in GII (P<0.05. The t30 -dP/dtmax values were GI 26.0±7.3% and GII 82.0±2.2% (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The omeprazole administration before ischemia induction significantly protected the myocardium function recovery.

  17. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Samar M.; Saussez, Geoffroy; della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:27679565

  18. Rehabilitation of motor function after stroke: a multiple systematic review focused on techniques to stimulate upper extremity recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M Hatem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients’ mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed.At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation.

  19. Noninvasive investigation of exocrine pancreatic function: Feasibility of cine dynamic MRCP with a spatially selective inversion-recovery pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasokawa, Kazuya; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Minoru; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higaki, Atsushi; Noda, Yasufumi; Kido, Ayumu

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of noncontrast-enhanced cine dynamic magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with a spatially selective inversion-recovery (IR) pulse for evaluating exocrine pancreatic function in comparison with the N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (BT-PABA) test as a pancreatic exocrine function test. Twenty subjects with or without chronic pancreatitis were included. MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse was repeated every 15 seconds for 5 minutes to acquire a total of 20 images (cine-dynamic MRCP). The median and mean frequency of the observation (the number of times) and the moving distance (mean secretion grading scores) of pancreatic juice inflow on cine-dynamic MRCP were compared with a BT-PABA test. The urinary PABA excretion rate (%) had significant positive correlations with both the mean secretion grade (r = 0.66, P = 0.002) and frequency of secretory inflow (r = 0.62, P = 0.004) in cine dynamic MRCP. Both the mean frequency of observations of pancreatic secretory inflow (1.4 ± 1.6 times vs. 14.3 ± 4.2 times, P Cine dynamic MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse may have potential for estimating the pancreatic exocrine function noninvasively as a substitute for the BT-PABA test. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Physical exercise improves functional recovery through mitigation of autophagy, attenuation of apoptosis and enhancement of neurogenesis after MCAO in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Hu, Xiquan; Luo, Jing; Li, Lili; Chen, Xingyong; Huang, Ruxun; Pei, Zhong

    2013-04-08

    Physical exercise improves functional recovery after stroke through a complex mechanism that is not fully understood. Transient focal cerebral ischemia induces autophagy, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the peri-infarct region. This study is aimed to examine the effects of physical exercise on autophagy, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the peri-infarct region in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). We found that autophagosomes, as labeled by microtubule-associated protein 1A light chain 3-II (LC3-II), were evident in the peri-infarct region at 3 days after 90-minute MCAO. Moreover, 44.6% of LC3-positive cells were also stained with TUNEL. The number of LC3 positive cells was significantly lower in physical exercise group than in control group at 14 and 21 days after MCAO. Suppression of autophagosomes by physical exercise was positively associated with improvement of neurological function. In addition, physical exercise significantly decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and increased the numbers of Ki67-positive, a proliferative marker, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) positive cells at 7, 14, and 21 days after MCAO. The present results demonstrate that physical exercise enhances neurological function possibly by reduction of autophagosome accumulation, attenuation of apoptosis and enhancement of neurogenesis in the peri-infarct region after transient MCAO in rats.

  1. Systemic down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase promotes muscle oxidative metabolism and accelerates muscle function recovery following nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hussain

    Full Text Available The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles.

  2. Damage and functional recovery of the mouse retina after exposure to genotoxic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, Yu.V.; Tronov, V.A.; Lyakhova, K.N.; Ostrovskij, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    As is known, the mature retina is characterized by high radiation resistance. We showed earlier that ionizing radiation at a dose of ≥25 Gy and the chemical genotoxic agent methylnitrosourea (MNU) in a concentration of ≥60 mg/kg induce acute retinal degeneration, combined with proapoptotic protein expression. The process has a high genotoxic threshold, below which no degeneration signs were traced. The aim of this work was to study the damaging effect of ionizing radiation and MNU on the functional activity of the retina and its ability to recover after exposure to these genotoxicants. The functional activity of the mouse retina was evaluated with electroretinograms (ERG). In parallel, morphological changes in the retina were controlled, and the TUNEL detection of the death of its cell elements was performed. It has been shown that gamma rays or accelerated proton irradiation below 15 Gy cause no structural or functional changes in the mouse retina, which confirms the mature retina's high radiation resistance. Irradiation with a higher dose of 25 Gy leads to photoreceptor layer destruction. This goes along with an increase in the number of the TUNEL-positive photoreceptors, among which are cells with fragmented nuclei, which are typical of apoptosis. MNU in a concentration of 70 mg/kg caused the irreversible loss of the retina's physiological activity, and the morphological degeneration of photoreceptors and their mass death. In a concentration of 35 mg/kg, however, MNU had no cytotoxic effect on the retina. Moreover, this dose caused a reversible ERG amplitude decrease. Also, adaptive response was observed in the retina, which became apparent after two consecutive MNU injections - first, at a dose of 17 mg/kg; then, at a cytotoxic dose of 70 mg/kg. These results point to the possibility of the neurohormesis effect, which was described concerning the retina's exposure to ionizing radiation and some chemicals.

  3. Nanostructured Membranes Functionalized with Gold Nanoparticles for Separation and Recovery of Monoclonal Antibodies

    KAUST Repository

    Soldan, Giada

    2017-11-01

    The need of purified biomolecules, such as proteins or antibodies, has required the biopharmaceutical industries to look for new recovering solutions to reduce time and costs of bioseparations. In the last decade, the emergent field of membrane chromatography has gained attention as possible substituent of the common used protein A affinity chromatography for bioseparations. In this scenario, gold nanoparticles can be used as means for offering affinity, mainly because of their biocompatible and reversible binding behavior, together with their high surface area-to-volume ratio, which offers a large number of binding sites. This work introduces a new procedure for purification of monoclonal antibodies based on polymeric membranes functionalized with gold nanoparticles. This novel approach shortens the process of purification by promoting selective binding of antibodies, while separating a mixture of biomolecules during a filtration process. The effects of gold nanoparticles and the surrounding ligand on the proteins adsorption and filtration are investigated. The results confirm that the functionalization helps in inducing a selective binding, preventing the non-selective one, and it also improves the selectivity of the separation process.

  4. Bridging the gap: axonal fusion drives rapid functional recovery of the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Teoh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the central or peripheral nervous system frequently cause long-term disabilities because damaged neurons are unable to efficiently self-repair. This inherent deficiency necessitates the need for new treatment options aimed at restoring lost function to patients. Compared to humans, a number of species possess far greater regenerative capabilities, and can therefore provide important insights into how our own nervous systems can be repaired. In particular, several invertebrate species have been shown to rapidly initiate regeneration post-injury, allowing separated axon segments to re-join. This process, known as axonal fusion, represents a highly efficient repair mechanism as a regrowing axon needs to only bridge the site of damage and fuse with its separated counterpart in order to re-establish its original structure. Our recent findings in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have expanded the promise of axonal fusion by demonstrating that it can restore complete function to damaged neurons. Moreover, we revealed the importance of injury-induced changes in the composition of the axonal membrane for mediating axonal fusion, and discovered that the level of axonal fusion can be enhanced by promoting a neuron's intrinsic growth potential. A complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling axonal fusion may permit similar approaches to be applied in a clinical setting.

  5. Inhibition of Murine Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Promotes Recovery of Barrier Function under Septic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefeng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is characterized by injury of the pulmonary microvasculature and the pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC, leading to barrier dysfunction and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Our recent work identified a strong correlation between PMVEC apoptosis and microvascular leak in septic mice in vivo, but the specific role of apoptosis in septic PMVEC barrier dysfunction remains unclear. Thus, we hypothesize that PMVEC apoptosis is likely required for PMVEC barrier dysfunction under septic conditions in vitro. Septic stimulation (mixture of tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interferon γ [cytomix] of isolated murine PMVEC resulted in a significant loss of barrier function as early as 4 h after stimulation, which persisted until 24 h. PMVEC apoptosis, as reflected by caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and loss of membrane polarity, was first apparent at 8 h after cytomix. Pretreatment of PMVEC with the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD significantly decreased septic PMVEC apoptosis and was associated with reestablishment of PMVEC barrier function at 16 and 24 h after stimulation but had no effect on septic PMVEC barrier dysfunction over the first 8 h. Collectively, our data suggest that early septic murine PMVEC barrier dysfunction driven by proinflammatory cytokines is not mediated through apoptosis, but PMVEC apoptosis contributes to late septic PMVEC barrier dysfunction.

  6. Fenbendazole improves pathological and functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C G; Singh, R; Crowdus, C; Raza, K; Kincer, J; Geddes, J W

    2014-01-03

    During a study of spinal cord injury (SCI), mice in our colony were treated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole to treat pinworms detected in other mice not involved in the study. As this was not part of the original experimental design, we subsequently compared pathological and functional outcomes of SCI in female C57BL/6 mice who received fenbendazole (150 ppm, 8 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks prior to moderate contusive SCI (50 kdyn force) as compared to mice on the same diet without added fenbendazole. The fenbendazole-treated mice exhibited improved locomotor function, determined using the Basso mouse scale, as well as improved tissue sparing following contusive SCI. Fenbendazole may exert protective effects through multiple possible mechanisms, one of which is inhibition of the proliferation of B lymphocytes, thereby reducing antibody responses. Autoantibodies produced following SCI contribute to the axon damage and locomotor deficits. Fenbendazole pretreatment reduced the injury-induced CD45R-positive B cell signal intensity and IgG immunoreactivity at the lesion epicenter 6 weeks after contusive SCI in mice, consistent with a possible effect on the immune response to the injury. Fenbendazole and related benzimadole antihelmintics are FDA approved, exhibit minimal toxicity, and represent a novel group of potential therapeutics targeting secondary mechanisms following SCI. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Delayed recovery of right ventricular systolic function after repair of long-standing tricuspid regurgitation associated with severe right ventricular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Jong Bum; Kuh, Ja Hong

    2016-03-01

    After tricuspid valve surgery for long-standing tricuspid regurgitation associated with right ventricular failure, reverse remodelling of the enlarged right ventricle, including recovery of right ventricular systolic function, is unpredictable. We present the case of a 31-year old man with early reduction of dilated right ventricular dimensions and delayed recovery of impaired right ventricular systolic function after valve repair for traumatic tricuspid regurgitation lasting 16 years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural and Functional Recovery of Sensory Cilia in C. elegans IFT Mutants upon Aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Cornils

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of cilia are formed and maintained by the highly conserved process of intraflagellar transport (IFT. Mutations in IFT genes lead to ciliary structural defects and systemic disorders termed ciliopathies. Here we show that the severely truncated sensory cilia of hypomorphic IFT mutants in C. elegans transiently elongate during a discrete period of adult aging leading to markedly improved sensory behaviors. Age-dependent restoration of cilia morphology occurs in structurally diverse cilia types and requires IFT. We demonstrate that while DAF-16/FOXO is dispensable, the age-dependent suppression of cilia phenotypes in IFT mutants requires cell-autonomous functions of the HSF1 heat shock factor and the Hsp90 chaperone. Our results describe an unexpected role of early aging and protein quality control mechanisms in suppressing ciliary phenotypes of IFT mutants, and suggest possible strategies for targeting subsets of ciliopathies.

  9. Functionalized glass beads for the recovery of waste radioactive elements. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldard, J.F.

    1979-09-01

    Various substituted ethylenediamine tetraacetic acids and their precursors have been prepared and characterized. In addition to containing groups that can chelate metal ions, these substances also contain groups that can be used to bond them to glass beads. Experiments have shown, however, that a large enough number of active sites cannot be achieved by this route. An alternative scheme was devised, whereby trimethoxysilyl groups are incorporated into molecules that have the necessary functional groups. These silyl compounds can be bonded directly to glass beads; the ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid can then be formed in place. The prognosis for this reaction scheme is good, based on the experiments done so far. Stability constants have been measured for some metal ion complexes of the acids mentioned above

  10. Recovery of Breathing and Forelimb Function after Prolonged Exposure to Repetitive Acute Intermittent Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    March 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION...Z39.18 March 2017 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 4 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 Key Research...breathing capacity (Aim 1) and forelimb function (Aim 2), without systemic hypertension or hippocampal pathology (Aim 3). SPECIFIC AIMS Aim 1 (Florida

  11. Homologous recombination mediates functional recovery of dysferlin deficiency following AAV5 gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Grose

    Full Text Available The dysferlinopathies comprise a group of untreatable muscle disorders including limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, Miyoshi myopathy, distal anterior compartment syndrome, and rigid spine syndrome. As with other forms of muscular dystrophy, adeno-associated virus (AAV gene transfer is a particularly auspicious treatment strategy, however the size of the DYSF cDNA (6.5 kb negates packaging into traditional AAV serotypes known to express well in muscle (i.e. rAAV1, 2, 6, 8, 9. Potential advantages of a full cDNA versus a mini-gene include: maintaining structural-functional protein domains, evading protein misfolding, and avoiding novel epitopes that could be immunogenic. AAV5 has demonstrated unique plasticity with regards to packaging capacity and recombination of virions containing homologous regions of cDNA inserts has been implicated in the generation of full-length transcripts. Herein we show for the first time in vivo that homologous recombination following AAV5.DYSF gene transfer leads to the production of full length transcript and protein. Moreover, gene transfer of full-length dysferlin protein in dysferlin deficient mice resulted in expression levels sufficient to correct functional deficits in the diaphragm and importantly in skeletal muscle membrane repair. Intravascular regional gene transfer through the femoral artery produced high levels of transduction and enabled targeting of specific muscle groups affected by the dysferlinopathies setting the stage for potential translation to clinical trials. We provide proof of principle that AAV5 mediated delivery of dysferlin is a highly promising strategy for treatment of dysferlinopathies and has far-reaching implications for the therapeutic delivery of other large genes.

  12. Quality of Recovery, Postdischarge Hospital Utilization, and 2-Year Functional Outcomes After an Outpatient Total Knee Arthroplasty Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Kwan, Olivier Y; Dobransky, Johanna S; Dervin, Geoffrey F

    2018-02-05

    Outpatient total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been made possible with advances in perioperative care and standardized clinical inpatient pathways. While many studies report on benefits of outpatient programs, none explore patient-reported outcome measures. As such, our goals were to compare the short-term quality of recovery; highlight postdischarge hospital resources utilization; and report on 2-year functional outcomes scores. This was a prospective comparative cohort study of 43 inpatients (43 TKAs) and 43 outpatients (43 TKAs) operated on by a single surgeon between September 28, 2010 and May 5, 2015. All patients were given a diary to complete at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days postoperatively; we collected 90-day complications, readmissions, and emergency department visits; Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores were completed preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. SPSS (IBM, version 22.0) was used for all statistical analyses. Quality of recovery (QoR-9) was similar in the outpatient TKA group compared with the inpatient group. No statistically significant differences were observed for Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscores (P > .05). There was 1 readmission in both outpatient and inpatient groups. Six inpatients and 8 outpatients returned to the emergency department for any reason within 90 days, with no statistical significance observed between the 2 groups (P = .771). Outpatient TKA in selected patients produced similar short-term and 2-year patient-reported outcome measures and a comparable 90-day postdischarge hospital resource utilization when compared to an inpatient cohort, supporting further investigation into outpatient TKA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of functional recovery after autologous implantation of neural progenitor cells for the treatment of traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xing; Zhang Dong; Zuo Zhuantao; Ge Feng; Zhu Jianhong; Zhou Liangfu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the functional recovery in the patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) after autologous implantation of neural progenitor cells, and 7 counterparts with matched age, injury location and extent were chosen as the control. Methods: Neural progenitor cells were isolated from exposed brain tissue and propagated for 25 to 30 d, then implanted the autologous neural progenitor cells at seven points around the traumatic regions with MRI-stereotactic guiding device for 7 patients. All recruited patients underwent 18 F-fluorodeox-yglucose (FDG) PET imaging, function MRI (fMRI) and assessment of Glasgow outcome scale extended (GOSE) after operation for open brain trauma. The examinations were repeated one month after neural progenitor cell implantation and then repeated every 3 months during follow-up in the first year, and every 6 months in the second year. The same examinations were performed on untreated counterparts at similar intervals for avoiding deviations of spontaneous recovery. The data were analyzed with region of interest (ROI) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results: At the third month of follow-up, mean tracer uptake in the damaged territory in implantation group increased significantly (P 18 F-FDG in the top of precentral gyrus was significantly increased in implantation group, and the metabolism of 18 F-FDG in the frontal lobe was significantly elevated postoperation according to paired SPM analysis. The activation in fMRI maps was seen in the motor cortex since the third month after implantation, whereas no active signals were detected before implantation or in control group. At the 6th month of follow-up, mean score of GOSE in the group of implantation was 6.63±0.52, whereas the mean score was 4.50 ±0.76 in control group (P 18 F-FDG uptake in the injured area was 3 months prior to the elevation of GOSE. Conclusions: The results of the study show that 18 F-FDG PET and fMRI both showed significantly increased neurological

  14. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  15. Recovery of storage and emptying functions of the urinary bladder after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine and with bupivacaine in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, E T; Ionescu, T I; Kuipers, P W; de Gier, J; van Venrooij, G E; Boon, T A

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of spinal anesthesia with lidocaine and with bupivacaine on urinary bladder function in healthy men who were scheduled for minor orthopaedic surgical procedures. Twenty men were randomly allocated to receive either bupivacaine or lidocaine. Before spinal anesthesia, filling cystometry was performed with the patient in the supine position and a pressure flow study was done with the patient in the standing position. After operation, cystometric measurements were continued until the patient could void urine spontaneously. The levels of analgesia and of motor blockade were recorded. The urge to void disappeared immediately after injection of the local anesthetics. There was no difference in the duration of lower extremity motor blockade between bupivacaine and lidocaine. Detrusor blockade lasted significantly longer in the bupivacaine group (means +/- SD, 460 +/- 60 min) than in the lidocaine group (235 +/- 30 min). Total fluid intake and urine volume accumulated during the detrusor blockade were significantly higher in the bupivacaine group than in the lidocaine group. In the bupivacaine group, the total volume of accumulated urine (875 +/- 385 ml) was also significantly higher than cystometric bladder capacity (505 +/- 120 ml) with the risk of over distension of the bladder. Spontaneous voiding of urine did not occur until segmental sensory analgesia had regressed to the third sacral segment. Spinal anesthesia with lidocaine and with bupivacaine causes a clinically significant disturbance of bladder function due to interruption of the micturition reflex. The urge to void disappears quickly and bladder function remains impaired until the block has regressed to the third sacral segment in all patients. With long-acting local anesthetics, the volume of accumulated urine may exceed the cystometric bladder capacity. With respect to recovery of urinary bladder function, the use of short-acting local anesthetics

  16. Differential expression of secreted phosphoprotein 1 in the motor cortex among primate species and during postnatal development and functional recovery.

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    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    Full Text Available We previously reported that secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1 mRNA is expressed in neurons whose axons form the corticospinal tract (CST of the rhesus macaque, but not in the corresponding neurons of the marmoset and rat. This suggests that SPP1 expression is involved in the functional or structural specialization of highly developed corticospinal systems in certain primate species. To further examine this hypothesis, we evaluated the expression of SPP1 mRNA in the motor cortex from three viewpoints: species differences, postnatal development, and functional/structural changes of the CST after a lesion of the lateral CST (l-CST at the mid-cervical level. The density of SPP1-positive neurons in layer V of the primary motor cortex (M1 was much greater in species with highly developed corticospinal systems (i.e., rhesus macaque, capuchin monkey, and humans than in those with less developed corticospinal systems (i.e., squirrel monkey, marmoset, and rat. SPP1-positive neurons in the macaque monkey M1 increased logarithmically in layer V during postnatal development, following a time course consistent with the increase in conduction velocity of the CST. After an l-CST lesion, SPP1-positive neurons increased in layer V of the ventral premotor cortex, in which compensatory changes in CST function/structure may occur, which positively correlated with the extent of finger dexterity recovery. These results further support the concept that the expression of SPP1 may reflect functional or structural specialization of highly developed corticospinal systems in certain primate species.

  17. Impact-Induced Muscle Damage and Contact-Sport: Aetiology, Effects on Neuromuscular Function and Recovery, and the Modulating Effects of Adaptation and Recovery Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Mitchell; Miller, Joanna; Slater, Gary J

    2017-11-28

    Athletes involved in contact-sports are habitually exposed to skeletal muscle damage as part of their training and performance environments. This often leads to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) resulting from repeated eccentric and/or high-intensity exercise, and impact-induced muscle damage (IIMD) resulting from collisions with opponents and the playing surface. Whilst EIMD has been an area of extensive investigation, IIMD has received comparatively little research, with the magnitude and timeframe of alterations following IIMD not presently well understood. It is currently thought that EIMD occurs through an overload of mechanical stress causing ultrastructural damage to the cellular membrane constituents. Damage leads to compromised ability to produce force which manifest immediately and persist for up to 14 days following exercise exposure. IIMD has been implicated in attenuated neuromuscular performance and recovery with inflammatory process implicated, although the underlying time course remains unclear. Exposure to EIMD leads to an adaptation to subsequent exposures, a phenomenon known as the repeated-bout effect. An analogous adaptation has been suggested to occur following IIMD, however, to date this contention remains equivocal. Whilst a considerable body of research has explored the efficacy of recovery strategies following EIMD, strategies promoting recovery from IIMD are limited to investigations using animal contusion models. Strategies such as cryotherapy and antioxidant supplementation, which focus on attenuating the secondary inflammatory response may provide additional benefit in IIMD and are explored herein. Further research is required to firstly establish a model of generating IIMD and then explore broader areas around IIMD in athletic populations.

  18. Giant gastric lipoma presenting as GI bleed: Enucleation or Resection?

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    Salah Termos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastric lipomas are unusual benign lesions and account for less than 1% of all tumours of the stomach and 5% of all gastrointestinal lipomas (Thompson et al.2003; Fernandez et al. 1983 [1,2]. Although predominantly asymptomatic and indolent; they may present with gastric outlet obstruction and upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding owing to size and ulceration. Only a few cases have been reported, presenting large in size with massive GI bleeding (Alcalde Escribano et al. 1989; Johnson et al. 1981 [3,4]. Presentation of case: We report the case of a 62-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department with massive upper GI hemorrhage. He was initially resuscitated and stabilized. Later gastroscopy showed a large submucosal tumour (Fig. 1. Biopsy revealed adipose tissue. Computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a huge well defined oval soft tissue lesion measuring about 16 × 8 × 8 cm. The mass noted a homogenous fat density arising from the posterior wall of stomach with no extramural infiltration (Fig. 2. The tumour was completely enucleated through an explorative gastrotomy incision (Fig. 4. Discussion and conclusion: Massive bleeding secondary to a giant gastric lipoma is a rare finding of a rare disease. The majority of cases in the literature result in major gastric resection. Familiarity with its radiological findings and a high index of suspicion can lead to proper diagnosis in the acute setting. If malignancy is carefully ruled out, stomach preserving surgery is an optimal treatment option. Keywords: Case report, Lipoma, Gastric lipoma, G I bleeding, Enucleation, Gastric resection

  19. The potential of electrical stimulation to promote functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury--comparisons between rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T; Brushart, T M; Amirjani, N; Chan, K M

    2007-01-01

    The declining capacity for injured peripheral nerves to regenerate their axons with time and distance is accounted for, at least in part, by the chronic axotomy of the neurons and Schwann cell denervation prior to target reinnervation. A largely unrecognized site of delay is the surgical suture site where, in rats, 4 weeks is required for all neurons to regenerate their axons across the site. Low frequency stimulation for just 1 h after surgery accelerates this axon crossing in association with upregulation of neurotrophic factors in the neurons. We translated these findings to human patients by examining the number of reinnervated motor units in the median nerve-innervated thenar muscles before and after carpel tunnel release surgery in a randomized controlled trial. Motor unit number estimates (MUNE) in patients with moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome were significantly lower than normal. This number increased significantly by 6-8 months after surgery and reached normal values by 12 months in contrast to a non-significant increase in the control unstimulated group. Tests including the Purdue Pegboard Test verified the more rapid functional recovery after stimulation. The data indicate a feasible strategy to promote axonal regeneration in humans that has the potential to improve functional outcomes, especially in combination with strategies to sustain the regenerative capacity of neurons and the support of Schwann cells over distance and time.

  20. Effects of Autogenic Drainage on Sputum Recovery and Pulmonary Function in People with Cystic Fibrosis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kimbly; Osterling, Kristin; Gilbert, Robert; Dechman, Gail

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of short- and long-term use of autogenic drainage (AD) on pulmonary function and sputum recovery in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). The authors conducted a systematic review of randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials in which participants were people with CF who use AD as their sole airway clearance technique. Searches in 4 databases and secondary sources using 5 key terms yielded 735 articles, of which 58 contained the terms autogenic drainage and cystic fibrosis. Ultimately, 4 studies, 2 of which were long term, were included. All measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and found no change. The long-term studies were underpowered to detect change in FEV1; however, the short-term studies found a clinically significant sputum yield (≥4 g). AD has been shown to produce clinically significant sputum yields in a limited number of investigations. The effect of AD on the function of the pulmonary system remains uncertain, and questions have emerged regarding the appropriateness of FEV1 as a valid measure of airway clearance from peripheral lung regions. Further consideration should be given to the use of FEV1 as a primary measure of the effect of AD.

  1. A Clinical Framework for Functional Recovery in a Person With Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Karen; Shearin, Staci

    2017-07-01

    This case study describes a task-specific training program for gait walking and functional recovery in a young man with severe chronic traumatic brain injury. The individual was a 26-year-old man 4 years post-traumatic brain injury with severe motor impairments who had not walked outside of therapy since his injury. He had received extensive gait training prior to initiation of services. His goal was to recover the ability to walk. The primary focus of the interventions was the restoration of walking. A variety of interventions were used, including locomotor treadmill training, electrical stimulation, orthoses, and specialized assistive devices. A total of 79 treatments were delivered over a period of 62 weeks. At the conclusion of therapy, the client was able to walk independently with a gait trainer for approximately 1km (over 3000 ft) and walked in the community with the assistance of his mother using a rocker bottom crutch for distances of 100m (330 ft). Specific interventions were intentionally selected in the development of the treatment plan. The program emphasized structured practice of the salient task, that is, walking, with adequate intensity and frequency. Given the chronicity of this individual's injury, the magnitude of his functional improvements was unexpected.Video Abstract available for additional insights from the Authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A175).

  2. Possible mechanisms of retinal function recovery with the use of cell therapy with bone marrow-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow has been proposed as a potential source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. In the eye, degeneration of neural cells in the retina is a hallmark of such widespread ocular diseases as age-related macular degeneration (AMD and retinitis pigmentosa. Bone marrow is an ideal tissue for studying stem cells mainly because of its accessibility. Furthermore, there are a number of well-defined mouse models and cell surface markers that allow effective study of hematopoiesis in healthy and injured mice. Because of these characteristics and the experience of bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of hematological disease such as leukemia, bone marrow-derived stem cells have also become a major tool in regenerative medicine. Those cells may be able to restore the retina function through different mechanisms: A cellular differentiation, B paracrine effect, and C retinal pigment epithelium repair. In this review, we described these possible mechanisms of recovery of retinal function with the use of cell therapy with bone marrow-derived stem cells.

  3. Hand function recovery in chronic stroke with HEXORR robotic training: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sasha Blue; Schabowsky, Christopher N; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2010-01-01

    After a stroke, many survivors have impaired motor function. Robotic rehabilitation techniques have emerged to provide a repetitive, activity-based therapy at potentially lower cost than conventional methods. Many patients exhibit intrinsic resistance to hand extension in the form of spasticity and/or hypertonia. We have developed a therapy program using the Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot (HEXORR) that is capable of compensating for tone to assist patients in opening the paretic hand. The system can move the user's hand, assist movement, allow free movement, or restrict movement to allow static force production. These options combine with an interactive virtual reality game to enhance user motivation. Four chronic stroke subjects received 18 sessions of robot therapy as well as pre and post evaluation sessions. All subjects showed at least modest gains in active finger range of motion (ROM) measured in the robot, and all but one subject had gains in active thumb ROM. Most of these gains carried over to ROM gains outside of the robot. The clinical measures (Fugl-Meyer, Box-and-Blocks) showed clear improvements in two subjects and mixed results in two subjects. Overall, the robot therapy was well received by subjects and shows promising results. We conclude HEXORR therapy is best suited for patients with mild-moderate tone and at least minimal extension.

  4. Optical Spectroscopy Approach for the Predictive Assessment of Kidney Functional Recovery Following Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Rubenchik, A M; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C; Demos, S G

    2010-02-11

    Tissue that has undergone significant yet unknown amount of ischemic injury is frequently encountered in organ transplantation and trauma clinics. With no reliable real-time method of assessing the degree of injury incurred in tissue, surgeons generally rely on visual observation which is subjective. In this work, we investigate the use of optical spectroscopy methods as a potentially more reliable approach. Previous work by various groups was strongly suggestive that tissue autofluorescence from NADH obtained under UV excitation is sensitive to metabolic response changes. To test and expand upon this concept, we monitored autofluorescence and light scattering intensities of injured vs. uninjured rat kidneys via multimodal imaging under 355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm excitation as well as scattering under 500 nm illumination. 355 nm excitation was used to probe mainly NADH, a metabolite, while 266 nm excitation was used to probe mainly tryptophan to correct for non-metabolic signal artifacts. The ratio of autofluorescence intensities derived under these two excitation wavelengths was calculated and its temporal profile was fit to a relaxation model. Time constants were extracted, and longer time constants were associated with kidney dysfunction. Analysis of both the autofluorescence and light scattering images suggests that changes in microstructure tissue morphology, blood absorption spectral characteristics, and pH contribute to the behavior of the observed signal which may be used to obtain tissue functional information and offer predictive capability.

  5. Anxiolytics may promote locomotor function recovery in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre A Guertin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pierre A GuertinNeuroscience Unit, Laval University Medical Center (CHUL, Quebec City, CanadaAbstract: Recent findings in animal models of paraplegia suggest that specific nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytics may temporarily restore locomotor functions after spinal cord injury (SCI. Experiments using in vitro models have revealed, indeed, that selective serotonin receptor (5-HTR ligands such as 5-HTR1A agonists, known as relatively safe anxiolytics, can acutely elicit episodes of rhythmic neuronal activity refered to as fictive locomotion in isolated spinal cord preparations. Along the same line, in vivo studies have recently shown that this subclass of anxiolytics can induce, shortly after systemic administration (eg, orally or subcutaneously, some locomotor-like hindlimb movements during 45–60 minutes in completely spinal cord-transected (Tx rodents. Using ‘knock-out’ mice (eg, 5-HTR7-/- and selective antagonists, it has been clearly established that both 5-HTR1A and 5-HTR7 were critically involved in mediating the pro-locomotor effects induced by 8-OH-DPAT (typically referred to as a 5-HTR1A agonist in Tx animals. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo data strongly support the idea that 5-HTR1A agonists may eventually become constitutive elements of a novel first-in-class combinatorial treatment aimed at periodically inducing short episodes of treadmill stepping in SCI patients.Keywords: 5-HT agonists, anxiolytics, locomotion, SCI

  6. Neurorehabilitation strategies for poststroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: from compensation to the recovery of swallowing function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabib, Christopher; Ortega, Omar; Kumru, Hatice; Palomeras, Ernest; Vilardell, Natalia; Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Muriana, Desirée; Rofes, Laia; Terré, Rosa; Mearin, Fermín; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is very prevalent among poststroke patients, causing severe complications but lacking specific neurorehabilitation treatment. This review covers advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and physiologically based neurorehabilitation strategies for poststroke OD. The pathophysiology of oropharyngeal biomechanics can be assessed by videofluoroscopy, as delayed laryngeal vestibule closure is closely associated with aspiration. Stroke may affect afferent or efferent neuronal circuits participating in deglutition. The integrity of oropharyngeal-cortical afferent pathways can be assessed by electroencephalography through sensory-evoked potentials by pharyngeal electrical stimulation, while corticopharyngeal efferent pathways can be characterized by electromyography through motor-evoked potentials by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Dysfunction in both cortico-mediated evoked responses is associated with delayed swallow response and aspiration. Studies have reported hemispherical asymmetry on motor control of swallowing and the relevance of impaired oropharyngeal sensitivity on aspiration. Advances in treatment include improvements in compensatory strategies but are mainly focused on (1) peripheral stimulation strategies and (2) central, noninvasive stimulation strategies with evidence of their clinical benefits. Characterization of poststroke OD is evolving from the assessment of impaired biomechanics to the sensorimotor integration processes involved in deglutition. Treatment is also changing from compensatory strategies to promoting brain plasticity, both to recover swallow function and to improve brain-related swallowing dysfunction. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Optical spectroscopy approach for the predictive assessment of kidney functional recovery following ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajesh N.; Pivetti, Christopher D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Troppmann, Christoph; Demos, Stavros G.

    2010-02-01

    Tissue that has undergone significant yet unknown amount of ischemic injury is frequently encountered in organ transplantation and trauma clinics. With no reliable real-time method of assessing the degree of injury incurred in tissue, surgeons generally rely on visual observation which is subjective. In this work, we investigate the use of optical spectroscopy methods as a potentially more reliable approach. Previous work by various groups was strongly suggestive that tissue autofluorescence from NADH obtained under UV excitation is sensitive to metabolic response changes. To test and expand upon this concept, we monitored autofluorescence and light scattering intensities of injured vs. uninjured rat kidneys via multimodal imaging under 355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm excitation as well as scattering under 500 nm illumination. 355 nm excitation was used to probe mainly NADH, a metabolite, while 266 nm excitation was used to probe mainly tryptophan to correct for non-metabolic signal artifacts. The ratio of autofluorescence intensities derived under these two excitation wavelengths was calculated and its temporal profile was fit to a relaxation model. Time constants were extracted, and longer time constants were associated with kidney dysfunction. Analysis of both the autofluorescence and light scattering images suggests that changes in microstructure tissue morphology, blood absorption spectral characteristics, and pH contribute to the behavior of the observed signal which may be used to obtain tissue functional information and offer predictive capability.

  8. Reflex-based grasping, skilled forelimb reaching, and electrodiagnostic evaluation for comprehensive analysis of functional recovery-The 7-mm rat median nerve gap repair model revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stößel, Maria; Rehra, Lena; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2017-10-01

    The rat median nerve injury and repair model gets increasingly important for research on novel bioartificial nerve grafts. It allows follow-up evaluation of the recovery of the forepaw functional ability with several sensitive techniques. The reflex-based grasping test, the skilled forelimb reaching staircase test, as well as electrodiagnostic recordings have been described useful in this context. Currently, no standard values exist, however, for comparison or comprehensive correlation of results obtained in each of the three methods after nerve gap repair in adult rats. Here, we bilaterally reconstructed 7-mm median nerve gaps with autologous nerve grafts (ANG) or autologous muscle-in-vein grafts (MVG), respectively. During 8 and 12 weeks of observation, functional recovery of each paw was separately monitored using the grasping test (weekly), the staircase test, and noninvasive electrophysiological recordings from the thenar muscles (both every 4 weeks). Evaluation was completed by histomorphometrical analyses at 8 and 12 weeks postsurgery. The comprehensive evaluation detected a significant difference in the recovery of forepaw functional motor ability between the ANG and MVG groups. The correlation between the different functional tests evaluated precisely displayed the recovery of distinct levels of forepaw functional ability over time. Thus, this multimodal evaluation model represents a valuable preclinical model for peripheral nerve reconstruction approaches.

  9. Improved recovery of regional left ventricular function after PCI of chronic total occlusion in STEMI patients: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the randomized controlled EXPLORE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Joëlle; van Dongen, Ivo M; Hoebers, Loes P; Ouweneel, Dagmar M; Claessen, Bimmer E P M; Råmunddal, Truls; Laanmets, Peep; Eriksen, Erlend; van der Schaaf, René J; Ioanes, Dan; Nijveldt, Robin; Tijssen, Jan G; Hirsch, Alexander; Henriques, José P S

    2017-07-19

    The Evaluating Xience and left ventricular function in PCI on occlusiOns afteR STEMI (EXPLORE) trial did not show a significant benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the concurrent chronic total occlusion (CTO) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients on global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However a possible treatment effect will be most pronounced in the CTO territory. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI on the recovery of regional LV function, particularly in the CTO territory. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) we studied 180 of the 302 EXPLORE patients with serial CMR (baseline and 4 months follow-up). Segmental wall thickening (SWT) was quantified on cine images by an independent core laboratory. Dysfunctional segments were defined as SWT PCI compared to no-CTO PCI (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 23%, p = 0.03). This recovery was most pronounced in the dysfunctional but viable segments(TEI PCI compared with no-CTO PCI is associated with a greater recovery of regional systolic function in the CTO territory, especially in the dysfunctional but viable segments. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of CMR in selecting post-STEMI patients for CTO PCI and the effect of regional LV function recovery on clinical outcome. Trialregister.nl NTR1108 , Date registered NTR: 30-okt-2007.

  10. Effects of professional rehabilitation training on the recovery of neurological function in young stroke patients

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    Chao-jin-zi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Young stroke patients have a strong desire to return to the society, but few studies have been conducted on their rehabilitation training items, intensity, and prognosis. We analyzed clinical data of young and middle-aged/older stroke patients hospitalized in the Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, China Rehabilitation Research Center, Capital Medical University, China from February 2014 to May 2015. Results demonstrated that hemorrhagic stroke (59.6% was the primary stroke type found in the young group, while ischemic stroke (60.0% was the main type detected in the middle-aged/older group. Compared with older stroke patients, education level and incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia were higher in younger stroke patients, whereas, incidences of hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease were lower. The average length of hospital stay was longer in the young group than in the middle-aged/older group. The main risk factors observed in the young stroke patients were hypertension, drinking, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, previous history of stroke, and heart disease. The most accepted rehabilitation program consisted of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, acupuncture and moxibustion. Average rehabilitation training time was 2.5 hours/day. Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale scores were increased at discharge. Six months after discharge, the degree of occupational and economic satisfaction declined, and there were no changes in family life satisfaction. The degrees of other life satisfaction (such as friendship improved. The degree of disability and functional status improved significantly in young stroke patients after professional rehabilitation, but the number of patients who returned to society within 6 months after stroke was still small.

  11. Acute upper GI bleeding: Did anything change? Time trend analysis of incidence and outcome of acute upper GI bleeding between 1993/1994 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leerdam, M. E.; Vreeburg, E. M.; Rauws, E. A. J.; Geraedts, A. A. M.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Reitsma, J. B.; Tytgat, G. N. J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine recent time trends in incidence and outcome of upper GI bleeding. METHODS: Prospective data collection on all patients presenting with acute upper GI bleeding from a defined geographical area in the period 1993/1994 and 2000. RESULTS: Incidence

  12. Angiotensin II accelerates functional recovery in the rat sciatic nerve in vivo: role of the AT2 receptor and the transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Kirstin; Lucius, Ralph; Reinecke, Alexander; Rickert, Uta; Herdegen, Thomas; Unger, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    The AT2 receptor regulates several functions of nerve cells, e.g., ionic fluxes, cell differentiation, and axonal regeneration, but also modulates programmed cell death. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II (ANG II) via its AT2 receptor not only promotes regeneration but also functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in adult rats. ANG II (10(-7), 10(-9), 10(-11) M) applied locally via osmotic minipumps promoted functional recovery with maximal effects after the lowest concentration. The toe spread distance as a parameter for re-innervation after 20 days was significantly (Pelectrical stimulation (return of sensorimotor function) was reduced to 14.6 days vs. 17.9 days in the control group (PSchwann cells. Histological criteria, morphometric analyses, and electron microscopy confirmed the functional data. These results are the first to present direct evidence for an involvement of the AT2 receptor and NF-kappaB in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  13. Evoked EMG versus Muscle Torque during Fatiguing Functional Electrical Stimulation-Evoked Muscle Contractions and Short-Term Recovery in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estigoni, Eduardo H.; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Smith, Richard M.; Davis, Glen M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG) signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA), and the m-wave area (Area) were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT) were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery. PMID:25479324

  14. Functional Recovery and Life Satisfaction in the First Year After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Multicenter Study of a Norwegian National Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke, Audny; Andelic, Nada; Skandsen, Toril; Knoph, Rein; Ader, Tiina; Manskow, Unn; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Røe, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    (1) To examine the impact of demographic and acute injury-related variables on functional recovery and life satisfaction after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) and (2) to test whether postinjury functioning, postconcussive symptoms, emotional state, and functional improvement are related to life satisfaction. Prospective national multicenter study. Level 1 trauma centers in Norway. 163 adults with sTBI. Functional recovery between 3 and 12 months postinjury measured with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended, Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and satisfaction with life situation. 60% of cases experienced functional improvement from 3 to 12 months postinjury. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that discharge to a rehabilitation department from acute care (odds ratio [OR] = 2.14; P life situation. Regression analysis revealed that older age (>65 years), low education, better functional outcome, and the absence of depressive and postconcussion symptoms were significant (P life satisfaction. Functional improvement was significantly associated with emotional state but not to life satisfaction. Following sTBI, approximately two-thirds of survivors improve between 3 and 12 months postinjury and are satisfied with their life. Direct discharge from acute care to specialized rehabilitation appears to increase functional recovery.

  15. Effect of biofeedback cycling training on functional recovery and walking ability of lower extremity in patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Ching Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of biofeedback cycling training on lower limb functional recovery, walking endurance, and walking speed for patients with chronic stroke. Thirty-one patients with stroke (stroke onset >3 months were randomly assigned into two groups using a crossover design. One group (N = 16; mean: 53.6 ± 10.3 years underwent conventional rehabilitation and cycling training (30 minutes/time, 5 times per week for 4 weeks, followed by only conventional rehabilitation for another 4 weeks. The other group (N = 15; mean: 54.5 ± 8.0 years underwent the same training in reverse order. The bike used in this biofeedback cycling training was the MOTOmed viva2 Movement Trainer. Outcome measures included the lower extremity subscale of Fugl-Meyer assessment (LE-FMA, the 6-minute walk test (6MWT, the 10-meter walk test (10MWT, and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS. All participants were assessed at the beginning of the study, at the end of the 4th week, and at the end of the 8th week. Thirty participants completed the study, including the cycling training interventions and all assessments. The results showed that improvements in the period with cycling training were significantly better than the noncycling period in the LE-FMA (p < 0.05, 6MWT (p < 0.001, 10MWT (p < 0.001, and MAS (p < 0.001 scores. No significant carryover effects were observed. The improvements on outcome measures were significantly different between the cycling period and the noncycling period after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analysis of variance (p < 0.001. The study result indicates that the additional 4-week biofeedback cycling training could lead to improved LE functional recovery, walking endurance, and speed for patients with chronic stroke.

  16. The influence of recovery and training phases on body composition, peripheral vascular function and immune system of professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Reinke

    Full Text Available Professional soccer players have a lengthy playing season, throughout which high levels of physical stress are maintained. The following recuperation period, before starting the next pre-season training phase, is generally considered short but sufficient to allow a decrease in these stress levels and therefore a reduction in the propensity for injury or musculoskeletal tissue damage. We hypothesised that these physical extremes influence the body composition, blood flow, and endothelial/immune function, but that the recuperation may be insufficient to allow a reduction of tissue stress damage. Ten professional football players were examined at the end of the playing season, at the end of the season intermission, and after the next pre-season endurance training. Peripheral blood flow and body composition were assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography and DEXA scanning respectively. In addition, selected inflammatory and immune parameters were analysed from blood samples. Following the recuperation period a significant decrease of lean body mass from 74.4+/-4.2 kg to 72.2+/-3.9 kg was observed, but an increase of fat mass from 10.3+/-5.6 kg to 11.1+/-5.4 kg, almost completely reversed the changes seen in the pre-season training phase. Remarkably, both resting and post-ischemic blood flow (7.3+/-3.4 and 26.0+/-6.3 ml/100 ml/min respectively, were strongly reduced during the playing and training stress phases, but both parameters increased to normal levels (9.0+/-2.7 and 33.9+/-7.6 ml/100 ml/min during the season intermission. Recovery was also characterized by rising levels of serum creatinine, granulocytes count, total IL-8, serum nitrate, ferritin, and bilirubin. These data suggest a compensated hypo-perfusion of muscle during the playing season, followed by an intramuscular ischemia/reperfusion syndrome during the recovery phase that is associated with muscle protein turnover and inflammatory endothelial reaction, as demonstrated by i

  17. Comparative assessment of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT for the prediction of functional recovery in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Haruhisa; Nakano, Akira; Uzui, Hiroyasu; Ueda, Takanori; Lee, Jong-Dae; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although preserved glucose metabolism is considered to be a marker of myocardial viability in the chronic stage, it has not been fully elucidated whether this is also true with regard to reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the prediction of functional recovery in reperfused AMI.Methods: The study population comprised 28 patients. Both tetrofosmin SPECT and FDG PET were performed in all 28 patients at ca. 2 weeks and in 23 at 6 months. The tetrofosmin and FDG findings in infarct-related segments were compared with the regional wall motion score assessed by left ventriculography over 6 months to determine the predictive value for functional recovery. Of 120 infarct-related segments, 83 had preserved flow (tetrofosmin uptake ≥50%) and 81 had preserved glucose metabolism (FDG uptake ≥40%). The sensitivity and specificity of tetrofosmin SPECT for the prediction of functional recovery tended to be superior to those of FDG PET (90.0% and 72.5% vs 85.0% and 67.5%, respectively). Thirteen segments with preserved flow and decreased glucose metabolism demonstrated marked recovery of contractile function from 2.5±1.0 to 1.4±1.4 (p<0.01), with restoration of glucose metabolism at 6 months. In contrast, 11 segments with decreased flow and preserved glucose metabolism demonstrated incomplete functional improvement from 3.0±0.8 to 2.2±1.2. In the subacute phase, preserved myocardial blood flow is more reliable than glucose metabolism in predicting functional recovery in reperfused myocardium. (orig.)

  18. Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide (NEP1-40) administration promotes functional recovery and axonal growth after lateral funiculus injury in the adult rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.; Shumsky, J. S.; Sabol, M. A.; Kushner, R. A.; Strittmatter, S.; Hamers, F. P. T.; Lee, D. H. S.; Rabacchi, S. A.; Murray, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. The myelin protein Nogo inhibits axon regeneration by binding to its receptor (NgR) on axons. Intrathecal delivery of an NgR antagonist (NEP1-40) promotes growth of injured corticospinal axons and recovery of motor function following a dorsal hemisection. The authors used a similar design

  19. Feasibility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessing Functional Recovery in Rats with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation After Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mengchao; Gao, Zhengchao; Li, Xiaohui; Zhao, Feng; Guo, Lei; Liu, Jiantao; He, Xijing

    2017-06-17

    BACKGROUND Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury. Diffusion tensor imaging has been applied to assess various kinds of spinal cord injury. However, it has rarely been used to evaluate the beneficial effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of functional recovery in rats with olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine the purity of olfactory ensheathing cells. Rats received cell transplantation at week 1 after injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was used to assess the functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging was applied weekly, including diffusion tensor imaging. Diffusion tensor tractography was reconstructed to visualize the repair process. RESULTS The results showed that olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation increased the functional and histological recovery and restrained the secondary injury process after the initial spinal cord injury. The fractional anisotropy values in rats with cell transplantation were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly lower. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was positively and linearly correlated with fractional anisotropy value, and it was negatively and linearly correlated with apparent diffusion coefficient value. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that diffusion tensor imaging parameters are sensitive biomarker indices for olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation interventions, and diffusion tensor imaging scan can reflect the functional recovery promoted by the olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury.

  20. Bridging the gap between theory and practice: dynamic systems theory as a framework for understanding and promoting recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; DeMatteo, Carol

    2009-11-01

    A theoretical framework can help physiotherapists understand and promote recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries (ABI). Physiotherapy interventions for this population have traditionally been based in hierarchical-maturational theories of motor development emphasizing the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in controlling motor behaviour. In contrast, Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) views movement as resulting from the interaction of many subsystems within the individual, features of the functional task to be accomplished, and the environmental context in which the movement takes place. DST is now a predominant theoretical framework in pediatric physiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to describe how DST can be used to understand and promote recovery of function after pediatric ABI. A DST-based approach for children and youth with ABI does not treat the impaired CNS in isolation but rather emphasizes the role of all subsystems, including the family and the environment, in influencing recovery. The emphasis is on exploration, problem solving, and practice of functional tasks. A case scenario provides practical recommendations for the use of DST to inform physiotherapy interventions and clinical decision making in the acute phase of recovery from ABI. Future research is required to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions based in this theoretical framework.

  1. Recovery and functional activity of mononuclear bone marrow and peripheral blood cells after different cell isolation protocols used in clinical trials for cell therapy after acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beem, Rachel T.; Hirsch, Alexander; Lommerse, Ingrid M.; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Noort, Willy A.; Biemond, Bart J.; Piek, Jan J.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Voermans, Carlijn

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Clinical trials showed contradictory results in functional recovery after intracoronary infusion of autologous mononuclear (bone marrow) cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction. A recent study suggests that this might be related to the isolation protocol used. In The Netherlands, a

  2. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa

    2014-05-19

    The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

  3. Spasticity and contractures at the wrist after stroke: time course of development and their association with functional recovery of the upper limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, S.; Malhotra, S.; Pandyan, A.D.; Rosewilliam, S.; Roffe, C.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: To investigate the time course of development of spasticity and contractures at the wrist after stroke and to explore if these are associated with upper limb functional recovery. - Design: Longitudinal observational study using secondary data from the control group of a randomized

  4. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  5. Real-time digital signal recovery for a multi-pole low-pass transfer function system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problems of waveform distortion and signal delay by many physical and electrical systems with multi-pole linear low-pass transfer characteristics, a simple digital-signal-processing (DSP)-based method of real-time recovery of the original source waveform from the distorted output waveform is proposed. A mathematical analysis on the convolution kernel representation of the single-pole low-pass transfer function shows that the original source waveform can be accurately recovered in real time using a particular moving average algorithm applied on the input stream of the distorted waveform, which can also significantly reduce the overall delay time constant. This method is generalized for multi-pole low-pass systems and has noise characteristics of the inverse of the low-pass filter characteristics. This method can be applied to most sensors and amplifiers operating close to their frequency response limits to improve the overall performance of data acquisition systems and digital feedback control systems.

  6. Hydrogel-forming microneedles increase in volume during swelling in skin, but skin barrier function recovery is unaffected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ryan F.; Mooney, Karen; McCrudden, Maelíosa T.C.; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M.; Belaid, Luc; González-Vázquez, Patricia; McElnay, James C.; Woolfson, A. David

    2014-01-01

    We describe, for the first time, quantification of in-skin swelling and fluid uptake by hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays (MN) and skin barrier recovery in human volunteers. Such MN, prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methylvinylether/maleicanhydride) (15% w/w) and the crosslinker poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (7.5% w/w), were inserted into the skin of human volunteers (n = 15) to depths of approximately 300 μm by gentle hand pressure. The MN swelled in skin, taking up skin interstitial fluid, such that their mass had increased by approximately 30% after 6 hours in skin. Importantly, however, skin barrier function recovered within 24 hours post microneedle removal, regardless of how long the MN had been in skin or how much their volume had increased with swelling. Further research on closure of MN-induced micropores is required, since transepidermal water loss measurements suggested micropore closure, while optical coherence tomography indicated that MN-induced micropores had not closed over, even 24 hours after MN had been removed. There were no complaints of skin reactions, adverse events or strong views against MN use by any of the volunteers. Only some minor erythema was noted after patch removal, although this always resolved within 48 hours and no adverse events were present on follow-up. PMID:24633895

  7. DASS: A decision aid integrating the safety parameter display system and emergency functional recovery procedures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.E.

    1984-08-01

    Using a stand-alone developmental test-bed consisting of a minicomputer and a high-resolution color graphics computer, displays and supporting software incorporating advanced on-line decision-aid concepts were developed and evaluated. The advanced concepts embodied in displays designed for the operating crew of a PWR plant include: (1) an integrated display format which supports a top-down approach to problem detection, recovery planning, and control; (2) introduction of nonobservable plant parameters derived from first principles mass and energy balances as part of the displayed information; and (3) systematic processing and display of key success path (plant safety system) attributes. The prototype system, referred to as the PWR-DASS (Disturbance Analysis and Surveillance System), consists of 18 displays targeted for principal use by the control room systems manager. PWR-DASS was conceived to fulfill an operational void not fully supported by safety parameter display systems or reformulated emergency procedure guidelines. The results from the evaluation by licensed operators suggest that organization and display of desired critical safety function and success path information as incorporated in the PWR-DASS prototype can support the systems manager's overview. The results also point to the need for several refinements required for a field grade system, and to the need for a simulator-based evaluation of the prototype or its successor. (author)

  8. Scaffoldless tissue-engineered nerve conduit promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after tibial nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron M. Adams; Keith W. VanDusen; Tatiana Y. Kostrominova; Jacob P. Mertens; Lisa M. Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerve tissue may cause loss of function in both the nerve and the targeted muscles it innervates. This study compared the repair capability of engineered nerve conduit (ENC), engineered fibroblast conduit (EFC), and autograft in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap. ENCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts and the nerve cells of rats on embryonic day 15 (E15). EFCs were fabricated utilizing primary fi-broblasts only. Following a 12-week recovery, nerve repair was assessed by measuring contractile properties in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, and histology of muscle and nerve. The autografts, ENCs and EFCs reestablished 96%, 87% and 84% of native distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, 100%, 44% and 44% of native specific force of medical gastrocnemius, and 63%, 61% and 67% of native medial gastrocnemius mass, re-spectively. Histology of the repaired nerve revealed large axons in the autograft, larger but fewer axons in the ENC repair, and many smaller axons in the EFC repair. Muscle histology revealed similar muscle fiber cross-sectional areas among autograft, ENC and EFC repairs. In conclusion, both ENCs and EFCs promot-ed nerve regeneration in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap repair, suggesting that the E15 rat nerve cells may not be necessary for nerve regeneration, and EFC alone can suffice for peripheral nerve injury repair.

  9. The combined impact of virtual reality neurorehabilitation and its interfaces on upper extremity functional recovery in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameirão, Mónica S; Badia, Sergi Bermúdez i; Duarte, Esther; Frisoli, Antonio; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2012-10-01

    Although there is strong evidence on the beneficial effects of virtual reality (VR)-based rehabilitation, it is not yet well understood how the different aspects of these systems affect recovery. Consequently, we do not exactly know what features of VR neurorehabilitation systems are decisive in conveying their beneficial effects. To specifically address this issue, we developed 3 different configurations of the same VR-based rehabilitation system, the Rehabilitation Gaming System, using 3 different interface technologies: vision-based tracking, haptics, and a passive exoskeleton. Forty-four patients with chronic stroke were randomly allocated to one of the configurations and used the system for 35 minutes a day for 5 days a week during 4 weeks. Our results revealed significant within-subject improvements at most of the standard clinical evaluation scales for all groups. Specifically we observe that the beneficial effects of VR-based training are modulated by the use/nonuse of compensatory movement strategies and the specific sensorimotor contingencies presented to the user, that is, visual feedback versus combined visual haptic feedback. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of VR-based neurorehabilitation systems such as the Rehabilitation Gaming System for the treatment of chronic stroke depend on the specific interface systems used. These results have strong implications for the design of future VR rehabilitation strategies that aim at maximizing functional outcomes and their retention. Clinical Trial Registration- This trial was not registered because it is a small clinical study that evaluates the feasibility of prototype devices.

  10. Partial recovery of respiratory function and diaphragm reinnervation following unilateral vagus nerve to phrenic nerve anastomosis in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiang Wen

    Full Text Available Respiratory dysfunction is the leading cause of mortality following upper cervical spinal cord injury (SCI. Reinnervation of the paralyzed diaphragm via an anastomosis between phrenic nerve and a donor nerve is a potential strategy to mitigate ventilatory deficits. In this study, anastomosis of vagus nerve (VN to phrenic nerve (PN in rabbits was performed to assess the potential capacity of the VN to compensate for lost PN inputs. At first, we compared spontaneous discharge pattern, nerve thickness and number of motor fibers between these nerves. The PN exhibited a highly rhythmic discharge while the VN exhibited a variable frequency discharge pattern. The rabbit VN had fewer motor axons (105.3±12.1 vs. 268.1±15.4. Nerve conduction and respiratory function were measured 20 weeks after left PN transection with or without left VN-PN anastomosis. Compared to rabbits subjected to unilateral phrenicotomy without VN-PN anastomosis, diaphragm muscle action potential (AP amplitude was improved by 292%, distal latency by 695%, peak inspiratory flow (PIF by 22.6%, peak expiratory flow (PRF by 36.4%, and tidal volume by 21.8% in the anastomosis group. However, PIF recovery was only 28.0%, PEF 28.2%, and tidal volume 31.2% of Control. Our results suggested that VN-PN anastomosis is a promising therapeutic strategy for partial restoration of diaphragm reinnervation, but further modification and improvements are necessary to realize the full potential of this technique.

  11. IL-6 RESPONSES TO GLYCAEMIC INDEX DURING RECOVERY FROM EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hasani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of meal with different glycaemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism after maximal lengthening contractions of the knee extensors. Using a cross-over design, Material : 10 healthy males completed 5 sets of 10 lengthening (eccentric contractions at 120% 1 repetition-maximum. Subjects were randomized to consume the GI beverage (high-GI, low-GI (15% weight per volume; 3 g/kg BM or placebo in three times within 10 min following exercise, and again at 50 and 110 min during recovery time. Blood samples were collected before exercise and after 0.60, 180 min and 24 h of recovery. Results: Concentration of plasma IL-6 in HGI group was less than LGI and Pla groups. IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in recovery time in 3 groups (all P < 0.05, except for 24 hours (P = 1.00, furthermore there was significant difference for IL-6 between placebo and high glycemic groups in 3hours after exercise (P=.016. Concentration of serum CK in HGI group was less than LGI and Pla groups, CK was significantly elevated at all times points during recovery in 3 groups (all P < 0.05, except for 1 hour after exercise in HGI group (P = 0.31, but there was no significant difference for CK between groups. Conclusion: In summary, consuming HGI carbohydrate during recovery from exercise attenuate plasma IL-6 concentration.

  12. An experimental study on recovery of renal function using {sup 99m}Tc DMSA scintigram after percutaneous nephrostomy in unilateral hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Nam, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Obstruction on the urinary tract eventually results in damage to the kidneys and lose of function. The questions that concern the clinician are the degree of nephron loss in that kidney and potential for recovery following the relief of obstruction. {sup 99m}Tc DMSA accumulates in tubule cells and has been proposed as a marker of the tubular mass. The authors estimated the renal uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc DMSA for the degree of nephron loss corresponding to duration of hydronephrosis following left ureteral ligation in 5 New Zealand white rabbits and the potential for recovery following percutaneous nephrostomy of hydronephrosis in 24 rabbits. While the renal uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc DMSA of the kidney with unilateral hydronephrosis following ureteral ligation reduced dramatically within 24 hour, that of the opposite healthy kidney increased, and the total renal uptake ratio was same as normal functioning kidneys before ureteral ligation. Upon ureteral release, there was no evidence of definite recovery or impairment in the experimental kidneys for 5 days. The authors conclude that a combination of ureteral release and administration of some drugs such as renal vasodilator or diuretics is an appropriate treatment for the recovery of function in unilateral hydronephrosis.

  13. An experimental study on recovery of renal function using 99mTc DMSA scintigram after percutaneous nephrostomy in unilateral hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Nam, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Byung Soo

    1992-01-01

    Obstruction on the urinary tract eventually results in damage to the kidneys and lose of function. The questions that concern the clinician are the degree of nephron loss in that kidney and potential for recovery following the relief of obstruction. 99m Tc DMSA accumulates in tubule cells and has been proposed as a marker of the tubular mass. The authors estimated the renal uptake ratio of 99m Tc DMSA for the degree of nephron loss corresponding to duration of hydronephrosis following left ureteral ligation in 5 New Zealand white rabbits and the potential for recovery following percutaneous nephrostomy of hydronephrosis in 24 rabbits. While the renal uptake ratio of 99m Tc DMSA of the kidney with unilateral hydronephrosis following ureteral ligation reduced dramatically within 24 hour, that of the opposite healthy kidney increased, and the total renal uptake ratio was same as normal functioning kidneys before ureteral ligation. Upon ureteral release, there was no evidence of definite recovery or impairment in the experimental kidneys for 5 days. The authors conclude that a combination of ureteral release and administration of some drugs such as renal vasodilator or diuretics is an appropriate treatment for the recovery of function in unilateral hydronephrosis

  14. Secretory Products of the Human GI Tract Microbiome and Their Potential Impact on Alzheimer's Disease (AD: Detection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS in AD Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the potential contribution of the human gastrointestinal (GI tract microbiome to human health, aging, and disease is becoming increasingly acknowledged, the molecular mechanics and signaling pathways of just how this is accomplished is not well-understood. Major bacterial species of the GI tract, such as the abundant Gram-negative bacilli Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis and Escherichia coli (E. coli, secrete a remarkably complex array of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins which, when released from the confines of the healthy GI tract, are pathogenic and highly detrimental to the homeostatic function of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS. For the first time here we report the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS in brain lysates from the hippocampus and superior temporal lobe neocortex of Alzheimer's disease (AD brains. Mean LPS levels varied from two-fold increases in the neocortex to three-fold increases in the hippocampus, AD over age-matched controls, however some samples from advanced AD hippocampal cases exhibited up to a 26-fold increase in LPS over age-matched controls. This “Perspectives” paper will further highlight some very recent research on GI tract microbiome signaling to the human CNS, and will update current findings that implicate GI tract microbiome-derived LPS as an important internal contributor to inflammatory degeneration in the CNS.

  15. A comparative study of digital GI and CT in diagnosis of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xiangrong; Chen Guoqin; Ding Xinmin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the digital GI and CT in the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. Methods: Total 42 patients with gastric carcinoma received digital GI and CT examination. The digital GI and CT findings were analyzed comparatively. Results: 42 cases of patients with gastric carcinoma were examined with digital GI and CT. Digital GI demonstrated mucosal erosion in 40 cases, narrowed gastric lumen in 12, malignant ulceration in 10, filling defect in 12 and abnormal peristalsis in 36. CT revealed gastric wall thickening in 30 cases, intra-gastric masses in 36, narrowed gastric lumen in 36, regional lymphadenopathy and/or distant metastases in 19 and pyloristenosis in 4. Conclusion: The lesions in stomach could be demonstrated on digital GI, the imaging is clear and precise. CT is valuable for assessing the extra-gastric involvement, lymphadenopathy and distant metastases, which is an important pre-operative examination

  16. Motor skill changes and neurophysiologic adaptation to recovery-oriented virtual rehabilitation of hand function in a person with subacute stroke: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, Gerard G; Patel, Jigna; Qiu, Qinyin; Yarossi, Matthew; Massood, Supriya; Adamovich, Sergei V; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S

    2017-07-01

    The complexity of upper extremity (UE) behavior requires recovery of near normal neuromuscular function to minimize residual disability following a stroke. This requirement places a premium on spontaneous recovery and neuroplastic adaptation to rehabilitation by the lesioned hemisphere. Motor skill learning is frequently cited as a requirement for neuroplasticity. Studies examining the links between training, motor learning, neuroplasticity, and improvements in hand motor function are indicated. This case study describes a patient with slow recovering hand and finger movement (Total Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer examination score = 25/66, Wrist and Hand items = 2/24 on poststroke day 37) following a stroke. The patient received an intensive eight-session intervention utilizing simulated activities that focused on the recovery of finger extension, finger individuation, and pinch-grasp force modulation. Over the eight sessions, the patient demonstrated improvements on untrained transfer tasks, which suggest that motor learning had occurred, as well a dramatic increase in hand function and corresponding expansion of the cortical motor map area representing several key muscles of the paretic hand. Recovery of hand function and motor map expansion continued after discharge through the three-month retention testing. This case study describes a neuroplasticity based intervention for UE hemiparesis and a model for examining the relationship between training, motor skill acquisition, neuroplasticity, and motor function changes. Implications for rehabilitation Intensive hand and finger rehabilitation activities can be added to an in-patient rehabilitation program for persons with subacute stroke. Targeted training of the thumb may have an impact on activity level function in persons with upper extremity hemiparesis. Untrained transfer tasks can be utilized to confirm that training tasks have elicited motor learning. Changes in cortical motor maps can be used to document

  17. The effects of FK1706 on nerve regeneration and bladder function recovery following an end-to-side neurorrhaphy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wansheng; He, Xiangfei; Li, Yunlong; Wen, Jianguo

    2017-11-07

    Immunophilin ligands are neuroregenerative agents binding to FK506 binding proteins, by which stimulate recovery of neurons in a variety of injury nerves. FK1706 is a novel immunophilin ligand which has neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects but without immunosuppressive activity. At present, most reports about FK1706 in ameliorating nerve injury and functional recovery are limited to cavernous nerve injury and erectile function recovery. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of FK1706 on nerve regeneration and bladder function recovery following an end-to-side neurorrhaphy in rat models. The numbers of regenerated myelinated axons of the pelvic parasympathetic nerve (PPN) in the three groups' rats (FK1706 + ETS, ETS and control groups) were evaluated. Their intravesical pressure (IVP), S100β and growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) expressions were also compared. In FK1706 + ETS group, 90% the rats showed that the frequency of FG labeled neurons was larger than the 3.5 cutoff value, 100% the rats showed that the frequency of FG-FB double-labeled neurons was larger than the 5.5 cutoff value. The average maximum of IVP in FK1706 + ETS group reached 76.3% of the value in control group. Their average number of myelinated axons of regenerated PPN reached 80% of the amount in control group. The nerve regeneration-associated markers data indicated that the expression level of S100β and GAP43 in FK1706 + ETS group was approximately 2-fold higher than that of ETS group (P side neurorrhaphy, FK1706 effectively enhanced the nerve regeneration and bladder function recovery.

  18. Clinical approach to obscure GI bleeding - Diagnostic testing and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Prabakaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB can present as a diagnostic dilemma and management can be challenging. The search for causes of OGIB is usually centered on visualizing the small bowel, and in the past decade, the technology to visualize the entire small bowel has significantly advanced. Moreover, small bowel endoscopic imaging has replaced, in many instances, prior radiographic evaluation for obscure GI bleeding. These new modalities, such as small bowel capsule endoscopy (CE, balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy [double balloon enteroscopy (DBE and single balloon enteroscopy (SBE], and overtube-assisted deep enteroscopy (spiral enteroscopy, are paving the way toward more accurately identifying and treating patients with OGIB. We will review the diagnostic modalities available in evaluating a patient with OGIB and also propose the management based on clinical and endoscopic findings.

  19. MODEL PERENCANAAN KAPASITAS DI PT GI DIVISI FRAGRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudrajat .

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on MTO strategy in fragrance division of PT GI which has a number of workstations with multiple tools, resources and products profile. The aims are developing a mathematic model of capacity planning system and analyzing the maximum production capacity and flexibility of resources to meet demand. The method is using RCCP technique that consists of product-load profiles, bills of capacity and labors. Cluster technical of sampling and probability plot are used for measuring and analyzing the output of each process and validating the mathematic model of capacity plan in order to establish certain specific sources, especially those expected to be a potential barrier (potential bottleneck, is sufficient to cover the expected demand till one year ahead.

  20. Pengembangan SMS Gateway Layanan Informasi Akademik di STMIK GI MDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Prihatini Sihotang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology can be utilized in education such as e-Learning and Academic Information System. STMIK GI MDP has applied information technology that provides ease for the dissemination of academic information to students. However, the parents of the students have not obtained the academic information of their children due to the lack of internet-related knowledge. Therefore, this study aims to create a service that is able to convey information to parents directly with SMS Gateway service. This research begins with the collection of user needs through observation techniques and interviews to academic staff and parents. Then performed the required feature analysis. Then the design of SMS Gateway application that will be embedded in existing academic applications and coding system. Gammu is used as a link between applications with mobile phones. The result of this research is the application of SMS Gateway service that can give the student academic information to the parents.

  1. Validation of the efficiency of a robotic rehabilitation training system for recovery of severe plegie hand motor function after a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hirofumi; Ikuta, Munehiro; Morita, Yoshifumi

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a rehabilitation training system called the Useful and Ultimate Rehabilitation System PARKO (UR System PARKO) to promote the recovery of motor function of the severe chronic plegic hand of stroke patients. This system was equipped with two functions to realize two conditions: (1) fixing of all fingers to a hyperextended position and (2) extending the elbow joint while applying resistance load to the fingertips. A clinical test was conducted with two patients to determine the therapeutic effect of the UR System PARKO for severe plegic hand. In both patients, the active ranges of motion of finger extension improved after training with the UR System PARKO. Moreover, the Modified Ashworth scale scores of finger extension increased. Thus, training reduced the spastic paralysis. These results suggest the effectiveness of training with the UR System PARKO for recovery of motor function as reflected in the finger extension of the severe plegic hand.

  2. SAGES's advanced GI/MIS fellowship curriculum pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Joshua J; Goldblatt, Matthew; Pryor, Aurora; Dunkin, Brian J; Brunt, L Michael; Jones, Daniel B; Scott, Daniel J

    2018-06-01

    The American health care system faces deficits in quality and quantity of surgeons. SAGES is a major stakeholder in surgical fellowship training and is responsible for defining the curriculum for the Advanced GI/MIS fellowship. SAGES leadership is actively adapting this curriculum. The process of reform began in 2014 through a series of iterative meetings and discussions. A working group within the Resident and Fellow Training Committee reviewed case log data from 2012 to 2015. These data were used to propose new criteria designed to provide adequate exposure to core content. The working group also proposed using video assessment of an MIS case to provide objective assessment of competency. Case log data were available for 326 fellows with a total of 85,154 cases logged (median 227 per fellow). The working group proposed new criteria starting with minimum case volumes for five defined categories including foregut (20), bariatrics (25), inguinal hernia (10), ventral hernia (10), and solid organ/colon/thoracic (10). Fellows are expected to perform an additional 75 complex MIS cases of any category for a total of 150 required cases overall. The proposal also included a minimum volume of flexible endoscopy (50) and submission of an MIS foregut case for video assessment. The new criteria more clearly defined which surgeon roles count for major credit within individual categories. Fourteen fellowships volunteered to pilot these new criteria for the 2017-2018 academic year. The new SAGES Advanced GI/MIS fellowship has been crafted to better define the core content that should be contained in these fellowships, while still allowing sufficient heterogeneity so that individual learners can tailor their training to specific areas of interest. The criteria also introduce innovative, evidence-based methods for assessing competency. Pending the results of the pilot program, SAGES will consider broad implementation of the new fellowship criteria.

  3. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  4. Recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: a study of visual neglect, attention span and verbal recall.

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, D T; Wood, V A; Hewer, R L

    1988-01-01

    Sixty two consecutive patients admitted to hospital and surviving 6 months were tested regularly over the first 3 months after their stroke to plot recovery in three aspects of cognition: visual neglect, assessed using a cancellation task, attention span assessed using digit span, and verbal recall, tested by counting number of words remembered from a list of 10 words. Normative data were collected for the cancellation test. Fifteen patients showed recovery from visual neglect, 10 improvement...

  5. Extensive scarring induced by chronic intrathecal tubing augmented cord tissue damage and worsened functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-08-30

    Intrathecal infusion has been widely used to directly deliver drugs or neurotrophins to a lesion site following spinal cord injury. Evidence shows that intrathecal infusion is efficient for 7 days but is markedly reduced after 14 days, due to time dependent occlusion. In addition, extensive fibrotic scarring is commonly observed with intrathecal infusion. These anomalies need to be clearly elucidated in histology. In the present study, all adult Long-Evans rats received a 25 mm contusion injury on spinal cord T10 produced using the NYU impactor device. Immediately after injury, catheter tubing with an outer diameter of 0.38 mm was inserted through a small dural opening at L3 into the subdural space with the tubing tip positioned near the injury site. The tubing was connected to an Alzet mini pump, which was filled with saline solution and was placed subcutaneously. Injured rats without tubing served as control. Rats were behaviorally tested for 6 weeks using the BBB locomotor rating scale and histologically assessed for tissue scarring. Six weeks later, we found that the intrathecal tubing caused extensive scarring and inflammation, related to neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The tubing's tip was occluded by scar tissue and inflammatory cells. The scar tissue surrounding the tubing consists of 20-70 layers of fibroblasts and densely compacted collagen fibers, seriously compressing and damaging the cord tissue. BBB scores of rats with intrathecal tubing were significantly lower than control rats (p<0.01) from 2 weeks after injury, implying serious impairment of functional recovery caused by the scarring. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lithium chloride contributes to blood-spinal cord barrier integrity and functional recovery from spinal cord injury by stimulating autophagic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Minji; He, Zili; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Yulong; Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Xu, Huazi; Tian, Naifeng

    2018-01-22

    Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption following spinal cord injury (SCI) significantly compromises functional neuronal recovery. Autophagy is a potential therapeutic target when seeking to protect the BSCB. We explored the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on BSCB permeability and autophagy-induced SCI both in a rat model of SCI and in endothelial cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. We evaluated BSCB status using the Evans Blue dye extravasation test and measurement of tight junction (TJ) protein levels; we also assessed functional locomotor recovery. We detected autophagy-associated proteins in vivo and in vitro using both Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We found that, in a rat model of SCI, LiCl attenuated the elevation in BSCB permeability, improved locomotor recovery, and inhibited the degradation of TJ proteins including occludin and claudin-5. LiCl significantly induced the extent of autophagic flux after SCI by increasing LC3-II and ATG-5 levels, and abolishing p62 accumulation. In addition, a combination of LiCl and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine not only partially eliminated the BSCB-protective effect of LiCl, but also exacerbated TJ protein degradation both in vivo and in vitro. Together, these findings suggest that LiCl treatment alleviates BSCB disruption and promotes locomotor recovery after SCI, partly by stimulating autophagic flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-invasive stimulation of the vibrissal pad improves recovery of whisking function after simultaneous lesion of the facial and infraorbital nerves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendella, H; Pavlov, S P; Grosheva, M; Irintchev, A; Angelova, S K; Merkel, D; Sinis, N; Kaidoglou, K; Skouras, E; Dunlop, S A; Angelov, Doychin N

    2011-07-01

    We have recently shown that manual stimulation of target muscles promotes functional recovery after transection and surgical repair to pure motor nerves (facial: whisking and blink reflex; hypoglossal: tongue position). However, following facial nerve repair, manual stimulation is detrimental if sensory afferent input is eliminated by, e.g., infraorbital nerve extirpation. To further understand the interplay between sensory input and motor recovery, we performed simultaneous cut-and-suture lesions on both the facial and the infraorbital nerves and examined whether stimulation of the sensory afferents from the vibrissae by a forced use would improve motor recovery. The efficacy of 3 treatment paradigms was assessed: removal of the contralateral vibrissae to ensure a maximal use of the ipsilateral ones (vibrissal stimulation; Group 2), manual stimulation of the ipsilateral vibrissal muscles (Group 3), and vibrissal stimulation followed by manual stimulation (Group 4). Data were compared to controls which underwent surgery but did not receive any treatment (Group 1). Four months after surgery, all three treatments significantly improved the amplitude of vibrissal whisking to 30° versus 11° in the controls of Group 1. The three treatments also reduced the degree of polyneuronal innervation of target muscle fibers to 37% versus 58% in Group 1. These findings indicate that forced vibrissal use and manual stimulation, either alone or sequentially, reduce target muscle polyinnervation and improve recovery of whisking function when both the sensory and the motor components of the trigemino-facial system regenerate.

  8. Volumetric and functional recovery of the remnant liver after major liver resection with prior portal vein embolization : recovery after PVE and liver resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Esschert, J.W.; de Graaf, W.; van Lienden, K.P.; Busch, O.R.; Heger, M.; van Delden, O.M.; Gouma, D.J.; Bennink, R.J.; Laméris, J.S.; van Gulik, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Portal vein embolization is an accepted method to increase the future remnant liver preoperatively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preoperative portal vein embolization on liver volume and function 3 months after major liver resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is

  9. EuGI: a novel resource for studying genomic islands to facilitate horizontal gene transfer detection in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Frederick Johannes; Pierneef, Rian Ewald; Slippers, Bernard; Reva, Oleg

    2018-05-03

    Genomic islands (GIs) are inserts of foreign DNA that have potentially arisen through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). There are evidences that GIs can contribute significantly to the evolution of prokaryotes. The acquisition of GIs through HGT in eukaryotes has, however, been largely unexplored. In this study, the previously developed GI prediction tool, SeqWord Gene Island Sniffer (SWGIS), is modified to predict GIs in eukaryotic chromosomes. Artificial simulations are used to estimate ratios of predicting false positive and false negative GIs by inserting GIs into different test chromosomes and performing the SWGIS v2.0 algorithm. Using SWGIS v2.0, GIs are then identified in 36 fungal, 22 protozoan and 8 invertebrate genomes. SWGIS v2.0 predicts GIs in large eukaryotic chromosomes based on the atypical nucleotide composition of these regions. Averages for predicting false negative and false positive GIs were 20.1% and 11.01% respectively. A total of 10,550 GIs were identified in 66 eukaryotic species with 5299 of these GIs coding for at least one functional protein. The EuGI web-resource, freely accessible at http://eugi.bi.up.ac.za , was developed that allows browsing the database created from identified GIs and genes within GIs through an interactive and visual interface. SWGIS v2.0 along with the EuGI database, which houses GIs identified in 66 different eukaryotic species, and the EuGI web-resource, provide the first comprehensive resource for studying HGT in eukaryotes.

  10. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life, and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-Stage Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J; Stoddard, Shawn M; Wampfler, Jason A; Limper, Andrew H; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a frequent comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on a patient's overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and recovery of pulmonary function in stage I to II lung cancer. Between 1997 and 2009, a total of 1073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups-cancer in the emphysematous (group 1 [n = 565]) and nonemphysematous (group 2 [n = 435]) regions-and one nonsurgical group (group 3 [n = 73]). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized as mild (≤5%), moderate (6%-24%), or severe (25%-60%). In group 1, patients with a moderate or severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second, but increases in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity compared with those with a mild RES (p < 0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Posttreatment QOL was lower in patients with higher RESs in all groups, mainly owing to dyspnea (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with a higher RES had significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.41 and 1.43 for a moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for a severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the nonsurgical group (adjusted hazard ratio of 0.99 for a moderate or severe RES). In surgically treated patients with cancer in the emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of posttreatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2014-12-01

    vineyard and time, increasing with rain precipitations in the old vineyard. Though the euedaphic forms, well adapted to soil life, were always rare. Microbiological analysis revealed a different structure of eubacterial communities between old and new vineyard in the whole period. However, the DGGE similarity values of such communities increased of about 2.5% per year, suggesting that at least 3 years more are needed to compare intra- and inter-specific diversity of the two vineyards. In conclusion, the consequences of deep earthworks on soil chemical, micro and mesobiological properties were still evident after four years from planting, indicating that more time is necessary for the recovery of soil functions, probably longer than that needed to obtain an economic grape production.

  12. A 3D nanofibrous hydrogel and collagen sponge scaffold promotes locomotor functional recovery, spinal repair, and neuronal regeneration after complete transection of the spinal cord in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Ai; Matsushita, Akira; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system neurons in adult mammals display limited regeneration after injury, and functional recovery is poor following complete transection (>4 mm gap) of a rat spinal cord. A novel combination scaffold composed of 3D nanofibrous hydrogel PuraMatrix and a honeycomb collagen sponge was used to promote spinal repair and locomotor functional recovery following complete transection of the spinal cord in rats. We transplanted this scaffold into 5 mm spinal cord gaps and assessed spinal repair and functional recovery using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. The BBB score of the scaffold-transplanted group was significantly higher than that of the PBS-injected control group from 24 d to 4 months after the operation (P < 0.001–0.01), reaching 6.0  ±  0.75 (mean ± SEM) in the transplant and 0.70  ±  0.46 in the control groups. Neuronal regeneration and spinal repair were examined histologically using Pan Neuronal Marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, growth-associated protein 43, and DAPI. The scaffolds were well integrated into the spinal cords, filling the 5 mm gaps with higher numbers of regenerated and migrated neurons, astrocytes, and other cells than in the control group. Mature and immature neurons and astrocytes in the scaffolds became colocalized and aligned longitudinally over >2 mm, suggesting their differentiation, maturation, and function. The spinal cord NF200 content of the transplant group, analyzed by western blot, was more than twice that of the control group, supporting the histological results. Transplantation of this novel scaffold promoted functional recovery, spinal repair, and neuronal regeneration. (paper)

  13. Relationship between neurocognition and functional recovery in first-episode schizophrenia: Results from the second year of the Oslo multi-follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Mohn, Christine; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2015-06-30

    Lack of control of confounding variables, high attrition rate, and too few neurocognitive domains completed at each assessment point are some of the limitations identified in studies of the relationship between cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia. In the ongoing Oslo multi-follow-up study 28 first episode schizophrenia patients and a pairwise matched control group (N=28) are assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), a clinical interview, an inventory on social and role functioning and criteria of remission and recovery at several follow-up points. The current paper describes the rate of remission and full recovery, and investigates the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcome. At 2-year follow-up, 80.0% of the patients were in remission and 16.0% of them fulfilled the criteria for full recovery. The attrition rate was very low. In the follow-up period, there was a statistically significant decline in Verbal Learning and a significant improvement on Reasoning/Problem Solving and Social Cognition in the schizophrenia group, but not in the control group. This indicates a differentiated neurocognitive course. In the schizophrenia group, Attention/Vigilance and years of education at baseline were significant predictors of social and role functioning 2 years later. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of functional recovery in patients with myocardial infarction after revascularization. Comparison of low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Tomoko; Teragaki, Masakazu; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Muro, Takashi; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Akioka, Kaname; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the agreement between low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDDSE) and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglusose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and compared each technique's ability to detect myocardial viability and predict functional recovery in 30 patients. All patients underwent revascularization, followed by echocardiography 5±3 months. Of the 390 segments analyzed by echocardiography before revascularization, 110 (28%) had abnormal wall motion. LDDSE showed viability in 66 sites of the 110 dyssynergic segments and 58 of these viable segments recovered their wall motion. With FDG-PET, 78 of the 110 dyssynergic segments were diagnosed as viable and 62 of these showed improvement of the wall motion. The sensitivities for LDDSE and FDG-PET to assess functional recovery were 84% and 90%, respectively; specificities were 80% and 64%, respectively. Positive predictive values for LDDSE and FDG-PET were 88% and 79%; negative predictive values were 75% and 78%, respectively. Both methods had good sensitivity for detecting improvement in regional function after revascularization, but LDDSE had a higher specificity for detecting viability and a better positive predictive value for left ventricular functional recovery. (author)

  15. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con, Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex, Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex, and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less

  16. Recovery of immune competence following sublethal irradiation: the role of the mouse strains, thymic function and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The bone marrow, thymus and lymphohematopoietic microenvironments are determining factors in recovery of immune competence following sublethal irradiation. Because of age-related degenerative changes in all of these parameters it was anticipated that immune competence of irradiated old mice would show an altered pattern of recovery. Therefore, three age groups (3-7, 15, and 23-34-months) of C57BL/6J mice were treated with either 250R, 500R or 600R. At various intervals thereafter their spleen cells were assessed for recovery of humoral and cell-mediated immunologic activity and for thymus derived (T-), bone marrow derived (B-) and stem-cell compartments. Two age groups (3-7 and 23-months) of C3H/Anf Cum mice were also treated with the two highest doses or irradiation and their spleen cells tested only for recovery of T- and B-cell compartments. The results showed that recovery of immune competence following 250R was independent of age

  17. Effect of the laxative magnesium oxide on gastrointestinal functional recovery in fast-track colonic resection: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J; Christensen, H; Pachler, J H

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A double-blind randomised controlled study was conducted to compare the effect of magnesium oxide (1 g 12-hourly) with placebo given within an evidence-based multimodal rehabilitation programme on gastrointestinal recovery, pain, mobilisation and hospital stay after open colonic resection....... Method: Of sixty two potentially eligible patients, thirteen were excluded leaving 22 in the magnesium oxide group and 27 in the placebo group. The main outcome measure was time to normalization of bowel function. Secondary outcome measures included post operative nausea, vomiting, pain, fatigue...... were similar in the groups (p>0.3). The median postoperative hospital stay was three days in both groups (p>0.65). Conclusion: Magnesium oxide does not enhance the recovery of gastrointestinal function within the context of an evidence-based multimodal rehabilitation programme after open colonic...

  18. Impact of penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil on recovery of erectile function in Japanese men following nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Nakano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a major complication after radical prostatectomy (RP; however, debate continues regarding the efficacy of penile rehabilitation in the recovery of the postoperative erectile function (EF. This study included a total of 103 consecutive sexually active Japanese men with localized prostate cancer undergoing nerve-sparing RP, and analyzed the postoperative EF, focusing on the significance of penile rehabilitation. In this series, 24 and 79 patients underwent bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing RPs, respectively, and 10 or 20 mg of vardenafil was administered to 35 patients at least once weekly, who agreed to undergo penile rehabilitation. Twelve months after RP, 48 (46.6% of the 103 patients were judged to have recovered EF sufficient for sexual intercourse without any assistance. The proportion of patients who recovered EF in those undergoing penile rehabilitation (60.0% was significantly greater than that in those without penile rehabilitation (38.2%. Of several parameters examined, the preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure were significantly associated with the postoperative EF recovery rates in patients with and without management by penile rehabilitation, respectively. Furthermore, univariate analysis identified the preoperative IIEF-5 score, nerve-sparing procedure and penile rehabilitation as significant predictors of EF recovery, among which the preoperative IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure appeared to be independently associated with EF recovery. Considering these findings, despite the lack of independent significance, penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil could exert a beneficial effect on EF recovery in Japanese men following nerve-sparing RP.

  19. Movement rehabilitation: are the principles of re-learning in the recovery of function the same as those of original learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Karl M; Verhoeven, F Martijn

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the change in movement dynamics in rehabilitation through discussing issues that pertain to the question as to whether the principles of re-learning in functional recovery are the same as those of original learning. The many varieties of disease and injury states lead to significant differences in the constraints to action and these impairments in turn influence the pathway of change in re-learning and/or recovery of function. These altered constraints channel the effectiveness of many conditions and strategies of practice that influence learning and performance. Nevertheless, it is proposed that there is a small set of principles for the change in dynamics of motor learning, which drive the continuously evolving stability and instability of movement forms through the lifespan. However, this common set of dynamical principles is realized in individual pathways of change in the movement dynamics of learning, re-learning and recovery of function. The inherent individual differences of humans and environments insure that the coordination, control and skill of movement rehabilitation are challenged in distinct ways by the changing constraints arising from the many manifestations of disease and injury. Implications for rehabilitation The many varieties of disease and injury states lead to significant differences in the constraints to action that in turn influence the pathway of change in re-learning and/or recovery of function, and the effectiveness of the many conditions/strategies of practice to influence learning and performance. There are a small set of principles for the change in dynamics of motor learning that drive the continuously evolving ebb and flow of stability and instability of movement forms through the lifespan. The inherent individual differences of humans and environments insure that the coordination, control and skill of movement rehabilitation are uniquely challenged by the changing constraints arising from the many

  20. Trajectories of recovery of social and physical functioning in major depression, dysthymic disorder and double depression: a 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Didi; Beekman, Aartjan T F; de Graaf, Ron; Nolen, Willem A; Spijker, Jan; Hoogendijk, Witte J; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2010-07-01

    Depressive disorders have a large impact on psychosocial functioning. Since lower functioning predicts recurrence of a depressive episode, insight into the post-morbid course of psychosocial functioning of persons with different depressive disorders may facilitate recurrence prevention. Data were derived from NEMESIS, an epidemiologic survey in the adult population in the Netherlands. Respondents, who met the CIDI criteria of major depression (MDD; n=102), dysthymic disorder (Dysth; n=66) or double depression (DD; n=73) at baseline, and recovered during three year follow-up, were included; as was a control group without any diagnosis (NoDiag, n=4140). Functioning was assessed using the Groningen Social Disability Schedule (GSDS) and the SF-36 physical health summary-scale. Linear Mixed Models were conducted to compare 3-year trajectories of functioning across depressive groups and with NoDiag group. Compared to NoDiag, all depressed groups were significantly impaired on social and physical functioning. Dysth and DD had a lower level of post-morbid physical functioning compared to MDD (after 1 and 3 years respectively: Dysth: B=-13.8, p=.002 and B=-8.11, p=.09; DD: B=-8.9, p=.03 and B=-9.1, p=.05). Determinants for impaired social functioning (neuroticism) and for impaired physical functioning (age, comorbid somatic disorders and neuroticism) were identified. Attrition was higher among persons with a depression. Inclusion of the drop-outs would most likely have resulted in stronger associations, since we expect lower functioning among the drop-outs. This study indicates the long-term debilitating effects of psychopathology, even after recovery of depressive disorders. Duration of the index symptoms appears to be associated with impaired functioning, since especially those with Dysthymia (either with or without a MDD) showed slower and less recovery of functioning.

  1. Transcription of gD and gI genes in BHV1-infected cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) are contiguous genes with 141 bp region between the two open reading frames (ORFs). Expression of gD and gI from a bicistronic construct containing complete gD and gI gene has been reported either through internal ribosome entry site ...