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Sample records for ghz receivers back-end

  1. LFI 30 and 44 GHz receivers Back-End Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artal, E; Aja, B; Fuente, M L de la; Pascual, J P; Mediavilla, A; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Pradell, L; Paco, P de; Bara, M; Blanco, E; GarcIa, E; Davis, R; Kettle, D; Roddis, N; Wilkinson, A; Bersanelli, M; Mennella, A; Tomasi, M; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F

    2009-01-01

    The 30 and 44 GHz Back End Modules (BEM) for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument are broadband receivers (20% relative bandwidth) working at room temperature. The signals coming from the Front End Module are amplified, band pass filtered and finally converted to DC by a detector diode. Each receiver has two identical branches following the differential scheme of the Planck radiometers. The BEM design is based on MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers using GaAs P-HEMT devices, microstrip filters and Schottky diode detectors. Their manufacturing development has included elegant breadboard prototypes and finally qualification and flight model units. Electrical, mechanical and environmental tests were carried out for the characterization and verification of the manufactured BEMs. A description of the 30 and 44 GHz Back End Modules of Planck-LFI radiometers is given, with details of the tests done to determine their electrical and environmental performances. The electrical performances of the 30 and 44 GHz Back End Modules: frequency response, effective bandwidth, equivalent noise temperature, 1/f noise and linearity are presented.

  2. RFI mitigating receiver back end for radiometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal requests support for Alphacore, Inc. to design and a low power application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) RFI mitigating receiver back...

  3. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  4. Measurement Results of the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 230 GHz and 460 GHz Balanced Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. W.; Monje, R. R.; Force, B. L.; Rice, F.; Miller, D.; Phillips, T. G.

    2010-03-01

    The Caltech Submillimeter observatory (CSO) is located on top of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4.2km. The existing suite of heterodyne receivers covering the submillimeter band is rapidly aging, and in need of replacement. To this extend we have developed a family of balanced receivers covering the astrophysical important 180-720 GHz atmospheric windows. For the CSO, wide IF bandwidth receivers are implemented in a balanced receiver configuration with dual frequency observation capability. This arrangement was opted to be an optimal compromise between scientific merit and finite funding. In principle, the balanced receiver configuration has the advantage that common mode amplitude noise in the LO system is canceled, while at the same time utilizing all available LO power. Both of these features facilitate the use of commercially available synthesized LO system. In combination with a 4 GHz IF bandwidth, the described receiver layout allows for rapid high resolution spectral line surveys. Dual frequency observation is another important mode of operation offered by the new facility instrumentation. Two band observations are accomplished by separating the H and V polarizations of the incoming signal and routing them via folded optics to the appropriate polarization sensitive balanced mixer. Scientifically this observation mode facilitates pointing for the higher receiver band under mediocre weather conditions and a doubling of scientific throughput (2 x 4 GHz) under good weather conditions. Not only do these changes greatly enhance the spectroscopic capabilities of the CSO, they also enable the observatory to be integrated into the Harvard-Smithsonian Submillimeter Array (eSMA) as an additional baseline. The upgrade of the 345 GHz/650 GHz dual band balanced receivers is not far behind. All the needed hardware has been procured, and commissioning is expected the summer of 2010. The SIS junctions are capable of a 2-12 GHz bandwidth.

  5. Molecular Spectroscopy With a Compact 557-GHz Heterodyne Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumaier, Philipp F.-X.; Richter, Heiko; Stake, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We report on a heterodyne terahertz spectrometer based on a fully integrated 557-GHz receiver and a digital fast Fourier transform spectrometer. The receiver consists of a chain of multipliers and power amplifiers, followed by a heterostructure barrier varactor tripler that subharmonically pumps...... a membrane GaAs Schottky diode mixer. All sub-components are newly developed and optimized with regard to the overall receiver performance such as noise temperature, power consumption, weight and physical size. The receiver works at room temperature, has a double sideband noise temperature as low as 2000 K...

  6. 200 and 270 GHz SIS receivers development for atmospheric observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S.; Masuko, H.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting mixers have been developed for observations of atmospheric minor constituents such as ClO and ozone at Communications Research Laboratory. This paper describes the work at development of 200 and 270 GHz SIS mixers. Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions were fabricated at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The base Nb layer 200 nm, the Al (AlOx) insulation layer, and the counter Nb electrode 150 nm are sputtered. The area outside of a junction defined by etching of the counter electrode is insulated by anodized Nb layer and sputtered SiO 2 . After sputtering thick SiO 2 layer on the whole wafer, a contact hole is made by etching. The thickness of the wiring Nb layer is 500 nm. The junctions are formed on the 250 μm thick fused quartz substrate. After the process of the junction fabrication, the quartz substrate is shaved from the back side until 150 μm thickness. Each junction for 270 GHz mixer has an area of about 1 μm 2 . The normal resistance of the six junctions series array is around 70 Ω. The mixer block has a reduced waveguide (1.2 x 0.1 mm for 200 GHz and 0.98 x 0. 1 mm for 270 GHz). The waveguide has two tuners in addition to a fixed backshort cavity. This configuration can allow to realize the lower embedding impedance, and less sensitive to the position of the tuners. The SIS mixers are cooled in a closed cycle He refrigerator. The LO is optically injected through a Fabry Perot interferometer. The 5--7 GHz IF is fed to a HEMT amplifier cooled at 15 K. The authors have started a preliminary measurement of the noise temperature of the SIS receivers, and comparing with calculated DSB receiver noise temperature assuming 3-port model. They continue to improve the performance of the SIS mixers now. They intend that the receivers shall be utilized for atmospheric monitor from next winter

  7. Back End Programming in .NET Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to develop a web application which provides the services for both web and mobile client. The complete application development process was carried out by the team of four members and a supervisor. According to the interest of group members the whole project was divided into four parts; that is user interface design, mobile application development, back end development for mobile services and server side back end development of application. I got the task of ser...

  8. Back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.; Lambert, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    At present, that portion of the nuclear fuel cycle involving reprocessing, waste management, and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication is in an unsettled state. Government regulatory requirements with respect to all aspects of the back end of the fuel cycle are still being formulated, and there is little positive experience on the operation of commercial reprocessing or mixed-oxide fabrication plants. In view of this unsettled situation, it will be difficult to meet the reprocessing and mixed-oxide fabrication needs of the next decade in the pattern previously anticipated. The costs in the back end of the fuel cycle are much higher than had been anticipated several years ago, a situation similar to that of almost all large endeavors in this country. On the other hand, the added costs are small relative to total power costs and do not affect the economic advantage of nuclear power as compared to other power sources. A rough economic analysis indicates that the question for the back end of the fuel cycle has changed from one of optimizing profitability to one of determining the most economic disposition of spent fuel. Long-term spent fuel storage is a practical and economically acceptable way to provide time for determining a sound course of action for the back end of the fuel cycle. Indeed, if one could count on a breeder economy before the end of the century, one possible course of action is to store light-water fuel until the plutonium can be used in breeders. However, for philosophical as well as practical reasons, it is important that the uncertainties in the course of action should be resolved as quickly as possible. Long-term storage should not be an excuse to delay resolution of the basic questions. (U.S.)

  9. High sensitivity broadband 360GHz passive receiver for TeraSCREEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Oldfield, Matthew; Maestrojuán, Itziar; Platt, Duncan; Brewster, Nick; Viegas, Colin; Alderman, Byron; Ellison, Brian N.

    2016-05-01

    TeraSCREEN is an EU FP7 Security project aimed at developing a combined active, with frequency channel centered at 360 GHz, and passive, with frequency channels centered at 94, 220 and 360 GHz, imaging system for border controls in airport and commercial ferry ports. The system will include automatic threat detection and classification and has been designed with a strong focus on the ethical, legal and practical aspects of operating in these environments and with the potential threats in mind. Furthermore, both the passive and active systems are based on array receivers with the active system consisting of a 16 element MIMO FMCW radar centered at 360 GHz with a bandwidth of 30 GHz utilizing a custom made direct digital synthesizer. The 16 element passive receiver system at 360 GHz uses commercial Gunn diode oscillators at 90 GHz followed by custom made 90 to 180 GHz frequency doublers supplying the local oscillator for 360 GHz sub-harmonic mixers. This paper describes the development of the passive antenna module, local oscillator chain, frequency mixers and detectors used in the passive receiver array of this system. The complete passive receiver chain is characterized in this paper.

  10. A 65mW,0.4-2.3 GHz bandpass filter for satellite receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, van der J.D.; Kasperkovitz, D.; Bretveld, A.

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic tunable bandpass filter for satellite receiver front-ends is presented. The nter frequency of the bandpass filter can be tuned from 0.4 GHz to 2.3 GHz. The filter is constructed using four transconductor-C poly-phase filter sections and has a 50 dB variable gain range. At 20 dB

  11. Back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the nuclear spent fuel that is discharged from the reactors in OECD countries is destined currently for long term interim storage before final processing or direct disposal. There are at least three basic considerations affecting the dicision on spent fuel, that is, the capacity of prompt reprocessing is insufficient at present, reprocessing is not urgent for the reason of economy or plutonium availability, and the cooling of spent fuel in controlled storage is economically advantageous. The basic technology of reprocessing has been commercially available for several decades, but political problems and the lack of immediate incentive for reprocessing slowed the buildup of new capacity. To avoid the problems related to plutonium storage, it is reasonable to postpone reprocessing. Some OECD countries plan the direct disposal of spent fuel elements instead of reprocessing. The technology, supply and demand and cost of the storage and transport of spent fuel, reprocessing and waste disposal are discussed. The share of the back end in the total levelized fuel cycle cost is expected to be between 10 and 20 %. The impact of the choice of back end options on the cost of power generation will be only 2 %. (Kako, I.)

  12. A low noise 665 GHz SIS quasi-particle waveguide receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. W.; Walker, C. K.; Leduc, H. G.; Hunter, T. R.; Benford, D. J.; Phillips, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Recent results on a 565-690 GHz SIS heterodyne receiver employing a 0.36 micron(sup 2) Nb/AlOx/Nb SIS tunnel junction with high quality circular non-contacting back short and E-plane tuners in a full height wave guide mount are reported. No resonant tuning structures were incorporated in the junction design at this time, even though such structures are expected to help the performance of the receiver. The receiver operates to at least the gap frequency of Niobium, approximately 680 GHz. Typical receiver noise temperatures from 565-690 GHz range from 160K to 230K with a best value of 185K DSB at 648 GHz. With the mixer cooled from 4.3K to 2K the measured receiver noise temperatures decreased by approximately 15 percent, giving roughly 180K DSB from 660 to 680 GHz. The receiver has a full 1 GHz IF pass band and was successfully installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory in Hawaii.

  13. A 3-5GHz UWB CMOS Receiver with Digital Control Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Liu, Mengmeng; Ge, Ning

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a CMOS receiver that works for 3-5GHz low band SC-UWB. The receiver contains PLL, Mixer, and VGA. Double down conversion is adopted in the receiver to overcome the orthogonal clock design difficulty; digital assisted RF control method is used to increase the stability...

  14. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world's riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future

  15. German research reactor back-end provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, Siegfried; Gruber, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Germany has several types of Research Reactors in operation. These reactors use fuel containing uranium of U.S. origin. Basically all the fuel which will be spent until May 2006 will be returned to the U.S. under existing contracts with the U.S. Department of Energy. The contracts are based on the U.S. FRR SNF (Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel) Program which started in May 1996 and which will last for 10 years. In 1990, the German Federal Government started a program to long-term store (approx. 40 years) and finally dispose of spent fuel in Germany after the so-called U.S. fuel return window will be closed. In order to long-term store the fuel, a special container was designed which covers all different types of spent fuel from the Research Reactors. The container called 'CASTOR MTR 2' is basically licensed and is already in use for the spent fuel of Russian origin from the 'Research Reactor Rossendorf' in the eastern part of Germany. All that fuel is expected to be stored in the existing intermediate storage facility, the so-called BZA (Brennelemente Zwischenlager Ahaus). BZA already accomodates spent fuel from the former THTR-300 high temperature reactor. A final repository does not yet exist in Germany. Alternative provisions to close the back-end of the Research Reactor fuel cycle are reprocessing at COGEMA (France) or in Russian facilities, perspectively. Waste return in a form to be agreed will be mandatory, at least in France. (author)

  16. Millimeter-Wave Receiver Concepts for 77 GHz Automotive Radar in Silicon-Germanium Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kissinger, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the analysis and design of integrated automotive radar receivers in Silicon-Germanium technology, for use in complex multi-channel radar transceiver front-ends in the 77GHz frequency band. The main emphasis of the work is the realization of high-linearity and low-power modular receiver channels as well as the investigation of millimeter-wave integrated test concepts for the receiver front-end.

  17. The Areva Group back-end division - challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This document presents the Areva Group back-end division challenges and prospects. Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, analyzes in this document, the high-profile mix of complementary activities of the nuclear energy industry, concerning the back-end division the full range of services for the end of the fuel cycle, the fuel cycle back-end markets, the economic and financial associated considerations. (A.L.B.)

  18. A low power 3-5 GHz CMOS UWB receiver front-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weinan; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang

    2009-01-01

    A novel low power RF receiver front-end for 3-5 GHz UWB is presented. Designed in the 0.13 μm CMOS process, the direct conversion receiver features a wideband balun-coupled noise cancelling transconductance input stage, followed by quadrature passive mixers and transimpedance loading amplifiers. Measurement results show that the receiver achieves an input return loss below -8.5 dB across the 3.1-4.7 GHz frequency range, maximum voltage conversion gain of 27 dB, minimum noise figure of 4 dB, IIP3 of -11.5 dBm, and IIP2 of 33 dBm. Working under 1.2 V supply voltage, the receiver consumes total current of 18 mA including 10 mA by on-chip quadrature LO signal generation and buffer circuits. The chip area with pads is 1.1 x 1.5 mm 2 .

  19. A 850 GHz SIS receiver employing silicon micro-machining technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. W.; Pety, J.; Schaffer, P. L.; Phillips, T. G.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.; Walker, C. K.

    1996-01-01

    A 850 GHz superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) heterodyne receiver which uses a radiofrequency tuned niobium tunnel junction fabricated on a 1 micron thick silicon nitrate membrane, is reported. From video and heterodyne measurements, it was calculated that the niobium film loss in the radiofrequency matching network is about 6.8 dB at 822 GHz. These results are approximately a factor of two higher than the theoretical loss predicted by the Mattis-Bardeen theory in the extreme anomalous limit. The junction design and the receiver configuration are described, including the mixer block, the membrane construction and the cooled optics. The performance tests using a Fourier transform spectrometer to measure the response of the radiofrequency matching network, and the SIS simulations of the receiver response to cold and hot loads, the infrared noise contribution and the overall mixer conversion efficiency, are reported. It is concluded that the receiver response is limited by the absorption loss in the radiofrequency matching network.

  20. Low noise cryogenic receiver for spectroscopic applications in mm-wave radioastronomy at 230 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, L.; Ruffie, G.; Beaudin, G.; Gheudin, M.; Deschamps, A.

    1986-01-01

    A new cooled mm-wave receiver is presented. This receiver has been in operation since October 1985 with a 2.5 m Cassegrain telescope located at the Plateau de Bure in the French Alps. It is tunable from 210 to 240 GHz and has a DSB system noise temperature of 360 K and a 600 MHz instantaneous bandwidth. The receiver is composed of a local oscillator (klystron frequency tripler) and a Schottky diode mixer with a cooled FET amplifier. Quasi-optical techniques are used for signal injection. A computer-controlled microprocessor drives the whole system and performs calibration and frequency tuning of the receiver. The different parts of the receiver, frequency tripler, quasi-optical techniques, mixer, FET amplifier, and microprocessor, are described. 13 references

  1. Low noise 874 GHz receivers for the International Submillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, A.; Sobis, P.; Drakinskiy, V.; Emrich, A.; Wadefalk, N.; Schleeh, J.; Stake, J.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the development of two 874 GHz receiver channels with orthogonal polarizations for the International Submillimetre Airborne Radiometer. A spline horn antenna and dielectric lens, a Schottky diode mixer circuit, and an intermediate frequency (IF) low noise amplifier circuit were integrated in the same metallic split block housing. This resulted in a receiver mean double sideband (DSB) noise temperature of 3300 K (minimum 2770 K, maximum 3400 K), achieved at an operation temperature of 40 °C and across a 10 GHz wide IF band. A minimum DSB noise temperature of 2260 K at 20 °C was measured without the lens. Three different dielectric lens materials were tested and compared with respect to the radiation pattern and noise temperature. All three lenses were compliant in terms of radiation pattern, but one of the materials led to a reduction in noise temperature of approximately 200 K compared to the others. The loss in this lens was estimated to be 0.42 dB. The local oscillator chains have a power consumption of 24 W and consist of custom-designed Schottky diode quadruplers (5% power efficiency in operation, 8%-9% peak), commercial heterostructure barrier varactor (HBV) triplers, and power amplifiers that are pumped by using a common dielectric resonator oscillator at 36.43 GHz. Measurements of the radiation pattern showed a symmetric main beam lobe with full width half maximum <5° and side lobe levels below -20 dB. Return loss of a prototype of the spline horn and lens was measured using a network analyzer and frequency extenders to 750-1100 GHz. Time-domain analysis of the reflection coefficients shows that the reflections are below -25 dB and are dominated by the external waveguide interface.

  2. Gas spectroscopy system with 245 GHz transmitter and receiver in SiGe BiCMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Klaus; Rothbart, Nick; Borngräber, Johannes; Yilmaz, Selahattin Berk; Kissinger, Dietmar; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2017-02-01

    The implementation of an integrated mm-wave transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) in SiGe BiCMOS or CMOS technology offers a path towards a compact and low-cost system for gas spectroscopy. Previously, we have demonstrated TXs and RXs for spectroscopy at 238 -252 GHz and 495 - 497 GHz using external phase-locked loops (PLLs) with signal generators for the reference frequency ramps. Here, we present a more compact system by using two external fractional-N PLLs allowing frequency ramps for the TX and RX, and for TX with superimposed frequency shift keying (FSK) or reference frequency modulation realized by a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) or an arbitrary waveform generator. The 1.9 m folded gas absorption cell, the vacuum pumps, as well as the TX and RX are placed on a portable breadboard with dimensions of 75 cm x 45 cm. The system performance is evaluated by high-resolution absorption spectra of gaseous methanol at 13 Pa for 241 - 242 GHz. The 2f (second harmonic) content of the absorption spectrum of the methanol was obtained by detecting the IF power of RX using a diode power sensor connected to a lock-in amplifier. The reference frequency modulation reveals a higher SNR (signal-noise-ratio) of 98 within 32 s acquisition compared to 66 for FSK. The setup allows for jumping to preselected frequency regions according to the spectral signature thus reducing the acquisition time by up to one order of magnitude.

  3. Characterization of SIS functions in a heterodyne receiver at 33GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaquine, I.

    1985-01-01

    Superconductor-insulation-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions present a Volt-Ampere characteristic strongly nonlinear; its ideal limit is a discontinuity at the level of forbidden band voltage. Niobium-Oxide-Lead (Indium)or Niobium nitride-Oxide-Lead (Indium) junctions have been tested in mixing at 33GHz. The best result obtained in double band receiver temperature is 120K. The result analysis allow in statics to well characterize the performance of our first FET amplifier in the cold state and in dynamics to find the relative importance of the different parameters of the junction. SIS diode mixers have good performance in frequency field interesting the radioastronomy [fr

  4. 2-GHz band man-made noise evaluation for cryogenic receiver front-end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narahashi, S; Satoh, K; Suzuki, Y [Research Laboratories, NTT DoCoMo, Inc., 3-5 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8536 (Japan); Mimura, T [Intellectual Property Department, NTT DoCoMo, Inc., 2-11-1 Nagatacho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-6150 (Japan); Nojima, T [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Nishi 9, Kita 14, Kita, Sapporo 060-0808 (Japan)], E-mail: narahashi@nttdocomo.co.jp

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents measured results of man-made noise in urban and suburban areas in the 2-GHz band with amplitude probability distribution (APD) in order to evaluate the impact of man-made noise on an experimental cryogenic receiver front-end (CRFE). The CRFE comprises a high-temperature superconducting filter, cryogenically-cooled low-noise amplifier, and highly reliable cryostat that is very compact. The CRFE is anticipated to be an effective way to achieve efficient frequency utilization and to improve the sensitivity of mobile base station receivers. It is important to measure the characteristics of the man-made noise in typical cellular base station antenna environments and confirm their impact on the CRFE reception with APD because if man-made noise has a stronger effect than thermal noise, the CRFE would fail to offer any improvement in sensitivity. The measured results suggest that the contribution of man-made noise in the 2-GHz band can be ignored as far as the wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) system is concerned.

  5. Back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Current strategies of the back-end nuclear fuel cycles are: (1) direct-disposal of spent fuel (Open Cycle), and (2) reprocessing of the spent fuel and recycling of the recovered nuclear materials (Closed Cycle). The selection of these strategies is country-specific, and factors affecting selection of strategy are identified and discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Integrated 1 GHz 4-channel InP phasar based WDM-receiver with Si bipolar frontend array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, C.A.M.; Vreede, de L.C.N.; Dam, van C.; Scholtes, T.L.M.; Smit, M.K.; Tauritz, J.L.; Pedersen, J.W.; Moerman, I.; Verbeek, B.H.; Baets, R.G.F.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated 4-channel WDM-receiver frontend with 1 GHz channel bandwidth is described. The receiver consists of an integrated wavelength demultiplexer with photodiodes in InP technology connected through bond wires with a 4 channel Si bipolar transimpedance amplifier mounted on an epoxy board. The

  7. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang; Yao Wang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm 2 and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  8. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guang; Yao Wang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan, E-mail: w-li@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-01-15

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm{sup 2} and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  9. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.224 Section 25.224 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.224 Protection of...

  10. Development of 24GHz Rectenna for Receiving and Rectifying Modulated Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Naoki; Hatano, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show experimental results of RF-DC conversion with modulated 24GHz waves. We have already developed class-F MMIC rectenna with resonators for higher harmonics at no modulated 24GHz microwave for RF energy transfer. Dimensions of the MMIC rectifying circuit is 1 mm × 3 mm on GaAs. Maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency is measured 47.9% for a 210 mW microwave input of 24 GHz with a 120 Ω load. The class-F rectenna is based on a single shunt full-wave rectifier. For future application of a simultaneous energy and information transfer system or an energy harvesting from broadcasting waves, input microwave will be modulated. In this paper, we show an experimental result of RF-DC conversion of the class-F rectenna with 24GHz waves modulated by 16QAM as 1st modulation and OFDM as 2nd modulation

  11. Development of 24GHz Rectenna for Receiving and Rectifying Modulated Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Naoki; Hatano, Ken

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we show experimental results of RF-DC conversion with modulated 24GHz waves. We have already developed class-F MMIC rectenna with resonators for higher harmonics at no modulated 24GHz microwave for RF energy transfer. Dimensions of the MMIC rectifying circuit is 1 mm × 3 mm on GaAs. Maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency is measured 47.9% for a 210 mW microwave input of 24 GHz with a 120 Ω load. The class-F rectenna is based on a single shunt full-wave rectifier. For future application of a simultaneous energy and information transfer system or an energy harvesting from broadcasting waves, input microwave will be modulated. In this paper, we show an experimental result of RF-DC conversion of the class-F rectenna with 24GHz waves modulated by 16QAM as 1st modulation and OFDM as 2nd modulation.

  12. Remote handling and automation in back end of fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.N.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Indian nuclear programme is readying for a quantum leap and it is essential that technology is available for building advanced fuel recycle plants in the back end and for sustained operation of such plants. Remote technology and automation plays a big role to achieve this goal. With the introduction of advanced fuel cycles in indigenous programme and scenario of international cooperation it is essential to be ready with indigenous technology for meeting all challenges. Work has been progressing to develop locally support technology for remote handling and automation with good success. Essential RH tools such as master slave manipulators, power manipulators and hot cell viewing systems have been developed and commercial production has been established. Customised RH requirements for back end plants have been met and the designs have proven to be worthy for hot operations over the years. In the last few years stress has been on development of equipment and technology to meet the increasing demands of higher throughput plants. Substantial progress has been achieved in the head end and reconversion laboratory systems of reprocessing plants. Similarly successful efforts have also been made for establishing Thoria processing cells and also the RH in the reconversion operations. Custom designed equipment has been developed for decommissioning of ceramic melter, used glove boxes etc. Efforts are on hand to develop automated RH equipment for material handling in underground repositories. This paper aims at bringing out the theme based on some of our own experiences and some reports from plants in operation abroad. (author)

  13. Room-temperature nine-µm-wavelength photodetectors and GHz-frequency heterodyne receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaferri, Daniele; Todorov, Yanko; Bigioli, Azzurra; Mottaghizadeh, Alireza; Gacemi, Djamal; Calabrese, Allegra; Vasanelli, Angela; Li, Lianhe; Davies, A. Giles; Linfield, Edmund H.; Kapsalidis, Filippos; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme; Sirtori, Carlo

    2018-04-01

    Room-temperature operation is essential for any optoelectronics technology that aims to provide low-cost, compact systems for widespread applications. A recent technological advance in this direction is bolometric detection for thermal imaging, which has achieved relatively high sensitivity and video rates (about 60 hertz) at room temperature. However, owing to thermally induced dark current, room-temperature operation is still a great challenge for semiconductor photodetectors targeting the wavelength band between 8 and 12 micrometres, and all relevant applications, such as imaging, environmental remote sensing and laser-based free-space communication, have been realized at low temperatures. For these devices, high sensitivity and high speed have never been compatible with high-temperature operation. Here we show that a long-wavelength (nine micrometres) infrared quantum-well photodetector fabricated from a metamaterial made of sub-wavelength metallic resonators exhibits strongly enhanced performance with respect to the state of the art up to room temperature. This occurs because the photonic collection area of each resonator is much larger than its electrical area, thus substantially reducing the dark current of the device. Furthermore, we show that our photonic architecture overcomes intrinsic limitations of the material, such as the drop of the electronic drift velocity with temperature, which constrains conventional geometries at cryogenic operation. Finally, the reduced physical area of the device and its increased responsivity allow us to take advantage of the intrinsic high-frequency response of the quantum detector at room temperature. By mixing the frequencies of two quantum-cascade lasers on the detector, which acts as a heterodyne receiver, we have measured a high-frequency signal, above four gigahertz (GHz). Therefore, these wide-band uncooled detectors could benefit technologies such as high-speed (gigabits per second) multichannel coherent data

  14. A 3 GHz transimpedance OEIC receiver for 1.3-1.55 μm fiber-optic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, G.K.; Hong, W.P.; Gimlett, J.L.; Bhat, R.; Nguyen, C.K.; Sasaki, G.; Young, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a high-performance, MSM-HEMT transimpedance photoreceiver fabricated using OMCVD grown InAlAs/InGaAs heterostructures on an InP substrate. This is the first demonstration of a monolithically integrated receiver amplifier that incorporates a cascode amplifier stage and a Schottky diode level-shifting stage implemented on InP-based OEIC photoreceivers. The transimpedance amplifier has an open loop gain of 5.7 and a bandwidth of 3.0 GHz which represent the highest gain and the highest speed performance reported for 1.3--1.55 μm wavelength OEIC receivers

  15. French industrial capabilities for the back-end operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspar, Gilles A.

    1988-01-01

    Based upon processes initiated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and its industrial partners, France has been elaborating for about thirty years a steady and consistent programme for the back-end fuel cycle. French industrial actors for each segment of this cycle are shown in annex. The CEA is the research and development national entity sustaining the industrial efforts of the French companies involved in all stages of the fuel cycle : enrichment, fabrication, reprocessing, radwaste management. Such a cooperation assistance is devoted to processes developments, equipment qualification, engineering back up, as this will be reviewed along present communication. As well known, mastering a new technology from fundamental research to full scale industrial deployment, requires time and considerable financial commitments. Both CEA and COGEMA have devoted the requested time and funds to reach an effective industrialization of the closed fuel cycle. This industrial achievement is now completed. UP2 La Hague reprocessing unit produces effectively over 40 T per month and its capacity will be doubled to reach a nominal production of 800 T per year available in 1993 for our EDF domestic utility. It has recently reprocessed the two thousandth ton of LWR fuel and treated in 1987 over 400 T of the same, thus exceeding the nominal capacity. On the same site our UP3 unit under construction will be operating next year with a capacity of also 800 tons per year devoted to foreign utilities. Last year, in view of our excellent operational experience, Cogema reassessed the whole financial scheme for both plants including maintenance and refurbishing expenses. We may confirm that the reprocessing cost, after base load period ending in year 1999, will be reduced by 30 to 40%. The once through option does not effectively solve the spent fuel problem since to-day nobody has qualified an ultimate repository site associated with a licensed reliable process for irradiated fuel embedding

  16. Observational demonstration of a high image rejection SIS mixer receiver using a new waveguide filter at 230 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Asayama, Shinichiro; Harada, Ryohei; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu

    2017-12-01

    A new sideband separation method was developed for use in millimeter-/submillimeter-band radio receivers using a novel waveguide frequency separation filter (FSF), which consists of two branch line hybrid couplers and two waveguide high-pass filters. The FSF was designed to allow the radio frequency (RF) signal to pass through to an output port when the frequency is higher than a certain value (225 GHz), and to reflect the RF signal back to another output port when the frequency is lower. The FSF is connected to two double sideband superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers, and an image rejection ratio (IRR) is determined by the FSF characteristics. With this new sideband separation method, we can achieve good and stable IRR without the balancing two SIS mixers such as is necessary for conventional sideband-separating SIS mixers. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we designed and developed an FSF for simultaneous observations of the J = 2-1 rotational transition lines of three CO isotopes (12CO, 13CO, and C18O): the 12CO line is in the upper sideband and the others are in the lower sideband with an intermediate-frequency range of 4-8 GHz at the radio frequency of 220/230 GHz. This FSF was then installed in the receiver system of the 1.85 m radio telescope of Osaka Prefecture University, and was used during the 2014 observation season. The observation results indicate that the IRR of the proposed receiver is 25 dB or higher for the 12CO line, and no significant fluctuation larger than 1 dB in the IRR was observed throughout the season. These results demonstrate the practical utility of the FSF receiver for observations like extensive molecular cloud surveys in specified lines with a fixed frequency setting.

  17. A NEXT GENERATION MULTI-BEAM FOCAL PLANE ARRAY RECEIVER OF TRAO FOR 86-115 GHZ BAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Hee Chung

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The noise temperature of existing millimeter-wave receivers is already within two or three times quantum noise limit. One of practical ways to increase the observation speed of single dish radio telescope without longer integration time is use of multi-beam focal plane array receiver as demonstrated in several large single dish radio telescopes. In this context the TRAO (Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory, which operates a 143n Cassegrain radio telescope, is planning to develop a 4 x 4 beams focal plane array SIS receiver system for 86-115 GHz band. Even though millimeter-wave HEMT LNA-based receivers approach the noise temperature comparable to the SIS receiver at W-band, it is believed that the receiver based on SIS mixer seems to offer a bit more advantages. The critical part of the multi-beam array receiver will be sideband separating SIS mixers. Employing such a type of SIS mixer makes it possible to simplify the quasi-optics of receiver. Otherwise, an SSB filter should be used in front of the mixer or some sophisticated post-processing of observation data is needed. In this paper we will present a preliminary design concept and components needed for the development of a new 3 mm band multi-beam focal plane array receiver.

  18. Silicon nitride back-end optics for biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, Sebastian; Merget, Florian; Zhong, Frank C.; Finkelstein, Hod; Witzens, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN) is a promising candidate material for becoming a standard high-performance solution for integrated biophotonics applications in the visible spectrum. As a key feature, its compatibility with the complementary-oxidemetal- semiconductor (CMOS) technology permits cost reduction at large manufacturing volumes that is particularly advantageous for manufacturing consumables. In this work, we show that the back-end deposition of a thin SiN film enables the large light-cladding interaction desirable for biosensing applications while the refractive index contrast of the technology (Δn ≍ 0.5) also enables a considerable level of integration with reduced waveguide bend radii. Design and experimental validation also show that several advantages are derived from the moderate SiN/SiO2 refractive index contrast, such as lower scattering losses in interconnection waveguides and relaxed tolerances to fabrication imperfections as compared to higher refractive index contrast material systems. As a drawback, a moderate refractive index contrast also makes the implementation of compact grating couplers more challenging, due to the fact that only a relatively weak scattering strength can be achieved. Thereby, the beam diffracted by the grating tends to be rather large and consequently exhibit stringent angular alignment tolerances. Here, we experimentally demonstrate how a proper design of the bottom and top cladding oxide thicknesses allows reduction of the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) and alleviates this problem. Additionally, the inclusion of a CMOS-compatible AlCu/TiN bottom reflector further decreases the FWHM and increases the coupling efficiency. Finally, we show that focusing grating designs greatly reduce the device footprint without penalizing the device metrics.

  19. MSGD: Scalable back-end for indoor magnetic field-based GraphSLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, C; Harle, Robert Keith

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) systems that recover the trajectory of a robot or mobile device are characterised by a front-end and back-end. The front-end uses sensor observations to identify loop closures; the back-end optimises the estimated trajectory to be consistent with these closures. The GraphSLAM framework formulates the back-end problem as a graph-based optimisation on a pose graph. This paper describes a back-end system optimised for very dense sequence-based lo...

  20. A 547 GHz SIS Receiver Employing a Submicron Nb Junction with an Integrated Matching Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febvre, P.; McGrath, W.; Leduc, H.; Batelaan, P.; Frerking, M.; Hernichel, J.; Bumble, B.

    1993-01-01

    The most sensitive heterodyne receivers used for millimeter wave and submillimeter wave radioastronomy employ superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions as the nonlinear mixing element.

  1. Sideband characterization and atmospheric observations with various 340 GHz heterodyne receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renker, Matthias, E-mail: renker@iap.unibe.ch; Murk, Axel [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Rea, Simon P. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Emrich, A.; Frisk, U. [OMNISYS Instruments, Västra Frölunda (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    This paper describes sideband response measurements and atmospheric observations with a double sideband and two Single Sideband (SSB) receiver prototypes developed for the multi-beam limb sounder instrument stratosphere-troposphere exchange and climate monitor radiometer. We first show an advanced Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) method for sideband response and spurious signal characterization. We then present sideband response measurements of the different prototype receivers and we compare the results of the SSB receivers with sideband measurements by injecting a continuous wave signal into the upper and lower sidebands. The receivers were integrated into a total-power radiometer and atmospheric observations were carried out. The observed spectra were compared to forward model spectra to conclude on the sideband characteristics of the different receivers. The two sideband characterization methods show a high degree of agreement for both SSB receivers with various local oscillator settings. The measured sideband response was used to correct the forward model simulations. This improves the agreement with the atmospheric observations and explains spectral features caused by an unbalanced sideband response. The FTS method also allows to quantify the influence of spurious harmonic responses of the receiver.

  2. Scientific research on the back-end of the fuel cycle for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the Atalante-2000 conference is to present the major research axis concerning the nuclear fuel cycle back-end. The different topics are: - Present options concerning fuel cycle back-end; - Reprocessing of spent fuel; - Advanced separation for transmutation; - Processing and packaging of radioactive wastes; - Design and fabrication of targets for transmutation; and - Conversion of military plutonium into MOX fuels

  3. Integrated graphical user interface for the back-end software sub-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, E.; Caprini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition and Event Filter prototype '-1' project was intended to produce a prototype system for evaluating candidate technologies and architectures for the final ATLAS DAQ system on the LHC accelerator at CERN. Within the prototype project, the back-end sub-system encompasses the software for configuring, controlling and monitoring the data acquisition (DAQ). The back-end sub-system includes core components and detector integration components. One of the detector integration components is the Integrated Graphical User Interface (IGUI), which is intended to give a view of the status of the DAQ system and its sub-systems (Dataflow, Event Filter and Back-end) and to allow the user (general users, such as a shift operator at a test beam or experts, in order to control and debug the DAQ system) to control its operation. The IGUI is intended to be a Status Display and a Control Interface too, so there are three groups of functional requirements: display requirements (the information to be displayed); control requirements (the actions the IGUI shall perform on the DAQ components); general requirements, applying to the general functionality of the IGUI. The constraint requirements include requirements related to the access control (shift operator or expert user). The quality requirements are related to the portability on different platforms. The IGUI has to interact with many components in a distributed environment. The following design guidelines have been considered in order to fulfil the requirements: use a modular design with easy possibility to integrate different sub-systems; use Java language for portability and powerful graphical features; use CORBA interfaces for communication with other components. The actual implementation of Back-end software components use Inter-Language Unification (ILU) for inter-process communication. Different methods of access of Java applications to ILU C++ servers have been evaluated (native methods, ILU Java support

  4. System Level Power Optimization of Digital Audio Back End for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracny, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with power optimization of the audio processing back end for hearing aids - the interpolation filter (IF), the sigma-delta (SD modulator and the Class D power amplifier (PA) as a whole. Specifications are derived and insight into the tradeoffs involved is used to optimize...... the interpolation filter and the SD modulator on the system level so that the switching frequency of the Class D PA - the main power consumer in the back end - is minimized. A figure-of-merit (FOM) which allows judging the power consumption of the digital part of the back end early in the design process is used...

  5. Environment, renewable sources and NPPs: Strategy of Slovak Republic for the back end of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timulak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The term 'back end of nuclear power' means set of activities corresponding to the final stage of utilizing the nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, or at the border of nuclear facilities with the environment. Strategy of back end of nuclear power is a basic document that specifies strategy of the Slovak Republic and all relevant subjects for the next five years in detail and for the period up to 2025 in general terms, with the prospect till the end of 21 st century. It provides proposals for implementation of the back end strategy in accordance with requirements for the health and environmental protection so that its consequences are not unacceptably transferred to next generations. The goal of the back end strategy is: - to set acceptable bases back end of nuclear power in Slovakia; - to create framework for decision-making in financial covering of the strategy activities; - to provide information on conceptual solutions of back end of nuclear power to all relevant subjects and to the public. (author)

  6. Comparison of different back end fuel cycle concepts and evaluation of their feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetke, K.; Baumgaertel, G.; Bechthold, W.; Becker, R.; Closs, K.D.; Dippel, T.; Engelmann, H.J.; Fischer, P.M.; Fischer, U.; Haug, H.O.

    1980-09-01

    The study represents a comparison between the two alternative back end fuel cycle concepts, i.e., the 'integrated back end fuel cycle concept', (reprocessing, recycling of uranium and plutonium) and the 'spent fuel disposal concept', under aspects of technical feasibility, radiation accidents, radiological impact, and energy policy as well as with respect of the proliferation hazards issuing from each of these concepts. An overall comparison of the two back end fuel cycle concepts and the two fuel cycles, respectively, is not yet feasible at the present time, pending clarification of a number of problems of detail. For this reason, the Study also indicates the research activities that must still be carried out on spent fuel disposal in the next few years, in order to allow the comparison of the two back end fuel cycle alternatives to be carried out with respect to safety, as demanded by the heads of government of the Federal Republic and the Federal States for the mid-eighties. (orig./HP) [de

  7. 40 CFR 63.494 - Back-end process provisions-residual organic HAP limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organic HAP limitations. 63.494 Section 63.494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.494 Back-end process provisions—residual organic HAP limitations. (a) The monthly weighted average residual organic HAP content of all grades of elastomer processed, measured after the stripping operation...

  8. The back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle: The Argentine view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The strategy of the back-end nuclear fuel cycle for Argentina is presented in this paper. Although one may consider Argentina's current policy on spent fuel management as 'wait and see', Argentina is continuously directing her efforts towards the development of technology and human resources for the future demand of the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  9. Analysis of factors affecting the implementation of back-end nuclear fuel cycle policy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yung Myung; Yang, Maeng Ho; Kim, Hyun Joon; Chung, Hwan Sam; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung OoK; Ko, Han Suk; Song, Ki Dong; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Ki Hwan; Lee, Han Myung

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the back-end nuclear fuel cycle acceptability is surveyed and analyzed in the following three aspects. To begin with, the future political situation and energy-environmental issues are analyzed as part of the socio-economic aspect. Secondly, the domestic situation of nuclear industries and the fuel cycle policy of foreign countries are surveyed as the technical aspect. Finally, NPT, IAEA safeguards and nuclear export control regimes are analyzed as the institutional aspect. The unification period of South and North Korea also will greatly affect the implementation of back-end fuel cycle policy, and public attitudes will affect the acquisition of site, construction, and operation of nuclear facilities. An effort to release international restrictions on the back-end fuel cycle is also required to accelerate the implementation of the policy. In this regard, the back-end fuel cycle policy should be clear-cut to avoid misunderstanding with respect to nuclear proliferation. Importantly, agreements with foreign countries should be amended at a mutual equivalent level. (Author) 30 refs., 5 figs., 25 tabs

  10. Analysis of factors affecting the implementation of back-end nuclear fuel cycle policy in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yung Myung; Yang, Maeng Ho; Kim, Hyun Joon; Chung, Hwan Sam; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung OoK; Ko, Han Suk; Song, Ki Dong; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Ki Hwan; Lee, Han Myung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the back-end nuclear fuel cycle acceptability is surveyed and analyzed in the following three aspects. To begin with, the future political situation and energy-environmental issues are analyzed as part of the socio-economic aspect. Secondly, the domestic situation of nuclear industries and the fuel cycle policy of foreign countries are surveyed as the technical aspect. Finally, NPT, IAEA safeguards and nuclear export control regimes are analyzed as the institutional aspect. The unification period of South and North Korea also will greatly affect the implementation of back-end fuel cycle policy, and public attitudes will affect the acquisition of site, construction, and operation of nuclear facilities. An effort to release international restrictions on the back-end fuel cycle is also required to accelerate the implementation of the policy. In this regard, the back-end fuel cycle policy should be clear-cut to avoid misunderstanding with respect to nuclear proliferation. Importantly, agreements with foreign countries should be amended at a mutual equivalent level. (Author) 30 refs., 5 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Separations in back-end of nuclear fuel cycle: overview of R and D activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, N.K.; Chitnis, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses various areas in back-end of nuclear fuel cycle where R and D activities in separation science are actively pursued. Solvent extraction and ion-exchange are the main techniques where maximum developmental activities are underway. In addition to actual techniques, article also discusses the status of the studies especially where the process has been applied on larger scale. (author)

  12. Long term assurance of supply of back end of fuel cycle facilities and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the long-term assurance of supply of the back end of fuel cycle facilities and services. 11 fundamental questions are posed and commented on by representatives of 7 countries. Non-proliferation aspects are not considered as they will be discussed elsewhere

  13. The Areva Group back-end division - challenges and prospects; Le pole aval dans le groupe Areva - enjeux et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This document presents the Areva Group back-end division challenges and prospects. Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, analyzes in this document, the high-profile mix of complementary activities of the nuclear energy industry, concerning the back-end division the full range of services for the end of the fuel cycle, the fuel cycle back-end markets, the economic and financial associated considerations. (A.L.B.)

  14. Strategy and Economic Prospect of Back-end Cycle through ATW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendri Firman Windarto; Siti Alimah

    2003-01-01

    Strategy and economic prospect of back-end cycle through ATW has been studied. Nuclear fuel cycle through ATW is a single stratum of back-end cycle. By ATW, volume of spent fuel which should be disposed in long term can be reduced from 70,000 MHTM to 3,000 MHTM and half-life of spent fuel can be reduced from 15,700,000 years to 300 years. Strategic values of the ATW cycle are to prevent proliferation risk and to reduce the uncertainty of long term dispose. Economic prospect of the ATW cycle will give some advantages on reducing of spent fuel volume and its disposal period, and producing electricity. (author)

  15. Back-end interconnection. A generic concept for high volume manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, J.; Budel, T.; De Kok, C.J.G.M.

    2013-10-15

    The general method to realize series connection in thin film PV modules is monolithical interconnection through a sequence of laser scribes (P1, P2 and P3) and layer depositions. This method however implies that the deposition processes are interrupted several times, an undesirable situation in high volume processing. In order to eliminate this drawback we focus our developments on the so called 'back-end interconnection concept' in which series interconnection takes place AFTER the deposition of the functional layers of the thin film PV device. The process of making a back-end interconnection combines laser scribing, curing, sintering and inkjet processes. These different processes interacts with each other and are investigated in order to create processing strategies that are robust to ensure high volume production. The generic approach created a technology base that can be applied to any thin film PV technology.

  16. The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle: technical and economic analysis-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans-Ribas, J.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle has been analyzed under current conditions in the United States, taking into consideration the framework defined by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and its amendments. The different steps of the back end of the fuel cycle are studied and different alternatives are compared under technical and economic criteria. Several technical issues have been analyzed for their impact on the economics of the fuel cycle. The bases for the analysis are explained, and the results for a once-through cycle are presented. The results show that a repository in tuff represents the minimum cost situation. The economic model appears very sensitive to several parameters, in particular the period of retrievability and the storage costs

  17. Summary of cost projection for regulatory uncertainties in the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raudenbush, M.H.; Geller, L.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel recycle cost deviations resulting from regulatory changes in the back end of the fuel cycle are examined from a number of different data sources, and three potentially large cost uncertainties are identified; HLW disposal, alpha-waste criteria, and in-plant material control/accountability for safeguards. Present and past methods of regulatory cost effectiveness determinations are critiqued and in some cases found wanting

  18. 40 CFR 63.495 - Back-end process provisions-procedures to determine compliance using stripping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-end process provisions-procedures to determine compliance using stripping technology. 63.495 Section 63.495 Protection of Environment...: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.495 Back-end process provisions—procedures to determine compliance...

  19. Design of a Combined Beacon Receiver and Digital Radiometer for 40 GHz Propagation Measurements at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David

    2017-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have jointly developed an atmospheric propagation terminal to measure and characterize propagation phenomena at 40 GHz at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) in Robledo de Chavela, Spain. The hybrid Q-band system utilizes a novel design which combines a 40 GHz beacon receiver and digital radiometer into the same RF front-end and observes the 39.402 GHz beacon of the European Space Agencys Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 experiment. Atmospheric measurements include gaseous absorption, rain fade, and scintillation. The radiometric measurement is calibrated by means of an included noise diode as well as tipping calibration. The goals of these measurements are to assist MDSCC mission operations as the facility increasingly supports Ka-band missions, as well as to contribute to the development and improvement of International Telecommunications Union (ITU) models for prediction of communications systems performance within the Q-band through the Aldo Paraboni Experiment. Herein, we provide an overview of the system design, characterization, and plan of operations which commenced at the MDSCC beginning in March 2017.

  20. Internationalization of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeckel, E.

    1997-01-01

    International cooperation and transnational division of labour is a distinctive feature of the nuclear industry, but it is conspicuously lacking at the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Meanwhile, national efforts to close the fuel cycle have remained largely unsuccessful. Governments and the nuclear industry are paralyzed in a gridlock of indecision and obstruction. This pattern has been reinforced at the international level. More recently, however, a number of dynamic challenges to governments and the industry has opened up new prospects for internationalization. (author)

  1. IAEA activities in the back-end area of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kosaku

    1999-01-01

    This paper concerns recent outcomes from the IAEA's activities in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly focusing on the back-end of the fuel cycle. It includes spent fuel management, plutonium utilization and burnup credit. In the area of spent fuel management, worldwide prospects and status of the spent fuel arising, storage and reprocessing are presented. In the area of plutonium utilization worldwide, only MOX fuel fabrication is described. Finally, the worldwide status of the burnup credit implementation is described. (author)

  2. Updating the Slovak strategy of back-end of peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzer, P.; Timulak, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors present the Slovak strategy of back-end of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Slovak Government approved the Strategy by Governmental decision No. 328/2008 in May 21, 2008. Decree of the Government solves the problem of historical debt by payments of operators of the electricity transmission network and of the distribution network, according the provisions of the Act on the National Nuclear Fund. Financing of the management of institutional radioactive waste after its centralized collection performed by JAVYS, a.s. Economic aspects of reactors decommissioning as well as the sources of financing are presented.

  3. Internationalization of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle: Problems and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeckel, E [Forschunginstitut der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Auswaertige Politik, Bonn (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    International cooperation and transnational division of labour is a distinctive feature of the nuclear industry, but it is conspicuously lacking at the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Meanwhile, national efforts to close the fuel cycle have remained largely unsuccessful. Governments and the nuclear industry are paralyzed in a gridlock of indecision and obstruction. This pattern has been reinforced at the international level. More recently, however, a number of dynamic challenges to governments and the industry has opened up new prospects for internationalization. (author). 3 refs.

  4. The Union view of back end fuel cycle provisions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    After a long political and technical discussion, the German trade unions united in the German Federation of Labor (DGB) arrived at the finding that back end fuel cycle provisions for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany, in addition to the present concept of the Government providing for a reprocessing plant, should also include studies of the alternative possibility to store spent fuel elements over long periods of time, perhaps with a possibility to recover them later. That decision is also based on a report by the Nuclear Technology Working Group of the Metal Workers Union (IG Metall) and the Public Workers Union (OeTV). (orig.) [de

  5. Policy in France regarding the back-end of the fuel cycle reprocessing/recycling route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, A.; Lenail, B.

    1991-01-01

    The decision taken in early 1970s to base the French power policy on the use of pressurized water reactors also included the strategy for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle based on reprocessing, waste conditioning for the final disposal in the most suitable form in terms of safety and plutonium recycling to fast breeder reactors. Twenty years have elapsed, and substantial development and investment have been made. New evidences have emerged especially regarding breeder development, and the initial choice has been proved to be sound. EDF and COGEMA, the French utility and fuel cycle companies, respectively, are working together in order to take the best advantage of past efforts. The good behavior of MOX fuel in EDF reactors and the excellent start of the UP3 reprocessing plant of La Hague, which was completed and commissioned in August, 1990, made EDF and COGEMA extremely confident for future decision. The French choice made in favor of fuel reprocessing the history of fuel reprocessing in France, the policy concerning the back end of nuclear fuel cycle of EDF, and the present consideration and circumstances on this matter are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Economics of the back-end of fuel cycle: Controversy, uncertainties and the industrial evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guais, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper underlines the usefulness of the document issued by OECD/NEA on the ''economics of the nuclear fuel cycle,'' as a reference methodology. As regards the technical and costs assumptions, we feel that COGEMA as the most important reprocessor to date has accumulated a large industrial experience allowing a better knowledge of the various costs included in the back-end operations, from spent fuel transportation handling and storage, to reprocessing and wastes conditioning. A comparative analysis of the two main options for the fuel cycle: reprocessing/recycling versus once-through, is performed on these grounds. In the economic conditions prevailing in Western Europe and in Japan, the resulting cost comparison is in favor of the reprocessing/recycling cycle. The authors conclude that economics is important as it is, is not the only criteria to be considered then assessing the back-end options: overall strategy, energy policy, environmental consideration and public acceptance are the other view-points to use to reach a sound decision in this field

  7. Multilateral approach to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in Asia-Pacific?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Eunjung

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the nearly unprecedented scale of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident which caused countries around the world to review their nuclear power systems and to rethink their nuclear power expansion plans, nuclear power capacity continues to grow, spearheaded by the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific has become a major emerging market for nuclear energy industry, which indicates that the management of spent nuclear fuel is likely to be a nuisance for the countries in this region in the coming decades. By reviewing the history of discussions on multilateral approaches to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and examining relevant empirical cases, this article aims to explore the feasibility of a multilateral approach to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in this region and provide some policy suggestions to enhance nuclear governance in the Asia-Pacific. - Highlights: • The Asia-Pacific has become a huge emerging market for nuclear power industry. • Asian-Pacific countries operating reactors lack solution for spent nuclear fuel. • Multilateral approach is attractive, but hard to be realized. • The main obstacle is variations in policies for SNF management among the Asia-Pacific countries. • The country that should take its initiative in this field is the United States.

  8. Materials reliability in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    Operating experience of nuclear fuel cycle facilities has proved that the performance and availability of key equipment largely depend on the reliability of its construction materials. In general, the materials of construction have performed well in accordance with the design criteria of equipment. In some cases, however, materials failure problems have been encountered, the causes of which are related to their corrosion and mechanical degradation. In response to the growing interest in these topics, the IAEA convened the Technical Committee Meeting on ''Materials Reliability in the Back-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle'' at its Headquarters from September 2 to 5, 1986. This Technical Document contains the 15 papers presented during the Meeting. Material aspects of the following fields of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle are covered: interim and long-term storage of spent fuel; final disposal of spent fuel; storage and vitrification of High Level Liquid Wastes (HLLW); long-term storage of High Level Wastes (HLW); and spent fuel treatment

  9. New receiving line for the remote-steering antenna of the 140 GHz CTS diagnostics in the FTU Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, O.; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Cappelli, M.; Fanale, F.; Gittini, G.; Pallotta, F.; Rocchi, G.; Tudisco, O.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    A new receiving antenna for collecting signals of the Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in FTU Tokamak has been recently installed. The squared corrugated section and the precisely defined length make it possible to receive from different directions by remotely steering the receiving mirrors. This type of Remote-Steering (RS) antennas, being studied on FTU for the DEMO Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system launch, is already installed on the W7- X stellarator and will be tested in the next campaign. The transmission of the signal from the antenna in the tokamak hall to the CTS diagnostics hall will be mainly realized by means of oversized circular corrugated waveguides carrying the hybrid HE11 (quasi-gaussian) waveguide mode, with inclusion of a special smooth-waveguide section and a short run of reduced-size square-corrugated waveguide through the tokamak bio-shield. The coupling between different waveguide types is made with ellipsoidal focusing mirrors, using quasi-optical matching formulas between the gaussian-shaped beams in input and output to the waveguides. In this work, after a complete study of feasibility of the overall line, a design for the receiving line will be proposed, in order to realize an executive layout to be used as a guideline for the commissioning phase.

  10. MTR spent fuel back-end - Cogema's long-term commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomasson, J.

    1998-01-01

    MTR spent fuel back end has been subject to many reversal and uncertainties in the past 10 years. Until the end of 1988, US obligated materials were subject to the Off site Fuels Policy (OFP). Under this policy, spent fuels were returned to USA, and were reprocessed there. This OFP took end the 31th of December 1988, and Research Reactor's operators had to implement others solutions: On site storage or Reprocessing in Europe. Meanwhile the RERTR Program was leading to a new LEU fuel to replace HEU aluminide. This new silicide fuel has one main drawback: it cannot be reprocessed in working plants without some process main line modifications. Fortunately, a new Research Reactors spent fuels return policy has been set up by the US in the early 1996. This new policy applies to all reactors converted or that have agreed to convert to LEU, and reactors operating with HEU for which no suitable LEU is available. It covers all the spent fuels discharged until 2006/05/12. But after that period of time, each reactor will be fully responsible for its spent fuels. Since the end of 1996, COGEMA is proposing reprocessing services for Aluminides spent fuels, based on the La Hague capability. This COGEMA answer is for the long term, as the La Hague plant has a good load for the coming years, including the first decade of the next century. Further, this activity benefits from a strong R and D support, that allowed fulfilling the evolutive needs of our customers, and gives us the ability to adapt the plant to the future market. Taking advantage of this flexibility, COGEMA offers Research Reactors' operators a long-term commitment. Already two reactors' operators have chosen to contract with COGEMA for the whole life of their reactors. The contracts execution is under progress and the first transportation will take place soon. Beside today's services, COGEMA is involved in R and D activities to support new fuels development enhancing present LEU performances and having the ability to

  11. Prospect of spent fuel reprocessing and back-end cycling in China in 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Youzhi; Wang Rengtao

    1987-01-01

    According to the CHinese Program of nuclear energy in 1990's, the amount of spent fuel by the year 2000 is estimated in this paper. Reprocessing is considered as an important link in the back-end fuel cycle. A pilot plant is scheduled for hot start up in 1996. The main goal of the study is LWR spent fuel reprocessing. We will use the experience gained from reprocessing of production reactor fuel and last research results. The advanced foreign technigue and experience will be introduced. The study emphasizes on the test of technology, equipments, instrumentation and automation, development of remote maintenance and decontamination. China will start to demonstrate the way for fuel cycle. (author)

  12. Indium-oxide nanoparticles for RRAM devices compatible with CMOS back-end-off-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Pérez, Edgar A. A.; Guenery, Pierre-Vincent; Abouzaid, Oumaïma; Ayadi, Khaled; Brottet, Solène; Moeyaert, Jérémy; Labau, Sébastien; Baron, Thierry; Blanchard, Nicholas; Baboux, Nicolas; Militaru, Liviu; Souifi, Abdelkader

    2018-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices based on nanoparticles in MIM structures. Our approach is based on the use of indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix using CMOS-full-compatible fabrication processes in view of back-end-off-line integration for non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. A bipolar switching behavior has been observed using current-voltage measurements (I-V) for all devices. Very high ION/IOFF ratios have been obtained up to 108. Our results provide insights for further integration of In2O3 nanoparticles-based devices for NVM applications. He is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Institute of Nanotechnologies of Lyon (INL), INSA de Lyon, France, in the Electronics Department. His current research include indium oxide nanoparticles for non-volatile memory applications, and the integrations of these devices in CMOS BEOL.

  13. An Open-Source Data Storage and Visualization Back End for Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kenneth; Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    and to interfere with the experiment if needed. The data stored consist both of specific measurements and of continuously logged system parameters. The latter is crucial to a variety of automation and surveillance features, and three cases of such features are described: monitoring system health, getting status......In this article, a flexible free and open-source software system for data logging and presentation will be described. The system is highly modular and adaptable and can be used in any laboratory in which continuous and/or ad hoc measurements require centralized storage. A presentation component...... for the data back end has furthermore been written that enables live visualization of data on any device capable of displaying Web pages. The system consists of three parts: data-logging clients, a data server, and a data presentation Web site. The logging of data from independent clients leads to high...

  14. A new challenges in international cooperation. Via interdisciplinary approach towards safe nuclear industry back-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, Andrejs

    2011-01-01

    Development of multinational radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel repositories requires safe nuclear industry back-end. We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting shared multinational repositories, based on self-organization, chaos and fuzziness concepts. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stakeholder - the national stakeholder, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in the environment, being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. There is deduced: a) building of international stakeholder consensus could be promoted by activating the international scale multilateral interactions between intra- and international stakeholders, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements - the result of dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies, and c) knowledge, mental flexibility and systems thinking - basic prerogatives for elevating the level of mutual understanding and consensus. (author)

  15. The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle: Technical and economic analysis-Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans-Ribas, J.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle has been analyzed under current conditions in the United States, including the constraints imposed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and its amendments. The scenarios for two closed cycles, a regular reprocessing cycle and a reprocessing scheme with cesium and strontium fractionation, are described. The storage of spent fuel discharged from the reactors and the disposal of reprocessed waste are studied for both reprocessing cycles. The economics of waste storage and disposal for the two closed cycles are compared with each other and with the reference once-through cycle. The results show that a standard reprocessing cycle results in the minimum cost for storage and disposal. When reporcessing costs are considered, the closed cycles can compete economically with the once-through cycle only if net reprocessing costs are very low

  16. Lanthanide - actinide separation: a challenge in the back end of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their similar size and chemical state, separation of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions has always been a challenging topic of research. Of late, the growing concern for the radioactive waste management in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle has led to the possibility of transmuting the long-lived transuranides in high flux reactors. This necessitates the development of processes for the separation of lanthanides and actinides in acidic/low pH media. In view of the high absorption cross section of few lanthanides, their presence in relatively large proportion (10-100 times) impedes the transmutation process. Processes such as the TRAMEX and TALSPEAK have been used for the separation of lanthanides from trivalent actinides. Of late soft donor ligands containing S and N donor atoms have been used for the selective extraction of trivalent actinide ions. The commercially available S-donor compound, CYANEX 301 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid) has been used to yield separation factor (S.F.) values in the excess of 6000. Synergistic extraction with N-donor ligands such as 2,2'-bipyridyl and 1,10-phenanthroline have yielded S.F. values close to 40,000. N-donor ligands such as BTP (bis-triazinylpyridine), BTBP (bis-triazinylbipyridyl) and BTPhen (bis-triazinyl-phenanthroline) have been particularly effective from relatively acidic feed conditions. The present lecture will give a brief outline of the separation processes and experimental results of studies carried out using various S and N donor ligands. Use of room temperature ionic liquids for more favorable separations will be highlighted. Liquid membrane separation results for application to back end nuclear fuel cycle will also be discussed. (author)

  17. Design of ultralow power receiver front-ends for 2.4 GHz wireless sensor network applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meng; Li Zhiqun; Wang Zengqi; Wu Chenjian; Chen Liang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an ultralow power receiver front-end designed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The author designs two front-ends working in the saturation region and the subthreshold region respectively. The front-ends contain a two-stage cross-coupling cascaded common-gate (CG) LNA and a quadrature Gilbert IQ mixer. The measured conversion gain is variable with high gain at 24 dB and low gain at 7 dB for the saturation one, and high gain at 22 dB and low gain at 5 dB for the subthreshold one. The noise figure (NF) at high gain mode is 5.1 dB and 6.3 dB for each. The input 1 dB compression point (IP1dB) at low gain mode is about −6 dBm and −3 dBm for each. The front-ends consume about 2.1 mA current from 1.8 V power supply for the saturation one and 1.3 mA current for the subthreshold one. The measured results show that, comparing with the power consumption saving, it is worth making sacrifices on the performance for using the subthreshold technology. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. OECD/NEA study on economics of the Back-end of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhov, Alexey; Urso, Maria Elena; Cameron, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Recommendations: 1. While there may be reasons to extend the interim storage of SNF, these should not prevent governments from maintaining vigorous efforts towards the establishment of deep geological repositories, thereby addressing legitimate public expectations and fulfilling the “intergenerational equity” principle. 2. Public involvement in the establishment and implementation of the SNF management strategy is considered vital: mechanisms to improve stakeholder participation and transparency should be a high priority. 3. Governments should continue to be vigilant in ensuring that the funding systems adopted are stable and robust and that financial resources accrued by waste producers for the management of their waste will be adequate and available at the time they are needed. The following features are considered essential: – Regular and frequent reviews to allow for newly accrued knowledge on technical aspects and actual fund developments, as well as other qualitative factors (e.g. sociopolitical), to be taken into account, and, importantly, for emerging shortfalls to be swiftly addressed through the necessary corrective actions. – Ring-fencing of funds to ensure that resources are only used for the intended purposes. 4. For countries that are committed to ongoing use or development of nuclear energy, comparisons of the costs of different strategies for managing the back end should be drawn on the basis of the full fuel cycle cost. For countries which are phasing out or have already exited nuclear power, a direct back-end cost comparison may be more appropriate. In any case, assessments made for total or partial FC cost comparisons should be transparent about the assumptions made and the scope of the analysis. 5. In any decision-making process regarding the choice of SNF management strategy, a multicriteria approach should be adopted at the national level that expands the quantitative economic considerations to include qualitative factors. These can

  19. Contributions to the back-end software sub-system of the ATLAS data acquisition of event filter prototype -1 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, E.; Caprini, M.; Niculescu, M.; Radu, A.

    1998-01-01

    A project has been approved by the ATLAS Collaboration for the design and implementation of a Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Event Filter (EF) prototype, based on the functional architecture described in the ATLAS Technical Proposal. The prototype consists of a full 'vertical' slice of the ATLAS Data Acquisition and Event Filter architecture and can be seen as made of 4 sub-systems: the Detector Interface, the Dataflow, the Back-end DAQ and the Event Filter. The Bucharest group is member of DAQ/EF collaboration and during 1997 was involved in the Back-end activities. The back-end software encompasses the software for configuring, controlling and monitoring the DAQ but specifically excludes the management, processing or transportation of physics data. The user requirements gathered for the back-end sub-system have been divided into groups related to activities providing similar functionality. The groups have been further developed into components of the Back-end with a well defined purpose and boundaries. Each component offers some unique functionality and has its own architecture. The actual Back-end component model includes 5 core components (run control, configuration databases, message reporting system, process manager and information service) and 6 detector integration components (partition and resource manager, status display, run bookkeeper, event dump, test manager and diagnostic package). The Bucharest group participated to the high level design, implementation and testing of three components (information service, message reporting system and status display). The Information Service (IS) provides an information exchange facility for software components of the DAQ. Information (defined by the supplier) from many sources can be categorized and made available to requesting applications asynchronously or on demand. The design of the information service followed an object oriented approach. It is a multiple server configuration in which servers are dedicated to

  20. An integrated approach to the back-end of the fusion materials cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Kolbasov, B.; Massaut, V.; Pampin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Within the frame of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Co-operative Program on the Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power, an international collaborative study on fusion radioactive waste has been initiated to examine the back-end of the fusion materials cycle as an important stage in maximising the environmental benefits of fusion. The study addresses the management procedures for active materials following the change out of replaceable components and decommissioning of fusion facilities. Numerous differences exist between fission and fusion in terms of activated material type, quantity, activity levels, half-life, radiotoxicity, etc. For fusion, it is important to clearly define the parameters that govern the back-end of the materials cycle. A fusion-specific, unique approach is necessary and needs to be developed. Recycling of materials and clearance (i.e. declassification to non-radioactive material) are the two recommended options for reducing the amount of fusion waste, while disposal as low-level waste (LLW) could be an alternative route for specific materials and components. Both recycling and clearance criteria have been recently revised by national and international institutions. These revisions and their consequences are examined here with applications to selected studies: - Recycling: the important radioactive quantities to be limited are contact dose rate, decay heat, and radioactivity concentration. Handling (hands-on, simple shielded, and remote handling approaches), routing related questions (recycling outside the nuclear industry, recycling in nuclear-specific foundries, other possible recycling scenarios without melting), and other issues (C-14, material impurities) are examined. - Clearance: a definition of a list of nuclides relevant to fusion is made with a proposal of a scenario and a simplified procedure for calculation of a set of fusion-specific clearance limits. - Disposal: a proposal of a generalized definition of

  1. Improvement in Product Development: Use of back-end data to support upstream efforts of Robust Design Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanajah Siva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area of Robust Design Methodology (RDM less is done on how to use and work with data from the back-end of the product development process to support upstream improvement. The purpose of this paper is to suggest RDM practices for the use of customer claims data in early design phases as a basis for improvements. The back-end data, when systematically analyzed and fed back into the product development process, aids in closing the product development loop from claims to improvement in the design phase. This is proposed through a flow of claims data analysis tied to an existing tool, namely Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA. The systematic and integrated analysis of back-end data is suggested as an upstream effort of RDM to increase understanding of noise factors during product usage based on the feedback of claims data to FMEA and to address continuous improvement in product development.

  2. Performance and scalability of the back-end sub-system in the ATLAS DAQ/EF prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, I N; Badescu, E; Burckhart, Doris; Caprini, M; Cohen, L; Duval, P Y; Hart, R; Jones, R; Kazarov, A; Kolos, S; Kotov, V; Laugier, D; Mapelli, Livio P; Moneta, L; Qian, Z; Radu, A A; Ribeiro, C A; Roumiantsev, V; Ryabov, Yu; Schweiger, D; Soloviev, I V

    2000-01-01

    The DAQ group of the future ATLAS experiment has developed a prototype system based on the trigger/DAQ architecture described in the ATLAS Technical Proposal to support studies of the full system functionality, architecture as well as available hardware and software technologies. One sub-system of this prototype is the back- end which encompasses the software needed to configure, control and monitor the DAQ, but excludes the processing and transportation of physics data. The back-end consists of a number of components including run control, configuration databases and message reporting system. The software has been developed using standard, external software technologies such as OO databases and CORBA. It has been ported to several C++ compilers and operating systems including Solaris, Linux, WNT and LynxOS. This paper gives an overview of the back-end software, its performance, scalability and current status. (17 refs).

  3. The back-end management of fissile material at SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Massaut, V.; Braeckeveldt, M.

    1999-01-01

    The back-end management of fissile materials at SCK-CEN mainly concerns the HEU spent fuel of the BR2 (MTR) and the LEU and MOX spent fuel of the BR3, the first PWR installed in Western Europe and in decommissioning since 1987. It also concerns the experimental fuels tested in the SCK-CEN facilities. Furthermore as a result of its R and D programs in reprocessing and characterisation of spent fuel, considerable amounts of fissile materials in all kinds of forms and characteristics are stored in the different laboratories. For these, six main types of fissile materials are identified: highly enriched uranium, experimental spent fuel from the fast breeder programmes, MOX fuel, low enriched fuel, natural uranium and lab fissile materials. For the BR2 and BR3 spent fuel, various options, i.e. reprocessing, dry storage in casks and dry storage in canisters were evaluated against criteria, e.g. available techniques, safety, waste production, overall costs and policies. As a result of these studies, it was decided to opt in the case of the HEU from the BR2 reactor for the reprocessing without recovery of uranium while for the LEU and MOX fuel from the BR3 reactor, the dry storage in containers was chosen. For the others, the studies are still in progress. (author)

  4. Probalistisk short-term risk modeling for back-end fuel cycle and waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellbert, N.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study of probabilistic short-term risk modeling of back-end fuel cycle and waste management facilities represents the continuation of work started in 1977. The purpose of the report is to present a more detailed survey of models and analysis techniques that mey be applicable. The definition of the risk concept and the nature of the facilities and events which are to be analyzed are described. The most important criteria are that the model or method shall be quantitative, logically/scientifically based, and be able to handle systems of some complexity. Several formalized analysis methods are described, most of them emanating from reliability theory. No single model will fulfill all criteria simultaneously, to the degree desired. Nevertheless, fault tree analysis seems to be an efficient tool in many applications, although it must probably be used together with other models in most cases. Other methodologies described can also be useful, such as failure modes and effects analysis, renewal theory and Markov chains, reliability block diagrams, event trees and cause/consequence diagrams, the GO methodology, Monte Carlo simulation, and, often necessary, various consequence modeling techniques. (author)

  5. Modified ADS molten salt processes for back-end fuel cycle of PWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Kyu; Yeon, Jei-Won; Kim, Won-Ho

    2002-01-01

    The back-end fuel cycle concept for PWR spent fuel is explained. This concept is adequate for Korea, which has operated both PWR and CANDU reactors. Molten salt processes for accelerator driven system (ADS) were modified both for the transmutation of long-lived radioisotopes and for the utilisation of the remained fissile uranium in PWR spent fuels. Prior to applying molten salt processes to PWR fuel, hydrofluorination and fluorination processes are applied to obtain uranium hexafluoride from the spent fuel pellet. It is converted to uranium dioxide and fabricated into CANDU fuel. From the remained fluoride compounds, transuranium elements can be separated by the molten salt technology such as electrowinning and reductive extraction processes for transmutation purpose without weakening the proliferation resistance of molten salt technology. The proposed fuel cycle concept using fluorination processes is thought to be adequate for our nuclear program and can replace DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactor) fuel cycle. Each process for the proposed fuel cycle concept was evaluated in detail

  6. Consensus on the back end of the fuel cycle urgently needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W.

    1996-01-01

    The lack of harmonization among the fields of environmental policy, energy policy, and economic policy in Germany is obvious. Returning to a basic consensus in energy policy, with an unbiased evaluation of all energy resources, is an indispensable step for all those to whom ecology is a truly serious concept. The positions of all energy resources must be assessed with a view to national and international developments. No source of primary energy must be excluded from that review. Nuclear power remains one of the important options in the energy mix especially from the points of view of CO 2 avoidance and preventive protection of the climate. A leading industrialized nation, such as the Federal Republic of Germany, ought to be able, in the more and more important discussion about globally sustainable development, to return to a consensus across all political parties at least about the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Or should the philosopher, Sir Karl Popper, finally be proven right in his statement that those wanting to establish a paradise on earth must be careful not to create hell? (orig.) [de

  7. System aspects on safeguards for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzell, Anni (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    This thesis has investigated system aspects of safeguarding the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. These aspects include the important notion of continuity of knowledge, the philosophy of verifying measurements and the need to consider the safeguards system as a whole when expanding it to include the encapsulation facility and the geological repository. The research has been analytical in method both in the identification of concrete challenges for the safeguards community in Paper 1, and in the diversion path analysis performed in Paper 2. This method of work is beneficial for example when abstract notions are treated. However, as a suggestion for further work along these lines, a formal systems analysis would be advantageous, and may even reveal properties of the safeguards system that the human mind so far has been to narrow to consider. A systems analysis could be used to model a proposed safeguards approach with the purpose of finding vulnerabilities in its detection probabilities. From the results, capabilities needed to overcome these vulnerabilities could be deduced, thereby formulating formal boundary conditions. These could include: The necessary partial defect level for the NDA measurement; The level of redundancy required in the C/S system to minimize the risk of inconclusive results due to equipment failure; and, Requirements on the capabilities of seismic methods, etc. The field of vulnerability assessment as a tool for systems analysis should be of interest for the safeguards community, as a formal approach could give a new dimension to the credibility of safeguards systems

  8. System aspects on safeguards for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzell, Anni

    2008-03-01

    This thesis has investigated system aspects of safeguarding the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. These aspects include the important notion of continuity of knowledge, the philosophy of verifying measurements and the need to consider the safeguards system as a whole when expanding it to include the encapsulation facility and the geological repository. The research has been analytical in method both in the identification of concrete challenges for the safeguards community in Paper 1, and in the diversion path analysis performed in Paper 2. This method of work is beneficial for example when abstract notions are treated. However, as a suggestion for further work along these lines, a formal systems analysis would be advantageous, and may even reveal properties of the safeguards system that the human mind so far has been to narrow to consider. A systems analysis could be used to model a proposed safeguards approach with the purpose of finding vulnerabilities in its detection probabilities. From the results, capabilities needed to overcome these vulnerabilities could be deduced, thereby formulating formal boundary conditions. These could include: The necessary partial defect level for the NDA measurement; The level of redundancy required in the C/S system to minimize the risk of inconclusive results due to equipment failure; and, Requirements on the capabilities of seismic methods, etc. The field of vulnerability assessment as a tool for systems analysis should be of interest for the safeguards community, as a formal approach could give a new dimension to the credibility of safeguards systems

  9. R and D for back-end options for irradiated research reactor fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecher, H.; Curtius, H.; Fachinger, J.

    2001-01-01

    Out of 11.5 t of irradiated fuel arising from German research reactors until the end of this decade, 3.9 t are intended to be returned to the USA, and 2.3 t are expected to be recycled for reuse of uranium. The remaining 5.3 t, as well as the fuel irradiated after the year 2010, will have to follow the domestic back-end option of extended dry interim storage in Castor-type casks, followed by disposal in a deep geological repository. R and D is going on in the Research Centre Juelich to investigate the long-term behaviour of U-Al based fuel in a salt repository. First results from leaching experiments show I) a fast dissolution of the fuel with mobilization of its radionuclide inventory, and 2) the following formation of amorphous Al-Mg-hydroxide phases. Long-lived actinides from the fuel were shown to be fixed in these phases and hence immobilized. Future R and D will be to investigate the nature and stability of these phases for long-term safety assessments. Investigations will have to be extended to cover alternative disposal sites (granite clay) as well as different (e.g. silicon based) fuels. (author)

  10. Engineered safeguards system activities at Sandia Laboratories for back-end fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, T.A.; Fienning, W.C.; Winblad, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories have been developing concepts for safeguards systems to protect facilities in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle against potential threats of sabotage and theft of special nuclear material (SNM). Conceptual designs for Engineered Safeguards Systems (ESSs) have been developed for a Fuel Reprocessing Facility (including chemical separations, plutonium conversion, and waste solidification), a Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility, and a Plutonium Transport Vehicle. Performance criteria for the various elements of these systems and a candidate systematic design approach have been defined. In addition, a conceptual layout for a large-scale Fuel-Cycle Plutonium Storage Facility has been completed. Work is continuing to develop safeguards systems for spent fuel facilities, light-water reactors, alternative fuel cycles, and improved transportation systems. Additional emphasis will be placed on the problems associated with national diversion of special nuclear material. The impact on safeguards element performance criteria for surveillance and containment to protect against national diversion in various alternative fuel cycle complexes is also being investigated

  11. Radiation exposure control in back end of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel Reprocessing Plant and Waste Immobilization Plant for management of high level liquid waste, generated during reprocessing, form part of the back end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Both the plants handle annually several million curie of fission products in easily dispersible form. There is potential for significant external exposure and internal contamination to plant workers during plant operations, associated maintenance works and also during outages for carrying out repairs/modifications inside cells where process equipment handling/storing radioactive materials are installed. In view of handling of fissile material (Pu) in a reprocessing plant, special attention has to be paid to ensure that a condition for self sustaining nuclear fission chain reaction (criticality) does not arise even under foreseeable maloperation conditions. The reprocessing plant and Waste Immobilization plant have several engineered safety features such as shielding, ventilation, containment, remote operation etc. These features aim at reducing exposure to plant personnel and keeping the release of radioactive materials to environment below the limits specified in Technical Specifications of the plant. Execution of a comprehensive radiological surveillance programme which includes area monitoring, personal monitoring, effluent monitoring and investigative surveys in connection with safety related unusual occurrences, plays very important role in ensuring radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment. This together with training in radiation safety to plant workers helps reduce 'radiation phobia' in some workers. The paper describes radiological safety considerations and radiological surveillance programme (giving specific examples where required) that is being implemented in reprocessing plants and Waste Immobilization Plants in India. (author)

  12. New Persistent Back-End for the ATLAS Online Information Service

    CERN Document Server

    Soloviev, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) and detector systems of the ATLAS experiment deploy more than 3000 computers, running more than 15000 concurrent processes, to perform the selection, recording and monitoring of the proton collisions data in ATLAS. Most of these processes produce and share operational monitoring data used for inter-process communication and analysis of the systems. Few of these data are archived by dedicated applications into conditions and histogram databases. The rest of the data remained transient and lost at the end of a data taking session. To save these data for later, offline analysis of the quality of data taking and to help investigating the behavior of the system by experts, the first prototype of a new Persistent Back-End for the Atlas Information System of TDAQ (P-BEAST) was developed and deployed in the second half of 2012. The modern, distributed, and Java-based Cassandra database has been used as the storage technology and the CERN EOS for long-term storage. This paper pr...

  13. SMART instruments for radiological surveillance at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, K.A.; Jauhri, G.S.; Ganesh, G.; Kulkarni, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The back end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle mainly consists of Fuel Reprocessing Plant and Waste Management Plant for treatment of different types of wastes generated during processing of spent fuel. A fuel reprocessing plant handles annually several million curies of fission product activity and few hundred kg of plutonium. A Waste Management Facility associated with a reprocessing plant also handles several million curies of fission product activity. In both the plants several types of radiological measurements have to be carried out to ensure that the individual doses are well below regulatory limits and release of radioactivity to environment (through stack and through liquid effluent) is below the limit stipulated in technical specifications of the plant. The measurements comprise individual external dose, measurement of radiation level in different areas of the plant, assessment of air-borne activity due to plutonium and fission products in different areas of the plant, radioactivity release to environment through liquid effluents and through stack. In order to carry out the above mentioned measurements large number of different types of instruments are required. The existing instruments are analog instruments. These instruments have served well. However they have certain limitations with respect to flexibility and extra functionality. In this respect the 'SMART' instruments have distinct advantages. The advantages, that are offered by the 'SMART' instrument in making the radiological surveillance programme more effective, are brought out in the paper. (author)

  14. Versatile Stimulation Back-End With Programmable Exponential Current Pulse Shapes for a Retinal Visual Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mohammad Hossein; Sodagar, Amir M; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on the design, implementation, and test of a stimulation back-end, for an implantable retinal prosthesis. In addition to traditional rectangular pulse shapes, the circuit features biphasic stimulation pulses with both rising and falling exponential shapes, whose time constants are digitally programmable. A class-B second generation current conveyor is used as a wide-swing, high-output-resistance stimulation current driver, delivering stimulation current pulses of up to ±96 μA to the target tissue. Duration of the generated current pulses is programmable within the range of 100 μs to 3 ms. Current-mode digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are used to program the amplitudes of the stimulation pulses. Fabricated using the IBM 130 nm process, the circuit consumes 1.5×1.5 mm 2 of silicon area. According to the measurements, the DACs exhibit DNL and INL of 0.23 LSB and 0.364 LSB, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the stimuli generator meets expected requirements when connected to electrode-tissue impedance of as high as 25 k Ω. Maximum power consumption of the proposed design is 3.4 mW when delivering biphasic rectangular pulses to the target load. A charge pump block is in charge of the upconversion of the standard 1.2-V supply voltage to ±3.3V.

  15. Improving RF Transmit Power and Received Signal Strength in 2.4 GHz ZigBee Based Active RFID System with Embedded Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'ad, F. A.; Ismail, W.; Jusoh, J. F.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the experiments and analysis conducted on 2.4 GHz embedded active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) - Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based system that has been developed for the purposes of location tracking and monitoring in indoor and outdoor environments. Several experiments are conducted to test the effectiveness and performance of the developed system and two of them is by measuring the Radio Frequency (RF) transmitting power and Received Signal Strength (RSS) to prove that the embedded active RFID tag is capable to generate higher transmit power during data transmission and able to provide better RSS reading compared to standalone RFID tag. Experiments are carried out on two RFID tags which are active RFID tag embedded with GPS and GSM (ER2G); and standalone RFID tag communicating with the same active RFID reader. The developed ER2G contributes 12.26 % transmit power and 6.47 % RSS reading higher than standalone RFID tag. The results conclude that the ER2G gives better performance compared to standalone RFID tag and can be used as guidelines for future design improvements.

  16. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. 63.500 Section 63.500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  17. The economics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Ron; Urso, Maria Elena; Lokhov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste from the fuel cycle of commercial nuclear power plants represent a small proportion of the radioactive waste produced globally by various industries (including medicine, agriculture and research), but they account for the greatest radioactivity content and longevity. While technologies are well developed and widely employed for the treatment and disposal of the much larger volumes of less radioactive low-level and short-lived intermediate-level waste, no final disposal facilities have yet been fully implemented for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). A lack of experience in the construction and operation of deep geological repositories, combined with the extensive periods required for the implementation of back-end solutions, have thus contributed to growing uncertainties about the costs associated with managing SNF and HLW. The issue has become a central challenge for the nuclear industry and a matter of public concern and debate. Using official data supplied by national authorities, a descriptive overview [1] was developed of general principles and frameworks for the long-term management of SNF, current national policies and practices, as well as available and prospective technology options, including: - Direct disposal, where the fuel is used once and then regarded as waste for disposal. - Partial recycling, where the spent fuel is reprocessed to recover unused uranium and plutonium for recycling in light water reactors (LWRs). Once irradiated, the recycled fuel bundles can be either stored (with the perspective of their reprocessing and recycling in future fast reactors - FRs) or disposed of after encapsulation. - Advanced systems and fuel cycle concepts for the longer-term future, studied theoretically or on a pilot scale, with the dual objective of reducing the mass and radioactivity of waste destined to final disposal and optimising the use of natural resources. In addition, a cost analysis of these

  18. The MicroTCA acquisition and processing back-end for FERMI-Elettra diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, A.O.; Monte, R. de; Pavlovic, L.; Predonzani, M.; Rossi, F.; Gaio, G.; Ferianis, M.

    2012-01-01

    During the construction and commissioning of the FERMI-Elettra Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility, tight requirements for diagnostics readout, processing, and control electronics had been specified; together with a complete integration in the main machine control system. Among the diagnostics devices to be controlled, the Bunch Arrival Monitors (BAM) and the Cavity Beam Position Monitors (C-BPM). The back-end platform, based on the MicroTCA (or uTCA) standard, provides a robust environment for accommodating such electronics, including reliable infrastructure features for slow control and monitoring of the electronics inside the crates. Two types of Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMC) had been conceived, developed and manufactured in order to meet the demanding requisites. The first is a fast (160 MSps) and high-resolution (16 bits) Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog (A-D-A) Convert Board, hosting two A-D and two D-A converters controlled by an FPGA. The onboard logic is also responsible for service and host interface handling. The latter board is an Analog to Digital Only (A-DO) Converter, derived from the A-D-A, with an analog front side stage made of four A-D converters. Timing synthesis and distribution from a MicroTCA Central Hub (MCH) slot can be provided by means of a custom MicroTCA Timing Central Hub (MiTiCH), specifically designed for accurate (sub ps range) timing distribution over uTCA back-planes. The overall systems' architectures, together with the AMCs and MCH concept and functionalities, are described hereafter. A summary of the achievements, for each specific use case, together with our experience in the field with the new architecture, are then summarized. (authors)

  19. Status of the back-end optional advanced research reactor fuel development in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Yoon-Sang; Lee, Don-Bae; Oh, Seuk-Jin; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Chae, Hee-Taek; Park, Jong-Man; Sohn Dong-Seong

    2003-01-01

    U-Mo fuel development has been carried out for a reactor upgrade of HANARO and the back-end option in Korea. The 2nd irradiation test of the U-Mo dispersion rod fuels is underway in HANARO in order to find the optimum uranium loading density and to investigate the applicability of the monolithic U-Mo ring fuel as well as other parameters such as particle size and cladding surface-treatment. The optical observation using an immersion camera showed that the cladding surfaces of the two U 3 Si and U-Mo fuels with a high power rate changed in to the darker color, which is not as severe as those of the driving fuels in HANARO. Presumably it would be acceptable. The other fuels were observed as maintaining their initial good conditions. In connection with monolithic U-Mo fuel development, some achievements such as preliminary U-Mo tube production by a continuous casting process and a successful U-Mo foil production using a roll casting process have been obtained. In addition, some investigation on the surface-treatment of multilayer coating and Zr sputtering coating has showed the possibility of eliminating the problem of a temperature rise due to the corrosion layer formation having quite a low conductivity. The next irradiation test will aim mainly at the qualification of the U-Mo dispersion fuel for HANARO around the end of next year. In the 3rd irradiation fuel bundle, some fuels related to the basic investigation tests for the monolithic U-Mo fuel and surface-treatment for anticorrosion will be loaded. (author)

  20. Back-end fuel cycle efficiencies with respect to improved uranium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Hennies, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    The world-wide nuclear power plant (NPP) capacity is at present 160 GW(e). If one adds the power stations under construction and ordered, a plant capacity of approximately 480 GW(e) is obtained for 1990, with the share of LWRs making up more than 80%. A modern LWR consumes in the open fuel cycle about 4400 metric tonnes of natural uranium per GW(e), assuming a lifetime of 30 years and a load factor of 70%. Considering the natural uranium reserves known at present and exploitable under economic conditions, it can be conveniently estimated that, with the present NPP capacity extension perspective, the natural uranium resources may be exhausted in a few decades. This trend can be counteracted in a flexible manner by various approaches in fuel cycle technology and strategy: (i) by steady further development of the established LWR technology the uranium consumption can be reduced by about 15%; (ii) closing the nuclear fuel cycle on the basis of LWRs (i.e. thermal uranium and plutonium recycling) implies up to 40% savings in natural uranium consumption; (iii) more recent considerations include the advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR). The APWR combines the proven PWR technology with a newly developed tight lattice core with greatly improved conversion characteristics (conversion ratio = 0.90 to 0.95). In terms of uranium utilization, the APWR has an efficiency three to five times higher than a PWR; (iv) Commercial introduction of FBR systems results in an optimal utilization of uranium which, at the same time, guarantees the supply of nuclear fuel well beyond the present century. For a corresponding transition period an energy supply system can be conceived which relies essentially on extended back-end fuel cycle capacities. These would facilitate a symbiosis of PWR, APWR and FBR, characterized by high flexibility with respect to long-term developments on the energy market. (author)

  1. Consensus on the back end of the fuel cycle urgently needed; Entsorgungskonsens dringend geboten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassburg, W. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany). Zentralbereich Ausland - Politikanalysen

    1996-05-01

    The lack of harmonization among the fields of environmental policy, energy policy, and economic policy in Germany is obvious. Returning to a basic consensus in energy policy, with an unbiased evaluation of all energy resources, is an indispensable step for all those to whom ecology is a truly serious concept. The positions of all energy resources must be assessed with a view to national and international developments. No source of primary energy must be excluded from that review. Nuclear power remains one of the important options in the energy mix especially from the points of view of CO{sub 2} avoidance and preventive protection of the climate. A leading industrialized nation, such as the Federal Republic of Germany, ought to be able, in the more and more important discussion about globally sustainable development, to return to a consensus across all political parties at least about the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Or should the philosopher, Sir Karl Popper, finally be proven right in his statement that those wanting to establish a paradise on earth must be careful not to create hell? (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Abstimmungsmangel zwischen Umwelt-, Energie- und Wirtschaftspolitik in Deutschland ist unuebersehbar. Die Rueckkehr zum energiepolitischen Grundkonsens mit einer vorurteilsfreien Bewertung aller Energietraeger ist fuer solche, die es mit der Oekologie wirklich ernst meinen, unverzichtbar. Der Stellenwert aller Energietraeger muss im Hinblick auf nationale und internationale Entwicklungen ueberdacht werden; eine Tabuisierung einzelner Primaerenergietraeger darf es nicht geben. Insbesondere unter dem Aspekt der CO{sub 2}-Vermeidung und des vorsorgenden Klimaschutzes ist und bleibt die Kernenergie eine bedeutende Option im Energie-Mix. Im Rahmen der allgemein an Bedeutung gewinnenden Diskussion ueber eine global nachhaltige Entwicklung sollte es einer fuehrenden Industrienation wie der Bundesrepublik Deutschland eigentlich gelingen, zumindest hinsichtlich

  2. Factors determining the UK's back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.; Ainsworth, Z.E.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear generating capacity in the UK is static with no units currently under construction. The AGRs and the UK's only PWR, Sizewell B, are operated by British Energy Generation Ltd (BEGL) and British Energy Generation (UK) Ltd (BEG(UK)L), who are subsidiaries of British Energy plc (BE) which was privatised in July 1996. Ownership of the Magnox stations, which were excluded from this privatisation, has now been transferred to BNFL.Government policy on spent fuel management in the UK is that it is for the owners of the spent fuel to decide on the appropriate spent fuel management options, based on their own commercial judgement, subject to meeting the necessary regulatory requirements. The main factors which have predominantly determined UK utility decisions on spent fuel management, to date, have been based on the technical considerations of the spent fuel characteristics, economic attractiveness of the options and at reactor site spent fuel storage capacities. To date, reprocessing has been the dominant form of spent fuel treatment in the UK. Spent fuel storage facilities consist of a mixture of at-reactor stores and large, centralised ponds associated with the reprocessing activities which take place at the Sellafield site. BEGL and BEG(UK)L have contracts for the lifetime arisings of AGR fuel which allow for all AGR spent fuel to be sent to Sellafield for reprocessing or long-term storage. The prompt reprocessing of all Magnox fuel will continue, and spent PWR fuel will continue to be stored at the reactor site in the short to medium term. It is likely that a combination of factors, which are discussed later in this paper, will continue to affect back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems. (author)

  3. Back End of Line Nanorelays for Ultra-low Power Monolithic Integrated NEMS-CMOS Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Lechuga Aranda, Jesus Javier

    2016-05-01

    Since the introduction of Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, the chip industry has enjoyed many benefits of transistor feature size scaling, including higher speed and device density and improved energy efficiency. However, in the recent years, the IC designers have encountered a few roadblocks, namely reaching the physical limits of scaling and also increased device leakage which has resulted in a slow-down of supply voltage and power density scaling. Therefore, there has been an extensive hunt for alternative circuit architectures and switching devices that can alleviate or eliminate the current crisis in the semiconductor industry. The Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) relay is a promising alternative switch that offers zero leakage and abrupt turn-on behaviour. Even though these devices are intrinsically slower than CMOS transistors, new circuit design techniques tailored for the electromechanical properties of such devices can be leveraged to design medium performance, ultra-low power integrated circuits. In this thesis, we deal with a new generation of such devices that is built in the back end of line (BEOL) CMOS process and is an ideal option for full integration with current CMOS transistor technology. Simulation and verification at the circuit and system level is a critical step in the design flow of microelectronic circuits, and this is especially important for new technologies that lack the standard design infrastructure and well-known verification platforms. Although most of the physical and electrical properties of NEM structures can be simulated using standard electronic automation software, there is no report of a reliable behavioural model for NEMS switches that enable large circuit simulations. In this work, we present an optimised model of a BEOL nano relay that encompasses all the electromechanical characteristics of the device and is robust and lightweight enough for VLSI applications that require simulation of thousands of

  4. Quantification of Back-End Nuclear Fuel Cycle Metrics Uncertainties Due to Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy E. Stover Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This work examines uncertainties in the back end fuel cycle metrics of isotopic composition, decay heat, radioactivity, and radiotoxicity. Most advanced fuel cycle scenarios, including the ones represented in this work, are limited by one or more of these metrics, so that quantification of them becomes of great importance in order to optimize or select one of these scenarios. Uncertainty quantification, in this work, is performed by propagating cross-section covariance data, and later number density covariance data, through a reactor physics and depletion code sequence. Propagation of uncertainty is performed primarily via the Efficient Subspace Method (ESM). ESM decomposes the covariance data into singular pairs and perturbs input data along independent directions of the uncertainty and only for the most significant values of that uncertainty. Results of these perturbations being collected, ESM directly calculates the covariance of the observed output posteriori. By exploiting the rank deficient nature of the uncertainty data, ESM works more efficiently than traditional stochastic sampling, but is shown to produce equivalent results. ESM is beneficial for very detailed models with large amounts of input data that make stochastic sampling impractical. In this study various fuel cycle scenarios are examined. Simplified, representative models of pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels composed of both uranium oxide and mixed oxides are examined. These simple models are intended to give a representation of the uncertainty that can be associated with open uranium oxide fuel cycles and closed mixed oxide fuel cycles. The simplified models also serve as a demonstration to show that ESM and stochastic sampling produce equivalent results, because these models require minimum computer resources and have amounts of input data small enough such that either method can be quickly implemented and a numerical experiment performed. The simplified

  5. MOX fuel use as a back-end option: Trends, main issues and impacts on fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Choi, J.-S.; Shani, R.; Durpel, L. van den; Bertel, E.; Sartori, E.

    2000-01-01

    In the past decades while the FBIULWR fuel cycle concept was zealously being developed, MOX-fuel use in thermal reactors was taken as an alternative back-end policy option. However, the plutonium recycling with LWRs has evolved to industrial level, gaining high maturity through the incubative period while FBR deployment was envisaged. Today, MOX-fuel use in LWRs makes integral part of the fuel cycle for those countries relying on the recycling policy. Developments to improve the fuel cycle performance, including the minimisation of remaining wastes, and the reactor engineering aspects owing to MOX-fuel use, are continued. This paper jointly presented by IAEA and OECD/NEA brings an integrated overview on MOX use as a back-end policy, covering MOX fuel utilisation, fuel performance and technology, economics, licensing, MOX fuel trends in the coming decades. (author)

  6. Risk assessment for truck-transport assuming different concepts of the back-end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, A.; Sonnenschein, R.; Haeusler, S.

    1983-01-01

    The different concepts of the back-end of the fuel cycle existing in the Federal Republic of Germany require that various types of radioactive materials will be transported along different pathways, for various distances and at different frequencies, thus resulting in different risks to the public. In one part of the second phase of the R + D program Projekt Sicherheitsstudien Entsorgung (PSE), the risk during normal and accident conditions will be assessed for each of the concepts of the back-end of the fuel cycle. Within this part of the safety analysis, DORNIER SYSTEM will determine the risks resulting from the transport of radioactive materials by truck, using the probabilistic method of fault tree analysis. This part of the investigation will extend until the end of 1983. 4 references, 5 tables

  7. Principles of provision concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants find application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Ministry of the Interior has asked the Laender on the 14th June 1977, to apply forthwith the 'principles of provision concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants' as a minimum pre-condition for waste management in licensing procedures for nuclear power stations. The 'principles' were part of a report, elaborated by a Bund/Laender working group at a undersecretary-of-state level on questions concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants. The report was favourably acknowledged during a meeting of the Federal Chancellor and the Minister-Presidents of the Laender on May 6th, 1977. The principles are presented. (orig./HP) [de

  8. ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL — UNDERSTANDING THE FRONT-END AND BACK-END OF BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    FRANZISKA GÜNZEL; ANNA B. HOLM

    2013-01-01

    Business model innovation is becoming a central research topic in management. However, a lack of a common understanding of the nature of the business model leads to disregarding its multifaceted structure when analyzing the business model innovation process. This article proposes a more detailed understanding of the business model innovation process by drawing on existing knowledge from new product development literature and examining the front-end and the back-end of business model innovatio...

  9. Back-end and interface implementation of the STS-XYTER2 prototype ASIC for the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Zabolotny, W.

    2016-01-01

    Each front-end readout ASIC for the High-Energy Physics experiments requires robust and effective hit data streaming and control mechanism. A new STS-XYTER2 full-size prototype chip for the Silicon Tracking System and Muon Chamber detectors in the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Germany) is a 128-channel time and amplitude measuring solution for silicon microstrip and gas detectors. It operates at 250 kHit/s/channel hit rate, each hit producing 27 bits of information (5-bit amplitude, 14-bit timestamp, position and diagnostics data). The chip back-end implements fast front-end channel read-out, timestamp-wise hit sorting, and data streaming via a scalable interface implementing the dedicated protocol (STS-HCTSP) for chip control and hit transfer with data bandwidth from 9.7 MHit/s up to 47 MHit/s. It also includes multiple options for link diagnostics, failure detection, and throttling features. The back-end is designed to operate with the data acquisition architecture based on the CERN GBTx transceivers. This paper presents the details of the back-end and interface design and its implementation in the UMC 180 nm CMOS process.

  10. Scientific research on the back-end of the fuel cycle for the 21. century; Les recherches scientifiques sur l'aval du cycle pour le 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the Atalante-2000 conference is to present the major research axis concerning the nuclear fuel cycle back-end. The different topics are: - Present options concerning fuel cycle back-end; - Reprocessing of spent fuel; - Advanced separation for transmutation; - Processing and packaging of radioactive wastes; - Design and fabrication of targets for transmutation; and - Conversion of military plutonium into MOX fuels.

  11. The strategy of the long-term back-end nuclear fuel cycle in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Fajman, V.

    2002-01-01

    The present status of the strategy of the long-term back-end nuclear fuel cycle in the Czech Republic is briefly outlined in this paper. This strategy is based on the once-through option in the use of the nuclear fuel with subsequent interim storage of the spent fuel and its final disposal as a declared high level waste. However, other technologies for the management of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle are not excluded at all. Besides the first already existing and the second interim spent fuel storage facility being sited at Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant, an interim spent fuel storage facility at Temelin Nuclear Power Plant is also under the siting process. To cover the total storing needs a central spent nuclear fuel interim storage facility at Skalka in the Czech-Moravian Highlands is also under consideration. These facilities are or will be equipped with dry-storage containers of cask-type placed in the concrete building and cooled by natural air ventilation. Since 1993 there is a joint effort of several governmental organisations and institutions and private companies to study the scientific, technical and economical possibilities of the construction of the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel disposal. A horizontal repository facility with vertical access was selected and a reference project has been accepted. A time horizon for construction in about the year of 2035 was scheduled. The necessary legal and administrative basis of the spent fuel and radioactive waste management was laid down by the law No. 18/1997 (Atomic Act) passed in 1997. This basic law with its implementing regulations fully reflects the internationally accepted principles of the provision of nuclear safety and radiation protection in this respect and it also strongly supports the policy and strategy of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  12. Front-end and back-end electrochemistry of molten salt in accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.A.; Venneri, F.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop preparation and clean-up processes for the fuel and carrier salt in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology molten salt nuclear system. The front-end or fuel preparation process focuses on the removal of fission products, uranium, and zirconium from spent nuclear fuel by utilizing electrochemical methods (i.e., electrowinning). The same method provides the separation of the so-called noble metal fission products at the back-end of the fuel cycle. Both implementations would have important diversion safeguards. The proposed separation processes and a thermodynamic analysis of the electrochemical separation method are presented

  13. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 2: operations of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This second session deals with the reprocessing business, back-end financing mechanisms, technology transfer, environmental management, risk management programs, research and development contribution to waste volume reductions, issues and outlook of nuclear wastes, comparison of the open and closed cycles. (A.L.B.)

  14. Strategy of a Slovak back-end part of nuclear energy and financing of decommissioning of NPP A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The base for all consideration about financing of decommissioning of NPPs after accident should be the national Strategy of a Back-end of Nuclear Energy. In case of the Slovak Republic, there exist roles stated in actual Strategy which was issued by Slovak Government at 21.5.2008 and prepared by National nuclear found of SR. This Strategy was currently up-grated and given to the discussions before acceptance at national level by Government. Financing of decommissioning costs of NPP A1 was recalculated and adapted according to the actual state of art in available technology as well as human potential in Slovakia. (authors)

  15. Storage of thermal reactor fuels - Implications for the back end of the fuel cycle in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambley, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fuel from UK's Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors (AGRs) is being reprocessed, however reprocessing will cease in 2018 and the strategy for fuel that has not been reprocessed is for it to be placed into wet storage until it can be consigned to a geological disposal facility in around 2080. Although reprocessing of LWR fuel has been undertaken in the UK, and this option is not precluded for current and future LWRs, all utilities planning to operate LWRs are intending to use At-Reactor storage pending geological disposal. This strategy will result in a substantial change in the management of spent fuel that could affect the back end of the fuel cycle for over a century. This paper presents potential fuel storage scenarios for two options: the current nuclear power replacement strategy, which will see 16 GWe of new capacity installed by 2030 and a median strategy, intended to ensure implementation of the UK's carbon reduction target, involving 48 GWe of nuclear capacity installed by 2040. The potential scale, distribution and timing of fuel storage and disposal operations have been assessed and changes to the current industrial activity are highlighted to indicate potential effects on public acceptance of back end activities. (authors)

  16. Applications of liquid phase chromatographies for the analysis of streams arising at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Yalmali, Vrunda S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2000-06-01

    India has opted for a closed fuel cycle comprising of reprocessing and recycling technology. The back end of such nuclear fuel cycle involves the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels for recovery of plutonium and depleted uranium by Purex technology. Wastes arising from the reprocessing plant are classified as high, intermediate and low level wastes (HLW, ILW, LLW). HLW is mixture of over 50 elements present in different chemical forms. The accurate analyses of dissolver solution and HLW are the most challenging but essential tasks for reprocessing plant operations and also for further development of treatment methods. Inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques are suitable for analysis of metallic anions. Ion chromatography has proven capability to analyse number of cations or anions at ppm or even ppb level in single run. The report reviews the literature regarding the title subject. To assess the technical feasibility of ion chromatography for waste analysis, a simulated PHWR-HLW analogue was prepared. The PHWR-HLW analogue and ground water samples were analysed on DIONEX-DX 500 and Metrohm IC. Results obtained clearly demonstrated the usefulness of ion chromatography as vital analytical tool. HLW and other process or waste streams arising at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle can be analysed for alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth and transition metal cations and important anions. Use of fraction collector along with ion chromatography can enhance it's sensitivity to few Bq/ml for radioactive samples. (author)

  17. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel

  18. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel.

  19. The Back End of the Fuel Cycle Moves Front and Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J

    2006-01-01

    assurance that it will receive all the fresh fuel it needs for the lifetime of its nuclear power plants, there should be no reason for it to pursue the difficult and costly capability to enrich the fuel itself or to reprocess its spent fuel to recover the produced plutonium for recycle as a fuel in its reactors. However, such offers are unlikely to be fully persuasive if they are not connected to complementary offers for management of the spent nuclear fuel that is created during power production. In this paper, we discuss the complexity of the linkage to spent fuel take-back and the challenges and opportunities this present to nations repository programs

  20. Factors determining the long term back end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was held in Vienna on 8-10 November 1999; it was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and attended by 26 participants from 16 Member States. The purpose of the meeting was to exchange information among experts on the back end fuel cycle strategies adopted by Member States; to identify key factors determining the long-term back end fuel cycle strategies; and to assess the applicability of these factors to future nuclear systems. Issues associated with the back end fuel cycle supporting a country's nuclear power programme are technical, economic, institutional and political. This TCM provided an opportunity to address these issues and their impacts to the back end fuel cycles, as well as to identify and assess factors affecting the back end fuel cycle strategies. The discussion was organized ib the following topical sessions: the nuclear fuel cycle; spent fuel management; waste management and repository; plutonium management. This document contains a summary of the meeting and 22 individual papers presented by participants. Each of the papers was indexed separately

  1. Factors determining the long term back end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) was held in Vienna on 8-10 November 1999; it was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and attended by 26 participants from 16 Member States. The purpose of the meeting was to exchange information among experts on the back end fuel cycle strategies adopted by Member States; to identify key factors determining the long-term back end fuel cycle strategies; and to assess the applicability of these factors to future nuclear systems. Issues associated with the back end fuel cycle supporting a country's nuclear power programme are technical, economic, institutional and political. This TCM provided an opportunity to address these issues and their impacts to the back end fuel cycles, as well as to identify and assess factors affecting the back end fuel cycle strategies. The discussion was organized ib the following topical sessions: the nuclear fuel cycle; spent fuel management; waste management and repository; plutonium management. This document contains a summary of the meeting and 22 individual papers presented by participants. Each of the papers was indexed separately.

  2. The ''Castaing exercise'': an original contribution to the technological evaluation of the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.; Zerbib, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1981, a panel was appointed by the French Government in order to review the various technical and environmental aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The so-called ''Commission Castaing'', from the name of his chairman Pr. Castaing, a well known physicist, included persons from various professional backgrounds together with people in charge of these questions at the French Atomic Authority (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA). It was the first time in France that a Group including independent people was officially entrusted with such a sensitive task, normally dealt with inside the nuclear establishment. The 3 years experience of the Castaing Commission and the comparison between the present situations concerning surface and underground disposal, show the importance of external expertise in gaining public acceptance. These days, it is not enough for the public to be positively informed by the operators themselves; public opinion insists more and more on the importance of a minimal agreement among scientists from various background on a project which is marred by many uncertainties on long-term effects. Finally a certain separation of powers between the various institutional actors is necessary: this would not decrease the competence of the entire system. On the opposite, the lack of input from the outside and the lack of internal democracy can condemn an institution to sterility, a possible source of mistakes and wrong decisions. This is one of the major lesson of the original Castaing exercise

  3. Design concepts and advanced telerobotics development for facilities in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Fuel Recycle Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past seven years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of tasks accomplished by remote means and increasing the efficiency of remote work undertaken. Five areas of the development effort are primary contributors to the goal of higher operating efficiency for major facilities for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These areas are (1) the single-cell concept, (2) the low-flow ventilation concept, (3) television viewing, (4) equipment-mounting racks, and (5) force-reflecting manipulation. These somewhat innovative directions are products of a design process where the technical scenario to be accomplished, the remote equipment to accomplish the scenario, and the facility design to house the equipment, are considered in an iterative design process to optimize performance, maximize long-term costs effectiveness, and minimize initial capital outlay. (author)

  4. Concepts and Strategies for Transparency Monitoring of Nuclear Materials at the Back End of the Fuel/Weapons Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSTIN, LAURENCE; DAVIES, PETER; PREGENZER, ARIAN L.

    1999-01-01

    Representatives of the Department of Energy, the national laboratories, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and others gathered to initiate the development of broad-based concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle, including both geologic disposal and monitored retrievable storage. The workshop focused on two key questions: ''Why should we monitor?'' and ''What should we monitor?'' These questions were addressed by identifying the range of potential stakeholders, concerns that stakeholders may have, and the information needed to address those concerns. The group constructed a strategic framework for repository transparency implementation, organized around the issues of safety (both operational and environmental), diversion (assuring legitimate use and security), and viability (both political and economic). Potential concerns of the international community were recognized as the possibility of material diversion, the multinational impacts of potential radionuclide releases, and public and political perceptions of unsafe repositories. The workshop participants also identified potential roles that the WIPP may play as a monitoring technology development and demonstration test-bed facility. Concepts for WIPP'S potential test-bed role include serving as (1) an international monitoring technology and development testing facility, (2) an international demonstration facility, and (3) an education and technology exchange center on repository transparency technologies

  5. Design concepts and advanced telerobotics development for facilities in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the Fuel Recycle Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past seven years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of tasks accomplished by remote means and increasing the efficiency of remote work undertaken. Five areas of the development effort are primary contributors to the goal of higher operating efficiency for major facilities for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These areas are the single-cell concept, the low-flow ventilation concept, television viewing, equipment-mounting racks, and force-reflecting manipulation. These somewhat innovative directions are products of a design process where the technical scenario to be accomplished, the remote equipment to accomplish the scenario, and the facility design to house the equipment, are considered in an iterative design process to optimize performance, maximize long-term costs effectiveness, and minimize initial capital outlay. 14 refs., 3 figs

  6. The importance for Bulgaria of multilateral approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necheva, Ch.; McCombie, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria has a comparatively small nuclear program, but this provides a significant contribution of about 45% to the total electricity production in the country. There are 4 WWER units in operation at Kozloduy NPP and the national energy policy foresees construction of a further plant, Belene NPP. Further development of the nuclear option is dependent on the assurance of both fresh nuclear fuel supply and long-term management of spent fuel and high level waste. Because of the technical and economic challenges involved, international co-operation (bilateral and multilateral) in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic issue of prime importance. This approach is very politically and socially sensitive at home and abroad and requires international consensus on the legal framework. For Bulgaria, as a producer of nuclear energy which relies on imported fresh nuclear fuel, an option of major interest is to seek a final solution for dealing with spent fuel in co-operation with the supplier of fresh fuel, i.e. Russia at present. But Bulgaria does not address only this option. In parallel, Kozloduy NPP is an organizational member of the international association ARIUS, established in 2002 in Baden, Switzerland. Thus the country also directly supports the mission of Arius, namely the promotion of concepts for safe, secure, economic and politically and socially acceptable regional and international storage and disposal of spent fuel and HLW. Bulgaria also participates directly in the SAPIERR project that was initiated by Arius under the 6 Framework Programme of the European Commission in order to study the concept of regional repositories to be shared by European partners. The range of Bulgarian waste management activities - including practical issues at the power plants, national studies on waste treatment, and involvement in the bilateral and multinational approaches described above - ensures that the country continues to maintain the necessary technical

  7. Novel thinking approach in a multinational nuclear partnership: towards the strengthening of the nuclear industry back end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Development of multinational radioactive waste (Rw) and spent fuel repositories provides a safe and secure nuclear industry back-end. The problem of multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational/regional repositories for Rw deep disposal is considered. We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for Rw deep disposal, based on self-organization (So) of various stake holders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as the principle of requisite variety. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stake holder the national stake holder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, possibly being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. There is deduced: a) building of international stake holder consensus would be promoted by activating on the international scale multilateral interactions between intra and international stake holders, including web-based networks of disposal site investigations and decision making, as well as networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements on shared deep repositories will be the result of dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies by using advanced synergetic approaches of conflict resolution, and c) knowledge, mental flexibility and creativity are considered as basic prerogatives for gaining a higher level of mutual understanding and consensus, for advancing the preparedness to act together and achieving desired shared goals. It is proposed: self-organized social learning will promote adequate perception of risk and prevent, by

  8. Novel thinking approach in a multinational nuclear partnership: towards the strengthening of the nuclear industry back end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.

    2010-10-01

    Development of multinational radioactive waste (Rw) and spent fuel repositories provides a safe and secure nuclear industry back-end. The problem of multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational/regional repositories for Rw deep disposal is considered. We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for Rw deep disposal, based on self-organization (So) of various stake holders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as the principle of requisite variety. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stake holder the national stake holder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, possibly being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. There is deduced: a) building of international stake holder consensus would be promoted by activating on the international scale multilateral interactions between intra and international stake holders, including web-based networks of disposal site investigations and decision making, as well as networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements on shared deep repositories will be the result of dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies by using advanced synergetic approaches of conflict resolution, and c) knowledge, mental flexibility and creativity are considered as basic prerogatives for gaining a higher level of mutual understanding and consensus, for advancing the preparedness to act together and achieving desired shared goals. It is proposed: self-organized social learning will promote adequate perception of risk and prevent, by

  9. New thinking imperative in a multinational partnership: towards the strengthening of the nuclear industry back-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient way to increase safety and security in the use of nuclear energy nowadays is to develop multinational radioactive waste (RW) and spent fuel repositories - the nuclear industry back-end. The problem of multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational/regional repositories for RW deep disposal is considered. We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for RW deep disposal, based on self-organization (SO) of various stakeholders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as the principle of requisite variety. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stakeholder - the national stakeholder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, possibly being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. There is deduced: a) building of international stakeholder consensus would be promoted by activating on the international scale multilateral interactions between intra- and international stakeholders, including web-based networks of disposal site investigations and decision-making, as well as networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements on shared deep repositories will be the result of dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies by using advanced synergetic approaches of conflict resolution, and c) knowledge, mental flexibility and creativity are considered as basic prerogatives for gaining a higher level of mutual understanding and consensus, for advancing the preparedness to act together and achieving desired shared goals. It is proposed: self-organized social

  10. Core component integration tests for the back-end software sub-system in the ATLAS data acquisition and event filter prototype -1 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, E.; Caprini, M.; Niculescu, M.; Radu, A.

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition (DAQ) and Event Filter (EF) prototype -1 project was intended to produce a prototype system for evaluating candidate technologies and architectures for the final ATLAS DAQ system on the LHC accelerator at CERN. Within the prototype project, the back-end sub-system encompasses the software for configuring, controlling and monitoring the DAQ. The back-end sub-system includes core components and detector integration components. The core components provide the basic functionality and had priority in terms of time-scale for development in order to have a baseline sub-system that can be used for integration with the data-flow sub-system and event filter. The following components are considered to be the core of the back-end sub-system: - Configuration databases, describe a large number of parameters of the DAQ system architecture, hardware and software components, running modes and status; - Message reporting system (MRS), allows all software components to report messages to other components in the distributed environment; - Information service (IS) allows the information exchange for software components; - Process manager (PMG), performs basic job control of software components (start, stop, monitoring the status); - Run control (RC), controls the data taking activities by coordinating the operations of the DAQ sub-systems, back-end software and external systems. Performance and scalability tests have been made for individual components. The back-end subsystem integration tests bring together all the core components and several trigger/DAQ/detector integration components to simulate the control and configuration of data taking sessions. For back-end integration tests a test plan was provided. The tests have been done using a shell script that goes through different phases as follows: - starting the back-end server processes to initialize communication services and PMG; - launching configuration specific processes via DAQ supervisor as

  11. Investigation of economics of back-end nuclear fuel cycle options in the Republic of Korea based on Once-through

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seok-Ki; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to examine these questions and perform economic evaluations of various cases of Once-through back-end fuel cycles in the ROK. Therefore, the study is to support decision making in terms of how the long term spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management strategy should be developed. A spreadsheet model was developed to plan reactor construction, the interim storage and the HLW repository construction within engineered constraints, based on the estimation of the spent fuel flow and the energy supply of the nuclear power program. The model computes the back-end levelized costs for various fuel cycle choices. The scenarios assumed in the model include (1) 0 year/10year/20year of licensed operation period extension; (2) the phase-out of NPP program and the continuous use including the reunification of Korean peninsula; (3) reactor decommissioning and construction lead times - 10 years and 5 years respectively in this study; (4) geological constraints of siting for a new reactor - 38 for without the reunification and 70 for with the reunification; (5) the first initiation of reactor decommissioning and operation of HLW repository - assumed to be 2020 and 2050; and (6) capacity factor of reactor operation and the on-site wet storage pool capacity - 0.85 and 0.498 MTHM per MWe which is equivalent with APR1400. The capacity factor for PHWR reactors was assumed at 0.85 and the plan for PHWR was fixed as phase-out. The spreadsheet model conducts computation for annual expenditures of the back-end fuel cycle and calculates the levelized costs. Licensed operation period extension enhances not only economic efficiency, stable energy supply, but also reduces burden of siting for a new reactor and waste disposal. And regardless the reunification, continuous use of nuclear energy lowers the back-end fuel cycle cost. With projection that a large portion of social cost is included in the current back-end fuel cycle cost, nuclear energy likely has more competency in

  12. 154 GHz collective Thomson scattering in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Saito, T.; Moseev, D.; Abramovic, I.

    2018-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) was developed by using a 154 GHz gyrotron, and the first data has been obtained. Already, 77 GHz CTS has worked successfully. However, in order to access higher density region, 154 GHz option enhances the usability that reduces the refraction effect, which deteriorates in the local measurements. The system in the down converted frequency was almost identical to the system for 77 GHz. Probing beam, a notch filter, a mixer, and a local oscillator in the receiver system for 77 GHz option were replaced to those for the 154 GHz option. 154 GHz gyrotron was originally prepared for the second harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECRH) at 2.75 T. However, scattering signal was masked by the second harmonic electron cyclotron emission (ECE) at 2.75 T. Therefore, 154 GHz CTS was operated at 1.375 T with fourth harmonic ECE, and an acceptable signal to noise ratio was obtained. There is a signature of fast ion components with neutral beam (NB) injection. In addition, the CTS spectrum became broader in hydrogen discharge than in deuterium discharge, as the theoretical CTS spectrum expects. This observation indicates a possibility to identify ion species ratio by the 154 GHz CTS diagnostic.

  13. Scientific research on the back-end of the fuel cycle for the 21. century; Les recherches scientifiques sur l'aval du cycle pour le 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the Atalante-2000 conference is to present the major research axis concerning the nuclear fuel cycle back-end. The different topics are: - Present options concerning fuel cycle back-end; - Reprocessing of spent fuel; - Advanced separation for transmutation; - Processing and packaging of radioactive wastes; - Design and fabrication of targets for transmutation; and - Conversion of military plutonium into MOX fuels.

  14. A methodology for assessing the environmental and health impact of options for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, G.H.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Devin, P.; Lioure, A.; Mouney, H.; Le Boulch, D.

    2001-01-01

    Research programs conducted in France in the framework of the 1991 act offer various options for management of the back- end of the fuel cycle. Proposals to be debated in 2006 will rely not only on broad scientific and technical knowledge, but also on the compilation and integration of results, with syntheses and analyses intended to highlight the advantages and the limitations of each of the waste management paths. This presentation introduces a methodology derived from the life cycle analysis as well as some preliminary results. (author)

  15. Definition and construction of a first database for assessing the impacts on health and the environment of different strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, O.; Ouzounian, G.

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle assessment framework has been applied to the management of used fuel cycle to determine a general methodology to study the impacts on health and the environment of the back end of the fuel cycle. System definition starts with a definite waste fuel composition and covers all the industrial steps until all elements of the waste are stored. It is recommended to use electricity generation as a functional unit especially for comparing different strategies. In this case, as some parts of the nuclear waste may be recycled to produce electricity, systems have to be expanded to cover both front and back ends of the fuel cycle. A first bibliographical database covering different stages of the nuclear cycle has been constructed and stored with the standard Ecobilan format developed for environmental analysis and management. Data collection includes all steps from mining extraction to ultimate disposal. Together with the constitution of this database several typical strategies for PWR fuels have been assessed. A first list of criteria has been chosen to best represent the impacts of each strategy on both human health of population and workers and the environment. Data gathered for each step are ready to be reused for designing and assessing simulations on alternative nuclear cycles. (author)

  16. Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and back end nuclear fuel cycle operations: The French approach to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagner, L.; Voinis, S.; De Franco, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Centre de l'Aube Disposal Facility (Centre de Stockage de l'Aube) is designed to receive a wide variety of waste produced by nuclear power plants, reprocessing, decommissioning, as well as the industry, hospitals and armed forces. Such a variety of wastes incur highly different risks which must be grasped in the safety analysis of the Centre. This article attempts to show how a number of safety analysis tools are used to meet the highly varied needs of the waste producers and guarantee safe disposal. They involve functional analysis, risk analysis and safety calculations. The paper shows that the most important acceptance criteria for the first containment barrier, namely the waste package, are containment, durability, activity limitation and biological shielding. And a method is proposed to determine some of these criteria from safety scenarios (scenarios of accidents in operation, intrusion in the post-institutional control phase). Over the years, however, the waste producers have asked the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA) to accept new types of waste not initially anticipated in the design criteria, and the safety analysis must imagine new scenarios and develop new acceptance criteria. The paper gives the example of sealed sources, closure heads of NPP vessels, racks for fuel elements, contaminated manipulators, irradiating waste, etc, which incur specific risks. In fact, some of this waste represent a source of unusual irradiation, a risk of further contamination in an accidental situation, or simply increase the likelihood of occurrence of certain scenarios, such as retrieval in the post-institutional control phase. The safety analysis must adapt and imagine specific scenarios to judge the acceptability of such waste, and must identify the acceptance criteria commensurate with the risks. The paper offers examples of research, some of it still under way at ANDRA. (author)

  17. Strategies for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Vienna, 1-4 June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The selection of an option for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle is an important decision for all countries with nuclear power programmes. Likewise, the process for making that option selection is also important. Some countries have begun utilizing nuclear energy for electricity generation without formally determining what would be done with the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes. In a number of those countries the inventories of spent fuel are approaching their storage capacity - and an option selection must soon be made. This report provides an analysis of both the policies chosen by a number of Member States and the process that led to those selections. The intent of this analysis and this publication is to assist other countries in their deliberations on this subject. This publication presents conclusions concerning the factors that were considered important by different countries and the processes which they followed in making their determination of the policy for disposal of nuclear waste. Refs, figs, tabs.

  18. Strategies for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Vienna, 1-4 June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The selection of an option for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle is an important decision for all countries with nuclear power programmes. Likewise, the process for making that option selection is also important. Some countries have begun utilizing nuclear energy for electricity generation without formally determining what would be done with the spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes. In a number of those countries the inventories of spent fuel are approaching their storage capacity - and an option selection must soon be made. This report provides an analysis of both the policies chosen by a number of Member States and the process that led to those selections. The intent of this analysis and this publication is to assist other countries in their deliberations on this subject. This publication presents conclusions concerning the factors that were considered important by different countries and the processes which they followed in making their determination of the policy for disposal of nuclear waste. Refs, figs, tabs

  19. A High-Frequency Isolation (HFI Charging DC Port Combining a Front-End Three-Level Converter with a Back-End LLC Resonant Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Cai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-frequency isolation (HFI charging DC port can serve as the interface between unipolar/bipolar DC buses and electric vehicles (EVs through the two-power-stage system structure that combines the front-end three-level converter with the back-end logical link control (LLC resonant converter. The DC output voltage can be maintained within the desired voltage range by the front-end converter. The electrical isolation can be realized by the back-end LLC converter, which has the bus converter function. According to the three-level topology, the low-voltage rating power devices can be adapted for half-voltage stress of the total DC grid, and the PWM phase-shift control can double the equivalent switching frequency to greatly reduce the filter volume. LLC resonant converters have advance characteristics of inverter-side zero-voltage-switching (ZVS and rectifier-side zero-current switching (ZCS. In particular, it can achieve better performance under quasi-resonant frequency mode. Additionally, the magnetizing current can be modified following different DC output voltages, which have the self-adaptation ZVS condition for decreasing the circulating current. Here, the principles of the proposed topology are analyzed in detail, and the design conditions of the three-level output filter and high-frequency isolation transformer are explored. Finally, a 20 kW prototype with the 760 V input and 200–500 V output are designed and tested. The experimental results are demonstrated to verify the validity and performance of this charging DC port system structure.

  20. A study of 60 GHz intersatellite link applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.; Haugland, E. J.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Chitwood, J. S.

    Applications of intersatellite links operating at 60 GHz are reviewed. Likely scenarios, ranging from transmission of moderate and high data rates over long distances to low data rates over short distances are examined. A limited parametric tradeoff is performed with system variables such as radiofrequency power, receiver noise temperature, link distance, data rate, and antenna size. Present status is discussed and projections are given for both electron tube and solid state transmitter technologies. Monolithic transmit and receive module technology, already under development at 20 to 30 GHz, is reviewed and its extension to 60 GHz, and possible applicability is discussed.

  1. A study of 60 GHz intersatellite link applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.; Haugland, E. J.; Kosmahl, H. G.; Chitwood, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of intersatellite links operating at 60 GHz are reviewed. Likely scenarios, ranging from transmission of moderate and high data rates over long distances to low data rates over short distances are examined. A limited parametric tradeoff is performed with system variables such as radiofrequency power, receiver noise temperature, link distance, data rate, and antenna size. Present status is discussed and projections are given for both electron tube and solid state transmitter technologies. Monolithic transmit and receive module technology, already under development at 20 to 30 GHz, is reviewed and its extension to 60 GHz, and possible applicability is discussed.

  2. A 90 GHz photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.T.; Hogan, M.J.; Ferrario, M.; Serafini, L.

    1999-01-01

    Photocathode rf guns depend on mode locked laser systems to produce an electron beam at a given phase of the rf. In general, the laser pulse is less than σ 2 = 10'' of rf phase in length and the required stability is on the order of Δφ = 1 At 90 GHz (W-band), these requirements correspond to σ 2 = 333 fsec and Δφ = 33 fsec. Laser system with pulse lengths in the fsec regime are commercially available, the timing stability is a major concern. It is proposed a multi-cell W-band photoinjector that does not require a mode locked laser system. Thereby eliminating the stability requirements at W-band. The laser pulse is allowed to be many rf periods long. In principle, the photoinjector can now be considered as a thermionic rf gun. Instead of using an alpha magnet to compress the electron bunch, which would have a detrimental effect on the transverse hase space quality due to longitudinal phase space mixing, it is here proposed to use long pulse laser system and a pair of undulators to produce a low emittance, high current, ultra-short electron bunch for beam dynamics experiments in the 90 GHz regime

  3. Direct satellite TV - The 12-GHz challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcette, J.

    1982-02-01

    Manufacturers in Japan and Europe are developing the hardware necessary for commercially feasible direct broadcast satellite TV, including high-frequency circuits and mini-dishes for spacecasting. US companies are lagging behind due to formidable regulatory and legal difficulties. The article focuses on efforts to develop simple, inexpensive receivers which will be able to convert 12-GHz satellite transmissions into high-quality TV images. Three basic receiver designs are being developed: the mixer-downcaster, microwave integrated circuits using FET-preamplifier front ends with transistors connected by bond-wires, and monolithic gallium arsenide integrated circuits. Several companies are on the verge of introducing commercialized receivers utilizing these different basic designs.

  4. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 2: operations of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle; AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 2: les activites du pole Aval du cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This second session deals with the reprocessing business, back-end financing mechanisms, technology transfer, environmental management, risk management programs, research and development contribution to waste volume reductions, issues and outlook of nuclear wastes, comparison of the open and closed cycles. (A.L.B.)

  5. Report of the international forum on nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Makiko; Yamamura, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2013-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held 'International Forum on Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security - Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia-' on 12 and 13 December 2012, co-hosted by the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. In the forum, keynote speakers from Japan, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.S., France and Republic of Korea (ROK), respectively explained their efforts regarding peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation. In two panel discussions, entitled 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security of nuclear fuel cycle back end' and 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for nuclear energy use in the Asian region and a multilateral cooperative framework', active discussions were made among panelists from Japan, IAEA, the U.S., France, ROK, Russia and Kazakhstan. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording and content of this report except presentation materials. (author)

  6. Laboratory Heterodyne Spectrometers Operating at 100 and 300 GHZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maßen, Jakob; Wehres, Nadine; Hermanns, Marius; Lewen, Frank; Heyne, Bettina; Endres, Christian; Graf, Urs; Honingh, Netty; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Two new laboratory heterodyne emission spectrometers are presented that are currently used for high-resolution rotational spectroscopy of complex organic molecules. The room temperature heterodyne receiver operating between 80-110 GHz, as well as the SIS heterodyne receiver operating between 270-370 GHz allow access to two very important frequency regimes, coinciding with Bands 3 and 7 of the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) telescope. Taking advantage of recent progresses in the field of mm/submm technology, we build these two spectrometers using an XFFFTS (eXtended Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer) for spectral acquisition. The instantaneous bandwidth is 2.5 GHz in a single sideband, spread over 32768 channels. Thus, the spectral resolution is about 76 kHz per channel and thus comparable to high resolution spectra from telescopes. Both receivers are operated in double sideband mode resulting in a total instantaneous bandwidth of 5 GHz. The system performances, in particular the noise temperatures and stabilities are presented. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated by showing spectra of methyl cyanide obtained with both spectrometers. While the transition frequencies for this molecule are very well known, intensities of those transitions can also be determined with high accuracy using our new instruments. This additional information shall be exploited in future measurements to improve spectral predictions for astronomical observations. Other future prospects concern the study of more complex organic species, such as ethyl cyanide. These aspects of the new instruments as well as limitations of the two distinct receivers will be discussed.

  7. Sideband Separating Mixer for 600-720 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khudchenko, Andrey; Hesper, Ronald; Barychev, Andrey; Gerlofma, Gerrit; Mena, Patricio; Zijlstra, Tony; Klapwijk, Teun; Spaans, Marco; Kooi, Jacob W.; Zhang, C; Zhang, XC; Siegel, PH; He, L; Shi, SC

    2010-01-01

    The ALMA Band 9 receiver cartridge (600-720 GHz) based on Dual Sideband (DSB) superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer is currently in full production. In the case of spectral line observations, the integration time to reach a certain signal-to-noise level can be reduced by about a factor

  8. A 62GHz inductor-peaked rectifier with 7% efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Milosevic, D.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first 62 GHz fully onchip RF-DC rectifier in 65nm CMOS technology. The rectifier is the bottleneck in realizing on-chip wireless power receivers. In this paper, efficiency problems of the mm-wave rectifier are discussed and the inductor-peaked rectifier structure is proposed

  9. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  10. Molecular astronomy using heterodyne detection at 691 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, H.R.; Buhl, D.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of the CO J 6 - 5 transition at 691 GHz in new interstellar and planetary sources have been made. The heterodyne receiver uses an optically pumped laser local oscillator and a quasi-optical Schottky diode mixer, with measured noise temperatures consistently under 4000 K (double sideband). Continued improvements in system performance and antenna coupling have made possible the mapping of 691 GHz emission from W3, and the detection of CO J 5 - 6 absorption in the atmosphere of Venus. A detailed description of the instrumentation and recent observational data are provided. 14 references

  11. High power, 140 GHz gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreischer, K.E.; Temkin, R.J.; Mulligan, W.J.; MacCabe, S.; Chaplya, R.

    1982-01-01

    The design and construction of a pulsed 100 kW, 140 GHz gyrotron is described. Initial gyrotron operation is expected in early 1982. Advances in gyrotron theory have also been carried out in support of this experimental research. The application of gyrotrons to plasma diagnostics is also under investigation. (author)

  12. Integrated 60GHz RF beamforming in CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yikun; van Roermund, Arthur H M

    2011-01-01

    ""Integrated 60GHz RF Beamforming in CMOS"" describes new concepts and design techniques that can be used for 60GHz phased array systems. First, general trends and challenges in low-cost high data-rate 60GHz wireless system are studied, and the phased array technique is introduced to improve the system performance. Second, the system requirements of phase shifters are analyzed, and different phased array architectures are compared. Third, the design and implementation of 60GHz passive and active phase shifters in a CMOS technology are presented. Fourth, the integration of 60GHz phase shifters

  13. FFT Based VLSI Digital One Bit Electronic Warfare Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chien-In, Henry

    1998-01-01

    ... (1 GHz) digital receiver designed for electronic warfare applications. The receiver can process two simultaneous signals and has the potential for fabrication on a single multi-chip module (MCM...

  14. Whole-body 35-GHz security scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Roger; Anderton, Rupert N.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Coward, Peter R.

    2004-08-01

    A 35GHz imager designed for Security Scanning has been previously demonstrated. That imager was based on a folded conical scan technology and was constructed from low cost materials such as expanded polystyrene and printed circuit board. In conjunction with an illumination chamber it was used to collect indoor imagery of people with weapons and contraband hidden under their clothing. That imager had a spot size of 20mm and covered a field of view of 20 x 10 degrees that partially covered the body of an adult from knees to shoulders. A new variant of this imager has been designed and constructed. It has a field of view of 36 x 18 degrees and is capable of covering the whole body of an adult. This was achieved by increasing the number of direct detection receivers from the 32 used in the previous design to 58, and by implementing an improved optical design. The optics consist of a front grid, a polarisation device which converts linear to circular polarisation and a rotating scanner. This new design uses high-density expanded polystyrene as a correcting element on the back of the front grid. This gives an added degree of freedom that allows the optical design to be diffraction limited over a very wide field of view. Obscuration by the receivers and associated components is minimised by integrating the post detection electronics at the receiver array.

  15. Back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dognon, J.P.; Rabbe, C.; Beudaert, Ph.; Lamare, V.; Wipff, G.; Moisy, Ph.; Charrin, N.; Blanc, P.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Revel, R.; Charbonnel, M.C.; Presson, M.T.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Chopin-Dumas, J.; Devisme, F.; Rat, B.; Hill, C.; Guillaneux, D.; Madic, C.; Carrera, A.; Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Allain, F.; Virelizier, H.; Moulin, Ch.; Lamare, V.; Dozol, J.F.; Lemort, F.; Orlhac, X.; Fillet, C.; Carpena, J.; Fillet, C.; Advocat, T.; Leturcq, G.; Lacombe, J.; Bonnetier, A.; Ribet, I.; Poitou, S.; Richaud, D.; Fiquet, O.; Gramondi, P.; Massit, H.; Meyer, D.; Conocar, O.; Pettier, J.L.; Raphael, T.; Bouniol, P.; Sercombe, J.; Badouix, P.; Adenot, F.; Le Bescop, P.; Mazoin, C.; Motellier, S.; Charles, Y.; Richet, C.; Ayache, R.; Pitsch, H.; Ly, J.; Beaucaire, C.; Devol-Brown, I.; Libert, M.F.; Besnainou, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter of the DCC 1999 scientific report, the following theoretical studies are detailed: electronic structure of lanthanides or actinides complexes, forecasting of the stoichiometry of europium nitrate complexes, actinides aqueous solutions analytical and thermodynamical chemistry, actinides complexes structural determination. It also provides experimental studies: actinides and lanthanides separation, radioactive wastes processing and conditioning, plasma torch vitrification process, simulation of the wastes packages characterization, wastes storage with concrete behaviour and biodegradation. (A.L.B.)

  16. Performance Analysis of OFDM 60GHz System and SC-FDE 60GHz System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xueyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of 60GHz wireless communication system with SC and OFDM is studied, the models of OFDM 60GHz system and SC 60GHz frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE system are established, and the bit error rate (BER performance of OFDM 60GHz system and SC-FDE 60GHz system in 802.15.3c channels is compared. The simulation results show that SC-FDE 60GHz system has a slight advantage over OFDM system in line-of-sight (LOS channels, while OFDM 60GHz system has a slight advantage over SC-FDE system in non-line-of-sight (NLOS channels. For 60GHz system, OFDM 60GHz system has a slight advantage over SC-FDE system in overcoming multipath fading, but the performance of both is close whether in the LOS or NLOS case.

  17. Multi-gigabit wireless data transfer at 60 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltveit, H K; Schöning, A; Wiedner, D; Brenner, R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the status of the first prototype of the 60 GHz wireless Multi-gigabit data transfer topology currently under development at University of Heidelberg using IBM 130 nm SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology. The 60 GHz band is very suitable for high data rate and short distance applications. One application can be a wireless multi Gbps radial data transmission inside the ATLAS silicon strip detector, making a first level track trigger feasible. The wireless transceiver consists of a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter includes an On-Off Keying (OOK) modulator, a Local Oscillator (LO), a Power Amplifier (PA) and a Band-pass Filter (BPF). The receiver part is composed of a Band-pass Filter (BPF), a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a double balanced down-convert Gilbert mixer, a Local Oscillator (LO), then a BPF to remove the mixer introduced noise, an Intermediate Amplifier (IF), an On-Off Keying demodulator and a limiting amplifier. The first prototype would be able to handle a data-rate of about 3.5 Gbps over a link distance of 1 m. The first simulations of the LNA show that a Noise figure (NF) of 5 dB, a power gain of 21 dB at 60 GHz with a 3 dB bandwidth of more than 20 GHz with a power consumption 11 mW are achieved. Simulations of the PA show an output referred compression point P1dB of 19.7 dB at 60 GHz.

  18. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  19. Entanglement swapping of a GHZ state via a GHZ-like state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih, E-mail: hwangtl@ismail.csie.ncku.edu.t [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, No. 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-15

    This study uses the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like state |G>= 1/2 (|001>+|010>+|100>+|111>) to establish an entanglement swapping protocol on a pure GHZ state. A quantum circuit is proposed to assist in teleporting the entanglement of the pure GHZ state. Furthermore, on the basis of the generation of the GHZ-like state, an improved protocol to reduce the number of transmitted photons required in the process of entanglement swapping is proposed.

  20. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Udayan

    2011-01-01

    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  1. Future mobile satellite communication concepts at 20/30 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, S. K.; Norbury, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The outline of a design of a system using ultra small earth stations (picoterminals) for data traffic at 20/30 GHz is discussed. The picoterminals would be battery powered, have an RF transmitter power of 0.5 W, use a 10 cm square patch antenna, and have a receiver G/T of about -8 dB/K. Spread spectrum modulation would be required (due to interference consideration) to allow a telex type data link (less than 200 bit/s data rate) from the picoterminal to the hub station of the network and about 40 kbit/s on the outbound patch. An Olympus type transponder at 20/30 GHz could maintain several thousand simultaneous picoterminal circuits. The possibility of demonstrating a picoterminal network with voice traffic using Olympus is discussed together with fully mobile systems based on this concept.

  2. GHz wireless On-off-Keying link employing all photonic RF carrier generation and digital coherent detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, Rakesh; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Gb/s wireless signals at 82, 88 and 100 GHz carrier frequencies are successfully generated by heterodyne mixing of two optical carriers. A photonic detection technique with optical coherent receiver and digital signal processing is implemented for signal demodulation....

  3. ARIS-Campaign: intercomparison of three ground based 22 GHz radiometers for middle atmospheric water vapor at the Zugspitze in winter 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Straub

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Alpine Radiometer Intercomparison at the Schneefernerhaus (ARIS, which took place in winter 2009 at the high altitude station at the Zugspitze, Germany (47.42° N, 10.98° E, 2650 m. This campaign was the first direct intercomparison between three new ground based 22 GHz water vapor radiometers for middle atmospheric profiling with the following instruments participating: MIRA 5 (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, cWASPAM3 (Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau and MIAWARA-C (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern. Even though the three radiometers all measure middle atmospheric water vapor using the same rotational transition line and similar fundamental set-ups, there are major differences between the front ends, the back ends, the calibration concepts and the profile retrieval. The spectrum comparison shows that all three radiometers measure spectra without severe baseline artifacts and that the measurements are in good general agreement. The measurement noise shows good agreement to the values theoretically expected from the radiometer noise formula. At the same time the comparison of the noise levels shows that there is room for instrumental and calibration improvement, emphasizing the importance of low elevation angles for the observation, a low receiver noise temperature and an efficient calibration scheme.

    The comparisons of the retrieved profiles show that the agreement between the profiles of MIAWARA-C and cWASPAM3 with the ones of MLS is better than 0.3 ppmv (6% at all altitudes. MIRA 5 has a dry bias of approximately 0.5 ppm (8% below 0.1 hPa with respect to all other instruments. The profiles of cWASPAM3 and MIAWARA-C could not be directly compared because the vertical region of overlap was too small. The comparison of the time series at different altitude levels show a similar evolution of the H2O volume mixing ratio (VMR for the ground based

  4. 110GHz ECH on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, W.P.; Allen, J.C.; Callis, R.W.; Doane, J.L.; Harris, T.E.; Moetler, C.P.; Neren, A.; Prater, P.; Rensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a new high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system which has been introduced on DIII-D. This system is designed to operate at 110 GHz with a total output power of 2 MW. The system consists of four Varian VGT-8011 gyrotrons (output power of 500 kW), and their associated support equipment. All components have been designed for up to a 10 second pulse duration. The 110 GHz system is intended to further progress in rf current drive experiments on DIII-D when used in conjunction with the existing 60 GHz ECH (1. 6 MW) , and the 30-60 MHz ICH (2MW) systems. H-mode physics, plasma stabilization experiments and transport studies are also to be conducted at 110 GHz

  5. Low conversion loss 94 GHz and 188 GHz doublers in InP DHBT technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Squartecchia, Michele

    2017-01-01

    An Indium Phosphide (InP) Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (DHBT) process has been utilized to design two doublers to cover the 94 GHz and 188 GHz bands. The 94 GHz doubler employs 4-finger DHBTs and provides conversion loss of 2 dB. A maximum output power of nearly 3 dBm is measured whil...... operate over a broad bandwidth. The total circuit area of each chip is 1.41 mm2....

  6. Recent operating experience with Varian 70 GHz and 140 GHz gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felch, K.; Bier, R.; Fox, L.; Huey, H.; Ives, L.; Jory, H.; Lopez, N.; Shively, J.; Spang, S.

    1985-01-01

    The design features and initial test results of Varian 70 GHz and 140 GHz CW gyrotrons are presented. The first experimental 140 GHz tube has achieved an output power of 102 kW at 24% efficiency under pulsed conditions in the desired TE 031 0 cavity mode. Further tests aimed at achieving the design goal of 100 kW CW are currently underway. The 70 GHz tube has achieved an output power of 200 kW under pulsed conditions and possesses a wide dynamic range for output power variations. 6 refs., 8 figs

  7. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  8. The stability of a terahertz receiver based on a superconducting integrated receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhegov, R V; Gorshkov, K N; Gol'tsman, G N; Kinev, N V; Koshelets, V P

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of stability testing of a terahertz radiometer based on a superconducting receiver with a SIS tunnel junction as the mixer and a flux-flow oscillator as the local oscillator. In the continuum mode, the receiver with a noise temperature of 95 K at 510 GHz measured over the intermediate frequency (IF) passband of 4-8 GHz offered a noise equivalent temperature difference of 10 ± 1 mK at an integration time of 1 s. We offer a method to significantly increase the integration time without the use of complex measurement equipment. The receiver observed a strong signal over a final detection bandwidth of 4 GHz and offered an Allan time of 5 s.

  9. The stability of a terahertz receiver based on a superconducting integrated receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozhegov, R V; Gorshkov, K N; Gol' tsman, G N [Department of Physics, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Kinev, N V; Koshelets, V P, E-mail: Ozhegov@rplab.ru [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    We present the results of stability testing of a terahertz radiometer based on a superconducting receiver with a SIS tunnel junction as the mixer and a flux-flow oscillator as the local oscillator. In the continuum mode, the receiver with a noise temperature of 95 K at 510 GHz measured over the intermediate frequency (IF) passband of 4-8 GHz offered a noise equivalent temperature difference of 10 {+-} 1 mK at an integration time of 1 s. We offer a method to significantly increase the integration time without the use of complex measurement equipment. The receiver observed a strong signal over a final detection bandwidth of 4 GHz and offered an Allan time of 5 s.

  10. Antenne Design for 24 GHz and 60 GHz Emerging Microwave Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, F.; Dolmans, W.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this project integrated antennas on a LAMP3 substrate for automotive radar systems at 24 GHz and wireless networks at 60 GHz have been designed. The most severe requirements on the antennas were the large bandwidth, which can not be met with conventional patch antennas. A tapered slot antenna and

  11. A 60 GHz Frequency Generator Based on a 20 GHz Oscillator and an Implicit Multiplier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zong, Z.; Babaie, M.; Staszewski, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a mm-wave frequency generation technique that improves its phase noise (PN) performance and power efficiency. The main idea is that a fundamental 20 GHz signal and its sufficiently strong third harmonic at 60 GHz are generated simultaneously in a single oscillator. The desired 60

  12. Contactless Investigations of Yeast Cell Cultivation in the 7 GHz and 240 GHz Ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, J; Schmalz, K; Meliani, C; Gastrock, G; Cahill, B P

    2013-01-01

    Using a microfluidic system based on PTFE tubes, experimental results of contactless and label-free characterization techniques of yeast cell cultivation are presented. The PTFE tube has an inner diameter of 0.5 mm resulting in a sample volume of 2 μ1 for 1 cm sample length. Two approaches (at frequencies around 7 GHz and 240 GHz) are presented and compared in terms of sensitivity and applicability. These frequency bands are particularly interesting to gain information on the permittivity of yeast cells in Glucose solution. Measurements from 240 GHz to 300 GHz were conducted with a continuous wave spectrometer from Toptica. At 7 GHz band, measurements have been performed using a rat-race based characterizing system realized on a printed circuit board. The conducted experiments demonstrate that by selecting the phase as characterization parameter, the presented contactless and label-free techniques are suitable for cell cultivation monitoring in a PTFE pipe based microfluidic system.

  13. Low cost low power 24 GHz FMCW radar transceiver for indoor presence detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, E.M.; Bolt, R.J.; Wanum, M. van; Heijningen, M. van; Maas, A.P.M.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a first time right 24 GHz FMCW radar transceiver is presented. The MMIC has a low power consumption of 86 mW and an output power of -10 dBm. Due to the integrated IF amplifier, the conversion gain of the receiver is 51 dB and the base band signals are directly processed with an ADC.

  14. Submillimeter heterodyne receiver for the CSO telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1988-01-01

    This task is to build a cryogenically cooled 620 to 700 GHz astronomical receiver that will be used as a facility instrument at the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The receiver will have applications as a very high resolution spectrometer to investigate spectral lines in planetary and satellite atmospheres, and comets. The receiver will also be used to make continuum measurements of planets, satellites, and asteroids. During FY88, a scale model (200 GHz) SIS mixer radiometer was built and intrgrated into a cryostat designed for use on the CSO telescope. This system will serve as a model to guide the work on the higher frequency mixer. A solid state local oscillator source that covers two bands in the 600 to 700 GHz has been developed under contract JPL and will be delivered before the end of the year. Work has continued on the SIS materials needed for the 620 to 700 GHz mixer. Test hardware has been developed which allow the 1 to 5 curves for SIS material to be easily measured

  15. SEPIA - a new single pixel receiver at the APEX telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, V.; Lapkin, I.; Fredrixon, M.; Meledin, D.; Sundin, E.; Billade, B.; Ferm, S.-E.; Pavolotsky, A.; Rashid, H.; Strandberg, M.; Desmaris, V.; Ermakov, A.; Krause, S.; Olberg, M.; Aghdam, P.; Shafiee, S.; Bergman, P.; Beck, E. De; Olofsson, H.; Conway, J.; Breuck, C. De; Immer, K.; Yagoubov, P.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Torstensson, K.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J.-P.; Klein, T.; Boland, W.; Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Barkhof, J.; Adema, J.; Bekema, M. E.; Koops, A.

    2018-04-01

    Context. We describe the new Swedish-ESO PI Instrument for APEX (SEPIA) receiver, which was designed and built by the Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD), at Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) in collaboration with ESO. It was installed and commissioned at the APEX telescope during 2015 with an ALMA Band 5 receiver channel and updated with a new frequency channel (ALMA Band 9) in February 2016. Aim. This manuscript aims to provide, for observers who use the SEPIA receiver, a reference in terms of the hardware description, optics and performance as well as the commissioning results. Methods: Out of three available receiver cartridge positions in SEPIA, the two current frequency channels, corresponding to ALMA Band 5, the RF band 158-211 GHz, and Band 9, the RF band 600-722 GHz, provide state-of-the-art dual polarization receivers. The Band 5 frequency channel uses 2SB SIS mixers with an average SSB noise temperature around 45 K with IF (intermediate frequency) band 4-8 GHz for each sideband providing total 4 × 4 GHz IF band. The Band 9 frequency channel uses DSB SIS mixers with a noise temperature of 75-125 K with IF band 4-12 GHz for each polarization. Results: Both current SEPIA receiver channels are available to all APEX observers.

  16. Security scanning at 94GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Beale, John E.; Coward, Peter R.; Price, Sean

    2006-05-01

    It is well known that millimetre waves can pass through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at W band can be an advantage. The size of the equipment is decreased when compared to operation at Ka band and the equipments have similar performance. In this paper a W band mechanically scanned imager designed for imaging weapons and contraband hidden under clothing is discussed. This imager is based on a modified folded conical scan technology previously reported. In this design an additional optical element is added to give a Cassegrain configuration in image space. This increases the effective focal length and enables improved sampling of the image and provides more space for the receivers. This imager is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene, polythene and printed circuit board materials. The trade off between image spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity is discussed.

  17. Security scanning at 35 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Coward, Peter R.; Kent, P. J.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Wasley, Matthew R. M.

    2001-08-01

    It has been known for some time that millimeter waves can pas through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at Ka band can be an advantage. The penetration through clothing is increased and the cost of the equipment when compared to operation at W band. In this paper a Ka band mechanically scanned imager designed for security scanning is discussed. This imager is based on the folded conical scan technology previously reported. It is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene and printed circuit board. The trade off between image spatial resolution and the number of receivers will be described and solutions, which minimize this number discussed.

  18. Towards the Realization of Graphene Based Flexible Radio Frequency Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthi N. Yogeesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on our progress and development of high speed flexible graphene field effect transistors (GFETs with high electron and hole mobilities (~3000 cm2/V·s, and intrinsic transit frequency in the microwave GHz regime. We also describe the design and fabrication of flexible graphene based radio frequency system. This RF communication system consists of graphite patch antenna at 2.4 GHz, graphene based frequency translation block (frequency doubler and AM demodulator and graphene speaker. The communication blocks are utilized to demonstrate graphene based amplitude modulated (AM radio receiver operating at 2.4 GHz.

  19. Integrated 60GHz RF Beamforming in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yikun; Baltus, P.G.M.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The 60GHz band is promising for applications such as high-speed short-range wireless personal area network (WPAN), real time video streaming at rates of several Gbps, automotive radar, and mm-Wave imaging, since it provides a large amount of bandwidth that can freely (i.e. without a license) be used

  20. THE GBT 67–93.6 GHz SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY OF ORION-KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayer, D. T.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Meijer, M.; Hough, L.; White, S.; Norrod, R.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Simon, R.; Woody, D.; Whitehead, M.; Ford, P.; Mello, M.; Bloss, M.; Srikanth, S.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a 67–93.6 GHz spectral line survey of Orion-KL with the new 4 mm Receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The survey reaches unprecedented depths and covers the low-frequency end of the 3 mm atmospheric window which has been relatively unexplored previously. The entire spectral-line survey is published electronically for general use by the astronomical community. The calibration and performance of the 4 mm Receiver on the GBT is also summarized

  1. Magnetic films for GHz applications (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenivski, V.; van Dover, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Tremendous growth of the communications industry and the increasingly high demand for low-cost light-weight/small-size products drive technology to designs with a high degree of integration. In particular, planar inductors used in integrated circuits with significantly improved inductance per unit area characteristics are needed for further miniaturization of cellular phones operating at 0.95 and 1.9 GHz. Little has been done, however, to use magnetic films to improve the performance and/or reduce size of planar magnetic flux devices. The successful thin-film material would have a high ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency (well above the operating frequency of the device), large permaeability, and low magnetic loss, and very importantly be technologically attractive, i.e., be process compatible with IC technology and have as few preparation steps as possible. Here, we report on fabrication of metallic ferromagnetic films of CoNbZr, CoNbZr/AlN mulitilayered laminates, and exchange-biased structures suitable for GHz applications. Lamination of CoNbZr with thin insulating layers of AlN is shown to significantly improve the microstructure and dc magnetic properties of the films having thicknesses >0.2 μm, as well as to be effective in suppressing eddy current losses at frequencies up to 1 endash 2 GHz. We use exchange biasing to increase the FMR frequency of soft CoNbZr. In-plane unidirectional anisotropy fields of ∼50 Oe are achieved, which result in FMR frequencies >2 GHz. Permeability values of ∼200 with quality factors of ∼10 at 1 GHz are demonstrated. The films are deposited at room temperature and require no postdeposition processing. Application of these films in planar inductors is discussed.copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Wideband propagation measurements at 30.3 GHz through a pecan orchard in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, Peter B.; Jones, David L.; Espeland, Richard H.

    1992-09-01

    Wideband propagation measurements were made in a pecan orchard in Texas during April and August of 1990 to examine the propagation characteristics of millimeter-wave signals through vegetation. Measurements were made on tree obstructed paths with and without leaves. The study presents narrowband attenuation data at 9.6 and 28.8 GHz as well as wideband impulse response measurements at 30.3 GHz. The wideband probe (Violette et al., 1983), provides amplitude and delay of reflected and scattered signals and bit-error rate. This is accomplished using a 500 MBit/sec pseudo-random code to BPSK modulate a 28.8 GHz carrier. The channel impulse response is then extracted by cross correlating the received pseudo-random sequence with a locally generated replica.

  3. 60 GHz wireless data transfer for tracker readout systems—first studies and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmeier, S.; Berger, N.; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Wiedner, D.

    2014-01-01

    To allow highly granular trackers to contribute to first level trigger decisions or event filtering, a fast readout system with very high bandwidth is required. Space, power and material constraints, however, pose severe limitations on the maximum available bandwidth of electrical or optical data transfers. A new approach for the implementation of a fast readout system is the application of a wireless data transfer at a carrier frequency of 60 GHz. The available bandwidth of several GHz allows for data rates of multiple Gbps per link. 60 GHz transceiver chips can be produced with a small form factor and a high integration level. A prototype transceiver currently under development at the University of Heidelberg is briefly described in this paper. To allow easy and fast future testing of the chip's functionality, a bit error rate test has been developed with a commercially available transceiver. Crosstalk might be a big issue for a wireless readout system with many links in a tracking detector. Direct crosstalk can be avoided by using directive antennas, linearly polarized waves and frequency channeling. Reflections from tracking modules can be reduced by applying an absorbing material like graphite foam. Properties of different materials typically used in tracking detectors and graphite foam in the 60 GHz frequency range are presented. For data transmission tests, links using commercially available 60 GHz transmitters and receivers are used. Studies regarding crosstalk and the applicability of graphite foam, Kapton horn antennas and polarized waves are shown

  4. Traveling-Wave Maser for 32 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, James; Clauss, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The figure depicts a traveling-wave ruby maser that has been designed (though not yet implemented in hardware) to serve as a low-noise amplifier for reception of weak radio signals in the frequency band of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The design offers significant improvements over previous designs of 32-GHz traveling-wave masers. In addition, relative to prior designs of 32-GHz amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors, this design affords higher immunity to radio-frequency interference and lower equivalent input noise temperature. In addition to the basic frequency-band and low-noise requirements, the initial design problem included a requirement for capability of operation in a closed-cycle helium refrigerator at a temperature .4 K and a requirement that the design be mechanically simplified, relative to prior designs, in order to minimize the cost of fabrication and assembly. Previous attempts to build 32- GHz traveling-wave masers involved the use of metallic slow-wave structures comprising coupled transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-mode resonators that were subject to very tight tolerances and, hence, were expensive to fabricate and assemble. Impedance matching for coupling signals into and out of these earlier masers was very difficult. A key feature of the design is a slow-wave structure, the metallic portions of which would be mechanically relatively simple in that, unlike in prior slow-wave structures, there would be no internal metal steps, irises, or posts. The metallic portions of the slow-wave structure would consist only of two rectangular metal waveguide arms. The arms would contain sections filled with the active material (ruby) alternating with evanescent-wave sections. This structure would be transparent in both the signal-frequency band (the aforementioned range of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz) and the pump-frequency band (65.75 to 66.75 GHz), and would impose large slowing factors in both frequency bands. Resonant ferrite isolators would be placed in the

  5. Use of the 37-38 GHz and 40-40.5 GHz Ka-bands for Deep Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, David; Hastrup, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    This paper covers a wide variety of issues associated with the implementation and use of these frequency bands for deep space communications. Performance issues, such as ground station pointing stability, ground antenna gain, antenna pattern, and propagation effects such as due to atmospheric, charged-particle and space loss at 37 GHz, will be addressed in comparison to the 32 GHz Ka-band deep space allocation. Issues with the use of and competition for this spectrum also will be covered. The state of the hardware developed (or proposed) for operating in this frequency band will be covered from the standpoint of the prospects for achieving higher data rates that could be accommodated in the available bandwidth. Hardware areas to be explored include modulators, digital-to-analog converters, filters, power amplifiers, receivers, and antennas. The potential users of the frequency band will be explored as well as their anticipated methods to achieve the potential high data rates and the implications of the competition for bandwidth.

  6. 105 GHz Notch Filter Design for Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A millimeter-wave notch filter with 105-GHz center frequency, >20-GHz passband coverage, and 1-GHz rejection bandwidth has been constructed. The design is based on a fundamental rectangular waveguide with cylindrical cavities coupled by narrow iris gaps, i.e., small elongated holes of negligible...

  7. Superconducting ECR ion source: From 24-28 GHz SECRAL to 45 GHz fourth generation ECR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Zhang, W. H.; Lu, W.; Wu, W.; Wu, B. M.; Sabbi, G.; Juchno, M.; Hafalia, A.; Ravaioli, E.; Xie, D. Z.

    2018-05-01

    The development of superconducting ECR source with higher magnetic fields and higher microwave frequency is the most straight forward path to achieve higher beam intensity and higher charge state performance. SECRAL, a superconducting third generation ECR ion source, is designed for 24-28 GHz microwave frequency operation with an innovative magnet configuration of sextupole coils located outside the three solenoids. SECRAL at 24 GHz has already produced a number of record beam intensities, such as 40Ar12+ 1.4 emA, 129Xe26+ 1.1 emA, 129Xe30+ 0.36 emA, and 209Bi31+ 0.68 emA. SECRAL-II, an upgraded version of SECRAL, was built successfully in less than 3 years and has recently been commissioned at full power of a 28 GHz gyrotron and three-frequency heating (28 + 45 + 18 GHz). New record beam intensities for highly charged ion production have been achieved, such as 620 eμA 40Ar16+, 15 eμA 40Ar18+, 146 eμA 86Kr28+, 0.5 eμA 86Kr33+, 53 eμA 129Xe38+, and 17 eμA 129Xe42+. Recent beam test results at SECRAL and SECRAL II have demonstrated that the production of more intense highly charged heavy ion beams needs higher microwave power and higher frequency, as the scaling law predicted. A 45 GHz superconducting ECR ion source FECR (a first fourth generation ECR ion source) is being built at IMP. FECR will be the world's first Nb3Sn superconducting-magnet-based ECR ion source with 6.5 T axial mirror field, 3.5 T sextupole field on the plasma chamber inner wall, and 20 kW at a 45 GHz microwave coupling system. This paper will focus on SECRAL performance studies at 24-28 GHz and technical design of 45 GHz FECR, which demonstrates a technical path for highly charged ion beam production from 24 to 28 GHz SECRAL to 45 GHz FECR.

  8. 10 GHz ECRIS for Warsaw Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sudlitz, K

    1999-01-01

    Cusp type, 10 GHz ECRIS has been built and tested earlier. For obtaining intensive beams, more relevant for cyclotron, cusp geometry has been replaced by hexapole. Discharge chamber (stainless steel, 50 mm diameter, 250 mm long) is an extension of a coaxial line, feeding RF (9,6 GHz, up to 200 W) to the plasma. The NdFeB hexapole (0,52 T on the surface) has been used. The axial magnetic field is created by water cooled coils. The axial injection line dedicated to K160 isochronous heavy ion cyclotron has been constructed. The line consists of Glaser lenses, double focusing magnet, solenoid and mirror type inflector. The system provides sufficient transmission of the beam from ECR ion source to the firsts orbits of the cyclotron for m/q ranging from 7 to 2. After successful initial tests which were done in July 1997 the ECRIS serves as an external source for Warsaw Cyclotron.

  9. A 60-GHz interferometer with a local oscillator integrated antenna array for divertor simulation experiments on GAMMA 10/PDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohagura, J., E-mail: kohagura@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, M.; Shima, Y.; Nojiri, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Wang, X. [Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Ito, N. [National Institute of Technology, Ube College, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8555 (Japan); Nagayama, Y. [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    In conventional multichannel/imaging microwave diagnostics of interferometry, reflectometry, and electron cyclotron emission measurements, a local oscillator (LO) signal is commonly supplied to a receiver array via irradiation using LO optics. In this work, we present a 60-GHz interferometer with a new eight-channel receiver array, called a local oscillator integrated antenna array (LIA). An outstanding feature of LIA is that it incorporates a frequency quadrupler integrated circuit for LO supply to each channel. This enables simple and uniform LO supply to the receiver array using only a 15-GHz LO source and a coaxial cable transmission line instead of using an expensive 60-GHz source, LO optics, and a waveguide transmission line. The new interferometer system is first applied to measure electron line-averaged density inside the divertor simulation experimental module (D-module) on GAMMA 10/PDX tandem mirror device.

  10. 34 GHz, 45 MW pulsed magnicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezhevenko, Oleg A.; LaPointe, Michael A.; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav P.; Hirshfield, Jay L.; Serdobintsev, Gennady V.; Kuznetsov, Gennady I.; Persov, Boris Z.; Fix, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    A high efficiency, high power magnicon at 34.272 GHz has been designed and built as a microwave source to develop RF technology for a future multi-TeV electron-positron linear collider. The tube is designed to provide a peak output power of ∼45 MW in a 1 microsecond pulse, with a gain of 55 dB, using a 500 kV, 220 A, 1 mm-diameter electron beam. The status of the tube itself as well as the near-term experimental program is presented

  11. Electron gun simulation for 95 GHz gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sinha, A.K., E-mail: uday.ceeri@gmail.com, E-mail: aksinha@ceeri.ernet.in [Gyrotron Laboratory, Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani (India); Purohit, L.P. [Department of Physics, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar (India)

    2011-07-01

    A triode type Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) for a 2 MW, 95 GHz Gyrotron has been designed by using commercially available code EGUN and another in-house developed code MIGANS. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE{sub 24.8} and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The operating voltages of the modulating anode and the accelerating anode are 61 kV and 85 kV respectively. The parametric dependences of modulating anode voltage and cathode magnetic field on the beam quality have also been studied. (author)

  12. Electron gun simulation for 95 GHz gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sinha, A.K.; Purohit, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    A triode type Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) for a 2 MW, 95 GHz Gyrotron has been designed by using commercially available code EGUN and another in-house developed code MIGANS. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE 24.8 and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The operating voltages of the modulating anode and the accelerating anode are 61 kV and 85 kV respectively. The parametric dependences of modulating anode voltage and cathode magnetic field on the beam quality have also been studied. (author)

  13. Surveys of radio sources at 5 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauliny-Toth, I.I.K.

    1977-01-01

    A number of surveys have been carried out at a frequency of 5 GHz at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomy (MPIFR) with the aim of determining the number-flux density relation for the sources detected and also of obtaining their radio spectra and optical identifications. The surveys fall into two categories: first, the strong source (S) surveys which are intended in due course to cover the whole northern sky and to be complete above a flux density of about 0.6 Jy; second, surveys of limited areas of sky down to lower levels of the flux density. (Auth.)

  14. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.

    2016-08-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  15. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  16. Comparison of Stationarity Regions for Wireless Channels From 2 GHz to 30 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Tan; Wang, Chengxiang; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication works in the frequencies above 6 gigahertz (GHz), with the system bandwidth up to 500 megahertz (MHz) or wider. In this case, the channel situations are dramatically different from the existing wireless channels in Third Generation/Fourth Generation (3G/4G...

  17. Chirped Pulse Spectrometer Operating at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Bray, Cédric; Hickson, Kevin; Fontanari, Daniele; Mouelhi, Meriem; Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin

    2018-01-01

    The combination of electronic sources operating at high frequencies and modern microwave instrumentation has enabled the recent development of chirped pulse spectrometers for the millimetre and THz bands. This type of instrument can operate at high resolution which is particularly suited to gas-phase rotational spectroscopy. The construction of a chirped pulse spectrometer operating at 200 GHz is described in detail while attention is paid to the phase stability and the data accumulation over many cycles. Validation using carbonyl sulphide has allowed the detection limit of the instrument to be established as function of the accumulation. A large number of OCS transitions were identified using a 10-GHz chirped pulse and include the six most abundant isotopologues, the weakest line corresponding to the fundamental R(17) transition of 16O13C33S with a line strength of 4.3 × 10-26 cm-1/(molecule cm-2). The linearity of the system response for different degrees of data accumulation and transition line strength was confirmed over four orders of magnitudes. A simple analysis of the time-domain data was demonstrated to provide the line-broadening coefficient without the need for conversion by a Fourier transform. Finally, the pulse duration is discussed and optimal values are given for both Doppler-limited and collisional regimes.

  18. GHz-rate optical parametric amplifier in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate optical parametric amplification operating at GHz-rates at telecommunications wavelengths using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide through the nonlinear optical process of four-wave mixing. We investigate how the parametric amplification scales with repetition rate. The ability to achieve amplification at GHz-repetition rates shows hydrogenated amorphous silicon’s potential for telecommunication applications and a GHz-rate optical parametric oscillator. (paper)

  19. Indoor Corridor Wideband Radio Propagation Measurements and Channel Models for 5G Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications at 19 GHz, 28 GHz, and 38 GHz Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Al-samman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents millimeter wave (mmWave measurements in an indoor environment. The high demands for the future applications in the 5G system require more capacity. In the microwave band below 6 GHz, most of the available bands are occupied; hence, the microwave band above 6 GHz and mmWave band can be used for the 5G system to cover the bandwidth required for all 5G applications. In this paper, the propagation characteristics at three different bands above 6 GHz (19, 28, and 38 GHz are investigated in an indoor corridor environment for line of sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS scenarios. Five different path loss models are studied for this environment, namely, close-in (CI free space path loss, floating-intercept (FI, frequency attenuation (FA path loss, alpha-beta-gamma (ABG, and close-in free space reference distance with frequency weighting (CIF models. Important statistical properties, such as power delay profile (PDP, root mean square (RMS delay spread, and azimuth angle spread, are obtained and compared for different bands. The results for the path loss model found that the path loss exponent (PLE and line slope values for all models are less than the free space path loss exponent of 2. The RMS delay spread for all bands is low for the LOS scenario, and only the directed path is contributed in some spatial locations. For the NLOS scenario, the angle of arrival (AOA is extensively investigated, and the results indicated that the channel propagation for 5G using high directional antenna should be used in the beamforming technique to receive the signal and collect all multipath components from different angles in a particular mobile location.

  20. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: The Receiver and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, D. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Burger, B.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope was designed to measure small-scale anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background and detect galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The instrument is located on Cerro Taco in the Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 5190 meters. A six-met.er off-axis Gregorian telescope feeds a new type of cryogenic receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The receiver features three WOO-element arrays of transition-edge sensor bolometers for observations at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz. Each detector array is fed by free space mm-wave optics. Each frequency band has a field of view of approximately 22' x 26'. The telescope was commissioned in 2007 and has completed its third year of operations. We discuss the major components of the telescope, camera, and related systems, and summarize the instrument performance.

  1. 94 GHz power amplifier MMIC development in state of the art MHEMT and AlGaN/GaN technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Bent, G. van der; Rodenburg, M.; Vliet, F.E. van; Quay, R.; Brückner, P.; Schwantuschke, D.; Jukkala, P.; Narhi, T.

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state power amplifiers at W-band (75 - 110 GHz) are attractive for the generation of local-oscillator (LO) power for super-heterodyne receivers operating at sub-millimetre wave frequencies, as needed for example in future space instruments for Earth observation. Apart from space applications

  2. A 24 GHz integrated SiGe BiCMOS vital signs detection radar front-end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Johansen, Tom K.; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a 24 GHz integrated front-end transceiver for vital signs detection (VSD) radars is described. The heterodyne radar transceiver integrates LO buffering and quadrature splitting circuits, up- and down-conversion SSB mixers and two cascaded receiver LNA's. The chip has been manufactured...

  3. Further development and data basis for safety and accident analyses of nuclear front end and back end facilities and actualization and revision of calculation methods for nuclear safety analyses. Final report; Weiterentwicklung von Methoden und Datengrundlagen zu Sicherheits- und Stoerfallanalysen fuer Anlagen der nuklearen Ver- und Entsorgung sowie Aktualisierung und Ueberpruefung von Rechenmethoden zu nuklearen Sicherheitsanalysen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilger, Robert; Peters, Elisabeth; Sommer, Fabian; Moser, Eberhard-Franz; Kessen, Sven; Stuke, Maik

    2016-07-15

    This report briefly describes the activities carried out under the project 3613R03350 on the GRS ''Handbook on Accident Analysis for Nuclear Front and Back End Facilities'', and in detail the continuing work on the revision and updating of the GRS ''Handbook on Criticality'', which here focused on fissile systems with plutonium and {sup 233}U. The in previous projects started and ongoing literature study on innovative fuel concepts is continued. Also described are the review and qualification of computational methods by research and active benchmark participation, and the results of tracking the state of science and technology in the field of computational methods for criticality safety analysis. Special in-depth analyzes of selected criticality-relevant occurrences in the past are also documented.

  4. Circular waveguide mode converters at 140 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trulsen, J.; Woskoboinikow, P.; Temkin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A unified derivation of the coupled mode equations for circular waveguide is presented. Also, approximate design criteria for TE/sub 0n/ to TE/sub 0n'/ axisymmetric, TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle, and TE 01 to TM 11 bend converters are reviewed. Numerically solving the coupled mode equations, an optimized set of mode converters has been designed for conversion of a 2 millimeter wave TE 03 mode into TE 11 . This set consists of axisymmetric TE 03 to TE 02 and TE 02 to TE 01 converters followed by a wriggle TE 01 to TE 11 converter. This mode converter set was fabricated and tested using a 3 kW, 137 GHz gyrotron. A TE 11 mode purity of better than 97% was achieved. The TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle converter was experimentally optimized for a measured conversion efficiency of better than 99% not including ohmic losses

  5. 30 GHz High Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I V

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous TM01 mode at 30 GHz. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and conveyed to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability along a single decelerator sector (600 m) and the active length of the structure to match the main linac RF power needs and layout. Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design.

  6. Quantum limited quasiparticle mixers at 100 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, C.A; Hu, Qing; Richards, P.L.; Worsham, A.H.; Prober, D.E.; Raeisaenen, A.V.

    1990-09-01

    We have made accurate measurements of the noise and gain of superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) mixers employing small area (1μm 2 ) Ta/Ta 2 O 5 /Pb 0.9 Bi 0.1 tunnel junctions. We have measured an added mixer noise of 0.61 +/- 0.31 quanta at 95.0 GHz, which is within 25 percent of the quantum limit of 0.5 quanta. We have carried out a detailed comparison between theoretical predictions of the quantum theory of mixing and experimentally measured noise and gain. We used the shapes of I-V curves pumped at the upper and lower sideband frequencies to deduce values of the embedding admittances at these frequencies. Using these admittances, the mixer noise and gain predicted by quantum theory are in excellent agreement with experiment. 21 refs., 9 figs

  7. Perancangan Dan Analisis Antena Mikrostrip Mimo Circular Pada Frekuensi 2.35 GHz Untuk Aplikasi LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam M.P Budi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available LTE (long Term Evolution merupakan teknologi komunikasi wireless generasi keempat yang saat ini sedang mengalami perkembangan. Salah satu perangkat yang sangat dibutuhkan pada teknologi tersebut adalah antenna. Teknik yang digunakan adalah teknik MIMO. Teknik MIMO menggunakan multiantena baik di sisi transmitter maupun di sisi receiver dengan koefisien korelasi di bawah 0.2. Untuk menghasilkan nilai koefisien korelasi di bawah 0.2, antena menggunakan ?/2 untuk jarak antar dua antena. Perancangan dan realisasi antena pada skripsi ini dipergunakan untuk aplikasi LTE yang bekerja pada frekuensi 2.3 GHz sampai 2.4 GHz. Simulasi antena menunjukkan frekuensi kerja yang direncanakan yaitu antara 2.3 GHz – 2.4 GHz, memiliki Return Loss -38.582 dB dan VSWR 1.0238 pada frekuensi tengah 2.350 MHz, gain sebesar 4.332 dBi. Hasil pengukuran antena satu terdapat pergeseran frekuensi dari 2.300 MHz - 2.400 MHz menjadi 2.310 - 2.384 MHz, antena  ini memiliki  Return  Loss -35.476 dB dan VSWR 1.034. Bandwidth 74 Mhz. Untuk antena dua terdapat pergeseran frekuensi menjadi 2.310 - 2.382 MHz, dengan Return  Loss -33.637 dB  dan VSWR  1.042. Bandwidth 72 MHz. Pada frekuensi 2.35 GHz gain sebesar 8 dBi dengan pola radiasi unidirectional dan polarisasi elips. Dari perancangan dan analisis tersebut, maka antena ini dapat digunakan sebagai antena teknologi LTE

  8. Flight, orientation, and homing abilities of honeybees following exposure to 2.45-GHz CW microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, N E; Westerdahl, B B

    1981-01-01

    Foraging-experienced honeybees retained normal flight, orientation, and memory functions after 30 minutes' exposure to 2.45-GHz CW microwaves at power densities from 3 to 50 mW/cm2. These experiments were conducted at power densities approximating and exceeding those that would be present above receiving antennas of the proposed solar power satellite (SPS) energy transmission system and for a duration exceeding that which honeybees living outside a rectenna might be expected to spend within the rectenna on individual foraging trips. There was no evidence that airborne invertebrates would be significantly affected during transient passage through microwaves associated with SPS ground-based microwave receiving stations.

  9. System analysis and energy model of 60GHz radio-triggered wireless sensor receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Wu, Y.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Milosevic, D.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Baltus, P.

    2013-01-01

    The optimization of a wireless system towards low power performance is not straightforward, it is the combination and trade-offs among different communication layers. In the physical layer, the frequency and the data rate are the fundamental parameters for optimizing power consumption in the

  10. Handoff Management in Radio over Fiber 60 GHz Indoor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bien, V.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Because of high data rate multimedia applications such as HD and UHDTV, online games, etc., the future home networks are expected to support short-range gigabit transmission. With the worldwide availability of 5 GHz spectrum at the 60 GHz band, it creates the opportunity for a promising air

  11. 77 FR 45558 - 4.9 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ..., our rules currently require 4.9 GHz licensees to ``cooperate in the selection and use of channels in... directional and thus can be represented as narrow paths on a coordination map; in contrast, they note, the low-power, less- directional, geographically-dispersed links in a 4.9 GHz network must be represented as a...

  12. Towards low-cost gigabit wireless systems at 60 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Haibing

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide availability of the huge amount of license-free spectral space in the 60 GHz band provides wide room for gigabit-per-second (Gb/s) wireless applications. A commercial (read: low-cost) 60-GHz transceiver will, however, provide limited system performance due to the stringent link budget

  13. The 1.4 GHZ light curve of GRB 970508

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, TJ; Wijers, RAMJ; Groot, PJ; Strom, RG; De Bruyn, AG; Kouveliotou, C; Robinson, CR; van Paradus, J

    1998-01-01

    We report on Westerbork 1.4 GHz radio observations of the radio counterpart to gamma-ray burst GRB 970508, between 0.80 and 138 days after this event. The 1.4 GHz light curve shows a transition from optically thick to thin emission between 39 and 54 days after the event. We derive the slope p of the

  14. 60 Gbit/s 400 GHz Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Asif, Rameez; Piels, Molly

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 400 GHz carrier wireless transmission system with real-time capable detection and demonstrate transmission of a 60 Gbit/s signal derived from optical Nyquist channels in a 12.5 GHz ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UD-WDM) grid and carrying QPSK...

  15. Rectenna Technology Program: Ultra light 2.45 GHz rectenna 20 GHz rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William C.

    1987-01-01

    The program had two general objectives. The first objective was to develop the two plane rectenna format for space application at 2.45 GHz. The resultant foreplane was a thin-film, etched-circuit format fabricated from a laminate composed of 2 mil Kapton F sandwiched between sheets of 1 oz copper. The thin-film foreplane contains half wave dipoles, filter circuits, rectifying Schottky diode, and dc bussing lead. It weighs 160 grams per square meter. Efficiency and dc power output density were measured at 85% and 1 kw/sq m, respectively. Special testing techniques to measure temperature of circuit and diode without perturbing microwave operation using the fluoroptic thermometer were developed. A second objective was to investigate rectenna technology for use at 20 GHz and higher frequencies. Several fabrication formats including the thin-film scaled from 2.45 GHz, ceramic substrate and silk-screening, and monolithic were investigated, with the conclusion that the monolithic approach was the best. A preliminary design of the monolithic rectenna structure and the integrated Schottky diode were made.

  16. A New 95 GHz Methanol Maser Catalog. I. Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenjin; Xu, Ye; Lu, Dengrong; Ju, Binggang; Li, Yingjie [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Chen, Xi [Center for Astrophysics, GuangZhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P., E-mail: wjyang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    2017-08-01

    The Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope has been used to search for 95 GHz (8{sub 0}–7{sub 1}A{sup +}) class I methanol masers toward 1020 Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) sources, leading to 213 detections. We have compared the line width of the methanol and HCO{sup +} thermal emission in all of the methanol detections, and on that basis, we find that 205 of the 213 detections are very likely to be masers. This corresponds to an overall detection rate of 95 GHz methanol masers toward our BGPS sample of 20%. Of the 205 detected masers, 144 (70%) are new discoveries. Combining our results with those of previous 95 GHz methanol maser searches, a total of 481 95 GHz methanol masers are now known. We have compiled a catalog listing the locations and properties of all known 95 GHz methanol masers.

  17. Indoor Propagation Measurement for WLAN Systems Operating in 2.45 GHz ISM Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pechac

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available For a planning of indoor Wireless LAN systems working in the ISMband, the signal propagation prediction is needed. In this article, themeasurement campaign based on two types of measurements at 2.45 GHz isintroduced. The first type of the measurement was a classicalnarrowband signal level measurement within indoor scenario withoutpresence of people. The aim of this measurement was to find empiricalparameters for COST231 Multi-Wall and One-Slope models. In order tostatistically describe the time varying nature of the received envelopeof the signal, at WLAN 2.45 GHz band, the second part of measurementcampaign was accomplished. In this case, the signal level was measuredusing commercial WLAN PCMCIA cards in two notebooks. Probabilitydensity functions and corresponding cumulative distribution functionswere set and discussed based on the specific locations and orientationof one of the notebooks. Results from both measurement campaigns werecompared and conclusions are drawn for the needs of practical planningof indoor WLAN systems coverage.

  18. Icecube: Spaceflight Validation of an 874-GHz Submillimeter Wave Radiometer for Ice Cloud Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Esper, J.; Ehsan, N.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Racette, P.

    2014-12-01

    Ice clouds play a key role in the Earth's radiation budget, mostly through their strong regulation of infrared radiation exchange. Submillimeter wave remote sensing offers a unique capability to improve cloud ice measurements from space. At 874 GHz cloud scattering produces a larger brightness temperature depression from cirrus than lower frequencies, which can be used to retrieve vertically-integrated cloud ice water path (IWP) and ice particle size. The objective of the IceCube project is to retire risks of 874-GHz receiver technology by raising its TRL from 5 to 7. The project will demonstrate, on a 3-U CubeSat in a low Earth orbit (LEO) environment, the 874-GHz receiver system with noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of ~0.2 K for 1-second integration and calibration error of 2.0 K or less as measured from deep-space observations. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is partnering with Virginia Diodes, Inc (VDI) to qualify commercially available 874-GHz receiver technology for spaceflight, and demonstrate the radiometer performance. The instrument (submm-wave cloud radiometer, or SCR), along with the CubeSat system developed and integrated by GSFC, will be ready for launch in two years. The instrument subsystem includes a reflector antenna, sub-millimeter wave mixer, frequency multipliers and stable local oscillator, an intermediate frequency (IF) circuit with noise injection, and data-power boards. The mixer and frequency multipliers are procured from VDI with GSFC insight into fabrication and testing processes to ensure scalability to spaceflight beyond TRL 7. The remaining components are a combination of GSFC-designed and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) at TRLs of 5 or higher. The spacecraft system is specified by GSFC and comprises COTS components including three-axis stabilizer and sun sensor, GPS receiver, deployable solar arrays, UHF radio, and 2 GB of on-board storage. The spacecraft and instrument are integrated and flight qualified

  19. RF-Frontend Design for Process-Variation-Tolerant Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Sakian, Pooyan; van Roermund, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    This book discusses a number of challenges faced by designers of wireless receivers, given complications caused by the shrinking of electronic and mobile devices circuitry into ever-smaller sizes and the resulting complications on the manufacturability, production yield, and the end price of the products.  The authors describe the impact of process technology on the performance of the end product and equip RF designers with countermeasures to cope with such problems.  The mechanisms by which these problems arise are analyzed in detail and novel solutions are provided, including design guidelines for receivers with robustness to process variations and details of circuit blocks that obtain the required performance level. Describes RF receiver frontends and their building blocks from a system- and circuit-level perspective; Provides system-level analysis of a generic RF receiver frontend with robustness to process variations; Includes details of CMOS circuit design at 60GHz and reconfigurable circuits at 60GHz...

  20. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chuantong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  1. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-07-01

    Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs) in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  2. TFTR 60 GHz alpha particle collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Gilmore, J.; Bretz, N.L.; Park, H.K.; Bindslev, H.

    1995-03-01

    A 60 GHz gyrotron collective Thomson Scattering alpha particle diagnostic has been implemented for the D-T period on TFM. Gyrotron power of 0.1-1 kW in pulses of up to 1 second can be launched in X-mode. Efficient corrugated waveguides are used with antennaes and vacuum windows of the TFTR Microwave Scattering system. A multichannel synchronous detector receiver system and spectrum analyzer acquire the scattered signals. A 200 Megasample/sec digitizer is used to resolve fine structure in the frequency spectrum. By scattering nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field, this experiment will take advantage of an enhancement of the scattered signal which results from the interaction of the alpha particles with plasma resonances in the lower hybrid frequency range. Significant enhancements are expected, which will make these measurements possible with gyrotron power less than 1 kW, while maintaining an acceptable signal to noise ratio. We hope to extract alpha particle density and velocity distribution functions from the data. The D and T fuel densities and temperatures may also be obtainable by measurement of the respective ion cyclotron harmonic frequencies

  3. Harmonisation of regulations on back-end activities - WENRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, B.; Theis, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) was established in 1999. The main objectives at that time were to develop a common approach to nuclear safety in Europe and to provide an independent capability to examine nuclear safety in applicant countries. Two working groups were launched to harmonise safety approaches between countries in Europe, the Reactor Harmonisation Working Group (RHWG) and the Working Group on Waste and Decommissioning (WGWD). In response to the events in Japanese reactors following the tsunami in 2011 WENRA established the contents of the 'NPP stress test'. Recent WENRA activities are concerned with inspection practices and research reactors. The WGWD has to date developed Safety Reference Levels (SRL) reports for decommissioning and storage according to its original mandate (WENRA, 2011, 2012a). WENRA members have experienced a benchmarking process and established national action plans for the modification of their national legal systems and practices according to benchmarking results. WGWD is currently working on developing a SRL report for disposal facilities for radioactive waste. A first draft version with SRLs for disposal was published in November 2012 on WENRA's web page, for comments from stakeholders. This paper presents the current status of development and elaborates on the role of WENRA WGWD work in harmonising approaches in Europe regarding development of the safety case for disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste. (authors)

  4. The back end of the fuel cycle and CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Dormuth, K.W.

    2001-01-01

    CANDU reactor operators have benefited from several advantages of the CANDU system and from AECL's experience, with regard to spent fuel handling, storage and disposal. AECL has over 20 years experience in development and application of medium-term storage and research and development on the disposal of used fuel. As a result of AECL's experience, short-term and medium-term storage and the associated handling of spent CANDU fuel are well proven and economic, with an extremely high degree of public and environmental protection. In fact, both short-term (water-pool) and medium-term (dry canister) storage of CANDU fuel are comparable or lower in cost per unit of energy than for PWRs. Both pool storage and dry spent fuel storage are fully proven, with many years of successful, safe operating experience. AECL's extensive R and D on the permanent disposal of spent-fuel has resulted in a defined concept for Canadian fuel disposal in crystalline rock. This concept was recently confirmed as ''technically acceptable'' by an independent environmental review panel. Thus, the Canadian program represents an international demonstration of the feasibility and safety of geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. Much of the technology behind the Canadian concept can be adapted to permanent land-based disposal strategies chosen by other countries. In addition, the Canadian development has established a baseline for CANDU fuel permanent disposal costs. Canadian and international work has shown that the cost of permanent CANDU fuel disposal is similar to the cost of LWR fuel disposal per unit of electricity produced. (author)

  5. Back-end of the research reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Gehard J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the status of topics and issues related to: (1) Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Return to the U.S., including policy, shipments and ports of entry, management sites, fees, storage technologies, contracts, actual shipment, and legal process, (2) UKAEA: MTR Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing, (3) COGEMA: MTR Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing, and (4) Intermediate Storage + Direct Disposal for Research Reactors. (author)

  6. The Back-end of User Centred Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2015-01-01

    User Centred Innovation (UCI) has during the past decade developed into a widely acknowledged approach to innovation. Yet, in spite of plethora of methods and tools for conducting UCI, companies continue to struggle in relation to creating the desired effect UCI. In this paper, it is proposed tha...... of such challenges calls for a new focus in UCI research on interorganizational alignment and cross-functional collaboration....

  7. Research reactor back-end options - decommissioning: a necessary consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, M.R.; Parry, D.R.; Smith, C.

    1998-01-01

    Decommissioning is a challenge, which all radioactive site licensees eventually need to face and research reactors are no exception. BNFL has completed numerous major decommissioning projects at its own operational sites and has undertaken similar works at customers' sites including the decommissioning of the Universities Research Reactor (URR), Risley and the ICI TRIGA 1-Mk I Reactor at Billingham. Based on the execution of such projects BNFL has gained an understanding of the variety of customer requirements and the effectiveness of specific decommissioning techniques for research reactors. This paper addresses factors to be considered when reviewing the way forward following shut down and how these affect the final decisions for fuel management and the extent of decommissioning. Case studies are described from BNFL's recent experience decommissioning both the URR and ICI TRIGA reactors. (author)

  8. Impact of recovery actions on IPE back-end results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, Ching; Kabadi, Jay

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity study of the impact of various recovery/accident management actions on the IPE results. The human actions studied include: (1) RWST replenishment; (2) depressurization; (3) AC power recovery; (4) Component Cooling Water (CCW) cross-connection; and (5) manual actuation of containment spray (cavity flooding). The results indicate that the total frequency of severe accident sequences involving containment failure is lower than 1.0 x E-6/yr when all these recovery/accident management actions are taken credit. It is concluded that with appropriate considerations of operator actions in Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) and future accident management policy, the uncertain phenomenological issues may not play as important a role as they do now. Although the actual nonrecovery probability used in this study may be refined during future implementation of the accident management policy, the results of this study indicate that the frequency of severe accidents in which the reactor vessel fails is low when the recovery/accident management actions are taken credit. It is also clear from the study that with major recovery actions (such as RWST replenishment, AC power recovery and depressurization) being taken credit, additional accident management type of actions (e.g. manual actuation of containment spray and CCW cross-connection) may not be as effective in reducing the risk

  9. Visualization for Hyper-Heuristics: Back-End Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Luke [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Modern society is faced with increasingly complex problems, many of which can be formulated as generate-and-test optimization problems. Yet, general-purpose optimization algorithms may sometimes require too much computational time. In these instances, hyperheuristics may be used. Hyper-heuristics automate the design of algorithms to create a custom algorithm for a particular scenario, finding the solution significantly faster than its predecessor. However, it may be difficult to understand exactly how a design was derived and why it should be trusted. This project aims to address these issues by creating an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) for hyper-heuristics and an easy-to-understand scientific visualization for the produced solutions. To support the development of this GUI, my portion of the research involved developing algorithms that would allow for parsing of the data produced by the hyper-heuristics. This data would then be sent to the front-end, where it would be displayed to the end user.

  10. Back end of the fuel cycle: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.; Judson, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    Present US nonproliferation policy may be counterproductive. Among other measures, the authors propose that the US government can help reduce the possibility of near-term international trade in plutonium by offering to take back permanently spent fuel of US origin on the same basis on which it will accept fuel from domestic utilities. Such an offer would be so economically attractive that it would force other competing nations, such as France, to offer to take back spent fuel on the same basis. This measure would greatly reduce, if not eliminate, future international agreements for reprocessing that involve international trade in plutonium. The authors feel that nuclear power will be of great benefit to the world's populace and, properly deployed, will decrease world tensions and increase world security. Reprocessing endeavors and international plutonium trade are uneconomic today; they involve unnecessary risks and should not be pursued. On the other hand, energy security is so vital to world peace that it is important to continue development of reprocessing and breeder technology, with the aim of developing systems that meet economic, energy security, and nonproliferation goals for the future

  11. Current options for the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue Ion

    2000-01-01

    Two strategic issues facing the nuclear industry are the claimed risks of (a) weapons proliferation, and (b) environmental contamination; both affect the choice between open and closed fuel cycles. The choice for plutonium lies between supposedly permanent disposal and bumming/utilisation as a fuel. Disposal while never irretrievable could create an economically decisive obstacle to constructive use of material of great value for future global energy. Utilisation in energy supply will both restrict access to separated stockpiles and allow the inventory size to be managed with efficient use of this energy resource. Recycling recovers valuable materials for further use and allows the spent fuel stockpile to be managed. However, risk of diversion to weapon proliferation depends not on the extent of plutonium stocks but on access to a minute proportion of them, and would not be directly altered by any foreseeable increase or reduction in the well managed inventory. A key issue is to decide how in future to recover from the fuel cycle the accessible stock required to sustain it. The fear of environmental contamination is principally based on increasingly disputed health risks from radiation well below the variation in natural levels. Neither this nor the proliferation issue appears to justify insisting on the once through cycle and so wasting a finite resource that will almost certainly be needed in the coming decades. (author)

  12. The nuclear fuel cycle back-end: purposes and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    2010-01-01

    The recycling of spent fuels appears as the only way to get a sustainable nuclear energy. Uranium and plutonium recycling technologies are already implemented in France but they require to be upgraded in order to follow the technical evolutions of reactors. The research topics concerning recycling are: -) the adaptation of recycling technologies to higher burn-ups and to the use of Mox fuels, -) to improve the recycling technologies in terms of waste production, -) to prepare the multi-recycling of spent fuels from fast reactors, and -) to go ahead in the recycling policy by separating minor actinides in order to transmute them. (A.C.)

  13. Analytical chemistry challenges at the back end of fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panja, S.; Dhami, P.S.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Among the various nuclear fuel cycle activities, spent fuel reprocessing and nuclear waste management play key role for adaptation of closed fuel cycle option and success of three stage Indian nuclear power programme. Reprocessing mainly aims to recover fissile and fertile component from spent fuel using well known PUREX/THOREX processes. Waste management deals with all the activities which are essential for safe management of radioactive wastes that get generated during entire nuclear fuel cycle operation

  14. Topical papers on the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Contributions of five countries discuss problems connected with the treatment of spent fuel elements and radioactive waste. Emphasis is placed on the necessary capacities and the particularities of servicing contracts. Some examples of existing contracts are discussed

  15. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  16. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  17. The 17 GHz active region number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A. [IP and D-Universidade do Vale do Paraíba-UNIVAP, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Costa, J. E. R. [CEA, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A. [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo (Brazil); Shibasaki, K., E-mail: caius@univap.br [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  18. A program of high power microwave source research and development from 8 GHz to 600 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Bidwell, S.; Booske, J.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Kehs, R.A.; Latham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Lou, W.R.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Minami, K.; Radack, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    We review research results both on a plasma filled, backward wave oscillator (BWO), and on a free electron laser (FEL) driven by a sheet electron beam. Recently, it was demonstrated that a plasma filled BWO driven by an intense relativistic electron beam can generate hundreds of megawatts of microwave radiation at an unusually high efficiency of 40% compared with a typical efficiency of ∼10% in a BWO without a background plasma. Furthermore, the enhanced efficiency can be maintained even for large electron beam currents approaching the vacuum space charge limiting current, and we anticipate this might hold even for larger current values. Theoretical studies and numerical simulations indicate that the enhanced efficiency as well as a lower value for the start oscillation current in the linear regime may be due to the finite length of the BWO circuit coupled with modification of the dispersion relation due to the background plasma. In the case of our FEL studies, we present designs for a 1 MW, CW, tapered FEL amplifier operating at frequencies of 280 GHz and 560 GHz. A short wiggler period (ell w ∼ 1 cm) is combined with a sheet beam of electrons having energy ∼1 MeV. Depressed collector techniques would allow the main power supply rating to be reduced to ∼200 kV. Efficient sheet beam transport (>99%) has been demonstrated through 10 wiggler periods, and transport through 60 wiggler periods is currently under study. Finally, plans for a proof-of-principle tapered FEL amplifier experiment at 94 GHz are presented. 8 refs., 7 figs

  19. The 30/20 GHz communications system functional requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siperko, C. M.; Frankfort, M.; Markham, R.; Wall, M.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of 30/20 GHz usage in satellite systems to be used in support of projected communication requirements of the 1990's are defined. A requirements analysis which develops projected market demand for satellite services by general and specialized carriers and an analysis of the impact of propagation and system constraints on 30/20 GHz operation are included. A set of technical performance characteristics for the 30/20 GHz systems which can serve the resulting market demand and the experimental program necessary to verify technical and operational aspects of the proposed systems is also discussed.

  20. Packaging of microwave integrated circuits operating beyond 100 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, L.; Daniel, E.; Sokolov, V.; Sommerfeldt, S.; Bublitz, J.; Olson, K.; Gilbert, B.; Chow, D.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods of packaging high speed (75-330 GHz) InP HEMT MMIC devices are discussed. Coplanar wirebonding is presented with measured insertion loss of less than 0.5dB and return loss better than -17 dB from DC to 110 GHz. A motherboard/daughterboard packaging scheme is presented which supports minimum loss chains of MMICs using this coplanar wirebonding method. Split waveguide block packaging approaches are presented in G-band (140-220 GHz) with two types of MMIC-waveguide transitions: E-plane probe andantipodal finline.

  1. Comparison of OQPSK and CPM for Communications at 60 GHz with a Nonideal Front End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Nsenga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-range digital communications at 60 GHz have recently received a lot of interest because of the huge bandwidth available at those frequencies. The capacity offered to the users could finally reach 2 Gbps, enabling the deployment of new multimedia applications. However, the design of analog components is critical, leading to a possible high nonideality of the front end (FE. The goal of this paper is to compare the suitability of two different air interfaces characterized by a low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR to support communications at 60 GHz. On one hand, we study the offset-QPSK (OQPSK modulation combined with a channel frequency-domain equalization (FDE. On the other hand, we study the class of continuous phase modulations (CPM combined with a channel time-domain equalizer (TDE. We evaluate their performance in terms of bit error rate (BER considering a typical indoor propagation environment at 60 GHz. For both air interfaces, we analyze the degradation caused by the phase noise (PN coming from the local oscillators; and by the clipping and quantization errors caused by the analog-to-digital converter (ADC; and finally by the nonlinearity in the PA.

  2. Comparison of OQPSK and CPM for Communications at 60 GHz with a Nonideal Front End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsenga Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-range digital communications at 60 GHz have recently received a lot of interest because of the huge bandwidth available at those frequencies. The capacity offered to the users could finally reach 2 Gbps, enabling the deployment of new multimedia applications. However, the design of analog components is critical, leading to a possible high nonideality of the front end (FE. The goal of this paper is to compare the suitability of two different air interfaces characterized by a low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR to support communications at 60 GHz. On one hand, we study the offset-QPSK (OQPSK modulation combined with a channel frequency-domain equalization (FDE. On the other hand, we study the class of continuous phase modulations (CPM combined with a channel time-domain equalizer (TDE. We evaluate their performance in terms of bit error rate (BER considering a typical indoor propagation environment at 60 GHz. For both air interfaces, we analyze the degradation caused by the phase noise (PN coming from the local oscillators; and by the clipping and quantization errors caused by the analog-to-digital converter (ADC; and finally by the nonlinearity in the PA.

  3. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  4. Feasibility of automotive radar at frequencies beyond 100 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Mike; Hasch, Jürgen; Blöcher, Hans Ludwig; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Radar sensors are used widely in modern driver assistance systems. Available sensors nowadays often operate in the 77 GHz band and can accurately provide distance, velocity, and angle information about remote objects. Increasing the operation frequency allows improving the angular resolution and accuracy. In this paper, the technical feasibility to move the operation frequency beyond 100 GHz is discussed, by investigating dielectric properties of radome materials, the attenuation of rain and ...

  5. Multiparty quantum secret sharing based on GHZ states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Hwang, Cheng-Chieh [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701 Taiwan (China); Li, Chuan-Ming, E-mail: hwangtl@ismail.csie.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Information Management, Shu-Zen College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung, 821 Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    Gao (2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 52 421-4) has proposed an efficient multiparty quantum secret sharing (MQSS) with two-photon three-dimensional Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. This work shows that a similar idea can also be used to construct an MQSS using the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Compared to other MQSSs using GHZ-related states, the newly proposed protocol is more efficient in the aspect of qubit utilization.

  6. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter K-Band (26 GHz) Signal Analysis: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D. D.; Heckman, D.

    2017-11-01

    Lower frequency telemetry bands are becoming more limited in bandwidth due to increased competition between flight projects and other entities. Higher frequency bands offer significantly more bandwidth and hence the prospect of much higher data rates. Future or prospective flight projects considering higher frequency bands such as Ka-band (32 GHz) for deep-space and K-band (26 GHz) for near-Earth telemetry links are interested in past flight experience with available received data at these frequencies. Given that there is increased degradation due to the atmosphere at these higher frequencies, there is an effort to retrieve flight data of received signal strength to analyze performance under a variety of factors. Such factors include elevation angle, season, and atmospheric conditions. This article reports on the analysis findings of over 10 million observations of received signal strength of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft collected between 2014 and 2017. We analyzed these data to characterize link performance over a wide range of weather conditions, season, and as a function of elevation angle. Based on this analysis, we have confirmed the safety of using a 3-dB margin for preflight planning purposes. These results suggest that a 3-dB margin with respect to adverse conditions will ensure a 98 to 99 percent data return under 95 percent weather conditions at 26 GHz (K-band), thus confirming expectations from link budget predictions. The results suggest that this margin should be applicable for all elevation angles above 10 deg. Thus, missions that have sufficient power for their desired data rates may opt to use 10 deg as their minimum elevation angle. Limitations of this study include climate variability and the fact that the observations require removal of hotbody noise in order to perform an adequate cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis, which is planned for a future comprehensive study. Flight projects may use other link margins

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear fuel makes the rounds: choosing a closed fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle processes, front-end of the fuel cycle: from crude ore to enriched uranium, back-end of the fuel cycle: the second life of nuclear fuel, and tomorrow: multiple recycling while generating increasingly less waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    France has opted for a policy of processing and recycling spent fuel. This option has already been deployed commercially since the 1990's, but will reach its full potential with the fourth generation. The CEA developed the processes in use today, and is pursuing research to improve, extend, and adapt these technologies to tomorrow's challenges. France has opted for a 'closed cycle' to recycle the reusable materials in spent fuel (uranium and plutonium) and optimise ultimate waste management. France has opted for a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle. Spent fuel is processed to recover the reusable materials: uranium and plutonium. The remaining components (fission products and minor actinides) are the ultimate waste. This info-graphic shows the main steps in the fuel cycle currently implemented commercially in France. From the mine to the reactor, a vast industrial system ensures the conversion of uranium contained in the ore to obtain uranium oxide (UOX) fuel pellets. Selective extraction, purification, enrichment - key scientific and technical challenges for the teams in the Nuclear Energy Division (DEN). The back-end stages of the fuel cycle for recycling the reusable materials in spent fuel and conditioning the final waste-forms have reached maturity. CEA teams are pursuing their research in support of industry to optimise these processes. Multi-recycle plutonium, make even better use of uranium resources and, over the longer term, explore the possibility of transmuting the most highly radioactive waste: these are the challenges facing future nuclear systems. (authors)

  8. An applicable 5.8 GHz wireless power transmission system with rough beamforming to Project Loon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jun Ahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent, Google proposed the Project Loon being developed with the mission of providing internet access to rural and remote areas using high-altitude balloons. In this paper, we describe an applicable prototype of 5.8 GHz wireless power transmission system with rough beamforming method to Project Loon. From the measurement results, transmit beamforming phased array antenna can transmit power more efficiently compared to a horn antenna and array antenna without beamforming with increasing the transmission distance. For the transmission distance of 1000 mm, transmit beamforming phased array antenna can obtain higher received power about 1.46 times compared to array antenna without transmit beamforming.

  9. Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Christopher T; Trotter, Douglas C; Zortman, William A; Starbuck, Andrew L; Fisher, Moz; Watts, Michael R; Davids, Paul S

    2011-12-05

    We present a compact 1.3 × 4 μm2 Germanium waveguide photodiode, integrated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process flow. This photodiode has a best-in-class 3 dB cutoff frequency of 45 GHz, responsivity of 0.8 A/W and dark current of 3 nA. The low intrinsic capacitance of this device may enable the elimination of transimpedance amplifiers in future optical data communication receivers, creating ultra low power consumption optical communications.

  10. Joint Remote State Preparation of a Single-Atom Qubit State via a GHZ Entangled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Qi; Yao, Fengwei; Lin, Xiaochen; Gong, Lihua

    2018-04-01

    We proposed a physical protocol for the joint remote preparation of a single-atom qubit state via a three-atom entangled GHZ-type state previously shared by the two senders and one receiver. Only rotation operations of single-atom, which can be achieved though the resonant interaction between the two-level atom and the classical field, are required in the scheme. It shows that the splitting way of the classical information of the secret qubit not only determines the success of reconstruction of the secret qubit, but also influences the operations of the senders.

  11. Design of 2.5 GHz broad bandwidth microwave bandpass filter at operating frequency of 10 GHz using HFSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, S. E.; Jusoh, M. A.; Mahmud, S. N. S.; Zamani, A. H.

    2018-04-01

    Development of low losses, small size and broad bandwidth microwave bandpass filter operating at higher frequencies is an active area of research. This paper presents a new route used to design and simulate microwave bandpass filter using finite element modelling and realized broad bandwidth, low losses, small dimension microwave bandpass filter operating at 10 GHz frequency using return loss method. The filter circuit has been carried out using Computer Aid Design (CAD), Ansoft HFSS software and designed with four parallel couple line model and small dimension (10 × 10 mm2) using LaAlO3 substrate. The response of the microwave filter circuit showed high return loss -50 dB at operating frequency at 10.4 GHz and broad bandwidth of 2.5 GHz from 9.5 to 12 GHz. The results indicate the filter design and simulation using HFSS is reliable and have the opportunity to transfer from lab potential experiments to the industry.

  12. TRAO Multibeam Receiver System and Key Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngung

    2017-06-01

    Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) is now equipped with a main controling computer with VxWorks operating system, a new receiver system, and a new backend system. The new receiver system(TRAO-SEQUOIA) is equipped with high-performing 16-pixel MMIC pre-amplifiers in a 4x4 array, operating within 85~115 GHz frequency range. The system temperature ranges from 150 K (86~110 GHz) to 450 K (115 GHz). The 2nd IF modules with the narrow band and the 8 channels with 4 FFT spectrometers allow to observe 2 frequencies simultaneously within the 85~100 or 100~115 GHz bands for all 16 pixels of the receiver. Radome replacement was completed successfully as of February 2017. In addition, a new servo system will be installed in 2017 summer. We provide OTF (On-The-Fly) as a main observing mode, and position switching mode is available as well. The backend system (FFT spectrometer) provides the 4096x2 channels with fine velocity resolution of about 0.05 km/sec (15 kHz) per channel, and their full spectra bandwidth is 60 MHz. Beam efficiency of the TRAO was measured to be about 46% - 54% (with less than 2% error) between 86 and 115 GHz bands and pointing errors of the 14m telescope were found be 4.4 arcsec in AZ direction and 6 arcsec in EL direction. Generally, we allocate 18 hours of telescope time a day from January to the middle of May, and from October to December. Three Key Science Programs had been selected in 2015 fall and they are supposed to have higher priority for telescope time.

  13. 45-GHz and 60-GHz 90 nm CMOS power amplifiers with a fully symmetrical 8-way transformer power combiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengdong JIANG; Kaizhe GUO; Peng HUANG; Yiming FAN; Chenxi ZHAO; Yongling BAN; Jun LIU; Kai KANG

    2017-01-01

    In this paper,45 GHz and 60 GHz power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power have been successfully designed by using 90 nm CMOS process.The 45 GHz (60 GHz) PA consists of two (four) differential stages.The sizes of transistors have been designed in an appropriate way so as to trade-off gain,efficiency and stability.Due to limited supply voltage and low breakdown voltage of CMOS MOSFET compared with the traditional Ⅲ-Ⅴ technologies,the technique of power combining has been applied to achieve a high output power.In particular,a novel 8-way distributed active transformer power combiner has been proposed for realizing such mm-wave PA.The proposed transformer combiner with a fully symmetrical layout can improve its input impedance balance at mm-wave frequency regime significantly.Taking its advantages of this novel transformer based power combiner,our realized 45 GHz (60 GHz) mm-wave PA has achieved the gain of 20.3 dB (16.8 dB),the maximum PAE of 14.5% (13.4%) and the saturated output power of 21 dBm (21 dBm) with the 1.2 V supply voltage.

  14. 77 FR 48097 - Operation of Radar Systems in the 76-77 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... modify the emission limits for vehicular radar systems operating within the 76-77 GHz band. Specifically.... 15.253 of the rules for vehicular radar systems operating in the 76-77 GHz band. Vehicular radars can... sensors operating in the 76-77 GHz band, the spectrum shall be investigated up to 231 GHz. (f) Fundamental...

  15. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  16. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Incorporation of ancillary terrestrial component base station into an L-band mobile-satellite service system... ancillary terrestrial component (ATC) base stations as defined in § 25.201 at its own risk and subject to... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.136 Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz...

  17. 60-GHz Millimeter-Wave Radio: Principle, Technology, and New Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Guo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide opening of a massive amount of unlicensed spectra around 60 GHz has triggered great interest in developing affordable 60-GHz radios. This interest has been catalyzed by recent advance of 60-GHz front-end technologies. This paper briefly reports recent work in the 60-GHz radio. Aspects addressed in this paper include global regulatory and standardization, justification of using the 60-GHz bands, 60-GHz consumer electronics applications, radio system concept, 60-GHz propagation and antennas, and key issues in system design. Some new simulation results are also given. Potentials and problems are explained in detail.

  18. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  19. A 10.6mm3 Fully-Integrated, Wireless Sensor Node with 8GHz UWB Transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Gyouho; Lee, Yoonmyung; Foo, Zhiyoong; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David; Wentzloff, David

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a complete, autonomous, wireless temperature sensor, fully encapsulated in a 10.6mm 3 volume. The sensor includes solar energy harvesting with an integrated 2 μAh battery, optical receiver for programming, microcontroller and memory, 8GHz UWB transmitter, and miniaturized custom antennas with a wireless range of 7 meters. Full, stand-alone operation was demonstrated for the first time for a system of this size and functionality.

  20. Nasu 1.4 GHz Interferometer Transient Radio Source Survey and Improvement in Detection of Radio Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Nobuo; Kuniyoshi, Masaya; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Niinuma, Kotaro; Kida, Sumiko; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Asuma, Kuniyuki; Daishido, Tsuneaki

    2006-01-01

    We have surveyed 1.4GHz transient radio sources in Nasu Pulsar Observatory. To investigate such sources, both immediacy and accuracy are severely maintained. We have developed Data Transfer System and improved antenna control system. Now we have received the fringe data from transient radio source candidates. To get reliable information, we carefully analyze with Fringe Band Pass Filter software and Fringe Fitting method

  1. Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi

    2017-06-01

    We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.

  2. 60-GHz Millimeter-wave Over Fiber with Directly Modulated Dual-mode Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    A directly modulated dual-mode laser diode (DMLD) with third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) suppression is proposed for a 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber (MMWoF) architecture, enabling new fiber-wireless communication access to cover 4-km single-mode-fiber (SMF) and 3-m wireless 16-QAM OFDM transmissions. By dual-mode injection-locking, the throughput degradation of the DMLD is mitigated with saturation effect to reduce its threshold, IMD3 power and relative intensity noise to 7.7 mA, −85 dBm and −110.4 dBc/Hz, respectively, providing huge spurious-free dynamic range of 85.8 dB/Hz2/3. This operation suppresses the noise floor of the DMLD carried QPSK-OFDM spectrum by 5 dB. The optical receiving power is optimized to restrict the power fading effect for improving the bit error rate to 1.9 × 10−3 and the receiving power penalty to 1.1 dB. Such DMLD based hybrid architecture for 60-GHz MMW fiber-wireless access can directly cover the current optical and wireless networks for next-generation indoor and short-reach mobile communications. PMID:27297267

  3. Ray-Based Statistical Propagation Modeling for Indoor Corridor Scenarios at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demands for fifth-generation (5G communication systems, high frequency bands (above 6 GHz need to be adopted to provide additional spectrum. This paper investigates the characteristics of indoor corridor channels at 15 GHz. Channel measurements with a vector network analyzer in two corridors were conducted. Based on a ray-optical approach, a deterministic channel model covering both antenna and propagation characteristic is presented. The channel model is evaluated by comparing simulated results of received power and root mean square delay spread with the corresponding measurements. By removing the impact of directional antennas from the transmitter and receiver, a path loss model as well as small-scale fading properties for typical corridors is presented based on the generated samples from the deterministic model. Results show that the standard deviation of path loss variation is related to the Tx height, and placing the Tx closer to the ceiling leads to a smaller fluctuation of path loss.

  4. Experimental measurements on a 100 GHz frequency tunable quasioptical gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, S.; Tran, M.Q.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, T.M.; Bondeson, A.; Muggli, P.; Perrenoud, A.; Joedicke, B.; Mathews, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments on a 100 GHz quasioptical (QO) gyrotron operating at the fundamental (ω=Ω ce ) are described. Powers larger than 90 kW at an efficiency of about 12% were achieved. Depending on the electron beam parameters, the frequency spectrum of the output can be either single moded or multimoded. One of the main advantages of the QO gyrotron over the conventional gyrotron is its continuous frequency tunability. Various techniques to tune the output frequency have been tested, such as changing the mirror separation, the beam voltage, or the main magnetic field. Within the limitations of the present setup, 5% tunability was achieved. The QO gyrotron designed for operation at the fundamental frequency exhibits simultaneous emission at 100 GHz (fundamental) and 200 GHz (second harmonic). For a beam current of 4 A, 20% of the total rf power is emitted at the second harmonic

  5. Controlled and secure direct communication using GHZ state and teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, T.

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical scheme for controlled and secure direct communication is proposed. The communication is based on GHZ state and controlled quantum teleportation. After insuring the security of the quantum channel (a set of qubits in the GHZ state), alice encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states in the GHZ state and transmits them to Bob, supervised by Charlie using controlled quantum teleportation. Bob can read out the encoded messages directly by the measurement on his qubits. In this scheme, the controlled quantum teleportation transmits alice's message without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Because there is not a transmission of the qubit carrying the secret messages between Alice and Bob in the public channel, it is completely secure for controlled and direct secret communication if a perfect quantum channel is used. The feature of this scheme is that the communication between two sides depends on the agreement of a third side. (orig.)

  6. 125-GHz Microwave Signal Generation Employing an Integrated Pulse Shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an on-chip pulse shaper for 125-GHz microwave waveform generation. The pulse shaper is implemented based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform that has a structure with eight-tap finite impulse response (FIR) and there is an amplitude modulator on each...... of the generated microwave waveforms is larger than 100 GHz, and it has wide bandwidth when changing the time delay of the adjacent taps and compactness, capability for integration with electronics and small power consumption are also its merits.......We propose and experimentally demonstrate an on-chip pulse shaper for 125-GHz microwave waveform generation. The pulse shaper is implemented based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform that has a structure with eight-tap finite impulse response (FIR) and there is an amplitude modulator on each...

  7. A CMOS frequency generation module for 60-GHz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunyuan; Zhang Lei; Wang Hongrui; Qian He

    2012-01-01

    A frequency generation module for 60-GHz transceivers and phased array systems is presented in this paper. It is composed of a divide-by-2 current mode logic divider (CML) and a doubler in push-push configuration. Benefiting from the CML structure and push-push configuration, the proposed frequency generation module has a wide operating frequency range to cover process, voltage, and temperature variation. It is implemented in a 90-nm CMOS process, and occupies a chip area of 0.64 × 0.65 mm 2 including pads. The measurement results show that the designed frequency generation module functions properly with input frequency over 15 GHz to 25 GHz. The whole chip dissipates 12.1 mW from a 1.2-V supply excluding the output buffers. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Microwave sintering of zirconia toughened alumina at 28GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samandi, M.; Ji, H.; Miyake, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave radiation from a 10 kW, CW gyrotron operating at 28 GHz was employed to sinter 10% zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramic samples. It has been established that the use of millimetre wave radiation circumvents the difficulties encountered during the sintering of ceramics, i e. formation of hot spot, by radiation at industrially permissible frequency of 2.45GHz. Further, careful density measurement and microstructural characterisation of mm- wave and conventionally sintered samples by XRD, SEM and TEM has unequivocally demonstrated the effectiveness of mm-wave radiation for obtaining high density ceramics at lower sintering temperatures. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  9. 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation Through Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Abreu, Renato Barbosa; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth was exam......This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth...

  10. Characterization of a 300-GHz Transmission System for Digital Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlička, Martin; Salhi, Mohammed; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schrader, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the characterization of a 300-GHz transmission system for modern digital communications. The quality of the modulated signal at the output of the system (error vector magnitude, EVM) is measured using a vector signal analyzer. A method using a digital real-time oscilloscope and consecutive mathematical processing in a computer is shown for analysis of signals with bandwidths exceeding that of state-of-the-art vector signal analyzers. The uncertainty of EVM measured using the real-time oscilloscope is open to analysis. Behaviour of the 300-GHz transmission system is studied with respect to various modulation schemes and different signal symbol rates.

  11. Ultra-wideband and 60 GHz communications for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yuce, Mehmet R

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the design of devices, systems, and circuits for medical applications using the two recently established frequency bands: ultra-wideband (3.1-10.6 GHz) and 60 GHz ISM band. These two bands provide the largest bandwidths available for communication technologies and present many attractive opportunities for medical applications. The applications of these bands in healthcare are wireless body area network (WBAN), medical imaging, biomedical sensing, wearable and implantable devices, fast medical device connectivity, video data transmission, and vital signs monitoring. The r

  12. FRB121102: First detection across 5 - 8 GHz and spectral properties from the Breakthrough Listen instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Vishal; Siemion, Andrew; MacMohan, David; Croft, Steve; Hellbourg, Greg; Isaacson, Howard; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Price, Daniel; Lebofsky, Matt; De Boer, David; Werthimer, Dan; Hickish, Jack; Brinkman, Casey; Chatterjee, Shami; Ransom, Scott M.; Law, Casey; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Cordes, Jim; Spitler, Laura; Lynch, Ryan; McLaughlin, Maura; Scholz, Paul; Marcote, Benito; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh

    2018-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are some of the most energetic and enigmatic events in the Universe. The origin of these sources is among the most challenging questions of modern-day astrophysics. Thus, it is imperative to understand the properties of these bursts across a range of radio frequencies. Among the known FRBs, FRB121102 is the only source known to show repeated bursts [Spitler et al., Nature, 531, 7593 202-205, 2016], which can allow a detailed investigation of various origin models. In August 2017, we initiated a campaign observing FRB 121102 using the Breakthrough Listen Digital Backend with the C-band receiver at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We recorded baseband voltage data across 5.4 GHz of bandwidth, completely covering the C-band receiver's nominal 4-8 GHz band [MacMahon et al. arXiv:1707.06024v2]. The recorded data were searched for dispersed pulses consistent with the known dispersion measure of FRB 121102 (557 pc cm-3) using high-speed GPU software tools. We detected 21 bursts above our detection threshold of 6 sigmas in the first 60-minutes, out of which 18 occurred in the first 30-minutes only. To our knowledge, this is the highest event rate seen for FRB121102 at any observing frequency. These observations are the highest frequency and widest bandwidth detection of bursts from FRB 121102 (or any other FRB) obtained to-date. We note that individual bursts show marked changes in spectral extent ranging from hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We have used high frequency dynamic spectra of these bursts to estimate the characteristic scintillation bandwidth and correlation time-scale. We also found distinctive temporal structures, separated by a few milliseconds, in three of the strongest bursts, with each sub-structure exhibiting varied spectral features. We will discuss our findings and how these detections of FRB 121102 around 8 GHz opens up a new regime in scrutinizing various origin models. We will also highlight the unique

  13. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelets, V P [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Ermakov, A B [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Filippenko, L V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Koryukin, O V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Khudchenko, A V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Sobolev, A S [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Torgashin, M Yu [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Yagoubov, P A [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Hoogeveen, R W M [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Vreeling, W J [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Wild, W [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Pylypenko, O M [State Research Center of Superconducting Electronics ' Iceberg' (Ukraine)

    2006-06-01

    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring a variety of atmospheric constituents of the stratosphere. The 550 - 650 GHz channel of TELIS is based on a phase-locked Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR). SIR is an on-chip combination of a low-noise Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer with quasioptical antenna, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO), and SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. A number of new solutions were implemented in the new generation of SIR chips. To achieve the wide-band performance of the spectrometer, a side-feed twin-SIS mixer and balanced SIS mixer with 0.8 {mu}m{sup 2} junctions integrated with a double-dipole (or double-slot) antenna is used. An improved design of the FFO for TELIS has been developed and optimized providing a free-running linewidth between 10 and 2 MHz in the frequency range 500 - 700 GHz. It is important to ensure that tuning of a phase-locked (PL) SIR can be performed remotely by telecommand. For this purpose a number of approaches for the PL SIR automatic computer control have been developed. All receiver components (including input optical elements and Martin-Puplett polarization rotating interferometer for single side band operation) will be mounted on a single 4.2 K plate inside a 40 x 180 x 80 mm{sup 3} box. First measurements give an uncorrected double side band (DSB) noise temperature below 250 K measured with the phase-locked FFO; more detailed results are presented at the conference.

  14. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelets, V P; Ermakov, A B; Filippenko, L V; Koryukin, O V; Khudchenko, A V; Sobolev, A S; Torgashin, M Yu; Yagoubov, P A; Hoogeveen, R W M; Vreeling, W J; Wild, W; Pylypenko, O M

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring a variety of atmospheric constituents of the stratosphere. The 550 - 650 GHz channel of TELIS is based on a phase-locked Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR). SIR is an on-chip combination of a low-noise Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer with quasioptical antenna, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO), and SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. A number of new solutions were implemented in the new generation of SIR chips. To achieve the wide-band performance of the spectrometer, a side-feed twin-SIS mixer and balanced SIS mixer with 0.8 μm 2 junctions integrated with a double-dipole (or double-slot) antenna is used. An improved design of the FFO for TELIS has been developed and optimized providing a free-running linewidth between 10 and 2 MHz in the frequency range 500 - 700 GHz. It is important to ensure that tuning of a phase-locked (PL) SIR can be performed remotely by telecommand. For this purpose a number of approaches for the PL SIR automatic computer control have been developed. All receiver components (including input optical elements and Martin-Puplett polarization rotating interferometer for single side band operation) will be mounted on a single 4.2 K plate inside a 40 x 180 x 80 mm 3 box. First measurements give an uncorrected double side band (DSB) noise temperature below 250 K measured with the phase-locked FFO; more detailed results are presented at the conference

  15. Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Ring Slot Antenna for 5 GHz – 6 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrun Osman, Mohamed; Rahim, Mohamad Helmi A.; Jusoh, Muzammil; Sabapathy, Thennarasan; Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A.; Norlyana Azemi, Saidatul

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design of circularly polarized printed slot antenna operating at 5 – 6 GHz. The proposed antenna consists of L-shaped feedline on the top of structure and circular ring slot positioned at the ground plane underneath the substrate as a radiator. A radial and narrow slot in the ground plane provides coupling between the L-shaped feedline and circular ring slot. The circular polarization is realized by implementing the slits perturbation located diagonally to perturb the current flow on the slot structure. The antenna prototype is fabricated on FR4 substrate. The simulated and measured results are compared and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of the antenna. Good measured of simulated results are obtained at the targeted operating frequency. The simulated -10dB reflection coefficient bandwidths and axial ratio are 750 MHz and 165 MHz, respectively. The investigation on the affect of the important parameters towards the reflection coefficient and axial are also presented. The proposed antenna is highly potential to be used for wireless local area network (WLAN) and wireless power transfer (WPT).

  16. Monitoring middle-atmospheric water vapor over Seoul by using a 22 GHz ground-based radiometer SWARA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Soohyun; de Wachter, Evelyn; Kaempfer, Niklaus; Oh, Jung Jin

    2010-10-01

    Water vapor is the strongest natural greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. It is most abundant in the troposphere at low altitudes, due to evaporation at the ocean surface, with maximum values of around 6 g/kg. The amount of water vapor reaches a minimum at tropopause level and increases again in the middle atmosphere through oxidation of methane and vertical transport. Water vapor has both positive and negative effects on global warming, and we need to study how it works on climate change by monitoring water vapor concentration in the middle atmosphere. In this paper, we focus on the 22 GHz ground-based radiometer called SWARA (Seoul Water vapor Radiometer) which has been operated at Sookmyung women's university in Seoul, Korea since Oct. 2006. It is a joint project of the University of Bern, Switzerland, and the Sookmyung Women's University of Seoul, South Korea. The SWARA receives 22.235 GHz emitted from water vapor spontaneously and converts down to 1.5 GHz with +/- 0.5 GHz band width in 61 kHz resolution. To represent 22.235 GHz water vapor spectrum precisely, we need some calibration methods because the signal shows very weak intensity in ~0.1 K on the ground. For SWARA, we have used the balancing and the tipping curve methods for a calibration. To retrieve the water vapor profile, we have applied ARTS and Qpack software. In this paper, we will present the calibration methods and water vapor variation over Seoul for the last 4 years.

  17. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  18. Probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary GHZ-class state with a pure entangled two-particle quantum channel and its application in quantum state sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary GHZ-class state with a pure entangled two-particle quantum channel. The sender Alice first teleports the coefficients of the unknown state to the receiver Bob, and then Bob reconstructs the state with an auxiliary particle and some unitary operations if the teleportation succeeds. This scheme has the advantage of transmitting much less particles for teleporting an arbitrary GHZ-class state than others. Moreover, it discusses the application of this scheme in quantum state sharing.

  19. Variability of GPS Radio Sources at 5 GHz

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GPS) radio sources at 5 GHz and find that about one-third of them show considerable Inter-Month Variability (IMV), and these IMV phenomena are likely to be caused by interstellar scintillation (ISS). Furthermore, we find that those showing IMV ...

  20. Characterisation of propagation in 60 GHz radio channels (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.F.M.; Correia, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Narrowband as well as wideband measurements have been performed in various indoor and outdoor environments in order to enable the development of reliable prediction models for 60 GHz radio channels. In addition, results of deterministic modelling on the basis of geometric ray-tracing have been

  1. 2.4GHz energy harvesting for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Baltus, P.G.M.; Mahmoudi, R.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the performance of charge pump, and the design strategy and efficiency optimization of 2.4GHz micro-power charge pump using 65nm CMOS technology. The model of the charge pump takes account of the threshold voltage variation, bulk modulation, and the major

  2. Rain-induced bistatic scattering at 60 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van der H.T.; Watson, R.J.; Herben, M.H.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study into the modeling and prediction of rain-induced bistatic scattering at 60 GHz. The bistatic radar equation together withMie theory is applied as the basis for calculating the scattering. Together with the attenuation induced by the medium before and after

  3. Logo Antenna for 5.8 GHz Wireless Communications (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A logo antenna for the 5.8 GHz ISM band is presented. The idea behind the logo antenna is to use the company or university logo as part of the antenna. When disguised as a logo, it may be more acceptable to place the antenna at optimal locations to obtain good coverage. In the present work...

  4. Logo Antenna for 5.8 GHz Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A logo antenna for the 5.8 GHz ISM band is presented. The idea behind the logo antenna is to use the company or university logo as part of the antenna. When disguised as a logo, it may be more acceptable to place the antenna at optimal locations to obtain good coverage. In the present work...

  5. Lightning and 85-GHz MCSs in the Global Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toracinta, E. Richard; Zipser, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous observations of tropical convection show that tropical continental mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are much more prolific lightning producers than their oceanic counterparts. Satellite-based climatologies using 85-GHz passive microwave ice-scattering signatures from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) indicate that MCSs of various size and intensity are found throughout the global tropics. In contrast, global lightning distributions show a strong land bias with an order of magnitude difference between land and ocean lightning. This is somewhat puzzling, since 85-GHz ice-scattering and the charge separation processes that lead to lightning are both thought to depend upon the existence of large graupel particles. The fact that low 85-GHz brightness temperatures are observed in tropical oceanic MCSs containing virtually no lightning leads to the postulate that tropical oceanic and tropical continental MCSs have fundamentally different hydrometeor profiles through the mixed phase region of the cloud (0 C Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and the first space-borne radar, facilitates high-resolution case studies of MCS structure throughout the global tropics. An important precursor, however, is to better understand the distribution of MCSs and lightning in the tropics. With that objective in mind, this research undertakes a systematic comparison of 85-GHz-defined MCSs and lightning over the global tropics for a full year, as an initial step toward quantifying differences between land and ocean convective systems.

  6. A 60-GHz rectenna for monolithic wireless sensor tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Johannsen, U.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Milosevic, D.; Smolders, A.B.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 60-GHz rectenna with an on-chip antenna and rectifier in 65nm CMOS technology. The rectenna is often the bottleneck in realizing a fully-integrated monolithic wireless sensor tag. In this paper, problems of the mm-wave rectifier are discussed, and the

  7. Wearable Shell Antenna for 2.4 GHz Hearing Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept for an electrically-small on-body antenna targeted for 2.4 GHz ISM band custom in-the-ear (ITE) hearing instrument (HI) applications is introduced. The antenna is based upon a cavity-backed design in order to take advantage of the maximum volume available in the ear while providin...

  8. Design of the 1-Mw, 200-Ghz, Fom Fusion Fem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, W. H.; Best, R. W. B.; Bongers, W. A.; Vaningen, A. M.; Manintveld, P.; Sterk, A. B.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Caplan, M.; Bratman, V. L.; Denisov, G. G.; Varfolomeev, A. A.; Khlebnikov, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    The FOM Institute for Plasma Physics has obtained funding for the development of a 1 MW, long pulse, 140-250 GHz free-electron maser. The engineering design is presently being performed in an international collaboration. In this paper the main components of the free-electron maser, the electron beam

  9. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed 3000 microvolts/meter/MHz at 3 meters in any direction. Further, an AVIS, when in its operating position, shall not produce a field strength greater than 400 microvolts/meter/MHz at 3 meters in any... maximum of 100 microvolts/meter/MHz at 3 meters, measured from 30 MHz to 20 GHz for the complete system...

  10. Elements of a realistic 17 GHz FEL/TBA design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, D.B.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Sternbach, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, renewed interest in an FEL version of a two-beam accelerator (TBA) has prompted a study of practical system and structure designs for achieving the specified physics goals. This paper presents elements of a realistic design for an FEL/TBA suitable for a 1 TeV, 17 GHz linear collider. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  12. Cold test of cylindrical open resonator for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particular quality factor for TE mode at the frequency 42 GHz. The perturbation tech ... frequency 42 GHz. The good agreement ... see its performance before the final assembly of the device. This paper .... theoretical work was found. The results ...

  13. OVERVIEW OF THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: RECEIVER, INSTRUMENTATION, AND TELESCOPE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swetz, D. S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Battistelli, E. S.; Burger, B.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Appel, J. W.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Hincks, A. D.; Jarosik, N.; Chervenak, J.; Doriese, W. B.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Duenner, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope was designed to measure small-scale anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background and detect galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The instrument is located on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 5190 m. A 6 m off-axis Gregorian telescope feeds a new type of cryogenic receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The receiver features three 1000-element arrays of transition-edge sensor bolometers for observations at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz. Each detector array is fed by free space millimeter-wave optics. Each frequency band has a field of view of approximately 22' x 26'. The telescope was commissioned in 2007 and has completed its third year of operations. We discuss the major components of the telescope, camera, and related systems, and summarize the instrument performance.

  14. Overview of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Receiver, Instrumentation, and Telescope Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, D. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Battistelli, E. S.; Burger, B.; Chervenak, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Irwin, K. D.; Jarosik, N.; Kaul, M.; Klein, J.; Lau, J. M.; Limon, M.; Marriage, T. A.; Marsden, D.; Martocci, K.; Mauskopf, P.; Moseley, H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Niemack, M. D.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L. A.; Parker, L.; Staggs, S. T.; Stryzak, O.; Switzer, E. R.; Thornton, R.; Tucker, C.; Wollack, E.; Zhao, Y.

    2011-06-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope was designed to measure small-scale anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background and detect galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The instrument is located on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 5190 m. A 6 m off-axis Gregorian telescope feeds a new type of cryogenic receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The receiver features three 1000-element arrays of transition-edge sensor bolometers for observations at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz. Each detector array is fed by free space millimeter-wave optics. Each frequency band has a field of view of approximately 22' × 26'. The telescope was commissioned in 2007 and has completed its third year of operations. We discuss the major components of the telescope, camera, and related systems, and summarize the instrument performance.

  15. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  16. Experimental study of a 1 MW, 170 GHz gyrotron oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takuji

    A detailed experimental study is presented of a 1 MW, 170 GHz gyrotron oscillator whose design is consistent with the ECH requirements of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) for bulk heating and current drive. This work is the first to demonstrate that megawatt power level at 170 GHz can be achieved in a gyrotron with high efficiency for plasma heating applications. Maximum output power of 1.5 MW is obtained at 170.1 GHz in 85 kV, 50A operation for an efficiency of 35%. Although the experiment at MIT is conducted with short pulses (3 μs), the gyrotron is designed to be suitable for development by industry for continuous wave operation. The peak ohmic loss on the cavity wall for 1 MW of output power is calculated to be 2.3 kW/cm2, which can be handled using present cooling technology. Mode competition problems in a highly over-moded cavity are studied to maximize the efficiency. Various aspects of electron gun design are examined to obtain high quality electron beams with very low velocity spread. A triode magnetron injection gun is designed using the EGUN simulation code. A total perpendicular velocity spread of less than 8% is realized by designing a low- sensitivity, non-adiabatic gun. The RF power is generated in a short tapered cavity with an iris step. The operating mode is the TE28,8,1 mode. A mode converter is designed to convert the RF output to a Gaussian beam. Power and efficiency are measured in the design TE28,8,1 mode at 170.1 GHz as well as the TE27,8,1 mode at 166.6 GHz and TE29,8,1 mode at 173.5 GHz. Efficiencies between 34%-36% are consistently obtained over a wide range of operating parameters. These efficiencies agree with the highest values predicted by the multimode simulations. The startup scenario is investigated and observed to agree with the linear theory. The measured beam velocity ratio is consistent with EGUN simulation. Interception of reflected beam by the mod-anode is measured as a function of velocity ratio

  17. Graphene integrated circuits: new prospects towards receiver realisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohamed; Hamed, Ahmed; Wang, Zhenxing; Shaygan, Mehrdad; Neumaier, Daniel; Negra, Renato

    2017-12-21

    This work demonstrates a design approach which enables the fabrication of fully integrated radio frequency (RF) and millimetre-wave frequency direct-conversion graphene receivers by adapting the frontend architecture to exploit the state-of-the-art performance of the recently reported wafer-scale CVD metal-insulator-graphene (MIG) diodes. As a proof-of-concept, we built a fully integrated microwave receiver in the frequency range 2.1-2.7 GHz employing the strong nonlinearity and the high responsivity of MIG diodes to successfully receive and demodulate complex, digitally modulated communication signals at 2.45 GHz. In addition, the fabricated receiver uses zero-biased MIG diodes and consumes zero dc power. With the flexibility to be fabricated on different substrates, the prototype receiver frontend is fabricated on a low-cost, glass substrate utilising a custom-developed MMIC process backend which enables the high performance of passive components. The measured performance of the prototype makes it suitable for Internet-of-Things (IoT) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems for medical and communication applications.

  18. Integrated flux-flow oscillators for submillimeter wave receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shchukin, A.V.; Shitov, S.V.; Filippenko, L.V.; Fischer, G.M.; Mygind, J.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) integrated on the same chip with a small Josephson junction detector has been experimentally investigated in the frequency range 100 - 450 GHz. Both the emitted power and the frequency of the FFO can be varied by adjusting the dc bias current and/or the applied dc magnetic field. Microwave powers as high as 0.3 μW have been measured at 375 GHz. The spectral width of the FFO is about 1 MHz as estimated from harmonic mixing experiments. Also a fully integrated superconducting submillimeter wave receiver using the FFO as local oscillator has been successfully tested. The circuit included coupling transformers, a superconducting variable attenuator and a detector junction with tuned-out capacitance. (orig.)

  19. A low power 2.4 GHz transceiver for ZigBee applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiyang; Chen Jingjing; Wang Haiyong; Wu Nanjian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a low power 2.4 GHz transceiver for ZigBee applications. This transceiver adopts low power system architecture with a low-IF receiver and a direct-conversion transmitter. The receiver consists of a new low noise amplifier (LNA) with a noise cancellation function, a new inverter-based variable gain complex filter (VGCF) for image rejection, a passive quadrature mixer, and a decibel linear programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The transmitter adopts a quadrature mixer and a class-B mode variable gain power amplifier (PA) to reduce power consumption. This transceiver is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The receiver achieves −95 dBm of sensitivity, 28 dBc of image rejection, and −8 dBm of third-order input intercept point (IIP3). The transmitter can deliver a maximum of +3 dBm output power with PA efficiency of 30%. The whole chip area is less than 4.32 mm 2 . It only consumes 12.63 mW in receiving mode and 14.22 mW in transmitting mode, respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Design of 20-44 GHz broadband doubler MMIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Wang Zhigong; Li Wei

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of a broadband millimeter-wave frequency doubler MMIC using active 0.15 μm GaAs PHEMT and operating at output frequencies from 20 to 44 GHz. This chip is composed of a single ended-into differential-out active Balun, balanced FETs in push-push configuration, and a distributed amplifier. The MMIC doubler exhibits more than 4 dB conversion gain with 12 dBm of output power, and the fundamental frequency suppression is typically -20 dBc up to 44 GHz. The MMIC works at V DD = 3.5 V, V SS = -3.5 V, I d = 200 mA and the chip size is 1.5 x 1.8 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. A 2 MW, CW, 170 GHz gyrotron for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piosczyk, B.; Arnold, A.; Alberti, S.

    2003-01-01

    A 140 GHz gyrotron for CW operation is under development for the stellarator W7-X. With a prototype tube a microwave output power of about 0.9 MW has been obtained in pulses up to 180 s, limited by the capability of the high voltage power supply. The development work on coaxial cavity gyrotrons has demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing of a 2 MW, CW 170 GHz tube that could be used for ITER. The problems specific to the coaxial arrangement have been investigated and all relevant information needed for an industrial realization of a coaxial gyrotron have been obtained in short pulse experiments (up to 17 ms). The suitability of critical components for a 2 MW, CW coaxial gyrotron has been studied and a first integrated design has been done. (author)

  2. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Biomolecules up to 110 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Eva-Maria; Ermilova, Elena; Pannwitz, Daniel; Gibbons, Jessica; Hölzel, Ralph; Bier, Frank F.

    2018-03-01

    Radio-frequency fields in the GHz range are increasingly applied in biotechnology and medicine. In order to fully exploit both their potential and their risks detailed information about the dielectric properties of biological material is needed. For this purpose a measuring system is presented that allows the acquisition of complex dielectric spectra over 4 frequency decade up to 110 GHz. Routines for calibration and for data evaluation according to physicochemical interaction models have been developed. The frequency dependent permittivity and dielectric loss of some proteins and nucleic acids, the main classes of biomolecules, and of their sub-units have been determined. Dielectric spectra are presented for the amino acid alanine, the proteins lysozyme and haemoglobin, the nucleotides AMP and ATP, and for the plasmid pET-21, which has been produced by bacterial culture. Characterisation of a variety of biomolecules is envisaged, as is the application to studies on protein structure and function.

  3. 100 GHz, 1 MW, CW gyrotron study program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felch, K.; Bier, R.; Caplan, M.; Jory, H.

    1983-09-01

    The results of a study program to investigate the feasibility of various approaches in designing a 100 GHz, 1 MW CW gyrotron are presented. A summary is given of the possible configurations for a high average power, high frequency gyrotron, including an historical survey of experimental results which are relevant to the various approaches. A set of basic scaling considerations which enable qualitative comparisons between particular gyrotron interaction circuits is presented. These calculations are important in understanding the role of various electron beam and circuit parameters in achieving a viable gyrotron design. Following these scaling exercises, a series of design calculations is presented for a possible approach in achieving 100 GHz, 1 MW CW. These calculations include analyses of the electron gun and interaction circuit parts of the gyrotron, and a general analysis of other aspects of a high average power, high frequency gyrotron. Scalability of important aspects of the design to other frequencies is also discussed, as well as key technology issues

  4. Influence of Noises on Remote State Preparation Using GHZ State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Huaqiu; Liu Jinming

    2008-01-01

    Using a quantum channel consisting of a GHZ state exposed to noisy environment, we investigate how to remotely prepare an entangled state and a qubit state, respectively. By solving the master equation in the Lindblad form, the influence of the various types of noises on the GHZ state is first discussed. Then we use the fidelity to describe how close the remotely prepared state and the initial state are. Our results show that the fidelity is a function of the decoherence rates and the angles of the initial state. It is found that for each of the two RSP schemes, the influence of the noise acting simultaneously in x, y, and z directions on the average fidelity is the strongest while the influence of the noise acting in x or z direction on the average fidelity is relatively weaker

  5. An Automatic Control System for Conditioning 30 GHz Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A

    2008-01-01

    A software application programme has been developed to allow fast and automatic high-gradient conditioning of accelerating structures at 30 GHz in CTF3. The specificity of the application is the ability to control the high-power electron beam which produces the 30 GHz RF power used to condition the accelerating structures. The programme permits operation round the clock with minimum manpower requirements. In this paper the fast control system, machine control system, logging system, graphical user control interface and logging data visualization are described. An outline of the conditioning control system itself and of the feedback controlling peak power and pulse length is given. The software allows different types of conditioning strategies to be programmed

  6. Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Allati, A.; Hassouni, Y.; Medeni, M.B. Ould

    2012-01-01

    A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ 4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information. Moreover, the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information. Then, the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ 4 states between the legitimate users. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message. Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies, capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good. The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed. (general)

  7. The 30/20 GHz communications satellite trunking network study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, W.

    1981-01-01

    Alternative transmission media for a CONUS-wide trunking network in the years 1990 and 2000 are examined. The alternative technologies comprised fiber optic cable, conventional C- and Ku-band satellites, and 30/20 GHz satellites. Three levels of implementation were considered - a 10-city network, a 20-city network, and a 40-city network. The cities selected were the major metropolitan areas with the greatest communications demand. All intercity voice, data, and video traffic carried more than 40 miles was included in the analysis. In the optimized network, traffic transmitted less than 500 miles was found to be better served by fiber optic cable in 1990. By the year 2000, the crossover point would be down to 200 miles, assuming availability of 30/20 GHz satellites.

  8. InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.

  9. Startup and mode competition in a 420 GHz gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qixiang Zhao, A.; Sheng Yu, B.; Tianzhong Zhang, C.

    2017-09-01

    In the experiments of a 420 GHz second-harmonic gyrotron, it is found that the electron beam voltage and current ranges for single mode operation of TE17.4 are slightly narrower than those in the simulation. To explain this phenomenon, the startup scenario has been investigated with special emphasis on mode competition. The calculations indicate that the decreases of the operating ranges are caused by the voltage overshoot in the startup scenario.

  10. Construction of a 35 GHz 100 kW gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Y.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Correa, R.A.; Ludwing, G.O.; Montes, A.; Morgado, U.T.F.; Nono, M.C.A.; Rossi, J.O.; Silva, P.R.

    1989-09-01

    In this work a description of a 35 GHz 100 kW gyrocon is described which is under construction at the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory. Project conceptual aspects are emphasized, specifically high current density thermionic cathodes, high time and spatial resolution intense magnetic fields generation, high-vacuum systems, techniques of ceramic-metal sealing, and high-voltage electrical modulator circuits. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Remote powering platform for implantable sensor systems at 2.45 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanc, Onur; Yilmaz, Gurkan; Maloberti, Franco; Dehollain, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Far-field remotely powered sensor systems enable long distance operation for low-power sensor systems. In this work, we demonstrate a remote powering platform with a miniaturized antenna and remote powering base station operating at 2.45 GHz. The rectenna, which is the energy receiving and conversion element of the sensor system, is designed and measured. The measurements for the tag are performed within 15 cm distance from the remote powering base station. The realized gain of the tag antenna is measured as -3.3 dB, which is 0.5 dB close to the simulations, where simulated realized gain is -2.8 dB.

  12. Fast-scanning heterodyne receiver for measurement of the electron cyclotron emission from high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.; Bitzer, R.; Campbell, L.; Hosea, J.C.

    1979-03-01

    A fast-scanning heterodyne receiver was developed that measures the fundamental cyclotron emission from the PLT plasma and thus ascertains the time evolution of the electron temperature profile. The receiver scans 60 to 90 GHz every 10 milliseconds and is interfaced to a computer for completely automated calibrated temperature measurements

  13. An 8–18 GHz broadband high power amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lifa; Yang Ruixia; Li Yanlei; Wu Jingfeng

    2011-01-01

    An 8–18 GHz broadband high power amplifier (HPA) with a hybrid integrated circuit (HIC) is designed and fabricated. This HPA is achieved with the use of a 4-fingered micro-strip Lange coupler in a GaAs MMIC process. In order to decrease electromagnetic interference, a multilayer AlN material with good heat dissipation is adopted as the carrier of the power amplifier. When the input power is 25 dBm, the saturated power of the continuous wave (CW) outputted by the power amplifier is more than 39 dBm within the frequency range of 8–13 GHz, while it is more than 38.6 dBm within other frequency ranges. We obtain the peak power output, 39.4 dBm, at the frequency of 11.9 GHz. In the whole frequency band, the power-added efficiency is more than 18%. When the input power is 18 dBm, the small signal gain is 15.7 ± 0.7 dB. The dimensions of the HPA are 25 × 15 × 1.5 mm 3 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. GHz band frequency hopping PLL-based frequency synthesizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yong; WANG Zhi-gong; GUAN Yu; XU Zhi-jun; QIAO Lu-feng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a full-integrated circuit containing all building blocks of a completed PLL-based synthesizer except for low pass filter(LPF).The frequency synthesizer is designed for a frequency hopping (FH) transceiver operating up to 1.5 GHz as a local oscillator. The architecture of Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is optimized to get better performance, and a phase noise of -111.85-dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz and a tuning range of 250 MHz are gained at a centre frequency of 1.35 GHz.A novel Dual-Modulus Prescaler(DMP) is designed to achieve a very low jitter and a lower power.The settling time of PLL is 80 μs while the reference frequency is 400 KHz.This monolithic frequency synthesizer is to integrate all main building blocks of PLL except for the low pass filter,with a maximum VCO output frequency of 1.5 GHz,and is fabricated with a 0.18 μm mixed signal CMOS process. Low power dissipation, low phase noise, large tuning range and fast settling time are gained in this design.

  15. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, Karl; /CERN; Curt, Stephane; /CERN; Dobert, Steffen; /CERN; McMonagle, Gerard; /CERN; Rossat, Ghislain; /CERN; Syratchev, Igor; /CERN; Timeo, Luca; /CERN; Haase, Andrew /SLAC; Jensen, Aaron; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Nantista, Christopher; /SLAC; Sprehn, Daryl; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Hamdi, Abdallah; /Saclay; Peauger, Franck; /Saclay; Kuzikov, Sergey; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  16. CARM and harmonic gyro-amplifier experiments at 17 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menninger, W.L.; Danly, B.G.; Alberti, S.; Chen, C.; Rullier, J.L.; Temkin, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclotron resonance maser amplifiers are possible sources for applications such as electron cyclotron resonance heating of fusion plasmas and driving high-gradient rf linear accelerators. For accelerator drivers, amplifiers or phase locked-oscillators are required. A 17 GHz cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier experiment and a 17 GHz third harmonic gyro-amplifier experiment are presently underway at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Using the SRL/MIT SNOMAD II introduction accelerator to provide a 380 kV, 180 A, 30 ns flat top electron beam, the gyro-amplifier experiment has produced 5 MW of rf power with over 50 dB of gain at 17 GHz. The gyro-amplifier operates in the TE 31 mode using a third harmonic interaction. Because of its high power output, the gyro-amplifier will be used as the rf source for a photocathode rf electron gun experiment also taking place at MIT. Preliminary gyro-amplifier results are presented, including measurement of rf power, gain versus interaction length, and the far-field pattern. A CARM experiment designed to operate in the TE 11 mode is also discussed

  17. A 12 GHZ RF Power source for the CLIC study

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Curt, S; Doebert, S; McMonagle, G; Rossat, G; Schirm, KM; Syratchev, I; Timeo, L; Kuzikhov, S; Vikharev, AA; Haase, A; Sprehn, D; Jensen, A; Jongewaard, EN; Nantista, CD; Vlieks, A

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  18. GHz Yb:KYW oscillators in time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changxiu; Krauß, Nico; Schäfer, Gerhard; Ebner, Lukas; Kliebisch, Oliver; Schmidt, Johannes; Winnerl, Stephan; Hettich, Mike; Dekorsy, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    A high-speed asynchronous optical sampling system (ASOPS) based on Yb:KYW oscillators with 1-GHz repetition rate is reported. Two frequency-offset-stabilized diode-pumped Yb:KYW oscillators are employed as pump and probe source, respectively. The temporal resolution of this system within 1-ns time window is limited to 500 fs and the noise floor around 10-6 (ΔR/R) close to the shot-noise level is obtained within an acquisition time of a few seconds. Coherent acoustic phonons are investigated by measuring multilayer semiconductor structures with multiple quantum wells and aluminum/silicon membranes in this ASOPS system. A wavepacket-like phonon sequence at 360 GHz range is detected in the semiconductor structures and a decaying sequence of acoustic oscillations up to 200 GHz is obtained in the aluminum/silicon membranes. Coherent acoustic phonons generated from semiconductor structures are further manipulated by a double pump scheme through pump time delay control.

  19. 670-GHz Schottky Diode-Based Subharmonic Mixer with CPW Circuits and 70-GHz IF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert H.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Sin, Seth; Deal, William; Loi, Kwok K.; Nam, Peta; hide

    2012-01-01

    GaAs-based, sub-harmonically pumped Schottky diode mixers offer a number of advantages for array implementation in a heterodyne receiver system. Since the radio frequency (RF) and local oscillator (LO) signals are far apart, system design becomes much simpler. A proprietary planar GaAs Schottky diode process was developed that results in very low parasitic anodes that have cutoff frequencies in the tens of terahertz. This technology enables robust implementation of monolithic mixer and frequency multiplier circuits well into the terahertz frequency range. Using optical and e-beam lithography, and conventional epitaxial layer design with innovative usage of GaAs membranes and metal beam leads, high-performance terahertz circuits can be designed with high fidelity. All of these mixers use metal waveguide structures for housing. Metal machined structures for RF and LO coupling hamper these mixers to be integrated in multi-pixel heterodyne array receivers for spectroscopic and imaging applications. Moreover, the recent developments of terahertz transistors on InP substrate provide an opportunity, for the first time, to have integrated amplifiers followed by Schottky diode mixers in a heterodyne receiver at these frequencies. Since the amplifiers are developed on a planar architecture to facilitate multi-pixel array implementation, it is quite important to find alternative architecture to waveguide-based mixers.

  20. A wideband high-linearity RF receiver front-end in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, V.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    This paper presents a wideband high-linearity RF receiver-front-end, implemented in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The design employs a noise-canceling LNA in combination with two passive mixers, followed by lowpass-filtering and amplification at IF. The achieved bandwidth is >2 GHz, with a noise

  1. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  2. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  3. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  4. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  5. Heterodyne Receiver for Laboratory Spectrosocpy of Molecules of Astrophysical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehres, Nadine; Lewen, Frank; Endres, Christian; Hermanns, Marius; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We present first results of a heterodyne receiver built for high-resolution emission laboratory spectroscopy of molecules of astrophysical interest. The room-temperature receiver operates at frequencies between 80 and 110 GHz, consistent with ALMA band 3. Many molecules have been identified in the interstellar and circumstellar medium at exactly these frequencies by comparing emission spectra obtained from telescopes to high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra. Taking advantage of the recent progresses in the field of mm/submm technology in the astronomy community, we have built a room-temperature emission spectrometer making use of heterodyne receiver technology at an instantaneous bandwidth of currently 2.5 GHz. The system performance, in particular the noise temperature and systematic errors, is presented. The proof-of-concept is demonstrated by comparing the emission spectrum of methyl cyanide to respective absorption spectra and to the literature. Future prospects as well as limitations of the new laboratory receiver for the spectroscopy of complex organic molecules or transient species in discharges will be discussed.

  6. A submillimeter heterodyne receiver and its application in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, A.H.F. van.

    1981-01-01

    A submm heterodyne receiver for astronomical observations has been developed which operates in the frequency range between 460 and 500 GHz. An InSb hot electron bolometer is used as the mixing element. The local oscillator power is obtained by doubling the frequency of a backward wave oscillator (B.W.O.). The sideband noise of the B.W.O. has appeared to be sufficiently weak to allow its use in combination with an InSb mixer. A method of measuring the matching of the mixer to the waveguide is described and some results of measurements of B.W.O. noise are given. A general description is presented of Gaussian beam theory and this is applied to the design of the receiver optics. Particular attention is given to the coupling between the receiver and the telescope. To prevent the usually troublesome effects of standing waves between the receiver and the telescope a circular polarizer can be applied. A review is given of different types of such polarizers as presently used in the optical and microwave regimes, with a view to their application in the submm range. Two types of circular polarizers were constructed and results of measurements on these are given. The final chapter describes the observation of the rotational CO J = 4→3 transition at 461 GHz in the Kleinman Low nebula. From a combination of this measurement with others, lower bounds for the gas kinetic temperature and column density of the shocked gas in this region are derived. (Auth.)

  7. A New Approach to Suppress the Effect of Machining Error for Waveguide Septum Circular Polarizer at 230 GHz Band in Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Harada, Ryohei; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu; Nishimura, Atsushi; Han, Johnson; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    A new stepped septum-type waveguide circular polarizer (SST-CP) was developed to operate in the 230 GHz band for radio astronomy, especially submillimeter-band VLBI observations. For previously reported SST-CP models, the 230 GHz band is too high to achieve the design characteristics in manufactured devices because of unexpected machining errors. To realize a functional SST-CP that can operate in the submillimeter band, a new method was developed, in which the division surface is shifted from the top step of the septum to the second step from the top, and we simulated the expected machining error. The SST-CP using this method can compensate for specified machining errors and suppress serious deterioration. To verify the proposed method, several test pieces were manufactured, and their characteristics were measured using a VNA. These results indicated that the insertion losses were approximately 0.75 dB, and the input return losses and the crosstalk of the left- and right-hand circular polarization were greater than 20 dB at 220-245 GHz on 300 K. Moreover, a 230 GHz SST-CP was developed by the proposed method and installed in a 1.85-m radio telescope receiver systems, and then had used for scientific observations during one observation season without any problems. These achievements demonstrate the successful development of a 230 GHz SST-CP for radio astronomical observations. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applicable for observations in higher frequency bands, such as 345 GHz.

  8. Integrated reconfigurable microring based silicon WDM receiver for on-chip optical interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Ao; Yang, Long-Zhi; Dai, Ting-Ge; Hao, Yin-Lei; Jiang, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Jian-Yi; Qiu, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an integrated reconfigurable wavelength division multiplexing receiver on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The receiver is composed of a 1 × 8 thermally tunable microring resonator filter and Ge–Si photodetectors. With low thermal tuning powers the channel allocation of the receiver can be reconfigured with high accuracy and flexibility. The thermal tuning efficiency is approximately 8 mW nm −1 . We show eight-channel configurations with channel spacing of 100 GHz and 50 GHz and a configuration in which all eight channels cover an entire free spectral range of the ring with uniform channel spacing of 1.2 nm. Each channel can receive high-quality signals with a data rate of up to 13.5 Gb s −1 ; thus an aggregate data rate higher than 100 Gb s −1 can be achieved. (paper)

  9. Seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Dong, Ze; Cao, Zizheng; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen; Shao, Yufeng; Tao, Li

    2012-10-22

    We experimentally demonstrated the seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery adopting polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulation with 400-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) transmission and 1-m wireless delivery. The X- and Y-polarization components of optical PDM-QPSK baseband signal are simultaneously up-converted to 100 GHz by optical polarization-diversity heterodyne beating, and then independently transmitted and received by two pairs of transmitter and receiver antennas, which make up a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless link based on microwave polarization multiplexing. At the wireless receiver, a two-stage down conversion is firstly done in analog domain based on balanced mixer and sinusoidal radio frequency (RF) signal, and then in digital domain based on digital signal processing (DSP). Polarization de-multiplexing is realized by constant modulus algorithm (CMA) based on DSP in heterodyne coherent detection. Our experimental results show that more taps are required for CMA when the X- and Y-polarization antennas have different wireless distance.

  10. Fabrication of a 77 GHz Rotman Lens on a High Resistivity Silicon Wafer Using Lift-Off Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Attaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of a high resistivity silicon based microstrip Rotman lens using a lift-off process has been presented. The lens features 3 beam ports, 5 array ports, 16 dummy ports, and beam steering angles of ±10 degrees. The lens was fabricated on a 200 μm thick high resistivity silicon wafer and has a footprint area of 19.7 mm × 15.6 mm. The lens was tested as an integral part of a 77 GHz radar where a tunable X band source along with an 8 times multiplier was used as the RF source and the resulting millimeter wave signal centered at 77 GHz was radiated through a lens-antenna combination. A horn antenna with a downconverter harmonic mixer was used to receive the radiated signal and display the received signal in an Advantest R3271A spectrum analyzer. The superimposed transmit and receive signal in the spectrum analyzer showed the proper radar operation confirming the Rotman lens design.

  11. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  12. 47 CFR 25.143 - Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 1.6/2.4 GHz mobile-satellite service and 2 GHz mobile-satellite service. 25.143 Section 25.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  13. 47 CFR 25.139 - NGSO FSS coordination and information sharing between MVDDS licensees in the 12.2 GHz to 12.7 GHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NGSO FSS coordination and information sharing between MVDDS licensees in the 12.2 GHz to 12.7 GHz band. 25.139 Section 25.139 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses...

  14. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  15. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  16. Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Performance of an 8-channel Digital Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-16

    hardware. An 8-channel ALSTAR array prototype was constructed and demonstrated to achieve 125.5 dB effective isotropic isolation between broadside...transmit and receive beams over a 100 MHz instantaneous band centered at 2.45 GHz. I. INTRODUCTION A phased array capable of Simultaneous Transmit and...Receive (STAR) could provide significant benefits for many applications including communications, radar, spectral sens- ing, and multifunctional systems

  17. Superconductor Digital-RF Receiver Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhanov, Oleg A.; Kirichenko, Dmitri; Vernik, Igor V.; Filippov, Timur V.; Kirichenko, Alexander; Webber, Robert; Dotsenko, Vladimir; Talalaevskii, Andrei; Tang, Jia Cao; Sahu, Anubhav; Shevchenko, Pavel; Miller, Robert; Kaplan, Steven B.; Sarwana, Saad; Gupta, Deepnarayan

    Digital superconductor electronics has been experiencing rapid maturation with the emergence of smaller-scale, lower-cost communications applications which became the major technology drivers. These applications are primarily in the area of wireless communications, radar, and surveillance as well as in imaging and sensor systems. In these areas, the fundamental advantages of superconductivity translate into system benefits through novel Digital-RF architectures with direct digitization of wide band, high frequency radio frequency (RF) signals. At the same time the availability of relatively small 4K cryocoolers has lowered the foremost market barrier for cryogenically-cooled digital electronic systems. Recently, we have achieved a major breakthrough in the development, demonstration, and successful delivery of the cryocooled superconductor digital-RF receivers directly digitizing signals in a broad range from kilohertz to gigahertz. These essentially hybrid-technology systems combine a variety of superconductor and semiconductor technologies packaged with two-stage commercial cryocoolers: cryogenic Nb mixed-signal and digital circuits based on Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) technology, room-temperature amplifiers, FPGA processing and control circuitry. The demonstrated cryocooled digital-RF systems are the world's first and fastest directly digitizing receivers operating with live satellite signals in X-band and performing signal acquisition in HF to L-band at ˜30GHz clock frequencies.

  18. Single-Antenna Temperature- and Humidity-Sounding Microwave Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Pukala, David M.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Soria, Mary M.; Owen, Heather R.; Tanner, Alan B.; Bruneau, Peter J.; Johnson, Alan K.; Kagaslahti, Pekka P.; Gaier, Todd C.

    2011-01-01

    For humidity and temperature sounding of Earth s atmosphere, a single-antenna/LNA (low-noise amplifier) is needed in place of two separate antennas for the two frequency bands. This results in significant mass and power savings for GeoSTAR that is comprised of hundreds of antennas per frequency channel. Furthermore, spatial anti-aliasing would reduce the number of horns. An anti-aliasing horn antenna will enable focusing the instrument field of view to the hurricane corridor by reducing spatial aliasing, and thus reduce the number of required horns by up to 50 percent. The single antenna/receiver assembly was designed and fabricated by a commercial vendor. The 118 183-GHz horn is based upon a profiled, smooth-wall design, and the OMT (orthomode transducer) on a quad-ridge design. At the input end, the OMT presents four ver y closely spaced ridges [0.0007 in. (18 m)]. The fabricated assembly contains a single horn antenna and low-noise broadband receiver front-end assembly for passive remote sensing of both temperature and humidity profiles in the Earth s atmosphere at 118 and 183 GHz. The wideband feed with dual polarization capability is the first broadband low noise MMIC receiver with the 118 to 183 GHz bandwidth. This technology will significantly reduce PATH/GeoSTAR mass and power while maintaining 90 percent of the measurement capabilities. This is required for a Mission-of-Opportunity on NOAA s GOES-R satellite now being developed, which in turn will make it possible to implement a Decadal-Survey mission for a fraction of the cost and much sooner than would otherwise be possible.

  19. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  20. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  1. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmeier, S.; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m"2) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  2. 100 GHz Externally Modulated Laser for Optical Interconnects Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozolins, Oskars; Pang, Xiaodan; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We report on a 116 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK), four pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and 105-Gb/s 8-PAM optical transmitter using an InP-based integrated and packaged externally modulated laser for high-speed optical interconnects with up to 30 dB static extinction ratio and over 100-GHz 3-d......B bandwidth with 2 dB ripple. In addition, we study the tradeoff between power penalty and equalizer length to foresee transmission distances with standard single mode fiber....

  3. Influence of 2. 45 GHz microwave radiation on enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvin, M J; Parks, D L; McRee, D I

    1981-05-01

    The in vitro activity of acetylcholinesterase and creatine phosphokinase was determined during in vitro exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation. The enzyme activities were examined during exposure to microwave radiation at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1, 10, 50, and 100 mW/g. These specific absorption rates had no effect on the activity of either enzyme when the temperature of the control and exposed samples were similar. These data demonstrate that the activity of these two enzymes is not affected by microwave radiation at the SARs and frequency employed in this study.

  4. 280 GHz Gyro-BWO design study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of a design study of a 280 GHz Gyro-BWO tunable source. The purpose of this study is to identify and propose viable design alternatives for any significant technological risk associated with building an operational BWO system. The tunable Gyro-BWO system will have three major components: a Gyro-BWO microwave tube, a superconducting magnet, and a power supply/modulator. The design tasks for this study in order of decreasing importance are: design and specification of the superconducting magnet; preliminary design and layout of a Gyro-BWO microwave tube; and specification for the power supply/modulator. 2 refs., 4 figs

  5. 60 GHz Wireless Propagation Channels: Characterization, Modeling and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Carl

    2014-01-01

    To be able to connect wirelessly to the internet is nowadays a part of everyday life and the number of wireless devices accessing wireless networks worldwide are increasing rapidly. However, with the increasing number of wireless devices and applications and the amount available bandwidth, spectrum shortage is an issue. A promising way to increase the amount of available spectrum is to utilize frequency bands in the mm-wave range of 30-300 GHz that previously have not been used for typical co...

  6. Water vapor absorption in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Godon, M.; Carlier, J.; Ma, Q.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute absorption rates of pure water vapor and mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen have been measured in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz. The dependence on pressure as well as temperature has been obtained. The experimental data are compared with several theoretical or empirical models, and satisfactory agreement is obtained with the models involving a continuum; in the case of pure water vapor, the continuum contribution based upon recent theoretical developments gives good results. The temperature dependence is stronger than that proposed in a commonly used atmospheric transmission model.

  7. Amplifier Module for 260-GHz Band Using Quartz Waveguide Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Fung, King Man; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Peralta, Alejandro; Soria, Mary M.; Pukala, David M.; Sin, Seth; Samoska, Lorene A.; Sarkozy, Stephen; Lai, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Packaging of MMIC LNA (monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise amplifier) chips at frequencies over 200 GHz has always been problematic due to the high loss in the transition between the MMIC chip and the waveguide medium in which the chip will typically be used. In addition, above 200 GHz, wire-bond inductance between the LNA and the waveguide can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. This work resulted in the development of a low-loss quartz waveguide transition that includes a capacitive transmission line between the MMIC and the waveguide probe element. This capacitive transmission line tunes out the wirebond inductance (where the wire-bond is required to bond between the MMIC and the probe element). This inductance can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. The amplifier module consists of a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, a short capacitive tuning element, a short wire-bond to the MMIC, and the MMIC LNA. The output structure is similar, with a short wire-bond at the output of the MMIC, a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, and the output waveguide. The quartz probe element is made of 3-mil quartz, which is the thinnest commercially available material. The waveguide band used is WR4, from 170 to 260 GHz. This new transition and block design is an improvement over prior art because it provides for better RF matching, and will likely yield lower loss and better noise figure. The development of high-performance, low-noise amplifiers in the 180-to- 700-GHz range has applications for future earth science and planetary instruments with low power and volume, and astrophysics array instruments for molecular spectroscopy. This frequency band, while suitable for homeland security and commercial applications (such as millimeter-wave imaging, hidden weapons detection, crowd scanning, airport security, and communications), also has applications to

  8. 24-71 GHz PCB Array for 5G ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Markus H.; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wave 5G mobile architectures need to consolidate disparate frequency bands into a single, multifunctional array. Existing arrays are either narrow-band, prohibitively expensive or cannot be scaled to these frequencies. In this paper, we present the first ultra-wideband millimeter wave array to operate across six 5G and ISM bands spanning 24-71 GHz. Importantly, the array is realized using low-cost PCB. The paper presents the design and optimized layout, and discusses fabrication and measurements.

  9. The 30/20 GHz experimental communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, J. N.

    NASA is continuing to pursue an agressive satellite communications technology development program focused on the 30/20 GHz frequency band. A review of the program progress to date is presented. Included is a discussion of the technology program status as well as a description of the experimental system concept under study. Expected system performance characteristics together with spacecraft and payload configuration details including weight and power budget is presented. Overall program schedules of both the technology development and the flight system development are included.

  10. Design and modeling of a 17 GHz photocathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.L.; Chen, S.C.; Wurtele, J.S.; Temkin, R.; Danly, B.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a high-frequency (17 GHz), high accelerating gradient (250 MV/m) photocathode RF gun is studied with the particle-in-cell code MAGIC. For the parameter regime of interest, i.e. bunch charge smaller than 1 nC and bunch length shorter than 2 ps, space-charge forces and finite bunch length effects are less significant in determining the beam quality than nonlinear RF forces are. The cavity geometry, RF phase for photoemission, cathode size, and current density are being optimized to obtain high quality beams. Preliminary results are presented

  11. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmeier, S., E-mail: dittmeier@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-09-11

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m{sup 2}) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  12. High power testing of a 17 GHz photocathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.C.; Danly, B.G.; Gonichon, J.

    1995-01-01

    The physics and technological issues involved in high gradient particle acceleration at high microwave (RF) frequencies are under study at MIT. The 17 GHz photocathode RF gun has a 1 1/2 cell (π mode) room temperature cooper cavity. High power tests have been conducted at 5-10 MW levels with 100 ns pulses. A maximum surface electric field of 250 MV/m was achieved. This corresponds to an average on-axis gradient of 150 MeV/m. The gradient was also verified by a preliminary electron beam energy measurement. Even high gradients are expected in our next cavity design

  13. A 30 GHz 5-TeV Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Perry B

    2003-01-01

    We present parameters for a linear collider with a 3 to 5 TeV center-of-mass energy that utilizes conventional rf technology operating at a frequency around 30 GHz. We discuss the scaling laws and assumed limitations that lead to the parameters described and we compare the merits and liabilities of different technological options including rf power source, accelerator structure, and final focus system design. Finally, we outline the components of the collider while specifying the required alignment and construction tolerances

  14. Transmission Line for 258 GHz Gyrotron DNP Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdashov, Alexandr A.; Belousov, Vladimir I.; Chirkov, Alexey V.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Korchagin, Vyacheslav V.; Kornishin, Sergey Yu.; Tai, Evgeny M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design and test results of the transmission line for liquid-state (LS) and solid-state (SS) DNP spectrometers with the second-harmonic 258.6 GHz gyrotron at the Institute of the Biophysical Chemistry Center of Goethe University (Frankfurt). The 13-meter line includes a mode converter, HE11 waveguides, 4 mitre bends, a variable polarizer-attenuator, directional couplers, a water-flow calorimeter and a mechanical switch. A microwave power of about 15 W was obtained in the pure HE11 mode at the spectrometer inputs.

  15. Externally Phase-Locked Flux Flow Oscillator for Submm Integrated Receivers; Achievements and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Dmitriev, P. N.

    2003-01-01

    A Josephson Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) is the most developed superconducting local oscillator for integration with an SIS mixer in a single-chip submm-wave receiver. Recently, using a new FFO design, a free-running linewidth less than or equal to10 MHz has been measured in the frequency range up...... to 712 GHz, limited only by the gap frequency of Nb. This enabled us to phase lock the FFO in the frequency range 500-712 GHz where continuous frequency tuning is possible; resulting in an absolute FFO phase noise as low as -80 dBc at 707 GHz. Comprehensive measurements of the FFO radiation linewidth...... have been performed using an integrated SIS harmonic mixer. The influence of FFO parameters on radiation linewidth, particularly the effect of the differential resistances associated both with the bias current and the applied magnetic field has been studied in order to further optimize the FFO design...

  16. High-k Scattering Receiver Mixer Performance for NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert; Riemenschneider, Paul; Domier, Calvin; Luhmann, Neville; Ren, Yang; Kaita, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The High-k Scattering system detects primarily electron-scale turbulence k θ spectra for studying electron thermal transport in NSTX-U. A 100 mW, 693 GHz probe beam passes through plasma, and scattered power is detected by a 4-pixel quasi optical, mixer array. Remotely controlled receiving optics allows the scattering volume to be located from core to edge with a k θ span of 7 to 40 cm-1. The receiver array features 4 RF diagonal input horns, where the electric field polarization is aligned along the diagonal of a square cross section horn, at 30 mm channel spacing. The local oscillator is provided by a 14.4 GHz source followed by a x48 multiplier chain, giving an intermediate frequency of 1 GHz. The receiver optics receive 4 discreet scattering angles simultaneously, and then focus the signals as 4 parallel signals to their respective horns. A combination of a steerable probe beam, and translating receiver, allows for upward or downward scattering which together can provide information about 2D turbulence wavenumber spectrum. IF signals are digitized and stored for later computer analysis. The performance of the receiver mixers is discussed, along with optical design features to enhance the tuning and performance of the mixers. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54518 and DE-AC02-09CH1146.

  17. A Q-band two-beam cryogenic receiver for the Tianma Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei-Ye; Dong, Jian; Gou, Wei; Yu, Lin-Feng; Wang, Jin-Qing; Xia, Bo; Jiang, Wu; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Jun; Yin, Xiao-Xing; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Liu, Qing-Hui; Shen, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-01

    A Q-band two-beam cryogenic receiver for the Tianma Radio Telescope (TMRT) has been developed, and it uses the independently-developed key microwave and millimeter-wave components operating from 35 to 50GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 35%. The Q-band receiver consists of three parts: optics, cold unit assembly and warm unit assembly, and it can receive simultaneously the left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized waves. The cold unit assembly of each beam is composed of a feed horn, a noise injection coupler, a differential phase shifter, an orthomode transducer and two low-noise amplifiers, and it works at a temperature range near 20 K to greatly improve the detection sensitivity of the receiving system. The warm unit assembly includes four radio-frequency amplifiers, four radio-frequency high-pass filters, four waveguide biased mixers, four 4–12 GHz intermediate-frequency amplifiers and one 31–38 GHz frequency synthesizer. The measured Q-band four-channel receiver noise temperatures are roughly 30–40 K. In addition, the single-dish spectral line and international very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations between the TMRT and East Asia VLBI Network at the Q-band have been successfully carried out, demonstrating the advantages of the TMRT equipped with the state-of-the-art Q-band receiver.

  18. Detection by Sardinia Radio Telescope of radio pulses at 7 GHz from the Magnetar PSR J1745-2900 in the Galactic center region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttu, Marco; D'Amico, Nichi; Egron, Elise; Iacolina, Maria Noemi; Marongiu, Pasqualino; Migoni, Carlo; Pellizzoni, Alberto; Poppi, Sergio; Possenti, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Vargiu, Gian Paolo

    2013-05-01

    During the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) science verification phase, we observed PSR J1745-2900, firstly detected as an X-ray flare from Sgr A* by Swift and then identified as a 3.76 s X-ray magnetar with NuSTAR telescope (ATels #5006, #5020, #5027, #5032, #5033, #5035), at a central frequency of 7.30 GHz. We used a Beam Wave Guide focus cryogenically cooled receiver (system temperature ~25 K).

  19. Demonstration of a Submillimeter-Wave HEMT Oscillator Module at 330 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Vesna; Deal, W. R.; Mei, X. B.; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, P. H.; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; hide

    2010-01-01

    In this work, radial transitions have been successfully mated with a HEMT-based MMIC (high-electron-mobility-transistor-based monolithic microwave integrated circuit) oscillator circuit. The chip has been assembled into a WR2.2 waveguide module for the basic implementation with radial E-plane probe transitions to convert the waveguide mode to the MMIC coplanar waveguide mode. The E-plane transitions have been directly integrated onto the InP substrate to couple the submillimeter-wave energy directly to the waveguides, thus avoiding wire-bonds in the RF path. The oscillator demonstrates a measured 1.7 percent DC-RF efficiency at the module level. The oscillator chip uses 35-nm-gate-length HEMT devices, which enable the high frequency of oscillation, creating the first demonstration of a packaged waveguide oscillator that operates over 300 GHz and is based on InP HEMT technology. The oscillator chip is extremely compact, with dimensions of only 1.085 x 320 sq mm for a total die size of 0.35 sq mm. This fully integrated, waveguide oscillator module, with an output power of 0.27 mW at 330 GHz, can provide low-mass, low DC-power-consumption alternatives to existing local oscillator schemes, which require high DC power consumption and large mass. This oscillator module can be easily integrated with mixers, multipliers, and amplifiers for building high-frequency transmit and receive systems at submillimeter wave frequencies. Because it requires only a DC bias to enable submillimeter wave output power, it is a simple and reliable technique for generating power at these frequencies. Future work will be directed to further improving the applicability of HEMT transistors to submillimeter wave and terahertz applications. Commercial applications include submillimeter-wave imaging systems for hidden weapons detection, airport security, homeland security, and portable low-mass, low-power imaging systems

  20. Fabrication of Detector Arrays for the SPT-3G Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, C. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Avva, J. S.; Thakur, R. Basu; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carter, F. W.; Cecil, T.; Chang, C. L.; Cliche, J. F.; Cukierman, A.; Denison, E. V.; de Haan, T.; Ding, J.; Divan, R.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Foster, A.; Gannon, R. N.; Gilbert, A.; Groh, J. C.; Halverson, N. W.; Harke-Hosemann, A. H.; Harrington, N. L.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Huang, N.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O. B.; Jonas, M.; Khaire, T.; Kofman, A. M.; Korman, M.; Kubik, D.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; Lowitz, A. E.; Meyer, S. S.; Michalik, D.; Miller, C. S.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Noble, G. I.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Rahlin, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saunders, L. J.; Sayre, J. T.; Shirley, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smecher, G.; Sobrin, J. A.; Stan, L.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Suzuki, A.; Tang, Q. Y.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L. R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Young, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    The South Pole Telescope third-generation (SPT-3G) receiver was installed during the austral summer of 2016-2017. It is designed to measure the cosmic microwave background across three frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. The SPT-3G receiver has ten focal plane modules, each with 269 pixels. Each pixel features a broadband sinuous antenna coupled to a niobium microstrip transmission line. In-line filters define the desired band-passes before the signal is coupled to six bolometers with Ti/Au/Ti/Au transition edge sensors (three bands × two polarizations). In total, the SPT-3G receiver is composed of 16,000 detectors, which are read out using a 68× frequency-domain multiplexing scheme. In this paper, we present the process employed in fabricating the detector arrays.

  1. RRI-GBT MULTI-BAND RECEIVER: MOTIVATION, DESIGN, AND DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maan, Yogesh; Deshpande, Avinash A.; Chandrashekar, Vinutha; Chennamangalam, Jayanth; Rao, K. B. Raghavendra; Somashekar, R.; Ezhilarasi, M. S.; Sujatha, S.; Kasturi, S.; Sandhya, P.; Duraichelvan, R.; Amiri, Shahram; Aswathappa, H. A.; Sarabagopalan, G.; Ananda, H. M.; Anderson, Gary; Bauserman, Jonah; Beaudet, Carla; Bloss, Marty; Barve, Indrajit V.

    2013-01-01

    We report the design and development of a self-contained multi-band receiver (MBR) system, intended for use with a single large aperture to facilitate sensitive and high time-resolution observations simultaneously in 10 discrete frequency bands sampling a wide spectral span (100-1500 MHz) in a nearly log-periodic fashion. The development of this system was primarily motivated by need for tomographic studies of pulsar polar emission regions. Although the system design is optimized for the primary goal, it is also suited for several other interesting astronomical investigations. The system consists of a dual-polarization multi-band feed (with discrete responses corresponding to the 10 bands pre-selected as relatively radio frequency interference free), a common wide-band radio frequency front-end, and independent back-end receiver chains for the 10 individual sub-bands. The raw voltage time sequences corresponding to 16 MHz bandwidth each for the two linear polarization channels and the 10 bands are recorded at the Nyquist rate simultaneously. We present the preliminary results from the tests and pulsar observations carried out with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope using this receiver. The system performance implied by these results and possible improvements are also briefly discussed.

  2. RRI-GBT MULTI-BAND RECEIVER: MOTIVATION, DESIGN, AND DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maan, Yogesh; Deshpande, Avinash A.; Chandrashekar, Vinutha; Chennamangalam, Jayanth; Rao, K. B. Raghavendra; Somashekar, R.; Ezhilarasi, M. S.; Sujatha, S.; Kasturi, S.; Sandhya, P.; Duraichelvan, R.; Amiri, Shahram; Aswathappa, H. A.; Sarabagopalan, G.; Ananda, H. M. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Anderson, Gary; Bauserman, Jonah; Beaudet, Carla; Bloss, Marty [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV (United States); Barve, Indrajit V. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore (India); and others

    2013-01-15

    We report the design and development of a self-contained multi-band receiver (MBR) system, intended for use with a single large aperture to facilitate sensitive and high time-resolution observations simultaneously in 10 discrete frequency bands sampling a wide spectral span (100-1500 MHz) in a nearly log-periodic fashion. The development of this system was primarily motivated by need for tomographic studies of pulsar polar emission regions. Although the system design is optimized for the primary goal, it is also suited for several other interesting astronomical investigations. The system consists of a dual-polarization multi-band feed (with discrete responses corresponding to the 10 bands pre-selected as relatively radio frequency interference free), a common wide-band radio frequency front-end, and independent back-end receiver chains for the 10 individual sub-bands. The raw voltage time sequences corresponding to 16 MHz bandwidth each for the two linear polarization channels and the 10 bands are recorded at the Nyquist rate simultaneously. We present the preliminary results from the tests and pulsar observations carried out with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope using this receiver. The system performance implied by these results and possible improvements are also briefly discussed.

  3. AN ACCURATE FLUX DENSITY SCALE FROM 1 TO 50 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perley, R. A.; Butler, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    We develop an absolute flux density scale for centimeter-wavelength astronomy by combining accurate flux density ratios determined by the Very Large Array between the planet Mars and a set of potential calibrators with the Rudy thermophysical emission model of Mars, adjusted to the absolute scale established by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The radio sources 3C123, 3C196, 3C286, and 3C295 are found to be varying at a level of less than ∼5% per century at all frequencies between 1 and 50 GHz, and hence are suitable as flux density standards. We present polynomial expressions for their spectral flux densities, valid from 1 to 50 GHz, with absolute accuracy estimated at 1%-3% depending on frequency. Of the four sources, 3C286 is the most compact and has the flattest spectral index, making it the most suitable object on which to establish the spectral flux density scale. The sources 3C48, 3C138, 3C147, NGC 7027, NGC 6542, and MWC 349 show significant variability on various timescales. Polynomial coefficients for the spectral flux density are developed for 3C48, 3C138, and 3C147 for each of the 17 observation dates, spanning 1983-2012. The planets Venus, Uranus, and Neptune are included in our observations, and we derive their brightness temperatures over the same frequency range.

  4. Initial tests of an 11.4 GHz magnicon amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, S.H.; Sullivan, C.A.; Manheimer, W.M.; Hafizi, B.

    1994-01-01

    The magnicon, a scanning beam microwave amplifier related to the gyrocon, is a possible replacement for klystron amplifiers in future high-gradient linear accelerators. The magnicon circuit consists of a multicavity deflection system followed by an output cavity. The purpose of the deflection system is to spin up the electron beam phase-coherently to high transverse momentum. In order to do this, the deflection cavities employ rotating TM 11 modes, producing a gyrating electron beam whose centroid rotates about the cavity axis in synchronism with the advance in phase of the rf modes. The output cavity employs a cyclotron resonant mechanism to extract principally the transverse beam momentum. It employs an rf mode that rotates synchronously with the deflection cavity modes, and with the entry point of the electron beam into the output cavity, making possible a highly efficient interaction. The NRL magnicon uses a 100--200 A, 500 keV beam produced by a cold-cathode diode on the NRL Long-Pulse Accelerator Facility. The first cavity is externally driven at 5.7 GHz, while the output cavity is designed to produce megawatts of power at 11.4 GHz in the TM 210 mode. In this paper, the authors present a progress report on the NRL magnicon experiment. They will discuss the procedure used to cold test and calibrate the magnicon circuit, and present initial results from experimental operations

  5. A mechanism for tuning 5 GHz HTS filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsaka, M.; Takeuchi, S.; Ono, S.; Lee, J.H.; Saito, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Akasegawa, A.; Yamanaka, K.; Kurihara, K. [Fujitsu LTD., 10-1 Wakamiya, Morinosato, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0197 (Japan); Ohshima, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: ohshima@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp

    2008-09-15

    We developed a tuning mechanism of HTS filter with a dielectric tuning plate, dielectric trimming rods, and conducting trimming rods. The tuning plate has windows through which the dielectric and conducting trimming rods pass. The tuning plate was designed for a 3-pole filter with 5 GHz center frequency (f{sub c}) and 100 MHz bandwidth (BW) using a 3-dimensional electromagnetic simulator. We were able to shift the f{sub c} to frequencies below 500 MHz using the tuning plate with a dielectric constant of 45. However, the insertion loss (IL) and the pass-band ripple of the filter became more severe and the BW of the filter was narrower after tuning. We tried to improve the filter properties after tuning using the dielectric and conducting trimming rods. We decreased the IL and the pass-band ripple by adjusting the height of the dielectric trimming rods to above the resonators. Also, the BW was improved by using copper (Cu) trimming rods above the spaces between the resonators. The tuning plate and the trimming rods did not affect the IL. So, we simulated 500 MHz tuning without the filter properties deteriorating at f{sub c} = 5 GHz. Also, we experimentally evaluated that the f{sub c} could be shifted to 340 MHz using the dielectric plate, the pass-band ripple could be decreased by ripple trimming using the dielectric rods, and the BW could be increased 31 MHz by BW trimming using the Cu rods.

  6. Velocity diagnostics of electron beams within a 140 GHz gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoy, J.T.

    1989-06-01

    Experimental measurements of the average axial velocity v parallel of the electron beam within the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron have been performed. The method involves the simultaneous measurement of the radial electrostatic potential of the electron beam V p and the beam current I b . V p is measured through the use of a capacitive probe installed near or within the gyrotron cavity, while I b is measured with a previously installed Rogowski coil. Three capacitive probes have been designed and built, and two have operated within the gyrotron. The probe results are repeatable and consistent with theory. The measurements of v parallel and calculations of the corresponding transverse to longitudinal beam velocity ratio α = v perpendicular /v parallel at the cavity have been made at various gyrotron operation parameters. These measurements will provide insight into the causes of discrepancies between theoretical rf interaction efficiencies and experimental efficiencies obtained in experiments with the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron. The expected values of v parallel and α are determined through the use of a computer code entitled EGUN. EGUN is used to model the cathode and anode regions of the gyrotron and it computes the trajectories and velocities of the electrons within the gyrotron. There is good correlation between the expected and measured values of α at low α, with the expected values from EGUN often falling within the standard errors of the measured values. 10 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Test results from the LLNL 250 GHz CARM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, B.; Caplan, M.; Bubp, D.; Houck, T.; Rogers, D.; Trimble, D.; VanMaren, R.; Westenskow, G.; McDermott, D.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Danly, B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have completed the initial phase of a 250 GHz CARM experiment, driven by the 2 MeV, 1 kA, 30 ns induction linac at the LLNL ARC facility. A non-Brillouin, solid, electron beam is generated from a flux-threaded, thermionic cathode. As the beam traverses a 10 kG plateau produced by a superconducting magnet, ten percent of the beam energy is converted into rotational energy in a bifilar helix wiggler that produces a spiraling, 50 G, transverse magnetic field. The beam is then compressed to a 5 mm diameter as it drifts into a 30 kG plateau. For the present experiment, the CARM interaction region consisted of a single Bragg section resonator, followed by a smooth-bore amplifier section. Using high-pass filters, they have observed broadband output signals estimated to be at the several megawatt level in the range 140 to over 230 GHz. This is consistent with operation as a superradiant amplifier. Simultaneously, they also observed K a band power levels near 3 MW

  8. Prospect for a 60 GHz multicharged ECR ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, T.; Bondoux, D.; Angot, J.; Baylac, M.; Froidefond, E.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Leduc, A.; Sole, P.; Debray, F.; Trophime, C.; Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.

    2018-05-01

    The conceptual design of a fourth generation hybrid electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source operated at 60 GHz is proposed. The axial magnetic mirror is generated with a set of three Nb3Sn coils, while the hexapole is made with room temperature (RT) copper coils. The motivations for such a hybrid development are to study further the ECR plasma physics and the intense multicharged ion beams' production and transport at a time when a superconducting (SC) hexapole appears unrealistic at 60 GHz. The RT hexapole coil designed is an evolution of the polyhelix technology developed at the French High Magnetic Field Facility. The axial magnetic field is generated by means of 3 Nb3Sn SC coils operated with a maximum current density of 350 A/mm2 and a maximum coil load line factor of 81%. The ECR plasma chamber resulting from the design features an inner radius of 94 mm and a length of 500 mm. The radial magnetic intensity is 4.1 T at the wall. Characteristic axial mirror peaks are 8 and 4.5 T, with 1.45 T minimum in between.

  9. Test results from the LLNL 250 GHz CARM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, B.; Caplan, M.; Bubp, D.; Houck, T.; Rogers, D.; Trimble, D.; VanMaren, R.; Westenskow, G.; McDermott, D.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Danly, B.

    1991-05-01

    We have completed the initial phase of a 250 GHz CARM experiment, driven by the 2 MeV, 1 kA, 30 ns induction linac at the LLNL ARC facility. A non-Brillouin, solid, electron beam is generated from a flux-threaded, thermionic cathode. As the beam traverses a 10 kG plateau produced by a superconducting magnet, ten percent of the beam energy is converted into rotational energy in a bifilar helix wiggler that produces a spiraling, 50 G, transverse magnetic field. The beam is then compressed to a 5 mm diameter as it drifts into a 30 kG plateau. For the present experiment, the CARM interaction region consisted of a single Bragg section resonator, followed by a smooth-bore amplifier section. Using high-pass filters, we have observed broadband output signals estimated to be at the several megawatt level in the range 140 to over 230 GHz. This is consistent with operation as a superradiant amplifier. Simultaneously, we also observed K a band power levels near 3 MW

  10. ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Moehs, D P; Pardo, R C; Xie, D

    2000-01-01

    A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid...

  11. Observation of 45 GHz current waveforms using HTS sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, M.; Suzuki, H.; Hato, T.; Wakana, H.; Nakayama, K.; Ishimaru, Y.; Horibe, O.; Adachi, S.; Kamitani, A.; Suzuki, K.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tarutani, Y.; Tanabe, K.

    2005-01-01

    We succeeded in observing high-frequency current waveforms up to 45 GHz using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sampler. In this experiment, we used a sampler circuit with a superconducting pickup coil, which magnetically detects current signals flowing through a micro-strip line on a printed board placed outside the cryochamber. This type of measurement enables non-contact current-waveform observation that seems useful for analyses of EMI, defects in LSI, etc. Computer simulation reveals that one of our latest versions of HTS sampler circuits having Josephson transmission lines with optimized biases as buffers has a potential of sampling high-frequency signals with a bandwidth above 100 GHz. To realize the circuit parameters required in the simulations, we developed an HTS circuit fabrication process employing a lower ground plane structure with SrSnO 3 insulating layers. We consider that improvement of the circuit fabrication process and optimization of the pickup coil lead to much higher signal frequency observable by the sampler

  12. Spatial and Temporal Characterization of Indoor Millimeter Wave Propagation at 24 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-hwan Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor millimeter wave propagation at the frequency of 24 GHz is studied by experimental methods. Measurements are performed to obtain temporal and spatial channel model using a channel sounder and rotating antennas in a corridor. The measured impulse responses are processed to obtain compact channel model following Saleh-Valenzuela’s model. The responses are compared with those of 5.3 GHz for the same test sites. Angular spread of 24 GHz is found to be smaller than that of 5.3 GHz, while echoes of 24 GHz are found to be longer than those of 5.3 GHz.

  13. A Wide-Band High-Gain Compact SIS Receiver Utilizing a 300-μW SiGe IF LNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Shirin; Grimes, Paul K.; Tong, Cheuk-Yu Edward; Bardin, Joseph C.

    2017-06-01

    Low-power low-noise amplifiers integrated with superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers are required to enable implementation of large-scale focal plane arrays. In this work, a 220-GHz SIS mixer has been integrated with a high-gain broad-band low-power IF amplifier into a compact receiver module. The low noise amplifier (LNA) was specifically designed to match to the SIS output impedance and contributes less than 7 K to the system noise temperature over the 4-8 GHz IF frequency range. A receiver noise temperature of 30-45 K was measured for a local oscillator frequency of 220 GHz over an IF spanning 4-8 GHz. The LNA power dissipation was only 300-μW. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the lowest power consumption reported for a high-gain wide-band LNA directly integrated with an SIS mixer.

  14. Electron-beam buncher to operate over the frequency range 1-4 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Arthur, A.A.; Flood, W.S.; Voelker, F.

    1983-03-01

    We present a description of an electron buncher to be installed in the terminal of a Van de Graaff, which is to produce a modulated beam over the frequency range 1-4 GHz. The modulator geometry has been optimized so that the modulation amplitude should be nearly constant over the frequency ranges 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz. Preliminary results indicate the device works as predicted

  15. 2.45 GHz Rectenna Designed for Wireless Sensors Operating at 500 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Schwartz, Zachary D.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Downey, Alan N.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    High temperature wireless sensors that operate at 500 C are required for aircraft engine monitoring and performance improvement These sensors would replace currently used hard-wired sensors and lead to a substantial reduction in mass. However, even if the sensor output data is transmitted wirelessly to a receiver in the cooler part of the engine, and the associated cables are eliminated, DC power cables are still required to operate the sensors and power the wireless circuits. To solve this problem, NASA is developing a rectenna, a circuit that receives RF power and converts it to DC power. The rectenna would be integrated with the wireless sensor, and the RF transmitter that powers the rectenna would be located in the cooler part of the engine. In this way, no cables to or from the sensors are required. Rectennas haw been demonstrated at ambient room temperature, but to date, no high temperature rectennas haw been reported. In this paper, we report the first rectenna designed for 2.45 GHz operation at 500 C. The circuit consists of a microstrip dipole antenna, a stripline impedance matching circuit, and a stripline low pass filter to prevent transmission of higher harmonics created by the rectifying diode fabricated on an Alumina substrate. The rectifying diode is the gate to source junction of a 6H Sic MESFET and the capacitor and load resistor are chip elements that are each bonded to the Alumina substrate. Each element and the hybrid, rectenna circuit haw been characterized through 500 C.

  16. Design of a K/Q-Band Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat TDP#5 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a coherent KQ-band (2040 GHz) beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) for use in the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload 5 (TDP5) beacon experiment. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation at 40 GHz to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models in the Q-band. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation. The receiver system has been characterized in the lab and demonstrates a system dynamic range performance of better than 58 dB at 1 Hz and better than 48 dB at 10 Hz rates.

  17. A 1.8 GHz Voltage-Controlled Oscillator using CMOS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisurah, M. H. Siti; Emran, F. Nazif; Norman Fadhil, Idham M.; Rahim, A. I. Abdul; Razman, Y. Mohamed

    2011-05-01

    A Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) for 1.8 GHz application has been designed using a combination of both 0.13 μm and 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The VCO has a large tuning range, which is from 1.39 GHz to 1.91 GHz, using a control voltage from 0 to 3V. The VCO exhibits a low phase-noise at 1.8 GHz which is around -119.8dBc/Hz at a frequency offset of 1 MHz.

  18. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  19. The EMIR multi-band mm-wave receiver for the IRAM 30-m telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Lazareff, B.; Maier, D.; Chenu, J.-Y.; Fontana, A.-L.; Bortolotti, Y.; Boucher, C.; Navarrini, A.; Blanchet, S.; Greve, A.; John, D.; Kramer, C.; Morel, F.; Navarro, S.; Peñalver, J.; Schuster, K. F.; Thum, C.

    2012-02-01

    Aims: The prime motivation of this project was to design and build a state-of-art mm-wave heterodyne receiver system to enhance the observing throughput of the IRAM 30-m radiotelescope. More specifically, the requirements were i) state-of-art noise performance for spectroscopic observations; ii) simultaneous dual polarization and dual-frequency observing; iii) coverage of the atmospheric transmission windows from 83 to 360 GHz; iv) compact footprint and minimal maintenance. Methods: Key elements for low noise performance of heterodyne mixers are the superconducting Niobium junctions, operating at ≃4 K. These junctions are embedded in carefully designed coupling structures; furthermore, since atmospheric radiation is a significant contributor to the system noise budget, all mixers are either sideband separating or sideband rejecting. To achieve low noise, it is also essential to maximize the coupling of the receiver to the astronomical source, and to minimize the coupling to thermal radiation from the ground-based environment; this is achieved through mirror optics that realize a wavelength-independent coupling to the telescope. A flexible configuration of mirrors and frequency selective surfaces permits various combinations of frequency bands, as well as dual-load radiometric calibration. Low noise intermediate frequency amplifiers and bias electronics also play an important role in the system performance. Results: The EMIR receiver in operation at the 30 m telescope offers four frequency bands: B1: 83-117 GHz, B2: 129-174 GHz, B3: 200-267 GHz, and B4: 260-360 GHz. In each band, the two orthogonal polarizations are observed simultaneously. Dual-band combinations B1/2 B1/3, and B2/4 are available. Bands 1 and 4 (also 3 as of Nov.-2011) feature sideband separation. In dual-band configuration, including sideband separation and polarization diplexing, up to eight IF channels are delivered to the spectrometers, totaling up to 64 GHz of signal bandwidth (of which 32

  20. A 60-GHz energy harvesting module with on-chip antenna and switch for co-integration with ULP radios in 65-nm CMOS with fully wireless mm-wave power transfer measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Milosevic, D.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the architecture and performance of a co-integrated 60 GHz on-chip wireless energy harvester and ultra-low power (ULP) radio in 65-nm CMOS are discussed. Integration of an on-chip antenna with wireless power receiver and wireless data transfer module is the crucial next step to achieve

  1. Fiber-wireless transmission system of 108  Gb/sdata over 80 km fiber and 2×2multiple-input multiple-output wireless links at 100 GHz W-band frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Dong, Ze; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Shao, Yufeng; Chang, G K

    2012-12-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a seamlessly integrated fiber-wireless system that delivers a 108  Gb/s signal through 80 km fiber and 1 m wireless transport over free space at 100 GHz adopting polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulation and heterodyning coherent detection. The X- and Y-polarization components of the optical PDM-QPSK baseband signal are simultaneously upconverted to 100 GHz wireless carrier by optical polarization-diversity heterodyne beating, and then independently transmitted and received by two pairs of transmitter and receiver antennas, which form a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless link. At the wireless receiver, two-stage downconversion is performed firstly in the analog domain based on balanced mixer and sinusoidal radio frequency signal, and then in the digital domain based on digital signal processing (DSP). Polarization demultiplexing is realized by the constant modulus algorithm in the DSP part at the receiver. The bit-error ratio for the 108  Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal is less than the pre-forward-error-correction threshold of 3.8×10(-3) after both 1 m wireless delivery at 100 GHz and 80 km single-mode fiber-28 transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration to realize 100  Gb/s signal delivery through both fiber and wireless links at 100 GHz.

  2. 10 GHz microstrip spanar antennas: an experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Azman, Hazwani; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abd; Rahim, Yahaya Abd; Pee, Ahmad Nairn Che; Motsidi, Mohamad Radzi; Othman, Mohd Fairuz Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Spanar Antenna designed using CST Microwave Studio Simulation 2011. The proposed antenna was designed to operate at 10 GHz, which suggested return loss, S 11 must be less than -10 dB and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) must be less than 2. The best performance of simulation of Spanar Antenna was obtained at a small size of 24.8 mm × 8.0 mm with dimension board of FR4 substrate 31.7 mm × 18.5 mm. The thickness (h) and dielectric constant (εr) of substrate were 1.6 mm and 4.7. An analysis between simulation result and measurement result has been compared in order to see the antenna performance.

  3. Array of 1- to 2-GHz electrodes for stochastic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelker, F.; Henderson, T.; Johnson, J.

    1983-03-01

    Described is an array of directional-coupler loop pairs that are to be used as either pickup or kicker electrodes for the frequency range of 1 to 2 GHz. Each coupler pair is a lambda/4 long parallel-plane transmission line that is arranged to be flush with the upper and lower surfaces of a rectangular beam pipe. As pickups, the coupler pairs are used in arrays and are operated at 80 degrees Kelvin for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The loop output power is added in stripline combiner networks before being fed to a low-noise preamplifier. When the couplers are used as kickers, the combining network serves to split power and distribute it uniformly to each electrode

  4. Experiments on a 14.5 GHz ECR source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.E.; Langbein, K.

    1996-01-01

    The 14.5 GHz ECR4 source supplied to CERN in the framework of the Heavy Ion Facility collaboration provided Pb 27+ operational beams to a new custom built linac in 1994. This source, which operates in the pulsed 'afterglow' mode, quickly met its design specification of 80 eμA and now provides currents >100 eμA regularly. Early source tests showed the existence of extremely stable modes of operation. In the search for higher intensities a number of experiments have been performed on plasma gas composition, RF power matching, extraction, beam pulse compression and a biased dynode. The results of these tests will be presented along with further ideas to improve source performance. (author)

  5. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Wiedner, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the in...

  6. Analysis of parasitic oscillations in 42 GHz gyrotron beam tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Singh, U.; Singh, T. P.; Sinha, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    Parasitic oscillation excitation analysis has been carried out for the 42 GHz gyrotron beam tunnel. This article presents a systematic approach for the analysis of parasitic oscillation excitation. The electron trajectory code EGUN has been used for the estimation of the electron beam parameters in the beam tunnel. The electromagnetic simulation code CST-MS has been used for the eigenmode and Q value analysis. The analysis of the parasitic oscillations has been performed for the symmetric TE modes and the first three cavity side copper rings. Four different approaches- the Q value study, the mode maxima-electron beam radius mismatching, the electron cyclotron frequency-mode excitation frequency mismatching and the backward wave interaction analysis- have been used for the parasitic oscillation analysis.

  7. A 75 GHz silicon metal-semiconductor-metal Schottky photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, S.; Wang, C.; Hsiang, T.Y.; Liu, M.Y.; Chou, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrafast characteristics of crystalline-silicon metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes with 300 nm finger width and spacing were measured with a subpicosecond electro-optic sampling system. Electrical responses with full width at half maximum as short as 5.5 and 11 ps, at corresponding 3 dB bandwidths of 75 and 38 GHz, were generated by violet and red photons, respectively. The difference is attributed to the photon penetration depth which is much larger than the diode finger spacing at red, but smaller at violet. Light-intensity dependence was also examined at different wavelengths, indicating a linear relation and a higher sensitivity in the violet. These results not only demonstrated the fastest silicon photodetector reported to date, but also pinpointed the dominant speed-limiting factor of silicon MSM photodiodes. A configuration is suggested to improve the speed of these detectors at long wavelengths

  8. ASTEROID SIZING BY RADIOGALAXY OCCULTATION AT 5 GHZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.; Muinonen, K.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala (Finland); Bach, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Radioobservatorium Effelsberg, Max-Planck-Str. 28, D-53902 Bad Münstereifel-Effelsberg (Germany); Petrov, L., E-mail: kimmo.lehtinen@nls.fi [Astrogeo Center, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Stellar occultations by asteroids observed at visual wavelengths have been an important tool for studying the size and shape of asteroids and for revising the orbital parameters of asteroids. At radio frequencies, a shadow of an asteroid on the Earth is dominated by diffraction effects. Here, we show, for the first time, that a single observation of an occultation of a compact radio source at a frequency of 5 GHz can be used to derive the effective size of the occulting object and to derive the distance between the observer and the center of the occultation path on the Earth. The derived diameter of the occulting object, asteroid (115) Thyra, is 75 ± 6 km. The observed occultation profile shows features that cannot be explained by diffraction of a single asteroid.

  9. 4-GHz counters bring synthesizers up to speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F.; Miller, R.

    1984-06-01

    The availability of digital IC counters built on GaAs makes direct frequency division in microwave synthesizers possible. Four GHz is the highest clock rate achievable in production designs. These devices have the ability to drive TTL/CMOS logic, and the counter can be connected directly to single-chip frequency synthesizers controllers. A complete microwave sythesizer is formed by two chips and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The advantages of GaAs are discussed along with flip-flop basics, aspects of device fabrication, and the characteristics of GaAs MESAFETs. Attention is given to a GaAs prescaler usable for direct conversion, four kinds of flip-flops in a divide-by-two mode, and seven-stage binary ripple counters.

  10. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF PREBIOTIC PROPENAL UP TO 660 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, A. M.; Bermúdez, C.; Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L., E-mail: Adam.M.Daly@jpl.nasa.gov [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Área de Química-Física, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2015-06-22

    Since interstellar detection of propenal is only based on two rotational transitions in the centimeter wave region, its high resolution rotational spectrum has been measured up to 660 GHz and fully characterized by assignment of more than 12,000 transitions to provide direct laboratory data to the astronomical community. Spectral assignments and analysis include transitions from the ground state of the trans and cis isomers, three trans-{sup 13}C isotopologues, and ten excited vibrational states of the trans form. Combining new millimeter and submillimeter data with those from the far-infrared region has yielded the most precise set of spectroscopic constants of trans-propenal obtained to date. Newly determined rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, vibrational energies, and Coriolis and Fermi interaction constants are given with high accuracy and were used to predict transition frequencies and intensities over a wide frequency range. Results of this work should facilitate astronomers further observation of propenal in the interstellar medium.

  11. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  12. FIR laser scattering and heterodyne receiver measurements on Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskoboinikow, P.; Praddaude, H.C.; Mulligan, W.J.; Cohn, D.R.; Lax, B.

    1982-01-01

    The MIT program to develop high power collective Thomson scattering diagnostics is presented. The D 2 O laser Thomson scattering system is operational on Alcator C tokamak. The major components include a 0.5 MW, 150 ns D 2 O laser, a heterodyne receiver mixer, a 25 MW, 381 μ DCOOD laser local oscillator and X-band I.F. electronics including a 32 channel multiplexer filter centered at 9.4 GHz with 80 MHz wide channels. Initial scattering measurement showed high level of stray D 2 O laser power. The spectrum was obtained by operating the Thomson scattering diagnostics with no plasma in the tokamak. An X-band notch filter was placed after the Schottky diode mixer to reject a 240 MHz band centered at 9.4 GHz. The stray light level was reduced by 16 to 20 db. Other sources of background noise such as strong non-thermal scattering and ECE did not appear to be a problem. A gas filled cell was placed on the Alcator C scattering system to reduce the level of stray light. Work is underway to improve the transverse mode quality of the laser and receiver to improve matching to the beam and viewing dumps. (Kato, T.)

  13. 25–34 GHz Single-Pole, Double-Throw CMOS Switches for a Ka-Band Phased-Array Transceiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two single-pole, double-throw (SPDT mm-wave switches for Ka-band phased-array transceivers, fabricated with a 65-nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. One switch employs cross-biasing (CB control with a single supply, while the other uses dual-supply biasing (DSB control with positive and negative voltages. Negative voltages were generated internally, using a ring oscillator and a charge pump. Identical gate and body floated N-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (N-MOSFETs in a triple well were used as the switch core transistors. Inductors were used to improve the isolation between the transmitter (TX and receiver (RX, as well as insertion loss, by canceling the parasitic capacitance of the switch core transistors at resonance. The size of the proposed radio frequency (RF switch is 260 μm × 230 μm, excluding all pads. The minimum insertion losses of the CB and DSB switches were 2.1 dB at 28 GHz and 1.93 dB at 24 GHz, respectively. Between 25 GHz and 34 GHz, the insertion losses were less than 2.3 dB and 2.5 dB, the return losses were less than 16.7 dB and 17.3 dB, and the isolation was over 18.4 dB and 15.3 dB, respectively. The third order input intercept points (IIP3 of the CB and DSB switches were 38.4 dBm and 39 dBm at 28 GHz, respectively.

  14. Velocity diagnostics of electron beams within a 140 GHz gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoy, Jeffrey Todd

    1989-06-01

    Experimental measurements of the average axial velocity v(sub parallel) of the electron beam within the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron have been performed. The method involves the simultaneous measurement of the radial electrostatic potential of the electron beam V(sub p) and the beam current I(sub b). The V(sub p) is measured through the use of a capacitive probe installed near or within the gyrotron cavity, while I(sub b) is measured with a previously installed Rogowski coil. Three capacitive probes have been designed and built, and two have operated within the gyrotron. The probe results are repeatable and consistent with theory. The measurements of v(sub parallel) and calculations of the corresponding transverse to longitudinal beam velocity ratio (alpha) = v(sub perpendicular)/v(sub parallel) at the cavity have been made at various gyrotron operation parameters. These measurements will provide insight into the causes of discrepancies between theoretical RF interaction efficiencies and experimental efficiencies obtained in experiments with the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron. The expected values of v(sub parallel) and (alpha) are determined through the use of a computer code (EGUN) which is used to model the cathode and anode regions of the gyrotron. It also computes the trajectories and velocities of the electrons within the gyrotron. There is good correlation between the expected and measured values of (alpha) at low (alpha), with the expected values from EGUN often falling within the standard errors of the measured values.

  15. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  16. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  17. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  18. HIGH RESOLUTION 36 GHz IMAGING OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT OF SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Zanardo, G.; Ng, C.-Y.; Gaensler, B. M.; Ball, Lewis; Kesteven, M. J.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The aftermath of supernova (SN) 1987A continues to provide spectacular insights into the interaction between an SN blastwave and its circumstellar environment. We here present 36 GHz observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the radio remnant of SN 1987A. These new images, taken in 2008 April and 2008 October, substantially extend the frequency range of an ongoing monitoring and imaging program conducted between 1.4 and 20 GHz. Our 36.2 GHz images have a diffraction-limited angular resolution of 0.''3-0.''4, which covers the gap between high resolution, low dynamic range VLBI images of the remnant and low resolution, high dynamic range images at frequencies between 1 and 20 GHz. The radio morphology of the remnant at 36 GHz is an elliptical ring with enhanced emission on the eastern and western sides, similar to that seen previously at lower frequencies. Model fits to the data in the Fourier domain show that the emitting region is consistent with a thick inclined torus of mean radius 0.''85, and a 2008 October flux density of 27 ± 6 mJy at 36.2 GHz. The spectral index for the remnant at this epoch, determined between 1.4 GHz and 36.2 GHz, is α = -0.83. There is tentative evidence for an unresolved central source with flatter spectral index.

  19. Channel Characteristics and User Body Effects in an Outdoor Urban Scenario at 15 and 28 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Kun; Gustafson, Carl; Liao, Qingbi

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a user’s body on channel characteristics for single user downlink transmission in an urban scenario for the 5th generation (5G) systems is investigated with ray-tracing at 15 GHz and 28 GHz. Three different designs of user equipment (UE) antennas are fabricated and integrated into a...

  20. Comparison of the noise performance of 10GHz QW and QD mode-locked laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Guillermo; Thompson, Mark G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes.......This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes....

  1. A 60 GHz Dual-Polarized Probe for Spherical Near-Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    to waveguide adapters up to 67 GHz for OMT-switch connection. A 27 dBi gain conical horn is designed by using WIPL-D software and in-house manufactured. The 60 GHz probe system is being assembled and tested in planar near-field (PNF) setup at DTU. The results are validated by comparison with WIPL-D simulations...

  2. 60 GHz Antenna Diagnostics from Planar Near Field Antenna Measurement Without External Frequency Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    ,J.M. Nielsen, O. Breinbjerg, 60 GHz Antenna Measurement Setup using a VNA without External Frequency Conversion,36th Annual Symposium of the Antenna Measurement Technique Association ,October 12-17,Tucson, Arizona, 2014]. In this work we extend the validation of this 60 GHz planar near-field (PNF) set...

  3. Analysis of 38 GHz mmWave Propagation Characteristics of Urban Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2015-01-01

    The 38 GHz mm-wave frequency band is a strong candidate for the future deployment of wireless systems. Compared to lower frequency bands, propagation in the 38 GHz band is relatively unexplored for access networks in urban scenarios. This paper presents a detailed measurement-based analysis of ur...

  4. Experimental Demonstration and Theoretical Analysis of Slow Light in a Semiconductor Waveguide at GHz Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Kjær, Rasmus; Poel, Mike van der

    2005-01-01

    Experimental demonstration and theoretical analysis of slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at GHz frequencies slow-down of light by a factor of two in a semiconductor waveguide at room temperature with a bandwidth of 16.7 GHz using the effect of coherent pulsations of the carrier density...

  5. A 2.4GHz ULP OOK single-chip transceiver for healthcare applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidojkovic, M.; Huang, X.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Rampu, S.; Zhou, C.; Huang, Li; Molengraft, van de J.; Imamura, K.; Büsze, B.; Bouwens, F.; Konijnenburg, M.; Santana, J.; Breeschoten, A.; Huisken, J.; Philips, K.; Dolmans, G.; Groot, de H.W.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an ultra-low power (ULP) single chip transceiver for wireless body area network (WBAN) applications. It supports on-off keying (OOK) modulation, and it operates in the 2.36–2.4 GHz medical BAN and 2.4–2.485 GHz ISM bands. It is implemented in 90 nm CMOS technology. The direct

  6. The EUMETSAT OSI SAF near 50 GHz sea ice emissivity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasums T. Tonboe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sea ice thermal microwave emission model for 50 GHz was developed under EUMETSAT's Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF programme. The model is based on correlations between the surface brightness temperature at 18, 36 and 50 GHz. The model coefficients are estimated using simulated data from a combined thermodynamic and emission model. The intention with the model is to provide a first guess sea ice surface emissivity estimate for atmospheric temperature sounding applications in the troposphere in numerical weather prediction (NWP models assimilating Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU and Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS data. The spectral gradient ratio is defined as the difference over the sum of the SSMIS brightness temperatures at 18 and 36 GHz vertical linear polarisation (GR1836. The GR1836 is related to the emissivity at the atmospheric temperature sounding channels at around 50 GHz. Furthermore, the brightness temperatures and the polarisation ratio (PR at the neighbouring 18, 36 and 50 GHz channels are highly correlated. Both the gradient ratio at 18 and 36 GHz and the PR at 36 GHz measured by SSMIS are input into the model predicting the 50 GHz emissivity for horizontal and vertical linear polarisations and incidence angles between 0° and 60° The simulated emissivity is compared to the emissivity derived with alternative methods. The fit to real AMSU observations is investigated using the different emissivity estimates for simulating the observations with atmospheric data from a regional weather prediction model.

  7. Design and modeling of inductors, capacitors and coplanar waveguides at tens of GHz frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Aryan, Naser Pour

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of designing and modelling inductors, MIM capacitors and coplanar waveguides at frequencies of several tens of GHz. The author explains the design and modelling of key, passive elements, such as capacitors, inductors and transmission lines that enable high frequency MEMS operating at frequencies in the orders of tens of GHz.

  8. Megawatt Power Level 120 GHz Gyrotrons for ITER Start-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, E M; Marchewka, C; Mastovsky, I; Shapiro, M A; Sirigiri, J R; Temkin, R J [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, NW16-186, 167 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We report operation of a 110 GHz gyrotron with 1.67 MW of output power measured in short pulses (3{mu}s) at an efficiency of 42% in the TE{sub 22,6} mode. We also present a preliminary design of a 1 MW, 120 GHz gyrotron for ITER start-up with an efficiency greater than 50%.

  9. Megawatt Power Level 120 GHz Gyrotrons for ITER Start-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E M; Marchewka, C; Mastovsky, I; Shapiro, M A; Sirigiri, J R; Temkin, R J

    2005-01-01

    We report operation of a 110 GHz gyrotron with 1.67 MW of output power measured in short pulses (3μs) at an efficiency of 42% in the TE 22,6 mode. We also present a preliminary design of a 1 MW, 120 GHz gyrotron for ITER start-up with an efficiency greater than 50%

  10. Medium access control and network layer design for 60 GHz wireless personal area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, X.

    2010-01-01

    The unlicensed frequency band around 60 GHz is a very promising spectrum due to its potential to provide multiple gigabits per second based data rates for short range wireless communication. Hence, 60 GHz radio is an attractive candidate to enable ultra high rate Wireless Personal Area Networks

  11. Measuring the service level in the 2.4 GHz ISM band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloem, J.W.H.; Schiphorst, Roelof

    2011-01-01

    In this report we provide the findings of the 2.4 GHz service level research. Here service level means the following: can all devices in the 2.4 GHz band fulfill their communication needs. In other words this corresponds to the overall Quality of Service (QoS). The project is a short research

  12. Characteristics of ocular temperature elevations after exposure to quasi- and millimeter waves (18-40 GHz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Masami; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Sasaki, Kensuke; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu; Hirata, Akimasa; Sasaki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate changes in ocular temperature in rabbit eyes exposed to different frequencies (18 to 40 GHz) of quasi-millimeter waves, and millimeter waves (MMW). Pigmented rabbits were anesthetized with both general and topical anesthesia, and thermometer probes (0.5 mm in diameter) were inserted into their cornea (stroma), lens (nucleus) and vitreous (center of vitreous). The eyes were exposed unilaterally to 200 mW/cm2 by horn antenna for 3 min at 18, 22 and 26.5 GHz using a K band exposure system or 26.5, 35 and 40 GHz using a Ka band exposure system. Changes in temperature of the cornea, lens and vitreous were measured with a fluoroptic thermometer. Since the ocular temperatures after exposure to 26.5 GHz generated by the K band and Ka band systems were similar, we assumed that experimental data from these 2 exposure systems were comparable. The highest ocular temperature was induced by 40 GHz MMW, followed by 35 GHz. The 26.5 and 22 GHz corneal temperatures were almost the same. The lowest temperature was recorded at 18 GHz. The elevation in ocular temperature in response to exposure to 200 mW/cm2 MMW is dependent on MMW frequency. MMW exposure induced heat is conveyed not only to the cornea but also the crystalline lens.

  13. Market capture by 30/20 GHz satellite systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.

    1981-01-01

    Demand for 30/20 GHz satellite systems over the next two decades is projected. Topics include a profile of the communications market, switched, dedicated, and packet transmission modes, deferred and real-time traffic, quality and reliability considerations, the capacity of competing transmission media, and scenarios for the growth and development of 30/20 GHz satellite communications.

  14. A study of parametric instability in a harmonic gyrotron: Designs of third harmonic gyrotrons at 94 GHz and 210 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraph, G.P.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Levush, B.

    1995-01-01

    Mode competition can present a major hurdle in achieving stable, efficient operation of a gyrotron at the cyclotron harmonics. A type of mode interaction in which three modes at different cyclotron harmonics are parametrically coupled together is analyzed here. This coupling can lead to parametric excitation or suppression of a mode; cyclic mode hopping; or the coexistence of three modes. Simulation results are presented for the parametric instability involving modes at the fundamental, second harmonic, and third harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. It is shown that the parametric excitation can lead to stable, efficient operation of a high-power gyrotron at the third harmonic. Based on this phenomenon, two practical designs are presented here for the third harmonic operation at 94 and 210 GHz. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. Microwave Receivers for Fast-Ion Detection in Fusion Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Vedran

    for the frequency range from 100 to 110 GHz. In this thesis we follow the path of the radiation from a fusion plasma to the data acquisition unit. Firstly, the scattered radiation passes through the quasi-optical system. Quasi-optical elements required to be installed on the high field side (HFS) on the ITER...... are assessed. For the ITER HFS receiver we have designed and measured the quasioptical components that form a transmission link between the plasma and the radio frequency (RF) electronics. This HFS receiver is required to resolve the near parallel velocity components created by the alpha particles. Secondly...... is the mixer. The conversion loss of the mixer, together with loss in waveguide components and quasi-optic parts, is the main contributor to the noise and thereby degrades the signal to-noise ratio. The architecture of the mixer is a subharmonic type, optimized to be driven by a double local oscillator (LO...

  16. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  17. Feasibility Study and Experimental Verification of Simplified Fiber-Supported 60-GHz Picocell Mobile Backhaul Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Pang, Xiaodan; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fiber-wireless transmission system for optimized delivery of 60-GHz radio frequency (RF) signals through picocell mobile backhaul connections. We identify advantages of 60-GHz links for utilization in short-range mobile backhaul through feasibility...... the wireless transmission distance from 4 m to a few hundred meters has been taken into account in the setup design, and the techniques to extend the wireless distance are analyzed....... analysis and comparison with an alternative E-band (60–90 GHz) technology. The 60-GHz fiber-wireless-fiber setup is then introduced: two spans of up to 20 km of optical fiber are deployed and bridged by up to 4 m of wireless distance. The 60-GHz radio-over-fiber technology is utilized in the first span...

  18. 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz low threshold and low noise InAs/InP quantum dash two-section mode-locked lasers in L band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dontabactouny, M.; Piron, R.; Klaime, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports recent results on InAs/InP quantum dash-based, two-section, passively mode-locked lasers pulsing at 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz and emitting at 1.59 mu m at 20 degrees C. The 41-GHz device (1 mm long) starts lasing at 25 mA under uniform injection and the 10.6 GHz (4 mm long) at 71 m...

  19. Channel Characteristics and Transmission Performance for Various Channel Configurations at 60 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing Yang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive measurements are conducted in room environments at 60 GHz to analyze the channel characteristics for various channel configurations. Channel parameters retrieved from measurements are presented and analyzed based on generic channel models. Particularly, a simple single-cluster model is applied for the parameter retrieval and performance evaluation. By this model, power delay profiles are simply described by a K-factor, a root-mean-squared delay spread, and a shape parameter. The considered channels are configured with the combination of omnidirectional, fan-beam, and pencil-beam antennas at transmitter and receiver sides. Both line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS channels are considered. Further, to evaluate the transmission performance, we analyze the link budget in the considered environments, then design and simulate an OFDM system with a data rate of 2 Gbps to compare the bit-error-rate (BER performance by using the measured and modeled channels. Both coded and uncoded OFDM systems are simulated. It is observed that the BER performance agrees well for the measured and modeled channels. In addition, directive configurations can provide sufficient link margins and BER performance for high data rate communications. To increase the coverage and performance in the NLOS area, it is preferable to apply directive antennas.

  20. A 35 GHz wireless millimeter-wave power sensor based on GaAs micromachining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-bo; Liao, Xiao-ping

    2012-01-01

    A novel MEMS wireless millimeter-wave power sensor based on GaAs MMIC technology is presented in this paper. The principle of this wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is explained. It is designed and fabricated using MEMS technology and the GaAs MMIC process. With the millimeter-wave power range from 0.1 to 80 mW, the sensitivity of the wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is about 0.246 mV mW −1 at 35 GHz. In order to verify the power detection capability, this wireless power sensor is mounted on a PCB which influences the microwave performance of the CPW-fed antenna including the return loss and the radiation pattern. The frequency-dependent characteristic and the degree-dependent characteristic of this wireless power sensor are researched. Furthermore, in addition to the combination of the advantages of CPW-fed antenna with the advantages of the thermoelectric power sensor, another significant advantage of this wireless millimeter-wave power sensor is that it can be integrated with MMICs and other planar connecting circuit structures with zero dc power consumption. These features make it suitable for various applications ranging from the environment or space radiation detection systems to radar receiver and transmitter systems. (paper)

  1. Channel Characteristics and Transmission Performance for Various Channel Configurations at 60 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Haibing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive measurements are conducted in room environments at 60 GHz to analyze the channel characteristics for various channel configurations. Channel parameters retrieved from measurements are presented and analyzed based on generic channel models. Particularly, a simple single-cluster model is applied for the parameter retrieval and performance evaluation. By this model, power delay profiles are simply described by a -factor, a root-mean-squared delay spread, and a shape parameter. The considered channels are configured with the combination of omnidirectional, fan-beam, and pencil-beam antennas at transmitter and receiver sides. Both line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS channels are considered. Further, to evaluate the transmission performance, we analyze the link budget in the considered environments, then design and simulate an OFDM system with a data rate of 2 Gbps to compare the bit-error-rate (BER performance by using the measured and modeled channels. Both coded and uncoded OFDM systems are simulated. It is observed that the BER performance agrees well for the measured and modeled channels. In addition, directive configurations can provide sufficient link margins and BER performance for high data rate communications. To increase the coverage and performance in the NLOS area, it is preferable to apply directive antennas.

  2. Limits on Arcminute-Scale Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy at 28.5 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, W. L.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Grego, L.; Holder, G.; Joy, M.; Reese, E. D.

    2000-01-01

    We have used the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) millimeter array outfitted with sensitive centimeter-wave receivers to search for cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies on arcminute scales. The interferometer was placed in a compact configuration that produces high brightness sensitivity, while providing discrimination against point sources. Operating at a frequency of 28.5 GHz, the FWHM primary beam of the instrument is approximately 6'.6. We have made sensitive images of seven fields, four of which where chosen specifically to have low infrared dust contrast and to be free of bright radio sources. Additional observations with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) millimeter array were used to assist in the location and removal of radio point sources. Applying a Bayesian analysis to the raw visibility data, we place limits on CMB anisotropy flat-band power of Q(sub flat) = 5.6(sub -5.6)(exp 3.0) microK and Q(sub flat) < 14.1 microK at 68% and 95% confidence, respectively. The sensitivity of this experiment to flat-band power peaks at a multipole of I = 5470, which corresponds to an angular scale of approximately 2'. The most likely value of Q(sub flat) is similar to the level of the expected secondary anisotropies.

  3. Radio Characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks for Judo Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the characterization of the radio channel for ISM 2.4GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs for judo applications is presented. The environments where judo activity is held are usually complex indoor scenarios in terms of radiopropagation due to their morphology, the presence of humans and the electromagnetic interference generated by personal portable devices, wireless microphones and other wireless systems used by the media. For the assessment of the impact that the topology and the morphology of these environments have on electromagnetic propagation, an in-house developed 3D ray-launching software has been used in this study. Time domain results as well as estimations of received power level have been obtained for the complete volume of a training venue of a local judo club’s facilities with a contest area with the dimensions specified by the International Judo Federation (IJF for international competitions. The obtained simulation results have been compared with measurements, which have been carried out deploying ZigBee-compliant XBee Pro modules at presented scenario, using approved Judogis (jacket, trousers and belt. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an in-house human body computational model. Such analysis has allowed the design and development of an in house application devoted to monitor the practice of judo, in order to aid referee activities, training routines and to enhance spectator experience.

  4. Robust general N user authentication scheme in a centralized quantum communication network via generalized GHZ states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Ahmed; Batle, J.; Elhoseny, M.; Naseri, Mosayeb; Lone, Muzaffar; Fedorov, Alex; Alkhambashi, Majid; Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Abdel-Aty, M.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum communication provides an enormous advantage over its classical counterpart: security of communications based on the very principles of quantum mechanics. Researchers have proposed several approaches for user identity authentication via entanglement. Unfortunately, these protocols fail because an attacker can capture some of the particles in a transmitted sequence and send what is left to the receiver through a quantum channel. Subsequently, the attacker can restore some of the confidential messages, giving rise to the possibility of information leakage. Here we present a new robust General N user authentication protocol based on N-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, which makes eavesdropping detection more effective and secure, as compared to some current authentication protocols. The security analysis of our protocol for various kinds of attacks verifies that it is unconditionally secure, and that an attacker will not obtain any information about the transmitted key. Moreover, as the number of transferred key bits N becomes larger, while the number of users for transmitting the information is increased, the probability of effectively obtaining the transmitted authentication keys is reduced to zero.

  5. Analisis Kelayakan Implementasi Teknologi LTE 1.8 GHz Bagi Operator Seluler di Indonesia [Feasibility Analysis of LTE 1.8 GHz for Mobile Operators in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan layanan data mendorong operator telekomunikasi berusaha mengimplementasikan jaringan akses broadband yang lebih handal.  Teknologi LTE merupakan salah satu teknologi dengan kecepatan mencapai tiga kali dibanding teknologi HSDPA, sehingga diharapkan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan data mobile. Refarming frekuensi 1.8 GHz  untuk penerapan teknologi LTE memberikan efisiensi karena tidak perlu membayar BHP lagi untuk menyewa frekuensi baru. Teknologi 2G GSM selama ini juga semakin ditinggalkan, masyarakat di daerah perkotaan cenderung lebih banyak menggunakan layanan data.  Sebelum diterapkannya teknologi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz perlu adanya kajian untuk mengetahui kelayakan teknologi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan cost-benefit analysis implementasi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz.  Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitataif yang didukung dengan data kuantitatif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minimal bandiwdth yang diperlukan agar implementasi LTE layak digunakan adalah 15 MHz.  Meskipun tanpa Global Frequency Returning, penggunaan bandwidth 10 MHz tidak layak digunakan untuk implementasi LTE.      *****The incresing of data demand drives mobile operators to implement more reliable broadband access network. LTE technology has downlink peak rate up to three times than HSDPA,  hence it may fulfill the mobile data user requirement. Frequency 1.8 GHz refarming can be implemented to provide efficiency because They do not need to pay licence fee for leasing new frequency. GSM technology will be abandoned since it is not growing anymore. Besides that, dense urban users tend to use data mobile.  Before implementing LTE technology  on 1.8 GHz frequency, It is necessary to analysis the feasibility such technology. This research used qualitative method supported by quantitative  approach.  The result of this research showed that minimum bandwidth to implement 1.8 GHz LTE

  6. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  7. ITER fast ion collective Thomson scattering, conceptual design of 60 GHz system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, F.; Bindslev, H.; Korsholm, S.B.

    2007-08-01

    The collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER at the 60 GHz range is capable of measuring the fast ion distribution parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field at different radial locations simultaneously. The design is robust technologically with no moveable components near the plasma. The fast ion CTS diagnostic consists of two separate systems. Each system has its own RF launcher and separate set of detectors. The first system measures the perpendicular component of the fast ion velocity distribution. It consists of radially directed RF launcher and receiver, both located in the equatorial port on the low field side (LFS). This system will be referred to by the acronym LFS-BS system referring to the location of the receiver and the fact that it measures backscattered radiation. The second part of the CTS diagnostic measures the parallel component of the fast ion distribution. It consists of an RF launcher located in the mid-plane port on the LFS and a receiver mounted on the inner vacuum vessel wall that views the plasma from between two blanket modules. This system will be referred to as HFS-FS referring to the location of the receivers and that they measure forward scattered radiation. The design of both LFS-BS and HFS-FS receivers is aimed at measuring at different spatial locations simultaneously with no moveable components near the plasma. This report is a preliminary study of the hardware design and engineering constraints for this frequency range. Section 2 conceptually describes the two systems and their main components. Section 3 clarifies the impact of design parameters such as beam widths and scattering angle on the CTS measurements. With this in hand, the ITER measurement requirements are translated into constraints on the CTS system designs. An important result in this section is that systems can be designed inside these constraints. Section 4 outlines the technical feasibility and describes in more detail the design and the engineering

  8. InP MMIC Chip Set for Power Sources Covering 80-170 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    We will present a Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) chip set which provides high output-power sources for driving diode frequency multipliers into the terahertz range. The chip set was fabricated at HRL Laboratories using a 0.1-micrometer gate-length InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) process, and features transistors with an f(sub max) above 600 GHz. The HRL InP HEMT process has already demonstrated amplifiers in the 60-200 GHz range. In this paper, these high frequency HEMTs form the basis for power sources up to 170 GHz. A number of state-of-the-art InP HEMT MMICs will be presented. These include voltage-controlled and fixed-tuned oscillators, power amplifiers, and an active doubler. We will first discuss an 80 GHz voltage-controlled oscillator with 5 GHz of tunability and at least 17 mW of output power, as well as a 120 GHz oscillator providing 7 mW of output power. In addition, we will present results of a power amplifier which covers the full WRIO waveguide band (75-110 GHz), and provides 40-50 mW of output power. Furthermore, we will present an active doubler at 164 GHz providing 8% bandwidth, 3 mW of output power, and an unprecedented 2 dB of conversion loss for an InP HEMT MMIC at this frequency. Finally, we will demonstrate a power amplifier to cover 140-170 GHz with 15-25 mW of output power and 8 dB gain. These components can form a power source in the 155-165 GHz range by cascading the 80 GHz oscillator, W-band power amplifier, 164 GHz active doubler and final 140-170 GHz power amplifier for a stable, compact local oscillator subsystem, which could be used for atmospheric science or astrophysics radiometers.

  9. Integrated Receivers for NASA Radiometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Subtopic S1.02: Microwave Technologies for Remote Sensing, 640GHz Polarimeter. VDI has recently demonstrated the integration...

  10. Diseño y validación de un radar CW-FM a 94 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Varela Agrelo, David

    2013-01-01

    Diseño y validación de un radar CW-FM a 9g GHz 94 GHz CW-FM radar design and mesurement campaign validation. Desarrollo de un radar CW-FM a 94GHz y verificación de los resultados obtenidos durante la etapa de medidas. Desevolupament d'un radar CW-FM a 94GHz i verificació dels resultat obteinguts durante l'etapa de mesures.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Irbene RT-16 Radio Telescope Receiving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleiders M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, recent measurement results of refurbished Irbene RT-16 radio telescope receiving system performance are presented. The aim of the research is to evaluate characteristics of RT-16, which will allow carrying out necessary amplitude calibration in both single dish and VLBI observations, to improve the performance of existing system as well as to monitor, control and compare performance if possible changes in the receiving system will occur in future. The evaluated receiving system is 16 m Cassegrain antenna equipped with a cryogenic receiver with frequency range from 4.5 to 8.8 GHz, which is divided into four sub-bands. Multiple calibration sessions have been carried out by observing stable astronomical sources with known flux density by using in-house made total power registration backend. First, pointing offset calibration has been carried out and pointing model coefficients calculated and applied. Then, amplitude calibration, namely antenna sensitivity, calibration diode equivalent flux density and gain curve measurements have been carried out by observing calibration sources at different antenna elevations at each of the receiver sub-bands. Beam patterns have also been evaluated at different frequency bands. As a whole, acquired data will serve as a reference point for comparison in future performance evaluation of RT-16.

  12. The DIII-D 3 MW, 110 GHz ECH System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Lohr, J.; Ponce, D.; O'Neill, R.C.; Prater, R.; Luce, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Three 110 GHz gyrotrons with nominal output power of 1 MW each have been installed and are operational on the DIII-D tokamak. One gyrotron is built by Gycom and has a nominal rating of 1 MW and a 2 s pulse length, with the pulse length being determined by the maximum temperature allowed on the edge cooled Boron Nitride window. The second and third gyrotrons were built by Communications and Power Industries (CPI). The first CPI gyrotron uses a double disc FC-75 cooled sapphire window which has a pulse length rating of 0.8 s at 1 MW, 2s at 0.5 MW and 10s at 0.35 MW. The second CPI gyrotron, utilizes a single disc chemical-vapor-deposition diamond window, that employs water cooling around the edge of the disc. Calculation predict that the diamond window should be capable of full 1 MW cw operation. All gyrotrons are connected to the tokamak by a low-loss-windowless evacuated transmission line using circular corrugated waveguide for propagation in the HEl 1 mode. Each waveguide system incorporates a two mirror launcher which can steer the rf beam poloidally from the center to the outer edge of the plasma. Central current drive experiments with the two gyrotrons with 1.5 MW of injected power drove about 0.17 MA. Results from using the three gyrotron systems will be reported as well as the plans to upgrade the system to 6 MW

  13. ALMA Images of the Orion Hot Core at 349 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M. C. H.; Plambeck, R. L., E-mail: wright@astro.berkeley.edu [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We present ALMA images of the dust and molecular line emission in the Orion Hot Core at 349 GHz. At 0.″2 angular resolution the images reveal multiple clumps in an arc ∼1″ east of Orion Source I, the protostar at the center of the Kleinmann–Low Nebula, and another chain of peaks from IRc7 toward the southwest. The molecular line images show narrow filamentary structures at velocities >10 km s{sup −1} away from the heavily resolved ambient cloud velocity ∼5 km s{sup −1}. Many of these filaments trace the SiO outflow from Source I, and lie along the edges of the dust emission. Molecular line emission at excitation temperatures 300–2000 K, and velocities >10 km s{sup −1} from the ambient cloud, suggest that the Hot Core may be heated in shocks by the outflow from Source I or from the Becklin–Neugebauer (BN)/SrcI explosion. The spectral line observations also reveal a remarkable molecular ring, ∼2″ south of SrcI, with a diameter ∼600 au. The ring is seen in high-excitation transitions of HC{sub 3}N, HCN v 2 = 1, and SO{sub 2}. An impact of ejecta from the BN/SrcI explosion with a dense dust clump could result in the observed ring of shocked material.

  14. RADIO SOURCES FROM A 31 GHz SKY SURVEY WITH THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James; Woody, David; Leitch, Erik; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas; Greer, Chris; Hennessy, Ryan; Loh, Michael; Marrone, Daniel P.; Pryke, Clem; Sharp, Matthew; Joy, Marshall; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We present the first sample of 31 GHz selected sources to flux levels of 1 mJy. From late 2005 to mid-2007, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array observed 7.7 deg 2 of the sky at 31 GHz to a median rms of 0.18 mJy beam -1 . We identify 209 sources at greater than 5σ significance in the 31 GHz maps, ranging in flux from 0.7 mJy to ∼200 mJy. Archival NVSS data at 1.4 GHz and observations at 5 GHz with the Very Large Array are used to characterize the sources. We determine the maximum-likelihood integrated source count to be N(>S) = (27.2 ± 2.5)deg -2 x (S mJy ) -1.18±0.12 over the flux range 0.7-15 mJy. This result is significantly higher than predictions based on 1.4 GHz selected samples, a discrepancy which can be explained by a small shift in the spectral index distribution for faint 1.4 GHz sources. From comparison with previous measurements of sources within the central arcminute of massive clusters, we derive an overdensity of 6.8 ± 4.4, relative to field sources.

  15. Conceptual Study of A Hetrodyne Receiver for the Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Martina

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is a mission concept of an extremely versatile observatory with 5 science instruments, of which the HEterodyne Receivers for OST (HERO) is one. HERO's main targets are high spectral resolution observations (Δλ/λ up to 107 or Δv = 0.03km/s) of water to follow its trail from cores to YSOs as well as H2O and HDO observations on comets. HERO will probe all neutral ISM phases using cooling lines ([CII], [OI]) and hydrides as probes of CO-dark H2 (CH, HF). HERO will reveal how molecular clouds and filaments form in the local ISM up to nearby galaxies. In order to achieve these observational goals, HERO will cover an extremely wide frequency range from 468 to 2700 GHz and a window around the OI line at 4563 to 4752GHz. It will consist of very large focal plane arrays of 128 pixels between 900 - 2700 GHz and at 4.7 THz, and 32 pixels for the 468 to 900 GHz range. The instrument is exploiting Herschel/HIFI heritage. HERO's large arrays require low dissipation and low power components. The HERO concept makes use of the latest cryogenic SiGe amplifier technology, as well as CMOS technology for the backends with 2 orders of magnitude lower power.

  16. The 2.3 GHz continuum survey of the GEM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, C.; Villela, T.; Torres, S.; Bersanelli, M.; Smoot, G. F.; Ferreira, I. S.; Cingoz, A.; Lamb, J.; Barbosa, D.; Perez-Becker, D.; Ricciardi, S.; Currivan, J. A.; Platania, P.; Maino, D.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Determining the spectral and spatial characteristics of the radio continuum of our Galaxy is an experimentally challenging endeavour for improving our understanding of the astrophysics of the interstellar medium. This knowledge has also become of paramount significance for cosmology, since Galactic emission is the main source of astrophysical contamination in measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on large angular scales. Aims: We present a partial-sky survey of the radio continuum at 2.3GHz within the scope of the Galactic Emission Mapping (GEM) project, an observational program conceived and developed to reveal the large-scale properties of Galactic synchrotron radiation through a set of self-consistent surveys of the radio continuum between 408MHz and 10GHz. Methods: The GEM experiment uses a portable and double-shielded 5.5-m radiotelescope in altazimuthal configuration to map 60-degree-wide declination bands from different observational sites by circularly scanning the sky at zenithal angles of 30° from a constantly rotating platform. The observations were accomplished with a total power receiver, whose front-end high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier was matched directly to a cylindrical horn at the prime focus of the parabolic reflector. The Moon was used to calibrate the antenna temperature scale and the preparation of the map required direct subtraction and destriping algorithms to remove ground contamination as the most significant source of systematic error. Results: We used 484 h of total intensity observations from two locations in Colombia and Brazil to yield 66% sky coverage from to . The observations in Colombia were obtained with a horizontal HPBW of and a vertical HPBW of . The pointing accuracy was and the RMS sensitivity was 11.42 mK. The observations in Brazil were obtained with a horizontal HPBW of and a vertical HPBW of . The pointing accuracy was and the RMS sensitivity was 8.24 mK. The zero

  17. Design of a 17.14 GHz quasi-optical pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelin, M. I.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Danilov, Yu. Yu.; Granatstein, V. L.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    1999-01-01

    A quasi-optical version of the ring cavity pulse compressor is considered. This concept is based on the coupling of the input wave to a whispering gallery mode of a barrel-like cavity due to helical corrugations of the cavity wall. Low-power tests of the prototype were carried out at 11.4 GHz and demonstrated reasonable agree-ment between experimental data and theoretical predictions. The design of a similar pulse compressor at 17.14 GHz compatible with the 17.14 GHz, 100 MW gyroklystron currently under development at the University of Maryland is presented

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ACT high significance 148 and 218GHz sources (Marsden+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, D.; Gralla, M.; Marriage, T. A.; Switzer, E. R.; Partridge, B.; Massardi, M.; Morales, G.; Addison, G.; Bond, J. R.; Crichton, D.; Das, S.; Devlin, M.; Dunner, R.; Hajian, A.; Hilton, M.; Hincks, A.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K.; Kosowsky, A.; Menanteau, F.; Moodley, K.; Niemack, M.; Page, L.; Reese, E. D.; Schmitt, B.; Sehgal, N.; Sievers, J.; Staggs, S.; Swetz, D.; Thornton, R.; Wollack, E.

    2014-11-01

    The ACT experiment (Swetz et al., 2011ApJS..194...41S) is situated on the slopes of Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile at an elevation of 5190m. ACT's latitude gives access to both the northern and southern celestial hemispheres. Observations occurred simultaneously in three frequency bands, at 148GHz (2.0mm), 218GHz (1.4mm) and 277GHz (1.1mm) with angular resolutions of roughly 1.4 , 1.0 and 0.9-arcmin, respectively. (1 data file).

  19. A simple system for 160GHz optical terahertz wave generation and data modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihan; He, Jingsuo; Sun, Xueming; Shi, Zexia; Wang, Ruike; Cui, Hailin; Su, Bo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    A simple system based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, which can generate 160GHz optical terahertz waves from 40GHz microwave sources, is simulated and tested in this paper. Fiber grating filter is used in the system to filter out optical carrier. By properly adjusting the modulator DC bias voltages and the signal voltages and phases, 4-tupling optical terahertz wave can be generated with fiber grating. This notch fiber grating filter is greatly suitable for terahertz over fiber (TOF) communication system. This scheme greatly reduces the cost of long-distance terahertz communication. Furthermore, 10Gbps digital signal is modulated in the 160GHz optical terahertz wave.

  20. Compact Receiver Front Ends for Submillimeter-Wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lin, Robert H.; Sin, Seth; Peralta, Alejandro; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Gulkis, Samuel; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2012-01-01

    The current generation of submillimeter-wave instruments is relatively mass and power-hungry. The receiver front ends (RFEs) of a submillimeter instrument form the heart of the instrument, and any mass reduction achieved in this subsystem is propagated through the instrument. In the current implementation, the RFE consists of different blocks for the mixer and LO circuits. The motivation for this work is to reduce the mass of the RFE by integrating the mixer and LO circuits in one waveguide block. The mixer and its associated LO chips will all be packaged in a single waveguide package. This will reduce the mass of the RFE and also provide a number of other advantages. By bringing the mixer and LO circuits close together, losses in the waveguide will be reduced. Moreover, the compact nature of the block will allow for better thermal control of the block, which is important in order to reduce gain fluctuations. A single waveguide block with a 600- GHz RFE functionality (based on a subharmonically pumped Schottky diode pair) has been demonstrated. The block is about 3x3x3 cubic centimeters. The block combines the mixer and multiplier chip in a single package. 3D electromagnetic simulations were carried out to design the waveguide circuit around the mixer and multiplier chip. The circuit is optimized to provide maximum output power and maximum bandwidth. An integrated submillimeter front end featuring a 520-600-GHz sub-harmonic mixer and a 260-300-GHz frequency tripler in a single cavity was tested. Both devices used GaAs MMIC membrane planar Schottky diode technology. The sub-harmonic mixer/tripler circuit has been tested using conventional metal-machined blocks. Measurement results on the metal block give best DSB (double sideband) mixer noise temperature of 2,360 K and conversion losses of 7.7 dB at 520 GHz. The LO input power required to pump the integrated tripler/sub-harmonic mixer is between 30 and 50 mW.

  1. Origins Space Telescope: HEterodyne Receiver for OST (HERO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Edwin; Wiedner, Martina; Laurens, Andre; Gerin, Maryvonne; HERO team, Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is a mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies selected by NASA HQ for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The OST study will encompass two mission concepts (poster by A. Cooray). Concept 1 is an extremely versatile observatory with 5 science instruments, of which the HEterodyne Receivers for OST (HERO) is one.HERO’s main targets are high spectral resolution observations (Dl/l up to 107 or Dv = 0.03km/s) of water to follow its trail from cores to YSOs as well as H2O and HDO observations on comets to explore the origins of water. HERO will probe all neutral ISM phases using cooling lines ([CII], [OI]) and hydrides as probes of CO-dark H2 (CH, HF). HERO will reveal how molecular clouds and filaments form in the local ISM up to nearby galaxies. HERO will enable detailed understanding of feedback mechanisms : shocks, cosmic rays, UV induced feedback and will provide a map of the cosmic ray ionization rate in the Galaxy and nearby galaxies using molecular ions (ArH+, OH+, H3O+).In order to achieve these observational goals, HERO will cover an extremely wide frequency range from 468 to 2700 GHz (641 to 111microns) and a window around the OI line at 4563 to 4752GHz (66 to 63 microns). It will consist of very large focal plane arrays of 128 pixels between 900 - 2700 GHz and at 4.7 THz, and 32 pixels for the 468 to 900 GHz range. The instrument is exploiting Herschel/HIFI heritage, but will go well beyond HIFIs capacities. HERO’s large arrays require low dissipation and low power components. The HERO concept makes use of the latest cryogenic SiGe amplifier technology, as well as CMOS technology for the backends with 2 orders of magnitude lower power. Advances in Local Oscillator technology have also been taken into account and ambitious, but realistic assumptions have been made for future amplifier multiplier chains going up to 4.7 THz.Origins will enable

  2. Transmission of 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal over 100 km SSMF using 18 GHz DMLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Xiang; Yi, Lilin; Yang, Qi; Fu, Songnian

    2016-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate C-band 2 × 56 Gb/s pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)-4 signal transmission over 100 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) using 18 GHz direct-modulated lasers (DMLs) and direct detection, without inline optical amplifier. A delay interferometer (DI) at the transmitter side is used to extend the transmission reach from 40 to 100 km. A digital Volterra filter at the receiver side is used to mitigate the nonlinear distortions. We obtain an average bit error ratio (BER) of 1.5 × 10(-3) for 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal after 100 km SSMF transmission at the optimal input power, which is below the 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 × 10(-3)).

  3. Four-to-one power combiner for 20 GHz phased array antenna using RADC MMIC phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The design and microwave simulation of two-to-one microstrip power combiners is described. The power combiners were designed for use in a four element phase array receive antenna subarray at 20 GHz. Four test circuits are described which were designed to enable testing of the power combiner and the four element phased array antenna. Test Circuit 1 enables measurement of the two-to-one power combiner. Test Circuit 2 enables measurement of the four-to-one power combiner. Test Circuit 3 enables measurement of a four element antenna array without phase shifting MMIC's in order to characterize the power combiner with the antenna patch-to-microstrip coaxial feedthroughs. Test circuit 4 is the four element phased array antenna including the RADC MMIC phase shifters and appropriate interconnects to provide bias voltages and control phase bits.

  4. The Rainfall Intensity Effects on 1–13 GHz UWB-Based 5G System for Outdoor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suryana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a research contribution on tropical outdoor channel characterization in 1–13 GHz band for 5G systems. This 1–13 GHz ultra-wideband (UWB channel characterization is formulated with rain intensity as the most important variable, from 20 mm/h to 200 mm/h. Tropical rain will cause pulse broadening and distorts the transmitted symbols, so the probability of symbol errors will increase. In this research, the bit error rate (BER performance evaluation is done using both matched filtering or correlator-based receivers. At no rain conditions, BER 10−6 will be attained at signal to noise ratio (SNR 5 dB, but at rainfall intensity 200 mm/h, the BER will fall to 10−2 for matched filter and 5×10-2 for correlator-based receivers. For improving the BER performance, an adaptive nonlinear phase equalizer is proposed which adopts multiple allpass biquad infinite impulse response (IIR filters combined with low-order finite impulse response (FIR filter to mitigate the nonlinearity phase and differential attenuation of magnitude responses due to antenna and tropical outdoor UWB channel effects. Our simulation results show that the proposed equalizer has worked successfully with BER 10−6 on the rain rate that is exceeded for 0.01% of the time (R0.01 rain intensity or 99.99% availability. In addition, at rainfall rate 120 mm/h, the proposed nonlinear phase equalizer can give 9 dB signal improvement.

  5. Quasi-optical internal mode converters for 110 GHz gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, B.M.; Lorbeck, J.A.; Vernon, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Many early gyrotrons had a microwave output in the same mode that was produced in the microwave cavity, e.g. the TE 02 mode. These modes were often converted outside of the tube to a more desirable mode for plasma heating using a system of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters. The current generation of gyrotrons commonly have cavity modes with a high azimuthal index, such as the rotating TE 22,6 mode. Mode conversion by means of waveguide mode converters is not usually practical for such cases. However, an output of a Gaussian beam or other desirable field pattern can be obtained by using a Vlasov-type launcher feeding a series of two or more reflectors. This system may be placed outside or inside of the gyrotron but there are advantages to placing it within the tube, e.g. allowing for a larger collector and smaller reflectors. When such a converter system is placed inside the gyrotron, it is usually preferable to use a modification to the simple Vlasov launcher such as the Denisov-type launcher, which incorporates a series of perturbations within it. The authors have designed both internal and external versions of such quasi-optical converters. They discuss an internal converter which was designed for use inside of a Varian 110 GHz gyrotron producing the TE 22,6 cavity mode. This design consists of four reflectors which are fed by a Denisov-type launcher. Design techniques for the reflector system are discussed and experimental results are presented

  6. Preliminary Results of the NASA Beacon Receiver for Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 Propagation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Riva, Carlo; Luini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have initiated a joint propagation campaign within the framework of the Alphasat propagation experiment to characterize rain attenuation, scintillation, and gaseous absorption effects of the atmosphere in the 40 GHz band. NASA GRC has developed and installed a K/Q-band (20/40 GHz) beacon receiver at the POLIMI campus in Milan, Italy, which receives the 20/40 GHz signals broadcast from the Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP#5 beacon payload. The primary goal of these measurements is to develop a physical model to improve predictions of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we describe the design and preliminary performance of the NASA propagation terminal, which has been installed and operating in Milan since May 2014. The receiver is based upon a validated Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) I/Q digital design approach utilized in other operational NASA propagation terminals, but has been modified to employ power measurement via a frequency estimation technique and to coherently track and measure the amplitude of the 20/40 GHz beacon signals. The system consists of a 1.2-m K-band and a 0.6-m Qband Cassegrain reflector employing synchronous open-loop tracking to track the inclined orbit of the Alphasat satellite. An 8 Hz sampling rate is implemented to characterize scintillation effects, with a 1-Hz measurement bandwidth dynamic range of 45 dB. A weather station with an optical disdrometer is also installed to characterize rain drop size distribution for correlation with physical based models.

  7. Miniature Packaging Concept for LNAs in the 200-300 GHz Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, Lorene; Fung, Andy; Varonen, Mikko; Lin, Robert; Peralta, Alejandro; Soria, Mary; Lee, Choonsup; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Sarkozy, Stephen; Lai, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe new miniaturized low noise amplifier modules which we developed for incorporation in small-scale satellites or Cubesats, and which exhibit similar or better performance compared to previously reported LNAs in the literature. We have targeted the WR4 (170-260 GHz) and WR3 (220-325 GHz) waveguide bands for the module development. The modules include two different methods of E-plane probes which have been developed for low loss, and stability at high frequencies. MMIC LNAs were also developed for these frequency ranges and fabricated in Northrop Grumman Corporation's 35 nm InP HEMT technology, and we have experimentally verified that noise performance is lower than reported in prior work. The best results include a miniature LNA module with 550K noise at 224 GHz, and a wideband LNA module with 15 dB gain from 230-280 GHz.

  8. Short optical pulse generation at 40 GHz with a bulk electro-absorption modulator packaged device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Patrick; Moore, Ronald; Prosyk, Kelvin; O'Keefe, Sean; Oosterom, Jill A.; Betty, Ian; Foster, Robert; Greenspan, Jonathan; Singh, Priti

    2003-12-01

    Short optical pulse generation at 40GHz and 1540nm wavelength is achieved using fully packaged bulk quaternary electro-absorption modulator modules. Experimental results obtained with broadband and narrowband optimized packaged modules are presented and compared against empirical model predictions. Pulse duty cycle, extinction ratio and chirp are studied as a function of sinusoidal drive voltage and detuning between operating wavelength and modulator absorption band edge. Design rules and performance trade-offs are discussed. Low-chirp pulses with a FWHM of ~12ps and sub-4ps at a rate of 40GHz are demonstrated. Optical time-domain demultiplexing of a 40GHz to a 10GHz pulse train is also demonstrated with better than 20dB extinction ratio.

  9. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.

  10. 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM Multicarrier THz Wireless Communication Link in the 400 GHz Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Yu, Xianbin; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-speed multicarrier THz wireless communication system operating in the 400 GHz band. The use of spectrally efficient 16-QAM modulation and broadband THz transceivers enable link data rates up to 80 Gbit/s....

  11. Short-duration exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBEMBE

    The genotoxic effects of 2.45 GHz microwave (MW) radiation on the testis ... electromagnetic radiation present in the environment and ..... intrinsic (quantum) energy is too low to dislodge an .... wave on brain enzymes of developing rat brain.

  12. Microfabricated, 94 GHz, 25 W, Helical Traveling Wave Tube, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Teraphysics Corporation completed the Phase I objectives for the electrical design of a 94 GHz, 26 W TWT with 53% overall efficiency, including the helical circuit...

  13. 160 Gbit/s photonics wireless transmission in the 300-500 GHz band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate the ever increasing wireless traffic in the access networks, considerable efforts have been recently invested in developing photonics-assisted wireless communication systems with very high data rates. Superior to photonic millimeter-wave systems, terahertz (THz band (300 GHz-10 THz provides a much larger bandwidth and thus promises an extremely high capacity. However, the capacity potential of THz wireless systems has by no means been achieved yet. Here, we successfully demonstrate 160 Gbit/s wireless transmission by using a single THz emitter and modulating 25 GHz spaced 8 channels (20 Gbps per channel in the 300-500 GHz band, which is the highest bitrate in the frequency band above 300 GHz, to the best of our knowledge.

  14. Generation of large scale GHZ states with the interactions of photons and quantum-dot spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chun; Fang, Shu-Dong; Dong, Ping; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2018-03-01

    We present a deterministic scheme for generating large scale GHZ states in a cavity-quantum dot system. A singly charged quantum dot is embedded in a double-sided optical microcavity with partially reflective top and bottom mirrors. The GHZ-type Bell spin state can be created and two n-spin GHZ states can be perfectly fused to a 2n-spin GHZ state with the help of n ancilla single-photon pulses. The implementation of the current scheme only depends on the photon detection and its need not to operate multi-qubit gates and multi-qubit measurements. Discussions about the effect of the cavity loss, side leakage and exciton cavity coupling strength for the fidelity of generated states show that the fidelity can remain high enough by controlling system parameters. So the current scheme is simple and feasible in experiment.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 22GHz image of 3C 273 (Bruni+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, G.; Gomez, J. L.; Casadio, C.; Lobanov, A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Lisakov, M. M.; Bach, U.; Marscher, A.; Jorstad, S.; Anderson, J. M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Savolainen, T.; Vega-Garcia, L.; Fuentes, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lee, S.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Perez-Torres, M.; Ros, E.

    2017-07-01

    A global ground array of 22 antennas was used to perform observations, including VLBA (Sc, Hn, Nl, Fd, La, Kp, Pt, Ov, Br, Mk), EVN (Hh, Mc, Nt, Tr, Jb, Ef, Ys), Long Baseline Array (-LBA- At, Mp, Ho, Cd), and two Kvazar antennas (Sv, Zc), plus Kalyazin (managed by ASC, Russia), and Green Bank (NRAO, USA). The observations took place on January 18-19, 2014, for a total of 16.8 hours, and at three different frequencies: 15GHz, 22GHz, and 43GHz. RA was involved only for the 22GHz part, while for the other bands only the VLBA was used. Both the Green Bank and Pushchino tracking station took part in the experiment. A RA-compatible total bandwidth of 32MHz, split into two 16-MHz IFs, was used. RA was scheduled to observe three consecutive 9.5 minute scans every 1.25 hours, to allow for antenna cooling. (2 data files).

  16. A 31 GHz Survey of Low-Frequency Selected Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B. S.; Weintraub, L.; Sievers, J.; Bond, J. R.; Myers, S. T.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Shepherd, M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the 40 m Owens Valley Radio Observatory telescope have been used to conduct a 31 GHz survey of 3165 known extragalactic radio sources over 143 deg2 of the sky. Target sources were selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey in fields observed by the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI); most are extragalactic active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with 1.4 GHz flux densities of 3-10 mJy. The resulting 31 GHz catalogs are presented in full online. Using a maximum-likelihood analysis to obtain an unbiased estimate of the distribution of the 1.4-31 GHz spectral indices of these sources, we find a mean 31-1.4 GHz flux ratio of 0.110 ± 0.003 corresponding to a spectral index of α = -0.71 ± 0.01 (S ν vprop να) 9.0% ± 0.8% of sources have α > - 0.5 and 1.2% ± 0.2% have α > 0. By combining this spectral-index distribution with 1.4 GHz source counts, we predict 31 GHz source counts in the range 1 mJy S 31) = (16.7 ± 1.7) deg-2(S 31/1 mJy)-0.80±0.07. We also assess the contribution of mJy-level (S 1.4 GHz < 3.4 mJy) radio sources to the 31 GHz cosmic microwave background power spectrum, finding a mean power of ell(ell + 1)C src ell/(2π) = 44 ± 14 μK2 and a 95% upper limit of 80 μK2 at ell = 2500. Including an estimated contribution of 12 μK2 from the population of sources responsible for the turn-up in counts below S 1.4 GHz = 1 mJy, this amounts to 21% ± 7% of what is needed to explain the CBI high-ell excess signal, 275 ± 63 μK2. These results are consistent with other measurements of the 31 GHz point-source foreground.

  17. The Experimental Verification of Gaussian Beam Coupling for ECH Transmission Line at 400 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Mun Seok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We design a quasi-optical transmission line system for a 400 GHz gyrotron beam. The 400GHz Gaussian beam is injected to a corrugated waveguide bounced from a quasi-optical mirror. From detailed 2D field patterns of the output beam emitted from the corrugated waveguide, we analyze the mode contents and the source of non-ideal beam expansion

  18. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  19. Structured surface reflector design for oblique incidence beam splitter at 610 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Defrance , Fabien; Casaletti , Massimiliano; Sarrazin , Julien; Wiedner , Martina; Gibson , Hugh; Gay , Gregory; Lefevre , Roland; Delorme , Yan

    2016-01-01

    International audience; An iterative alternate projection-based algorithm is developed to design structured surface reflectors to operate as beam splitters at GHz and THz frequencies. To validate the method, a surface profile is determined to achieve a reflector at 610 GHz that generates four equal-intensity beams towards desired directions of ±12.6° with respect to the specular reflection axis. A prototype is fabricated and the beam splitter behavior is experimentally demonstrated. Measureme...

  20. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 38-GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennet, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakula, John; Kogut, Alan J.; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  1. Toward 100 GHz direct modulation rate of antenna coupled nanoLED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortuna, Seth A.; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2016-01-01

    We show that > 100 GHz direct modulation rate while maintaining a quantum efficiency higher than 25% is possible by using an optical antenna to enhance the spontaneous emission rate of an electrically injected III-V nanoLED.......We show that > 100 GHz direct modulation rate while maintaining a quantum efficiency higher than 25% is possible by using an optical antenna to enhance the spontaneous emission rate of an electrically injected III-V nanoLED....

  2. FIRST INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGES OF THE 36 GHz METHANOL MASERS IN THE DR21 COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Muehlbrad, Talitha C.; Pratap, Preethi; Sjouwerman, Lorant O.; Strelnitski, Vladimir; Pihlstroem, Ylva M.; Bourke, Tyler L.

    2011-01-01

    Class I methanol masers are believed to be produced in the shock-excited environment around star-forming regions. Many authors have argued that the appearance of various subsets of class I masers may be indicative of specific evolutionary stages of star formation or excitation conditions. Until recently, however, no major interferometer was capable of imaging the important 36 GHz transition. We report on Expanded Very Large Array observations of the 36 GHz methanol masers and Submillimeter Array observations of the 229 GHz methanol masers in DR21(OH), DR21N, and DR21W. The distribution of 36 GHz masers in the outflow of DR21(OH) is similar to that of the other class I methanol transitions, with numerous multitransition spatial overlaps. At the site of the main continuum source in DR21(OH), class I masers at 36 and 229 GHz are found in virtual overlap with class II 6.7 GHz masers. To the south of the outflow, the 36 GHz masers are scattered over a large region but usually do not appear coincident with 44 GHz masers. In DR21W, we detect an 'S-curve' signature in Stokes V that implies a large value of the magnetic field strength if interpreted as due to Zeeman splitting, suggesting either that class I masers may exist at higher densities than previously believed or that the direct Zeeman interpretation of S-curve Stokes V profiles in class I masers may be incorrect. We find a diverse variety of different maser phenomena in these sources, suggestive of differing physical conditions among them.

  3. Wide-band coherent receiver development for enhanced surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.L.; Richards, R.K.; Hutchinson, D.P.

    1998-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing advanced coherent IR heterodyne receivers for plasma diagnostics in fusion reactors for over 20 years. Recent progress in wide band IR detectors and high speed electronics has significantly enhanced the measurement capabilities of coherent receivers. In addition, developments in new HgCdTe and quantum well IR photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays are providing the possibility of both active and passive coherent imaging. In this paper the authors discuss the implications of these new enabling technologies to the IR remote sensing community for enhanced surveillance. Coherent receivers, as opposed to direct or thermal detection, provide multiple dimensions of information about a scene or target in a single detector system. Combinations of range, velocity, temperature, and chemical species information are all available from a coherent heterodyne receiver. They present laboratory data showing measured noise equivalent power (NEP) of new QWIP detectors with heterodyne bandwidths greater than 7 GHz. For absorption measurements, a wide band coherent receiver provides the capability of looking between CO 2 lines at off-resonance peaks and thus the measurement of lines normally inaccessible with conventional heterodyne or direct detection systems. Also described are differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Doppler laboratory measurements using an 8 x 8 HgCdTe focal plane array demonstrating the snapshot capability of coherent receiver detector arrays for enhanced chemical plume and moving hardbody capture. Finally they discuss a variety of coherent receiver configurations that can suppress (or enhance) sensitivity of present active remote sensing systems to speckle, glint, and other measurement anomalies

  4. Steganalysis and improvement of a quantum steganography protocol via a GHZ4 state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shu-Jiang; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Quantum steganography that utilizes the quantum mechanical effect to achieve the purpose of information hiding is a popular topic of quantum information. Recently, El Allati et al. proposed a new quantum steganography using the GHZ 4 state. Since all of the 8 groups of unitary transformations used in the secret message encoding rule change the GHZ 4 state into 6 instead of 8 different quantum states when the global phase is not considered, we point out that a 2-bit instead of a 3-bit secret message can be encoded by one group of the given unitary transformations. To encode a 3-bit secret message by performing a group of unitary transformations on the GHZ 4 state, we give another 8 groups of unitary transformations that can change the GHZ 4 state into 8 different quantum states. Due to the symmetry of the GHZ 4 state, all the possible 16 groups of unitary transformations change the GHZ 4 state into 8 different quantum states, so the improved protocol achieves a high efficiency

  5. Cryogenic receiver front-end with sharp skirt characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narahashi, S [RF Technology Laboratory, Wireless Laboratories, NTT DoCoMo, Inc, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8536 (Japan); Satoh, K [RF Technology Laboratory, Wireless Laboratories, NTT DoCoMo, Inc, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8536 (Japan); Kawai, K [RF Technology Laboratory, Wireless Laboratories, NTT DoCoMo, Inc, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8536 (Japan); Koizumi, D [RF Technology Laboratory, Wireless Laboratories, NTT DoCoMo, Inc, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8536 (Japan); Nojima, T [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0808 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    This paper presents an experimental cryogenic receiver front-end (CRFE) with sharp skirt characteristics for mobile base stations. The CRFE comprises a high-temperature superconducting filter, a cryogenic low-noise amplifier, and a highly reliable cryostat that is very compact. The major characteristics of the proposed CRFE measured at 70 K are a centre frequency of 1.95 GHz, passband width of 20 MHz, sharp selectivity of 20 dB/100 kHz, 1.4 dB ripple, 31.3 dB average passband gain, and average passband equivalent noise temperature of 47.9 K. The CRFE weighs 19 kg and occupies 35 l. Random failure of the cryostat is also evaluated by a continuous operation test using four identical ones simultaneously. The cryostat used in the CRFE has a high reliability level of over five years of continuous maintenance-free operation.

  6. Design of a K/Q-Band Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload (TDP) #5 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a coherent KQ-band (2040 GHz) beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) for use in the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload 5 (TDP5) beacon experiment. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation at 40 GHz to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models in the Q-band. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation. The receiver system has been characterized in the lab and demonstrates a system dynamic range performance of better than 58 dB at 1 Hz and better than 48 dB at 10 Hz rates.

  7. Polarimetric receiver in the forty gigahertz band: new instrument for the Q-U-I joint Tenerife experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Mediavilla, Ángel; Artal, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the analysis, design and characterization of a polarimetric receiver developed for covering the 35 to 47 GHz frequency band in the new instrument aimed at completing the ground-based Q-U-I Joint Tenerife Experiment. This experiment is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background. The described high frequency instrument is a HEMT-based array composed of 29 pixels. A thorough analysis of the behaviour of the proposed receiver, based on electronic phase switching, is presented for a noise-like linearly polarized input signal, obtaining simultaneously I, Q and U Stokes parameters of the input signal. Wideband subsystems are designed, assembled and characterized for the polarimeter. Their performances are described showing appropriate results within the 35-to-47 GHz frequency band. Functionality tests are performed at room and cryogenic temperatures with adequate results for both temperature conditions, which validate the receiver concept and performance.

  8. Wide-band low-noise distributed front-end for multi-gigabit CPFSK receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Kongstad; Ebskamp, F; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a distributed optical front-end amplifier for a coherent optical CPFSK receiver is presented. The measured average input noise current density is 20 pA/√(Hz) in a 3-13 GHz bandwidth. This is the lowest value reported for a distributed optical front-end in this frequency range....... The front-end is tested in a system set-up at a bit rate of 2.5 Gbit/s and a receiver sensitivity of -41.5 dBm is achieved at a 10-9 bit error rate...

  9. Tuned Optical Front-End MMIC Amplifiers for a Coherent Optical Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Kongstad; Jagd, A M

    1992-01-01

    Two low noise tuned optical front-end GaAs MESFET MMIC amplifiers for a coherent optical CPFSK (Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying) receiver are presented. The receiver operates at 2.5 Gbit/s at an IF of approx. 9 GHz. The front-ends are based on full-custom designed MMICs and a commercially...... available GaInAs/InP pin photo diode. The procedure for measuring the transimpedance and the equivalent input noise current density is outlined in this paper and demonstrated using one of the MMICs. The MMICs were fabricated using the Plessey F20 process by GEC-Marconi through the ESPRIT programme EUROCHIP...

  10. A 11 mW 2.4 GHz 0.18 µm CMOS Transceivers for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bing; Chen, Hua; Wang, Zhiyu; Mo, Jiongjiong; Chen, Junli; Yu, Faxin; Wang, Wenbo

    2017-01-24

    In this paper, a low power transceiver for wireless sensor networks (WSN) is proposed. The system is designed with fully functional blocks including a receiver, a fractional-N frequency synthesizer, and a class-E transmitter, and it is optimized with a good balance among output power, sensitivity, power consumption, and silicon area. A transmitter and receiver (TX-RX) shared input-output matching network is used so that only one off-chip inductor is needed in the system. The power and area efficiency-oriented, fully-integrated frequency synthesizer is able to provide programmable output frequencies in the 2.4 GHz range while occupying a small silicon area. Implemented in a standard 0.18 μm RF Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, the whole transceiver occupies a chip area of 0.5 mm² (1.2 mm² including bonding pads for a QFN package). Measurement results suggest that the design is able to work at amplitude shift keying (ASK)/on-off-keying (OOK) and FSK modes with up to 500 kbps data rate. With an input sensitivity of -60 dBm and an output power of 3 dBm, the receiver, transmitter and frequency synthesizer consumes 2.3 mW, 4.8 mW, and 3.9 mW from a 1.8 V supply voltage, respectively.

  11. E-trade dossier. Back end: towards a virtual oil company? An application service provider specialized in petroleum applications. Aspentech allies with IBM. The E-trade era has started. France adapts to information technologies; Dossier E-commerce. Aval: vers une compagnie petroliere virtuelle? Un ASP specialise dans les applications petrolieres. Aspentech s'allie a IBM. L'ere de l'E-commerce a commence. La France s'adapte aux technologies de l'information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-08-01

    This dossier analyzes the expected impact of the electronic business on the petroleum and gas industries. It comprises 5 articles dealing with: the development of E-business in the back end of the petroleum industry for the reduction of costs and the control of the interface with clients, the knowledge data-base portal developed by GeoNet for the supply of softwares to oil and gas industries, the strategic alliance between IBM and Aspen Technology (a supplier of integrated e-business softwares), the launching of a unique global portal on the Web by Schlumberger for the commercialization of oil and gas data and assets, the French government priorities in the development of information technologies in a legal frame. (J.S.)

  12. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-01-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  13. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  14. 47 CFR 15.252 - Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29.0 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fundamental frequency following the provisions of § 15.31(m). (3) For systems operating in the 23.12-29.0 GHz... with the transmitter operating continuously at a fundamental frequency. The video bandwidth of the... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems...

  15. A superconducting phase-locked local oscillator for a submillimetre integrated receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelets, V P; Shitov, S V; Filippenko, L V; Dmitriev, P N; Ermakov, A B; Sobolev, A S; Torgashin, M Yu; Pankratov, A L; Kurin, V V; Yagoubov, P; Hoogeveen, R

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive measurements of the flux flow oscillator (FFO) radiation linewidth are performed using an integrated harmonic SIS mixer; the FFO linewidth and spectral line profile are compared to a theory. An essential dependence of the FFO linewidth on frequency is found; a possible explanation is proposed. The results of the numerical solution of the perturbed sine-Gordon equation qualitatively confirm this assumption. To optimize the FFO design, the influence of the FFO parameters on the radiation linewidth is studied. A novel FFO design at a moderate current density has resulted in a free-running FFO linewidth of about 10 MHz in the flux flow regime up to 712 GHz, limited only by the gap frequency of Nb. This relatively narrow free-running linewidth (along with implementation of a wide-band phase locking loop system) allows continuous phase locking of the FFO in the wide frequency range of 500-710 GHz. These results are the basis for the development of a 550-650 GHz integrated receiver for the terahertz limb sounder (TELIS) intended for atmosphere study and scheduled to fly on a balloon in 2005. We report here also on the design of the second generation of the phase-locked superconducting integrated receiver chip for TELIS

  16. A Multi-Baseline 12 GHz Atmospheric Phase Interferometer with One Micron Path Length Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberk, Robert S.; Hunter, Todd R.; Leiker, Patrick S.; Blundell, Raymond; Nystrom, George U.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Test, John; Wilson, Robert W.; Yamaguchi, Paul; Young, Kenneth H.

    2012-12-01

    We have constructed a five station 12 GHz atmospheric phase interferometer (API) for the Submillimeter Array (SMA) located near the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Operating at the base of unoccupied SMA antenna pads, each station employs a commercial low noise mixing block coupled to a 0.7 m off-axis satellite dish which receives a broadband, white noise-like signal from a geostationary satellite. The signals are processed by an analog correlator to produce the phase delays between all pairs of stations with projected baselines ranging from 33-261 m. Each baseline's amplitude and phase is measured continuously at a rate of 8 kHz, processed, averaged and output at 10 Hz. Further signal processing and data reduction is accomplished with a Linux computer, including the removal of the diurnal motion of the target satellite. The placement of the stations below ground level with an environmental shield combined with the use of low temperature coefficient, buried fiber optic cables provides excellent system stability. The sensitivity in terms of rms path length is 1.3 microns which corresponds to phase deviations of about 1° of phase at the highest operating frequency of the SMA. The two primary data products are: (1) standard deviations of observed phase over various time scales, and (2) phase structure functions. These real-time statistical data measured by the API in the direction of the satellite provide an estimate of the phase front distortion experienced by the concurrent SMA astronomical observations. The API data also play an important role, along with the local opacity measurements and weather predictions, in helping to plan the scheduling of science observations on the telescope.

  17. Underwater Communications for Video Surveillance Systems at 2.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance is needed to control many activities performed in underwater environments. The use of wired media can be a problem since the material specially designed for underwater environments is very expensive. In order to transmit the images and videos wirelessly under water, three main technologies can be used: acoustic waves, which do not provide high bandwidth, optical signals, although the effect of light dispersion in water severely penalizes the transmitted signals and therefore, despite offering high transfer rates, the maximum distance is very small, and electromagnetic (EM waves, which can provide enough bandwidth for video delivery. In the cases where the distance between transmitter and receiver is short, the use of EM waves would be an interesting option since they provide high enough data transfer rates to transmit videos with high resolution. This paper presents a practical study of the behavior of EM waves at 2.4 GHz in freshwater underwater environments. First, we discuss the minimum requirements of a network to allow video delivery. From these results, we measure the maximum distance between nodes and the round trip time (RTT value depending on several parameters such as data transfer rate, signal modulations, working frequency, and water temperature. The results are statistically analyzed to determine their relation. Finally, the EM waves’ behavior is modeled by a set of equations. The results show that there are some combinations of working frequency, modulation, transfer rate and temperature that offer better results than others. Our work shows that short communication distances with high data transfer rates is feasible.

  18. The Arcminute Microkelvin Imager catalogue of gamma-ray burst afterglows at 15.7 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.; Staley, T. D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Fender, R. P.; Rowlinson, A.; Mooley, K. P.; Broderick, J. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rumsey, C.; Titterington, D. J.

    2018-01-01

    We present the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Large Array catalogue of 139 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). AMI observes at a central frequency of 15.7 GHz and is equipped with a fully automated rapid-response mode, which enables the telescope to respond to high-energy transients detected by Swift. On receiving a transient alert, AMI can be on-target within 2 min, scheduling later start times if the source is below the horizon. Further AMI observations are manually scheduled for several days following the trigger. The AMI GRB programme probes the early-time (<1 d) radio properties of GRBs, and has obtained some of the earliest radio detections (GRB 130427A at 0.36 and GRB 130907A at 0.51 d post-burst). As all Swift GRBs visible to AMI are observed, this catalogue provides the first representative sample of GRB radio properties, unbiased by multiwavelength selection criteria. We report the detection of six GRB radio afterglows that were not previously detected by other radio telescopes, increasing the rate of radio detections by 50 per cent over an 18-month period. The AMI catalogue implies a Swift GRB radio detection rate of ≳ 15 per cent, down to ∼0.2 mJy beam-1. However, scaling this by the fraction of GRBs AMI would have detected in the Chandra & Frail sample (all radio-observed GRBs between 1997 and 2011), it is possible ∼ 44-56 per cent of Swift GRBs are radio bright, down to ∼0.1-0.15 mJy beam-1. This increase from the Chandra & Frail rate (∼30 per cent) is likely due to the AMI rapid-response mode, which allows observations to begin while the reverse-shock is contributing to the radio afterglow.

  19. Phase-locked Josephson flux flow local oscillator for sub-mm integrated receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Jesper; Mahaini, C.; Dmitriev, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) has proven to be one of the best on-chip local oscillators for heterodyne detection in integrated sub-mm receivers based on SIS mixers. Nb-AlOx-Nb FFOs have been successfully tested from about 120 to 700 GHz (gap frequency of Nb) providing enough power...... to pump an SIS mixer (about 1 muW at 450 GHz). Both the frequency and the power of the FFO can be dc-tuned. Extensive measurements of the dependence of the free-running FFO linewidth on the differential resistances associated with both the bias current and the control-line current (applied magnetic field......) have been performed. The FFO line is Lorentzian both in the resonant regime, on Fiske steps (FSs), and on the flux flow step (FFS). This indicates that internal wide-band noise is dominant. A phenomenological noise model can account for the FFO linewidth dependence on experimental parameters...

  20. High-Performance BiCMOS Transimpedance Amplifiers for Fiber-Optic Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Touati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available High gain, wide bandwidth, low noise, and low-power transimpedance amplifiers based on new BiCMOS common- base topologies have been designed for fiber-optic receivers. In particular a design approach, hereafter called "A more- FET approach", added a new dimension to effectively optimize performance tradeoffs inherent in such circuits. Using conventional silicon 0.8 μm process parameters, simulated performance features of a total-FET transimpedance amplifier operating at 7.2 GHz, which is close to the technology fT of 12 GHz, are presented. The results are superior to those of similar recent designs and comparable to IC designs using GaAs technology. A detailed analysis of the design architecture, including a discussion on the effects of moving toward more FET-based designs is presented.

  1. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, J.W.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO)

  2. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  3. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  4. Study of the Calibration Channel Width for a Digital Sideband Separating System for SIS 2SB Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudchenko, Andrey; Finger, R.; Baryshev, A. M.; Mena, F. P.; Rodriguez, R.; Hesper, R.; Fuentes, R.; Bronfman, L.

    2018-01-01

    A Digital Sideband Separating (DSS) system has been recently applied to a full 2SB receiver, i.e., one with the analog IF hybrid still in place. This concept allows reaching IRR level around 45 dB and it presents additional advantages in calibration stability compared to the case when no IF hybrid is present. If implemented in multipixel cameras, the DSS system relaxes the requirements for the IRR level of the analog receiver substantially enabling to reach at least an IRR of 30 dB with relatively simple hardware. It would be ideal for spectral line surveys since it practically eliminates the line confusion in addition to rejecting the atmospheric noise in the image band. Therefore, the DSS system is a potential option for a future ALMA upgrade. Here we present our study on an important practical question: how wide should the calibration-channel width in order to reach a desired IRR level? This parameter determines, for a large part, the calibration speed of the DSS system and influences the back-end architecture. We estimate that for currently installed ALMA bands (B3-B8), the channel width of the DSS system can be at least 45 MHz to reach a 30db IRR level in entire band.

  5. Improvements to Host Country Radio Astronomy at Robledo: Another antenna, a new receiver, a new backend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, J. R.; García-Miró, G.

    2013-05-01

    NASA hosts three complexes worldwide built for spacecraft tracking, whose sensitive antennas are suitable for radio astronomy. Since more than a decade, INTA has managed guaranteed Spanish time at the complex located in Robledo de Chavela, in the frame of the Host Country Radio Astronomy (HCRA) program. Until now, the vast majority of the scientific results were achieved using a K-band (18 to 26 GHz) receiver, attached to the 70m antenna, and a narrow-band autocorrelator. In the recent years, we have undertaken two large instrumental projects: (1) the incorporation of a second antenna (34m in diameter), working in Q-band (38 to 50 GHz); and (2) the design and construction of a wideband backend, which may operate with both the Q- and K-band receivers, providing instantaneous bandwidths from 100 MHz to 6 GHz, and resolutions from 6 to 200 kHz. The new wideband backend is expanding the HCRA possibilities due its bandwidth, versatility, spectral resolution and stability of the baselines. Its IF processor splits each of the two circular-polarization signals, and downconverts them to four base-band channels, 1.5 GHz width. Two different frequencies may be tuned independently. Digitalisation is done through FPGA-based FFT spectrometers, which may be independently configured. Once end-to-end assembled, the commissioning of the new backend was done using the 34m antenna in Q-band. We report the main characteristics of both the antenna recently incorporated to HCRA, and the wideband backend.

  6. Channel Measurements and Modeling at 6 GHz in the Tunnel Environments for 5G Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-de Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Propagation measurements of wireless channels performed in the tunnel environments at 6 GHz are presented in this paper. Propagation characteristics are simulated and analyzed based on the method of shooting and bouncing ray tracing/image (SBR/IM. A good agreement is achieved between the measured results and simulated results, so the correctness of SBR/IM method has been validated. The measured results and simulated results are analyzed in terms of path loss models, received power, root mean square (RMS delay spread, Ricean K-factor, and angle of arrival (AOA. The omnidirectional path loss models are characterized based on close-in (CI free-space reference distance model and the alpha-beta-gamma (ABG model. Path loss exponents (PLEs are 1.50–1.74 in line-of-sight (LOS scenarios and 2.18–2.20 in non-line-of-sight (NLOS scenarios. Results show that CI model with the reference distance of 1 m provides more accuracy and stability in tunnel scenarios. The RMS delay spread values vary between 2.77 ns and 18.76 ns. Specially, the Poisson distribution best fits the measured data of RMS delay spreads for LOS scenarios and the Gaussian distribution best fits the measured data of RMS delay spreads for NLOS scenarios. Moreover, the normal distribution provides good fits to the Ricean K-factor. The analysis of the abovementioned results from channel measurements and simulations may be utilized for the design of wireless communications of future 5G radio systems at 6 GHz.

  7. Development and testing of Band 10 receivers for the ALMA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzawa, Y., E-mail: y.uzawa@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaneko, K.; Kroug, M.; Kojima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Miyachi, A. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saito, S.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z. [National Institute of Information and Telecommunications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Iwaoka-cho, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2492 (Japan); Asayama, S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The ALMA Band 10 (787–950 GHz) SIS receivers have been developed. •The complex conductivity of NbTiN was measured by a THz-TDS for the mixer design. •Tens of Band 10 receivers have been produced and their performance was quite well. •The best achieved receiver noise temperature was 125 K corresponding to 3hf/k{sub B}. •Band 10 receiver installed in the ALMA antenna captured astronomical signals. -- Abstract: The production model of a dual polarization heterodyne receiver for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimteter Array (ALMA) telescope has been developed to operate in the 787–950 GHz frequency band. The receiver uses two double sideband (DSB) waveguide mixers with Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions and NbTiN/SiO{sub 2}/Al microstrip tuning circuits on quartz substrate. A terahertz time domain spectrometer was used to characterize our NbTiN film for the tuning circuit design, which revealed that the complex conductivity of the film is described by the Mattis-Bardeen theory including a finite scattering time of 15 fs and a superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2Δ/k{sub B}T{sub C} ∼ 4.0. Tens of these receivers (out of the total production number of 73) have been successfully produced, and their performance is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. The best achieved DSB receiver noise temperature is 125 K, corresponding to about 3hf/k{sub B} for 4 K operation. One of Band 10 receivers has successfully been installed in the ALMA antenna for a test observation.

  8. Development and testing of Band 10 receivers for the ALMA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaneko, K.; Kroug, M.; Kojima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Miyachi, A.; Saito, S.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Asayama, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The ALMA Band 10 (787–950 GHz) SIS receivers have been developed. •The complex conductivity of NbTiN was measured by a THz-TDS for the mixer design. •Tens of Band 10 receivers have been produced and their performance was quite well. •The best achieved receiver noise temperature was 125 K corresponding to 3hf/k B . •Band 10 receiver installed in the ALMA antenna captured astronomical signals. -- Abstract: The production model of a dual polarization heterodyne receiver for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimteter Array (ALMA) telescope has been developed to operate in the 787–950 GHz frequency band. The receiver uses two double sideband (DSB) waveguide mixers with Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions and NbTiN/SiO 2 /Al microstrip tuning circuits on quartz substrate. A terahertz time domain spectrometer was used to characterize our NbTiN film for the tuning circuit design, which revealed that the complex conductivity of the film is described by the Mattis-Bardeen theory including a finite scattering time of 15 fs and a superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2Δ/k B T C ∼ 4.0. Tens of these receivers (out of the total production number of 73) have been successfully produced, and their performance is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. The best achieved DSB receiver noise temperature is 125 K, corresponding to about 3hf/k B for 4 K operation. One of Band 10 receivers has successfully been installed in the ALMA antenna for a test observation

  9. High-performance CPW MMIC LNA using GaAs-based metamorphic HEMTs for 94-GHz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Keun-Kwan; Kim, Sung-Chan; An, Dan; Rhee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a high-performance low-noise amplifier (LNA) using metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) technology for 94-GHz applications. The 100 nm x 60 μm MHEMT devices for the coplanar MMIC LNA exhibited DC characteristics with a drain current density of 655 mA/mm and an extrinsic transconductance of 720 mS/mm. The current gain cutoff frequency (f T ) and the maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) were 195 GHz and 305 GHz, respectively. Based on this MHEMT technology, coplanar 94-GHz MMIC LNAs were realized, achieving a small signal gain of more than 13 dB between 90 and 100 GHz and a small signal gain of 14.8 dB and a noise figure of 4.7 dB at 94 GHz.

  10. A low power and low phase-noise 91 96 GHz VCO in 90 nm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yo-Sheng; Lan, Kai-Siang; Chuang, Ming-Yuan; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports a 94 GHz CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) using both the negative capacitance (NC) technique and series-peaking output power and phase noise (PN) enhancement technique. NC is achieved by adding two variable LC networks to the source nodes of the active circuit of the VCO. NMOSFET varicaps are adopted as the required capacitors of the LC networks. In comparison with the conventional one, the proposed active circuit substantially decreases the input capacitance (Cin) to zero or even a negative value. This leads to operation (or oscillation) frequency (OF) increase and tuning range (TR) enhancement of the VCO. The VCO dissipates 8.3 mW at 1 V supply. The measured TR of the VCO is 91 96 GHz, close to the simulated (92.1 96.7 GHz) and the calculated one (92.2 98.2 GHz). In addition, at 1 MHz offset from 95.16 GHz, the VCO attains an excellent PN of - 98.3 dBc/Hz. This leads to a figure-of-merit (FOM) of -188.5 dBc/Hz, a remarkable result for a V- or W-band CMOS VCO. The chip size of the VCO is 0.75 × 0.42 mm2, i.e. 0.315 mm2.

  11. THE ZEEMAN EFFECT IN THE 44 GHZ CLASS I METHANOL MASER LINE TOWARD DR21(OH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momjian, E. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sarma, A. P., E-mail: emomjian@nrao.edu, E-mail: asarma@depaul.edu [Physics Department, DePaul University, 2219 N. Kenmore Avenue, Byrne Hall 211, Chicago, IL 60614 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We report detection of the Zeeman effect in the 44 GHz Class I methanol maser line, toward the star-forming region DR21(OH). In a 219 Jy beam{sup −1} maser centered at an LSR velocity of 0.83 km s{sup −1}, we find a 20- σ detection of zB {sub los} = 53.5 ± 2.7 Hz. If 44 GHz methanol masers are excited at n ∼ 10{sup 7–8} cm{sup −3}, then the B versus n {sup 1/2} relation would imply, from comparison with Zeeman effect detections in the CN(1 − 0) line toward DR21(OH), that magnetic fields traced by 44 GHz methanol masers in DR21(OH) should be ∼10 mG. Combined with our detected zB {sub los} = 53.5 Hz, this would imply that the value of the 44 GHz methanol Zeeman splitting factor z is ∼5 Hz mG{sup −1}. Such small values of z would not be a surprise, as the methanol molecule is non-paramagnetic, like H{sub 2}O. Empirical attempts to determine z , as demonstrated, are important because there currently are no laboratory measurements or theoretically calculated values of z for the 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH transition. Data from observations of a larger number of sources are needed to make such empirical determinations robust.

  12. Narrow-band modulation of semiconductor lasers at millimeter wave frequencies (7100 GHz) by mode locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of mode locking a semiconductor laser at millimeter wave frequencies approaching and beyond 100 GHz which was investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are no fundamental theoretical limitations in mode locking at frequencies below 100 GHz. AT these high frequencies, only a few modes are locked and the output usually takes the form of a deep sinusoidal modulation which is synchronized in phase with the externally applied modulation at the intermodal heat frequency. This can be regarded for practical purposes as a highly efficient means of directly modulating an optical carrier over a narrow band at millimeter wave frequencies. Both active and passive mode locking are theoretically possible. Experimentally, predictions on active mode locking have been verified in prior publications up to 40 GHz. For passive mode locking, evidence consistent with passive mode locking was observed in an inhomogeneously pumped GaAIAs laser at a frequency of approximately 70 GHz. A large differential gain-absorption ratio such as that present in an inhomogeneously pumped single quantum well laser is necessary for pushing the passive mode-locking frequency beyond 100 GHz

  13. Design of a 300 GHZ broadband coupler and RF-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, F.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Earley, L.M.; Sigler, F.E.; Potter, J.M.; Schulze, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent LANL activities in millimeter wave structures focus on 95 and 300 GHz structures. They aim at power generation from low power (100W-2kW) with a round electron beam (120kV, 0.1-1.0 A) to high power (2-100 kW) with a sheet beam structure (120 kV, 20 A). Applications cover basic research, radar and secure communications and remote sensing of biological and chemical agents. In this presentation the design of a 300 GHz RF-structure with a broadband (> 6% bandwidth) power coupler is presented. The choice of two input/output waveguides, a special coupling region and the structure parameters are presented. As a benchmark also a scaled up version at 10 GHz was designed and measured. These results will also be presented. We are investigating planar micro-fabricated traveling-wave tube amplifiers as sources for the generation of millimeter waves from 95 to 300 GHz. While for low energy applications narrow structures with pencil beams are proposed, for high energy operation flat, thin sheet beams are required. For the latter vane-loaded rectangular waveguides that operate in a slow-wave mode matched to the velocity of the electron beam are especially well suited. The 300 GHz effort initially is limited to narrow structures for pencil beams. The main emphasis for this work are the study of fabrication issues and the understanding of features that allow a broadband operation (5-10% bandwidth).

  14. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS at 18 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, Daniela; Abbott, Steven R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Taylor, Clyde E.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation are now underway. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power. The ion source performance is very promising [1,2]. VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for Nuclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The goal of the VENUS ECR ion source project as the RIA R and D injector is the production of 240e(micro)A of U 30+ , a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5e(micro)A of U 48+ , a low current, very high charge state beam. To meet these ambitious goals, VENUS has been designed for optimum operation at 28 GHz. This frequency choice has several design consequences. To achieve the required magnetic confinement, superconducting magnets have to be used. The size of the superconducting magnet structure implies a relatively large plasma volume. Consequently, high power microwave coupling becomes necessary to achieve sufficient plasma heating power densities. The 28 GHz power supply has been delivered in April 2004

  15. Reconfigurable antenna options for 2.45/5 GHz wireless body area networks in healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Muzahir; Ranga, Yogesh; Esselle, Karu P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents electronically reconfigurable antenna options in healthcare applications. They are suitable for wireless body area network devices operating in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band at 2.45 GHz and IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) band at 5 GHz (5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.25-5.35 GHz). Two types of antennas are investigated: Antenna-I has a full ground plane and Antenna-II has a partial ground plane. The proposed antennas provide ISM operation in one mode while in another mode they support 5 GHz WLAN band. Their performance is assessed for body centric wireless communication using a simplified human body model. Antenna sensitivity to the gap between the antenna and the human body is investigated for both modes of each antenna. The proposed antennas exhibit a wide radiation pattern along the body surface to provide wide coverage and their small width (14 mm) makes them suitable for on-body communication in healthcare applications.

  16. Microwave receivers for fast-ion detection in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtula, V.

    2012-02-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to determine fundamental properties of a millimeter wave radiometer used to detect radiation associated with dynamics of fast ions and to investigate possibilities for improvements and new designs. The detection of fast ions is based on a principle called collective Thomson scattering (CTS). The Danish CTS group has been involved in fusion plasma experiments for more than 10 years and the future plans will most probably include the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current CTS systems designed by the Danish group are specified for the frequency range from 100 to 110 GHz. In this thesis we follow the path of the radiation from a fusion plasma to the data acquisition unit. Firstly, the scattered radiation passes through the quasi-optical system. Quasi-optical elements required to be installed on the high field side (HFS) on the ITER are assessed. For the ITER HFS receiver we have designed and measured the quasi-optical components that form a transmission link between the plasma and the radio frequency (RF) electronics. This HFS receiver is required to resolve the near parallel velocity components created by the alpha particles. Secondly, the radiation will encounter the RF part. This part is not yet designed for ITER, but instead the solution is addressed to the CTS receiver installed at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG).We have put effort to thoroughly examine and evaluate the performance of the receiver components and the receiver as an assembled unit. We have measured and analyzed all the receiver components starting from the two notch filters to the fifty square-law detector diodes. The receiver sensitivity is calculated from the system measurements and compared with the expected sensitivity based on the individual component measurements. Besides the system considerations we have also studied improvements of two critical components of the receiver. The first component is the notch filter, which is needed to block

  17. A Low Power 2.4 GHz CMOS Mixer Using Forward Body Bias Technique for Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, C. J.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Harun, A.; Ramli, M. M.; Zulkifli, T. Z. A.; Karim, J.

    2018-03-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a highly-demanded application since the evolution of wireless generation which is often used in recent communication technology. A radio frequency (RF) transceiver in WSN should have a low power consumption to support long operating times of mobile devices. A down-conversion mixer is responsible for frequency translation in a receiver. By operating a down-conversion mixer at a low supply voltage, the power consumed by WSN receiver can be greatly reduced. This paper presents a development of low power CMOS mixer using forward body bias technique for wireless sensor network. The proposed mixer is implemented using CMOS 0.13 μm Silterra technology. The forward body bias technique is adopted to obtain low power consumption. The simulation results indicate that a low power consumption of 0.91 mW is achieved at 1.6 V supply voltage. Moreover, the conversion gain (CG) of 21.83 dB, the noise figure (NF) of 16.51 dB and the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of 8.0 dB at 2.4 GHz are obtained. The proposed mixer is suitable for wireless sensor network.

  18. High-Capacity 60 GHz and 75–110 GHz Band Links Employing All-Optical OFDM Generation and Digital Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    The performance of wireless signal generation and detection at millimeter-wave frequencies using baseband optical means is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Multigigabit wireless signal generation is achieved based on all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and photo......The performance of wireless signal generation and detection at millimeter-wave frequencies using baseband optical means is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Multigigabit wireless signal generation is achieved based on all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM...... scalability and bit-rate transparency of our proposed approach, we experimentally demonstrated generation and detection in the 60 GHz and 75–110 GHz band of an all-optical OFDM quadrature phase shift keying, with two and three subcarriers, for a total bit rate over 20 Gb/ s....

  19. KEY COMPARISON: CCEM.RF-K9: International comparison of thermal noise standards between 12.4 GHz and 18 GHz (GT-RF/99-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allal, Djamel; Achkar, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    An international comparison of thermal noise-power measurements has been carried out among five national metrology institutes between 12.4 GHz and 18 GHz. Four transfer standards were measured. The following national institutes participated: BNM-LCIE (France), NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany), NIST (United States of America) and VNIIFTRI (Russia). The Bureau National de Métrologie-Laboratoire Central des Industries Electriques (France) acted as the pilot laboratory for the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  20. Heterodyne detection at 300 GHz using neon indicator lamp glow discharge detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon Akram, Avihai; Rozban, Daniel; Kopeika, Natan S; Abramovich, Amir

    2013-06-10

    A miniature neon indicator lamp, also known as a glow discharge detector (GDD), costing about 50 cents, was found to be an excellent room temperature terahertz radiation detector. Proof-of-concept 300 GHz heterodyne detection using GDD is demonstrated in this paper. Furthermore, a comparison to direct detection was carried out as well. Previous results with the GDD at 10 GHz showed 40 times better sensitivity using heterodyne detection compared to direct detection. Preliminary results at 300 GHz showed better sensitivity by a factor of 20 with only 56 μW local-oscillator power using heterodyne compared to direct detection. The higher the local-oscillator power (P(lo)), the better the sensitivity of the detector. Further improvement can be achieved by employing better quasi-optical design.