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Sample records for ghs-r camkii ampk

  1. A Significant Role of the Truncated Ghrelin Receptor GHS-R1b in Ghrelin-induced Signaling in Neurons*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Aguinaga, David; Angelats, Edgar; Medrano, Mireia; Moreno, Estefanía; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antonio; Canela, Enric I.; Casadó, Vicent; McCormick, Peter J.; Lluís, Carme; Ferré, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    The truncated non-signaling ghrelin receptor growth hormone secretagogue R1b (GHS-R1b) has been suggested to simply exert a dominant negative role in the trafficking and signaling of the full and functional ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a. Here we reveal a more complex modulatory role of GHS-R1b. Differential co-expression of GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b, both in HEK-293T cells and in striatal and hippocampal neurons in culture, demonstrates that GHS-R1b acts as a dual modulator of GHS-R1a function: low relative GHS-R1b expression potentiates and high relative GHS-R1b expression inhibits GHS-R1a function by facilitating GHS-R1a trafficking to the plasma membrane and by exerting a negative allosteric effect on GHS-R1a signaling, respectively. We found a preferential Gi/o coupling of the GHS-R1a-GHS-R1b complex in HEK-293T cells and, unexpectedly, a preferential Gs/olf coupling in both striatal and hippocampal neurons in culture. A dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist blocked ghrelin-induced cAMP accumulation in striatal but not hippocampal neurons, indicating the involvement of D1R in the striatal GHS-R1a-Gs/olf coupling. Experiments in HEK-293T cells demonstrated that D1R co-expression promotes a switch in GHS-R1a-G protein coupling from Gi/o to Gs/olf, but only upon co-expression of GHS-R1b. Furthermore, resonance energy transfer experiments showed that D1R interacts with GHS-R1a, but only in the presence of GHS-R1b. Therefore, GHS-R1b not only determines the efficacy of ghrelin-induced GHS-R1a-mediated signaling but also determines the ability of GHS-R1a to form oligomeric complexes with other receptors, promoting profound qualitative changes in ghrelin-induced signaling. PMID:27129257

  2. A Significant Role of the Truncated Ghrelin Receptor GHS-R1b in Ghrelin-induced Signaling in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Aguinaga, David; Angelats, Edgar; Medrano, Mireia; Moreno, Estefanía; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antonio; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; McCormick, Peter J; Lluís, Carme; Ferré, Sergi

    2016-06-17

    The truncated non-signaling ghrelin receptor growth hormone secretagogue R1b (GHS-R1b) has been suggested to simply exert a dominant negative role in the trafficking and signaling of the full and functional ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a. Here we reveal a more complex modulatory role of GHS-R1b. Differential co-expression of GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b, both in HEK-293T cells and in striatal and hippocampal neurons in culture, demonstrates that GHS-R1b acts as a dual modulator of GHS-R1a function: low relative GHS-R1b expression potentiates and high relative GHS-R1b expression inhibits GHS-R1a function by facilitating GHS-R1a trafficking to the plasma membrane and by exerting a negative allosteric effect on GHS-R1a signaling, respectively. We found a preferential Gi/o coupling of the GHS-R1a-GHS-R1b complex in HEK-293T cells and, unexpectedly, a preferential Gs/olf coupling in both striatal and hippocampal neurons in culture. A dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist blocked ghrelin-induced cAMP accumulation in striatal but not hippocampal neurons, indicating the involvement of D1R in the striatal GHS-R1a-Gs/olf coupling. Experiments in HEK-293T cells demonstrated that D1R co-expression promotes a switch in GHS-R1a-G protein coupling from Gi/o to Gs/olf, but only upon co-expression of GHS-R1b. Furthermore, resonance energy transfer experiments showed that D1R interacts with GHS-R1a, but only in the presence of GHS-R1b. Therefore, GHS-R1b not only determines the efficacy of ghrelin-induced GHS-R1a-mediated signaling but also determines the ability of GHS-R1a to form oligomeric complexes with other receptors, promoting profound qualitative changes in ghrelin-induced signaling. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Growth hormone-releasing hormone as an agonist of the ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Felipe F; Camiña, Jesus P; Carreira, Marcos C; Pazos, Yolanda; Varga, Jozsef L; Schally, Andrew V

    2008-12-23

    Ghrelin synergizes with growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) to potentiate growth hormone (GH) response through a mechanism not yet fully characterized. This study was conducted to analyze the role of GHRH as a potential ligand of the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a. The results show that hGHRH(1-29)NH(2) (GHRH) induces a dose-dependent calcium mobilization in HEK 293 cells stably transfected with GHS-R1a an effect not observed in wild-type HEK 293 cells. This calcium rise is also observed using the GHRH receptor agonists JI-34 and JI-36. Radioligand binding and cross-linking studies revealed that calcium response to GHRH is mediated by the ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a. GHRH activates the signaling route of inositol phosphate and potentiates the maximal response to ghrelin measured in inositol phosphate turnover. The presence of GHRH increases the binding capacity of (125)I-ghrelin in a dose dependent-fashion showing a positive binding cooperativity. In addition, confocal microscopy in CHO cells transfected with GHS-R1a tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein shows that GHRH activates the GHS-R1a endocytosis. Furthermore, the selective GHRH-R antagonists, JV-1-42 and JMR-132, act also as antagonists of the ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a. Our findings suggest that GHRH interacts with ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a, and, in consequence, modifies the ghrelin-associated intracellular signaling pathway. This interaction may represent a form of regulation, which could play a putative role in the physiology of GH regulation and appetite control.

  4. Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) agonists show potential as interventive agents during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roy G; Sun, Yuxiang; Jiang, Hong; Albarran-Zeckler, Rosie; Timchenko, Nikolai

    2007-11-01

    Administration of an orally active agonist (MK-0677) of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) to elderly subjects restored the amplitude of endogenous episodic growth hormone (GH) release to that of young adults. Functional benefits include increased lean mass and bone density and modest improvements in strength. In old mice, a similar agonist partially restored function to the thymus and reduced tumor cell growth and metastasis. Treatment of old mice with the endogenous GHS-R1a agonist ghrelin restored a young liver phenotype. The mechanism involves inhibition of cyclin D3:cdk4/cdk6 activity and increased protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) activity in liver nuclei, which stabilizes the dephosphorylated form of the transcription factor C/EBPalpha preventing the age-dependent formation of the C/EBPalpha-Rb-E2F4-Brm nuclear complex. By inhibiting formation of this complex, repression of E2F target genes is de-repressed and C/EBPalpha regulated expression of Pepck, a regulator of gluconeogenesis, is normalized, thereby restoring a young liver phenotype. In the brain, aging is associated with decline in dopamine function. We investigated the potential neuromodulatory role of GHS-R1a on dopamine action. Neurons were identified in the hippocampus, cortex, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental areas that coexpressed GHS-R1a and dopamine receptor subtype-1 (D1R). Cell culture studies showed that, in the presence of ghrelin and dopamine, GHS-R and D1R form heterodimers, which modified G-protein signal transduction resulting in amplification of dopamine signaling. We speculate that aging is associated with deficient endogenous ghrelin signaling that can be rescued by intervention with GHS-R1a agonists to improve quality of life and maintain independence.

  5. CaMKII determines mitochondrial stress responses in heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Mei-ling A.; Koval, Olha M.; Jingdong, Li; He, B. Julie; Allamargot, Chantal; Gao, Zhan; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Hall, Duane D.; Fink, Brian D.; Chen, Biyi; Yang, Jinying; Moore, Steven A.; Scholz, Thomas D.; Strack, Stefan; Mohler, Peter J.; Sivitz, William I.; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial cell death is initiated by excessive mitochondrial Ca2+ entry, causing Ca2+ overload, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and dissipation of the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (ΔΨm)1,2. However, the signaling pathways that control mitochondrial Ca2+ entry through the inner membrane mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU)3–5 are not known. The multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated in ischemia reperfusion (I/R), myocardial infarction (MI) and neurohumoral injury, common causes of myocardial death and heart failure, suggesting CaMKII could couple disease stress to mitochondrial injury. Here we show that CaMKII promotes mPTP opening and myocardial death by increasing MCU current (IMCU). Mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibitory protein or cyclosporin A (CsA), an mPTP antagonist with clinical efficacy in I/R injury6, equivalently prevent mPTP opening, ΔΨm deterioration and diminish mitochondrial disruption and programmed cell death in response to I/R injury. Mice with myocardial and mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibition are resistant to I/R injury, MI and neurohumoral injury, suggesting pathological actions of CaMKII are substantially mediated by increasing IMCU. Our findings identify CaMKII activity as a central mechanism for mitochondrial Ca2+ entry and suggest mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibition could prevent or reduce myocardial death and heart failure dysfunction in response to common experimental forms of pathophysiological stress. PMID:23051746

  6. Association of pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with heavy alcohol use and body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Sara; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Campos, Joaquin; Olofsson, Ulrica; Nilsson, Staffan; Blennow, Kaj; Engel, Jörgen A

    2008-12-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R1A), expressed in the hypothalamus as well as in important reward nodes such as the ventral tegmental area. Interestingly, ghrelin has been found to activate an important part of the reward systems, i.e., the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. Additionally, the rewarding and neurochemical properties of alcohol are, at least in part, mediated via this reward link. There is comorbidity between alcohol dependence and eating disorders. Thus, plasma levels of ghrelin are altered in patients with addictive behaviors such as alcohol and nicotine dependence and in binge eating disorder. This overlap prompted as to investigate the pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A genes in a haplotype analysis of heavy alcohol-using individuals. A total of 417 Spanish individuals (abstainers, moderate, and heavy alcohol drinkers) were investigated in a haplotype analysis of the pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A genes. Tag SNPs were chosen using HapMap data and the Tagger and Haploview softwares. These SNPs were then genotyped using TaqMan Allelic Discrimination. SNP rs2232165 of the GHS-R1A gene was associated with heavy alcohol consumption and SNP rs2948694 of the same gene as well as haplotypes of both the pro-ghrelin and the GHS-R1A genes were associated with body mass in heavy alcohol consuming individuals. The present findings are the first to disclose an association between the pro-ghrelin and GHS-R1A genes and heavy alcohol use, further strengthening the role of the ghrelin system in addictive behaviors and brain reward.

  7. Increased FXYD1 and PGC-1α mRNA after blood flow-restricted running is related to fibre type-specific AMPK signalling and oxidative stress in human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Danny; Murphy, Robyn M; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    ). A muscle sample was collected before (Pre) and after exercise (+0h, +3h) to quantify mRNA, indicators of oxidative stress (HSP27 protein in type I and II fibres, and catalase and HSP70 mRNA), metabolites, and α-AMPK Thr172 /α-AMPK, ACC Ser221 /ACC, CaMKII Thr287 /CaMKII, and PLBSer16 /PLB ratios in type I...

  8. Adiponectin promotes VEGF-C-dependent lymphangiogenesis by inhibiting miR-27b through a CaMKII/AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yin; Chang, An-Chen; Chen, Hsien-Te; Wang, Shih-Wei; Lo, Yuan-Shun; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-09-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequently occurring type of bone malignancy characterized by distant metastatic propensity. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is the major lymphangiogenic factor, and makes crucial contributions to tumour lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes. In recent years, adiponectin has also been indicated as facilitating tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the effect of adiponectin on VEGF-C regulation and lymphangiogenesis in chondrosarcoma has remained largely a mystery. In the present study, we have shown a clinical correlation between adiponectin and VEGF-C, as well as tumour stage, in human chondrosarcoma tissues. We further demonstrated that adiponectin promoted VEGF-C expression and secretion in human chondrosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium from adiponectin-treated cells significantly induced tube formation and migration of human lymphatic endothelial cells. In addition, adiponectin knock down inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo We also found that adiponectin-induced VEGF-C is mediated by the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the expression of miR-27b was negatively regulated by adiponectin via the CaMKII, AMPK and p38 cascade. The present study is the first to describe the mechanism of adiponectin-promoted lymphangiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF-C expression in chondrosarcomas. Thus, adiponectin could serve as a therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis and lymphangiogenesis. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Suppression of GHS-R in AgRP neurons mitigates diet-induced obesity by activating thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone released primarily from the gut, signals the hypothalamus to stimulate growth hormone release, enhance appetite and promote weight gain. The ghrelin receptor, aka Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R), is highly expressed in the brain, with highest expression in...

  10. CaMKII in sinoatrial node physiology and dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejin eWu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium and calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is present in sinoatrial node (SAN pacemaker cells and is required for physiological fight or flight SAN beating rate responses. Inhibition of CaMKII in SAN does not affect baseline heart rate, but reduces heart rate increases in response to physiological stress. CaMKII senses intracellular calcium (Ca2+ changes, oxidation status and hyperglycemia to phosphorylate substrates that regulate Ca2+-sensitive proteins, such as L-type Ca2+ channels, phospholamban (PLN, and cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2. All of these substrates are involved in the SAN pacemaking mechanism. Excessive CaMKII activity, as occurs under pathological conditions such as heart failure, ischemia and diabetes, can promote intracellular Ca2+ overload and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Oxidation of CaMKII (ox-CaMKII locks CaMKII into a constitutively active configuration that contributes to SAN cell apoptosis and fibrosis. This ox-CaMKII-mediated loss of functional SAN cells contributes to sinoatrial node dysfunction (SND and sudden death. Thus, CaMKII has emerged as a central regulator of physiological SAN responses and a key determinant of SND.

  11. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus.

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    Aída Sánchez-Bretaño

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation

  12. Increased FXYD1 and PGC-1α mRNA after blood flow-restricted running is related to fibre type-specific AMPK signalling and oxidative stress in human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Danny; Murphy, Robyn M; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    AIM: This study explored the effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) on mRNA responses of PGC-1α (total, 1α1, and 1α4) and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase isoforms (NKA; α1-3 , β1-3 , and FXYD1) to an interval running session, and determined if these effects were related to increased oxidative stress, hypoxia......). A muscle sample was collected before (Pre) and after exercise (+0h, +3h) to quantify mRNA, indicators of oxidative stress (HSP27 protein in type I and II fibres, and catalase and HSP70 mRNA), metabolites, and α-AMPK Thr172 /α-AMPK, ACC Ser221 /ACC, CaMKII Thr287 /CaMKII, and PLBSer16 /PLB ratios in type I...... of oxidative stress and type-I fibre ACC Ser221 /ACC ratio, but dissociated from muscle hypoxia, lactate, and CaMKII signalling. CONCLUSION: Blood flow restriction augmented exercise-induced increases in muscle FXYD1 and PGC-1α mRNA in men. This effect was related to increased oxidative stress and fibre type...

  13. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) knockout mice exhibit improved spatial memory and deficits in contextual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran-Zeckler, Rosie G; Brantley, Alicia Faruzzi; Smith, Roy G

    2012-06-15

    Although the hormone ghrelin is best known for its stimulatory effect on appetite and regulation of growth hormone release, it is also reported to have beneficial effects on learning and memory formation in mice. Nevertheless, controversy exists about whether endogenous ghrelin acts on its receptors in extra-hypothalamic areas of the brain. The ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) is co-expressed in neurons that express dopamine receptor type-1 (DRD1a) and type-2 (DRD2), and we have shown that a subset of GHS-R1a, which are not occupied by the agonist (apo-GHSR1a), heterodimerize with these two receptors to regulate dopamine signaling in vitro and in vivo. To determine the consequences of ghsr ablation on brain function, congenic ghsr -/- mice on the C57BL6/J background were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. We show that the ghsr -/- mice exhibit normal balance, movement, coordination, and pain sensation, outperform ghsr +/+ mice in the Morris water maze, but show deficits in contextual fear conditioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Peptidic GHS-R antagonist [D-Lys3]GHRP-6 markedly improves adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Matyšková, Resha; Maixnerová, Jana; Sýkora, D.; Pýchová, Miroslava; Špolcová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Drápalová, J.; Lacinová, Z.; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 343, 1/2 (2011), s. 55-62 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : GHS-R * [D-Lys3]GHRP-6 * ovariectomized obese mice Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.192, year: 2011

  15. CaMKII in the Cardiovascular System: Sensing Redox States

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    Erickson, Jeffrey R.; He, B. Julie; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Anderson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is now recognized to play a central role in pathological events in the cardiovascular system. CaMKII has diverse downstream targets that promote vascular disease, heart failure and arrhythmias, so improved understanding of CaMKII signaling has the potential to lead to new therapies for cardiovascular disease. CaMKII is a multimeric serine-threonine kinase that is initially activated by binding calcified calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM). Under conditions of sustained exposure to elevated Ca2+/CaM CaMKII transitions into a Ca2+/CaM-autonomous enzyme by two distinct but parallel processes. Autophosphorylation of threonine 287 in the CaMKII regulatory domain ‘traps’ CaMKII into an open configuration even after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. More recently, our group identified a pair of methionines (281/282) in the CaMKII regulatory domain that undergo a partially reversible oxidation which, like autophosphorylation, prevents CaMKII from inactivating after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. Here we review roles of CaMKII in cardiovascular disease with an eye to understanding how CaMKII may act as a transduction signal to connect pro-oxidant conditions into specific downstream pathological effects that are relevant to rare and common forms of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21742790

  16. Triazole GHS-R1a antagonists JMV4208 and JMV3002 attenuate food intake, body weight, and adipose tissue mass in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Martina; Nagelová, Veronika; Lacinová, Z.; Haluzík, M.; Sýkora, D.; Moulin, A.; Blayo, A. L.; Fehrentz, J. A.; Martinez, J.; Stofková, A.; Jurčovičová, J.; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 393, 1/2 (2014), s. 120-128 ISSN 0303-7207 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : GHS-R1a antagonists * diet-induced obesity * food intake * JMV4208 * JMV3002 * male C57BL/6 mice Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.405, year: 2014

  17. Calcium signaling through CaMKII regulates hepatic glucose production in fasting and obesity.

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    Ozcan, Lale; Wong, Catherine C L; Li, Gang; Xu, Tao; Pajvani, Utpal; Park, Sung Kyu Robin; Wronska, Anetta; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Backs, Johannes; Singer, Harold A; Yates, John R; Accili, Domenico; Tabas, Ira

    2012-05-02

    Hepatic glucose production (HGP) is crucial for glucose homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that a calcium-sensing enzyme, CaMKII, is activated in a calcium- and IP3R-dependent manner by cAMP and glucagon in primary hepatocytes and by glucagon and fasting in vivo. Genetic deficiency or inhibition of CaMKII blocks nuclear translocation of FoxO1 by affecting its phosphorylation, impairs fasting- and glucagon/cAMP-induced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and lowers blood glucose levels, while constitutively active CaMKII has the opposite effects. Importantly, the suppressive effect of CaMKII deficiency on glucose metabolism is abrogated by transduction with constitutively nuclear FoxO1, indicating that the effect of CaMKII deficiency requires nuclear exclusion of FoxO1. This same pathway is also involved in excessive HGP in the setting of obesity. These results reveal a calcium-mediated signaling pathway involved in FoxO1 nuclear localization and hepatic glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of the AMPKgamma3 isoform in hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport in glycolytic skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul S; Glund, Stephan; Tom, Robby Z

    2009-01-01

    , phosphorylation of CaMKII, AMPK, ACC, and TBC1D1/D4 as well as isoform-specific AMPK activity was determined. Basal and hypoxia-mediated phosphorylation of CaMKII, AMPK, and ACC as well as alpha1- and alpha2-associated AMPK activity was comparable between AMPKgamma3-KO and wild-type mice. KN-93 reduced hypoxia...

  19. CaMKII in Vascular Signalling: "Friend or Foe"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenebe, Obialunanma V; Heather, Alison; Erickson, Jeffrey R

    2018-05-01

    Signalling mechanisms within and between cells of the vasculature enable function and maintain homeostasis. However, a number of these mechanisms also contribute to the pathophysiology of vascular disease states. The multifunctional signalling molecule calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has been shown to have critical functional effects in many tissue types. For example, CaMKII is known to have a dual role in cardiac physiology and pathology. The function of CaMKII within the vasculature is incompletely understood, but emerging evidence points to potential physiological and pathological roles. This review discusses the evidence for CaMKII signalling within the vasculature, with the aim to better understand both positive and potentially deleterious effects of CaMKII activation in vascular tissue. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Muscle-Type Specific Autophosphorylation of CaMKII Isoforms after Paced Contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Eilers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored to what extent isoforms of the regulator of excitation-contraction and excitation-transcription coupling, calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII contribute to the specificity of myocellular calcium sensing between muscle types and whether concentration transients in its autophosphorylation can be simulated. CaMKII autophosphorylation at Thr287 was assessed in three muscle compartments of the rat after slow or fast motor unit-type stimulation and was compared against a computational model (CaMuZclE coupling myocellular calcium dynamics with CaMKII Thr287 phosphorylation. Qualitative differences existed between fast- (gastrocnemius medialis and slow-type muscle (soleus for the expression pattern of CaMKII isoforms. Phospho-Thr287 content of δA CaMKII, associated with nuclear functions, demonstrated a transient and compartment-specific increase after excitation, which contrasted to the delayed autophosphorylation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated βM CaMKII. In soleus muscle, excitation-induced δA CaMKII autophosphorylation demonstrated frequency dependence (P = 0.02. In the glycolytic compartment of gastrocnemius medialis, CaMKII autophosphorylation after excitation was blunted. In silico assessment emphasized the importance of mitochondrial calcium buffer capacity for excitation-induced CaMKII autophosphorylation but did not predict its isoform specificity. The findings expose that CaMKII autophosphorylation with paced contractions is regulated in an isoform and muscle type-specific fashion and highlight properties emerging for phenotype-specific regulation of CaMKII.

  1. CaMKII Regulation of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptors and Inositol Triphosphate Receptors

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    Emmanuel eCamors

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptors (RyRs and inositol triphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs are structurally related intracellular calcium release channels that participate in multiple primary or secondary amplified Ca2+ signals, triggering muscle contraction and oscillatory Ca2+ waves, or activating transcription factors. In the heart, RyRs play an indisputable role in the process of excitation-contraction coupling as the main pathway for Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR, and a less prominent role in the process of excitation-transcription coupling. Conversely, InsP3Rs are believed to contribute in subtle ways, only, to contraction of the heart, and in more important ways to regulation of transcription factors. Because uncontrolled activity of either RyRs or InsP3Rs may elicit life-threatening arrhythmogenic and/or remodeling Ca2+ signals, regulation of their activity is of paramount importance for normal cardiac function. Due to their structural similarity, many regulatory factors, accessory proteins, and posttranslational processes are equivalent for RyRs and InsP3Rs. Here we discuss regulation of RyRs and InsP3Rs by CaMKII phosphorylation, but touch on other kinases whenever appropriate. CaMKII is emerging as a powerful modulator of RyR and InsP3R activity but interestingly, some of the complexities and controversies surrounding phosphorylation of RyRs also apply to InsP3Rs, and a clear-cut effect of CaMKII on either channel eludes investigators for now. Nevertheless, some effects of CaMKII on global cellular activity, such as SR Ca2+ leak or force-frequency potentiation, appear clear now, and this constrains the limits of the controversies and permits a more tractable approach to elucidate the effects of phosphorylation at the single channel level.

  2. Employee impact and attitude analysis for GHS implementation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Kuo; Su, Teh-Sheng; Ouyang, Yun; Tseng, Jo-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The employee impact and attitude analysis for GHS implementation in Taiwan was investigated in this study. An impact assessment on the new regulations or changes in regulations for government, potential costs, benefits, and the global trade in chemicals to industries and hazard communication program for workers was studied by the methods of the questionnaire design and Delphi expert method. A survey was conducted using questionnaires and taking 200 experts from government's expert database and 500 selected respondents from case company. Results from present study revealed that the barrier associated with GHS implementation is existed; it is feasible to overcome. Both experts and employees think that business entities are insufficient to test and classify chemicals on their own, and the technical guidance from the government is needed. Data analyzed by the logistic regression revealed that more hours an employee spends on education and trainings of new GHS systems; the employee thinks implementation of GHS will improve hazard awareness for transporters. The weak labeling ability affects deployment of the new GHS system.

  3. Increase in hypothalamic AMPK phosphorylation induced by prolonged exposure to LPS involves ghrelin and CB1R signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Priscila M S; Vechiato, Fernanda M V; Borges, Beatriz C; Rorato, Rodrigo; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Lucila L K

    2017-07-01

    Acute administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria induces hypophagia. However, the repeated administration of LPS leads to desensitization of hypophagia, which is associated with increased hypothalamic p-AMPK expression. Because ghrelin and endocannabinoids modulate AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that these neuromodulators play a role in the reversal of tolerance to hypophagia in rats under long-term exposure to LPS. Male Wistar rats were treated with single (1 LPS, 100μg/kg body weight, ip) or repeated injections of LPS over 6days (6 LPS). Food intake was reduced in the 1 LPS, but not in the 6 LPS group. 6 LPS rats showed an increased serum concentration of acylated ghrelin and reduced ghrelin receptor mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Ghrelin injection (40μg/kg body weight, ip) increased food intake, body weight gain, p-AMPK hypothalamic expression, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti related peptide (AgRP) mRNA expression in control animals (Saline). However, in 6 LPS rats, ghrelin did not alter these parameters. Central administration of a CB1R antagonist (AM251, 200ng/μl in 5μl/rat) induced hypophagia in 6 LPS animals, suggesting that the endocannabinoid system contributes to preserved food intake during LPS tolerance. In the presence of AM251, the ability of ghrelin to phosphorylate AMPK in the hypothalamus of 6 LPS group was restored, but not its orexigenic effect. Our data highlight that the orexigenic effects of ghrelin require CB1R signaling downstream of AMPK activation. Moreover, CB1R-mediated pathways contribute to the absence of hypophagia during repeated exposure to endotoxin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endothelial CaMKII as a regulator of eNOS activity and NO-mediated vasoreactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Murthy

    Full Text Available The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a serine/threonine kinase important in transducing intracellular Ca2+ signals. While in vitro data regarding the role of CaMKII in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS are contradictory, its role in endothelial function in vivo remains unknown. Using two novel transgenic models to express CaMKII inhibitor peptides selectively in endothelium, we examined the effect of CaMKII on eNOS activation, NO production, vasomotor tone and blood pressure. Under baseline conditions, CaMKII activation was low in the aortic wall. Consistently, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma NO levels were unaltered by endothelial CaMKII inhibition. Moreover, endothelial CaMKII inhibition had no significant effect on NO-dependent vasodilation. These results were confirmed in studies of aortic rings transduced with adenovirus expressing a CaMKII inhibitor peptide. In cultured endothelial cells, bradykinin treatment produced the anticipated rapid influx of Ca2+ and transient CaMKII and eNOS activation, whereas CaMKII inhibition blocked eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1179 and dephosphorylation at Thr-497. Ca2+/CaM binding to eNOS and resultant NO production in vitro were decreased under CaMKII inhibition. Our results demonstrate that CaMKII plays an important role in transient bradykinin-driven eNOS activation in vitro, but does not regulate NO production, vasorelaxation or blood pressure in vivo under baseline conditions.

  5. Atrial remodelling in atrial fibrillation: CaMKII as a nodal proarrhythmic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesubi, Olurotimi O.; Anderson, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    CaMKII is a serine–threonine protein kinase that is abundant in myocardium. Emergent evidence suggests that CaMKII may play an important role in promoting atrial fibrillation (AF) by targeting a diverse array of proteins involved in membrane excitability, cell survival, calcium homeostasis, matrix remodelling, inflammation, and metabolism. Furthermore, CaMKII inhibition appears to protect against AF in animal models and correct proarrhythmic, defective intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in fibrillating human atrial cells. This review considers current concepts and evidence from animal and human studies on the role of CaMKII in AF. PMID:26762270

  6. Multiple signalling pathways redundantly control glucose transporter GLUT4 gene transcription in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgia, Marta; Elbenhardt Jensen, Thomas; Cusinato, Marzia

    2009-01-01

    on pharmacological evidence. Here, we have used a more specific genetic approach to establish the relative role of the three pathways in fast and slow muscles. Plasmids coding for protein inhibitors of CaMKII or calcineurin were co-transfected in vivo with a GLUT4 enhancer-reporter construct either in normal mice...... or in mice expressing a dominant negative AMPK mutant. GLUT4 reporter activity was not inhibited in the slow soleus muscle by blocking either CaMKII or calcineurin alone, but was inhibited by blocking both pathways. GLUT4 reporter activity was likewise unchanged in the soleus of dnAMPK mice......, but was significantly reduce by incapacitation of either CaMKII or calcineurin in these mice. On the other hand, in the fast tibialis anterior muscle, calcineurin appears to exert a prominent role in the control of GLUT4 reporter activity, independent of CaMKII and AMPK. The results point to a muscle type...

  7. MiR-184 expression is regulated by AMPK in pancreatic islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Aida; Nguyen-Tu, Marie-Sophie; Cebola, Ines; Yavari, Arash; Marchetti, Piero; Piemonti, Lorenzo; de Koning, Eelco; Shapiro, A M James; Johnson, Paul; Sakamoto, Kei; Smith, David M; Leclerc, Isabelle; Ashrafian, Houman; Ferrer, Jorge; Rutter, Guy A

    2017-01-01

    AMPK is a critical energy sensor and target for widely used antidiabetic drugs. In β-cells, elevated glucose concentrations lower AMPK activity, and the ablation of both catalytic subunits (βAMPKdKO mice) impairs insulin secretion in vivo and β-cell identity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that

  8. CaMKII effects on inotropic but not lusitropic force frequency responses require phospholamban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Hidalgo, Carlos; Yang, Jinying; Gao, Zhan; Li, Jingdong; Wehrens, Xander; Granzier, Henk; Anderson, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Increasing heart rate enhances cardiac contractility (force frequency relationship, FFR) and accelerates cardiac relaxation (frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation, FDAR). The positive FFR together with FDAR promotes rapid filling and ejection of blood from the left ventricle (LV) at higher heart rates. Recent studies indicate that the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is involved in regulating FFR and FDAR. We used isolated perfused mouse hearts to study the mechanisms of FFR and FDAR in different genetic models, including transgenic myocardial CaMKII inhibition (AC3-I) and phosphalamban knockout (PLN−/−). When the rate was increased from 360 beats/min to 630 beats/min in wild type mouse hearts, the LV developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximum rate of increase in pressure (dP/dt max) increased by 37.6 ± 4.7% and 77.0 ± 8.1%, respectively. However, hearts from AC3-I littermates showed no increase of LVDP and a relatively modest (20.4 ± 3.9 %) increase in dP/dt max. PLN−/− hearts had a negative FFR, and myocardial AC3-I expression did not change the FFR in PLN−/− mice. PLN−/− mouse hearts did not exhibit FDAR, while PLN−/−mice with myocardial AC3-I expression showed further frequency dependent reductions in cardiac relaxation, suggesting CaMKII targets in addition to PLN were critical to myocardial relaxation. We incubated a constitutively active form of CaMKII with chemically-skinned myocardium and found that several myofilament proteins were phosphorylated by CaMKII. However, CaMKII did not affect myofilament calcium sensitivity. Our study shows that CaMKII plays an important role in modulating FFR and FDAR in murine hearts and suggest that PLN is a critical target for CaMKII effects on FFR, while CaMKII effects on FDAR partially require PLN-alternative targets. PMID:22796260

  9. Repetitive Transient Ischemia-Induced Cardiac Angiogenesis is Mediated by Camkii Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuobin Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Coronary angiogenesis is an important protective mechanism in response to myocardial ischemia in coronary artery disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CaMKII activation in ischemia-induced cardiac angiogenesis. Methods: Repetitive transient ischemia model was established in C57/BL6 mice by daily multiple episodes (3 times/day of short time (5 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 7 days. Coronary angiogenesis was detected by immunofluorescent staining. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of CaMKII, p-CaMKII and VEGF. Primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs were isolated to investigate the effects of KN93 on cell proliferation and migration in hypoxic condition. Results: We found that angiogenesis was induced in the ischemic myocardium and suppressed by chronic intraperitoneal injection of CaMKII inhibitor KN93. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses showed that myocardial ischemia induced an increased expression and autophosphorylation of CaMKII. VEGF expression was increased in the ischemia model but blunted by KN93. Moreover, KN93 suppressed the proliferation and migration of cardiac endothelial cells in hypoxic condition in which the protein expression of CaMKII, p-CaMKII and VEGF was increased. Conclusion: CaMKII is an important mediator for the ischemia-induced coronary angiogenesis, in which CaMKII-triggered VEGF expression plays a key role.

  10. GHS additivity formula: can it predict the acute systemic toxicity of agrochemical formulations that contain acutely toxic ingredients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cott, Andrew; Hastings, Charles E; Landsiedel, Robert; Kolle, Susanne; Stinchcombe, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In vivo acute systemic testing is a regulatory requirement for agrochemical formulations. GHS specifies an alternative computational approach (GHS additivity formula) for calculating the acute toxicity of mixtures. We collected acute systemic toxicity data from formulations that contained one of several acutely-toxic active ingredients. The resulting acute data set includes 210 formulations tested for oral toxicity, 128 formulations tested for inhalation toxicity and 31 formulations tested for dermal toxicity. The GHS additivity formula was applied to each of these formulations and compared with the experimental in vivo result. In the acute oral assay, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 110 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 119 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (43% accuracy). With acute inhalation, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 50 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (61% accuracy) and 34 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (73% accuracy). For acute dermal toxicity, the GHS additivity formula misclassified 16 formulations using the GHS classification criteria (48% accuracy) and 20 formulations using the USEPA classification criteria (36% accuracy). This data indicates the acute systemic toxicity of many formulations is not the sum of the ingredients' toxicity (additivity); but rather, ingredients in a formulation can interact to result in lower or higher toxicity than predicted by the GHS additivity formula. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CaMKII regulates contraction- but not insulin-induced glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Carol A; Jessen, Niels; Warro, Daniel M; Toyoda, Taro; Fujii, Nobuharu; Anderson, Mark E; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2010-06-01

    Studies using chemical inhibitors have suggested that the Ca(2+)-sensitive serine/threonine kinase Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key regulator of both insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. However, due to nonspecificity of these inhibitors, the specific role that CaMKII may play in the regulation of glucose uptake is not known. We sought to determine whether specific inhibition of CaMKII impairs insulin- and/or contraction-induced glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle. Expression vectors containing green fluorescent protein conjugated to a CaMKII inhibitory (KKALHRQEAVDCL) or control (KKALHAQERVDCL) peptide were transfected into tibialis anterior muscles by in vivo electroporation. After 1 wk, muscles were assessed for peptide expression, CaMK activity, insulin- and contraction-induced 2-[(3)H]deoxyglucose uptake, glycogen concentrations, and changes in intracellular signaling proteins. Expression of the CaMKII inhibitory peptide decreased muscle CaMK activity approximately 35% compared with control peptide. Insulin-induced glucose uptake was not changed in muscles expressing the inhibitory peptide. In contrast, expression of the inhibitory peptide significantly decreased contraction-induced muscle glucose uptake (approximately 30%). Contraction-induced decreases in muscle glycogen were not altered by the inhibitory peptide. The CaMKII inhibitory peptide did not alter expression of the glucose transporter GLUT4 and did not impair contraction-induced increases in the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr(172)) or TBC1D1/TBC1D4 on phospho-Akt substrate sites. These results demonstrate that CaMKII does not regulate insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. However, CaMKII plays a critical role in the regulation of contraction-induced glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle.

  12. The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Koji, E-mail: k_nakagawa@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, Division of Pharmascience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N12 W6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie [Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Asaka, Masahiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Cancer Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, Division of Pharmascience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N12 W6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masanobu [Department of Cancer Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); School of Nursing and Social Services, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear protein Artemis physically interacts with AMPK{alpha}2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis co-localizes with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis promotes phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1 is stabilized by Artemis. -- Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic {alpha} subunit and regulatory {beta} and {gamma} subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the {alpha}-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPK{alpha}2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPK{alpha}2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK{alpha}2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex.

  13. Metabolic Regulation of CaMKII Protein and Caspases in Xenopus laevis Egg Extracts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Francis; Darbandi, Rashid; Chen, Si-Ing; Eckard, Laura; Dodd, Keela; Jones, Kelly; Baucum, Anthony J.; Gibbons, Jennifer A.; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Colbran, Roger J.; Nutt, Leta K.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of the Xenopus laevis egg provides a cell survival signal. We found previously that increased carbon flux from glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) through the pentose phosphate pathway in egg extracts maintains NADPH levels and calcium/calmodulin regulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity to phosphorylate caspase 2 and suppress cell death pathways. Here we show that the addition of G6P to oocyte extracts inhibits the dephosphorylation/inactivation of CaMKII bound to caspase 2 by protein phosphatase 1. Thus, G6P sustains the phosphorylation of caspase 2 by CaMKII at Ser-135, preventing the induction of caspase 2-mediated apoptotic pathways. These findings expand our understanding of oocyte biology and clarify mechanisms underlying the metabolic regulation of CaMKII and apoptosis. Furthermore, these findings suggest novel approaches to disrupt the suppressive effects of the abnormal metabolism on cell death pathways. PMID:23400775

  14. Predominant alpha2/beta2/gamma3 AMPK activation during exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jesper Bratz; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    -Thr-172 AMPK phosphorylation (r2 = 0.84, P important actor in exercise-regulated AMPK signalling in human skeletal muscle, probably mediating phosphorylation of ACCß.......5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and is regulated in muscle during exercise. We have previously established that only three of 12 possible AMPK a/ß/¿-heterotrimers are present in human skeletal muscle. Previous studies describe discrepancies between...... total AMPK activity and regulation of its target acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC)ß. Also, exercise training decreases expression of the regulatory ¿3 AMPK subunit and attenuates a2 AMPK activity during exercise. We hypothesize that these observations reflect a differential regulation of the AMPK...

  15. Ghrelin and GHS-R1A signaling within the ventral and laterodorsal tegmental area regulate sexual behavior in sexually naïve male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Garcia, Luna; Egecioglu, Emil; Studer, Erik; Westberg, Lars; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2015-12-01

    In addition to food intake and energy balance regulation, ghrelin mediate the rewarding and motivational properties of palatable food as well as addictive drugs. The ability of ghrelin to regulate reinforcement involves the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link, which encompasses a cholinergic projection from the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg) to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) together with mesolimbic dopaminergic projections from the VTA to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Recently, systemic ghrelin was shown to regulate sexual behavior and motivation in male mice via dopamine neurotransmission. The present study therefore elucidates the role of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist treatment within NAc, VTA or LDTg for sexual behavior in sexually naïve male mice. Local administration of the GHSR-1A antagonist, JMV2959, into the VTA or LDTg was found to reduce the preference for female mice, the number of mounts and the duration of mounting as well as to prolong the latency to mount. This was further substantiated by the findings that ghrelin administration into the VTA or LDTg increased the number of mounts and the duration of mounting and decreased the latency to mount. Moreover, ghrelin administered into the LDTg increased the preference for female mice. Accumbal administration of ghrelin increased whereas GHS-R1A antagonist decreased the intake of palatable food, but did not alter sexual behavior. In males exposed to sexual interaction, systemic administration of ghrelin increases whereas JMV2959 decreases the turnover of dopamine in the VTA. These data suggest that ghrelin signaling within the tegmental areas is required for sexual behavior in sexually naïve male mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. LKB1-AMPK signaling in muscle from obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats and effects of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Ivy, John L; Christ-Roberts, Christine; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Musi, Nicolas

    2006-05-01

    AMPK is a key regulator of fat and carbohydrate metabolism. It has been postulated that defects in AMPK signaling could be responsible for some of the metabolic abnormalities of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined whether insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats have abnormalities in the AMPK pathway. We compared AMPK and ACC phosphorylation and the protein content of the upstream AMPK kinase LKB1 and the AMPK-regulated transcriptional coactivator PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) in gastrocnemius of sedentary obese Zucker rats and sedentary lean Zucker rats. We also examined whether 7 wk of exercise training on a treadmill reversed abnormalities in the AMPK pathway in obese Zucker rats. In the obese rats, AMPK phosphorylation was reduced by 45% compared with lean rats. Protein expression of the AMPK kinase LKB1 was also reduced in the muscle from obese rats by 43%. In obese rats, phosphorylation of ACC and protein expression of PGC-1alpha, two AMPK-regulated proteins, tended to be reduced by 50 (P = 0.07) and 35% (P = 0.1), respectively. There were no differences in AMPKalpha1, -alpha2, -beta1, -beta2, and -gamma3 protein content between lean and obese rats. Training caused a 1.5-fold increase in AMPKalpha1 protein content in the obese rats, although there was no effect of training on AMPK phosphorylation and the other AMPK isoforms. Furthermore, training also significantly increased LKB1 and PGC-1alpha protein content 2.8- and 2.5-fold, respectively, in the obese rats. LKB1 protein strongly correlated with hexokinase II activity (r = 0.75, P = 0.001), citrate synthase activity (r = 0.54, P = 0.02), and PGC-1alpha protein content (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). In summary, obese insulin-resistant rodents have abnormalities in the LKB1-AMPK-PGC-1 pathway in muscle, and these abnormalities can be restored by training.

  17. Structure of the CaMKIIdelta/calmodulin complex reveals the molecular mechanism of CaMKII kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rellos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP, a long-lasting enhancement in communication between neurons, is considered to be the major cellular mechanism underlying learning and memory. LTP triggers high-frequency calcium pulses that result in the activation of Calcium/Calmodulin (CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII. CaMKII acts as a molecular switch because it remains active for a long time after the return to basal calcium levels, which is a unique property required for CaMKII function. Here we describe the crystal structure of the human CaMKIIdelta/Ca2+/CaM complex, structures of all four human CaMKII catalytic domains in their autoinhibited states, as well as structures of human CaMKII oligomerization domains in their tetradecameric and physiological dodecameric states. All four autoinhibited human CaMKIIs were monomeric in the determined crystal structures but associated weakly in solution. In the CaMKIIdelta/Ca2+/CaM complex, the inhibitory region adopted an extended conformation and interacted with an adjacent catalytic domain positioning T287 into the active site of the interacting protomer. Comparisons with autoinhibited CaMKII structures showed that binding of calmodulin leads to the rearrangement of residues in the active site to a conformation suitable for ATP binding and to the closure of the binding groove for the autoinhibitory helix by helix alphaD. The structural data, together with biophysical interaction studies, reveals the mechanism of CaMKII activation by calmodulin and explains many of the unique regulatory properties of these two essential signaling molecules.This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3-D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the Web plugin are available in Text S1.

  18. Memory Erasure Experiments Indicate a Critical Role of CaMKII in Memory Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Tom; Banerjee, Somdeb; Kim, Chris; Leubner, Megan; Lamar, Casey; Gupta, Pooja; Lee, Bomsol; Neve, Rachael; Lisman, John

    2017-09-27

    The abundant synaptic protein CaMKII is necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. However, whether CaMKII is required only during initial processes or whether it also mediates memory storage remains unclear. The most direct test of a storage role is the erasure test. In this test, a putative memory molecule is inhibited after learning. The key prediction is that this should produce persistent memory erasure even after the inhibitory agent is removed. We conducted this test using transient viral (HSV) expression of dominant-negative CaMKII-alpha (K42M) in the hippocampus. This produced persistent erasure of conditioned place avoidance. As an additional test, we found that expression of activated CaMKII (T286D/T305A/T306A) impaired place avoidance, a result not expected if a process other than CaMKII stores memory. Our behavioral results, taken together with prior experiments on LTP, strongly support a critical role of CaMKII in LTP maintenance and memory storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. The development of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, Chris; Azzi, Rola; Wagner, Drew

    2005-01-01

    The hazards of chemicals can be classified using classification criteria that are based on physical, chemical and ecotoxicological endpoints. These criteria may be developed be iteratively, based on scientific or regulatory processes. A number of national and international schemes have been developed over the past 50 years, and some, such as the UN Dangerous Goods system or the EC system for hazardous substances, are in widespread use. However, the unnecessarily complicated multiplicity of existing hazard classifications created much unnecessary confusion at the user level, and a recommendation was made at the 1992 Rio Earth summit to develop a globally harmonized chemical hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, that could be used for manufacture, transport, use and disposal of chemical substances. This became the globally harmonized system for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The developmental phase of the GHS is largely complete. Consistent criteria for categorising chemicals according to their toxic, physical, chemical and ecological hazards are now available. Consistent hazard communication tools such as labelling and material safety data sheets are also close to finalisation. The next phase is implementation of the GHS. The Intergovernmental Forum for Chemical Safety recommends that all countries implement the GHS as soon as possible with a view to have the system fully operational by 2008. When the GHS is in place, the world will finally have one system for classification of chemical hazards

  1. Arrhythmia causes lipid accumulation and reduced glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Matthias; Schleider, Gregor; Kohlhaas, Michael; Adrian, Lucas; Adam, Oliver; Tian, Qinghai; Kaestner, Lars; Lipp, Peter; Lehrke, Michael; Maack, Christoph; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by irregular contractions of atrial cardiomyocytes and increased energy demand. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of arrhythmia on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in cardiomyocytes, mice and human left atrial myocardium. Compared to regular pacing, irregular (pseudo-random variation at the same number of contractions/min) pacing of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes induced shorter action potential durations and effective refractory periods and increased diastolic [Ca(2+)]c. This was associated with the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Membrane expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and (14)C-palmitic acid uptake were augmented while membrane expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT-4) as well as (3)H-glucose uptake were reduced. Inhibition of AMPK and CaMKII prevented these arrhythmia-induced metabolic changes. Similar alterations of FA metabolism were observed in a transgenic mouse model (RacET) for spontaneous AF. Consistent with these findings samples of left atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to matched samples of patients with sinus rhythm showed up-regulation of CaMKII and AMPK and increased membrane expression of FAT/CD36, resulting in lipid accumulation. These changes of FA metabolism were accompanied by decreased membrane expression of GLUT-4, increased glycogen content and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein bax. Irregular pacing of cardiomyocytes increases diastolic [Ca(2+)]c and activation of CaMKII and AMPK resulting in lipid accumulation, reduced glucose uptake and increased glycogen synthesis. These metabolic changes are accompanied by an activation of pro-apoptotic signalling pathways.

  2. AMPK and insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is considered "a metabolic master-switch" in skeletal muscle reducing ATP- consuming processes whilst stimulating ATP regeneration. Within recent years, AMPK has also been proposed as a potential target to attenuate insulin resistance, although the exact...... role of AMPK is not well understood. Here we hypothesized that mice lacking a2AMPK activity in muscle would be more susceptible to develop insulin resistance associated with ageing alone or in combination with high fat diet. Young (~4 month) or old (~18 month) wild type and muscle specific a2AMPK...... kinase-dead mice on chow diet as well as old mice on 17 weeks of high fat diet were studied for whole body glucose homeostasis (OGTT, ITT and HOMA-IR), insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle. We demonstrate that high fat diet in old mice results in impaired glucose homeostasis...

  3. Calcium Input Frequency, Duration and Amplitude Differentially Modulate the Relative Activation of Calcineurin and CaMKII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Stefan, Melanie I.; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    NMDA receptor dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two prominent forms of synaptic plasticity, both of which are triggered by post-synaptic calcium elevation. To understand how calcium selectively stimulates two opposing processes, we developed a detailed computational model and performed simulations with different calcium input frequencies, amplitudes, and durations. We show that with a total amount of calcium ions kept constant, high frequencies of calcium pulses stimulate calmodulin more efficiently. Calcium input activates both calcineurin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) at all frequencies, but increased frequencies shift the relative activation from calcineurin to CaMKII. Irrespective of amplitude and duration of the inputs, the total amount of calcium ions injected adjusts the sensitivity of the system to calcium input frequencies. At a given frequency, the quantity of CaMKII activated is proportional to the total amount of calcium. Thus, an input of a small amount of calcium at high frequencies can induce the same activation of CaMKII as a larger amount, at lower frequencies. Finally, the extent of activation of CaMKII signals with high calcium frequency is further controlled by other factors, including the availability of calmodulin, and by the potency of phosphatase inhibitors. PMID:22962589

  4. CaMKII Requirement for in Vivo Insular Cortex LTP Maintenance and CTA Memory Persistence

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    Yectivani Juárez-Muñoz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-calmodulin/dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII plays an essential role in LTP induction, but since it has the capacity to remain persistently activated even after the decay of external stimuli it has been proposed that it can also be necessary for LTP maintenance and therefore for memory persistence. It has been shown that basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla stimulation induces long-term potentiation (LTP in the insular cortex (IC, a neocortical region implicated in the acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA. Our previous studies have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the Bla-IC pathway before CTA training increased the retention of this task. Although it is known that IC-LTP induction and CTA consolidation share similar molecular mechanisms, little is known about the molecular actors that underlie their maintenance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of CaMKII in the maintenance of in vivo Bla-IC LTP as well as in the persistence of CTA long-term memory (LTM. Our results show that acute microinfusion of myr-CaMKIINtide, a selective inhibitor of CaMKII, in the IC of adult rats during the late-phase of in vivo Bla-IC LTP blocked its maintenance. Moreover, the intracortical inhibition of CaMKII 24 h after CTA acquisition impairs CTA-LTM persistence. Together these results indicate that CaMKII is a central key component for the maintenance of neocortical synaptic plasticity as well as for persistence of CTA-LTM.

  5. Inhibition of AMPK catabolic action by GSK3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tsukasa; Bridges, Dave; Nakada, Daisuke; Skiniotis, Georgios; Morrison, Sean J.; Lin, Jiandie; Saltiel, Alan R.; Inoki, Ken

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates cellular energy homeostasis by inhibiting anabolic and activating catabolic processes. While AMPK activation has been extensively studied, mechanisms that inhibit AMPK remain elusive. Here we report that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibits AMPK function. GSK3 forms a stable complex with AMPK through interactions with the AMPK β regulatory subunit and phosphorylates the AMPK α catalytic subunit. This phosphorylation enhances the accessibility of the activation loop of the α subunit to phosphatases, thereby inhibiting AMPK kinase activity. Surprisingly, PI3K-Akt signaling, which is a major anabolic signaling and normally inhibits GSK3 activity, promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and inhibition of AMPK, thus revealing how AMPK senses anabolic environments in addition to cellular energy levels. Consistently, disrupting GSK3 function within the AMPK complex sustains higher AMPK activity and cellular catabolic processes even under anabolic conditions, indicating that GSK3 acts as a critical sensor for anabolic signaling to regulate AMPK. PMID:23623684

  6. The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1–AMPK complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Koji; Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie; Asaka, Masahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masanobu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The nuclear protein Artemis physically interacts with AMPKα2. ► Artemis co-localizes with AMPKα2 in the nucleus. ► Artemis promotes phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. ► The interaction between AMPKα2 and LKB1 is stabilized by Artemis. -- Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the α-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPKα2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPKα2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPKα2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPKα2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPKα2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1–AMPK complex.

  7. AMPK activation through mitochondrial regulation results in increased substrate oxidation and improved metabolic parameters in models of diabetes.

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    Yonchu Jenkins

    Full Text Available Modulation of mitochondrial function through inhibiting respiratory complex I activates a key sensor of cellular energy status, the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Activation of AMPK results in the mobilization of nutrient uptake and catabolism for mitochondrial ATP generation to restore energy homeostasis. How these nutrient pathways are affected in the presence of a potent modulator of mitochondrial function and the role of AMPK activation in these effects remain unclear. We have identified a molecule, named R419, that activates AMPK in vitro via complex I inhibition at much lower concentrations than metformin (IC50 100 nM vs 27 mM, respectively. R419 potently increased myocyte glucose uptake that was dependent on AMPK activation, while its ability to suppress hepatic glucose production in vitro was not. In addition, R419 treatment of mouse primary hepatocytes increased fatty acid oxidation and inhibited lipogenesis in an AMPK-dependent fashion. We have performed an extensive metabolic characterization of its effects in the db/db mouse diabetes model. In vivo metabolite profiling of R419-treated db/db mice showed a clear upregulation of fatty acid oxidation and catabolism of branched chain amino acids. Additionally, analyses performed using both (13C-palmitate and (13C-glucose tracers revealed that R419 induces complete oxidation of both glucose and palmitate to CO2 in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, confirming that the compound increases mitochondrial function in vivo. Taken together, our results show that R419 is a potent inhibitor of complex I and modulates mitochondrial function in vitro and in diabetic animals in vivo. R419 may serve as a valuable molecular tool for investigating the impact of modulating mitochondrial function on nutrient metabolism in multiple tissues and on glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animal models.

  8. CaMKII binding to GluN2B is important for massed spatial learning in the Morris water maze [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3ud

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    Ivar S. Stein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning and memory as well as long-term potentiation (LTP depend on Ca2+ influx through the NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR and the resulting activation of the Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII. Ca2+ influx via the NMDAR triggers CaMKII binding to the NMDAR for enhanced CaMKII accumulation at post-synaptic sites that experience heightened activity as occurring during LTP. Previously, we generated knock-in (KI mice in which we replaced two residues in the NMDAR GluN2B subunit to impair CaMKII binding to GluN2B. Various forms of LTP at the Schaffer collateral synapses in CA1 are reduced by 50%. Nevertheless, working memory in the win-shift 8 arm maze and learning of the Morris water maze (MWM task was normal in the KI mice although recall of the task was impaired in these mice during the period of early memory consolidation. We now show that massed training in the MWM task within a single day resulted in impaired learning. However, learning and recall of the Barnes maze task and contextual fear conditioning over one or multiple days were surprisingly unaffected. The differences observed in the MWM compared to the Barnes maze and contextual fear conditioning suggest a differential involvement of CaMKII and the specific interaction with GluN2B, probably depending on varying degrees of stress, cognitive demand or even potentially different plasticity mechanisms associated with the diverse tasks.

  9. Resistin promotes tumor metastasis by down-regulation of miR-519d through the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ho-Ning; Hung, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Huang, Yuan-Li; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Resistin is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreting adipokine, which may play a critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor known to frequently metastasize; however, the role of resistin in the metastasis of human chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we found that the expression of resistin was higher in chondrosarcoma biopsy tissues than in normal cartilage. Moreover, treatment with resistin increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and promoted cell migration in human chondrosarcoma cells. Co-transfection with microRNA (miR)-519d mimic resulted in reversed resistin-mediated cell migration and MMP-2 expression. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 inhibitors or siRNAs reduced the resistin-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression, and inhibition of resistin expression resulted in suppression of MMP-2 expression and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that resistin promotes chondrosarcoma metastasis and MMP-2 expression through activation of the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway and down-regulation of miR-519d expression. Therefore, resistin may represent a potential novel molecular therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:25404641

  10. Autonomous CaMKII Activity as a Drug Target for Histological and Functional Neuroprotection after Resuscitation from Cardiac Arrest

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    Guiying Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a major mediator of physiological glutamate signaling, but its role in pathological glutamate signaling (excitotoxicity remains less clear, with indications for both neuro-toxic and neuro-protective functions. Here, the role of CaMKII in ischemic injury is assessed utilizing our mouse model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR. CaMKII inhibition (with tatCN21 or tatCN19o at clinically relevant time points (30 min after resuscitation greatly reduces neuronal injury. Importantly, CaMKII inhibition also works in combination with mild hypothermia, the current standard of care. The relevant drug target is specifically Ca2+-independent “autonomous” CaMKII activity generated by T286 autophosphorylation, as indicated by substantial reduction in injury in autonomy-incompetent T286A mutant mice. In addition to reducing cell death, tatCN19o also protects the surviving neurons from functional plasticity impairments and prevents behavioral learning deficits, even at extremely low doses (0.01 mg/kg, further highlighting the clinical potential of our findings.

  11. AMPK in Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Inês; Moreira, Diana; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    During host-pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recognized to play an important role in microbial growth and persistence. Extensive studies have documented the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, a central cellular hub involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we highlight the most recent advances detailing how pathogens hijack cellular metabolism by suppressing or increasing the activity of the host energy sensor AMPK. We also address the role of lower eukaryote AMPK orthologues in the adaptive process to the host microenvironment and their contribution for pathogen survival, differentiation, and growth. Finally, we review the effects of pharmacological or genetic AMPK modulation on pathogen growth and persistence.

  12. A Critical SUMO1 Modification of LKB1 Regulates AMPK Activity during Energy Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Ritho, Joan

    2015-07-23

    SUMOylation has been implicated in cellular stress adaptation, but its role in regulating liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major upstream kinase of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is unknown. Here, we show that energy stress triggers an increase in SUMO1 modification of LKB1, despite a global reduction in both SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 conjugates. During metabolic stress, SUMO1 modification of LKB1 lysine 178 is essential in promoting its interaction with AMPK via a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) essential for AMPK activation. The LKB1 K178R SUMO mutant had defective AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function, inducing death in energy-deprived cells. These results provide additional insight into how LKB1-AMPK signaling is regulated during energy stress, and they highlight the critical role of SUMOylation in maintaining the cell’s energy equilibrium.

  13. A Critical SUMO1 Modification of LKB1 Regulates AMPK Activity during Energy Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Ritho, Joan; Arold, Stefan T.; Yeh, Edward  T.H.

    2015-01-01

    SUMOylation has been implicated in cellular stress adaptation, but its role in regulating liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major upstream kinase of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is unknown. Here, we show that energy stress triggers an increase in SUMO1 modification of LKB1, despite a global reduction in both SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 conjugates. During metabolic stress, SUMO1 modification of LKB1 lysine 178 is essential in promoting its interaction with AMPK via a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) essential for AMPK activation. The LKB1 K178R SUMO mutant had defective AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function, inducing death in energy-deprived cells. These results provide additional insight into how LKB1-AMPK signaling is regulated during energy stress, and they highlight the critical role of SUMOylation in maintaining the cell’s energy equilibrium.

  14. CAMKII activation is not required for maintenance of learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability.

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    Ori Liraz

    Full Text Available Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination trained rats show enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability that lasts for several days after learning. Such enhanced intrinsic excitability is mediated by long-term reduction in the post-burst after-hyperpolarization (AHP which is generated by repetitive spike firing. AHP reduction is due to decreased conductance of a calcium-dependent potassium current, the sI(AHP. We have previously shown that learning-induced AHP reduction is maintained by persistent protein kinase C (PKC and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK activation. However, the molecular machinery underlying this long-lasting modulation of intrinsic excitability is yet to be fully described. Here we examine whether the CaMKII, which is known to be crucial in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity processes, is instrumental for the maintenance of learning-induced AHP reduction. KN93, that selectively blocks CaMKII autophosphorylation at Thr286, reduced the AHP in neurons from trained and control rat to the same extent. Consequently, the differences in AHP amplitude and neuronal adaptation between neurons from trained rats and controls remained. Accordingly, the level of activated CaMKII was similar in pirifrom cortex samples taken form trained and control rats. Our data show that although CaMKII modulates the amplitude of AHP of pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex, its activation is not required for maintaining learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability.

  15. Advances in the development of AMPK-activating compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas

    2008-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensing enzyme that controls glucose and lipid metabolism. This review summarizes the present data on AMPK as a pharmacologic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. The mechanisms governing AMPK activity and how this enzyme controls different metabolic pathways are reviewed briefly, and details about the effect that AMPK activators have on glucose metabolism are provided. Evidence obtained using the AMPK-activating compound 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) suggests that AMPK promotes glucose transport into skeletal muscles and that this enzyme inhibits hepatic glucose production. AICAR also induces fatty acid oxidation in muscle and inhibits cholesterol synthesis in the liver. The metabolic effects of AICAR on glucose and lipid metabolism indicate that AMPK may be a good pharmacologic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Novel AMPK-specific compounds are allowing researchers to examine whether this enzyme is a useful pharmacologic target for the treatment of human disease and whether chronic activation of AMPK will be safe.

  16. CaMKII knockdown affects both early and late phases of olfactory long-term memory in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Christina; Kübert, Natalie; Muenz, Thomas S; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Honeybees are able to solve complex learning tasks and memorize learned information for long time periods. The molecular mechanisms mediating long-term memory (LTM) in the honeybee Apis mellifera are, to a large part, still unknown. We approached this question by investigating the potential function of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme known as a 'molecular memory switch' in vertebrates. CaMKII is able to switch to a calcium-independent constitutively active state, providing a mechanism for a molecular memory and has further been shown to play an essential role in structural synaptic plasticity. Using a combination of knockdown by RNA interference and pharmacological manipulation, we disrupted the function of CaMKII during olfactory learning and memory formation. We found that learning, memory acquisition and mid-term memory were not affected, but all manipulations consistently resulted in an impaired LTM. Both early LTM (24 h after learning) and late LTM (72 h after learning) were significantly disrupted, indicating the necessity of CaMKII in two successive stages of LTM formation in the honeybee. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Muscle-Type Specific Autophosphorylation of CaMKII Isoforms after Paced Contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, W.; Gevers, W.; van Overbeek, D.; de Haan, A.; Jaspers, R.T.; Hilbers, P.A.; van Riel, A.C.R.; Flueck, M.

    2014-01-01

    We explored to what extent isoforms of the regulator of excitation-contraction and excitation-transcription coupling, calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII) contribute to the specificity of myocellular calcium sensing between muscle types and whether concentration transients in its

  18. Astragalus Granule Prevents Ca2+ Current Remodeling in Heart Failure by the Downregulation of CaMKII

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    Sinai Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Astragalus was broadly used for treating heart failure (HF and arrhythmias in East Asia for thousands of years. Astragalus granule (AG, extracted from Astragalus, shows beneficial effect on the treatment of HF in clinical research. We hypothesized that administration of AG prevents the remodeling of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa-L in HF mice by the downregulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. Methods. HF mice were induced by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC. After 4 weeks of AG treatment, cardiac function and QT interval were evaluated. Single cardiac ventricular myocyte was then isolated and whole-cell patch clamp was used to record action potential (AP and ICa-L. The expressions of L-type calcium channel alpha 1C subunit (Cav1.2, CaMKII, and phosphorylated protein kinase A (p-PKA were examined by western blot. Results. The failing heart manifested distinct electrical remodeling including prolonged repolarization time and altered ICa-L kinetics. AG treatment attenuated this electrical remodeling, supported by AG-related shortened repolarization time, decreased peak ICa-L, accelerated ICa-L inactivation, and positive frequency-dependent ICa-L facilitation. In addition, AG treatment suppressed the overexpression of CaMKII, but not p-PKA, in the failing heart. Conclusion. AG treatment protected the failing heart against electrical remodeling and ICa-L remodeling by downregulating CaMKII.

  19. A comparison of mandatory and voluntary approaches to the implementation of Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) in the management of hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Goh Choo; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Peterson, Peter John; Yahaya, Nadzri Bin

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have applied different approaches to facilitate the implementation of the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The EU applied the mandatory approach by gazetting the EU Regulation 1272/2008 incorporating GHS elements on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures in 2008; whereas the WHO utilized a voluntary approach by incorporating GHS elements in the WHO guidelines entitled 'WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard' in 2009. We report on an analysis of both the mandatory and voluntary approaches practised by the EU and the WHO respectively, with close reference to the GHS 'purple book'. Our findings indicate that the mandatory approach practiced by the EU covers all the GHS elements referred to in the second revised edition of the GHS 'purple book'. Hence we can conclude that the EU has implemented the GHS particularly for industrial chemicals. On the other hand, the WHO guidelines published in 2009 should be revised to address concerns raised in this paper. In addition, both mandatory and voluntary approaches should be carefully examined because the classification results may be different.

  20. AMPK regulation of the growth of cultured human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Asish K.; Persons, Kelly; Safer, Joshua D.; Luo Zhijun; Holick, Michael F.; Ruderman, Neil B.

    2006-01-01

    AMP kinase (AMPK) is a fuel sensing enzyme that responds to cellular energy depletion by increasing processes that generate ATP and inhibiting others that require ATP but are not acutely necessary for survival. In the present study, we examined the relationship between AMPK activation and the growth (proliferation) of cultured human keratinocytes and assessed whether the inhibition of keratinocyte growth by vitamin D involves AMPK activation. In addition, we explored whether the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation as they approach confluence could be AMPK-related. Keratinocytes were incubated for 12 h with the AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). At concentrations of 10 -4 and 10 -3 M, AICAR inhibited keratinocyte growth by 50% and 95%, respectively, based on measurements of thymidine incorporation into DNA. It also increased AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation (P-AMPK and P-ACC) and decreased the concentration of malonyl CoA confirming that AMPK activation had occurred. Incubation with the thiazolidinedione, troglitazone (10 -6 M) caused similar alterations in P-AMPK, P-ACC, and cell growth. In contrast, the well known inhibition of keratinocyte growth by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (10 -7 and 10 -6 M) was not associated with changes in P-AMPK or P-ACC. Like most cells, the growth of keratinocytes diminished as they approached confluence. Thus, it was of note that we found a progressive increase in P-AMPK (1.5- to 2-fold, p 3 is AMPK-independent

  1. AMPK regulates metabolism and survival in response to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannella, Vanessa E.; Cojocari, Dan; Hilgendorf, Susan; Vellanki, Ravi N.; Chung, Stephen; Wouters, Bradly G.; Koritzinsky, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: AMPK is a metabolic sensor and an upstream inhibitor of mTOR activity. AMPK is phosphorylated by ionizing radiation (IR) in an ATM dependent manner, but the cellular consequences of this phosphorylation event have remained unclear. The objective of this study was to assess whether AMPK plays a functional role in regulating cellular responses to IR. Methods: The importance of AMPK expression for radiation responses was investigated using both MEFs (mouse embryo fibroblasts) double knockout for AMPK α1/α2 subunits and human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT 116) with AMPK α1/α2 shRNA mediated knockdown. Results: We demonstrate here that IR results in phosphorylation of both AMPK and its substrate, ACC. IR moderately stimulated mTOR activity, and this was substantially exacerbated in the absence of AMPK. AMPK was required for IR induced expression of the mTOR inhibitor REDD1, indicating that AMPK restrains mTOR activity through multiple mechanisms. Likewise, cellular metabolism was deregulated following irradiation in the absence of AMPK, as evidenced by a substantial increase in oxygen consumption rates and lactate production. AMPK deficient cells showed impairment of the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, and were unable to support long-term proliferation during starvation following radiation. Lastly, we show that AMPK proficiency is important for clonogenic survival after radiation during starvation. Conclusions: These data reveal novel functional roles for AMPK in regulating mTOR signaling, cell cycle, survival and metabolic responses to IR.

  2. Histological evaluation of AMPK signalling in primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadad, Sirwan M; Hardie, David G; Fleming, Stewart; Thompson, Alastair M; Baker, Lee; Quinlan, Philip R; Robertson, Katherine E; Bray, Susan E; Thomson, George; Kellock, David; Jordan, Lee B; Purdie, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular fuel gauge that responds to energy stress by suppressing cell growth and biosynthetic processes, thus ensuring that energy-consuming processes proceed only if there are sufficient metabolic resources. Malfunction of the AMPK pathway may allow cancer cells to undergo uncontrolled proliferation irrespective of their molecular energy levels. The aim of this study was to examine the state of AMPK phosphorylation histologically in primary breast cancer in relation to clinical and pathological parameters. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies to phospho-AMPK (pAMPK), phospho-Acetyl Co-A Carboxylase (pACC) an established target for AMPK, HER2, ERα, and Ki67 on Tissue Micro-Array (TMA) slides of two cohorts of 117 and 237 primary breast cancers. The quick score method was used for scoring and patterns of protein expression were compared with clinical and pathological data, including a minimum 5 years follow up. Reduced signal, compared with the strong expression in normal breast epithelium, using a pAMPK antibody was demonstrated in 101/113 (89.4%) and 217/236 (91.9%) of two cohorts of patients. pACC was significantly associated with pAMPK expression (p = 0.007 & p = 0.014 respectively). For both cohorts, reduced pAMPK signal was significantly associated with higher histological grade (p = 0.010 & p = 0.021 respectively) and axillary node metastasis (p = 0.061 & p = 0.039 respectively). No significant association was found between pAMPK and any of HER2, ERα, or Ki67 expression, disease-free survival or overall survival. This study extends in vitro evidence through immunohistochemistry to confirm that AMPK is dysfunctional in primary breast cancer. Reduced signalling via the AMPK pathway, and the inverse relationship with histological grade and axillary node metastasis, suggests that AMPK re-activation could have therapeutic potential in breast cancer

  3. CaMKII Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptor Activity of Hypothalamic Presympathetic Neurons and Sympathetic Outflow in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Pei; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Jixiang; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2017-11-01

    NMDAR activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is increased and critically involved in heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binds to and modulates NMDAR activity. In this study, we determined the role of CaMKII in regulating NMDAR activity of PVN presympathetic neurons in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). NMDAR-mediated EPSCs and puff NMDA-elicited currents were recorded in spinally projecting PVN neurons in SHRs and male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The basal amplitude of evoked NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in retrogradely labeled PVN neurons were significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. The CaMKII inhibitor autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP) normalized the increased amplitude of NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in labeled PVN neurons in SHRs but had no effect in WKY rats. Treatment with AIP also normalized the higher frequency of NMDAR-mediated miniature EPSCs of PVN neurons in SHRs. CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation level of GluN2B serine 1303 (S1303) in the PVN, but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, was significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. Lowering blood pressure with celiac ganglionectomy in SHRs did not alter the increased level of phosphorylated GluN2B S1303 in the PVN. In addition, microinjection of AIP into the PVN significantly reduced arterial blood pressure and lumbar sympathetic nerve discharges in SHRs. Our findings suggest that CaMKII activity is increased in the PVN and contributes to potentiated presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity to elevate sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone is a major contributor to the development of hypertension. Although glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory drive in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in increased sympathetic output in hypertension, the molecular mechanism involved in

  4. Nitric oxide-dependent activation of CaMKII increases diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release in cardiac myocytes in response to adrenergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Jerry; Tang, Lifei; Roof, Steve R; Velmurugan, Sathya; Millard, Ashley; Shonts, Stephen; Wang, Honglan; Santiago, Demetrio; Ahmad, Usama; Perryman, Matthew; Bers, Donald M; Mohler, Peter J; Ziolo, Mark T; Shannon, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous calcium waves in cardiac myocytes are caused by diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum release (SR Ca(2+) leak) through ryanodine receptors. Beta-adrenergic (β-AR) tone is known to increase this leak through the activation of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and the subsequent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. When β-AR drive is chronic, as observed in heart failure, this CaMKII-dependent effect is exaggerated and becomes potentially arrhythmogenic. Recent evidence has indicated that CaMKII activation can be regulated by cellular oxidizing agents, such as reactive oxygen species. Here, we investigate how the cellular second messenger, nitric oxide, mediates CaMKII activity downstream of the adrenergic signaling cascade and promotes the generation of arrhythmogenic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in intact cardiomyocytes. Both SCaWs and SR Ca(2+) leak were measured in intact rabbit and mouse ventricular myocytes loaded with the Ca-dependent fluorescent dye, fluo-4. CaMKII activity in vitro and immunoblotting for phosphorylated residues on CaMKII, nitric oxide synthase, and Akt were measured to confirm activity of these enzymes as part of the adrenergic cascade. We demonstrate that stimulation of the β-AR pathway by isoproterenol increased the CaMKII-dependent SR Ca(2+) leak. This increased leak was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase 1 but not nitric oxide synthase 3. In ventricular myocytes isolated from wild-type mice, isoproterenol stimulation also increased the CaMKII-dependent leak. Critically, in myocytes isolated from nitric oxide synthase 1 knock-out mice this effect is ablated. We show that isoproterenol stimulation leads to an increase in nitric oxide production, and nitric oxide alone is sufficient to activate CaMKII and increase SR Ca(2+) leak. Mechanistically, our data links Akt to nitric oxide synthase 1 activation downstream of β-AR stimulation. Collectively, this evidence supports the hypothesis that CaMKII is

  5. Disturbed adiponectin – AMPK system in skeletal muscle of patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berendoncks, An M; Stensvold, Dorthe; Garnier, Anne; Fortin, Dominique; Sente, Tahnee; Vrints, Christiaan J; Arild, Slørdahl Stig; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Wisløff, Ulrik; Conraads, Viviane M

    2015-02-01

    Patients with metabolic syndrome are characterized by low circulating adiponectin levels and reduced adiponectin sensitivity in skeletal muscles. Through binding on its main skeletal muscle receptor AdipoR1, adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key player in energy homeostasis. Fourteen metabolic syndrome patients and seven healthy control subjects were included. Blood samples were taken to determine insulin resistance, adiponectin, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein. Muscle biopsies (m. vastus lateralis) were obtained to assess mRNA expression of AdipoR1 and both AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 subunits, as well as downstream targets in lipid and glucose metabolism. Skeletal muscle mRNA expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 was lower in metabolic syndrome patients (100 ± 6 vs. 122 ± 8 AU, p = 0.030 and 64 ± 4 vs. 85 ± 9 AU, p = 0.044, respectively), whereas the expression of AdipoR1 was upregulated (138 ± 9 vs. 105 ± 7, p = 0.012). AMPKα1 and AdipoR1 correlated positively in both the control (r = 0.964, p < 0.001) and the metabolic syndrome group (r = 0.600, p = 0.023). However, this relation was shifted upwards in metabolic syndrome patients, indicating increased AdipoR1mRNA expression for a similar AMPKα1 expression. Previously, a blunted stimulatory effect of adiponectin on AMPK activation has been shown in metabolic syndrome patients. The present data suggest that the disturbed interaction of adiponectin with AMPK is located downstream of the AdipoR1 receptor. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Evaluating the Role of Host AMPK in Leishmania Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Estaquier, Jérôme; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    The study of host AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation during Leishmania infection imposes distinct types of techniques to measure protein expression and activation, as well as to quantify, at transcription and translational levels, its downstream targets. The investigation of host AMPK protein modulation during Leishmania infection should primarily be assessed during in vitro infections using as a host murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMos). The infection outcome is assessed measuring the percentage of infected cells in the context of BMMos. To evaluate AMPK activity during infection, the expression of AMPK phosphorylated at Thr172 as well as the transcription and translational levels of its downstream targets are evaluated by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. The modulation of AMPK activity in vivo is determined specifically in sorted splenic macrophages harboring Leishmania parasites recovered from infected mice using fluorescent-labeled parasites in the infectious inocolum. The modulation of AMPK activity was assessed by AMPK activators and inhibitors and also using AMPK, SIRT1, or LKB1 KO mice models. The infection outcome in BMMos and in vivo was further determined using these two different approaches. To finally understand the metabolic impact of AMPK during infection, in vitro metabolic assays in infected BMMos were measured in the bioenergetic profile using an extracellular flux analyzer.

  7. AMPK-independent pathways regulate skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzamko, Nicolas; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Ryall, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylation/inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) is believed to be the principal pathway regulating fatty acid oxidation. However, during exercise AMPK activity and ACC Ser-221 phosphorylation does not always correlate...... with rates of fatty acid oxidation. To address this issue we have investigated the requirement for skeletal muscle AMPK in controlling aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and contraction-stimulated fatty acid oxidation utilizing transgenic mice expressing a muscle-specific kinase...... dead (KD) AMPK alpha2. In wild-type (WT) mice, AICAR and contraction increased AMPK alpha2 and alpha1 activities, the phosphorylation of ACC2 and rates of fatty acid oxidation while tending to reduce malonyl-CoA levels. Despite no activation of AMPK in KD mice, ACC2 phosphorylation was maintained...

  8. Overexpression of miR-185 inhibits autophagy and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons by regulating the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Zhi; Zhang, Jie; Tang, Peng; Tu, Ning; Wang, Ke; Wu, Guangyao

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-associated neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Activation of 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be associated with PD pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the aberrant expression of microRNA-185 (miR-185) in PD. A 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced in vitro model of PD ...

  9. AMPK in skeletal muscle function and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Fentz, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying...... highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e.g., substrate uptake, oxidation......, and storage as well as mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle fibers). We focus on the role of AMPK in skeletal muscle during exercise and in exercise recovery. We also address adaptations to exercise training, including skeletal muscle plasticity, highlighting novel concepts and future perspectives...

  10. Host AMPK Is a Modulator of Plasmodium Liver Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida T. Grilo Ruivo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the master regulator of energy homeostasis AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity is a strategy used by many intracellular pathogens for successful replication. Infection by most pathogens leads to an activation of host AMPK activity due to the energetic demands placed on the infected cell. Here, we demonstrate that the opposite is observed in cells infected with rodent malaria parasites. Indeed, AMPK activity upon the infection of hepatic cells is suppressed and dispensable for successful infection. By contrast, an overactive AMPK is deleterious to intracellular growth and replication of different Plasmodium spp., including the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. The negative impact of host AMPK activity on infection was further confirmed in mice under conditions that activate its function. Overall, this work establishes the role of host AMPK signaling as a suppressive pathway of Plasmodium hepatic infection and as a potential target for host-based antimalarial interventions.

  11. How is AMPK activity regulated in skeletal muscles during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Rose, Adam John

    2008-01-01

    AMPK is a metabolic "master" controller activated in skeletal muscle by exercise in a time and intensity dependent manner, and has been implicated in regulating metabolic pathways in muscle during physical exercise. AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle is regulated by several systemic...... and intracellular factors and the regulation of skeletal muscle AMPK in response to exercise is the focus of this review. Specifically, the role of LKB1 and phosphatase PP2C in nucleotide-dependent activation of AMPK, and ionized calcium in CaMKK-dependent activation of AMPK in working muscle is discussed. We also...

  12. N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide ameliorates hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through modulating the LKB1/AMPK/ROS pathway in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Binger; Wang, Bin; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Yanmei; Gao, Fenfei; Chen, Yicun; Zheng, Fuchun; Shi, Ganggang

    2016-06-07

    Endothelial cells are highly sensitive to hypoxia and contribute to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We have reported that N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F2) can attenuate hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs). However, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Neonatal rat CMECs were isolated and subjected to H/R. Pretreatment of F2 leads to a reduction in H/R injury, as evidenced by increased cell viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and apoptosis, together with enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) phosphorylation in H/R ECs. Blockade of AMPK with compound C reversed F2-induced inhibition of H/R injury, as evidenced by decreased cell viability, increased LDH release and apoptosis. Moreover, compound C also blocked the ability of F2 to reduce H/R-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Supplementation with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reduced ROS levels, increased cell survival rate, and decreased both LDH release and apoptosis after H/R. In conclusion, our data indicate that F2 may mitigate H/R injury by stimulating LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway and subsequent suppression of ROS production in CMECs.

  13. Hazard banding in compliance with the new Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for use in control banding tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Mario; Koppisch, Dorothea; Smola, Thomas; Gabriel, Stefan; Verbist, Koen; Visser, Remco

    2015-10-01

    Many control banding tools use hazard banding in risk assessments for the occupational handling of hazardous substances. The outcome of these assessments can be combined with advice for the required risk management measures (RMMs). The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has resulted in a change in the hazard communication elements, i.e. Hazard (H) statements instead of Risk-phrases. Hazard banding schemes that depend on the old form of safety information have to be adapted to the new rules. The purpose of this publication is to outline the rationales for the assignment of hazard bands to H statements under the GHS. Based on this, this publication proposes a hazard banding scheme that uses the information from the safety data sheets as the basis for assignment. The assignment of hazard bands tiered according to the severity of the underlying hazards supports the important principle of substitution. Additionally, the set of assignment rules permits an exposure-route-specific assignment of hazard bands, which is necessary for the proposed route-specific RMMs. Ideally, all control banding tools should apply the same assignment rules. This GHS-compliant hazard banding scheme can hopefully help to establish a unified hazard banding strategy in the various control banding tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CaMKII content affects contractile, but not mitochondrial, characteristics in regenerating skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, W.; Jaspers, R.T.; de Haan, A.; Ferrié, C.; Valdivieso, P.; Flueck, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The multi-meric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is the main CaMK in skeletal muscle and its expression increases with endurance training. CaMK family members are implicated in contraction-induced regulation of calcium handling, fast myosin type IIA expression and

  15. A small-molecule benzimidazole derivative that potently activates AMPK to increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle: comparison with effects of contraction and other AMPK activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Chiang; Kviklyte, Samanta; Vertommen, Didier; Lantier, Louise; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoît; Hallén, Stefan; Rider, Mark H

    2014-06-15

    AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is an attractive therapeutic drug target for treating metabolic disorders. We studied the effects of an AMPK activator developed by Merck (ex229 from patent application WO2010036613), comparing chemical activation with contraction in intact incubated skeletal muscles. We also compared effects of ex229 with those of the Abbott A769662 compound and AICAR (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside). In rat epitrochlearis muscle, ex229 dose-dependently increased AMPK activity of α1-, α2-, β1- and β2-containing complexes with significant increases in AMPK activity seen at a concentration of 50 μM. At a concentration of 100 μM, AMPK activation was similar to that observed after contraction and importantly led to an ~2-fold increase in glucose uptake. In AMPK α1-/α2-catalytic subunit double-knockout myotubes incubated with ex229, the increases in glucose uptake and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) phosphorylation seen in control cells were completely abolished, suggesting that the effects of the compound were AMPK-dependent. When muscle glycogen levels were reduced by ~50% after starvation, ex229-induced AMPK activation and glucose uptake were amplified in a wortmannin-independent manner. In L6 myotubes incubated with ex229, fatty acid oxidation was increased. Furthermore, in mouse EDL (extensor digitorum longus) and soleus muscles, ex229 increased both AMPK activity and glucose uptake at least 2-fold. In summary, ex229 efficiently activated skeletal muscle AMPK and elicited metabolic effects in muscle appropriate for treating Type 2 diabetes by stimulating glucose uptake and increasing fatty acid oxidation.

  16. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by kainic acid mediates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression through a NF-kappaB dependent mechanism in C6 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hana; Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Jung Yeon; Choi, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ju Hie; Baik, Hyung Hwan; Kim, Sung Soo; Choe, Wonchae; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Kainic acid (KA), a prototype excitotoxin is known to induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in brain. In this study, we examined the role of AMPK in KA-induced BDNF expression in C6 glioma cells. We showed that KA and KA receptor agonist induced activation of AMPK and KA-induced AMPK activation was blocked by inhibition of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) β. We then showed that inhibition of AMPK by compound C, a selective inhibitor of AMPK, or small interfering RNA of AMPKα1 blocked KA-induced BDNF mRNA and protein expression. Inhibition of AMPK blocked KA-induced phosphorylation of CaMKII and I kappaB kinase (IKK) in C6 cells. Finally, we showed that inhibition of AMPK reduced DNA binding and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in KA-treated cells. These results suggest that AMPK mediates KA-induced BDNF expression by regulating NF-κB activation

  17. Calmodulin and CaMKII modulate ENaC activity by regulating the association of MARCKS and the cytoskeleton with the apical membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Abdel A; Bao, Hui-Fang; Liu, Bing-Chen; Yu, Ling; Aldrugh, Summer; Montgomery, Darrice S; Ma, He-Ping; Eaton, Douglas C

    2015-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) regulates epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) open probability. In turn, myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein or MARCKS-like protein 1 (MLP-1) at the plasma membrane regulates the delivery of PIP2 to ENaC. MARCKS and MLP-1 are regulated by changes in cytosolic calcium; increasing calcium promotes dissociation of MARCKS from the membrane, but the calcium-regulatory mechanisms are unclear. However, it is known that increased intracellular calcium can activate calmodulin and we show that inhibition of calmodulin with calmidazolium increases ENaC activity presumably by regulating MARCKS and MLP-1. Activated calmodulin can regulate MARCKS and MLP-1 in two ways. Calmodulin can bind to the effector domain of MARCKS or MLP-1, inactivating both proteins by causing their dissociation from the membrane. Mutations in MARCKS that prevent calmodulin association prevent dissociation of MARCKS from the membrane. Calmodulin also activates CaM kinase II (CaMKII). An inhibitor of CaMKII (KN93) increases ENaC activity, MARCKS association with ENaC, and promotes MARCKS movement to a membrane fraction. CaMKII phosphorylates filamin. Filamin is an essential component of the cytoskeleton and promotes association of ENaC, MARCKS, and MLP-1. Disruption of the cytoskeleton with cytochalasin E reduces ENaC activity. CaMKII phosphorylation of filamin disrupts the cytoskeleton and the association of MARCKS, MLP-1, and ENaC, thereby reducing ENaC open probability. Taken together, these findings suggest calmodulin and CaMKII modulate ENaC activity by destabilizing the association between the actin cytoskeleton, ENaC, and MARCKS, or MLP-1 at the apical membrane. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Targeting AMPK Signaling as a Neuroprotective Strategy in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Daniel W; Stutz, Bernardo; Andrews, Zane B; Elsworth, John D

    2018-03-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by the accumulation of intracellular α-synuclein aggregates and the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. While no treatment strategy has been proven to slow or halt the progression of the disease, there is mounting evidence from preclinical PD models that activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may have broad neuroprotective effects. Numerous dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals (e.g., metformin) that increase AMPK activity are available for use in humans, but clinical studies of their effects in PD patients are limited. AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that is activated by falling energy levels and functions to restore cellular energy balance. However, in response to certain cellular stressors, AMPK activation may exacerbate neuronal atrophy and cell death. This review describes the regulation and functions of AMPK, evaluates the controversies in the field, and assesses the potential of targeting AMPK signaling as a neuroprotective treatment for PD.

  19. Oxidized CaMKII causes cardiac sinus node dysfunction in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Paari Dominic; Purohit, Anil; Soni, Siddarth; Voigt, Niels; Singh, Madhu V.; Glukhov, Alexey V.; Gao, Zhan; He, B. Julie; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Joiner, Mei-ling A.; Kutschke, William; Yang, Jinying; Donahue, J. Kevin; Weiss, Robert M.; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Ogawa, Masahiro; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Efimov, Igor; Dobrev, Dobromir; Mohler, Peter J.; Hund, Thomas J.; Anderson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Sinus node dysfunction (SND) is a major public health problem that is associated with sudden cardiac death and requires surgical implantation of artificial pacemakers. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause SND. Most SND occurs in the setting of heart failure and hypertension, conditions that are marked by elevated circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) and increased oxidant stress. Here, we show that oxidized calmodulin kinase II (ox-CaMKII) is a biomarker for SND in patients and dogs and a disease determinant in mice. In wild-type mice, Ang II infusion caused sinoatrial nodal (SAN) cell oxidation by activating NADPH oxidase, leading to increased ox-CaMKII, SAN cell apoptosis, and SND. p47–/– mice lacking functional NADPH oxidase and mice with myocardial or SAN-targeted CaMKII inhibition were highly resistant to SAN apoptosis and SND, suggesting that ox-CaMKII–triggered SAN cell death contributed to SND. We developed a computational model of the sinoatrial node that showed that a loss of SAN cells below a critical threshold caused SND by preventing normal impulse formation and propagation. These data provide novel molecular and mechanistic information to understand SND and suggest that targeted CaMKII inhibition may be useful for preventing SND in high-risk patients. PMID:21785215

  20. AMPK activation: a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coughlan KA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly A Coughlan, Rudy J Valentine, Neil B Ruderman, Asish K Saha Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and elevated hepatic glucose output. Over 350 million people worldwide have T2D, and the International Diabetes Federation projects that this number will increase to nearly 600 million by 2035. There is a great need for more effective treatments for maintaining glucose homeostasis and improving insulin sensitivity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activation elicits insulin-sensitizing effects, making it an ideal therapeutic target for T2D. AMPK is an energy-sensing enzyme that is activated when cellular energy levels are low, and it signals to stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscles, fatty acid oxidation in adipose (and other tissues, and reduces hepatic glucose production. There is substantial evidence suggesting that AMPK is dysregulated in animals and humans with metabolic syndrome or T2D, and that AMPK activation (physiological or pharmacological can improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. Numerous pharmacological agents, natural compounds, and hormones are known to activate AMPK, either directly or indirectly – some of which (for example, metformin and thiazolidinediones are currently used to treat T2D. This paper will review the regulation of the AMPK pathway and its role in T2D, some of the known AMPK activators and their mechanisms of action, and the potential for future improvements in targeting AMPK for the treatment of T2D. Keywords: adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, drug therapy

  1. Nuclear AMPK regulated CARM1 stabilization impacts autophagy in aged heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Yu, Lu; Xue, Han; Yang, Zheng; Yin, Yue; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Mai; Ma, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Senescence-associated autophagy downregulation leads to cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) participates in many cellular processes, including autophagy in mammals. However, the effect of CARM1 in aging-related cardiac autophagy decline remains undefined. Moreover, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator in metabolism and autophagy, however, the role of nuclear AMPK in autophagy outcome in aged hearts still unclear. Hers we identify the correlation between nuclear AMPK and CARM1 in aging heart. We found that fasting could promote autophagy in young hearts but not in aged hearts. The CARM1 stabilization is markedly decrease in aged hearts, which impaired nucleus TFEB-CARM1 complex and autophagy flux. Further, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2(SKP2), responsible for CARM1 degradation, was increased in aged hearts. We further validated that AMPK dependent FoxO3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced in nucleus, the decreased nuclear AMPK-FoxO3 activity fails to suppress SKP2-E3 ubiquitin ligase. This loss of repression leads to The CARM1 level and autophagy in aged hearts could be restored through AMPK activation. Taken together, AMPK deficiency results in nuclear CARM1 decrease mediated in part by SKP2, contributing to autophagy dysfunction in aged hearts. Our results identified nuclear AMPK controlled CARM1 stabilization as a new actor that regulates cardiac autophagy. - Highlights: • AMPK-dependent CARM1 stabilization is an important nuclear mechanism in cardiac autophagy. • AMPK deficiency lead to SKP2-mediated decrease in CARM1. • AMPK–SKP2–CARM1 in the regulation of autophagy dysfunction in aged heart.

  2. α-MSH stimulates glucose uptake in mouse muscle and phosphorylates Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 independently of AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cathrine Laustrup; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Enriori, Pablo J

    2016-01-01

    The melanocortin system includes five G-protein coupled receptors (family A) defined as MC1R-MC5R, which are stimulated by endogenous agonists derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The melanocortin system has been intensely studied for its central actions in body weight and energy expenditure...... pathway involved in α-MSH-stimulated glucose uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes and mouse muscle explants. In order to examine the involvement of AMPK, we investigate -MSH stimulation in both wild type and AMPK deficient mice. We found that -MSH significantly induces phosphorylation of TBC1 domain (TBC1...

  3. Human muscle fibre type-specific regulation of AMPK and downstream targets by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dorte Enggaard; Albers, Peter Hjorth; Prats, Clara

    2015-01-01

    are expressed in a fibre type-dependent manner and that fibre type-specific activation of AMPK and downstream targets is dependent on exercise intensity. Pools of type I and II fibres were prepared from biopsies of m. vastus lateralis from healthy men before and after two exercise trials; A) continuous cycling......AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a regulator of energy homeostasis during exercise. Studies suggest muscle fibre type-specific AMPK expression. However, fibre type-specific regulation of AMPK and downstream targets during exercise has not been proven. We hypothesized that AMPK subunits...... (CON) 30 min at 69 ± 1% VO2peak or B) interval cycling (INT) 30 min with 6 × 1.5 min high-intense bouts peaking at 95 ± 2% VO2peak . In type I vs. II fibres a higher β1 AMPK (+215%) and lower γ3 AMPK expression (-71%) was found. α1 , α2 , β2 and γ1 AMPK expression was similar between fibre types...

  4. Cardiac β-adrenergic responsiveness of obese Zucker rats: The role of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Carol T; Thaung, Hp Aye; Hughes, Gillian; Bahn, Andrew; Lamberts, Regis R

    2018-06-05

    What is the central question of the study? What is the main finding and its importance? 1. Is the reduced signalling of AMPK, a key regulator of energy homeostasis in the heart, responsible for the reduced β-adrenergic responsiveness of the heart in obesity? 2. Inhibition of AMPK in isolated hearts prevented the reduced cardiac β-adrenergic responsiveness of obese rats, which was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of AMPK, a proxy of AMPK activity. This suggests a direct functional link between β-adrenergic responsiveness and AMPK signalling in the heart, and that AMPK might be an important target to restore the β-adrenergic responsiveness in the heart in obesity. The obesity epidemic impacts heavily on cardiovascular health, in part due to changes in cardiac metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis in the heart, and is regulated by β-adrenoceptors (AR) under normal conditions. In obesity, chronic sympathetic overactivation leads to impaired cardiac β-AR responsiveness, although it is unclear whether AMPK signalling, downstream of β-AR, contributes to this dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether reduced AMPK signalling is responsible for the reduced β-AR responsiveness in obesity. In isolated hearts of lean and obese Zucker rats, we tested β-AR responsiveness to β 1 -AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO, 1 × 10 -10 - 5 × 10 -8  M) in the absence and presence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC, 10 μM). β 1 -AR expression and AMPK phosphorylation were assessed by Western blot. β-Adrenergic responsiveness was reduced in the hearts of obese rats (LogEC50 of ISO-developed pressure dose-response curves: lean -8.53 ± 0.13 vs. obese -8.35 ± 0.10 10 x M; p  0.05, n = 6 per group). β 1 -AR expression and AMPK phosphorylation were reduced in hearts of obese rats (AMPK at Thr 172 : lean 1.73 ± 0.17 vs. lean CC 0.81 ± 0.13, and obese 1.18 ± 0.09 vs. obese CC 0.81 ± 0

  5. Molecular Pathways: Is AMPK a Friend or a Foe in Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, D. Grahame

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status expressed in essentially all eukaryotic cells. Once activated by energetic stress via a mechanism that detects increases in AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP ratios, AMPK acts to restore energy homeostasis by switching on catabolic pathways that generate ATP, while switching off ATP-consuming processes, including anabolic pathways required for cell growth and proliferation. AMPK activation promotes the glucose-sparing, oxidative metabolism utilized by most quiescent cells, rather than the rapid glucose uptake and glycolysis used by most proliferating cells. Numerous pharmacological activators of AMPK are known, including drugs in long use such as salicylate and metformin, and there is evidence that regular use of either of the latter provides protection against development of cancer. Tumor cells appear to be under selection pressure to down-regulate AMPK, thus limiting its restraining influence on cell growth and proliferation, and several interesting mechanisms by which this occurs are discussed. Paradoxically, however, a complete loss of AMPK function, which appears to be rare in human cancers, may be deleterious to survival of tumor cells. AMPK can therefore either be a friend and a foe in cancer, depending on the context. PMID:26152739

  6. Metabolic regulation of neuronal plasticity by the energy sensor AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt B Potter

    Full Text Available Long Term Potentiation (LTP is a leading candidate mechanism for learning and memory and is also thought to play a role in the progression of seizures to intractable epilepsy. Maintenance of LTP requires RNA transcription, protein translation and signaling through the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR pathway. In peripheral tissue, the energy sensor AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK negatively regulates the mTOR cascade upon glycolytic inhibition and cellular energy stress. We recently demonstrated that the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG alters plasticity to retard epileptogenesis in the kindling model of epilepsy. Reduced kindling progression was associated with increased recruitment of the nuclear metabolic sensor CtBP to NRSF at the BDNF promoter. Given that energy metabolism controls mTOR through AMPK in peripheral tissue and the role of mTOR in LTP in neurons, we asked whether energy metabolism and AMPK control LTP. Using a combination of biochemical approaches and field-recordings in mouse hippocampal slices, we show that the master regulator of energy homeostasis, AMPK couples energy metabolism to LTP expression. Administration of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG or the mitochondrial toxin and anti-Type II Diabetes drug, metformin, or AMP mimetic AICAR results in activation of AMPK, repression of the mTOR pathway and prevents maintenance of Late-Phase LTP (L-LTP. Inhibition of AMPK by either compound-C or the ATP mimetic ara-A rescues the suppression of L-LTP by energy stress. We also show that enhanced LTP via AMPK inhibition requires mTOR signaling. These results directly link energy metabolism to plasticity in the mammalian brain and demonstrate that AMPK is a modulator of LTP. Our work opens up the possibility of using modulators of energy metabolism to control neuronal plasticity in diseases and conditions of aberrant plasticity such as epilepsy.

  7. Activated AMPK inhibits PPAR-{alpha} and PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Margaret S; Lu, Changyue; Zeng, Yan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W

    2011-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) are critical regulators of short-term and long-term fatty acid oxidation, respectively. We examined whether the activities of these molecules were coordinately regulated. H4IIEC3 cells were transfected with PPAR-α and PPAR-γ expression plasmids and a peroxisome-proliferator-response element (PPRE) luciferase reporter plasmid. The cells were treated with PPAR agonists (WY-14,643 and rosiglitazone), AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) and metformin, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Both AICAR and metformin decreased basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity; compound C increased agonist-stimulated reporter activity and partially reversed the effect of the AMPK activators. Similar effects on PPAR-γ were seen, with both AICAR and metformin inhibiting PPRE reporter activity. Compound C increased basal PPAR-γ activity and rosiglitazone-stimulated activity. In contrast, retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α), another nuclear receptor that dimerizes with retinoid X receptor (RXR), was largely unaffected by the AMPK activators. Compound C modestly increased AM580 (an RAR agonist)-stimulated activity. The AMPK activators did not affect PPAR-α binding to DNA, and there was no consistent correlation between effects of the AMPK activators and inhibitor on PPAR and the nuclear localization of AMPK-α subunits. Expression of either a constitutively active or dominant negative AMPK-α inhibited basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity and basal and rosiglitazone-stimulated PPAR-γ activity. We concluded that the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin inhibited transcriptional activities of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ, whereas inhibition of AMPK with compound C activated both PPARs. The effects of AMPK do not appear to be mediated through effects on RXR or on PPAR/RXR binding to DNA. These effects are independent of kinase activity and instead appear to

  8. Thiamine Deficiency Induces Anorexia by Inhibiting Hypothalamic AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Alimov, Alexander; Wang, Haiping; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Katz, Wendy; Xu, Mei; Ke, Zun-Ji; Luo, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and eating disorders are prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is important to understand the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can cause a number of disorders in humans, such as Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We demonstrated here that TD caused anorexia in C57BL/6 mice. After feeding a TD diet for 16 days, the mice displayed a significant decrease in food intake and an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE), which resulted in a severe weight loss. At the 22nd day, the food intake was reduced by 69% and 74% for male and female mice, respectively in TD group. The REE increased by 9 folds in TD group. The loss of body weight (17–24%) was similar between male and female animals and mainly resulted from the reduction of fat mass (49% decrease). Re-supplementation of thiamine (benfotiamine) restored animal's appetite, leading to a total recovery of body weight. The hypothalamic AMPK is a critical regulator of food intake. TD inhibited the phosphorylation of AMPK in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus without affecting its expression. TD-induced inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation was reversed once thiamine was re-supplemented. In contrast, TD increased AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle and upregulated the uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissues which was consistent with increased basal energy expenditure. Re-administration of thiamine stabilized AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle as well as energy expenditure. Taken together, TD may induce anorexia by inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK activity. With a simultaneous increase in energy expenditure, TD caused an overall body weight loss. The results suggest that the status of thiamine levels in the body may affect food intake and body weight. PMID:24607345

  9. Oxidized CaMKII (Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II) Is Essential for Ventricular Arrhythmia in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongling; Quick, Ann P; Cao, Shuyi; Reynolds, Julia; Chiang, David Y; Beavers, David; Li, Na; Wang, Guoliang; Rodney, George G; Anderson, Mark E; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2018-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients are prone to ventricular arrhythmias, which may be caused by abnormal calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis and elevated reactive oxygen species. CaMKII (Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is vital for normal Ca 2+ homeostasis, but excessive CaMKII activity contributes to abnormal Ca 2+ homeostasis and arrhythmias in cardiomyocytes. Reactive oxygen species induce CaMKII to become autonomously active. We hypothesized that genetic inhibition of CaMKII oxidation (ox-CaMKII) in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy can alleviate abnormal Ca 2+ homeostasis, thus, preventing ventricular arrhythmia. The objective of this study was to test if selective loss of ox-CaMKII affects ventricular arrhythmias in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. 5-(6)-Chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining revealed increased reactive oxygen species production in ventricular myocytes isolated from mdx mice, which coincides with elevated ventricular ox-CaMKII demonstrated by Western blotting. Genetic inhibition of ox-CaMKII by knockin replacement of the regulatory domain methionines with valines (MM-VV [CaMKII M281/282V]) prevented ventricular tachycardia in mdx mice. Confocal calcium imaging of ventricular myocytes isolated from mdx :MM-VV mice revealed normalization of intracellular Ca 2+ release events compared with cardiomyocytes from mdx mice. Abnormal action potentials assessed by optical mapping in mdx mice were also alleviated by genetic inhibition of ox-CaMKII. Knockout of the NADPH oxidase regulatory subunit p47 phox normalized elevated ox-CaMKII, repaired intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis, and rescued inducible ventricular arrhythmias in mdx mice. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species or ox-CaMKII protects against proarrhythmic intracellular Ca 2+ handling and prevents ventricular arrhythmia in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  11. Liver-Specific Activation of AMPK Prevents Steatosis on a High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Woods

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK plays a key role in integrating metabolic pathways in response to energy demand. We identified a mutation in the γ1 subunit (γ1D316A that leads to activation of AMPK. We generated mice with this mutation to study the effect of chronic liver-specific activation of AMPK in vivo. Primary hepatocytes isolated from these mice have reduced gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis, but there is no effect on fatty acid oxidation compared to cells from wild-type mice. Liver-specific activation of AMPK decreases lipogenesis in vivo and completely protects against hepatic steatosis when mice are fed a high-fructose diet. Our findings demonstrate that liver-specific activation of AMPK is sufficient to protect against hepatic triglyceride accumulation, a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. These results emphasize the clinical relevance of activating AMPK in the liver to combat NAFLD and potentially other associated complications (e.g., cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. AMPK governs lineage specification through Tfeb-dependent regulation of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan P; Kamireddy, Anwesh; Van Nostrand, Jeanine L; Eichner, Lillian J; Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Dayn, Yelena; Shaw, Reuben J

    2016-03-01

    Faithful execution of developmental programs relies on the acquisition of unique cell identities from pluripotent progenitors, a process governed by combinatorial inputs from numerous signaling cascades that ultimately dictate lineage-specific transcriptional outputs. Despite growing evidence that metabolism is integrated with many molecular networks, how pathways that control energy homeostasis may affect cell fate decisions is largely unknown. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central metabolic regulator, plays critical roles in lineage specification. Although AMPK-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were normal in the pluripotent state, these cells displayed profound defects upon differentiation, failing to generate chimeric embryos and preferentially adopting an ectodermal fate at the expense of the endoderm during embryoid body (EB) formation. AMPK(-/-) EBs exhibited reduced levels of Tfeb, a master transcriptional regulator of lysosomes, leading to diminished endolysosomal function. Remarkably, genetic loss of Tfeb also yielded endodermal defects, while AMPK-null ESCs overexpressing this transcription factor normalized their differential potential, revealing an intimate connection between Tfeb/lysosomes and germ layer specification. The compromised endolysosomal system resulting from AMPK or Tfeb inactivation blunted Wnt signaling, while up-regulating this pathway restored expression of endodermal markers. Collectively, these results uncover the AMPK pathway as a novel regulator of cell fate determination during differentiation. © 2016 Young et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ae [Department of Pharmacology, Aging-Associated Vascular Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyoung Chul, E-mail: hcchoi@med.yu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Aging-Associated Vascular Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-{alpha}-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 {mu}M) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-{kappa}B activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK

  14. Polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica L.) suppress breast cancer ductal carcinoma in situ proliferation through activation of AMPK pathway and suppression of mTOR in athymic nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Matthew J; Kim, Hyemee; Marciante, Alexandria B; Barnes, Ryan C; Hendrick, Erik D; Bisson, William H; Talcott, Stephen T; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the underlying mechanisms of mango polyphenol decreased cell proliferation and tumor volume in ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancer. We hypothesized that mango polyphenols suppress signaling along the AKT/mTOR axis while up-regulating AMPK. To test this hypothesis, mango polyphenols (0.8 mg gallic acid equivalents per day) and pyrogallol (0.2 mg/day) were administered for 4 weeks to mice xenografted with MCF10DCIS.com cells subcutaneously (n=10 per group). Tumor volumes were significantly decreased, both mango and pyrogallol groups displayed greater than 50% decreased volume compared to control. There was a significant reduction of phosphorylated protein levels of IR, IRS1, IGF-1R, and mTOR by mango; while pyrogallol significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of IR, IRS1, IGF-1R, p70S6K, and ERK. The protein levels of Sestrin2, which is involved in AMPK-signaling, were significantly elevated in both groups. Also, mango significantly elevated AMPK phosphorylation and pyrogallol significantly elevated LKB1 protein levels. In an in vitro model, mango and pyrogallol increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and arrested cells in S phase. In silico modeling indicates that pyrogallol has the potential to bind directly to the allosteric binding site of AMPK, inducing activation. When AMPK expression was down-regulated using siRNA in vitro, pyrogallol reversed the reduced expression of AMPK. This indicates that pyrogallol not only activates AMPK, but also increases constitutive protein expression. These results suggest that mango polyphenols and their major microbial metabolite, pyrogallol, inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells through ROS-dependent up-regulation of AMPK and down-regulation of the AKT/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of AMPK in Diabetic Cardiovascular Complications: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Nellaiappan, Karthika; Yerra, Veera Ganesh

    2018-05-07

    Macrovascular complications of diabetes like cardiovascular diseases appear to be one of the leading causes of mortality. Current therapies aimed at counteracting the adverse effects of diabetes on cardiovascular system are found to be inadequate. Hence, there is growing need in search of novel targets. Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one such promising target, as a plethora of evidences point to its cardioprotective role in pathological milieu like cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and heart failure. AMPK is a serine-threonine kinase, which gets activated in response to a cellular depriving energy status. It orchestrates cellular metabolic response to energy demand and is, therefore, often referred to as "metabolic master switch" of the cell. In this review, we provide an overview of patho-mechanisms of diabetic cardiovascular disease; highlighting the role of AMPK in the regulation of this condition, followed by a description of extrinsic modulators of AMPK as potential therapeutic tools. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK α subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21 waf/cip as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21 waf/cip and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21 waf/cip pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

  17. Genetic and metabolic effects on skeletal muscle AMPK in young and older twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Poulsen, Pernille; Wegner, Lise

    2009-01-01

    and environmental mechanisms involved in the regulation of AMPK expression and activity and to examine the association between AMPK protein levels and activity on one hand, and glucose and fat metabolism on the other hand. We investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from 100 young and 82 older mono- and dizygotic non...... indicated that skeletal muscle AMPK mRNA and protein expression as well as activity were regulated by sex, age, obesity, and aerobic capacity. Comparison of intraclass correlations on AMPK measures from mono- and dizygotic twins suggested that skeletal muscle AMPK expression was under minor genetic...... genetic control but regulated by age and sex and associated with obesity and aerobic capacity. Furthermore, our results indicate a role for gamma3-containing AMPK complexes in down-regulation of insulin-stimulated non-oxidative glucose metabolism possibly through inhibition of glycogen synthase activity...

  18. CaMKII effects on inotropic but not lusitropic force frequency responses require phospholamban

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yiming; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Hidalgo, Carlos; Yang, Jinying; Gao, Zhan; Li, Jingdong; Wehrens, Xander; Granzier, Henk; Anderson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Increasing heart rate enhances cardiac contractility (force frequency relationship, FFR) and accelerates cardiac relaxation (frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation, FDAR). The positive FFR together with FDAR promotes rapid filling and ejection of blood from the left ventricle (LV) at higher heart rates. Recent studies indicate that the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is involved in regulating FFR and FDAR. We used isolated perfused mouse hearts to ...

  19. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: jyli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: fjnan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Li, Jia, E-mail: jli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  20. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome

  1. Ghrelin-AMPK Signaling Mediates the Neuroprotective Effects of Calorie Restriction in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Stark, Romana; Santos, Vanessa V.; Thompson, Aiysha; Rees, Daniel J.; Galic, Sandra; Elsworth, John D.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Davies, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD) although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study we hypothesized that elevated ghrelin, a gut hormone with neuroprotective properties, during CR prevents neurodegeneration in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. CR attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and striatal dopamine turnover in ghrelin WT but not KO mice, demonstrating that ghrelin mediates CR's neuroprotective effect. CR elevated phosphorylated AMPK and ACC levels in the striatum of WT but not KO mice suggesting that AMPK is a target for ghrelin-induced neuroprotection. Indeed, exogenous ghrelin significantly increased pAMPK in the SN. Genetic deletion of AMPKβ1 and 2 subunits only in dopamine neurons prevented ghrelin-induced AMPK phosphorylation and neuroprotection. Hence, ghrelin signaling through AMPK in SN dopamine neurons mediates CR's neuroprotective effects. We consider targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may recapitulate neuroprotective effects of CR without requiring dietary intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neuroprotective mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR) in Parkinson's disease are unknown. Indeed, the difficulty to adhere to CR necessitates an alternative method to recapitulate the neuroprotective benefits of CR while bypassing dietary constraints. Here we show that CR increases plasma ghrelin, which targets substantia nigra dopamine to maintain neuronal survival. Selective deletion on AMPK beta1 and beta2 subunits only in DAT cre-expressing neurons shows that the ghrelin-induced neuroprotection requires activation of AMPK in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. We have discovered ghrelin as a key metabolic signal, and AMPK in dopamine neurons as its target, which links calorie restriction with neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Thus, targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may provide novel neuroprotective benefits in Parkinson's disease. PMID

  2. Lack of metformin effect on mouse embryo AMPK activity: implications for metformin treatment during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Yul; Wei, Dan; Loeken, Mary R

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is stimulated in embryos during diabetic pregnancy by maternal hyperglycaemia-induced embryo oxidative stress. Stimulation of AMPK disrupts embryo gene expression and causes neural tube defects. Metformin, which may be taken during early pregnancy, has been reported to stimulate AMPK activity. Thus, the benefits of improved glycaemic control could be offset by stimulated embryo AMPK activity. Here, we investigated whether metformin can stimulate AMPK activity in mouse embryos and can adversely affect embryo gene expression and neural tube defects. Pregnant nondiabetic mice were administered metformin beginning on the first day of pregnancy. Activation of maternal and embryo AMPK [phospho-AMPK α (Thr172) relative to total AMPK], expression of Pax3, a gene required for neural tube closure, and neural tube defects were studied. Mouse embryonic stem cells were used as a cell culture model of embryonic neuroepithelium to study metformin effects on AMPK and Pax3 expression. Metformin had no effect on AMPK in embryos or maternal skeletal muscle but increased activated AMPK in maternal liver. Metformin did not inhibit Pax3 expression or increase neural tube defects. However, metformin increased activated AMPK and inhibited Pax3 expression by mouse embryonic stem cells. Mate1/Slc47a1 and Oct3/Slc22a, which encode metformin transporters, were expressed at barely detectable levels by embryos. Although metformin can have effects associated with diabetic embryopathy in vitro, the lack of effects on mouse embryos in vivo may be due to lack of metformin transporters and indicates that the benefits of metformin on glycaemic control are not counteracted by stimulation of embryo AMPK activity and consequent embryopathy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. AMPK and the biochemistry of exercise: implications for human health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, Neil B.

    2009-01-01

    the acute and chronic effects of exercise on AMPK activity in skeletal muscle and other tissues. We also discuss the potential role of AMPK activation in mediating the prevention and treatment by exercise of specific disorders associated with the metabolic syndrome, including Type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer......AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a phylogenetically conserved fuel-sensing enzyme that is present in all mammalian cells. During exercise, it is activated in skeletal muscle in humans, and at least in rodents, also in adipose tissue, liver and perhaps other organs by events that increase...... the AMP/ATP ratio. When activated, AMPK stimulates energy-generating processes such as glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation and decreases energy-consuming processes such as protein and lipid synthesis. Exercise is perhaps the most powerful physiological activator of AMPK and a unique model for studying...

  4. Intact Regulation of the AMPK Signaling Network in Response to Exercise and Insulin in Skeletal Muscle of Male Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Illumination of AMPK Activation in Recovery From Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Hingst, Janne R; Sabaratnam, Rugivan; Birk, Jesper B; Kristensen, Jonas M; Højlund, Kurt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2016-05-01

    Current evidence on exercise-mediated AMPK regulation in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconclusive. This may relate to inadequate segregation of trimeric complexes in the investigation of AMPK activity. We examined the regulation of AMPK and downstream targets ACC-β, TBC1D1, and TBC1D4 in muscle biopsy specimens obtained from 13 overweight/obese patients with T2D and 14 weight-matched male control subjects before, immediately after, and 3 h after exercise. Exercise increased AMPK α2β2γ3 activity and phosphorylation of ACCβ Ser(221), TBC1D1 Ser(237)/Thr(596), and TBC1D4 Ser(704) Conversely, exercise decreased AMPK α1β2γ1 activity and TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Thr(642) phosphorylation. Interestingly, compared with preexercise, 3 h into exercise recovery, AMPK α2β2γ1 and α1β2γ1 activity were increased concomitant with increased TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Ser(341)/Ser(704) phosphorylation. No differences in these responses were observed between patients with T2D and control subjects. Subjects were also studied by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps performed at rest and 3 h after exercise. We found no evidence for insulin to regulate AMPK activity. Thus, AMPK signaling is not compromised in muscle of patients with T2D during exercise and insulin stimulation. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized activation of specific AMPK complexes in exercise recovery. We hypothesize that the differential regulation of AMPK complexes plays an important role for muscle metabolism and adaptations to exercise. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Gain-of-function R225W mutation in human AMPKgamma(3 causing increased glycogen and decreased triglyceride in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila R Costford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme that is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals and functions to maintain cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. Studies in experimental animals demonstrate that activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle protects against insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The regulatory gamma(3 subunit of AMPK is expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle; however, its importance in controlling overall AMPK activity is unknown. While evidence is emerging that gamma subunit mutations interfere specifically with AMP activation, there remains some controversy regarding the impact of gamma subunit mutations. Here we report the first gain-of-function mutation in the muscle-specific regulatory gamma(3 subunit in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sequenced the exons and splice junctions of the AMPK gamma(3 gene (PRKAG3 in 761 obese and 759 lean individuals, identifying 87 sequence variants including a novel R225W mutation in subjects from two unrelated families. The gamma(3 R225W mutation is homologous in location to the gamma(2R302Q mutation in patients with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome and to the gamma(3R225Q mutation originally linked to an increase in muscle glycogen content in purebred Hampshire Rendement Napole (RN- pigs. We demonstrate in differentiated muscle satellite cells obtained from the vastus lateralis of R225W carriers that the mutation is associated with an approximate doubling of both basal and AMP-activated AMPK activities. Moreover, subjects bearing the R225W mutation exhibit a approximately 90% increase of skeletal muscle glycogen content and a approximately 30% decrease in intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified for the first time a mutation in the skeletal muscle-specific regulatory gamma(3 subunit of AMPK in humans. The gamma(3R225W mutation has significant functional effects as demonstrated by increases in basal and AMP

  6. Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) is differentially regulated in subcellular compartments by 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Studies using H9c2 cells overexpressing MCD and AMPK by adenoviral gene transfer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambandam, Nandakumar; Steinmetz, Michael; Chu, Angel; Altarejos, Judith Y; Dyck, Jason R B; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2004-07-01

    Malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine pamitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I), plays a pivotal role in fuel selection in cardiac muscle. Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) catalyzes the degradation of malonyl-CoA, removes a potent allosteric inhibition on CPT-I and thereby increases fatty acid oxidation in the heart. Although MCD has several Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites, whether it is regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been controversial. We therefore overexpressed MCD (Ad.MCD) and constitutively active AMPK (Ad.CA-AMPK) in H9c2 cells, using an adenoviral gene delivery approach in order to examine if MCD is regulated by AMPK. Cells infected with Ad.CA-AMPK demonstrated a fourfold increase in AMPK activity as compared with control cells expressing green fluorescent protein (Ad.GFP). MCD activity increased 40- to 50-fold in Ad.MCD + Ad.GFP cells when compared with Ad.GFP control. Co-expressing AMPK with MCD further augmented MCD expression and activity in Ad.MCD + Ad.CA-AMPK cells compared with the Ad.MCD + Ad.GFP control. Subcellular fractionation further revealed that 54.7 kDa isoform of MCD expression was significantly higher in cytosolic fractions of Ad.MCD + Ad.CA-AMPK cells than of the Ad.MCD +Ad.GFP control. However, the MCD activities in cytosolic fractions were not different between the two groups. Interestingly, in the mitochondrial fractions, MCD activity significantly increased in Ad.MCD + Ad.CA-AMPK cells when compared with Ad.MCD + Ad.GFP cells. Using phosphoserine and phosphothreonine antibodies, no phosphorylation of MCD by AMPK was observed. The increase in MCD activity in mitochondria-rich fractions of Ad.MCD + Ad.CA-AMPK cells was accompanied by an increase in the level of the 50.7 kDa isoform of MCD protein in the mitochondria. This differential regulation of MCD expression and activity in the mitochondria by AMPK may potentially regulate malonyl-CoA levels at sites nearby CPT-I on the mitochondria.

  7. Role of AMPK in skeletal muscle metabolic regulation and adaptation in relation to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated both in response to in vivo exercise and ex vivo contraction. AMPK is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating muscle metabolism...... during exercise as well as in adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. The first part of this review is focused on different mechanisms regulating AMPK activity during muscle work such as alterations in nucleotide concentrations, availability of energy substrates and upstream AMPK kinases. We...... in relation to adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training....

  8. Involvement of AMPK signaling cascade in capsaicin-induced apoptosis of HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kwak, Dong Wook; Lee, Yun Kyung; Park, Ock Jin

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated during ATP-depleting metabolic states, such as hypoxia, heat shock, oxidative stress, and exercise. As a highly conserved heterotrimeric kinase that functions as a major metabolic switch to maintain energy homeostasis, AMPK has been shown to exert as an intrinsic regulator of mammalian cell cycle. Moreover, AMPK cascade has emerged as an important pathway implicated in cancer control. In this article, we have investigated the effects of capsaicin on apoptosis in relation to AMPK activation in colon cancer cell. Capsaicin-induced apoptosis was revealed by the presence of nucleobodies in the capsaicin-treated HT-29 colon cancer cells. Concomitantly, the activation of AMPK and the increased expression of the inactive form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were detected in capsaicin-treated colon cancer cells. We showed that both capsaicin and 5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR), an AMPK activator possess the AMPK-activating capacity as well as apoptosis-inducing properties. Evidence of the association between AMPK activation and the increased apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells by capsaicin treatment, and further findings of the correlation of the activated AMPK and the elevated apoptosis by cotreatment of AICAR and capsaicin support AMPK as an important component of apoptosis, as well as a possible target of cancer control.

  9. Macropinocytosis is decreased in diabetic mouse macrophages and is regulated by AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakour Kenneth S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages (MΦs utilize macropinocytosis to integrate immune and metabolic signals in order to initiate an effective immune response. Diabetes is characterized by metabolic abnormalities and altered immune function. Here we examine the influence of diabetes on macropinocytosis in primary mouse macrophages and in an in vitro diabetes model. Results The data demonstrate that peritoneal MΦs from diabetic (db/db mice had reduced macropinocytosis when compared to MΦs from non-diabetic (db/+ mice. Additionally, MΦs cultured in hyperglycemic conditions were less adept at macropinocytosis than those cultured in low glucose. Notably, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity was decreased in MΦs cultured in hyperglycemic conditions. Activation of AMPK with leptin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-riboside (AICAR increased macropinocytosis and inhibition of AMPK with compound C decreased macropinocytosis. Conclusion Taken together, these findings indicate that MΦs from diabetic mice have decreased macropinocytosis. This decrease appears dependent on reduced AMPK activity. These results demonstrate a previously unrealized role for AMPK in MΦs and suggest that increasing AMPK activity in diabetic MΦs could improve innate immunity and decrease susceptibility to infection.

  10. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  11. Obesity impairs skeletal muscle AMPK signaling during exercise: role of AMPK?2 in the regulation of exercise capacity in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Young, Robert S.; Ayala, Julio E.; Fueger, Patrick T.; Mayes, Wesley H.; Kang, Li; Wasserman, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)?2 activity is impaired in obese, insulin resistant individuals during exercise. We determined whether this defect contributes to the metabolic dysregulation and reduced exercise capacity observed in the obese state. Design C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice and/or mice expressing a kinase dead AMPK?2 subunit in skeletal muscle (?2-KD) were fed chow or high fat (HF) diets from 3?16 weeks (wks) of age. At 15wks mice performed an exercise s...

  12. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle...... diminished maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration, showing an impairment at complex I. This effect was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial number, indicating that AMPK regulates muscle metabolic adaptation through the regulation of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and mitochondrial...

  13. The interaction between AMPKβ2 and the PP1-targeting subunit R6 is dynamically regulated by intracellular glycogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligschlaeger, Yvonne; Miglianico, Marie; Dahlmans, Vivian; Rubio-Villena, Carla; Chanda, Dipanjan; Garcia-Gimeno, Maria Adelaida; Coumans, Will A; Liu, Yilin; Voncken, J Willem; Luiken, Joost J F P; Glatz, Jan F C; Sanz, Pascual; Neumann, Dietbert

    2016-04-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic stress-sensing kinase. We previously showed that glucose deprivation induces autophosphorylation of AMPKβ at Thr-148, which prevents the binding of AMPK to glycogen. Furthermore, in MIN6 cells, AMPKβ1 binds to R6 (PPP1R3D), a glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1), thereby regulating the glucose-induced inactivation of AMPK. In the present study, we further investigated the interaction of R6 with AMPKβ and the possible dependency on Thr-148 phosphorylation status. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analyses and co-immunoprecipitation (IP) of the overexpressed proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T) cells revealed that both AMPKβ1 and AMPK-β2 wild-type (WT) isoforms bind to R6. The AMPKβ-R6 interaction was stronger with the muscle-specific AMPKβ2-WT and required association with the substrate-binding motif of R6. When HEK293T cells or C2C12 myotubes were cultured in high-glucose medium, AMPKβ2-WT and R6 weakly interacted. In contrast, glycogen depletion significantly enhanced this protein interaction. Mutation of AMPKβ2 Thr-148 prevented the interaction with R6 irrespective of the intracellular glycogen content. Treatment with the AMPK activator oligomycin enhanced the AMPKβ2-R6 interaction in conjunction with increased Thr-148 phosphorylation in cells grown in low-glucose medium. These data are in accordance with R6 binding directly to AMPKβ2 when both proteins detach from the diminishing glycogen particle, which is simultaneous with increased AMPKβ2 Thr-148 autophosphorylation. Such a model points to a possible control of AMPK by PP1-R6 upon glycogen depletion in muscle. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  14. AMPK activation enhances the anti-atherogenic effects of high density lipoproteins in apoE-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ang; Wang, Jing; Yang, Liu; An, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Haibo

    2017-08-01

    HDL plays crucial roles at multiple stages of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of AMPK activation on HDL functionality has not been established in vivo. We assessed the effects of pharmacological AMPK activation using A-769662, AICAR, metformin, and IMM-H007 on the atheroprotective functions of HDL in apoE-deficient (apoE -/- ) mice fed with a high-fat diet. After administration, there were no changes in serum lipid levels among the groups. However, mice treated with AMPK activators showed significantly enhanced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo and in vitro. AMPK activation also increased the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages and scavenger receptor class B type I and LCAT in the liver. HDL from AMPK activation mice exhibited lower HDL inflammatory index and myeloperoxidase activity and higher paraoxonase 1 activity than HDL from untreated mice, implying superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. Pharmacological AMPK activation also induced polarization of macrophages to the M2 state and reduced plasma lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cytokine production, and atherosclerotic plaque formation in apoE -/- mice. These observations suggest that pharmacological AMPK activation enhances the anti-atherogenic properties of HDL in vivo. This likely represents a key mechanism by which AMPK activation attenuates atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Similar mitochondrial signaling responses to a single bout of continuous or small-sided-games-based exercise in sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendham, Amy E; Duffield, Rob; Coutts, Aaron J; Marino, Frank E; Boyko, Andriy; McAinch, Andrew J; Bishop, David John

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the mitochondrial related signaling responses to a single bout of noncontact, modified football (touch rugby), played as small-sided games (SSG), or cycling (CYC) exercise in sedentary, obese, middle-aged men. In a randomized, crossover design, nine middle-aged, sedentary, obese men completed two, 40-min exercise conditions (CYC and SSG) separated by a 21-day recovery period. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected during each bout. Needle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were collected at rest and 30 and 240 min postexercise for analysis of protein content and phosphorylation (PGC-1α, SIRT1, p53, p53 Ser15 , AMPK, AMPK Thr172 , CAMKII, CAMKII Thr286 , p38MAPK, and p38MAPK Thr180/Tyr182 ) and mRNA expression (PGC-1α, p53, NRF1, NRF2, Tfam, and cytochrome c). A main effect of time effect for both conditions was evident for HR, RPE, and blood lactate (P 0.05). Both conditions increased PGC1-α protein and mRNA expression at 240 min (P 0.05). CYC increased p53 protein content at 240 min to a greater extent than SSG (P benefit for stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Differences between conditions regarding fluctuation in exercise intensity and type of muscle contraction may explain the increase of p53 and AMPK within CYC and not SSG (noncontact, modified football). Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Activation of AMPK in human fetal membranes alleviates infection-induced expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, R; Barker, G; Lappas, M

    2015-04-01

    In non-gestational tissues, the activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is associated with potent anti-inflammatory actions. Infection and/or inflammation, by stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, play a central role in the rupture of fetal membranes. However, no studies have examined the role of AMPK in human labour. Fetal membranes, from term and preterm, were obtained from non-labouring and labouring women, and after preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes (PPROM). AMPK activity was assessed by Western blotting of phosphorylated AMPK expression. To determine the effect of AMPK activators on pro-inflammatory cytokines, fetal membranes were pre-treated with AMPK activators then stimulated with bacterial products LPS and flagellin or viral dsDNA analogue poly(I:C). Primary amnion cells were used to determine the effect of AMPK activators on IL-1β-stimulated MMP-9 expression. AMPK activity was decreased with term labour. There was no effect of preterm labour. AMPK activity was also decreased in preterm fetal membranes, in the absence of labour, with PROM compared to intact membranes. AMPK activators AICAR, phenformin and A769662 significantly decreased IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by LPS, flagellin and poly(I:C). Primary amnion cells treated with AMPK activators significantly decreased IL-1β-induced MMP-9 expression. The decrease in AMPK activity in fetal membranes after spontaneous term labour and PPROM indicates an anti-inflammatory role for AMPK in human labour and delivery. The use of AMPK activators as possible therapeutics for threatened preterm labour would be an exciting future avenue of research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Activation of Skeletal Muscle AMPK Promotes Glucose Disposal and Glucose Lowering in Non-human Primates and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorinos, Emily C; Delmore, Jake; Reyes, Allan R; Albuquerque, Bina; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Jørgensen, Nicolas O; Tran, Jean-Luc; Jatkar, Aditi; Cialdea, Katherine; Esquejo, Ryan M; Meissen, John; Calabrese, Matthew F; Cordes, Jason; Moccia, Robert; Tess, David; Salatto, Christopher T; Coskran, Timothy M; Opsahl, Alan C; Flynn, Declan; Blatnik, Matthew; Li, Wenlin; Kindt, Erick; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Ward, Jessica; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Cameron, Kimberly O; Miller, Russell A

    2017-05-02

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases based on its reported actions in the liver and skeletal muscle. We evaluated two distinct direct activators of AMPK: a non-selective activator of all AMPK complexes, PF-739, and an activator selective for AMPK β1-containing complexes, PF-249. In cells and animals, both compounds were effective at activating AMPK in hepatocytes, but only PF-739 was capable of activating AMPK in skeletal muscle. In diabetic mice, PF-739, but not PF-249, caused a rapid lowering of plasma glucose levels that was diminished in the absence of skeletal muscle, but not liver, AMPK heterotrimers and was the result of an increase in systemic glucose disposal with no impact on hepatic glucose production. Studies of PF-739 in cynomolgus monkeys confirmed translation of the glucose lowering and established activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle as a potential therapeutic approach to treat diabetic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Guidance on classification for reproductive toxicity under the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nigel P; Boogaard, Peter J; Bremer, Susanne; Buesen, Roland; Edwards, James; Fraysse, Benoit; Hallmark, Nina; Hemming, Helena; Langrand-Lerche, Carole; McKee, Richard H; Meisters, Marie-Louise; Parsons, Paul; Politano, Valerie; Reader, Stuart; Ridgway, Peter; Hennes, Christa

    2013-11-01

    The Globally Harmonised System of Classification (GHS) is a framework within which the intrinsic hazards of substances may be determined and communicated. It is not a legislative instrument per se, but is enacted into national legislation with the appropriate legislative instruments. GHS covers many aspects of effects upon health and the environment, including adverse effects upon sexual function and fertility or on development. Classification for these effects is based upon observations in humans or from properly designed experiments in animals, although only the latter is covered herein. The decision to classify a substance based upon experimental data, and the category of classification ascribed, is determined by the level of evidence that is available for an adverse effect on sexual function and fertility or on development that does not arise as a secondary non-specific consequence of other toxic effect. This document offers guidance on the determination of level of concern as a measure of adversity, and the level of evidence to ascribe classification based on data from tests in laboratory animals.

  19. AMPK activation regulates apoptosis, adipogenesis, and lipolysis by eIF2α in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagon, Yossi; Avraham, Yosefa; Berry, Elliot M.

    2006-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic master switch regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, AMPK has been implicated in the control of adipose tissue content. Yet, the nature of this action is controversial. We examined the effect on F442a adipocytes of the AMPK activator-AICAR. Activation of AMPK induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death, inhibition of lipolysis, and downregulatation key adipogenic genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). We have identified the α-subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α) as a target gene which is phosphorylated following AICAR treatment. Such phosphorylation is one of the best-characterized mechanisms for downregulating protein synthesis. 2-Aminopurine (2-AP), an inhibitor of eIF2α kinases, could overcome the apoptotic effect of AICAR, abolishing the reduction of PPARγ and C/EBPα and the lipolytic properties of AMPK. Thus, AMPK may diminish adiposity via reduction of fat cell number through eIF2α-dependent translation shutdown

  20. Activation of AMPK inhibits cervical cancer cell growth through AKT/FOXO3a/FOXM1 signaling cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, Mingo Ming Ho; Chan, David Wai; Liu, Vincent Wing Sun; Yao, Kwok-Ming; Ngan, Hextan Yuen-Sheung

    2013-01-01

    Although advanced-stage cervical cancer can benefit from current treatments, approximately 30% patients may fail after definitive treatment eventually. Therefore, exploring alternative molecular therapeutic approaches is imperatively needed for this disease. We have recently shown that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic sensor, hampers cervical cancer cell growth through blocking the Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. Here, we report that activated AMPK (p-AMPK) also inhibits cervical cancer cell growth by counteracting FOXM1 function. Effect of the activation of AMPK on FOXM1 expression was examined by hypoxia and glucose deprivation, as well as pharmacological AMPK activators such as A23187, AICAR and metformin. RT Q-PCR and Western blot analysis were employed to investigate the activities of AMPK, FOXM1 and AKT/FOXO3a signaling. Consistent with our previous findings, the activation of AMPK by either AMPK activators such as AICAR, A23187, metformin, glucose deprivation or hypoxia significantly inhibited the cervical cancer cell growth. Importantly, we found that activated AMPK activity was concomitantly associated with the reduction of both the mRNA and protein levels of FOXM1. Mechanistically, we showed that activated AMPK was able to reduce AKT mediated phosphorylation of p-FOXO3a (Ser253). Interestingly, activated AMPK could not cause any significant changes in FOXM1 in cervical cancer cells in which endogenous FOXO3a levels were knocked down using siRNAs, suggesting that FOXO3a is involved in the suppression of FOXM1. Taken together, our results suggest the activated AMPK impedes cervical cancer cell growth through reducing the expression of FOXM1

  1. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abdul-Rahman

    Full Text Available Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR, a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained

  2. AMPK Re-Activation Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis but its Downregulation Does Not Promote Fatty Liver Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaba, Nadia; Marion, Allison; Huet, Camille; Pierre, Rémi; Viollet, Benoit; Foretz, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a highly prevalent component of disorders associated with disrupted energy homeostasis. Although dysregulation of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is viewed as a pathogenic factor in the development of fatty liver its role has not been directly demonstrated. Unexpectedly, we show here that liver-specific AMPK KO mice display normal hepatic lipid homeostasis and are not prone to fatty liver development, indicating that the decreases in AMPK activity associated with hepatic steatosis may be a consequence, rather than a cause, of changes in hepatic metabolism. In contrast, we found that pharmacological re-activation of downregulated AMPK in fatty liver is sufficient to normalize hepatic lipid content. Mechanistically, AMPK activation reduces hepatic triglyceride content both by inhibiting lipid synthesis and by stimulating fatty acid oxidation in an LKB1-dependent manner, through a transcription-independent mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of the antidiabetic drug metformin on lipogenesis inhibition and fatty acid oxidation stimulation was enhanced by combination treatment with small-molecule AMPK activators in primary hepatocytes from mice and humans. Overall, these results demonstrate that AMPK downregulation is not a triggering factor in fatty liver development but in contrast, establish the therapeutic impact of pharmacological AMPK re-activation in the treatment of fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells involve activation of TAK1-AMPK signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Wang, Xin-bao; Chen, Li-yu; Huang, Ling; Dong, Rui-zen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Belinostat activates AMPK in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. •Activation of AMPK is important for belinostat-induced cytotoxic effects. •ROS and TAK1 are involved in belinostat-induced AMPK activation. •AMPK activation mediates mTOR inhibition by belinostat. -- Abstract: Pancreatic cancer accounts for more than 250,000 deaths worldwide each year. Recent studies have shown that belinostat, a novel pan histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was required for belinostat-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. A significant AMPK activation was induced by belinostat in PANC-1 cells. Inhibition of AMPK by RNAi knockdown or dominant negative (DN) mutation significantly inhibited belinostat-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Reversely, AMPK activator AICAR and A-769662 exerted strong cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Belinostat promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PANC-1 cells, increased ROS induced transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1)/AMPK association to activate AMPK. Meanwhile, anti-oxidants N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) and MnTBAP as well as TAK1 shRNA knockdown suppressed belinostat-induced AMPK activation and PANC-1 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we propose that belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition require the activation of ROS-TAK1-AMPK signaling axis in cultured pancreatic cancer cells

  5. Belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells involve activation of TAK1-AMPK signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbin69@yahoo.com; Wang, Xin-bao; Chen, Li-yu; Huang, Ling; Dong, Rui-zen

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Belinostat activates AMPK in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. •Activation of AMPK is important for belinostat-induced cytotoxic effects. •ROS and TAK1 are involved in belinostat-induced AMPK activation. •AMPK activation mediates mTOR inhibition by belinostat. -- Abstract: Pancreatic cancer accounts for more than 250,000 deaths worldwide each year. Recent studies have shown that belinostat, a novel pan histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) induces apoptosis and growth inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was required for belinostat-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. A significant AMPK activation was induced by belinostat in PANC-1 cells. Inhibition of AMPK by RNAi knockdown or dominant negative (DN) mutation significantly inhibited belinostat-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Reversely, AMPK activator AICAR and A-769662 exerted strong cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Belinostat promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in PANC-1 cells, increased ROS induced transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1)/AMPK association to activate AMPK. Meanwhile, anti-oxidants N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) and MnTBAP as well as TAK1 shRNA knockdown suppressed belinostat-induced AMPK activation and PANC-1 cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we propose that belinostat-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition require the activation of ROS-TAK1-AMPK signaling axis in cultured pancreatic cancer cells.

  6. Berberine regulates neurite outgrowth through AMPK-dependent pathways by lowering energy status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Cao, Yuanzhao; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Xu, Bo; Wang, Tianchang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Feng, Xudong, E-mail: xudong.feng@childrens.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Xia, Qing, E-mail: xqing@hsc.pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-10

    As a widely used anti-bacterial agent and a metabolic inhibitor as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, berberine (BBR) has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier. Its efficacy has been investigated in various disease models of the central nervous system. Neurite outgrowth is critical for nervous system development and is a highly energy-dependent process regulated by AMPK-related pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on AMPK activation and neurite outgrowth in neurons. The neurite outgrowth of primary rat cortical neurons at different stages of polarization was monitored after exposure of BBR. Intracellular energy level, AMPK activation and polarity-related pathways were also inspected. The results showed that BBR suppressed neurite outgrowth and affected cytoskeleton stability in the early stages of neuronal polarization, which was mediated by lowered energy status and AMPK activation. Liver kinase B1 and PI3K–Akt–GSK3β signaling pathways were also involved. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to the lowered energy status induced by BBR. This study highlighted the knowledge of the complex activities of BBR in neurons and corroborated the significance of energy status during the neuronal polarization. - Highlights: • BBR inhibited neurite outgrowth in early stages of neuronal development. • Lowered neuronal energy status was induced by BBR treatment. • Neuronal energy stress induced by BBR activated AMPK-related pathways. • BBR induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  7. Berberine regulates neurite outgrowth through AMPK-dependent pathways by lowering energy status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Cao, Yuanzhao; Cheng, Kuoyuan; Xu, Bo; Wang, Tianchang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Qin; Feng, Xudong; Xia, Qing

    2015-01-01

    As a widely used anti-bacterial agent and a metabolic inhibitor as well as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, berberine (BBR) has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier. Its efficacy has been investigated in various disease models of the central nervous system. Neurite outgrowth is critical for nervous system development and is a highly energy-dependent process regulated by AMPK-related pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on AMPK activation and neurite outgrowth in neurons. The neurite outgrowth of primary rat cortical neurons at different stages of polarization was monitored after exposure of BBR. Intracellular energy level, AMPK activation and polarity-related pathways were also inspected. The results showed that BBR suppressed neurite outgrowth and affected cytoskeleton stability in the early stages of neuronal polarization, which was mediated by lowered energy status and AMPK activation. Liver kinase B1 and PI3K–Akt–GSK3β signaling pathways were also involved. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to the lowered energy status induced by BBR. This study highlighted the knowledge of the complex activities of BBR in neurons and corroborated the significance of energy status during the neuronal polarization. - Highlights: • BBR inhibited neurite outgrowth in early stages of neuronal development. • Lowered neuronal energy status was induced by BBR treatment. • Neuronal energy stress induced by BBR activated AMPK-related pathways. • BBR induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress

  8. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M. [Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Salati, Lisa M., E-mail: lsalati@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Malondialdehyde inhibits an AMPK-mediated nuclear translocation and repression activity of ALDH2 in transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji-Woong; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Sung-Chun; Ha, Moon-Kyung; Song, Kye-Yong; Youn, Hong-Duk; Park, Sang Chul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → ALDH2 is an MDA-modified protein in old rat kidney tissues. → AMPK associates with ALDH2 and triggers the nuclear localization of ALDH2. → ALDH2 serves as a general transcriptional repressor by associating with HDACs. → MDA inhibits the AMPK-mediated translocation of ALDH2 and its repression activity. -- Abstract: Aging process results from deleterious damages by reactive oxygen species, in particular, various metabolic aldehydes. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is one of metabolic enzymes detoxifying various aldehydes under oxidative conditions. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in controlling metabolic process. However, little was known about the relationship of ALDH2 with AMPK under oxidative conditions. Here, we, by using MDA-specific monoclonal antibody, screened the tissues of young and old rats for MDA-modified proteins and identified an ALDH2 as a prominent MDA-modified protein band in the old rat kidney tissue. ALDH2 associates with AMPK and is phosphorylated by AMPK. In addition, AICAR, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, induces the nuclear translocation of ALDH2. ALDH2 in nucleus is involved in general transcription repression by association with histone deacetylases. Furthermore, MDA modification inhibited the translocation of ALDH2 and the association with AMPK, and ultimately led to de-repression of transcription in the reporter system analysis. In this study, we have demonstrated that ALDH2 acts as a transcriptional repressor in response to AMPK activation, and MDA modifies ALDH2 and inhibits repressive activity of ALDH2 in general transcription. We thus suggest that increasing amount of MDA during aging process may interrupt the nuclear function of ALDH2, modulated by AMPK.

  10. Malondialdehyde inhibits an AMPK-mediated nuclear translocation and repression activity of ALDH2 in transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji-Woong [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Aging and Apoptosis Research Center (AARC), Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hwan [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Chun; Ha, Moon-Kyung [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Aging and Apoptosis Research Center (AARC), Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799, (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kye-Yong [Department of Pathology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hong-Duk, E-mail: hdyoun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Chul, E-mail: scpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Aging and Apoptosis Research Center (AARC), Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110-799, (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ALDH2 is an MDA-modified protein in old rat kidney tissues. {yields} AMPK associates with ALDH2 and triggers the nuclear localization of ALDH2. {yields} ALDH2 serves as a general transcriptional repressor by associating with HDACs. {yields} MDA inhibits the AMPK-mediated translocation of ALDH2 and its repression activity. -- Abstract: Aging process results from deleterious damages by reactive oxygen species, in particular, various metabolic aldehydes. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is one of metabolic enzymes detoxifying various aldehydes under oxidative conditions. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in controlling metabolic process. However, little was known about the relationship of ALDH2 with AMPK under oxidative conditions. Here, we, by using MDA-specific monoclonal antibody, screened the tissues of young and old rats for MDA-modified proteins and identified an ALDH2 as a prominent MDA-modified protein band in the old rat kidney tissue. ALDH2 associates with AMPK and is phosphorylated by AMPK. In addition, AICAR, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, induces the nuclear translocation of ALDH2. ALDH2 in nucleus is involved in general transcription repression by association with histone deacetylases. Furthermore, MDA modification inhibited the translocation of ALDH2 and the association with AMPK, and ultimately led to de-repression of transcription in the reporter system analysis. In this study, we have demonstrated that ALDH2 acts as a transcriptional repressor in response to AMPK activation, and MDA modifies ALDH2 and inhibits repressive activity of ALDH2 in general transcription. We thus suggest that increasing amount of MDA during aging process may interrupt the nuclear function of ALDH2, modulated by AMPK.

  11. Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzi Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrate that dietary leucine protects against high fat diet-induced mitochondrial impairments and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and energy partitioning from adipocytes to muscle cells through SIRT1-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB, a metabolite of leucine, has been reported to activate AMPK synergistically with resveratrol in C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, we hypothesize that leucine-induced activation of SIRT1 and AMPK is the central event that links the upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Thus, C2C12 myotubes were treated with leucine (0.5 mM, alanine (0.5 mM, valine (0.5 mM, EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor, 25 μM, and Compound C (AMPK inhibitor, 25 μM alone or in combination to determine the roles of AMPK and SIRT1 in leucine-modulation of energy metabolism. Leucine significantly increased mitochondrial content, mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes expression, fatty acid oxidation, SIRT1 activity and gene expression, and AMPK phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes compared to the controls, while EX527 and Compound C markedly attenuated these effects. Furthermore, leucine treatment for 24 hours resulted in time-dependent increases in cellular NAD+, SIRT1 activity, and p-AMPK level, with SIRT1 activation preceding that of AMPK, indicating that leucine activation of SIRT1, rather than AMPK, is the primary event.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Kaempferol induces autophagic cell death of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via activating AMPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Yu, Yi-Qun; Yang, Qi-Lian; Shen, Chun-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2017-10-17

    In the present study, we demonstrate that Kaempferol inhibited survival and proliferation of established human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines (HepG2, Huh-7, BEL7402, and SMMC) and primary human HCC cells. Kaempferol treatment in HCC cells induced profound AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which led to Ulk1 phosphorylation, mTOR complex 1 inhibition and cell autophagy. Autophagy induction was reflected by Beclin-1/autophagy gene 5 upregulation and p62 degradation as well as light chain 3B (LC3B)-I to LC3B-II conversion and LC3B puncta formation. Inhibition of AMPK, via AMPKα1 shRNA or dominant negative mutation, reversed above signaling changes. AMPK inhibition also largely inhibited Kaempferol-induced cytotoxicity in HCC cells. Autophagy inhibition, by 3-methyaldenine or Beclin-1 shRNA, also protected HCC cells from Kaempferol. Kaempferol downregulated melanoma antigen 6, the AMPK ubiquitin ligase, causing AMPKα1 stabilization and accumulation. We conclude that Kaempferol inhibits human HCC cells via activating AMPK signaling.

  14. Activation of AMPK by OSU53 protects spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Yiming; Gu, Huijie; Huang, Zhongyue; Zhou, Kaifeng; Yin, Xiaofan

    2017-12-22

    The present study tested the potential effect of OSU53, a novel AMPK activator, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced spinal cord neuron damages. Treatment with OSU53 attenuated H2O2-induced death and apoptosis of primary murine spinal cord neurons. OSU53 activated AMPK signaling, which is required for its actions in spinal cord neurons. The AMPK inhibitor Compound C or AMPKα1 siRNA almost abolished OSU53-mediated neuroprotection against H2O2. On the other hand, sustained-activation of AMPK by introducing the constitutive-active AMPKα1 mimicked OSU53's actions, and protected spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress. OSU53 significantly attenuated H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and DNA damages in spinal cord neurons. Additionally, OSU53 increased NADPH content and heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression in H2O2-treated spinal cord neurons. Together, we indicate that targeted-activation of AMPK by OSU53 protects spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress.

  15. Kinase activity determination of specific AMPK complexes/heterotrimers in the skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jesper Bratz; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the kinase activity of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an essential part of understanding the regulation of this metabolic master switch. The AMPK heterotrimer can exist in 12 different constellations with potentially diverse activation patterns. It is therefore important ...

  16. AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise: Role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Alamo, David; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-09-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are generated during exercise depending on intensity, duration and training status. A greater amount of RONS is released during repeated high-intensity sprint exercise and when the exercise is performed in hypoxia. By activating adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK), RONS play a critical role in the regulation of muscle metabolism but also in the adaptive responses to exercise training. RONS may activate AMPK by direct an indirect mechanisms. Directly, RONS may activate or deactivate AMPK by modifying RONS-sensitive residues of the AMPK-α subunit. Indirectly, RONS may activate AMPK by reducing mitochondrial ATP synthesis, leading to an increased AMP:ATP ratio and subsequent Thr(172)-AMPK phosphorylation by the two main AMPK kinases: LKB1 and CaMKKβ. In presence of RONS the rate of Thr(172)-AMPK dephosphorylation is reduced. RONS may activate LKB1 through Sestrin2 and SIRT1 (NAD(+)/NADH.H(+)-dependent deacetylase). RONS may also activate CaMKKβ by direct modification of RONS sensitive motifs and, indirectly, by activating the ryanodine receptor (Ryr) to release Ca(2+). Both too high (hypoxia) and too low (ingestion of antioxidants) RONS levels may lead to Ser(485)-AMPKα1/Ser(491)-AMPKα2 phosphorylation causing inhibition of Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation. Exercise training increases muscle antioxidant capacity. When the same high-intensity training is applied to arm and leg muscles, arm muscles show signs of increased oxidative stress and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis, which may be explained by differences in RONS-sensing mechanisms and basal antioxidant capacities between arm and leg muscles. Efficient adaptation to exercise training requires optimal exposure to pulses of RONS. Inappropriate training stimulus may lead to excessive RONS formation, oxidative inactivation of AMPK and reduced adaptation or even maladaptation. Theoretically, exercise programs should be designed taking into account the

  17. Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits AMPK Signaling and Promotes Cell Anabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Li, Wenjun; Mao, XiaoOu; Winters, Ali; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Liu, Ran; Greenberg, David A; Wang, Ning; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin with preferential localization to neurons. Growing evidence indicates that Ngb has distinct physiological functions separate from the oxygen storage and transport roles of other globins, such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. We found increased ATP production and decreased glycolysis in Ngb-overexpressing immortalized murine hippocampal cell line (HT-22), in parallel with inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, lipid and glycogen content was increased in Ngb-overexpressing HT-22 cells. AMPK signaling was also inhibited in the brain and heart from Ngb-overexpressing transgenic mice. Although Ngb overexpression did not change glycogen content in whole brain, glycogen synthase was activated in cortical neurons of Ngb-overexpressing mouse brain and Ngb overexpression primary neurons. Moreover, lipid and glycogen content was increased in hearts derived from Ngb-overexpressing mice. These findings suggest that Ngb functions as a metabolic regulator and enhances cellular anabolism through the inhibition of AMPK signaling.

  18. Use of metformin alone is not associated with survival outcomes of colorectal cancer cell but AMPK activator AICAR sensitizes anticancer effect of 5-fluorouracil through AMPK activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbing Sui

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is still the third most common cancer and the second most common causes of cancer-related death around the world. Metformin, a biguanide, which is widely used for treating diabetes mellitus, has recently been shown to have a suppressive effect on CRC risk and mortality, but not all laboratory studies suggest that metformin has antineoplastic activity. Here, we investigated the effect of metformin and AMPK activator AICAR on CRC cells proliferation. As a result, metformin did not inhibit cell proliferation or induce apoptosis for CRC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Different from metformin, AICAR emerged antitumor activity and sensitized anticancer effect of 5-FU on CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. In further analysis, we show that AMPK activation may be a key molecular mechanism for the additive effect of AICAR. Taken together, our results suggest that metformin has not antineoplastic activity for CRC cells as a single agent but AMPK activator AICAR can induce apoptosis and enhance the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU through AMPK activation.

  19. AMPK activation protects cells from oxidative stress-induced senescence via autophagic flux restoration and intracellular NAD(+) elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaojuan; Tai, Haoran; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jiao; Wei, Xiawei; Ding, Yi; Gong, Hui; Mo, Chunfen; Zhang, Jie; Qin, Jianqiong; Ma, Yuanji; Huang, Ning; Xiang, Rong; Xiao, Hengyi

    2016-06-01

    AMPK activation is beneficial for cellular homeostasis and senescence prevention. However, the molecular events involved in AMPK activation are not well defined. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the protective effect of AMPK on oxidative stress-induced senescence. The results showed that AMPK was inactivated in senescent cells. However, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin and berberine significantly prevented the development of senescence and, accordingly, inhibition of AMPK by Compound C was accelerated. Importantly, AMPK activation prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced impairment of the autophagic flux in senescent cells, evidenced by the decreased p62 degradation, GFP-RFP-LC3 cancellation, and activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also found that AMPK activation restored the NAD(+) levels in the senescent cells via a mechanism involving mostly the salvage pathway for NAD(+) synthesis. In addition, the mechanistic relationship of autophagic flux and NAD(+) synthesis and the involvement of mTOR and Sirt1 activities were assessed. In summary, our results suggest that AMPK prevents oxidative stress-induced senescence by improving autophagic flux and NAD(+) homeostasis. This study provides a new insight for exploring the mechanisms of aging, autophagy and NAD(+) homeostasis, and it is also valuable in the development of innovative strategies to combat aging. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Co-activation of AMPK and mTORC1 Induces Cytotoxicity in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sujobert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AMPK is a master regulator of cellular metabolism that exerts either oncogenic or tumor suppressor activity depending on context. Here, we report that the specific AMPK agonist GSK621 selectively kills acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells but spares normal hematopoietic progenitors. This differential sensitivity results from a unique synthetic lethal interaction involving concurrent activation of AMPK and mTORC1. Strikingly, the lethality of GSK621 in primary AML cells and AML cell lines is abrogated by chemical or genetic ablation of mTORC1 signaling. The same synthetic lethality between AMPK and mTORC1 activation is established in CD34-positive hematopoietic progenitors by constitutive activation of AKT or enhanced in AML cells by deletion of TSC2. Finally, cytotoxicity in AML cells from GSK621 involves the eIF2α/ATF4 signaling pathway that specifically results from mTORC1 activation. AMPK activation may represent a therapeutic opportunity in mTORC1-overactivated cancers.

  1. Pre-45s rRNA promotes colon cancer and is associated with poor survival of CRC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, H; Lam, K C; Dong, Y; Zhang, X; Lee, C K; Zhang, J; Ng, S C; Ng, S S M; Zheng, S; Chen, Y; Fang, J; Yu, J

    2017-11-02

    One characteristic of cancer cells is the abnormally high rate of cell metabolism to sustain their enhanced proliferation. However, the behind mechanism of this phenomenon is still elusive. Here we find that enhanced precursor 45s ribosomal RNA (pre-45s rRNA) is one of the core mechanisms in promoting the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Pre-45s rRNA expression is significantly higher in primary CRC tumor tissues samples and cancer cell lines compared with the non-tumorous colon tissues, and is associated with tumor sizes. Knockdown of pre-45s rRNA inhibits G1/S cell-cycle transition by stabilizing p53 through inducing murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and ribosomal protein L11 (RpL11) interaction. In addition, we revealed that high rate of cancer cell metabolism triggers the passive release of calcium ion from endoplasmic reticulum to the cytoplasm. The elevated calcium ion in the cytoplasm activates the signaling cascade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K) and ribosomal S6K (CaMKII-S6K-UBF). The activated UBF promotes the transcription of rDNA, which therefore increases pre-45s rRNA. Disruption of CaMKII-S6K-UBF axis by either RNAi or pharmaceutical approaches leads to reduction of pre-45s rRNA expression, which subsequently suppresses cell proliferation in colon cancer cells by causing cell-cycle arrest. Knockdown of APC activates CaMKII-S6K-UBF cascade and thus enhances pre-45s rRNA expression. Moreover, the high expression level of pre-45s rRNA is associated with poor survival of CRC patients in two independent cohorts. Our study identifies a novel mechanism in CRC pathogenesis mediated by pre-45s rRNA and a prognostic factor of pre-45s rRNA in CRC patients.

  2. GSK621 activates AMPK signaling to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yong-hong; Li, Quan; Li, Ping; Liu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    LPS stimulation in macrophages/monocytes induces TNFα production. We here tested the potential effect of GSK621, a novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, against the process. In RAW264.7 macrophages, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' monocytes, GSK621 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNFα protein secretion and mRNA synthesis. Inhibition of AMPK, through AMPKα shRNA knockdown or dominant negative mutation (T172A), almost abolished GSK621's suppression on TNFα in RAW264.7 cells. Reversely, forced-expression of a constitutively-active AMPKα (T172D) mimicked GSK621 actions and reduced LPS-induced TNFα production. Molecularly, GSK621 suppressed LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation. In vivo, GSK621 oral administration inhibited LPS-induced TNFα production and endotoxin shock in mice. In summary, GSK621 activates AMPK signaling to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production in macrophages/monocytes. - Highlights: • GSK621 inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production/expression in RAW264.7 cells and BMDMs. • GSK621 inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production/expression in COPD patients' PBMCs. • GSK621's inhibition on TNFα production by LPS requires AMPK activation. • GSK621 inhibits LPS-induced ROS production and NFκB activation, dependent on AMPK. • GSK621 oral administration inhibits LPS-induced TNFα production and endotoxin shock in mice.

  3. Compound C inhibits macrophage chemotaxis through an AMPK-independent mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngyi [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Wanju, Jeonbuk 55338 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Hyun, E-mail: bhpark@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Eun Ju, E-mail: ejbae@woosuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Wanju, Jeonbuk 55338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue is a well-established cause of obesity-linked insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue has beneficial effects on the protection against obesity-induced insulin resistance, which is mainly mediated by prevention of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and inflammation. In examining the role of AMPK on adipose tissue inflammation, we unexpectedly found that compound C (CC), despite its inhibition of AMPK, robustly inhibited macrophage chemotaxis in RAW 264.7 cells when adipocyte conditioned medium (CM) was used as a chemoattractant. Here, we report that CC inhibition of macrophage migration occurred independently of AMPK. Mechanistically, this inhibitory effect of cell migration by CC was mediated by inhibition of the focal adhesion kinase, AKT, nuclear factor κB pathways. Moreover, the expression of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and pro-inflammatory genes such as tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were prevented by CC treatment in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with either adipocyte CM or lipopolysaccharide. Lastly, in accord with the findings of the anti-inflammatory effect of CC, we demonstrated that CC functioned as a repressor of macrophage CM-mediated insulin resistance in adipocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that CC serves as a useful inhibitory molecule against macrophage chemotaxis into adipose tissue and thus might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity-linked adipose inflammation. - Highlights: • Compound C (CC) inhibits macrophage chemotaxis regardless of AMPK suppression. • CC enhances insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. • CC inhibits focal adhesion kinase, AKT, and NF-κB signaling in RAW 264.7 cells.

  4. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lihui; Yu, Lei; Wang, Yanli; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Qianlong; Lu, Ping; Yu, Xiufeng; Zhong, Weiwei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Cui, Ningren; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Daling

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir) play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  5. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Qu

    Full Text Available Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  6. Enhanced muscle insulin sensitivity after contraction/exercise is mediated by AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Munk-Hansen, Nanna; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2017-01-01

    muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity in wild type (WT) mice, respectively. These effects were not found in AMPKα1α2 muscle-specific knockout mice. Prior in situ contraction did not increase insulin sensitivity in m. soleus from either genotype. Improvement in muscle insulin sensitivity....... Collectively, our data suggest that the AMPK-TBC1D4 signaling axis is likely mediating the improved muscle insulin sensitivity after contraction/exercise and illuminates an important and physiological relevant role of AMPK in skeletal muscle.......Earlier studies have demonstrated that muscle insulin sensitivity to stimulate glucose uptake is enhanced several hours after an acute bout of exercise. Using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (AICAR), we recently demonstrated that prior activation of AMPK is sufficient to increase...

  7. Regulation of CaMKII signaling in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Yordanova Mollova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a major cause of death in the developed countries. (Murray and Lopez, 1996;Koitabashi and Kass, 2012. Adverse cardiac remodeling that precedes heart muscle dysfunction is characterized by a myriad of molecular changes affecting the cardiomyocyte. Among these, alterations in protein kinase pathways play often an important mediator role since they link upstream pathologic stress signaling with downstream regulatory programs and thus affect both the structural and functional integrity of the heart muscle. In the context of cardiac disease, a profound understanding for the overriding mechanisms that regulate protein kinase activity (protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications, or targeting via anchoring proteins is crucial for the development of specific and effective pharmacological treatment strategies targeting the failing myocardium.In this review, we focus on several mechanisms of upstream regulation of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaM Kinase II, CaMKII that play a relevant pathophysiological role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease; precise targeting of these mechanisms might therefore represent novel and promising tools for prevention and treatment of HF.

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Sandra C. [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gauthier, Marie-Soleil [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02140 (United States); Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dole, William P., E-mail: bill.dole@novartis.com [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). {yields} ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. {yields} ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. {yields} Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNF{alpha}) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and

  9. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Sandra C.; Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing; Gauthier, Marie-Soleil; Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper; Dole, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). → ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. → ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. → Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNFα) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and peroxisome proliferator

  10. Quercetin enhances hypoxia-mediated apoptosis via direct inhibition of AMPK activity in HCT116 colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Su; Wannatung, Tirawat; Lee, Sooho; Yang, Woo Kyeom; Chung, Sung Hyun; Lim, Jong-Seok; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2012-09-01

    Tumor hypoxia is considered the best validated target in clinical oncology because of its significant contribution to chemotherapy failure and drug resistance. As an approach to target hypoxia, we assessed the potential of quercetin, a flavonoid widely distributed in plants, as a anticancer agent under hypoxic conditions and examined its pharmacological mechanisms by primarily focusing on the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Quercetin significantly attenuated tumor growth in an HCT116 cancer xenograft in vivo model with a substantial reduction of AMPK activity. In a cell culture system, quercetin more dramatically induced apoptosis of HCT116 cancer cells under hypoxic conditions than normoxic conditions, and this was tightly associated with inhibition of hypoxia-induced AMPK activity. An in vitro kinase assay demonstrated that quercetin directly inhibits AMPK activity. Inhibition of AMPK by expressing a dominant-negative form resulted in an increase of apoptosis under hypoxia, and a constitutively active form of AMPK effectively blocked quercetin-induced apoptosis under hypoxia. Collectively, our data suggest that quercetin directly inhibits hypoxia-induced AMPK, which plays a protective role against hypoxia. Quercetin also reduced the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a major transcription factor for adaptive cellular response to hypoxia. Moreover, quercetin sensitized HCT116 cancer cells to the anticancer drugs cisplatin and etoposide under hypoxic conditions. Our findings suggest that AMPK may serve as a novel target for overcoming tumor hypoxia-associated negative aspects.

  11. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Regulates Energy Metabolism through Modulating Thermogenesis in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingyan; Zhang, Lina; Li, Bohan; Jiang, Haowen; Duan, Yanan; Xie, Zhifu; Shuai, Lin; Li, Jia; Li, Jingya

    2018-01-01

    Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic “brown-like” cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood. To illuminate the effect of adipocyte AMPK on energy metabolism, we generated Adiponectin-Cre-driven adipose tissue-specific AMPK α1/α2 KO mice (AKO). These AKO mice were cold intolerant and their inguinal WAT displayed impaired mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis, and reduced expression of thermogenic markers upon cold exposure. High-fat-diet (HFD)-fed AKO mice exhibited increased adiposity and exacerbated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were markedly decreased in the AKO mice both in basal conditions and after stimulation with a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist, CL 316,243. In contrast, we found that in HFD-fed obese mouse model, chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 protected against obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. A-769662 alleviated HFD-induced glucose intolerance and reduced body weight gain and WAT expansion. Notably, A-769662 increased energy expenditure and cold tolerance in HFD-fed mice. A-769662 treatment also induced the browning process in the inguinal fat depot of HFD-fed mice. Likewise, A-769662 enhanced thermogenesis in differentiated inguinal stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells via AMPK signaling pathway. In summary, a lack of adipocyte AMPKα induced thermogenic impairment and obesity in response to cold and nutrient-overload, respectively

  12. Effect of Acute Exercise on AMPK Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Coletta, Dawn K.; Wajcberg, Estela; Balbontin, Gabriela B.; Reyna, Sara M.; Barrientes, John; Eagan, Phyllis A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise induces several cellular processes in muscle. Exercise activation of AMPK is unaffected in lean (BMI ~25 kg/m2) subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, most type 2 diabetic subjects are obese (BMI >30 kg/m2), and exercise stimulation of AMPK is blunted in obese rodents. We examined whether obese type 2 diabetic subjects have impaired exercise stimulation of AMPK, at different signaling levels, spanning from the upstream kinase, LKB1, to the putative AMPK targets, AS160 and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1α, involved in glucose transport regulation and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Twelve type 2 diabetic, eight obese, and eight lean subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 40 min. Muscle biopsies were done before, during, and after exercise. Subjects underwent this protocol on two occasions, at low (50% VO2max) and moderate (70% VO2max) intensities, with a 4–6 week interval. Exercise had no effect on LKB1 activity. Exercise had a time- and intensity-dependent effect to increase AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects had attenuated exercise-stimulated AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Type 2 diabetic subjects had reduced basal PGC-1 gene expression but normal exercise-induced increases in PGC-1 expression. Our findings suggest that obese type 2 diabetic subjects may need to exercise at higher intensity to stimulate the AMPK-AS160 axis to the same level as lean subjects. PMID:17327455

  13. Glucose Alters Per2 Rhythmicity Independent of AMPK, Whereas AMPK Inhibitor Compound C Causes Profound Repression of Clock Genes and AgRP in mHypoE-37 Hypothalamic Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanneke E Oosterman

    Full Text Available Specific neurons in the hypothalamus are regulated by peripheral hormones and nutrients to maintain proper metabolic control. It is unclear if nutrients can directly control clock gene expression. We have therefore utilized the immortalized, hypothalamic cell line mHypoE-37, which exhibits robust circadian rhythms of core clock genes. mHypoE-37 neurons were exposed to 0.5 or 5.5 mM glucose, comparable to physiological levels in the brain. Per2 and Bmal1 mRNAs were assessed every 3 hours over 36 hours. Incubation with 5.5 mM glucose significantly shortened the period and delayed the phase of Per2 mRNA levels, but had no effect on Bmal1. Glucose had no significant effect on phospho-GSK3β, whereas AMPK phosphorylation was altered. Thus, the AMPK inhibitor Compound C was utilized, and mRNA levels of Per2, Bmal1, Cryptochrome1 (Cry1, agouti-related peptide (AgRP, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (Cpt1c, and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (Ogt were measured. Remarkably, Compound C dramatically reduced transcript levels of Per2, Bmal1, Cry1, and AgRP, but not Cpt1c or Ogt. Because AMPK was not inhibited at the same time or concentrations as the clock genes, we suggest that the effect of Compound C on gene expression occurs through an AMPK-independent mechanism. The consequences of inhibition of the rhythmic expression of clock genes, and in turn downstream metabolic mediators, such as AgRP, could have detrimental effects on overall metabolic processes. Importantly, the effects of the most commonly used AMPK inhibitor Compound C should be interpreted with caution, considering its role in AMPK-independent repression of specific genes, and especially clock gene rhythm dysregulation.

  14. Glucose Alters Per2 Rhythmicity Independent of AMPK, Whereas AMPK Inhibitor Compound C Causes Profound Repression of Clock Genes and AgRP in mHypoE-37 Hypothalamic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Belsham, Denise D

    2016-01-01

    Specific neurons in the hypothalamus are regulated by peripheral hormones and nutrients to maintain proper metabolic control. It is unclear if nutrients can directly control clock gene expression. We have therefore utilized the immortalized, hypothalamic cell line mHypoE-37, which exhibits robust circadian rhythms of core clock genes. mHypoE-37 neurons were exposed to 0.5 or 5.5 mM glucose, comparable to physiological levels in the brain. Per2 and Bmal1 mRNAs were assessed every 3 hours over 36 hours. Incubation with 5.5 mM glucose significantly shortened the period and delayed the phase of Per2 mRNA levels, but had no effect on Bmal1. Glucose had no significant effect on phospho-GSK3β, whereas AMPK phosphorylation was altered. Thus, the AMPK inhibitor Compound C was utilized, and mRNA levels of Per2, Bmal1, Cryptochrome1 (Cry1), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (Cpt1c), and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (Ogt) were measured. Remarkably, Compound C dramatically reduced transcript levels of Per2, Bmal1, Cry1, and AgRP, but not Cpt1c or Ogt. Because AMPK was not inhibited at the same time or concentrations as the clock genes, we suggest that the effect of Compound C on gene expression occurs through an AMPK-independent mechanism. The consequences of inhibition of the rhythmic expression of clock genes, and in turn downstream metabolic mediators, such as AgRP, could have detrimental effects on overall metabolic processes. Importantly, the effects of the most commonly used AMPK inhibitor Compound C should be interpreted with caution, considering its role in AMPK-independent repression of specific genes, and especially clock gene rhythm dysregulation.

  15. Activation of skeletal muscle AMPK promotes glucose disposal and glucose lowering in non-human primates and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cokorinos, Emily C; Delmore, Jake; Reyes, Allan R

    2017-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases based on its reported actions in the liver and skeletal muscle. We evaluated two distinct direct activators of AMPK: a non-selective activator of all AMPK complexes, PF-739, and an activator selective...

  16. Prenatal Stress Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory Associated with Lower mRNA Level of the CAMKII and CREB in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongli; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Jianping; Wen, Jun; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) results in various behavioral and emotional alterations observed in later life. In particular, PS impairs spatial learning and memory processes but the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we reported that PS lowered the body weight in offspring rats, particularly in female rats, and impaired spatial learning and memory of female offspring rats in the Morris water maze. Correspondingly, the decreased CaMKII and CREB mRNA in the hippocampus were detected in prenatally stressed female offspring, which partially explained the effect of PS on the spatial learning and memory. Our findings suggested that CaMKII and CREB may be involved in spatial learning and memory processes in the prenatally stressed adult female offspring.

  17. Selective Activation of AMPK β1-Containing Isoforms Improves Kidney Function in a Rat Model of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatto, Christopher T; Miller, Russell A; Cameron, Kimberly O; Cokorinos, Emily; Reyes, Allan; Ward, Jessica; Calabrese, Matthew F; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Rajamohan, Francis; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Tess, David A; Shavnya, Andre; Genung, Nathan E; Edmonds, David J; Jatkar, Aditi; Maciejewski, Benjamin S; Amaro, Marina; Gandhok, Harmeet; Monetti, Mara; Cialdea, Katherine; Bollinger, Eliza; Kreeger, John M; Coskran, Timothy M; Opsahl, Alan C; Boucher, Germaine G; Birnbaum, Morris J; DaSilva-Jardine, Paul; Rolph, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy remains an area of high unmet medical need, with current therapies that slow down, but do not prevent, the progression of disease. A reduced phosphorylation state of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been correlated with diminished kidney function in both humans and animal models of renal disease. Here, we describe the identification of novel, potent, small molecule activators of AMPK that selectively activate AMPK heterotrimers containing the β 1 subunit. After confirming that human and rodent kidney predominately express AMPK β 1, we explore the effects of pharmacological activation of AMPK in the ZSF1 rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Chronic administration of these direct activators elevates the phosphorylation of AMPK in the kidney, without impacting blood glucose levels, and reduces the progression of proteinuria to a greater degree than the current standard of care, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril. Further analyses of urine biomarkers and kidney tissue gene expression reveal AMPK activation leads to the modulation of multiple pathways implicated in kidney injury, including cellular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and oxidative stress. These results support the need for further investigation into the potential beneficial effects of AMPK activation in kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Sophie Kang

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK. When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury.

  19. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  20. AMPK Activation Affects Glutamate Metabolism in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Caroline Marie; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    acid (TCA) cycle was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis supplemented with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. It was found that AMPK activation had profound effects on the pathways involved in glutamate metabolism since the entrance of the glutamate carbon...... on glutamate metabolism in astrocytes was studied using primary cultures of these cells from mouse cerebral cortex during incubation in media containing 2.5 mM glucose and 100 µM [U-(13)C]glutamate. The metabolism of glutamate including a detailed analysis of its metabolic pathways involving the tricarboxylic...... skeleton into the TCA cycle was reduced. On the other hand, glutamate uptake into the astrocytes as well as its conversion to glutamine catalyzed by glutamine synthetase was not affected by AMPK activation. Interestingly, synthesis and release of citrate, which are hallmarks of astrocytic function, were...

  1. An evolutionary perspective of AMPK-TOR signaling in the three domains of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roustan, Valentin; Jain, Arpit; Teige, Markus; Ebersberger, Ingo; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    AMPK and TOR protein kinases are the major control points of energy signaling in eukaryotic cells and organisms. They form the core of a complex regulatory network to co-ordinate metabolic activities in the cytosol with those in the mitochondria and plastids. Despite its relevance, it is still unclear when and how this regulatory pathway was formed during evolution, and to what extent its representations in the major eukaryotic lineages resemble each other. Here we have traced 153 essential proteins forming the human AMPK-TOR pathways across 412 species representing all three domains of life-prokaryotes (bacteria, archaea) and eukaryotes-and reconstructed their evolutionary history. The resulting phylogenetic profiles indicate the presence of primordial core pathways including seven proto-kinases in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. The evolutionary origins of the oldest components of the AMPK pathway, however, extend into the pre-eukaryotic era, and descendants of these ancient proteins can still be found in contemporary prokaryotes. The TOR complex in turn appears as a eukaryotic invention, possibly to aid in retrograde signaling between the mitochondria and the remainder of the cell. Within the eukaryotes, AMPK/TOR showed both a highly conserved core structure and a considerable plasticity. Most notably, KING1, a protein originally assigned as the γ subunit of AMPK in plants, is more closely related to the yeast SDS23 gene family than to the γ subunits in animals or fungi. This suggests its functional difference from a canonical AMPK γ subunit. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The potent, indirect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator R419 attenuates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, inhibits nociceptor excitability, and reduces pain hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo L. Mejia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There is a great need for new therapeutics for the treatment of pain. A possible avenue to development of such therapeutics is to interfere with signaling pathways engaged in peripheral nociceptors that cause these neurons to become hyperexcitable. There is strong evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways are key modulators of nociceptor excitability in vitro and in vivo. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK can inhibit signaling in both of these pathways, and AMPK activators have been shown to inhibit nociceptor excitability and pain hypersensitivity in rodents. R419 is one of, if not the most potent AMPK activator described to date. We tested whether R419 activates AMPK in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and if this leads to decreased pain hypersensitivity in mice. We find that R419 activates AMPK in DRG neurons resulting in decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, decreased nascent protein synthesis, and enhanced P body formation. R419 attenuates nerve growth factor (NGF-induced changes in excitability in DRG neurons and blocks NGF-induced mechanical pain amplification in vivo. Moreover, locally applied R419 attenuates pain hypersensitivity in a model of postsurgical pain and blocks the development of hyperalgesic priming in response to both NGF and incision. We conclude that R419 is a promising lead candidate compound for the development of potent and specific AMPK activation to inhibit pain hypersensitivity as a result of injury.

  3. Reconstruction of calmodulin single-molecule FRET states, dye interactions, and CaMKII peptide binding by MultiNest and classic maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Matthew S.; Gull, Stephen F.; Johnson, Carey K.

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed single molecule FRET burst measurements using Bayesian nested sampling. The MultiNest algorithm produces accurate FRET efficiency distributions from single-molecule data. FRET efficiency distributions recovered by MultiNest and classic maximum entropy are compared for simulated data and for calmodulin labeled at residues 44 and 117. MultiNest compares favorably with maximum entropy analysis for simulated data, judged by the Bayesian evidence. FRET efficiency distributions recovered for calmodulin labeled with two different FRET dye pairs depended on the dye pair and changed upon Ca2+ binding. We also looked at the FRET efficiency distributions of calmodulin bound to the calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binding domain. For both dye pairs, the FRET efficiency distribution collapsed to a single peak in the case of calmodulin bound to the CaMKII peptide. These measurements strongly suggest that consideration of dye-protein interactions is crucial in forming an accurate picture of protein conformations from FRET data.

  4. Reconstruction of Calmodulin Single-Molecule FRET States, Dye-Interactions, and CaMKII Peptide Binding by MultiNest and Classic Maximum Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devore, Matthew S; Gull, Stephen F; Johnson, Carey K

    2013-08-30

    We analyze single molecule FRET burst measurements using Bayesian nested sampling. The MultiNest algorithm produces accurate FRET efficiency distributions from single-molecule data. FRET efficiency distributions recovered by MultiNest and classic maximum entropy are compared for simulated data and for calmodulin labeled at residues 44 and 117. MultiNest compares favorably with maximum entropy analysis for simulated data, judged by the Bayesian evidence. FRET efficiency distributions recovered for calmodulin labeled with two different FRET dye pairs depended on the dye pair and changed upon Ca 2+ binding. We also looked at the FRET efficiency distributions of calmodulin bound to the calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binding domain. For both dye pairs, the FRET efficiency distribution collapsed to a single peak in the case of calmodulin bound to the CaMKII peptide. These measurements strongly suggest that consideration of dye-protein interactions is crucial in forming an accurate picture of protein conformations from FRET data.

  5. Palmitoleic Acid Improves Metabolic Functions in Fatty Liver by PPARα-Dependent AMPK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila O; Teixeira, Alexandre A S; Biondo, Luana A; Lima Junior, Edson A; Batatinha, Helena A P; Rosa Neto, Jose C

    2017-08-01

    Palmitoleic acid, since described as lipokine, increases glucose uptake by modulation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as increasing lipolysis by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), in adipose tissue. However, in liver, the effects of palmitoleic acid on glucose metabolism and the role of PPARα remain unknown. To investigate whether palmitoleic acid improved the hepatic insulin sensitivity of obese mice. C57BL6 and PPARα knockout (KO) mice were fed for 12 weeks with a standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HF), and in the last 2 weeks were treated with oleic or palmitoleic acid. Palmitoleic acid promoted a faster uptake of glucose in the body, associated with higher insulin concentration; however, even when stimulated with insulin, palmitoleic acid did not modulate the insulin pathway (AKT, IRS). Palmitoleic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPK, upregulated glucokinase and downregulated SREBP-1. Regarding AMPK downstream, palmitoleic acid increased the production of FGF-21 and stimulated the expression of PPARα. Palmitoleic acid treatment did not increase AMPK phosphorylation, modulate glucokinase or increase FGF-21 in liver of PPARα KO mice. In mice fed with a high-fat diet, palmitoleic acid supplementation stimulated the uptake of glucose in liver through activation of AMPK and FGF-21, dependent on PPARα. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2168-2177, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. CaMKII inhibition with KN93 attenuates endothelin and serotonin receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced deficits in sensorimotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Ahnstedt, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    tested the hypothesis that inhibition of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) may reduce cerebral vasoconstriction mediated by endothelin and serotonin receptors and improve neurological outcome after experimental SAH. METHODS: SAH was induced in adult rats by injection of 250 μ...

  7. GSK3β-dependent inhibition of AMPK potentiates activation of neutrophils and macrophages and enhances severity of acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Won; Jiang, Shaoning; Liu, Yanping; Siegal, Gene P.; Inoki, Ken; Abraham, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Although AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, activated AMPK also plays an anti-inflammatory role in many cell populations. However, despite the ability of AMPK activation to diminish the severity of inflammatory responses, previous studies have found that AMPK activity is diminished in LPS-treated neutrophils and also in lungs of mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Since GSK3β participates in regulating AMPK activity, we examined potential roles for GSK3β in modulating LPS-induced activation of neutrophils and macrophages and in influencing severity of ALI. We found that GSK3β-dependent phosphorylation of T479-AMPK was associated with pT172 dephosphorylation and inactivation of AMPK following TLR4 engagement. GSK3β inhibitors BIO (6-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime), SB216763, or siRNA knockdown of GSK3β, but not the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002, prevented Thr172-AMPK dephosphorylation. Exposure to LPS resulted in rapid binding between IKKβ and AMPKα, and phosphorylation of S485-AMPK by IKKβ. These results suggest that IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation of S485-AMPK was an essential step in subsequent phosphorylation and inactivation AMPK by GSK3β. Inhibition of GSK3β activity delayed IκBα degradation and diminished expression of the proinflammatory TNF-α in LPS-stimulated neutrophils and macrophages. In vivo, inhibition of GSK3β decreased the severity of LPS-induced lung injury as assessed by development of pulmonary edema, production of TNF-α and MIP-2, and release of the alarmins HMGB1 and histone 3 in the lungs. These results show that inhibition of AMPK by GSK3β plays an important contributory role in enhancing LPS-induced inflammatory responses, including worsening the severity of ALI. PMID:25239914

  8. Reduced AMPK-ACC and mTOR signaling in muscle from older men, and effect of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyao; Verdijk, Lex B; Sakamoto, Kei; Ely, Brian; van Loon, Luc J C; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy-sensitive enzyme that controls numerous metabolic and cellular processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is another energy/nutrient-sensitive kinase that controls protein synthesis and cell growth. In this study we determined whether older versus younger men have alterations in the AMPK and mTOR pathways in skeletal muscle, and examined the effect of a long term resistance type exercise training program on these signaling intermediaries. Older men had decreased AMPKα2 activity and lower phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream signaling substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). mTOR phosphylation also was reduced in muscle from older men. Exercise training increased AMPKα1 activity in older men, however, AMPKα2 activity, and the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and mTOR, were not affected. In conclusion, older men have alterations in the AMPK-ACC and mTOR pathways in muscle. In addition, prolonged resistance type exercise training induces an isoform-selective up regulation of AMPK activity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. FAK tyrosine phosphorylation is regulated by AMPK and controls metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassiter, David G; Nylén, Carolina; Sjögren, Rasmus J O

    2018-01-01

    the FAK gene, PTK2. RESULTS: AMPK activation reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK in skeletal muscle. AICAR reduced p-FAKY397in isolated human skeletal muscle and cultured myotubes. Insulin stimulation did not alter FAK phosphorylation. Serum starvation increased AMPK activation, as demonstrated...

  10. 5'-Monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) improves autophagic activity in diabetes and diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fan; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), an endocrine disorder, will be one of the leading causes of death world-wide in about two decades. Cellular injuries and disorders of energy metabolism are two key factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes, which also become the important causes for the process of diabetic complications. AMPK is a key enzyme in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and has been implicated in the activation of autophagy in distinct tissues. An increasing number of researchers have confirmed that autophagy is a potential factor to affect or induce diabetes and its complications nowadays, which could remove cytotoxic proteins and dysfunctional organelles. This review will summarize the regulation of autophagy and AMPK in diabetes and its complications, and explore how AMPK stimulates autophagy in different diabetic syndromes. A deeper understanding of the regulation and activity of AMPK in autophagy would enhance its development as a promising therapeutic target for diabetes treatment.

  11. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction is regulated by nitric oxide and ROS independently of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Troy L; Steinberg, Gregory R; Lynch, Gordon S; McConell, Glenn K

    2010-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been implicated in the regulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction, and there is evidence that they do so via interaction with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ROS and NO regulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction via an AMPK-independent mechanism. Isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from mice that expressed a muscle-specific kinase dead AMPKalpha2 isoform (AMPK-KD) and wild-type litter mates (WT) were stimulated to contract, and glucose uptake was measured in the presence or absence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). Contraction increased AMPKalpha2 activity in WT but not AMPK-KD EDL muscles. However, contraction increased glucose uptake in the EDL and soleus muscles of AMPK-KD and WT mice to a similar extent. In EDL muscles, NAC and l-NMMA prevented contraction-stimulated increases in oxidant levels (dichloroflourescein fluorescence) and NOS activity, respectively, and attenuated contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in both genotypes to a similar extent. In soleus muscles of AMPK-KD and WT mice, NAC prevented contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and l-NMMA had no effect. This is likely attributed to the relative lack of neuronal NOS in the soleus muscles compared with EDL muscles. Contraction increased AMPKalpha Thr(172) phosphorylation in EDL and soleus muscles of WT but not AMPK-KD mice, and this was not affected by NAC or l-NMMA treatment. In conclusion, ROS and NO are involved in regulating skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction via an AMPK-independent mechanism.

  12. Lipid raft-mediated miR-3908 inhibition of migration of breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by regulating the interactions between AdipoR1 and Flotillin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Shan, Fei; Chen, Jinglong

    2017-03-21

    The mechanisms of lipid raft regulation by microRNAs in breast cancer are not fully understood. This work focused on the evaluation and identification of miR-3908, which may be a potential biomarker related to the migration of breast cancer cells, and elucidates lipid-raft-regulating cell migration in breast cancer. To confirm the prediction that miR-3908 is matched with AdipoR1, we used 3'-UTR luciferase activity of AdipoR1 to assess this. Then, human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was cultured in the absence or presence of the mimics or inhibitors of miR-3908, after which the biological functions of MCF-7 cells were analyzed. The protein expression of AdipoR1, AMPK, and SIRT-1 were examined. The interaction between AdipoR1 and Flotillin-1, or its effects on lipid rafts on regulating cell migration of MCF-7, was also investigated. AdipoR1 is a direct target of miR-3908. miR-3908 suppresses the expression of AdipoR1 and its downstream pathway genes, including AMPK, p-AMPK, and SIRT-1. miR-3908 enhances the process of breast cancer cell clonogenicity. miR-3908 exerts its effects on the proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cells, which are mediated by lipid rafts regulating AdipoR1's ability to bind Flotillin-1. miR-3908 is a crucial mediator of the migration process in breast cancer cells. Lipid rafts regulate the interactions between AdipoR1 and Flotillin-1 and then the migration process associated with miR-3908 in MCF-7 cells. Our findings suggest that targeting miR-3908 and the lipid raft, may be a promising strategy for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer.

  13. Activation of AMPK inhibits cholera toxin stimulated chloride secretion in human and murine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailín C Rogers

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK. In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness.

  14. Natural AMPK Activators: An Alternative Approach for the Treatment and Management of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hitender; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    This review covers recent discoveries of phytoconstituents, herbal extracts and some semi-synthetic compounds for treating metabolic syndrome with AMPK activation as one of their mechanisms of action. Recent researches have demonstrated AMPK activation to ameliorate multiple components of metabolic syndrome by regulating a balance between anabolic and catabolic cellular reactions. The review attempts to delineate the AMPK activation by natural agents from the perspective of its functional consequences on enzymes, transcription factors and signaling molecules and also on other potential factors contributing in the amelioration of metabolic syndrome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. SDHB downregulation facilitates the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer through AMPK functions excluding those involved in the modulation of aerobic glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiming; Liu, Shaojun; Ai, Feiyan; Chen, Xiong; Li, Xiayu; Liu, Rui; Ren, Weiguo; Zhang, Xuemei; Shu, Peng; Zhang, Decai

    2018-01-01

    Loss-of-function of succinate dehydrogenase-B (SDHB) is a predisposing factor of aerobic glycolysis and cancer progression. Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis and the diverse hallmarks of cancer. The present study investigated whether AMPK mediated the regulatory effects of SDHB in aerobic glycolysis and cancer growth. The expression of SDHB and AMPK in colorectal cancer (CRC) and normal tissues was assessed by western blotting. HT-29 CRC cells were used to establish in vitro models of ectopic overexpression and knockdown of SDHB. SDHB was downregulated, while AMPK and phosphorylated-AMPK (Thr172) were upregulated in CRC tissues. Experiments involving the loss- or gain-of-function of SDHB, revealed that this protein negatively regulated AMPK by influencing its expression and activity. However, SDHB and AMPK were identified to suppress lactic acid production in CRC cells, indicating that each had an inhibitory effect on aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, the regulation of aerobic glycolysis by SDHB is unlikely to be mediated via AMPK. SDHB knockdown promoted the viability, migration and invasion of HT-29 cells, whereas inhibition of AMPK demonstrated the opposite effect. SDHB overexpression impaired cell migration and invasion, and this effect was reversed following AMPK activation. These results indicate that AMPK may mediate the effects of SDHB in CRC cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, SDHB downregulation in CRC cells may increase AMPK activity, which may subsequently facilitate the proliferation and invasion of these cancer cells. However, the regulation of aerobic glycolysis by SDHB may be independent of AMPK. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism by which SDHB regulates aerobic glycolysis.

  16. AMPK is involved in the regulation of incretin receptors expression in pancreatic islets under a low glucose concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Tajima

    Full Text Available The precise role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a target of metformin, in pancreatic β cells remains controversial, even though metformin was recently shown to enhance the expression of incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors in pancreatic β cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of AMPK in the regulation of incretin receptors expression in pancreatic islets. The phosphorylation of AMPK in the mouse islets was decreased by increasing glucose concentrations. We showed the expression of incretin receptors in bell-shaped response to glucose. Expression of the incretin receptors in the isolated islets showed higher levels under a medium glucose concentration (11.1 mM than that under a low glucose concentration (2.8 mM, but was suppressed under a high glucose concentration (22.2 mM. Both treatment with an AMPK inhibitor and DN-AMPK expression produced a significant increase of the incretin receptors expression under a low glucose concentration. By contrast, in hyperglycemic db/db islets, the enhancing effect of the AMPK inhibitor on the expression of incretin receptors was diminished under a low glucose concentration. Taken together, AMPK is involved in the regulation of incretin receptors expression in pancreatic islets under a low glucose concentration.

  17. Benzimidazole derivative small-molecule 991 enhances AMPK activity and glucose uptake induced by AICAR or contraction in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultot, Laurent; Jensen, Thomas E; Lai, Yu-Chiang; Madsen, Agnete L B; Collodet, Caterina; Kviklyte, Samanta; Deak, Maria; Yavari, Arash; Foretz, Marc; Ghaffari, Sahar; Bellahcene, Mohamed; Ashrafian, Houman; Rider, Mark H; Richter, Erik A; Sakamoto, Kei

    2016-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays diverse roles and coordinates complex metabolic pathways for maintenance of energy homeostasis. This could be explained by the fact that AMPK exists as multiple heterotrimer complexes comprising a catalytic α-subunit (α1 and α2) and regulatory β (β1 and β2)- and γ (γ1, γ2, γ3)-subunits, which are uniquely distributed across different cell types. There has been keen interest in developing specific and isoform-selective AMPK-activating drugs for therapeutic use and also as research tools. Moreover, establishing ways of enhancing cellular AMPK activity would be beneficial for both purposes. Here, we investigated if a recently described potent AMPK activator called 991, in combination with the commonly used activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or contraction, further enhances AMPK activity and glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle ex vivo. Given that the γ3-subunit is exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle and has been implicated in contraction-induced glucose transport, we measured the activity of AMPKγ3 as well as ubiquitously expressed γ1-containing complexes. We initially validated the specificity of the antibodies for the assessment of isoform-specific AMPK activity using AMPK-deficient mouse models. We observed that a low dose of 991 (5 μM) stimulated a modest or negligible activity of both γ1- and γ3-containing AMPK complexes. Strikingly, dual treatment with 991 and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or 991 and contraction profoundly enhanced AMPKγ1/γ3 complex activation and glucose transport compared with any of the single treatments. The study demonstrates the utility of a dual activator approach to achieve a greater activation of AMPK and downstream physiological responses in various cell types, including skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  19. Specific Sirt1 Activator-mediated Improvement in Glucose Homeostasis Requires Sirt1-Independent Activation of AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The specific Sirt1 activator SRT1720 increases mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, presumably by activating Sirt1. However, Sirt1 gain of function does not increase mitochondrial function, which raises a question about the central role of Sirt1 in SRT1720 action. Moreover, it is believed that the metabolic effects of SRT1720 occur independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, an important metabolic regulator that increases mitochondrial function. Here, we show that SRT1720 activates AMPK in a Sirt1-independent manner and SRT1720 activates AMPK by inhibiting a cAMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE in a competitive manner. Inhibiting the cAMP effector protein Epac prevents SRT1720 from activating AMPK or Sirt1 in myotubes. Moreover, SRT1720 does not increase mitochondrial function or improve glucose tolerance in AMPKα2 knockout mice. Interestingly, weight loss induced by SRT1720 is not sufficient to improve glucose tolerance. Therefore, contrary to current belief, the metabolic effects produced by SRT1720 require AMPK, which can be activated independently of Sirt1.

  20. Activation of AMPK improves inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2015-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterised by maternal peripheral insulin resistance and inflammation. Sterile inflammation and bacterial infection are key mediators of this enhanced inflammatory response. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK), which is decreased in insulin resistant states, possesses potent pro-inflammatory actions. There are, however, no studies on the role of AMPK in pregnancies complicated by GDM. Thus, the aims of this study were (i) to compare the expression of AMPK in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from women with GDM and normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) pregnant women; and (ii) to investigate the effect of AMPK activation on inflammation and insulin resistance induced by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. When compared to NGT pregnant women, AMPKα activity was significantly lower in women with GDM as evidenced by a decrease in threonine phosphorylation of AMPKα. Activation of AMPK, using two pharmacologically distinct compounds, AICAR or phenformin, significantly suppressed LPS- or IL-1β-induced gene expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, the chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1, and COX-2 and subsequent prostaglandin release from adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. In addition, activators of AMPK decreased skeletal muscle insulin resistance induced by LPS or IL-1β as evidenced by increased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1, GLUT-4 expression and glucose uptake. These findings suggest that AMPK may play an important role in inflammation and insulin resistance.

  1. La enzima quinasa dependiente de 5´-adenosil monofosfato (ampk): perspectivas terapéuticas

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Junco, Diana

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo nos centraremos en el estudio de la enzima quinasa dependiente de 5´-adenosil monofosfato (AMPK). La AMPK actúa como un sensor de energía y nutrientes y regula el balance energético. Se activa con el aumento de la relación AMP/ATP dentro de la célula y está implicada en numerosos procesos metabólicos, destacando la captación de glucosa y de ácidos grasos por la célula. La AMPK está formada por tres subunidades: α, β y γ, cada una de ellas con varias isoformas. Cabe destacar...

  2. Effects of alpha-AMPK knockout on exercise-induced gene activation in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Viollet, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating the acute, exercise-induced activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, which were dissected from whole-body a2- and a1-AMPK knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at rest, after treadmi...

  3. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Leaves' polysaccharide alleviates hepatic gluconeogenesis via the downregulation of miR-137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hai-Feng; Li, Yan; Wang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.(VBT) is a traditional Chinese herb that recorded has an effect of hypoglycemic. We previous discovered a dose-dependent anti-diabetic function of VBT. leaves' polysaccharide (VBTLP), but little is known about its underlying molecular mechanism. Therefore, we hypothesized that VBTLP would decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis to improve glucose metabolism in mice. To test this hypothesis, glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the effect of VBTLP on mice hepatic gluconeogenesis. Western blot and RT-PCR were performed to measure both in vivo and in vitro gene regulation under VBTLP treatment. Online bioinformatic analysis was performed to discover a target candidate, miR-137 of LKB1 and AMPK under VBTLP treatment, and the luciferase assay was conducted to validate it. Here we found that VBT. leaves' polysaccharide (VBTLP) decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of LKB1/AMPK axis in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistic studies reveal that miR-137 regulates hepatic glucose homeostasis by directly targeting AMPK and LKB1. Furthermore, we shown that VBTLP decreased hepatic miR-137 level, which might contribute to activation of LKB1/AMPK and downregulation of gluconeogenesis. Taken together, our study shown that the mechanisms might involve in VBTLP hypoglycemic effect, alleviates hepatic gluconeogenesis via the downregulation of miR-137. Our findings provide guidance in developing novel, safe and effective therapies for T2DM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Contraction-induced skeletal muscle FAT/CD36 trafficking and FA uptake is AMPK independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, J.; Albers, P. H.; Rose, A. J.; Birk, J. B.; Schjerling, P.; Dzamko, N.; Steinberg, G. R.; Kiens, B.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating FA translocase CD36 (FAT/CD36) translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. In one model, wild-type (WT) and AMP-dependent protein kinase kinase dead (AMPK KD) mice were exercised or extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were contracted, ex vivo. In separate studies, FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in response to muscle contractions were investigated in the perfused rat hindlimb. Exercise induced a similar increase in skeletal muscle cell surface membrane FAT/CD36 content in WT (+34%) and AMPK KD (+37%) mice. In contrast, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside only induced an increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 content in WT (+29%) mice. Furthermore, in the perfused rat hindlimb, muscle contraction induced a rapid (1 min, +15%) and sustained (10 min, +24%) FAT/CD36 relocation to cell surface membranes. The increase in cell surface FAT/CD36 protein content with muscle contractions was associated with increased FA uptake, both in EDL and SOL muscle from WT and AMPK KD mice and in the perfused rat hindlimb. This suggests that AMPK is not essential in regulation of FAT/CD36 translocation and FA uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. However, AMPK could be important in regulation of FAT/CD36 distribution in other physiological situations. PMID:21297178

  5. Enhanced Expression of WD Repeat-Containing Protein 35 via CaMKK/AMPK Activation in Bupivacaine-Treated Neuro2a Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Kondo, Fumio; Gosho, Masahiko; Feng, Guo-Gang; Harato, Misako; Xia, Zhong-yuan; Ishikawa, Naohisa; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Okada, Shoshiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that bupivacaine induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and nuclear factor-kappa B activation, resulting in an increase in expression of WD repeat-containing protein 35 (WDR35) in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells. However, the identity of signaling upstream of p38 MAPK pathways to WDR35 expression remains unclear. It has been shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can activate p38 MAPK through diverse mechanisms. In addition, several kinases acting upstream of AMPK have been identified including Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Recent studies reported that AMPK may be involved in bupivacaine-induced cytotoxicity in Schwann cells and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The present study was undertaken to test whether CaMKK and AMPK are involved in bupivacaine-induced WDR35 expression in Neuro2a cells. Our results showed that bupivacaine induced activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK in Neuro2a cells. The AMPK inhibitors, compound C and iodotubercidin, attenuated the bupivacaine-induced activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, resulting in an inhibition of the bupivacaine-induced increase in WDR35 expression. Treatment with the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 also attenuated the bupivacaine-induced activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, resulting in an inhibition of the bupivacaine-induced increase in WDR35 expression. These results suggest that bupivacaine activates AMPK and p38 MAPK via CaMKK in Neuro2a cells, and that the CaMKK/AMPK/p38 MAPK pathway is involved in regulating WDR35 expression. PMID:24859235

  6. Genetic impairment of AMPK{alpha}2 signaling does not reduce muscle glucose uptake during treadmill exercise in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine Just; Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Rose, Adam John

    2009-01-01

    and female mice over-expressing kinase-dead alpha2-AMPK (AMPK-KD) in skeletal and heart muscles. Wildtype and AMPK-KD mice were exercised at the same absolute intensity and the same relative intensity (30% and 70% of individual maximal running speed) to correct for reduced exercise capacity of the AMPK......-KD mouse. Muscle glucose clearance was measured using [3H]-2-deoxy-glucose as tracer. In wildtype mice glucose clearance was increased at 30% and 70% of maximal running speed by 40% and 350% in the quadriceps muscle, and by 120% and 380% in gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. Glucose clearance...

  7. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Shaked

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression are unknown. We found that both palmitate and oleate inhibited TXNIP in a rat beta-cell line and islets. Palmitate inhibition of TXNIP was independent of fatty acid beta-oxidation or esterification. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has an important role in cellular energy sensing and control of metabolic homeostasis; therefore we investigated its involvement in nutrient regulation of TXNIP. As expected, glucose inhibited whereas palmitate stimulated AMPK. Pharmacologic activators of AMPK mimicked fatty acids by inhibiting TXNIP. AMPK knockdown increased TXNIP expression in presence of high glucose with and without palmitate, indicating that nutrient (glucose and fatty acids effects on TXNIP are mediated in part via modulation of AMPK activity. TXNIP is transcriptionally regulated by carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP. Palmitate inhibited glucose-stimulated ChREBP nuclear entry and recruitment to the Txnip promoter, thereby inhibiting Txnip transcription. We conclude that AMPK is an important regulator of Txnip transcription via modulation of ChREBP activity. The divergent effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression result in part from their opposing effects on AMPK activity. In light of the important role of TXNIP in beta-cell apoptosis, its inhibition by fatty acids can be regarded as an adaptive/protective response to glucolipotoxicity. The finding that AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of TXNIP may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment

  8. Study of AMPK-Regulated Metabolic Fluxes in Neurons Using the Seahorse XFe Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Claudia; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe; Buée, Luc; Vingtdeux, Valérie

    2018-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the intracellular master energy sensor and metabolic regulator. AMPK is involved in cell energy homeostasis through the regulation of glycolytic flux and mitochondrial biogenesis. Interestingly, metabolic dysfunctions and AMPK deregulations are observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's. While these deregulations could play a key role in the development of these diseases, the study of metabolic fluxes has remained quite challenging and time-consuming. In this chapter, we describe the Seahorse XFe respirometry assay as a fundamental experimental tool to investigate the role of AMPK in controlling and modulating cell metabolic fluxes in living and intact differentiated primary neurons. The Seahorse XFe respirometry assay allows the real-time monitoring of glycolytic flux and mitochondrial respiration from different kind of cells, tissues, and isolated mitochondria. Here, we specify a protocol optimized for primary neuronal cells using several energy substrates such as glucose, pyruvate, lactate, glutamine, and ketone bodies. Nevertheless, this protocol can easily be adapted to monitor metabolic fluxes from other types of cells, tissues, or isolated mitochondria by taking into account the notes proposed for each key step of this assay.

  9. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Wei, E-mail: weiming@xiyi.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Lu, Gan, E-mail: leonming99@163.com [Department of Gynecology of Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an, 710068 (China); Xin, Sha, E-mail: 248967979@qq.com [Institute of Orthopedic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Huanyu, Lu, E-mail: 2366927258@qq.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Yinghao, Jiang, E-mail: jiangyh@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Xiaoying, Lei, E-mail: leixiaoy@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Chengming, Xu, E-mail: chengmingxu@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Banjun, Ruan, E-mail: running@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Li, Wang, E-mail: wanglifw@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pharmacogenomics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); and others

    2016-08-05

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. -- Highlights: •MOTS-c decreases OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene expression. •MOTS-c represses osteoclast differentiation via the activation of AMPK.

  10. Mitochondria related peptide MOTS-c suppresses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via AMPK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Wei; Lu, Gan; Xin, Sha; Huanyu, Lu; Yinghao, Jiang; Xiaoying, Lei; Chengming, Xu; Banjun, Ruan; Li, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting bone loss has been the focus of the study in osteoporosis. The present study is intended to evaluate whether MOTS-c, a novel mitochondria related 16 aa peptide, can protect mice from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. After ovary removal, the mice were injected with MOTS-c at a dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks. Our results showed that MOTS-c treatment significantly alleviated bone loss, as determined by micro-CT examination. Mechanistically, we found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclast differentiation was remarkably inhibited by MOTS-c. Moreover, MOTS-c increased phosphorylated AMPK levels, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, could partially abrogate the effects of the MOTS-c on osteoclastogenesis. Thus, our findings provide evidence that MOTS-c may exert as an inhibitor of osteoporosis via AMPK dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. -- Highlights: •MOTS-c decreases OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. •MOTS-c inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast-specific gene expression. •MOTS-c represses osteoclast differentiation via the activation of AMPK.

  11. The impact of endurance exercise on global and AMPK gene-specific DNA methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King-Himmelreich, Tanya S.; Schramm, Stefanie; Wolters, Miriam C.; Schmetzer, Julia; Möser, Christine V.; Knothe, Claudia [pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Resch, Eduard [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Project Group for Translational Medicine & Pharmacology (TMP), 60596, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Peil, Johannes [Sports Clinic, Bad Nauheim, MCI GmbH, In der Aue 30-32, 61231, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Geisslinger, Gerd [pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Project Group for Translational Medicine & Pharmacology (TMP), 60596, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Niederberger, Ellen, E-mail: e.niederberger@em.uni-frankfurt.de [pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-05-27

    Alterations in gene expression as a consequence of physical exercise are frequently described. The mechanism of these regulations might depend on epigenetic changes in global or gene-specific DNA methylation levels. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in maintenance of energy homeostasis and is activated by increases in the AMP/ATP ratio as occurring in skeletal muscles after sporting activity. To analyze whether exercise has an impact on the methylation status of the AMPK promoter, we determined the AMPK methylation status in human blood samples from patients before and after sporting activity in the context of rehabilitation as well as in skeletal muscles of trained and untrained mice. Further, we examined long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) as indicator of global DNA methylation changes. Our results revealed that light sporting activity in mice and humans does not alter global DNA methylation but has an effect on methylation of specific CpG sites in the AMPKα2 gene. These regulations were associated with a reduced AMPKα2 mRNA and protein expression in muscle tissue, pointing at a contribution of the methylation status to AMPK expression. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise influences AMPKα2 gene methylation in human blood and eminently in the skeletal muscle of mice and therefore might repress AMPKα2 gene expression. -- Highlights: •AMPK gene methylation increases after moderate endurance exercise in humans and mice. •AMPKα mRNA and protein decrease after moderate endurance exercise in mice. •Global DNA methylation is not affected under the same conditions.

  12. The impact of endurance exercise on global and AMPK gene-specific DNA methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Himmelreich, Tanya S.; Schramm, Stefanie; Wolters, Miriam C.; Schmetzer, Julia; Möser, Christine V.; Knothe, Claudia; Resch, Eduard; Peil, Johannes; Geisslinger, Gerd; Niederberger, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in gene expression as a consequence of physical exercise are frequently described. The mechanism of these regulations might depend on epigenetic changes in global or gene-specific DNA methylation levels. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in maintenance of energy homeostasis and is activated by increases in the AMP/ATP ratio as occurring in skeletal muscles after sporting activity. To analyze whether exercise has an impact on the methylation status of the AMPK promoter, we determined the AMPK methylation status in human blood samples from patients before and after sporting activity in the context of rehabilitation as well as in skeletal muscles of trained and untrained mice. Further, we examined long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) as indicator of global DNA methylation changes. Our results revealed that light sporting activity in mice and humans does not alter global DNA methylation but has an effect on methylation of specific CpG sites in the AMPKα2 gene. These regulations were associated with a reduced AMPKα2 mRNA and protein expression in muscle tissue, pointing at a contribution of the methylation status to AMPK expression. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise influences AMPKα2 gene methylation in human blood and eminently in the skeletal muscle of mice and therefore might repress AMPKα2 gene expression. -- Highlights: •AMPK gene methylation increases after moderate endurance exercise in humans and mice. •AMPKα mRNA and protein decrease after moderate endurance exercise in mice. •Global DNA methylation is not affected under the same conditions.

  13. AMPK alpha1 activation is required for stimulation of glucose uptake by twitch contraction, but not by H2O2, in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Schjerling, Peter; Viollet, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    into muscle by certain stimuli. In contrast, no clear function has yet been determined for alpha(1) AMPK in skeletal muscle, possibly due to alpha-AMPK isoform signaling redundancy. By applying low-intensity twitch-contraction and H(2)O(2) stimulation to activate alpha(1) AMPK, but not alpha(2) AMPK......, in wildtype and alpha-AMPK transgenic mouse muscles, this study aimed to define conditions where alpha(1) AMPK is required to increase muscle glucose uptake. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following stimulation with H(2)O(2) (3 mM, 20 min) or twitch-contraction (0.1 ms pulse, 2 Hz, 2 min), signaling and 2......-deoxyglucose uptake were measured in incubated soleus muscles from wildtype and muscle-specific kinase-dead AMPK (KD), alpha(1) AMPK knockout or alpha(2) AMPK knockout mice. H(2)O(2) increased the activity of both alpha(1) and alpha(2) AMPK in addition to Akt phosphorylation, and H(2)O(2)-stimulated glucose...

  14. Regulation of Kv1.4 potassium channels by PKC and AMPK kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Saljic, Arnela

    2018-01-01

    around the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. In the present study we examined whether Kv1.4, constituting the cardiac Ito,s current, is subject to similar regulation. In the epithelial Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line, which constitutes a highly reproducible model system for addressing membrane...... targeting, we find, by confocal microscopy, that Kv1.4 cell surface expression is downregulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, manipulating the activities of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and serum and glucocorticoid......-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) were without effect on channel localization. The PKC and AMPK-mediated downregulation of Kv1.4 membrane surface localization was confirmed by two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus laevis oocytes, where pharmacological activation of PKC and AMPK reduced Kv1.4 current levels. We further...

  15. Taking two to tango: a role for ghrelin receptor heterodimerization in stress and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Harriët; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2013-08-30

    The gut hormone, ghrelin, is the only known peripherally derived orexigenic signal. It activates its centrally expressed receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a), to stimulate food intake. The ghrelin signaling system has recently been suggested to play a key role at the interface of homeostatic control of appetite and the hedonic aspects of food intake, as a critical role for ghrelin in dopaminergic mesolimbic circuits involved in reward signaling has emerged. Moreover, enhanced plasma ghrelin levels are associated with conditions of physiological stress, which may underline the drive to eat calorie-dense "comfort-foods" and signifies a role for ghrelin in stress-induced food reward behaviors. These complex and diverse functionalities of the ghrelinergic system are not yet fully elucidated and likely involve crosstalk with additional signaling systems. Interestingly, accumulating data over the last few years has shown the GHS-R1a receptor to dimerize with several additional G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in appetite signaling and reward, including the GHS-R1b receptor, the melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3), dopamine receptors (D1 and D2), and more recently, the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2C). GHS-R1a dimerization was shown to affect downstream signaling and receptor trafficking suggesting a potential novel mechanism for fine-tuning GHS-R1a receptor mediated activity. This review summarizes ghrelin's role in food reward and stress and outlines the GHS-R1a dimer pairs identified to date. In addition, the downstream signaling and potential functional consequences of dimerization of the GHS-R1a receptor in appetite and stress-induced food reward behavior are discussed. The existence of multiple GHS-R1a heterodimers has important consequences for future pharmacotherapies as it significantly increases the pharmacological diversity of the GHS-R1a receptor and has the potential to enhance specificity of novel ghrelin-targeted drugs.

  16. Taking Two to Tango: A Role for Ghrelin Receptor Heterodimerization in Stress and Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet eSchellekens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gut hormone, ghrelin, is the only known peripherally derived orexigenic signal. It activates its centrally expressed receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a, to stimulate food intake. The ghrelin signalling system has recently been suggested to play a key role at the interface of homeostatic control of appetite and the hedonic aspects of food intake, as a critical role for ghrelin in dopaminergic mesolimbic circuits involved in reward signalling has emerged. Moreover, enhanced plasma ghrelin levels are associated with conditions of physiological stress, which may underline the drive to eat calorie-dense ‘comfort-foods’ and signifies a role for ghrelin in stress-induced food reward behaviours. These complex and diverse functionalities of the ghrelinergic system are not yet fully elucidated and likely involve crosstalk with additional signalling systems. Interestingly, accumulating data over the last few years has shown the GHS-R1a receptor to dimerize with several additional G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs involved in appetite signalling and reward, including the GHS-R1b receptor, the melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3, dopamine receptors (D1 and D2, and more recently, the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2C. GHS-R1a dimerization was shown to affect downstream signalling and receptor trafficking suggesting a potential novel mechanism for fine-tuning GHS-R1a receptor mediated activity. This review summarizes ghrelin’s role in food reward and stress and outlines the GHS-R1a dimer pairs identified to date. In addition, the downstream signalling and potential functional consequences of dimerization of the GHS-R1a receptor in appetite and stress-induced food reward behaviour are discussed. The existence of multiple GHS-R1a heterodimers has important consequences for future pharmacotherapies as it significantly increases the pharmacological diversity of the GHS-R1a receptor and has the potential to enhance specificity of novel

  17. Sucrose nonfermenting AMPK-related kinase (SNARK) mediates contraction-stimulated glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Toyoda, Taro; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2010-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms that mediate the important effects of contraction to increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle are not well understood, but are known to occur through an insulin-independent mechanism. Muscle-specific knockout of LKB1, an upstream kinase for AMPK and AMPK-related prot...

  18. UDCA and CDCA alleviate 17α-ethinylestradiol-induced cholestasis through PKA-AMPK pathways in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaojiaoyang; Yuan, Zihang; Liu, Runping; Hassan, Hozeifa M.; Yang, Hang; Sun, Rong; Zhang, Luyong; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-induced cholestasis, known as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), is an estrogen-related liver disease that is widely recognized as female or pregnancy-specific. Our previous findings showed that the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE), induced cholestatic injury through ERK1/2-LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and its mediated suppression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR). To investigate the role played by bile acids in EE-induced cholestasis, we evaluated the effects of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on sandwich cultured rat primary hepatocytes (SCRHs) and an in vivo rat model. Our results showed that, both CDCA and UDCA significantly induced time- and concentration-dependent reduction in AMPK phosphorylation in SCRHs. Despite having different effects on FXR activation, CDCA and UDCA both inhibited EE-induced AMPK activation, accompanied with the up-regulation of FXR and its downstream bile acid transporters. However, although DCA activates FXR and induces SHP, it was unable to alleviate EE-induced FXR suppression and further aggravated EE-induced cholestasis. We further demonstrated that both CDCA and UDCA, but not DCA, activated cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) in SCRHs and the livers of male rats (8 weeks old) liver. Furthermore, PKA antagonist, H89, blocked the AMPK inhibition by CDCA and UDCA, and pharmacological and genetic activation of PKA suppressed EE-induced AMPK activation and its downstream effects. Collectively, these results suggest that CDCA and UDCA protect against estrogen-induced cholestatic injury via PKA signaling pathway and up-regulation of EE-suppressed FXR, which suggests a potential therapeutic target for ICP. - Highlights: • AMPK is involved in cholestatic liver injury with bile acid dysregulation. • CDCA and UDCA inhibit the phosphorylation of AMPK and alleviate estrogen-induced cholestasis. • PKA activation

  19. UDCA and CDCA alleviate 17α-ethinylestradiol-induced cholestasis through PKA-AMPK pathways in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaojiaoyang; Yuan, Zihang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Liu, Runping [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Hassan, Hozeifa M. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira, Wad-Medani (Sudan); Yang, Hang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Sun, Rong [Shandong Research Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan (China); Zhang, Luyong, E-mail: lyzhang@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Center for Pharmacodynamics Research and Evaluation, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Jiang, Zhenzhou, E-mail: beaglejiang@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Center for Pharmacodynamics Research and Evaluation, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Estrogen-induced cholestasis, known as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), is an estrogen-related liver disease that is widely recognized as female or pregnancy-specific. Our previous findings showed that the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE), induced cholestatic injury through ERK1/2-LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and its mediated suppression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR). To investigate the role played by bile acids in EE-induced cholestasis, we evaluated the effects of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on sandwich cultured rat primary hepatocytes (SCRHs) and an in vivo rat model. Our results showed that, both CDCA and UDCA significantly induced time- and concentration-dependent reduction in AMPK phosphorylation in SCRHs. Despite having different effects on FXR activation, CDCA and UDCA both inhibited EE-induced AMPK activation, accompanied with the up-regulation of FXR and its downstream bile acid transporters. However, although DCA activates FXR and induces SHP, it was unable to alleviate EE-induced FXR suppression and further aggravated EE-induced cholestasis. We further demonstrated that both CDCA and UDCA, but not DCA, activated cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) in SCRHs and the livers of male rats (8 weeks old) liver. Furthermore, PKA antagonist, H89, blocked the AMPK inhibition by CDCA and UDCA, and pharmacological and genetic activation of PKA suppressed EE-induced AMPK activation and its downstream effects. Collectively, these results suggest that CDCA and UDCA protect against estrogen-induced cholestatic injury via PKA signaling pathway and up-regulation of EE-suppressed FXR, which suggests a potential therapeutic target for ICP. - Highlights: • AMPK is involved in cholestatic liver injury with bile acid dysregulation. • CDCA and UDCA inhibit the phosphorylation of AMPK and alleviate estrogen-induced cholestasis. • PKA activation

  20. Harmonização e classificação toxicológica de agrotóxicos em 1992 no Brasil e a necessidade de prever os impactos da futura implantação do GHS Harmonization and toxicological classification of pesticides in 1992 in Brazil and the need to foresee the impacts from the forthcoming introduction of GHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Garcia Garcia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 1992, o Brasil modificou seus critérios de classificação toxicológica de agrotóxicos adequando-os à recomendação de classificação de periculosidade da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Em 2002, o Sistema Globalmente Harmonizado de Classificação e Rotulagem de Produtos Químicos (GHS foi adotado pela Organização das Nações Unidas. Em decorrência, a OMS está adequando ao GHS sua recomendação de classificação de agrotóxicos, o que também deverá ser feito pelo Brasil. Considerou-se oportuno estimar o impacto da alteração de critérios, ocorrida em 1992, na reclassificação toxicológica dos produtos comerciais que se encontravam registrados na ocasião. Encontrou-se que 58,6% do total dos agrotóxicos então registrados (74,9% das formulações líquidas e 31,0% das sólidas podem ter sofrido reclassificação para classes toxicológicas consideradas de me-nor periculosidade, sofrendo mudanças na comunicação de riscos expressa na rotulagem. Isto pode ter ocasionado conseqüências negativas devido a confusões de interpretação pelos agricultores. Nos países que já dispõem de sistemas de classificação de periculosidade de agrotóxicos, como o Brasil, recomenda-se estimar, antes da implantação, os impactos das mudanças que poderão decorrer da adoção do GHS.In 1992, Brazil modified its toxicological classification criteria for pesticides. This modification aimed to follow the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO hazard classification of pesticides. In 2002, the United Nations adopted the "Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals" (GHS. As a result, the WHO is reviewing its classification and Brazil will probably follow the example. Therefore it seems timely to estimate the impact of the changes in the criteria adopted in 1992 in the toxicological reclassification and labelling of the commercially available products registered at that time. It is estimated

  1. Activation of AMPK by berberine induces hepatic lipid accumulation by upregulation of fatty acid translocase CD36 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Kang-Yo; Jung, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyung Sik; Shim, Gayong; Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Oh, Seon-Hee; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that berberine has a protective effect against metabolic syndrome such as obesity and type II diabetes mellitus by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK induces CD36 trafficking to the sarcolemma for fatty acid uptake and oxidation in contracting muscle. However, little is known about the effects of AMPK on CD36 regulation in the liver. We investigated whether AMPK activation by berberine affects CD36 expression and fatty acid uptake in hepatocytes and whether it is linked to hepatic lipid accumulation. Activation of AMPK by berberine or transduction with adenoviral vectors encoding constitutively active AMPK in HepG2 and mouse primary hepatocytes increased the expression and membrane translocation of CD36, resulting in enhanced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation as determined by BODIPY-C16 and Nile red fluorescence, respectively. Activation of AMPK by berberine induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and subsequently induced CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) binding to the C/EBP-response element in the CD36 promoter in hepatocytes. In addition, hepatic CD36 expression and triglyceride levels were increased in normal diet-fed mice treated with berberine, but completely prevented when hepatic CD36 was silenced with adenovirus containing CD36-specific shRNA. Taken together, prolonged activation of AMPK by berberine increased CD36 expression in hepatocytes, resulting in fatty acid uptake via processes linked to hepatocellular lipid accumulation and fatty liver. - Highlights: • Berberine increases the expression and membrane translocation of CD36 in hepatocytes. • The increase of CD36 results in enhanced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation. • Berberine-induced fatty liver is mediated by AMPK-ERK-C/EBPβ pathway. • CD36-specific shRNA inhibited berberine-induced lipid accumulation in liver.

  2. Activation of AMPK by berberine induces hepatic lipid accumulation by upregulation of fatty acid translocase CD36 in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Kang-Yo; Jung, Seung-Hwan [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Gayong; Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Oh, Yu-Kyoung [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee [The Division of Natural Medical Sciences, College of Health Science, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Dae Won [Internal Medicine, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon, E-mail: lee@snu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that berberine has a protective effect against metabolic syndrome such as obesity and type II diabetes mellitus by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK induces CD36 trafficking to the sarcolemma for fatty acid uptake and oxidation in contracting muscle. However, little is known about the effects of AMPK on CD36 regulation in the liver. We investigated whether AMPK activation by berberine affects CD36 expression and fatty acid uptake in hepatocytes and whether it is linked to hepatic lipid accumulation. Activation of AMPK by berberine or transduction with adenoviral vectors encoding constitutively active AMPK in HepG2 and mouse primary hepatocytes increased the expression and membrane translocation of CD36, resulting in enhanced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation as determined by BODIPY-C16 and Nile red fluorescence, respectively. Activation of AMPK by berberine induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and subsequently induced CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) binding to the C/EBP-response element in the CD36 promoter in hepatocytes. In addition, hepatic CD36 expression and triglyceride levels were increased in normal diet-fed mice treated with berberine, but completely prevented when hepatic CD36 was silenced with adenovirus containing CD36-specific shRNA. Taken together, prolonged activation of AMPK by berberine increased CD36 expression in hepatocytes, resulting in fatty acid uptake via processes linked to hepatocellular lipid accumulation and fatty liver. - Highlights: • Berberine increases the expression and membrane translocation of CD36 in hepatocytes. • The increase of CD36 results in enhanced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation. • Berberine-induced fatty liver is mediated by AMPK-ERK-C/EBPβ pathway. • CD36-specific shRNA inhibited berberine-induced lipid accumulation in liver.

  3. Effect of Curcumin on Phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghanbarzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK as key regulators of cell metabolism, plays a major role in the activation of catabolic pathways, such as glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation. Thus, activation of this pathway can be used in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Many studied proposed the effectiveness of the polyphenols present in rhizomes of turmeric (curcumin on diabetes and its related complications. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of curcumin as an activator of AMPK pathway in C2C12 muscle cells. Methods: This study was done on C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. The cells were classified into two distinct groups: first group was treated with 40µM curcumin and the second one with 0.1% DMSO as a negative control. The phosphorylated (AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl COA carboxylase (ACC were evaluated and compared by Western blotting technique. Results: intracellular phosphorylated AMPK protein content in Curcumin-treated group was 132.6% and ACC protein phosphorylated was 366.47%. Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of phosphorylated AMPK and ACC protein in cells treated with curcumin are higher than the negative control. Thus curcumin can be regarded as an activator of AMPK activity in these cells and can assist as a potential target for making anti diabetic medecine that has a synergistic activity with insulin.

  4. Lymphocytes accelerate epithelial tight junction assembly: role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiao Tang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The tight junctions (TJs, characteristically located at the apicolateral borders of adjacent epithelial cells, are required for the proper formation of epithelial cell polarity as well as for sustaining the mucosal barrier to the external environment. The observation that lymphocytes are recruited by epithelial cells to the sites of infection [1] suggests that they may play a role in the modulation of epithelial barrier function and thus contribute to host defense. To test the ability of lymphocytes to modulate tight junction assembly in epithelial cells, we set up a lymphocyte-epithelial cell co-culture system, in which Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells, a well-established model cell line for studying epithelial TJ assembly [2], were co-cultured with mouse lymphocytes to mimic an infection state. In a typical calcium switch experiment, the TJ assembly in co-culture was found to be accelerated compared to that in MDCK cells alone. This accelaration was found to be mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK activation was independent of changes in cellular ATP levels but it was found to be activated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Forced suppression of AMPK, either with a chemical inhibitor or by knockdown, abrogated the accelerating effect of lymphocytes on TJ formation. Similar results were also observed in a co-culture with lymphocytes and Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells, suggesting that the activation of AMPK may be a general mechanism underlying lymphocyte-accelerated TJ assembly in different epithelia. These results suggest that signals from lymphocytes, such as cytokines, facilitate TJ assembly in epithelial cells via the activation of AMPK.

  5. PKA/AMPK signaling in relation to adiponectin's antiproliferative effect on multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, E A; Oberheu, K; Polusani, S R; Ortega, V; Velagaleti, G V N; Oyajobi, B O

    2014-10-01

    Obesity increases the risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM). Adiponectin is a cytokine produced by adipocytes, but paradoxically decreased in obesity, that has been implicated in MM progression. Herein, we evaluated how prolonged exposure to adiponectin affected the survival of MM cells as well as putative signaling mechanisms. Adiponectin activates protein kinase A (PKA), which leads to decreased AKT activity and increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. AMPK, in turn, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Adiponectin-induced apoptosis may be mediated, at least in part, by the PKA/AMPK-dependent decline in the expression of the enzyme acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC), which is essential to lipogenesis. Supplementation with palmitic acid, the preliminary end product of fatty acid synthesis, rescues MM cells from adiponectin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an ACC inhibitor, exhibited potent antiproliferative effects on MM cells that could also be inhibited by fatty acid supplementation. Thus, adiponectin's ability to reduce survival of MM cells appears to be mediated through its ability to suppress lipogenesis. Our findings suggest that PKA/AMPK pathway activators, or inhibitors of ACC, may be useful adjuvants to treat MM. Moreover, the antimyeloma effect of adiponectin supports the concept that hypoadiponectinemia, as occurs in obesity, promotes MM tumor progression.

  6. Honokiol activates the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway and attenuates the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Park, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    Honokiol is a bioactive neolignan compound isolated from the species of Magnolia. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which honokiol alleviates the development of non-alcoholic steatosis. HepG2 cells were treated with honokiol for 1 h, and then exposed to 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) for 24 h to simulate non-alcoholic steatosis in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 28 days, and honokiol (10 mg/kg/day) was daily treated. Honokiol concentration-dependently attenuated intracellular fat overloading and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Honokiol significantly inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) maturation and the induction of lipogenic proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by pretreatment of an AMPK inhibitor. Honokiol induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, which were inhibited by genetic deletion of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Honokiol stimulated LKB1 phosphorylation, and genetic deletion of LKB1 blocked the effect of honokiol on SREBP-1c maturation and the induction of SCD-1 and FAS proteins in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. Honokiol attenuated the increases in hepatic TG and lipogenic protein levels and fat accumulation in the mice fed with high-fat diet, while significantly induced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that honokiol has an anti-lipogenic effect in hepatocytes, and this effect may be mediated by the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway, which induces ACC phosphorylation and inhibits SREBP-1c maturation in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Honokiol attenuates lipid accumulation induced by free fatty acid in hepatocyte. • Honokiol inhibits the increase in lipogenic enzyme levels induced by free fatty

  7. Honokiol activates the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway and attenuates the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Park, Sang Won, E-mail: parksw@gnu.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Honokiol is a bioactive neolignan compound isolated from the species of Magnolia. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which honokiol alleviates the development of non-alcoholic steatosis. HepG2 cells were treated with honokiol for 1 h, and then exposed to 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) for 24 h to simulate non-alcoholic steatosis in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 28 days, and honokiol (10 mg/kg/day) was daily treated. Honokiol concentration-dependently attenuated intracellular fat overloading and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor. Honokiol significantly inhibited sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) maturation and the induction of lipogenic proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by pretreatment of an AMPK inhibitor. Honokiol induced AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation, which were inhibited by genetic deletion of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Honokiol stimulated LKB1 phosphorylation, and genetic deletion of LKB1 blocked the effect of honokiol on SREBP-1c maturation and the induction of SCD-1 and FAS proteins in FFA-exposed HepG2 cells. Honokiol attenuated the increases in hepatic TG and lipogenic protein levels and fat accumulation in the mice fed with high-fat diet, while significantly induced LKB1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that honokiol has an anti-lipogenic effect in hepatocytes, and this effect may be mediated by the LKB1–AMPK signaling pathway, which induces ACC phosphorylation and inhibits SREBP-1c maturation in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Honokiol attenuates lipid accumulation induced by free fatty acid in hepatocyte. • Honokiol inhibits the increase in lipogenic enzyme levels induced by free fatty

  8. AMPK modulatory activity of olive–tree leaves phenolic compounds: Bioassay-guided isolation on adipocyte model and in silico approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Olivares-Vicente, Mariló; Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Herranz-López, María; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Encinar, José Antonio; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Scope Olive-tree polyphenols have demonstrated potential for the management of obesity-related pathologies. We aimed to explore the capacity of Olive-tree leaves extract to modulate triglyceride accumulation and AMP-activated protein kinase activity (AMPK) on a hypertrophic adipocyte model. Methods Intracellular triglycerides and AMPK activity were measured on the hypertrophic 3T3-L1 adipocyte model by AdipoRed and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass detection with electrospray ionization (RP-HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS) was used for the fractionation of the extract and the identification of the compounds. In-silico molecular docking of the AMPK alpha-2, beta and gamma subunits with the identified compounds was performed. Results Olive-tree leaves extract decreased the intracellular lipid accumulation through AMPK-dependent mechanisms in hypertrophic adipocytes. Secoiridoids, cinnamic acids, phenylethanoids and phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and lignans were the candidates predicted to account for this effect. Molecular docking revealed that some compounds may be AMPK-gamma modulators. The modulatory effects of compounds over the alpha and beta AMPK subunits appear to be less probable. Conclusions Olive-tree leaves polyphenols modulate AMPK activity, which may become a therapeutic aid in the management of obesity-associated disturbances. The natural occurrence of these compounds may have important nutritional implications for the design of functional ingredients. PMID:28278224

  9. Commonly used fertility drugs, a diet supplement, and stress force AMPK-dependent block of stemness and development in cultured mammalian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Alan; Abdulhasan, Mohammed; Kilburn, Brian; Xie, Yufen; Howard, Mindie; Andresen, Paul; Shamir, Alexandra M; Dai, Jing; Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to test whether metformin, aspirin, or diet supplement (DS) BioResponse-3,3'-Diindolylmethane (BR-DIM) can induce AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent potency loss in cultured embryos and whether metformin (Met) + Aspirin (Asa) or BR-DIM causes an AMPK-dependent decrease in embryonic development. The methods used were as follows: culture post-thaw mouse zygotes to the two-cell embryo stage and test effects after 1-h AMPK agonists' (e.g., Met, Asa, BR-DIM, control hyperosmotic stress) exposure on AMPK-dependent loss of Oct4 and/or Rex1 nuclear potency factors, confirm AMPK dependence by reversing potency loss in two-cell-stage embryos with AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC), test whether Met + Asa (i.e., co-added) or DS BR-DIM decreases development of two-cell to blastocyst stage in an AMPK-dependent (CC-sensitive) manner, and evaluate the level of Rex1 and Oct4 nuclear fluorescence in two-cell-stage embryos and rate of two-cell-stage embryo development to blastocysts. Met, Asa, BR-DIM, or hyperosmotic sorbitol stress induces rapid ~50-85 % Rex1 and/or Oct4 protein loss in two-cell embryos. This loss is ~60-90 % reversible by co-culture with AMPK inhibitor CC. Embryo development from two-cell to blastocyst stage is decreased in culture with either Met + Asa or BR-DIM, and this is either >90 or ~60 % reversible with CC, respectively. These experimental designs here showed that Met-, Asa-, BR-DIM-, or sorbitol stress-induced rapid potency loss in two-cell embryos is AMPK dependent as suggested by inhibition of Rex1 and/or Oct4 protein loss with an AMPK inhibitor. The DS BR-DIM or fertility drugs (e.g., Met + Asa) that are used to enhance maternal metabolism to support fertility can also chronically slow embryo growth and block development in an AMPK-dependent manner.

  10. Euglycemia in Diabetic Rats Leads to Reduced Liver Weight via Increased Autophagy and Apoptosis through Increased AMPK and Caspase-3 and Decreased mTOR Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Euglycemia is the ultimate goal in diabetes care to prevent complications. However, the benefits of euglycemia in type 2 diabetes are controversial because near-euglycemic subjects show higher mortality than moderately hyperglycemic subjects. We previously reported that euglycemic-diabetic rats on calorie-control lose a critical liver weight (LW compared with hyperglycemic rats. Here, we elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of LW in euglycemic-diabetic rats and identified a potential risk in achieving euglycemia by calorie-control. Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats generated by subtotal-pancreatectomy were fed a calorie-controlled diet for 7 weeks to achieve euglycemia using 19 kcal% (19R or 6 kcal% (6R protein-containing chow or fed ad libitum (19AL. The diet in both R groups was isocaloric/kg body weight to the sham-operated group (19S. Compared with 19S and hyperglycemic 19AL, both euglycemic R groups showed lower LWs, increased autophagy, and increased AMPK and caspase-3 and decreased mTOR activities. Though degree of insulin deficiency was similar among the diabetic rats, Akt activity was lower, and PTEN activity was higher in both R groups than in 19AL whose signaling patterns were similar to 19S. In conclusion, euglycemia achieved by calorie-control is deleterious in insulin deficiency due to increased autophagy and apoptosis in the liver via AMPK and caspase-3 activation.

  11. Chloroquine increases phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt in myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry D. Spears

    2016-03-01

    Significance: These ATM-independent effects of chloroquine on AMPK and Akt and the additional effect to decrease intracellular calcium are likely to partially underlie the positive metabolic effects of chloroquine that have been reported in the literature.

  12. LPS inhibits caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by the AMPK activator AICAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russe, Otto Quintus; Möser, Christine V.; Kynast, Katharina L.; King, Tanya S.; Olbrich, Katrin; Grösch, Sabine; Geisslinger, Gerd; Niederberger, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AMPK-activation induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. • Apoptosis is associated with decreased mTOR and increased p21 levels. • All effects can be significantly inhibited by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. - Abstract: AMP-activated kinase is a cellular energy sensor which is activated in stages of increased ATP consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decreasing inflammatory processes and the disease progress of diabetes and obesity, respectively. Furthermore, AMPK activation has been linked with induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer and vascular cells, indicating that it might have a therapeutic impact for the treatment of cancer and atherosclerosis. However, the impact of AMPK on the proliferation of macrophages, which also play a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and in inflammatory processes, has not been focused so far. We have assessed the influence of AICAR- and metformin-induced AMPK activation on cell viability of macrophages with and without inflammatory stimulation, respectively. In cells without inflammatory stimulation, we found a strong induction of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis associated with decreased mTOR levels and increased expression of p21. Interestingly, these effects could be inhibited by co-stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by other proinflammatory cytokines suggesting that AICAR induces apoptosis via AMPK in a TLR4-pathway dependent manner. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK activation is not only associated with positive effects but might also contribute to risk factors by disturbing important features of macrophages. The fact that LPS is able to restore AMPK-associated apoptosis might indicate an important role of TLR4 agonists in preventing unfavorable cell death of immune cells

  13. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  14. LPS inhibits caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by the AMPK activator AICAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russe, Otto Quintus, E-mail: quintus@russe.eu; Möser, Christine V., E-mail: chmoeser@hotmail.com; Kynast, Katharina L., E-mail: katharina.kynast@googlemail.com; King, Tanya S., E-mail: tanya.sarah.king@googlemail.com; Olbrich, Katrin, E-mail: Katrin.olbrich@gmx.net; Grösch, Sabine, E-mail: groesch@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Geisslinger, Gerd, E-mail: geisslinger@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Niederberger, Ellen, E-mail: e.niederberger@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • AMPK-activation induces caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. • Apoptosis is associated with decreased mTOR and increased p21 levels. • All effects can be significantly inhibited by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. - Abstract: AMP-activated kinase is a cellular energy sensor which is activated in stages of increased ATP consumption. Its activation has been associated with a number of beneficial effects such as decreasing inflammatory processes and the disease progress of diabetes and obesity, respectively. Furthermore, AMPK activation has been linked with induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer and vascular cells, indicating that it might have a therapeutic impact for the treatment of cancer and atherosclerosis. However, the impact of AMPK on the proliferation of macrophages, which also play a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and in inflammatory processes, has not been focused so far. We have assessed the influence of AICAR- and metformin-induced AMPK activation on cell viability of macrophages with and without inflammatory stimulation, respectively. In cells without inflammatory stimulation, we found a strong induction of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis associated with decreased mTOR levels and increased expression of p21. Interestingly, these effects could be inhibited by co-stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but not by other proinflammatory cytokines suggesting that AICAR induces apoptosis via AMPK in a TLR4-pathway dependent manner. In conclusion, our results revealed that AMPK activation is not only associated with positive effects but might also contribute to risk factors by disturbing important features of macrophages. The fact that LPS is able to restore AMPK-associated apoptosis might indicate an important role of TLR4 agonists in preventing unfavorable cell death of immune cells.

  15. Interleukin-18 activates skeletal muscle AMPK and reduces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Birgitte Lindegaard; Matthews, Vance B; Brandt, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high fat diet induced insulin resistance by activating AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the α isoform of the IL-18...... receptor (IL-18R(-/-)), fed a standard chow or high fat diet (HFD). We next performed gain of function experiments in skeletal muscle, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. We show that IL-18 is implicated in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation and insulin resistance via mechanisms involving the activation...

  16. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. PMID:27413159

  17. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren; Sha, Su-Hua

    2016-07-13

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/367497-14$15.00/0.

  18. Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Glycolysis and Tumorigenesis in Colorectal Carcinoma Cells via AMPK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-tao Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of AEG-1 in glycolysis and tumorigenesis, we construct myc-AEG-1 expression vector and demonstrate a novel mechanism that AEG-1 may increase the activity of AMPK by Thr172 phosphorylation. The higher expression levels of AEG-1 in colorectal carcinoma cells were found but showed significant difference in different cell lines. To study the role of AEG-1 in colorectal cells, myc-AEG-1 vector was constructed and transfected into NCM460 colonic epithelial cells. We observed consistent increasing of glucose consumption and lactate production, typical features of anaerobic glycolysis, suggesting that AEG-1 may promote anaerobic glycolysis. Moreover, we noted that AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 as well as pPFK2 (Ser466 was increased in NCM460 cells overexpressing AEG-1. Compound C may block AMPK and PFK2 phosphorylation in both control and AEG-1-overexpressed cells and decrease the glucose consumption and lactate production. The present findings indicated that reduced AEG-1 protein levels by RNAi may decrease the glucose consumption and lactate production in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. The present identified AEG-1/AMPK/PFK2 glycolysis cascade may be essential to cell proliferation and tumor growth. The present results may provide us with a mechanistic insight into novel targets controlled by AEG-1, and the components in the AEG-1/AMPK/PFK2 glycolysis process may be targeted for the clinical treatment of cancer.

  19. Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead a(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism...... and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued...... the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems...

  20. Neutrophil-Derived MMP-8 Drives AMPK-Dependent Matrix Destruction in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Catherine W. M.; Elkington, Paul T.; Brilha, Sara; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Tome-Esteban, Maite T.; Tezera, Liku B.; Pabisiak, Przemyslaw J.; Moores, Rachel C.; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Patel, Vimal; Gilman, Robert H.; Porter, Joanna C.; Friedland, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary cavities, the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), are characterized by high mycobacterial load and perpetuate the spread of M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of matrix destruction resulting in cavitation is not well defined. Neutrophils are emerging as key mediators of TB immunopathology and their influx are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated neutrophil-dependent mechanisms involved in TB-associated matrix destruction using a cellular model, a cohort of 108 patients, and in separate patient lung biopsies. Neutrophil-derived NF-kB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) secretion was up-regulated in TB and caused matrix destruction both in vitro and in respiratory samples of TB patients. Collagen destruction induced by TB infection was abolished by doxycycline, a licensed MMP inhibitor. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contain MMP-8 and are increased in samples from TB patients. Neutrophils lined the circumference of human pulmonary TB cavities and sputum MMP-8 concentrations reflected TB radiological and clinical disease severity. AMPK, a central regulator of catabolism, drove neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and neutrophils from AMPK-deficient patients secrete lower MMP-8 concentrations. AMPK-expressing neutrophils are present in human TB lung biopsies with phospho-AMPK detected in nuclei. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived MMP-8 has a key role in the immunopathology of TB and is a potential target for host-directed therapy in this infectious disease. PMID:25996154

  1. Neutrophil-Derived MMP-8 Drives AMPK-Dependent Matrix Destruction in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Catherine W M; Elkington, Paul T; Brilha, Sara; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Tome-Esteban, Maite T; Tezera, Liku B; Pabisiak, Przemyslaw J; Moores, Rachel C; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Patel, Vimal; Gilman, Robert H; Porter, Joanna C; Friedland, Jon S

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary cavities, the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), are characterized by high mycobacterial load and perpetuate the spread of M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of matrix destruction resulting in cavitation is not well defined. Neutrophils are emerging as key mediators of TB immunopathology and their influx are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated neutrophil-dependent mechanisms involved in TB-associated matrix destruction using a cellular model, a cohort of 108 patients, and in separate patient lung biopsies. Neutrophil-derived NF-kB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) secretion was up-regulated in TB and caused matrix destruction both in vitro and in respiratory samples of TB patients. Collagen destruction induced by TB infection was abolished by doxycycline, a licensed MMP inhibitor. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contain MMP-8 and are increased in samples from TB patients. Neutrophils lined the circumference of human pulmonary TB cavities and sputum MMP-8 concentrations reflected TB radiological and clinical disease severity. AMPK, a central regulator of catabolism, drove neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and neutrophils from AMPK-deficient patients secrete lower MMP-8 concentrations. AMPK-expressing neutrophils are present in human TB lung biopsies with phospho-AMPK detected in nuclei. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived MMP-8 has a key role in the immunopathology of TB and is a potential target for host-directed therapy in this infectious disease.

  2. Hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism mediate thyroid regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Miguel; Varela, Luis; Vázquez, María J; Rodríguez-Cuenca, Sergio; González, Carmen R; Velagapudi, Vidya R; Morgan, Donald A; Schoenmakers, Erik; Agassandian, Khristofor; Lage, Ricardo; Martínez de Morentin, Pablo Blanco; Tovar, Sulay; Nogueiras, Rubén; Carling, David; Lelliott, Christopher; Gallego, Rosalía; Oresic, Matej; Chatterjee, Krishna; Saha, Asish K; Rahmouni, Kamal; Diéguez, Carlos; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Thyroid hormones have widespread cellular effects; however it is unclear whether their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to global energy balance. Here we demonstrate that either whole-body hyperthyroidism or central administration of triiodothyronine (T3) decreases the activity of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increases sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and upregulates thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Inhibition of the lipogenic pathway in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) prevents CNS-mediated activation of BAT by thyroid hormone and reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. Similarly, inhibition of thyroid hormone receptors in the VMH reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. This regulatory mechanism depends on AMPK inactivation, as genetic inhibition of this enzyme in the VMH of euthyroid rats induces feeding-independent weight loss and increases expression of thermogenic markers in BAT. These effects are reversed by pharmacological blockade of the SNS. Thus, thyroid hormone-induced modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism in the hypothalamus is a major regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis.

  3. Hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism mediate thyroid regulation of energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Miguel; Varela, Luis; Vázquez, María J.; Rodríguez-Cuenca, Sergio; González, Carmen R.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Morgan, Donald A.; Schoenmakers, Erik; Agassandian, Khristofor; Lage, Ricardo; de Morentin, Pablo Blanco Martínez; Tovar, Sulay; Nogueiras, Rubén; Carling, David; Lelliott, Christopher; Gallego, Rosalía; Orešič, Matej; Chatterjee, Krishna; Saha, Asish K.; Rahmouni, Kamal; Diéguez, Carlos; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have widespread cellular effects; however it is unclear whether their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to global energy balance. Here, we demonstrate that either whole body hyperthyroidism or central administration of triiodothyronine (T3) decreases the activity of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increases sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and upregulates thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Inhibition of the lipogenic pathway in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) prevents CNS-mediated activation of BAT by thyroid hormone and reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. Similarly inhibition of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in the VMH reverses the weight loss associated with hyperthyroidism. This regulatory mechanism depends on AMPK inactivation as genetic ablation of this enzyme in the VMH of euthyroid rats induces feeding-independent weight loss and increases expression of thermogenic markers in BAT. These effects are reversed by pharmacological blockade of the SNS. Thus, thyroid-hormone-induced modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism in the hypothalamus is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. PMID:20802499

  4. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity

  5. Compound 13, an α1-selective small molecule activator of AMPK, inhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced oxidative stresses and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hangyong; Zhu, Huanghuang; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Lv, Guoqiang, E-mail: lvguoqiangwuxivip@163.com

    2015-08-07

    Half of the world's population experiences Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, which is a main cause of gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of compound 13 (C13), a novel α1-selective small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity in cultured gastric epithelial cells (GECs). We found that C13 induced significant AMPK activation, evidenced by phosphorylation of AMPKα1 and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), in both primary and transformed GECs. Treatment of C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced GEC apoptosis. AMPK activation was required for C13-mediated GEC protection. Inhibition of AMPK kinase activity by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C, or silencing AMPKα1 expression by targeted-shRNAs, alleviated C13-induced GEC protective activities against H. pylori. Significantly, C13 inhibited H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. C13 induced AMPK-dependent expression of anti-oxidant gene heme oxygenase (HO-1) in GECs. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), two HO-1 inhibitors, not only suppressed C13-mediated ROS scavenging activity, but also alleviated its activity in GECs against H. pylori. Together, these results indicate that C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced ROS production and GEC apoptosis through activating AMPK–HO–1 signaling. - Highlights: • We synthesized compound 13 (C13), a α1-selective small molecule AMPK activator. • C13-induced AMPK activation requires α1 subunit in gastric epithelial cells (GECs). • C13 enhances Helicobacter pylori-induced pro-survival AMPK activation to inhibit GEC apoptosis. • C13 inhibits H. pylori-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in GECs. • AMPK-heme oxygenase (HO-1) activation is required for C13-mediated anti-oxidant activity.

  6. Valsartan independent of AT₁ receptor inhibits tissue factor, TLR-2 and -4 expression by regulation of Egr-1 through activation of AMPK in diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Kang, Young Jin; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2014-10-01

    Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a severe risk of atherothrombosis. Early growth response (Egr)-1 is well characterized as a central mediator in vascular pathophysiology. We tested whether valsartan independent of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can reduce tissue factor (TF) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4 by regulating Egr-1 in THP-1 cells and aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. High glucose (HG, 15 mM) increased expressions of Egr-1, TF, TLR-2 and -4 which were significantly reduced by valsartan. HG increased Egr-1 expression by activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in THP-1 cells. Valsartan increased AMPK phosphorylation in a concentration and time-dependent manner via activation of LKB1. Valsartan inhibited Egr-1 without activation of PKC or ERK1/2. The reduced expression of Egr-1 by valsartan was reversed by either silencing Egr-1, or compound C, or DN-AMPK-transfected cells. Valsartan inhibited binding of NF-κB and Egr-1 to TF promoter in HG condition. Furthermore, valsartan reduced inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activity in HG-activated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, these effects of valsartan were not affected by either silencing AT1R in THP-1 cells or CHO cells, which were devoid of AT1R. Importantly, administration of valsartan (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma TF activity, expression of Egr-1, TLR-2, -4 and TF in thoracic aorta and improved glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, we concluded that valsartan may reduce atherothrombosis in diabetic conditions through AMPK/Egr-1 regulation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Functional homology of gHs and gLs from EBV-related γ-herpesviruses for EBV-induced membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omerovic, Jasmina; Longnecker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus that primarily infects B lymphocytes and epithelial cells. Entry of EBV into B cells requires the viral glycoproteins gp42, gH/gL and gB, while gp42 is not necessary for infection of epithelial cells. In EBV, gH and gL form two distinct complexes, a bipartite complex that contains only gH and gL, used for infection of epithelial cells, and a tripartite complex that additionally includes gp42, used for infection of B cells. The gH/gL complex is conserved within the herpesvirus family, but its exact role in entry and mechanism of fusion is not yet known. To understand more about the functionality of EBVgH/gL, we investigated the functional homology of gHs and gLs from human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) and two primate (rhesus and marmoset) γ-herpesviruses in EBV-mediated virus-free cell fusion assay. Overall, gHs and gLs from the more homologous primate herpesviruses were better at complementing EBV gH and gL in fusion than HHV8 gH and gL. Interestingly, marmoset gH was able to complement fusion with epithelial cells, but not B cells. Further investigation of this led to the discovery that EBVgH is the binding partner of gp42 in the tripartite complex and the absence of fusion with B cells in the presence of marmoset gH/gL is due to its inability to bind gp42

  8. AMPK is essential for energy homeostasis regulation and glucose sensing by POMC and AgRP neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Marc; Smith, Mark A; Batterham, Rachel L; Selman, Colin; Choudhury, Agharul I; Fryer, Lee G D; Clements, Melanie; Al-Qassab, Hind; Heffron, Helen; Xu, Allison W; Speakman, John R; Barsh, Gregory S; Viollet, Benoit; Vaulont, Sophie; Ashford, Michael L J; Carling, David; Withers, Dominic J

    2007-08-01

    Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to act as a key sensing mechanism, responding to hormones and nutrients in the regulation of energy homeostasis. However, the precise neuronal populations and cellular mechanisms involved are unclear. The effects of long-term manipulation of hypothalamic AMPK on energy balance are also unknown. To directly address such issues, we generated POMC alpha 2KO and AgRP alpha 2KO mice lacking AMPK alpha2 in proopiomelanocortin- (POMC-) and agouti-related protein-expressing (AgRP-expressing) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis. POMC alpha 2KO mice developed obesity due to reduced energy expenditure and dysregulated food intake but remained sensitive to leptin. In contrast, AgRP alpha 2KO mice developed an age-dependent lean phenotype with increased sensitivity to a melanocortin agonist. Electrophysiological studies in AMPK alpha2-deficient POMC or AgRP neurons revealed normal leptin or insulin action but absent responses to alterations in extracellular glucose levels, showing that glucose-sensing signaling mechanisms in these neurons are distinct from those pathways utilized by leptin or insulin. Taken together with the divergent phenotypes of POMC alpha 2KO and AgRP alpha 2KO mice, our findings suggest that while AMPK plays a key role in hypothalamic function, it does not act as a general sensor and integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus.

  9. mTORC2 and AMPK differentially regulate muscle triglyceride content via Perilipin 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Parker, Benjamin L; Chaudhuri, Rima

    2016-01-01

    culture. RESULTS: Ric mKO mice exhibited a greater reliance on fat as an energy substrate, a re-partitioning of lean to fat mass and an increase in intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) content, along with increases in several lipid metabolites in muscle. Unbiased proteomics revealed an increase......OBJECTIVE: We have recently shown that acute inhibition of both mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2) increases whole-body lipid utilization, while mTORC1 inhibition had no effect. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mTORC2 regulates lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. METHODS: Body composition...... in the expression of the lipid droplet binding protein Perilipin 3 (PLIN3) in muscle from Ric mKO mice. This was associated with increased AMPK activity in Ric mKO muscle. Reducing AMPK kinase activity decreased muscle PLIN3 expression and IMTG content. AMPK agonism, in turn, increased PLIN3 expression in a FoxO1...

  10. Effect of resistance exercise under conditions of reduced blood insulin on AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation and AMPK pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Kohei; Yokokawa, Takumi; Ato, Satoru; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    Insulin stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake via activation of the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) pathway. Recent studies suggest that insulin downregulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity via Ser485/491 phosphorylation of the AMPK α-subunit. Thus lower blood insulin concentrations may induce AMPK signal activation. Acute exercise is one method to stimulate AMPK activation; however, no study has examined the relationship between blood insulin levels and acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation would be augmented by disruptions in insulin secretion through a decrease in AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation. To test the hypothesis, 10-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the toxin streptozotocin (STZ; 55 mg/kg) to destroy the insulin secreting β-cells. Three days postinjection, the right gastrocnemius muscle from STZ and control rats was subjected to resistance exercise by percutaneous electrical stimulation. Animals were killed 0, 1, or 3 h later; activation of the Akt/AMPK and downstream pathways in the muscle tissue was analyzed by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Notably, STZ rats showed a significant decrease in basal Akt and AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation, but substantial exercise-induced increases in both AMPKα Thr172 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) Ser79 phosphorylation were observed. Although no significant impact on resistance exercise-induced Akt pathway activation or glucose uptake was found, resistance exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) gene expression was augmented by STZ treatment. Collectively, these data suggest that circulating insulin levels may regulate acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation and AMPK-dependent gene expression relating to basal AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017

  11. Negative regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) family members in non-small cell lung carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephanie E; Rendon, Beatriz E; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A

    2012-11-02

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a nutrient- and metabolic stress-sensing enzyme activated by the tumor suppressor kinase, LKB1. Because macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its functional homolog, d-dopachrome tautomerase (d-DT), have protumorigenic functions in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) but have AMPK-activating properties in nonmalignant cell types, we set out to investigate this apparent paradox. Our data now suggest that, in contrast to MIF and d-DTs AMPK-activating properties in nontransformed cells, MIF and d-DT act cooperatively to inhibit steady-state phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in LKB1 wild type and LKB1 mutant human NSCLC cell lines. Our data further indicate that MIF and d-DT, acting through their shared cell surface receptor, CD74, antagonize NSCLC AMPK activation by maintaining glucose uptake, ATP production, and redox balance, resulting in reduced Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β-dependent AMPK activation. Combined, these studies indicate that MIF and d-DT cooperate to inhibit AMPK activation in an LKB1-independent manner.

  12. Ampk phosphorylation of Ulk1 is required for targeting of mitochondria to lysosomes in exercise-induced mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Rhianna C; Drake, Joshua C; Wilson, Rebecca J; Lira, Vitor A; Lewellen, Bevan M; Ryall, Karen A; Fisher, Carleigh C; Zhang, Mei; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Goodyear, Laurie J; Kundu, Mondira; Yan, Zhen

    2017-09-15

    Mitochondrial health is critical for skeletal muscle function and is improved by exercise training through both mitochondrial biogenesis and removal of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria via mitophagy. The mechanisms underlying exercise-induced mitophagy have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that acute treadmill running in mice causes mitochondrial oxidative stress at 3-12 h and mitophagy at 6 h post-exercise in skeletal muscle. These changes were monitored using a novel fluorescent reporter gene, pMitoTimer, that allows assessment of mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitophagy in vivo, and were preceded by increased phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase (Ampk) at tyrosine 172 and of unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (Ulk1) at serine 555. Using mice expressing dominant negative and constitutively active Ampk in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that Ulk1 activation is dependent on Ampk. Furthermore, exercise-induced metabolic adaptation requires Ulk1. These findings provide direct evidence of exercise-induced mitophagy and demonstrate the importance of Ampk-Ulk1 signaling in skeletal muscle.Exercise is associated with biogenesis and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. Here the authors use a mitochondrial reporter gene to demonstrate the occurrence of mitophagy following exercise in mice, and show this is dependent on AMPK and ULK1 signaling.

  13. Influences of different dietary energy level on sheep testicular development associated with AMPK/ULK1/autophagy pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jing; Li, Fengzhe; Feng, Xu; Yang, Hua; Han, Le; Fan, Yixuan; Nie, Haitao; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yanli

    2018-03-01

    Energy balance is an important feature for spermatozoa production in the testis. The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cell energy, has been implicated as a mediator between gonadal function and energy balance. Herein, we intended to determine the physiological effects of AMPK on testicular development in feed energy restricted and compensated pre-pubertal rams. Lambs had restricted feeding for 2 months and then provided compensatory feeding for another 3 months. Feed levels were 100%(control), 15% and 30% of energy restriction (ER) diets, respectively. The results showed that lambs fed the 30% ER diet had significantly lower testicular weight (P energy requirement after restriction. Taken together, dietary energy levels influence testicular development through autophagy and apoptosis interplay mediated by AMPK-ULK1 signal pathway, which also indicates the important role of the actions of AMPK in the testis homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreased spontaneous activity in AMPK alpha 2 muscle specific kinase dead mice is not caused by changes in brain dopamine metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lisbeth Liliendal Valbjørn; Sylow, Lykke; Gøtzsche, Casper René

    2016-01-01

    was tested in an open field test. Furthermore, we investigated maximal running capacity and voluntary running over a period of 19 days. AMPK α2 KD mice ran 30% less in daily distance compared to WT. Furthermore, AMPK α2 KD mice showed significantly decreased locomotor activity in the open field test compared...... through alterations of the brain dopamine levels specifically in the striatal region. To test this hypothesis, transgenic mice overexpressing an inactivatable dominant negative α2 AMPK construct (AMPK α2 KD) in muscles and littermate wildtype (WT) mice were tested. AMPK α2 KD mice have impaired running...... capacity and display reduced voluntary wheel running activity. Striatal content of dopamine and its metabolites were measured under basal physiological conditions and after cocaine-induced dopamine efflux from the ventral striatum by in vivo microdialysis. Moreover, cocaine-induced locomotor activity...

  15. FLCN and AMPK Confer Resistance to Hyperosmotic Stress via Remodeling of Glycogen Stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elite Possik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of adaptation to environmental changes in osmolarity are fundamental for cellular and organismal survival. Here we identify a novel osmotic stress resistance pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, which is dependent on the metabolic master regulator 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and its negative regulator Folliculin (FLCN. FLCN-1 is the nematode ortholog of the tumor suppressor FLCN, responsible for the Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD tumor syndrome. We show that flcn-1 mutants exhibit increased resistance to hyperosmotic stress via constitutive AMPK-dependent accumulation of glycogen reserves. Upon hyperosmotic stress exposure, glycogen stores are rapidly degraded, leading to a significant accumulation of the organic osmolyte glycerol through transcriptional upregulation of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzymes (gpdh-1 and gpdh-2. Importantly, the hyperosmotic stress resistance in flcn-1 mutant and wild-type animals is strongly suppressed by loss of AMPK, glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, or simultaneous loss of gpdh-1 and gpdh-2 enzymes. Our studies show for the first time that animals normally exhibit AMPK-dependent glycogen stores, which can be utilized for rapid adaptation to either energy stress or hyperosmotic stress. Importantly, we show that glycogen accumulates in kidneys from mice lacking FLCN and in renal tumors from a BHD patient. Our findings suggest a dual role for glycogen, acting as a reservoir for energy supply and osmolyte production, and both processes might be supporting tumorigenesis.

  16. Valsartan independent of AT1 receptor inhibits tissue factor, TLR-2 and-4 expression by regulation of Egr-1 through activation of AMPK in diabetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Kang, Young Jin; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a severe risk of atherothrombosis. Early growth response (Egr)-1 is well characterized as a central mediator in vascular pathophysiology. We tested whether valsartan independent of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can reduce tissue factor (TF) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and-4 by regulating Egr-1 in THP-1 cells and aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. High glucose (HG, 15 mM) increased expressions of Egr-1, TF, TLR-2 and-4 which were significantly reduced by valsartan. HG increased Egr-1 expression by activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in THP-1 cells. Valsartan increased AMPK phosphorylation in a concentration and time-dependent manner via activation of LKB1. Valsartan inhibited Egr-1 without activation of PKC or ERK1/2. The reduced expression of Egr-1 by valsartan was reversed by either silencing Egr-1, or compound C, or DN-AMPK-transfected cells. Valsartan inhibited binding of NF-κB and Egr-1 to TF promoter in HG condition. Furthermore, valsartan reduced inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activity in HG-activated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, these effects of valsartan were not affected by either silencing AT1R in THP-1 cells or CHO cells, which were devoid of AT1R. Importantly, administration of valsartan (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma TF activity, expression of Egr-1, TLR-2,-4 and TF in thoracic aorta and improved glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, we concluded that valsartan may reduce atherothrombosis in diabetic conditions through AMPK/Egr-1 regulation. PMID:25109475

  17. Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), a mediator of estradiol-induced apoptosis in long-term estrogen deprived breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Ji-Ping; Santen, Richard J; Yue, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Estrogens stimulate growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer but paradoxically induce tumor regress under certain circumstances. We have shown that long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) enhances the sensitivity of hormone dependent breast cancer cells to estradiol (E2) so that physiological concentrations of estradiol induce apoptosis in these cells. E2-induced apoptosis involve both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways but precise mechanisms remain unclear. We found that exposure of LTED MCF-7 cells to E2 activated AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, E2 inhibited AMPK activation in wild type MCF-7 cells where E2 prevents apoptosis. As a result of AMPK activation, the transcriptional activity of FoxO3, a downstream factor of AMPK, was up-regulated in E2 treatment of LTED. Increased activity of FoxO3 was demonstrated by up-regulation of three FoxO3 target genes, Bim, Fas ligand (FasL), and Gadd45α. Among them, Bim and FasL mediate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis respectively and Gadd45α causes cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. To further confirm the role of AMPK in apoptosis, we used AMPK activator AICAR in wild type MCF-7 cells and examined apoptosis, proliferation and expression of Bim, FasL, and Gadd45α. The effects of AICAR on these parameters recapitulated those observed in E2-treated LTED cells. Activation of AMPK by AICAR also increased expression of Bax in MCF-7 cells and its localization to mitochondria, which is a required process for apoptosis. These results reveal that AMPK is an important factor mediating E2-induced apoptosis in LTED cells, which is implicative of therapeutic potential for relapsing breast cancer after hormone therapy.

  18. HUBUNGAN DOSIS TEPUNG GEMBILI (Dioscorea esculenta DENGAN TINGKAT EKSPRESI ENZIM Ampk-α2 PADA MODEL TIKUS DIABETES MELITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    neni oktiyani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Alternative methods of controlling glucose levels in patients with diabetes is by type of food, either by utilizing yam flour. At the flour contained inulin and resistant starch that can activate the enzyme AMPK-α2. Activation of these enzymes will stimulate glucose transport in skeletal muscle and liver, thus causing a decrease in glucose production. Varying doses of flour is expected to affect the expression of AMPK-α2. This study aims to dosage relationship yam flour (Dioscorea esculenta with tigkat-α2 AMPK enzyme expression in the nucleus skeletal muscle and liver in mouse models of diabetes mellitus. The study was a quasi-experimental design with Post Test Only Group Design. Rats were divided into 5 (five groups, healthy mice, the mice with type 2 diabetes, and type 2 groups of diabetic rats with dietary intake yam flour addition of 1.25 g (TG-1:25,, 2.5 g (TG -2.5, 5.0 g (TG-5.0. Yam flour is mixed into the rat diet feed with varying doses. The results showed no significant correlation between the dose of yam flour with AMPK-α2 expression levels in skeletal muscle nuclei (p = 0.312 and liver (p = 0.474 in a mouse model of DM. The need for other studies using other types of food as an alternative arrangement of food for patients with diabetes Keywords: diabetes mellitus type 2, AMPK-α2, yam flour Abstrak: Metode alternatif pengendalian kadar glukosa pada penderita DM adalah dengan pengaturan jenis makanan, salah satunya dengan memanfaatkan tepung gembili. Pada tepung terdapat inulin dan pati resisten yang dapat mengaktivasi enzim Ampk-α2. Aktivasi enzim ini akan menstimulasi transpor glukosa di otot skelet dan hepar, sehingga menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan produksi glukosa. Dosis bervariasi dari tepung diharapkan mampu berpengaruh terhadap ekspresi Ampk-α2. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk hubungan dosis tepung gembili (Dioscorea esculenta dengan tigkat ekspresi enzim Ampk-α2 di nukleus otot skelet dan hepar pada model

  19. Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory cytokine production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Ming; Zhang, You-Yi; He, Bei

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved in regulating inflammation in several cell lines. We reported that fenoterol, a β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 -AR) agonist, had anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. Whether the fenoterol anti-inflammatory effect involves the AMPK pathway is unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism of β 2 -AR stimulation with fenoterol in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells. We studied whether fenoterol and β-arrestin-2 or AMPKα1 subunit knockdown could affect LPS-induced AMPK activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release were reduced with fenoterol pretreatment of THP-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of β-arrestin-2 abolished the fenoterol inhibition of LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release, thus β-arrestin-2 mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenoterol on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. In addition, siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β release, so AMPKα1 was a key signaling molecule involved in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggested the β 2 -AR agonist fenoterol inhibited LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β release via β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cells. The exploration of these mechanisms may help optimize therapeutic agents targeting these pathways in inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • β 2 -AR agonist fenoterol exerts its protective effect on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. • Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β production. • β-arrestin2 mediates fenoterol-inhibited AMPK activation and IL-1β release. • AMPKα1 is involved in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production

  20. Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory cytokine production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yuan [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Xu, Ming; Zhang, You-Yi [Department of Institute of Vascular Medicine and Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Receptors Research, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); He, Bei, E-mail: puh3_hb@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-26

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved in regulating inflammation in several cell lines. We reported that fenoterol, a β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (β{sub 2}-AR) agonist, had anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. Whether the fenoterol anti-inflammatory effect involves the AMPK pathway is unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism of β{sub 2}-AR stimulation with fenoterol in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells. We studied whether fenoterol and β-arrestin-2 or AMPKα1 subunit knockdown could affect LPS-induced AMPK activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release were reduced with fenoterol pretreatment of THP-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of β-arrestin-2 abolished the fenoterol inhibition of LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release, thus β-arrestin-2 mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenoterol on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. In addition, siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β release, so AMPKα1 was a key signaling molecule involved in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggested the β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol inhibited LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β release via β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cells. The exploration of these mechanisms may help optimize therapeutic agents targeting these pathways in inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol exerts its protective effect on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. • Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β production. • β-arrestin2 mediates fenoterol-inhibited AMPK activation and IL-1β release. • AMPKα1 is involved in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production.

  1. Sucrose nonfermenting AMPK-related kinase (SNARK) mediates contraction-stimulated glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Toyoda, Taro; Fujii, Nobuharu; Jung, Michelle M.; Rathod, Amee; Middelbeek, R. Jan-Willem; Lessard, Sarah J.; Treebak, Jonas T.; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2010-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms that mediate the important effects of contraction to increase glucose transport in skeletal muscle are not well understood, but are known to occur through an insulin-independent mechanism. Muscle-specific knockout of LKB1, an upstream kinase for AMPK and AMPK-related protein kinases, significantly inhibited contraction-stimulated glucose transport. This finding, in conjunction with previous studies of ablated AMPKα2 activity showing no effect on contraction-stimulated...

  2. Lipoprotein internalisation induced by oncogenic AMPK activation is essential to maintain glioblastoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, M; Foretz, M; Viollet, B; Prieto, A; Fraga, M; García-Caballero, T; Costoya, J A; Señarís, R

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic adaptations are essential during tumour growth to maintain the high proliferation levels exhibited by cancer cells. In this study, we examined the transformations that occurred in the lipid metabolism in astrocytic tumours, and the possible role of the fuel-sensing enzyme AMPK. Metabolic targets might help design new and effective drugs for cancer. To accomplish this objective, we studied both mice and human astrocytic tumours. We first used a mouse model of astrocytoma driven by oncogenic H-RasV12 and/or with PTEN deletion based on the common constitutive activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT cascades in human astrocytomas. We then confirmed the results in human glioblastoma cell lines and in glioblastoma tissue samples from patients. We show that the high levels of activated AMPK, observed in astrocytic tumours, increase extracellular lipid internalisation and reduce energy expenditure by inhibiting 'de novo' fatty acid (FA) synthesis, which allows tumour cells to obtain building blocks and energy to be able to create new organelles and new cells. Our findings demonstrate that AMPK plays a crucial role in glioblastoma cell growth and suggest that blocking lipoprotein receptors could potentially be used as a plausible therapeutic approach for these and other type of tumours with high levels of AMPK. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The AMPK enzyme-complex: from the regulation of cellular energy homeostasis to a possible new molecular target in the management of chronic inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, Luca; Colucci, Rocchina; Pellegrini, Carolina; Giustarini, Giulio; Sacco, Deborah; Tirotta, Erika; Caputi, Valentina; Marsilio, Ilaria; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Németh, Zoltán H; Blandizzi, Corrado; Fornai, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), known as an enzymatic complex that regulates the energetic metabolism, is emerging as a pivotal enzyme and enzymatic pathway involved in the regulation of immune homeostatic networks. It is also involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases. AMPK is expressed in several immune cell types including macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and dendritic cells, and governs a broad array of cell functions, which include cytokine production, chemotaxis, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and proliferation. Based on its wide variety of immunoregulatory actions, the AMPK system has been targeted to reveal its impact on the course of immune-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, psoriasis, joint inflammation and inflammatory bowel diseases. The identification of AMPK subunits responsible for specific anti-inflammatory actions and the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms will promote the generation of novel AMPK activators, endowed with improved pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. These new tools will aid us to utilize AMPK pathway activation in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, while minimizing potential adverse reactions related to the effects of AMPK on metabolic energy.

  4. Evaluation of radioisotopic and non-radioisotopic versions of local lymph node assays for subcategorization of skin sensitizers compliant to UN GHS rev 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Soojin; Ahn, Il Young; Kim, Da-Eun; Lee, Jong Kwon; Sohn, Soojung; Jung, Mi-Sook; Heo, Yong; Omori, Takashi; Bae, SeungJin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Recently UN GHS has introduced the sub-categorization of skin sensitizers for which ECt (concentration estimated to induce stimulation index above threshold) of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used as criteria. Non-radioisotopic variants of LLNA, LLNA: DA, LLNA: BrdU-ELISA, LNCC and LLNA: BrdU-FCM were developed yet their utilities for potency sub-categorization are not established. Here we assessed the agreement of LLNA variants with LLNA or human data in potency sub-categorization for 22 reference substances of OECD TG429. Concordance of sub-categorization with LLNA was highest for LLNA: BrdU-FCM(91%, κ = 0.833, weighted kappa) followed by LLNA: BrdU-ELISA (82%, κ = 0.744) and LLNA: DA (73%, κ = 0.656) whereas LNCC only showed a modest association (64%, κ = 0.441). With human data, LLNA agreed best (77%) followed by LLNA: DA and LLNA: BrdU-FCM(73%), LLNA: BrdU-ELISA (68%) and LNCC(55%). Bland-Altman plot revealed that ECt's of LLNA variants largely agreed with LLNA where most values fell within 95% limit of agreement. Correlation between ECt's of LLNA and LLNA variants were high except for LNCC(pair-wise with LLNA, LLNA: DA, r = 0.848, LLNA: BrdU-ELISA, r = 0.744, LLNA: BrdU-FCM, r=0.786, and LNCC, r = 0.561 by Pearson). Collectively, these results demonstrated that LLNA variants exhibit performance comparable to LLNA in the potency sub-categorization although additional substances shall be analyzed in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Shear Stress Induces Phenotypic Modulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via AMPK/mTOR/ULK1-Mediated Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqian; Zhao, Manman; Liu, Aihua; Lv, Ming; Zhang, Jingbo; Li, Youxiang; Yang, Xinjian; Wu, Zhongxue

    2018-03-01

    Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is involved in the pathophysiological processes of the intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Although shear stress has been implicated in the proliferation, migration, and phenotypic conversion of VSMCs, the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated whether shear stress(SS)-induced VSMC phenotypic modulation was mediated by autophagy involved in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) pathway. The results show that shear stress could inhibit the expression of key VSMC contractile genes and induce pro-inflammatory/matrix-remodeling genes levels, contributing to VSMCs phenotypic switching from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. More importantly, Shear stress also markedly increased the levels of the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3II), Beclin-1, and p62 degradation. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly blocked shear-induced phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. To further explore the molecular mechanism involved in shear-induced autophagy, we found that shear stress could activate AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway in VSMCs. Compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, significantly reduced the levels of p-AMPK and p-ULK, enhanced p-mTOR level, and finally decreased LC3II and Beclin-1 level, which suggested that activated AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling was related to shear-mediated autophagy. These results indicate that shear stress promotes VSMC phenotypic modulation through the induction of autophagy involved in activating the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway.

  6. Targeting deregulated AMPK/mTORC1 pathways improves muscle function in myotonic dystrophy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhoff, Marielle; Rion, Nathalie; Chojnowska, Kathrin; Wiktorowicz, Tatiana; Eickhorst, Christopher; Erne, Beat; Frank, Stephan; Angelini, Corrado; Furling, Denis; Rüegg, Markus A; Sinnreich, Michael; Castets, Perrine

    2017-02-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) is a disabling multisystemic disease that predominantly affects skeletal muscle. It is caused by expanded CTG repeats in the 3'-UTR of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. RNA hairpins formed by elongated DMPK transcripts sequester RNA-binding proteins, leading to mis-splicing of numerous pre-mRNAs. Here, we have investigated whether DM1-associated muscle pathology is related to deregulation of central metabolic pathways, which may identify potential therapeutic targets for the disease. In a well-characterized mouse model for DM1 (HSALR mice), activation of AMPK signaling in muscle was impaired under starved conditions, while mTORC1 signaling remained active. In parallel, autophagic flux was perturbed in HSALR muscle and in cultured human DM1 myotubes. Pharmacological approaches targeting AMPK/mTORC1 signaling greatly ameliorated muscle function in HSALR mice. AICAR, an AMPK activator, led to a strong reduction of myotonia, which was accompanied by partial correction of misregulated alternative splicing. Rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, improved muscle relaxation and increased muscle force in HSALR mice without affecting splicing. These findings highlight the involvement of AMPK/mTORC1 deregulation in DM1 muscle pathophysiology and may open potential avenues for the treatment of this disease.

  7. Pharmacological and Morphological Evidence of AMPK-Mediated Energy Sensing in the Lower Brain Stem Ependymocytes to Control Reproduction in Female Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minabe, Shiori; Deura, Chikaya; Ikegami, Kana; Goto, Teppei; Sanbo, Makoto; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Inoue, Naoko; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Tsukamura, Hiroko

    2015-06-01

    Ependymocytes are one of the energy-sensing cells that regulate animal reproduction through their responsiveness to changes in extracellular glucose levels and the expression of pancreatic-type glucokinase and glucose transporter 2, which play a critical role in sensing blood glucose levels in pancreatic β-cells. Molecular mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the ependymocytes remain poorly understood. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase highly conserved in all eukaryotic cells, has been suggested to be an intracellular fuel gauge that detects cellular energy status. The present study aims to clarify the role AMPK of the lower brainstem ependymocytes has in sensing glucose levels to regulate reproductive functions. First, we will show that administration of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside, an AMPK activator, into the 4th ventricle suppressed pulsatile LH release in female rats. Second, we will demonstrate the presence of AMPK catalytic subunit immunoreactivities in the rat lower brainstem ependymocytes. Third, transgenic mice were generated to visualize the ependymocytes with Venus, a green fluorescent protein, expressed under the control of the mouse vimentin promoter for further in vitro study. The Venus-labeled ependymocytes taken from the lower brainstem of transgenic mice revealed that AMPK activation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside, an AMPK activator, increased in vitro intracellular calcium concentrations. Taken together, malnutrition-induced AMPK activation of ependymocytes of the lower brainstem might be involved in suppression of GnRH/LH release and then gonadal activities.

  8. Effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa extract) on LPS-induced acute lung injury is mediated by the activation of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joungmin; Jeong, Seong-Wook; Quan, Hui; Jeong, Cheol-Won; Choi, Jeong-Il; Bae, Hong-Beom

    2016-02-01

    Curcumin, a biphenolic compound extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated whether curcumin could increase 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in macrophages and modulate the severity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Macrophages were treated with curcumin and then exposed (or not) to LPS. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal administration of LPS in BALB/c mice. Curcumin increased phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a downstream target of AMPK, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Curcumin did not increase phosphorylation of liver kinase B1, a primary kinase upstream of AMPK. STO-609, an inhibitor of calcium(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase, diminished curcumin-induced AMPK phosphorylation, but transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 inhibitor did not. Curcumin also diminished the LPS-induced increase in phosphorylation of inhibitory κB-alpha and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 by macrophages. Systemic administration of curcumin significantly decreased the production of TNF-α, MIP-2, and IL-6 as well as neutrophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and also decreased pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels and the wet/dry weight ratio in mice subjected to LPS treatment. These results suggest that the protective effect of curcumin on LPS-induced acute lung injury is associated with AMPK activation.

  9. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas

    2013-01-01

    . We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status......Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling...... were determined by Western blotting. AMPK activities were measured using activity assays. Protein levels of AMPK isoforms a1 and ¿1 were significantly increased while ¿3 levels decreased with training independent of group. The LBW group had higher exercise-induced AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation before...

  10. Nootkatone, a characteristic constituent of grapefruit, stimulates energy metabolism and prevents diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi

    2010-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in the control of energy metabolism and is considered to be a molecular target for the suppression of obesity and the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Here, we identified and characterized nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, as a naturally occurring AMPK activator. Nootkatone induced an increase in AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activity along with an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and an increase the phosphorylation of AMPKalpha and the downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in C(2)C(12) cells. Nootkatone-induced activation of AMPK was possibly mediated both by LKB1 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Nootkatone also upregulated PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha in C(2)C(12) cells and C57BL/6J mouse muscle. In addition, administration of nootkatone (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly enhanced AMPK activity, accompanied by LKB1, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of mice. Whole body energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was also increased by nootkatone administration. Long-term intake of diets containing 0.1% to 0.3% (wt/wt) nootkatone significantly reduced high-fat and high-sucrose diet-induced body weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation, and the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, endurance capacity, evaluated as swimming time to exhaustion in BALB/c mice, was 21% longer in mice fed 0.2% nootkatone than in control mice. These findings indicate that long-term intake of nootkatone is beneficial toward preventing obesity and improving physical performance and that these effects are due, at least in part, to enhanced energy metabolism through AMPK activation in skeletal muscle and liver.

  11. AMPK-mediated up-regulation of mTORC2 and MCL-1 compromises the anti-cancer effects of aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Yin, Yancun; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor that may inhibit cell proliferation or promote cell survival during stresses. Besides cyclooxygenase, AMPK is another target of the nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agent aspirin. Preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrate that aspirin can inhibit several types of cancer such as colorectal adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about the cellular response to aspirin that may lead to aspirin resistance. Here, we show that aspirin induces the expression of MCL-1 in HepG2 and SW480 cells through AMPK-mTOR-Akt/ERK axis. Treatment of HepG2 and SW480 cells with aspirin leads to increased MCL-1 expression, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of Akt/MEK abrogates the induction of MCL-1 by aspirin. Aspirin activates AMPK, which in turn up-regulates mTORC2 activity, Akt, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MCL-1 expression. MCL-1 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to aspirin-induced apoptosis. Combination of aspirin and AMPK, Akt or MEK inhibitor results in more significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis than single agent. Moreover, sorafenib blocks aspirin-induced MCL-1 up-regulation. Combination of aspirin and sorafenib leads to much more cell death and less cell proliferation than each drug alone. Treatment of HCC and colon cancer xenografts with both aspirin and sorafenib results in more significant tumor suppression than single agent. These data demonstrate that AMPK-mediated up-regulation of mTORC2 and MCL-1 may compromise the anticancer effects of aspirin. Combination of aspirin and sorafenib may be an effective regimen to treat HCC and colon cancer. PMID:26918349

  12. Jinlida granule inhibits palmitic acid induced-intracellular lipid accumulation and enhances autophagy in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells through AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingkun; Tian, Min; Qi, Yuan; Chen, Guang; Xu, Lijun; Zou, Xin; Wang, Kaifu; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer

    2015-02-23

    Jinlida granule (JLDG), composed of seventeen Chinese medical herbs, is a widely used Chinese herbal prescription for treating diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. To determine the main components in JLDG and to explore the effect of JLDG on autophagy and lipid accumulation in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells exposed to politic acid (PA) through AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. JLDG was prepared and the main components contained in the granules were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprint. Intracellular lipid accumulation in NIT-1 cells was induced by culturing with medium containing PA. Intracellular lipid droplets were observed by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) content was measured by colorimetric assay. The formation of autophagosomes was observed under transmission electron microscope. The expression of AMPK and phospho-AMPK (pAMPK) proteins as well as its downstream fatty acid metabolism-related proteins (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-coA carboxylase, ACC; carnitine acyltransferase 1, CPT-1) and autophagy-related genes (mammal target of rapamycin, mTOR; tuberous sclerosis complex 1, TSC1; microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, LC3-II) were determined by Western blot. The expression of sterol regulating element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA was examined by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Our data showed that JLDG could significantly reduce PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells. This effect was associated with increased protein expression of pAMPK and AMPK in NIT-1 cells. Treatment with JLDG also decreased the expression of AMPK downstream lipogenic genes (SREBP-1c mRNA, FAS and ACC proteins) whereas increased the expression of fatty acid oxidation gene (CPT-1 protein). Additionally, JLDG-treated cells displayed a markedly increase in the number of autophagosomes which was accompanied by the down-regulation of m

  13. Protectin DX suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMPK-HO-1-mediated inhibition of ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyung-Chun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have shown that protectins, which are ω-3 fatty acid-derived proresolution mediators, may improve insulin resistance. Recently, protectin DX (PDX) was documented to attenuate insulin resistance by stimulating IL-6 expression in skeletal muscle, thereby regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. These findings made us investigate the direct effects of PDX on hepatic glucose metabolism in the context of diabetes. In the current study, we show that PDX regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in a manner distinct from its indirect glucoregulatory activity via IL-6. We found that PDX stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, thereby inducing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. This induction blocked hepatic gluconeogenesis by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes under hyperlipidemic conditions. These effects were significantly dampened by silencing AMPK or HO-1 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA). We also demonstrated that administration of PDX to high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice resulted in increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation and HO-1 expression, whereas hepatic ER stress was substantially attenuated. Furthermore, PDX treatment suppressed the expression of gluconeogenic genes, thereby decreasing blood glucose levels in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PDX inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via AMPK-HO-1-dependent suppression of ER stress. Thus, PDX may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. GLP-1 analogue improves hepatic lipid accumulation by inducing autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qin; Sha, Sha; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Ming, E-mail: dr_dongming@126.com

    2016-08-05

    The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) keeps rising year by year, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Clinical studies have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, liraglutide (LRG), cannot only reduce glucose levels, but also improve hepatic lipase, especially in patients also with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, enhancing autophagy decreases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of LRG on hepatocyte steatosis and the possible role of autophagy. We set up an obesity mouse model with a high-fat diet (HFD) and induced hepatocyte steatosis with free fatty acids (FFA) in human L-O2 cells. LRG and two inhibitors of autophagy, Chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (Baf), were added into each group, respectively. The lipid profiles and morphological modifications of each group were tested. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure autophagy in this study. The autophagy protein expression of SQSTM1 (P62), and LC3B, along with the signaling pathway proteins of mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) and Beclin1, were evaluated by western blot. Our results showed that LRG improved hepatocyte steatosis by inducing autophagy, and the AMPK/mTOR pathway is involved. These findings suggest an important mechanism for the positive effects of LRG on hepatic steatosis, and provide new evidence for clinical use of LRG in NAFLD. -- Highlights: •Liraglutide reduces lipid accumulation in hepatic steatosis both in vivo and in vitro. •Autophagy was involved in relieving effects of liraglutide on hepatic steatosis. •AMPK/mTOR pathway was involved in liraglutide-induced autophagy.

  15. GLP-1 analogue improves hepatic lipid accumulation by inducing autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Qin; Sha, Sha; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) keeps rising year by year, and NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver disease worldwide. Clinical studies have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, liraglutide (LRG), cannot only reduce glucose levels, but also improve hepatic lipase, especially in patients also with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, enhancing autophagy decreases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of LRG on hepatocyte steatosis and the possible role of autophagy. We set up an obesity mouse model with a high-fat diet (HFD) and induced hepatocyte steatosis with free fatty acids (FFA) in human L-O2 cells. LRG and two inhibitors of autophagy, Chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (Baf), were added into each group, respectively. The lipid profiles and morphological modifications of each group were tested. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure autophagy in this study. The autophagy protein expression of SQSTM1 (P62), and LC3B, along with the signaling pathway proteins of mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) and Beclin1, were evaluated by western blot. Our results showed that LRG improved hepatocyte steatosis by inducing autophagy, and the AMPK/mTOR pathway is involved. These findings suggest an important mechanism for the positive effects of LRG on hepatic steatosis, and provide new evidence for clinical use of LRG in NAFLD. -- Highlights: •Liraglutide reduces lipid accumulation in hepatic steatosis both in vivo and in vitro. •Autophagy was involved in relieving effects of liraglutide on hepatic steatosis. •AMPK/mTOR pathway was involved in liraglutide-induced autophagy.

  16. The effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of metformin or AICAR on the plasma concentrations of melatonin in the ewe: potential involvement of AMPK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collet Armelle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now widely accepted that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a critical regulator of energy homeostasis. Recently, it has been shown to regulate circadian clocks. In seasonal breeding species such as sheep, the circadian clock controls the secretion of an endogenous rhythm of melatonin and, as a consequence, is probably involved in the generation of seasonal rhythms of reproduction. Considering this, we identified the presence of the subunits of AMPK in different hypothalamic nuclei involved in the pre- and post-pineal pathways that control seasonality of reproduction in the ewe and we investigated if the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of two activators of AMPK, metformin and AICAR, affected the circadian rhythm of melatonin in ewes that were housed in constant darkness. In parallel the secretion of insulin was monitored as a peripheral metabolic marker. We also investigated the effects of i.c.v. AICAR on the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, a downstream target of AMPK, in brain structures along the photoneuroendocrine pathway to the pineal gland. Results All the subunits of AMPK that we studied were identified in all brain areas that were dissected but with some differences in their level of expression among structures. Metformin and AICAR both reduced (p Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest a potential role for AMPK on the secretion of melatonin probably acting trough the paraventricular nucleus and/or directly in the pineal gland. We conclude that AMPK may act as a metabolic cue to modulate the rhythm of melatonin secretion.

  17. Effect of acute exercise on AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes: a time-course and dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Coletta, Dawn K; Wajcberg, Estela; Balbontin, Gabriela B; Reyna, Sara M; Barrientes, John; Eagan, Phyllis A; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2007-03-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise induces several cellular processes in muscle. Exercise activation of AMPK is unaffected in lean (BMI approximately 25 kg/m(2)) subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, most type 2 diabetic subjects are obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)), and exercise stimulation of AMPK is blunted in obese rodents. We examined whether obese type 2 diabetic subjects have impaired exercise stimulation of AMPK, at different signaling levels, spanning from the upstream kinase, LKB1, to the putative AMPK targets, AS160 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1alpha, involved in glucose transport regulation and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Twelve type 2 diabetic, eight obese, and eight lean subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 40 min. Muscle biopsies were done before, during, and after exercise. Subjects underwent this protocol on two occasions, at low (50% Vo(2max)) and moderate (70% Vo(2max)) intensities, with a 4-6 week interval. Exercise had no effect on LKB1 activity. Exercise had a time- and intensity-dependent effect to increase AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects had attenuated exercise-stimulated AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Type 2 diabetic subjects had reduced basal PGC-1 gene expression but normal exercise-induced increases in PGC-1 expression. Our findings suggest that obese type 2 diabetic subjects may need to exercise at higher intensity to stimulate the AMPK-AS160 axis to the same level as lean subjects.

  18. Intact regulation of the AMPK signaling network in response to exercise and insulin in skeletal muscle of male patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Hingst, Janne R

    2016-01-01

    ). Conversely, exercise decreased AMPK α1β2γ1 activity and TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Thr(642) phosphorylation. Interestingly, compared to pre-exercise, 3 h into exercise recovery AMPK α2β2γ1 and α1β2γ1 activity were increased concomitant with increased TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Ser(341)/Ser(704) phosphorylation. No differences...... and insulin stimulation. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized activation of specific AMPK complexes in exercise recovery. We hypothesize that the differential regulation of AMPK complexes plays an important role for muscle metabolism and adaptations to exercise....

  19. Thermogenic characterization of ghrelin receptor null mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that increases food intake and promotes adiposity, and these physiological functions of ghrelin are mediated through its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin/GHS-R signaling plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis....

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) is an AMPK target participating in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lai, Yu-Chiang; Hill, Elaine V; Tyteca, Donatienne; Carpentier, Sarah; Ingvaldsen, Ada; Vertommen, Didier; Lantier, Louise; Foretz, Marc; Dequiedt, Franck; Courtoy, Pierre J; Erneux, Christophe; Viollet, Benoît; Shepherd, Peter R; Tavaré, Jeremy M; Jensen, Jørgen; Rider, Mark H

    2013-10-15

    PIKfyve (FYVE domain-containing phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase), the lipid kinase that phosphorylates PtdIns3P to PtdIns(3,5)P2, has been implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We investigated whether PIKfyve could also be involved in contraction/AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Incubation of rat epitrochlearis muscles with YM201636, a selective PIKfyve inhibitor, reduced contraction- and AICAriboside (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside)-stimulated glucose uptake. Consistently, PIKfyve knockdown in C2C12 myotubes reduced AICAriboside-stimulated glucose transport. Furthermore, muscle contraction increased PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels and PIKfyve phosphorylation. AMPK phosphorylated PIKfyve at Ser307 both in vitro and in intact cells. Following subcellular fractionation, PIKfyve recovery in a crude intracellular membrane fraction was increased in contracting versus resting muscles. Also in opossum kidney cells, wild-type, but not S307A mutant, PIKfyve was recruited to endosomal vesicles in response to AMPK activation. We propose that PIKfyve activity is required for the stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake by contraction/AMPK activation. PIKfyve is a new AMPK substrate whose phosphorylation at Ser307 could promote PIKfyve translocation to endosomes for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis to facilitate GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) translocation.

  1. Intrasteric control of AMPK via the gamma1 subunit AMP allosteric regulatory site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julian; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Van Denderen, Bryce J W; Morton, Craig J; Parker, Michael W; Witters, Lee A; Stapleton, David; Kemp, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a alphabetagamma heterotrimer that is activated in response to both hormones and intracellular metabolic stress signals. AMPK is regulated by phosphorylation on the alpha subunit and by AMP allosteric control previously thought to be mediated by both alpha and gamma subunits. Here we present evidence that adjacent gamma subunit pairs of CBS repeat sequences (after Cystathionine Beta Synthase) form an AMP binding site related to, but distinct from the classical AMP binding site in phosphorylase, that can also bind ATP. The AMP binding site of the gamma(1) CBS1/CBS2 pair, modeled on the structures of the CBS sequences present in the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase crystal structure, contains three arginine residues 70, 152, and 171 and His151. The yeast gamma homolog, snf4 contains a His151Gly substitution, and when this is introduced into gamma(1), AMP allosteric control is substantially lost and explains why the yeast snf1p/snf4p complex is insensitive to AMP. Arg70 in gamma(1) corresponds to the site of mutation in human gamma(2) and pig gamma(3) genes previously identified to cause an unusual cardiac phenotype and glycogen storage disease, respectively. Mutation of any of AMP binding site Arg residues to Gln substantially abolishes AMP allosteric control in expressed AMPK holoenzyme. The Arg/Gln mutations also suppress the previously described inhibitory properties of ATP and render the enzyme constitutively active. We propose that ATP acts as an intrasteric inhibitor by bridging the alpha and gamma subunits and that AMP functions to derepress AMPK activity.

  2. Ultraviolet (UV and Hydrogen Peroxide Activate Ceramide-ER Stress-AMPK Signaling Axis to Promote Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE Cell Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS impair the physiological functions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells by inducing cell apoptosis, which is the main cause of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The mechanism by which UV/ROS induces RPE cell death is not fully addressed. Here, we observed the activation of a ceramide-endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling axis in UV and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-treated RPE cells. UV and H2O2 induced an early ceramide production, profound ER stress and AMPK activation. Pharmacological inhibitors against ER stress (salubrinal, ceramide production (fumonisin B1 and AMPK activation (compound C suppressed UV- and H2O2-induced RPE cell apoptosis. Conversely, cell permeable short-chain C6 ceramide and AMPK activator AICAR (5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide mimicked UV and H2O2’s effects and promoted RPE cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that UV/H2O2 activates the ceramide-ER stress-AMPK signaling axis to promote RPE cell apoptosis.

  3. AMPK promotes survival of c-Myc-positive melanoma cells by suppressing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Alain; Armaro, Marzia; Collodet, Caterina; Sordet-Dessimoz, Jessica; Giner, Maria Pilar; Christen, Stefan; Moco, Sofia; Leleu, Marion; de Leval, Laurence; Koch, Ute; Trumpp, Andreas; Sakamoto, Kei; Beermann, Friedrich; Radtke, Freddy

    2018-03-01

    Although c-Myc is essential for melanocyte development, its role in cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive skin cancer, is only partly understood. Here we used the Nras Q61K INK4a -/- mouse melanoma model to show that c-Myc is essential for tumor initiation, maintenance, and metastasis. c-Myc-expressing melanoma cells were preferentially found at metastatic sites, correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and high tumor initiation potential. Abrogation of c-Myc caused apoptosis in primary murine and human melanoma cells. Mechanistically, c-Myc-positive melanoma cells activated and became dependent on the metabolic energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic checkpoint kinase that plays an important role in energy and redox homeostasis under stress conditions. AMPK pathway inhibition caused apoptosis of c-Myc-expressing melanoma cells, while AMPK activation protected against cell death of c-Myc-depleted melanoma cells through suppression of oxidative stress. Furthermore, TCGA database analysis of early-stage human melanoma samples revealed an inverse correlation between C-MYC and patient survival, suggesting that C-MYC expression levels could serve as a prognostic marker for early-stage disease. © 2018 The Authors.

  4. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang; Sourbier, Carole; Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Jeong, Suhyoung; Vira, Manish A.; Ghosh, Manik Chandra; Romero, Vladimir Valera; Sougrat, Rachid; Vaulont, Sophie; Viollet, Benoî t; Kim, Yeongsang; Lee, Sunmin; Trepel, Jane B.; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Yang, Youfeng; Linehan, William Marston; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2011-01-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  5. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang

    2011-09-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Ginkgolide C Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via the AMPK Signaling Pathway

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    Chian-Jiun Liou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. The study aim was to evaluate the antiadipogenic effect of ginkgolide C in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ginkgolide C was used to treat differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Cell supernatant was collected to assay glycerol release, and cells were lysed to measure protein and gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipolysis by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Ginkgolide C significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. It also decreased adipogenesis-related transcription factor expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Furthermore, ginkgolide C enhanced adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase production for lipolysis and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, resulting in decreased activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase for fatty acid synthesis. In coculture with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C, ginkgolide C also improved activation of sirtuin 1 and phosphorylation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The results suggest that ginkgolide C is an effective flavone for increasing lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis in adipocytes through the activated AMPK pathway.

  7. Alleviation of senescence and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in aging kidney by short-term caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetics via modulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Cai, Guang-Yan; Ning, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jing-Chao; Lv, Yang; Hong, Quan; Cui, Shao-Yuan; Fu, Bo; Guo, Ya-Nan; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2017-03-07

    Renal fibrosis contributes to declining renal function in the elderly. What is unclear however, is whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to this age-related renal fibrosis. Here, we analyzed indicators of EMT during kidney aging and investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of short-term regimens of caloric restriction (CR) or caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs), including resveratrol and metformin. High glucose was used to induce premature senescence and EMT in human primary proximal tubular cells (PTCs) in vitro. To test the role of AMPK-mTOR signaling, siRNA was used to deplete AMPK. Cellular senescence and AMPK-mTOR signaling markers associated with EMT were detected. CR or CRMs treatment alleviated age-related EMT in aging kidneys, which was accompanied by activation of AMPK-mTOR signaling. High glucose induced premature senescence and EMT in PTCs in vitro, which was accompanied by down-regulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling. CRMs alleviated high glucose-induced senescence and EMT via stimulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling. Activation of AMPK/mTOR signaling protected PTCs from high glucose-induced EMT and cellular senescence. Short-term regimens of CR and CRMs alleviated age-related EMT via AMPK-mTOR signaling, suggesting a potential approach to reducing renal fibrosis during aging.

  8. Polyphenol-Rich Diets Exacerbate AMPK-Mediated Autophagy, Decreasing Proliferation of Mosquito Midgut Microbiota, and Extending Vector Lifespan.

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    Rodrigo Dutra Nunes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols.Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK positively regulated midgut autophagy leading to a decrease in bacterial proliferation and an increase in vector lifespan. Suppression of AMPK activity resulted in a 6-fold increase in midgut microbiota. Similarly, inhibition of polyphenol-induced autophagy induced an 8-fold increase in bacterial proliferation. Mosquitoes maintained on the polyphenol diet were readily infected by dengue virus.The present findings uncover a new direct route by which exacerbation of autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway leads to a more efficient control of mosquito midgut microbiota and increases the average mosquito lifespan. Our results suggest for the first time that the polyphenol content and availability of the surrounding vegetation may increase the population of mosquitoes prone to infection with arboviruses.

  9. Energy Stress Regulates Hippo-YAP Signaling Involving AMPK-Mediated Regulation of Angiomotin-like 1 Protein

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    Michael DeRan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hippo signaling is a tumor-suppressor pathway involved in organ size control and tumorigenesis through the inhibition of YAP and TAZ. Here, we show that energy stress induces YAP cytoplasmic retention and S127 phosphorylation and inhibits YAP transcriptional activity and YAP-dependent transformation. These effects require the central metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and the upstream Hippo pathway components Lats1/Lats2 and angiomotin-like 1 (AMOTL1. Furthermore, we show that AMPK directly phosphorylates S793 of AMOTL1. AMPK activation stabilizes and increases AMOTL1 steady-state protein levels, contributing to YAP inhibition. The phosphorylation-deficient S793Ala mutant of AMOTL1 showed a shorter half-life and conferred resistance to energy-stress-induced YAP inhibition. Our findings link energy sensing to the Hippo-YAP pathway and suggest that YAP may integrate spatial (contact inhibition, mechanical, and metabolic signals to control cellular proliferation and survival.

  10. Activation of Liver AMPK with PF-06409577 Corrects NAFLD and Lowers Cholesterol in Rodent and Primate Preclinical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquejo, Ryan M; Salatto, Christopher T; Delmore, Jake; Albuquerque, Bina; Reyes, Allan; Shi, Yuji; Moccia, Rob; Cokorinos, Emily; Peloquin, Matthew; Monetti, Mara; Barricklow, Jason; Bollinger, Eliza; Smith, Brennan K; Day, Emily A; Nguyen, Chuong; Geoghegan, Kieran F; Kreeger, John M; Opsahl, Alan; Ward, Jessica; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Tess, David; Butler, Lynne; Shirai, Norimitsu; Osborne, Timothy F; Steinberg, Gregory R; Birnbaum, Morris J; Cameron, Kimberly O; Miller, Russell A

    2018-04-08

    Dysregulation of hepatic lipid and cholesterol metabolism is a significant contributor to cardiometabolic health, resulting in excessive liver lipid accumulation and ultimately non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therapeutic activators of the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) have been proposed as a treatment for metabolic diseases; we show that the AMPK β1-biased activator PF-06409577 is capable of lowering hepatic and systemic lipid and cholesterol levels in both rodent and monkey preclinical models. PF-06409577 is able to inhibit de novo lipid and cholesterol synthesis pathways, and causes a reduction in hepatic lipids and mRNA expression of markers of hepatic fibrosis. These effects require AMPK activity in the hepatocytes. Treatment of hyperlipidemic rats or cynomolgus monkeys with PF-06409577 for 6weeks resulted in a reduction in circulating cholesterol. Together these data suggest that activation of AMPK β1 complexes with PF-06409577 is capable of impacting multiple facets of liver disease and represents a promising strategy for the treatment of NAFLD and NASH in humans. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    signaling. Methods: Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given muscle-specific kinase α2 dead AMPK mice (KD) and wild type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 weeks. Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot......Background: Metformin-induced activation of AMPK has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent upon AMPK...... analyzes. Results: Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (45%, P...

  12. Benzimidazole derivative small-molecule 991 enhances AMPK activity and glucose uptake induced by AICAR or contraction in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bultot, Laurent; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Lai, Yu-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays diverse roles and coordinates complex metabolic pathways for maintenance of energy homeostasis. This could be explained by the fact that AMPK exists as multiple heterotrimer complexes comprising a catalytic α-subunit (α1 and α2) and regulatory β (β1 and β...

  13. Regulation of Ghrelin Receptor by Periodontal Bacteria In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Damanaki, Anna; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Eick, Sigrun; Memmert, Svenja; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Götz, Werner; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jäger, Andreas; Deschner, James

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin plays a major role in obesity-related diseases which have been shown to be associated with periodontitis. This study sought to analyze the expression of the functional receptor for ghrelin (GHS-R1a) in periodontal cells and tissues under microbial conditions in vitro and in vivo . The GHS-R1a expression in human periodontal cells challenged with the periodontopathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum , in gingival biopsies from periodontally healthy and diseased individuals, and from rats with and without ligature-induced periodontitis was analyzed by real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunofluorescence. F. nucleatum induced an initial upregulation and subsequent downregulation of GHS-R1a in periodontal cells. In rat experimental periodontitis, the GHS-R1a expression at periodontitis sites was increased during the early stage of periodontitis, but significantly reduced afterwards, when compared with healthy sites. In human gingival biopsies, periodontally diseased sites showed a significantly lower GHS-R1a expression than the healthy sites. The expression of the functional ghrelin receptor in periodontal cells and tissues is modulated by periodontal bacteria. Due to the downregulation of the functional ghrelin receptor by long-term exposure to periodontal bacteria, the anti-inflammatory actions of ghrelin may be diminished in chronic periodontal infections, which could lead to an enhanced periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction.

  14. Dietary Curcumin Ameliorates Aging-Related Cerebrovascular Dysfunction through the AMPK/Uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway

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    Yunfei Pu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. One pathogenic mechanism underlying this effect is increased oxidative stress. Up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 plays a crucial role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Dietary patterns are widely recognized as contributors to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary curcumin, which has an antioxidant effect, can improve aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via UCP2 up-regulation. Methods: The 24-month-old male rodents used in this study, including male Sprague Dawley (SD rats and UCP2 knockout (UCP2-/- and matched wild type mice, were given dietary curcumin (0.2%. The young control rodents were 6-month-old. Rodent cerebral artery vasorelaxation was detected by wire myograph. The AMPK/UCP2 pathway and p-eNOS in cerebrovascular and endothelial cells were observed by immunoblotting. Results: Dietary curcumin administration for one month remarkably restored the impaired cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aging SD rats. In cerebral arteries from aging SD rats and cultured endothelial cells, curcumin promoted eNOS and AMPK phosphorylation, up-regulated UCP2 and reduced ROS production. These effects of curcumin were abolished by either AMPK or UCP2 inhibition. Chronic dietary curcumin significantly reduced ROS production and improved cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent relaxation in aging wild type mice but not in aging UCP2-/- mice. Conclusions: Curcumin improves aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via the AMPK/UCP2 pathway.

  15. Rac1 and AMPK Account for the Majority of Muscle Glucose Uptake Stimulated by Ex Vivo Contraction but Not In Vivo Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylow, Lykke; Møller, Lisbeth L V; Kleinert, Maximilian; D'Hulst, Gommaar; De Groote, Estelle; Schjerling, Peter; Steinberg, Gregory R; Jensen, Thomas E; Richter, Erik A

    2017-06-01

    Exercise bypasses insulin resistance to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and therefore represents an important alternative to stimulate glucose uptake in insulin-resistant muscle. Both Rac1 and AMPK have been shown to partly regulate contraction-stimulated muscle glucose uptake, but whether those two signaling pathways jointly account for the entire signal to glucose transport is unknown. We therefore studied the ability of contraction and exercise to stimulate glucose transport in isolated muscles with AMPK loss of function combined with either pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of Rac1.Muscle-specific knockout (mKO) of Rac1, a kinase-dead α2 AMPK (α2KD), and double knockout (KO) of β1 and β2 AMPK subunits (β1β2 KO) each partially decreased contraction-stimulated glucose transport in mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Interestingly, when pharmacological Rac1 inhibition was combined with either AMPK β1β2 KO or α2KD, contraction-stimulated glucose transport was almost completely inhibited. Importantly, α2KD+Rac1 mKO double-transgenic mice also displayed severely impaired contraction-stimulated glucose transport, whereas exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo was only partially reduced by Rac1 mKO with no additive effect of α2KD. It is concluded that Rac1 and AMPK together account for almost the entire ex vivo contraction response in muscle glucose transport, whereas only Rac1, but not α2 AMPK, regulates muscle glucose uptake during submaximal exercise in vivo. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. Halofuginone ameliorates inflammation in severe acute hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected SD rats through AMPK activation

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    Zhan WL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weili Zhan, Yanhong Kang, Ning Chen, Chongshan Mao, Yi Kang, Jia Shang Department of Infectious Diseases, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV has caused acute and chronic liver diseases in ~350 million infected people worldwide. Halofuginone (HF is a plant alkaloid which has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in immune regulation. Our present study explored the function of HF in the immune response of HBV-infected Sprague Dawley (SD rats. Plasmid containing pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3 was injected in SD rats for the construction of an acute HBV-infected animal model. Our data showed that HF reduced the high concentrations of serum hepatitis B e-antigen, hepatitis B surface antigen, and HBV DNA induced by HBV infection. HF also reduced the number of T helper (Th17 cells and the expression of interleukin (IL-17 compared with the pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3 group. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-17, IL-23, interferon-γ, and IL-2 were downregulated and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-4 and IL-13 were upregulated by HF. Through further research we found that the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and IKBA which suppressed NF-κB activation was increased while the expression of p-NF-κB P65 was decreased in pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3+HF group compared with pCDNA3.1-HBV1.3 group, indicating that HF may work through the activation of AMPK. Finally, our conjecture was further verified by using the AMPK inhibitor compound C, which counteracted the anti-inflammation effect of HF, resulting in the decreased expression of AMPK, IKBA and increased expression of p-NF-κB P65 and reduced number of Th17 cells. In our present study, HF was considered as an anti-inflammatory factor in acute HBV-infected SD rats and worked through AMPK-mediated NF-κB p65 inactivation. This study implicated HF as a potential therapeutic strategy for hepatitis B. Keywords: halofuginone, hepatitis B virus

  17. Contraction-stimulated glucose transport in muscle is controlled by AMPK and mechanical stress but not sarcoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+ release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Sylow, Lykke; Rose, Adam John

    2014-01-01

    signals through proteins such as AMPK. Here, we demonstrate in incubated mouse muscle that Ca(2+) release is neither sufficient nor strictly necessary to increase glucose transport. Rather, the glucose transport response is associated with metabolic feedback signals through AMPK, and mechanical stress......-activated signals. Furthermore, artificial stimulation of AMPK combined with passive stretch of muscle is additive and sufficient to elicit the full contraction glucose transport response. These results suggest that ATP-turnover and mechanical stress feedback are sufficient to fully increase glucose transport...

  18. Metformin induces apoptosis through AMPK-dependent inhibition of UPR signaling in ALL lymphoblasts.

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    Gilles M Leclerc

    Full Text Available The outcome of patients with resistant phenotypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL or those who relapse remains poor. We investigated the mechanism of cell death induced by metformin in Bp- and T-ALL cell models and primary cells, and show that metformin effectively induces apoptosis in ALL cells. Metformin activated AMPK, down-regulated the unfolded protein response (UPR demonstrated by significant decrease in the main UPR regulator GRP78, and led to UPR-mediated cell death via up-regulation of the ER stress/UPR cell death mediators IRE1α and CHOP. Using shRNA, we demonstrate that metformin-induced apoptosis is AMPK-dependent since AMPK knock-down rescued ALL cells, which correlated with down-regulation of IRE1α and CHOP and restoration of the UPR/GRP78 function. Additionally rapamycin, a known inhibitor of mTOR-dependent protein synthesis, rescued cells from metformin-induced apoptosis and down-regulated CHOP expression. Finally, metformin induced PIM-2 kinase activity and co-treatment of ALL cells with a PIM-1/2 kinase inhibitor plus metformin synergistically increased cell death, suggesting a buffering role for PIM-2 in metformin's cytotoxicity. Similar synergism was seen with agents targeting Akt in combination with metformin, supporting our original postulate that AMPK and Akt exert opposite regulatory roles on UPR activity in ALL. Taken together, our data indicate that metformin induces ALL cell death by triggering ER and proteotoxic stress and simultaneously down-regulating the physiologic UPR response responsible for effectively buffering proteotoxic stress. Our findings provide evidence for a role of metformin in ALL therapy and support strategies targeting synthetic lethal interactions with Akt and PIM kinases as suitable for future consideration for clinical translation in ALL.

  19. Silencing Nrf2 impairs glioma cell proliferation via AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Yue [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Handong, E-mail: njhdwang@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Qiang [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Ding, Hui [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Southern Medical University (Guangzhou), 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Wu, Heming [Department of Neurosurgery, Nanjing Jingdu Hospital, No. 34, Biao 34, Yanggongjing Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China); Pan, Hao [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-01-15

    Gliomas are the leading cause of death among adults with primary brain malignancies. Treatment for malignant gliomas remains limited, and targeted therapies have been incompletely explored. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription regulator for antioxidant and detoxification enzymes, is abundantly expressed in cancer cells. In this study, the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in cancer cell proliferation was investigated in multiple glioma cell lines. We first evaluated the expression patterns of Nrf2 in four glioma cell lines and found all four cell lines expressed Nrf2, but the highest level was observed in U251 cells. We further evaluated the biological functions of Nrf2 in U251 glioma cell proliferation by specific inhibition of Nrf2 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). We found that Nrf2 depletion inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Nrf2 depletion also decreased colony formation in U251 cells stably expressing Nrf2 shRNA compared to scrambled control shRNA. Moreover, suppression of Nrf2 expression could lead to ATP depletion (with concomitant rise in AMP/ATP ratio) and consequently to AMPK-activated mTOR inhibition. Finally, activation of adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) by treated with phenformin, an AMPK agonist, can mimic the inhibitory effect of Nrf2 knockdown in U251 cells. In conclusion, our findings will shed light to the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in regulating glioma proliferation via ATP-depletion-induced AMPK activation and consequent mTOR inhibition, a novel insight into our understanding the role and mechanism of Nrf2 in glioma pathoetiology. To our knowledge, this is also the first report to provide a rationale for the implication of cross-linking between Nrf2 and mTOR signaling.

  20. Acute fluoride poisoning alters myocardial cytoskeletal and AMPK signaling proteins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    Our previous findings revealed that increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and necrosis were implicated in acute fluoride (F - ) induced cardiac dysfunction apart from hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia. Cardiac intermediate filaments (desmin and vimentin) and cytoskeleton linker molecule vinculin plays an imperative role in maintaining the architecture of cardiac cytoskeleton. In addition, AMPK is a stress activated kinase that regulates the energy homeostasis during stressed state. The present study was aimed to examine the role of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules in acute F - induced cardiotoxicity in rats. In order to study this, male Wistar rats were treated with single oral doses of 45 and 90mg/kgF - for 24h. Acute F - intoxicated rats showed declined cytoskeletal protein expression of desmin, vimentin and vinculin in a dose dependent manner compared to control. A significant increase in phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172), AMPKß1 (Ser108) and Acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) (Ser79) in the myocardium and associated ATP deprivation were found in acute F - intoxicated rats. Further, ultra-structural studies confirmed myofibril lysis with interruption of Z lines, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and damaged mitochondrion were observed in both the groups of F - intoxicated rats. Taken together, these findings reveal that acute F - exposure causes sudden heart failure by altering the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and AMPK signaling molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K(+) current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells....

  2. Saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner and suppresses gluconeogenesis and increases glucose uptake via phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo-Duck; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Wu, Chunyan; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-11-15

    This study investigated the molecular mechanism of saponarin, a flavone glucoside, in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. Saponarin suppressed the rate of gluconeogenesis and increased cellular glucose uptake in HepG2 and TE671 cells by regulating AMPK. Using an in vitro kinase assay, we showed that saponarin did not directly interact with the AMPK protein. Instead, saponarin increased intracellular calcium levels and induced AMPK phosphorylation, which was diminished by co-stimulation with STO-609, an inhibitor of CAMKKβ. Transcription of hepatic gluconeogenesis genes was upregulated by nuclear translocation of CRTC2 and HDAC5, coactivators of CREB and FoxO1 transcription factors, respectively. This nuclear translocation was inhibited by increased phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5 by saponarin-induced AMPK in HepG2 cells and suppression of CREB and FoxO1 transactivation activities in cells stimulated by saponarin. The results from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the reduced binding of CRTC2 on the PEPCK and G6Pase promoters. In TE671 cells, AMPK phosphorylated HDAC5, which suppressed nuclear penetration and upregulated GLUT4 transcription, leading to enhanced glucose uptake. Collectively, these results suggest that saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner, thus regulating gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Entada phaseoloides extract suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the AMPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Hao, Xincai; Wang, Qibin; Chen, Li; Jin, Si; Bian, Fang

    2016-12-04

    The seed of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. (Entada phaseoloides) has been long used as a folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus by Chinese ethnic minorities. Recent reports have demonstrated that total saponins from Entada phaseoloides (TSEP) could reduce fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of TSEP on type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were used to investigate the effects of TSEP on gluconeogenesis. After treatment with TSEP, glucose production, genes expression levels of Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and Phosphoenoylpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) were detected. The efficacy and underlying mechanism of TSEP on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway were determinated. TSEP significantly inhibited glucose production and the gluconeogenic gene expression. Treatment with TSEP elevated the phosphorylation of AMPK, which in turn promoted the phosphorylation of acetyl coenzyme A (ACC) and Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), respectively. Furthermore, TSEP reduced lipid accumulation and improved insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes. These findings provide evidence that TSEP exerts an antidiabetic effect by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis via the AMPK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Specific deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase (α1AMPK in murine oocytes alters junctional protein expression and mitochondrial physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Bertoldo

    Full Text Available Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are dynamic processes that are regulated by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signals. These signals are exchanged between the oocyte and the somatic cells of the follicle. Here we analyzed the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, an important regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, by using transgenic mice deficient in α1AMPK specifically in the oocyte. We found a decrease of 27% in litter size was observed in ZP3-α1AMPK-/- (ZP3-KO female mice. Following in vitro fertilization, where conditions are stressful for the oocyte and embryo, ZP3-KO oocytes were 68% less likely to pass the 2-cell stage. In vivo and in cumulus-oocyte complexes, several proteins involved in junctional communication, such as connexin37 and N-cadherin were down-regulated in the absence of α1AMPK. While the two signalling pathways (PKA and MAPK involved in the junctional communication between the cumulus/granulosa cells and the oocyte were stimulated in control oocytes, ZP3-KO oocytes exhibited only low phosphorylation of MAPK or CREB proteins. In addition, MII oocytes deficient in α1AMPK had a 3-fold lower ATP concentration, an increase in abnormal mitochondria, and a decrease in cytochrome C and PGC1α levels, suggesting perturbed energy production by mitochondria. The absence of α1AMPK also induced a reduction in histone deacetylase activity, which was associated with an increase in histone H3 acetylation (K9/K14 residues. Together, the results of the present study suggest that absence of AMPK, modifies oocyte quality through energy processes and oocyte/somatic cell communication. The limited effect observed in vivo could be partly due to a favourable follicle microenvironment where nutrients, growth factors, and adequate cell interaction were present. Whereas in a challenging environment such as that of in vitro culture following IVF, the phenotype is revealed.

  5. Deoxypodophyllotoxin suppresses tumor vasculature in HUVECs by promoting cytoskeleton remodeling through LKB1-AMPK dependent Rho A activatio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Wang, Bin; Guerram, Mounia; Sun, Li; Shi, Wei; Tian, Chongchong; Zhu, Xiong; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Luyong

    2015-10-06

    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in the growth and metastasis of tumors, which makes it an attractive target for anti-tumor drug development. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), a natural product isolated from Anthriscus sylvestris, inhibits cell proliferation and migration in various cancer cell types. Our previous studies indicate that DPT possesses both anti-angiogenic and vascular-disrupting activities. Although the RhoA/ RhoA kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is implicated in DPT-stimulated cytoskeleton remodeling and tumor vasculature suppressing, the detailed mechanisms by which DPT mediates these effects are poorly understood. In the current study, we found that DPT promotes cytoskeleton remodeling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and that this effect is abolished by either treatment with a selective AMPK inhibitor or knockdown. Moreover, the cellular levels of LKB1, a kinase upstream of AMPK, were enhanced following DPT exposure. DPT-induced activation of AMPK in tumor vasculature effect was also verified by transgenic zebrafish (VEGFR2:GFP), Matrigel plug assay, and xenograft model in nude mice. The present findings may lay the groundwork for a novel therapeutic approach in treating cancer.

  6. Use of genetic toxicity data in GHS mutagenicity classification and labeling of substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas S; Hollnagel, Heli M

    2017-06-01

    One of the key outcomes of testing the potential genotoxicity or mutagenicity of a substance is the conclusion on whether the substance should be classified as a germ cell mutagen and the significance of this for other endpoints such as carcinogenicity. The basis for this conclusion are the criteria presented in classification and labelling systems such as the Globally Harmonized System for classification and labeling (GHS). This article reviews the classification criteria for germ cell mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and how they are applied to substances with evidence of mutagenicity. The implications and suitability of such a classification for hazard communication, risk assessment, and risk management are discussed. It is proposed that genotoxicity assessments should not focus on specifically identifying germ cell mutagens, particularly given the challenges associated with communicating this information in a meaningful way. Rather the focus should be on deriving data to characterize the mode of action and for use in the risk assessment of mutagens, which could then feed into a more robust, risk based management of mutagenic substances versus the current more hazard based approaches. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:354-360, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling

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    Kai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health.

  8. Odanacatib Inhibits Resistin-induced Hypertrophic H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cells Through LKB1/AMPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Odanacatib (ODN is a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K. The cysteine protease cathepsin K has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Resistine is an adipokine which is identified to promote cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we hypothesize that ODN mitigates resistin-induced myocyte hypertrophy. Cell surface area and protein synthesis were measured after treatment with resistin and ODN in H9c2 cells. The expression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy marker BNP and β-MHC was detected by RT-qPCR. The expression and phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1 were analyzed with Western blot. Resistin could significantly increase cardiomyocyte cell surface area, protein synthesis, and embryonic gene BNP and β-MHC expression, inhibit phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1. ODN could significantly reverse the effects of resistin. Collectively, our data suggest that ODN can inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by resistin and the underlying mechanism may be involved in LKB1/AMPK pathway.

  9. Modifying the Dietary Carbohydrate-to-Protein Ratio Alters the Postprandial Macronutrient Oxidation Pattern in Liver of AMPK-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Even, Patrick C; Chaumontet, Catherine; Piedcoq, Julien; Viollet, Benoit; Gaudichon, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Foretz, Marc; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila

    2017-09-01

    Background: Hepatic AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activity is sensitive to the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. However, the role of AMPK in metabolic adaptations to variations in dietary macronutrients remains poorly understood. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic AMPK in the adaptation of energy metabolism in response to modulation of the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. Methods: Male 7-wk-old wild-type (WT) and liver AMPK-deficient (knockout) mice were fed either a normal-protein and normal-carbohydrate diet (NP-NC; 14% protein, 76% carbohydrate on an energy basis), a low-protein and high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 5% protein, 85% carbohydrate), or a high-protein and low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 55% protein, 35% carbohydrate) for 3 wk. During this period, after an overnight fast, metabolic parameters were measured and indirect calorimetry was performed in mice during the first hours after refeeding a 1-g calibrated meal of their own diet in order to investigate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Results: Knockout mice fed an LP-HC or HP-LC meal exhibited 24% and 8% lower amplitudes in meal-induced carbohydrate and lipid oxidation changes. By contrast, knockout mice fed an NP-NC meal displayed normal carbohydrate and lipid oxidation profiles. These mice exhibited a transient increase in hepatic triglycerides and a decrease in hepatic glycogen. These changes were associated with a 650% higher secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) 2 h after refeeding. Conclusions: The consequences of hepatic AMPK deletion depend on the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. In mice fed the NP-NC diet, deletion of AMPK in the liver led to an adaptation of liver metabolism resulting in increased secretion of FGF21. These changes possibly compensated for the absence of hepatic AMPK, as these mice exhibited normal postprandial changes in carbohydrate and lipid oxidation. By contrast, in mice fed the LP-HC and HP-LC diets, the

  10. Par3L enhances colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taiyuan; Liu, Dongning; Lei, Xiong; Jiang, Qunguang

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinase B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.

  11. Interdependence of AMPK and SIRT1 for metabolic adaptation to fasting and exercise in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantó, Carles; Jiang, Lake Q; Deshmukh, Atul S

    2010-01-01

    During fasting and after exercise, skeletal muscle efficiently switches from carbohydrate to lipid as the main energy source to preserve glycogen stores and blood glucose levels for glucose-dependent tissues. Skeletal muscle cells sense this limitation in glucose availability and transform...... and lipid utilization genes. Deficient AMPK activity compromises SIRT1-dependent responses to exercise and fasting, resulting in impaired PGC-1alpha deacetylation and blunted induction of mitochondrial gene expression. Thus, we conclude that AMPK acts as the primordial trigger for fasting- and exercise...

  12. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligen; Lee, Jong Han; Buras, Eric D; Yu, Kaijiang; Wang, Ruitao; Smith, C Wayne; Wu, Huaizhu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Sun, Yuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), increases in adipose tissues during aging, and old Ghsr(-/-) mice exhibit a lean and insulin-sensitive phenotype. Macrophages are major mediators of adipose tissue inflammation, which consist of pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes. Here, we show that in aged mice, GHS-R ablation promotes macrophage phenotypical shift toward anti-inflammatory M2. Old Ghsrp(-/-) mice have reduced macrophage infiltration, M1/M2 ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in white and brown adipose tissues. We also found that peritoneal macrophages of old Ghsrp(-/-) mice produce higher norepinephrine, which is in line with increased alternatively-activated M2 macrophages. Our data further reveal that GHS-R has cell-autonomous effects in macrophages, and GHS-R antagonist suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that ghrelin signaling has an important role in macrophage polarization and adipose tissue inflammation during aging. GHS-R antagonists may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic option for age-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

  13. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Tasneem; Opie, Lionel H. [Hatter Cardiovascular Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925 (South Africa); Essop, M. Faadiel, E-mail: mfessop@sun.ac.za [Cardio-Metabolic Research Group (CMRG), Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} AMPK inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene promoter activity. {yields} Nuclear respiratory factor-1 inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta promoter activity. {yields} AMPK regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: The cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC{beta}) produces malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. AMPK inhibits ACC{beta} activity, lowering malonyl-CoA levels and promoting mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation. Previously, AMPK increased promoter binding of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a pivotal transcriptional modulator controlling gene expression of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore hypothesized that NRF-1 inhibits myocardial ACC{beta} promoter activity via AMPK activation. A human ACC{beta} promoter-luciferase construct was transiently transfected into neonatal cardiomyocytes {+-} a NRF-1 expression construct. NRF-1 overexpression decreased ACC{beta} gene promoter activity by 71 {+-} 4.6% (p < 0.001 vs. control). Transfections with 5'-end serial promoter deletions revealed that NRF-1-mediated repression of ACC{beta} was abolished with a pPII{beta}-18/+65-Luc deletion construct. AMPK activation dose-dependently reduced ACC{beta} promoter activity, while NRF-1 addition did not further decrease it. We also investigated NRF-1 inhibition in the presence of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1), a known transactivator of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter. Here NRF-1 blunted USF1-dependent induction of ACC{beta} promoter activity by 58 {+-} 7.5% (p < 0.001 vs. control), reversed with a dominant negative NRF-1 construct. NRF-1 also suppressed endogenous USF1 transcriptional activity by 55 {+-} 6.2% (p < 0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACC{beta} to the transcriptional level.

  14. A conserved mechanism of autoinhibition for the AMPK kinase domain: ATP-binding site and catalytic loop refolding as a means of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littler, Dene R.; Walker, John R.; Davis, Tara; Wybenga-Groot, Leanne E.; Finerty, Patrick J. Jr; Newman, Elena; Mackenzie, Farell; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2010-01-01

    A 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the α2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved trimeric protein complex that is responsible for energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Here, a 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the α2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented. This human form adopts a catalytically inactive state with distorted ATP-binding and substrate-binding sites. The ATP site is affected by changes in the base of the activation loop, which has moved into an inhibited DFG-out conformation. The substrate-binding site is disturbed by changes within the AMPKα2 catalytic loop that further distort the enzyme from a catalytically active form. Similar structural rearrangements have been observed in a yeast AMPK homologue in response to the binding of its auto-inhibitory domain; restructuring of the kinase catalytic loop is therefore a conserved feature of the AMPK protein family and is likely to represent an inhibitory mechanism that is utilized during function

  15. Features of an altered AMPK metabolic pathway in Gilbert’s Syndrome, and its role in metabolic health

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Mölzer; Marlies Wallner; Carina Kern; Anela Tosevska; Ursula Schwarz; Rene Zadnikar; Daniel Doberer; Rodrig Marculescu; Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Energy metabolism, involving the ATP-dependent AMPK-PgC-Ppar pathway impacts metabolic health immensely, in that its impairment can lead to obesity, giving rise to disease. Based on observations that individuals with Gilbert?s syndrome (GS; UGT1A1 *28 promoter mutation) are generally lighter, leaner and healthier than controls, specific inter-group differences in the AMPK pathway regulation were explored. Therefore, a case-control study involving 120 fasted, healthy, age- and gender matched s...

  16. Two-cell embryos are more sensitive than blastocysts to AMPK-dependent suppression of anabolism and stemness by commonly used fertility drugs, a diet supplement, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Alan; Abdulhasan, Mohammed; Kilburn, Brian; Xie, Yufen; Howard, Mindie; Andresen, Paul; Shamir, Alexandra M; Dai, Jing; Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Secor, Eric; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2017-12-01

    This study tests whether metformin or diet supplement BR-DIM-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects on development are more pronounced in blastocysts or 2-cell mouse embryos. Culture mouse zygotes to two-cell embryos and test effects after 0.5-1 h AMPK agonists' (e.g., Met, BR-DIM) exposure on AMPK-dependent ACCser79P phosphorylation and/or Oct4 by immunofluorescence. Culture morulae to blastocysts and test for increased ACCser79P, decreased Oct4 and for AMPK dependence by coculture with AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). Test whether Met or BR-DIM decrease growth rates of morulae cultured to blastocyst by counting cells. Aspirin, metformin, and hyperosmotic sorbitol increased pACC ser79P ~ 20-fold, and BR-DIM caused a ~ 30-fold increase over two-cell embryos cultured for 1 h in KSOMaa but only 3- to 6-fold increase in blastocysts. We previously showed that these stimuli decreased Oct4 40-85% in two-cell embryos that was ~ 60-90% reversible by coculture with AMPK inhibitor CC. However, Oct4 decreased only 30-50% in blastocysts, although reversibility of loss by CC was similar at both embryo stages. Met and BR-DIM previously caused a near-complete cell proliferation arrest in two-cell embryos and here Met caused lower CC-reversible growth decrease and AMPK-independent BR-DIM-induced blastocyst growth decrease. Inducing drug or diet supplements decreased anabolism, growth, and stemness have a greater impact on AMPK-dependent processes in two-cell embryos compared to blastocysts.

  17. Integrative Analysis of PRKAG2 Cardiomyopathy iPS and Microtissue Models Identifies AMPK as a Regulator of Metabolism, Survival, and Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Travis Hinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a metabolic enzyme that can be activated by nutrient stress or genetic mutations. Missense mutations in the regulatory subunit, PRKAG2, activate AMPK and cause left ventricular hypertrophy, glycogen accumulation, and ventricular pre-excitation. Using human iPS cell models combined with three-dimensional cardiac microtissues, we show that activating PRKAG2 mutations increase microtissue twitch force by enhancing myocyte survival. Integrating RNA sequencing with metabolomics, PRKAG2 mutations that activate AMPK remodeled global metabolism by regulating RNA transcripts to favor glycogen storage and oxidative metabolism instead of glycolysis. As in patients with PRKAG2 cardiomyopathy, iPS cell and mouse models are protected from cardiac fibrosis, and we define a crosstalk between AMPK and post-transcriptional regulation of TGFβ isoform signaling that has implications in fibrotic forms of cardiomyopathy. Our results establish critical connections among metabolic sensing, myocyte survival, and TGFβ signaling.

  18. Expression of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-Activated protein kinase (AMPK) in ovine testis (Ovis aries): In vivo regulation by nutritional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, N; Dupont, J; Bouguermouh, Z; Froment, P; Ramé, C; Anane, A; Amirat, Z; Khammar, F

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we identified AMPK and investigated its potential role in steroidogenesis in vivo in the ovine testis in response to variation in nutritional status (fed control vs. restricted). We performed immunoblotting to show that both active and non-active forms of AMPK exist in ovine testis and liver. In testis, we confirmed these results by immunohistochemistry. We found a correlation between ATP (Adenosine-Triphosphate) levels and the expression of AMPK in liver. Also, low and high caloric diets induce isoform-dependent AMPK expression, with an increase in α2, ß1ß2 and γ1 activity levels. Although the restricted group exhibited an increase in lipid balance, only the triglyceride and HC-VLDL (Cholesterol-Very low density lipoprotein) fractions showed significant differences between groups, suggesting an adaptive mechanism. Moreover, the relatively low rate of non-esterified fatty acid released into the circulation implies re-esterification to compensate for the physiological need. In the fed control group, AMPK activates the production of testosterone in Leydig cells; this is, in turn, associated with an increase in the expression of 3ß-HSD (3 beta hydroxy steroid deshydrogenase), p450scc (Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme) and StAR (Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) proteins induced by decreased MAPK ERK½ (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase -Mitogen-activated protein kinase) phosphorylation. In contrast, in the restricted group, testosterone secretion was reduced but intracellular cholesterol concentration was not. Furthermore, the combination of high levels of lipoproteins and emergence of the p38 MAP kinase pathway suggest the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as confirmed by transcriptional repression of the StAR protein. Taken together, these results suggest that AMPK expression is tissue dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intraventricular Injection of LKB1 Inhibits the Formation of Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats by Activating the AMPK-POMC Neurons-Sympathetic Nervous System Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjiao Xi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Obesity is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Peripheral LKB1 inhibits white fat generation, but the effect of central LKB1 on diet-induced obesity (DIO is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether LKB1 over-expression in the hypothalamus can inhibit the development of obesity. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. LKB1-AAV-EGFP (2.0 × 108 or 2.0 × 1010 vector genomes or Control-AAV-EGFP (2.0 × 108 vector genomes was injected into the third ventricle. After administration, the rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. Rats fed a chow fat diet were used as normal controls. Results: LKB1 delivery decreased body weight, energy intake, fat mass, and serum lipid levels. LKB1 also improved HFD-induced hepatic fatty degeneration. Interestingly, LKB1 over-expression in the hypothalamus activated the AMPK-POMC neurons-sympathetic nervous system (SNS axis, which can release epinephrine to promote white fat browning. Conversely, the elevated expression of MC3R/MC4R inhibited food intake. These two factors worked together to inhibit the development of obesity. Conclusions: LKB1 in the hypothalamus may have therapeutic potential for DIO through the activation of the AMPK-POMC neurons-SNS axis.

  20. Intraventricular Injection of LKB1 Inhibits the Formation of Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats by Activating the AMPK-POMC Neurons-Sympathetic Nervous System Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Pengjiao; Du, Jianying; Liang, Huimin; Han, Jie; Wu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Haomin; He, Lu; Wang, Qiming; Ge, Haize; Li, Yongmei; Xue, Jie; Tian, Derun

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Peripheral LKB1 inhibits white fat generation, but the effect of central LKB1 on diet-induced obesity (DIO) is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether LKB1 over-expression in the hypothalamus can inhibit the development of obesity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. LKB1-AAV-EGFP (2.0 × 108 or 2.0 × 1010 vector genomes) or Control-AAV-EGFP (2.0 × 108 vector genomes) was injected into the third ventricle. After administration, the rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks to induce obesity. Rats fed a chow fat diet were used as normal controls. LKB1 delivery decreased body weight, energy intake, fat mass, and serum lipid levels. LKB1 also improved HFD-induced hepatic fatty degeneration. Interestingly, LKB1 over-expression in the hypothalamus activated the AMPK-POMC neurons-sympathetic nervous system (SNS) axis, which can release epinephrine to promote white fat browning. Conversely, the elevated expression of MC3R/MC4R inhibited food intake. These two factors worked together to inhibit the development of obesity. LKB1 in the hypothalamus may have therapeutic potential for DIO through the activation of the AMPK-POMC neurons-SNS axis. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Cardiovascular Protective Effect of Metformin and Telmisartan: Reduction of PARP1 Activity via the AMPK-PARP1 Cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenqing Shang

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia and hypertension impair endothelial function in part through oxidative stress-activated poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1. Biguanides and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs such as metformin and telmisartan have a vascular protective effect. We used cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs, diabetic and hypertensive rodent models, and AMPKα2-knockout mice to investigate whether metformin and telmisartan have a beneficial effect on the endothelium via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 and thus inhibition of PARP1 activity. The results showed that metformin and telmisartan, but not glipizide and metoprolol, activated AMPK, which phosphorylated PARP1 Ser-177 in cultured ECs and the vascular wall of rodent models. Experiments using phosphorylated/de-phosphorylated PARP1 mutants show that AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 leads to decreased PARP1 activity and attenuated protein poly(ADP-ribosylation (PARylation, but increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1 expression. Taken together, the data presented here suggest biguanides and ARBs have a beneficial effect on the vasculature by the cascade of AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 to inhibit PARP1 activity and protein PARylation in ECs, thereby mitigating endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Sirt1 negatively regulates FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation through AMPK- and PTP1B-dependent processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Lee, Youn Ju; Jin, Fansi; Park, Young Na; Deng, Yifeng; Kang, Youra; Yang, Ju Hye; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Jung-Ae; Chang, Young-Chae; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Murakami, Makoto; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2017-07-25

    Sirt1, a key regulator of metabolism and longevity, has recently been implicated in the regulation of allergic reactions, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that Sirt1 negatively regulates FcεRI-stimulated mast cell activation and anaphylaxis through two mutually regulated pathways involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Mast cell-specific knockout of Sirt1 dampened AMPK-dependent suppression of FcεRI signaling, thereby augmenting mast cell activation both in vitro and in vivo. Sirt1 inhibition of FcεRI signaling also involved an alternative component, PTP1B, which attenuated the inhibitory AMPK pathway and conversely enhanced the stimulatory Syk pathway, uncovering a novel role of this phosphatase. Moreover, a Sirt1 activator resveratrol stimulated the inhibitory AMPK axis, with reciprocal suppression of the stimulatory PTP1B/Syk axis, thus potently inhibiting anaphylaxis. Overall, our results provide a molecular explanation for the beneficial role of Sirt1 in allergy and underscore a potential application of Sirt1 activators as a new class of anti-allergic agents.

  3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and nitric oxide synthase 1-dependent modulation of ryanodine receptors during β-adrenergic stimulation is restricted to the dyadic cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, Eef; Santiago, Demetrio J; Johnson, Daniel M; Gilbert, Guillaume; Holemans, Patricia; Korte, Sanne M; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Sipido, Karin R

    2016-10-15

    The dyadic cleft, where coupled ryanodine receptors (RyRs) reside, is thought to serve as a microdomain for local signalling, as supported by distinct modulation of coupled RyRs dependent on Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activation during high-frequency stimulation. Sympathetic stimulation through β-adrenergic receptors activates an integrated signalling cascade, enhancing Ca 2+ cycling and is at least partially mediated through CaMKII. Here we report that CaMKII activation during β-adrenergic signalling is restricted to the dyadic cleft, where it enhances activity of coupled RyRs thereby contributing to the increase in diastolic events. Nitric oxide synthase 1 equally participates in the local modulation of coupled RyRs. In contrast, the increase in the Ca 2+ content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and related increase in the amplitude of the Ca 2+ transient are primarily protein kinase A-dependent. The present data extend the concept of microdomain signalling in the dyadic cleft and give perspectives for selective modulation of RyR subpopulations and diastolic events. In cardiac myocytes, β-adrenergic stimulation enhances Ca 2+ cycling through an integrated signalling cascade modulating L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCCs), phospholamban and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) are proposed as prime mediators for increasing RyR open probability. We investigate whether this pathway is confined to the high Ca 2+ microdomain of the dyadic cleft and thus to coupled RyRs. Pig ventricular myocytes are studied under whole-cell voltage-clamp and confocal line-scan imaging with Fluo-4 as a [Ca 2+ ] i indicator. Following conditioning depolarizing pulses, spontaneous RyR activity is recorded as Ca 2+ sparks, which are assigned to coupled and non-coupled RyR clusters. Isoproterenol (ISO) (10 nm) increases Ca 2+ spark frequency in both populations of RyRs. However, CaMKII inhibition reduces

  4. Antidiabetic Effect of Salvianolic Acid A on Diabetic Animal Models via AMPK Activation and Mitochondrial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifen Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM characterized by hyperglycemia contributes to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Salvianolic acid A (SalA is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its antidiabetic effect. Our study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effect of SalA and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice and high-fat diet (HFD and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats received SalA treatment. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 24-h food and water intake were monitored. In vitro, glucose consumption and uptake were measured in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Mitochondrial function was detected in hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondria. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results: In both type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, SalA lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG and fed blood glucose in dose-dependent manner, as well as reduced 24-h food and water intake. In vitro, SalA caused dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and enhanced glucose uptake. SalA significantly increased ATP production from 10 min to 12 h in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Interestingly, SalA decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SalA improved hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, and concurrently decreased MMP. In particularly, SalA activated AMPK phosphorylation through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling pathway, independent of liver kinase 1 (LKB1/AMPK pathway. However, SalA didn't show any effect on insulin secretagogue and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: SalA exhibits the antidiabetic effects in diabetic animal models through

  5. Ursolic acid inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK pathway.

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    Yonghan He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA is a triterpenoid compound with multiple biological functions. This compound has recently been reported to possess an anti-obesity effect; however, the mechanisms are less understood. OBJECTIVE: As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. The results demonstrated that ursolic acid at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 10 µM dose-dependently attenuated adipogenesis, accompanied by reduced protein expression of CCAAT element binding protein β (C/EBPβ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, respectively. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but decreased protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein expression of (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog 1 (Sirt1. Further studies demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic effect of UA was reversed by the AMPK siRNA, but not by the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, the upstream kinase of AMPK, was upregulated by UA. When LKB1 was silenced with siRNA or the inhibitor radicicol, the effect of UA on AMPK activation was diminished. CONCLUSIONS: Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK

  6. Impact of food restriction and cocaine on locomotion in ghrelin- and ghrelin-receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Shane; Zeckler, Rosie Albarran; Buckman, Sam; Thompson, Jeff; Hart, Nigel; Wellman, Paul J; Smith, Roy G

    2011-07-01

    Food restriction (FR) augments the behavioral and reinforcing effects of psychomotor stimulants such as cocaine or amphetamine; effects that may be related to the capacity of FR to increase plasma levels of ghrelin (GHR), a 28-amino acid orexigenenic peptide linked to activation of brain dopamine systems. The present study used wild-type (WT) mice or mutant mice sustaining knockout of either GHR [GHR((-/-)) ] or of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor [GHS-R((-/-)) ] and subjected to FR or not to evaluate the role of GHR and GHS-R in cocaine-stimulated locomotion. WT, GHR((-/-)) , and GHS-R((-/-)) mice were either restricted to 60% of baseline caloric intake or allowed to free-feed (FF). Mice were treated with 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg cocaine on separate test days (in random dose order) and forward locomotion was recorded on each drug day for 45 minutes after drug dosing. Food (and water) was available immediately after (but not during) each activity test. For FF mice, there was no interaction between cocaine and GHR status on locomotion. FR-WT mice treated with saline exhibited significant increases in anticipatory locomotion (relative to FF-WT mice), whereas FR-GHS-R((-/-)) mice did not. Cocaine significantly increased locomotion in FR-GHR((-/-)) and FR-GHS-R((-/-)) mice to the levels noted in FR-WT mice. These results suggest that GHS-R activity, but not GHR activity, is required for FR to augment food-associated anticipatory locomotion, but do not support the contention that GHR pathways are required for the capacity of FR to augment the acute effect of cocaine on locomotion. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Nutrient Excess in AMPK Downregulation and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlan, Kimberly A.; Valentine, Rudy J.; Ruderman, Neil B.; Saha, Asish K.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that chronic exposure to excess nutrients leads to insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle. Since skeletal muscle is responsible for 70-80% of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, skeletal muscle IR is a key pathological component of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent evidence suggests that inhibition of the nutrient-sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an early event in the development of IR in response to high glucose, branched chain amino acids (BCAA), o...

  8. Ghrelin receptor antagonism attenuates cocaine- and amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, and conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerlhag, Elisabet; Egecioglu, Emil; Dickson, Suzanne L; Engel, Jörgen A

    2010-09-01

    Recently we demonstrated that genetic or pharmacological suppression of the central ghrelin signaling system, involving the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A (GHS-R1A), lead to a reduced reward profile from alcohol. As the target circuits for ghrelin in the brain include a mesolimbic reward pathway that is intimately associated with reward-seeking behaviour, we sought to determine whether the central ghrelin signaling system is required for reward from drugs of abuse other than alcohol, namely cocaine or amphetamine. We found that amphetamine-as well as cocaine-induced locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release were reduced in mice treated with a GHS-R1A antagonist. Moreover, the ability of these drugs to condition a place preference was also attenuated by the GHS-R1A antagonist. Thus GHS-R1A appears to be required not only for alcohol-induced reward, but also for reward induced by psychostimulant drugs. Our data suggest that the central ghrelin signaling system constitutes a novel potential target for treatment of addictive behaviours such as drug dependence.

  9. FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK and downregulates mTOR signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Susanne, E-mail: Susanne.Schuster@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [Center for Pediatric Research Leipzig, University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. 21, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa [Center for Pediatric Research Leipzig, University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. 21, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Gebhardt, Rolf [Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Johannisallee 30, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Weiss, Thomas S. [Children' s University Hospital, University of Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje [Center for Pediatric Research Leipzig, University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. 21, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-03-06

    Background: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway starting from nicotinamide. Cancer cells have an increased demand for NAD due to their high proliferation and DNA repair rate. Consequently, NAMPT is considered as a putative target for anti-cancer therapies. There is evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) become dysregulated during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the effects of NAMPT inhibition by its specific inhibitor FK866 on the viability of hepatocarcinoma cells and analyzed the effects of FK866 on the nutrient sensor AMPK and mTOR complex1 (mTORC1) signaling. Results: FK866 markedly decreased NAMPT activity and NAD content in hepatocarcinoma cells (Huh7 cells, Hep3B cells) and led to delayed ATP reduction which was associated with increased cell death. These effects could be abrogated by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the enzyme product of NAMPT. Our results demonstrated a dysregulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to non-cancerous hepatocytes with a higher expression of mTOR and a lower AMPKα activation in hepatocarcinoma cells. We found that NAMPT inhibition by FK866 significantly activated AMPKα and inhibited the activation of mTOR and its downstream targets p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 in hepatocarcinoma cells. Non-cancerous hepatocytes were less sensitive to FK866 and did not show changes in AMPK/mTOR signaling after FK866 treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings reveal an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of hepatocarcinoma cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential treatment option for HCC. - Highlights: • FK866 increases cell death in p53-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells. • AMPK/mTOR signaling is dysregulated in hepatocarcinoma cells. • FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK

  10. FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK and downregulates mTOR signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Gebhardt, Rolf; Weiss, Thomas S.; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway starting from nicotinamide. Cancer cells have an increased demand for NAD due to their high proliferation and DNA repair rate. Consequently, NAMPT is considered as a putative target for anti-cancer therapies. There is evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) become dysregulated during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the effects of NAMPT inhibition by its specific inhibitor FK866 on the viability of hepatocarcinoma cells and analyzed the effects of FK866 on the nutrient sensor AMPK and mTOR complex1 (mTORC1) signaling. Results: FK866 markedly decreased NAMPT activity and NAD content in hepatocarcinoma cells (Huh7 cells, Hep3B cells) and led to delayed ATP reduction which was associated with increased cell death. These effects could be abrogated by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the enzyme product of NAMPT. Our results demonstrated a dysregulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to non-cancerous hepatocytes with a higher expression of mTOR and a lower AMPKα activation in hepatocarcinoma cells. We found that NAMPT inhibition by FK866 significantly activated AMPKα and inhibited the activation of mTOR and its downstream targets p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 in hepatocarcinoma cells. Non-cancerous hepatocytes were less sensitive to FK866 and did not show changes in AMPK/mTOR signaling after FK866 treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings reveal an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of hepatocarcinoma cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential treatment option for HCC. - Highlights: • FK866 increases cell death in p53-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells. • AMPK/mTOR signaling is dysregulated in hepatocarcinoma cells. • FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK

  11. High Fat Diet Attenuates the Anticontractile Activity of Aortic PVAT via a Mechanism Involving AMPK and Reduced Adiponectin Secretion

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    Tarek A. M. Almabrouk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT positively regulates vascular function through production of factors such as adiponectin but this effect is attenuated in obesity. The enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is present in PVAT and is implicated in mediating the vascular effects of adiponectin. In this study, we investigated the effect of an obesogenic high fat diet (HFD on aortic PVAT and whether any changes involved AMPK.Methods: Wild type Sv129 (WT and AMPKα1 knockout (KO mice aged 8 weeks were fed normal diet (ND or HFD (42% kcal fat for 12 weeks. Adiponectin production by PVAT was assessed by ELISA and AMPK expression studied using immunoblotting. Macrophages in PVAT were identified using immunohistochemistry and markers of M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes evaluated using real time-qPCR. Vascular responses were measured in endothelium-denuded aortic rings with or without attached PVAT. Carotid wire injury was performed and PVAT inflammation studied 7 days later.Key results: Aortic PVAT from KO and WT mice was morphologically indistinct but KO PVAT had more infiltrating macrophages. HFD caused an increased infiltration of macrophages in WT mice with increased expression of the M1 macrophage markers Nos2 and Il1b and the M2 marker Chil3. In WT mice, HFD reduced the anticontractile effect of PVAT as well as reducing adiponectin secretion and AMPK phosphorylation. PVAT from KO mice on ND had significantly reduced adiponectin secretion and no anticontractile effect and feeding HFD did not alter this. Wire injury induced macrophage infiltration of PVAT but did not cause further infiltration in KO mice.Conclusions: High-fat diet causes an inflammatory infiltrate, reduced AMPK phosphorylation and attenuates the anticontractile effect of murine aortic PVAT. Mice lacking AMPKα1 phenocopy many of the changes in wild-type aortic PVAT after HFD, suggesting that AMPK may protect the vessel against deleterious changes in response to

  12. Rac1 and AMPK Account for the Majority of Muscle Glucose Uptake Stimulated by Ex Vivo Contraction but Not In Vivo Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Møller, Lisbeth; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    , but whether those two signaling pathways jointly account for the entire signal to glucose transport is unknown. We therefore studied the ability of contraction and exercise to stimulate glucose transport in isolated muscles with AMPK loss of function combined with either pharmacological inhibition or genetic...... uptake in vivo was only partially reduced by Rac1 mKO with no additive effect of a2KD. It is concluded that Rac1 and AMPK together account for almost the entire ex vivo contraction response in muscle glucose transport, whereas only Rac1, but not a2 AMPK, regulates muscle glucose uptake during submaximal...

  13. Knockdown of MAGEA6 Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Signaling to Inhibit Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xueting; Xie, Jing; Huang, Hang; Deng, Zhexian

    2018-01-01

    Melanoma antigen A6 (MAGEA6) is a cancer-specific ubiquitin ligase of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The current study tested MAGEA6 expression and potential function in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MAGEA6 and AMPK expression in human RCC tissues and RCC cells were tested by Western blotting assay and qRT-PCR assay. shRNA method was applied to knockdown MAGEA6 in human RCC cells. Cell survival and proliferation were tested by MTT assay and BrdU ELISA assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was tested by the TUNEL assay and single strand DNA ELISA assay. The 786-O xenograft in nude mouse model was established to test RCC cell growth in vivo. MAGEA6 is specifically expressed in RCC tissues as well as in the established (786-O and A498) and primary human RCC cells. MAGEA6 expression is correlated with AMPKα1 downregulation in RCC tissues and cells. It is not detected in normal renal tissues nor in the HK-2 renal epithelial cells. MAGEA6 knockdown by targeted-shRNA induced AMPK stabilization and activation, which led to mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in-activation and RCC cell death/apoptosis. AMPK inhibition, by AMPKα1 shRNA or the dominant negative AMPKα1 (T172A), almost reversed MAGEA6 knockdown-induced RCC cell apoptosis. Conversely, expression of the constitutive-active AMPKα1 (T172D) mimicked the actions by MAGEA6 shRNA. In vivo, MAGEA6 shRNA-bearing 786-O tumors grew significantly slower in nude mice than the control tumors. AMPKα1 stabilization and activation as well as mTORC1 in-activation were detected in MAGEA6 shRNA tumor tissues. MAGEA6 knockdown inhibits human RCC cells via activating AMPK signaling. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. AMPK Signaling Involvement for the Repression of the IL-1β-Induced Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 Expression in VSMCs.

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    Khadija El Hadri

    Full Text Available Secretory Phospholipase A2 of type IIA (sPLA2 IIA plays a crucial role in the production of lipid mediators by amplifying the neointimal inflammatory context of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, especially during atherogenesis. Phenformin, a biguanide family member, by its anti-inflammatory properties presents potential for promoting beneficial effects upon vascular cells, however its impact upon the IL-1β-induced sPLA2 gene expression has not been deeply investigated so far. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between phenformin coupling AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK function and the molecular mechanism by which the sPLA2 IIA expression was modulated in VSMCs. Here we find that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleotide (AICAR treatment strongly repressed IL-1β-induced sPLA2 expression at least at the transcriptional level. Our study reveals that phenformin elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of the sPLA2 IIA expression and transient overexpression experiments of constitutively active AMPK demonstrate clearly that AMPK signaling is involved in the transcriptional inhibition of sPLA2-IIA gene expression. Furthermore, although the expression of the transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma-6 protein (BCL-6 was markedly enhanced by phenformin and AICAR, the repression of sPLA2 gene occurs through a mechanism independent of BCL-6 DNA binding site. In addition we show that activation of AMPK limits IL-1β-induced NF-κB pathway activation. Our results indicate that BCL-6, once activated by AMPK, functions as a competitor of the IL-1β induced NF-κB transcription complex. Our findings provide insights on a new anti-inflammatory pathway linking phenformin, AMPK and molecular control of sPLA2 IIA gene expression in VSMCs.

  15. Glucose regulates hypothalamic long-chain fatty acid metabolism via AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïb, Bouchra; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Rodaros, Demetra; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

    2013-12-27

    Hypothalamic controls of energy balance rely on the detection of circulating nutrients such as glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) by the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). LCFA metabolism in the MBH plays a key role in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis, yet it is not known if glucose regulates LCFA oxidation and esterification in the MBH and, if so, which hypothalamic cell type(s) and intracellular signaling mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of glucose on LCFA metabolism, assess the role of AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK), and to establish if changes in LCFA metabolism and its regulation by glucose vary as a function of the kind of LCFA, cell type, and brain region. We show that glucose inhibits palmitate oxidation via AMPK in hypothalamic neuronal cell lines, primary hypothalamic astrocyte cultures, and MBH slices ex vivo but not in cortical astrocytes and slice preparations. In contrast, oleate oxidation was not affected by glucose or AMPK inhibition in MBH slices. In addition, our results show that glucose increases palmitate, but not oleate, esterification into neutral lipids in neurons and MBH slices but not in hypothalamic astrocytes. These findings reveal for the first time the metabolic fate of different LCFA in the MBH, demonstrate AMPK-dependent glucose regulation of LCFA oxidation in both astrocytes and neurons, and establish metabolic coupling of glucose and LCFA as a distinguishing feature of hypothalamic nuclei critical for the control of energy balance.

  16. Mangiferin Improves Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Mainly Through Its Metabolite-Norathyriol by Modulating SIRT-1/AMPK/SREBP-1c Signaling

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    Jian Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mangiferin (MGF is a natural xanthone, with regulation effect on lipid metabolism. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We purposed after oral administration, MGF is converted to its active metabolite(s, which contributes to the effects on lipid metabolism.Methods: KK-Ay mice were used to validate the effects of MGF on lipid metabolic disorders. Liver biochemical indices and gene expressions were determined. MGF metabolites were isolated from MGF administrated rat urine. Mechanism studies were carried out using HepG2 cells treated by MGF and its metabolite with or without inhibitors or small interfering RNA (siRNA. Western blot and immunoprecipitation methods were used to determine the lipid metabolism related gene expression. AMP/ATP ratios were measured by HPLC. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation were identified by homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF assays.Results: MGF significantly decreased liver triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, increased sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1 and AMPK phosphorylation in KK-Ay mice. HTRF studies indicated that MGF and its metabolites were not direct AMPK activators. Norathyriol, one of MGF’s metabolite, possess stronger regulating effect on hepatic lipid metabolism than MGF. The mechanism was mediated by activation of SIRT-1, liver kinase B1, and increasing the intracellular AMP level and AMP/ATP ratio, followed by AMPK phosphorylation, lead to increased phosphorylation level of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c.Conclusion: These results provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms of MGF in protecting against hepatic lipid metabolic disorders via regulating SIRT-1/AMPK pathway. Norathyriol showed potential therapeutic in treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  17. Harmonize input selection for sediment transport prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin; Keshtegar, Behrooz; Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, three modeling approaches using a Neural Network (NN), Response Surface Method (RSM) and response surface method basis Global Harmony Search (GHS) are applied to predict the daily time series suspended sediment load. Generally, the input variables for forecasting the suspended sediment load are manually selected based on the maximum correlations of input variables in the modeling approaches based on NN and RSM. The RSM is improved to select the input variables by using the errors terms of training data based on the GHS, namely as response surface method and global harmony search (RSM-GHS) modeling method. The second-order polynomial function with cross terms is applied to calibrate the time series suspended sediment load with three, four and five input variables in the proposed RSM-GHS. The linear, square and cross corrections of twenty input variables of antecedent values of suspended sediment load and water discharge are investigated to achieve the best predictions of the RSM based on the GHS method. The performances of the NN, RSM and proposed RSM-GHS including both accuracy and simplicity are compared through several comparative predicted and error statistics. The results illustrated that the proposed RSM-GHS is as uncomplicated as the RSM but performed better, where fewer errors and better correlation was observed (R = 0.95, MAE = 18.09 (ton/day), RMSE = 25.16 (ton/day)) compared to the ANN (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.17 (ton/day), RMSE = 33.09 (ton/day)) and RSM (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.06 (ton/day), RMSE = 31.92 (ton/day)) for all types of input variables.

  18. The effects of altitude training on the AMPK-related glucose transport pathway in the red skeletal muscle of both lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Cha-Hua; Ho, Low-Tone

    2011-01-01

    The skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related glucose transport pathway is involved in glucose homeostasis. In this study, we examined whether obese control Zucker rats had abnormal expression of proteins in the LKB1-AMPK-AS160-GLUT4 pathway in red gastrocnemius muscle compared to that in lean (normal) control Zucker rats. We also compared the chronic training effects of exercise, hypoxia, and altitude training on this pathway in lean and obese rats. At sea level, lean and obese rats were divided into 4 groups for 6 weeks training as follows: 1) control; 2) exercise (progressive daily swimming-exercise training with comparable exercise signals between the two groups); 3) hypoxia (8 hours of daily 14% O2 exposure); and 4) exercise plus hypoxia (also called altitude training). Seven animals were used for each group. The obese rats in the control group had higher body weights, elevated fasting insulin and glucose levels, and higher baseline levels of muscle AMPK and AS160 phosphorylation compared with those of lean control rats. For obese Zucker rats in the exercise or hypoxia groups, the muscle AMPK phosphorylation level was significantly decreased compared with that of the control group. For obese Zucker rats in the altitude training group, the levels of AMPK, AS160 phosphorylation, fasting insulin, and fasting glucose were decreased concomitant with an approximate 50% increase in the muscle GLUT4 protein level compared with those of the control group. In lean rats, the altitude training efficiently lowered fasting glucose and insulin levels and increased muscle AMPK and AS160 phosphorylation as well as GLUT4 protein levels. Our results provide evidence that long-term altitude training may be a potentially effective nonpharmacological strategy for treating and preventing insulin resistance based on its effects on the skeletal muscle AMPK-AS160-GLUT4 pathway.

  19. Autophagy Facilitates Metadherin-Induced Chemotherapy Resistance Through the AMPK/ATG5 Pathway in Gastric Cancer

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    Guoqing Pei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Metadherin (MTDH is overexpressed in some malignancies and enhances drug resistance; however, its role in gastric cancer (GC and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we explore the mechanism by which MTDH induces drug resistance in GC. Methods: We analysed the level of MTDH in GC and adjacent normal gastric mucosal tissues by real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR. We also analysed the level of autophagy by western blot analysis, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy after MTDH knockdown and overexpression, and examined fluorouracil (5-FU resistance by Cell Counting Kit-8 at the same time. Finally, GC patient-derived xenograft tumours were used to demonstrate 5-FU resistance. An AMPK pathway inhibitor was applied to determine the molecular mechanisms of autophagy. Results: MTDH expression was significantly increased in the GC specimens compared with that in the adjacent normal gastric mucosal tissues. Further study showed a positive correlation between the expression level of MTDH and 5-FU resistance. MTDH overexpression in MKN45 cells increased the levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp and promoted 5-FU resistance, while inhibition of MTDH showed the opposite result. The simultaneous inhibition of autophagy and overexpression of MTDH decreased the levels of P-gp and inhibited 5-FU resistance. Moreover, MTDH induced AMPK phosphorylation, regulated ATG5 expression, and finally influenced autophagy, suggesting that MTDH may activate autophagy via the AMPK/ATG5 signalling pathway. Our findings reveal a unique mechanism by which MTDH promotes GC chemoresistance and show that MTDH is a potential target for improved chemotherapeutic sensitivity and GC patient survival. Conclusions: MTDH-stimulated cancer resistance to 5-FU may be mediated through autophagy activated by the AMPK/ATG5 pathway in GC.

  20. Fascaplysin Sensitizes Anti-Cancer Effects of Drugs Targeting AKT and AMPK

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    Taek-In Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascaplysin, a natural product isolated from marine sponges, is a potential candidate for the development of anti-cancer drugs. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect of strengthening anti-cancer efficacy of other drugs is poorly understood. Here, we found that fascaplysin increases phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as AKT, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, which are considered therapeutic targets for cancer treatment due to their anti-apoptotic or pro-survival functions in cancer. A cell viability assay revealed that pharmacological suppression of AKT using LY294002 enhanced the anti-cancer effect of fascaplysin in various cancer cells. Similarly, fascaplysin was observed to have improved anti-cancer effects in combination with compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor. Another challenge showed that fascaplysin increased the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX-mediated cancer therapy by suppressing genes related to folate and purine metabolism. Overall, these results suggest that fascaplysin may be useful for improving the anti-cancer efficacy of targeted anti-cancer drugs, such as inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase AKT signaling, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as MTX.

  1. A Novel Non-Peptidic Agonist of the Ghrelin Receptor with Orexigenic Activity In vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Cavada, Elena; Pardo, Leticia M.; Kandil, Dalia; Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Clarke, Sarah L.; Shaban, Hamdy; McGlacken, Gerard P.; Schellekens, Harriet

    2016-11-01

    Loss of appetite in the medically ill and ageing populations is a major health problem and a significant symptom in cachexia syndromes, which is the loss of muscle and fat mass. Ghrelin is a gut-derived hormone which can stimulate appetite. Herein we describe a novel, simple, non-peptidic, 2-pyridone which acts as a selective agonist for the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a). The small 2-pyridone demonstrated clear agonistic activity in both transfected human cells and mouse hypothalamic cells with endogenous GHS-R1a receptor expression. In vivo tests with the hit compound showed significant increased food intake following peripheral administration, which highlights the potent orexigenic effect of this novel GHS-R1a receptor ligand.

  2. Phosphorylation of ULK1 by AMPK is essential for mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiaqi; Gu, Haifeng; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Liang; Liu, Pinglei; Wang, Fuping; Xu, Haoyu; Zhao, Tongbiao

    2018-01-18

    Autophagy is a catabolic process to degrade both damaged organelles and aggregated proteins in somatic cells. We have recently identified that autophagy is an executor for mitochondrial homeostasis in embryonic stem cell (ESC), and thus contribute to stemness regulation. However, the regulatory and functional mechanisms of autophagy in ESC are still largely unknown. Here we have shown that activation of ULK1 by AMPK is essential for ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. Dysfunction of Ulk1 decreases the autophagic flux in ESC, leading to compromised self-renewal and pluripotency. These defects can be rescued by reacquisition of wild-type ULK1 and ULK1(S757A) mutant, but not ULK1(S317A, S555A and S777A) and kinase dead ULK1(K46I) mutant. These data indicate that phosphorylation of ULK1 by AMPK, but not mTOR, is essential for stemness regulation in ESC. The findings highlight a critical role for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of ULK1 pathway to maintain ESC self-renewal and pluripotency.

  3. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  4. AICAR Antiproliferative Properties Involve the AMPK-Independent Activation of the Tumor Suppressors LATS 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Chloé; Pinson, Benoît; Dompierre, Jim; Pantesco, Véronique; Viollet, Benoît; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Moenner, Michel

    2018-06-01

    AICAR (Acadesine) is a pharmacological precursor of purine nucleotide biosynthesis with anti-tumoral properties. Although recognized as an AMP mimetic activator of the protein kinase AMPK, the AICAR monophosphate derivative ZMP was also shown to mediate AMPK-independent effects. In order to unveil these AMPK-independent functions, we performed a transcriptomic analysis in AMPKα1/α2 double knockout murine embryonic cells. Kinetic analysis of the cellular response to AICAR revealed the up-regulation of the large tumor suppressor kinases (Lats) 1 and 2 transcripts, followed by the repression of numerous genes downstream of the transcriptional regulators Yap1 and Taz. This transcriptional signature, together with the observation of increased levels in phosphorylation of Lats1 and Yap1 proteins, suggested that the Hippo signaling pathway was activated by AICAR. This effect was observed in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Knockdown of Lats1/2 prevented the cytoplasmic delocalization of Yap1/Taz proteins in response to AICAR and conferred a higher resistance to the drug. These results indicate that activation of the most downstream steps of the Hippo cascade participates to the antiproliferative effects of AICAR. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. C. elegans AMPKs promote survival and arrest germline development during nutrient stress

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    Masamitsu Fukuyama

    2012-08-01

    Mechanisms controlling development, growth, and metabolism are coordinated in response to changes in environmental conditions, enhancing the likelihood of survival to reproductive maturity. Much remains to be learned about the molecular basis underlying environmental influences on these processes. C. elegans larvae enter a developmentally dormant state called L1 diapause when hatched into nutrient-poor conditions. The nematode pten homologue daf-18 is essential for maintenance of survival and germline stem cell quiescence during this period (Fukuyama et al., 2006; Sigmond et al., 2008, but the details of the signaling network(s in which it functions remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that animals lacking both aak-1 and aak-2, which encode the two catalytic α subunits of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, show reduced viability and failure to maintain mitotic quiescence in germline stem cells during L1 diapause. Furthermore, failure to arrest germline proliferation has a long term consequence; aak double mutants that have experienced L1 diapause develop into sterile adults when returned to food, whereas their continuously fed siblings are fertile. Both aak and daf-18 appear to maintain germline quiescence by inhibiting activity of the common downstream target, TORC1 (TOR Complex 1. In contrast, rescue of the lethality phenotype indicates that aak-2 acts not only in the intestine, as does daf-18, but also in neurons, likely promoting survival by preventing energy deprivation during L1 diapause. These results not only provide evidence that AMPK contributes to survival during L1 diapause in a manner distinct from that by which it controls dauer diapause, but they also suggest that AMPK suppresses TORC1 activity to maintain stem cell quiescence.

  6. Glucose Regulates Hypothalamic Long-chain Fatty Acid Metabolism via AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK) in Neurons and Astrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïb, Bouchra; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Hryhorczuk, Cécile; Rodaros, Demetra; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic controls of energy balance rely on the detection of circulating nutrients such as glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) by the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). LCFA metabolism in the MBH plays a key role in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis, yet it is not known if glucose regulates LCFA oxidation and esterification in the MBH and, if so, which hypothalamic cell type(s) and intracellular signaling mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of glucose on LCFA metabolism, assess the role of AMP-activated Kinase (AMPK), and to establish if changes in LCFA metabolism and its regulation by glucose vary as a function of the kind of LCFA, cell type, and brain region. We show that glucose inhibits palmitate oxidation via AMPK in hypothalamic neuronal cell lines, primary hypothalamic astrocyte cultures, and MBH slices ex vivo but not in cortical astrocytes and slice preparations. In contrast, oleate oxidation was not affected by glucose or AMPK inhibition in MBH slices. In addition, our results show that glucose increases palmitate, but not oleate, esterification into neutral lipids in neurons and MBH slices but not in hypothalamic astrocytes. These findings reveal for the first time the metabolic fate of different LCFA in the MBH, demonstrate AMPK-dependent glucose regulation of LCFA oxidation in both astrocytes and neurons, and establish metabolic coupling of glucose and LCFA as a distinguishing feature of hypothalamic nuclei critical for the control of energy balance. PMID:24240094

  7. Cytoprotective effect of kaempferol against palmitic acid-induced pancreatic β-cell death through modulation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Ritu; Gupta, Sumeet; Roy, Partha

    2017-06-15

    Lipotoxicity of pancreatic β-cells is the pathological manifestation of obesity-linked type II diabetes. We intended to determine the cytoprotective effect of kaempferol on pancreatic β-cells undergoing apoptosis in palmitic acid (PA)-stressed condition. The data showed that kaempferol treatment increased cell viability and anti-apoptotic activity in PA-stressed RIN-5F cells and murine pancreatic islets. Furthermore, kaempferol's ability to instigate autophagy was illustrated by MDC-LysoTracker red staining and TEM analysis which corroborated well with the observed increase in LC3 puncta and LC3-II protein expressions along with the concomitant decline in p62 expression. Apart from this, the data showed that kaempferol up/down-regulates AMPK/mTOR phosphorylation respectively. Subsequently, upon inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by AMPK inhibitors, kaempferol-mediated autophagy was abolished which further led to the decline in β-cell survival. Such observations collectively lead to the conclusion that, kaempferol exerts its cytoprotective role against lipotoxicity by activation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Xanthohumol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced acute lung injury via induction of AMPK/GSK3β-Nrf2 signal axis

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    Hongming Lv

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abundant natural flavonoids can induce nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and/or AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation, which play crucial roles in the amelioration of various inflammation- and oxidative stress-induced diseases, including acute lung injury (ALI. Xanthohumol (Xn, a principal prenylflavonoid, possesses anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant activities. However, whether Xn could protect from LPS-induced ALI through inducing AMPK/Nrf2 activation and its downstream signals, are still poorly elucidated. Accordingly, we focused on exploring the protective effect of Xn in the context of ALI and the involvement of underlying molecular mechanisms. Our findings indicated that Xn effectively alleviated lung injury by reduction of lung W/D ratio and protein levels, neutrophil infiltration, MDA and MPO formation, and SOD and GSH depletion. Meanwhile, Xn significantly lessened histopathological changes, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, several cytokines secretion, and iNOS and HMGB1 expression, and inhibited Txnip/NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB signaling pathway activation. Additionally, Xn evidently decreased t-BHP-stimulated cell apoptosis, ROS generation and GSH depletion but increased various anti-oxidative enzymes expression regulated by Keap1-Nrf2/ARE activation, which may be associated with AMPK and GSK3β phosphorylation. However, Xn-mediated inflammatory cytokines and ROS production, histopathological changes, Txnip/NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB signaling pathway in WT mice were remarkably abrogated in Nrf2-/- mice. Our experimental results firstly provided a support that Xn effectively protected LPS-induced ALI against oxidative stress and inflammation damage which are largely dependent upon upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway via activation of AMPK/GSK3β, thereby suppressing LPS-activated Txnip/NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB signaling pathway. Keywords: Xanthohumol, Acute lung injury, Oxidative stress

  9. Tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Central Himalaya: in-sequence shearing by accretion from the Indian plate

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    Carosi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) is the main metamorphic unit of the Himalayas, stretching for over 2400 km, bounded to the South by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the North by the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) whose contemporanous activity controlled its exhumation between 23 and 17 Ma (Godin et al., 2006). Several shear zones and/or faults have been recognized within the GHS, usually regarded as out of sequence thrusts. Recent investigations, using a multitechnique approach, allowed to recognize a tectonic and metamorphic discontinuity, localized in the mid GHS, with a top-to-the SW sense of shear (Higher Himalayan Discontinuity: HHD) (Carosi et al., 2010; Montomoli et al., 2013). U-(Th)-Pb in situ monazite ages provide temporal constraint of the acitivity of the HHD from ~ 27-25 Ma to 18-17 Ma. Data on the P and T evolution testify that this shear zone affected the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the belt and different P and T conditions have been recorded in the hanging-wall and footwall of the HHD. The HHD is a regional tectonic feature running for more than 700 km, dividing the GHS in two different portions (Iaccarino et al., 2015; Montomoli et al., 2015). The occurrence of even more structurally higher contractional shear zone in the GHS (above the HHD): the Kalopani shear zone (Kali Gandaki valley, Central Nepal), active from ~ 41 to 30 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite) points out to a more complex deformation pattern in the GHS characterized by in sequence shearing. The actual proposed models of exhumation of the GHS, based exclusively on the MCT and STD activities, are not able to explain the occurrence of the HHD and other in-sequence shear zones. Any model of the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the GHS should account for the occurrence of the tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities within the GHS and its consequences on the metamorphic paths and on the assembly of Himalayan belt. References Godin L., Grujic D., Law, R. D. & Searle, M. P. 2006

  10. Hydrogen-rich medium protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts from oxidative stress by activating LKB1-AMPK-FoxO1 signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Yang, Goowon; Kim, Young-Joo; Tran, Quynh Hoa; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2017-09-23

    Persistent oxidative stress is recognized as a major cause of many pathological conditions as well as ageing. However, most clinical trials of dietary antioxidants have failed to produce successful outcomes in treating oxidative stress-induced diseases. Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has recently received considerable attention as a therapeutic agent owing to its novel antioxidant properties, a selective scavenger of hydroxyl and peroxynitrite radicals. Beyond this, numerous reports support that H 2 can modulate the activity of various cellular signal pathways. However, its effect on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathway, a central regulator of energy hemostasis, has remained almost elusive. Here, we report that hydrogen-rich medium activated LKB1-AMPK signal pathway without ATP depletion, which in turn induced FoxO1-dependent transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Moreover, hydrogen-rich media effectively reduced the level of reactive oxygen species in cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and protected these cells from apoptosis in an AMPK-dependent manner. These results suggest that the LKB1-AMPK-FoxO1 signaling pathway is a critical mediator of the antioxidant properties of H 2 , further supporting the idea that H 2 acts as a signaling molecule to serve various physiological functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

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    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  12. Contraction-stimulated glucose transport in muscle is controlled by AMPK and mechanical stress but not sarcoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+ release

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    Thomas E. Jensen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how muscle contraction orchestrates insulin-independent muscle glucose transport may enable development of hyperglycemia-treating drugs. The prevailing concept implicates Ca2+ as a key feed forward regulator of glucose transport with secondary fine-tuning by metabolic feedback signals through proteins such as AMPK. Here, we demonstrate in incubated mouse muscle that Ca2+ release is neither sufficient nor strictly necessary to increase glucose transport. Rather, the glucose transport response is associated with metabolic feedback signals through AMPK, and mechanical stress-activated signals. Furthermore, artificial stimulation of AMPK combined with passive stretch of muscle is additive and sufficient to elicit the full contraction glucose transport response. These results suggest that ATP-turnover and mechanical stress feedback are sufficient to fully increase glucose transport during muscle contraction, and call for a major reconsideration of the established Ca2+ centric paradigm.

  13. Resveratrol prevents oxidative stress-induced senescence and proliferative dysfunction by activating the AMPK-FOXO3 cascade in cultured primary human keratinocytes.

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    Yasuo Ido

    Full Text Available The aging process is perceived as resulting from a combination of intrinsic factors such as changes in intracellular signaling and extrinsic factors, most notably environmental stressors. In skin, the relationship between intrinsic changes and keratinocyte function is not clearly understood. Previously, we found that increasing the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK suppressed senescence in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-treated human primary keratinocytes, a model of oxidative stress-induced cellular aging. Using this model in the present study, we observed that resveratrol, an agent that increases the activities of both AMPK and sirtuins, ameliorated two age-associated phenotypes: cellular senescence and proliferative dysfunction. In addition, we found that treatment of keratinocytes with Ex527, a specific inhibitor of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, attenuated the ability of resveratrol to suppress senescence. In keeping with the latter observation, we noted that compared to non-senescent keratinocytes, senescent cells lacked SIRT1. In addition to these effects on H2O2-induced senescence, resveratrol also prevented the H2O2-induced decrease in proliferation (as indicated by 3H-thymidine incorporation in the presence of insulin. This effect was abrogated by inhibition of AMPK but not SIRT1. Compared to endothelium, we found that human keratinocytes expressed relatively high levels of Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3, a downstream target of both AMPK and SIRT1. Treatment of keratinocytes with resveratrol transactivated FOXO3 and increased the expression of its target genes including catalase. Resveratrol's effects on both senescence and proliferation disappeared when FOXO3 was knocked down. Finally, we performed an exploratory study which showed that skin from humans over 50 years old had lower AMPK activity than skin from individuals under age 20. Collectively, these findings suggest that the effects of resveratrol on keratinocyte senescence and proliferation

  14. Bryostatin modulates latent HIV-1 infection via PKC and AMPK signaling but inhibits acute infection in a receptor independent manner.

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    Rajeev Mehla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV's ability to establish long-lived latent infection is mainly due to transcriptional silencing in resting memory T lymphocytes and other non dividing cells including monocytes. Despite an undetectable viral load in patients treated with potent antiretrovirals, current therapy is unable to purge the virus from these latent reservoirs. In order to broaden the inhibitory range and effectiveness of current antiretrovirals, the potential of bryostatin was investigated as an HIV inhibitor and latent activator. Bryostatin revealed antiviral activity against R5- and X4-tropic viruses in receptor independent and partly via transient decrease in CD4/CXCR4 expression. Further, bryostatin at low nanomolar concentrations robustly reactivated latent viral infection in monocytic and lymphocytic cells via activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC -alpha and -delta, because PKC inhibitors rottlerin and GF109203X abrogated the bryostatin effect. Bryostatin specifically modulated novel PKC (nPKC involving stress induced AMP Kinase (AMPK inasmuch as an inhibitor of AMPK, compound C partially ablated the viral reactivation effect. Above all, bryostatin was non-toxic in vitro and was unable to provoke T-cell activation. The dual role of bryostatin on HIV life cycle may be a beneficial adjunct to the treatment of HIV especially by purging latent virus from different cellular reservoirs such as brain and lymphoid organs.

  15. Expression of the gene encoding the ghrelin receptor in rats selected for differential alcohol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Sara; Engel, Jörgen A; Hyytiä, Petri; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2011-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in alcohol use disorder, a chronic relapsing brain disorder, are complex and involve various signalling systems in the brain. Recently, the orexigenic peptide ghrelin was shown to be required for alcohol-induced reward, an effect mediated via ghrelin receptors, GHS-R1A, at the level of the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. Moreover, ghrelin increases and GHR-R1A antagonists reduce moderate alcohol consumption in mice, and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the GHS-R1A gene has been associated with high alcohol consumption in humans. Therefore, GHS-R1A gene expression and alcohol intake were investigated in high, AA (Alko, Alcohol), versus low, ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol), alcohol consuming rats as well as in Wistar rats. In the AA and ANA rats plasma ghrelin levels were also measured. GHS-R1A gene expression was increased in AA compared to ANA rats in nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. A similar trend was observed in the ventral tegmental area of Wistar rats consuming high amounts of alcohol. Furthermore, the AA rats had significantly smaller reduction of plasma ghrelin levels over time, after several weeks of alcohol exposure, than had the ANA rats. The present study provides further evidence for that the ghrelin signalling system, in particular at the level of the mesocortocolimbic dopamine system, is involved in alcohol consumption, and thus possibly contributes to alcohol use disorder. Therefore the GHS-R1A may constitute a novel candidate for development of new treatment strategies for alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. FNDC5 attenuates adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated macrophage polarization in obesity.

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    Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Geng, Zhi; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Feng; Han, Ying; Zhou, Ye-Bo; Wang, Jue-Jin; Gao, Xing-Ya; Chen, Qi; Li, Yue-Hua; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2018-06-01

    Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and the recruitment and proinflammatory activation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) is important for the development of this process. Here, we examined the effects of fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) on inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Male wild-type (WT) and FNDC5 -/- mice were fed with standard chow (Ctrl) or high fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance. Firstly, effects of FNDC5 gene deletion on obesity, insulin resistance, macrophage accumulation and polarization and adipose tissue inflammation were determined in mice. Secondly, the macrophage polarity shift was further examined with flow cytometry in isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Thirdly, the effects of exogenous FNDC5 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage polarization, inflammation and the underlying signaling mechanism were investigated in RAW264.7 macrophages and primary mouse peritoneal cavity macrophages (PMs). Finally, the therapeutic effects of FNDC5 overexpression were examined in HFD-induced obese WT and FNDC5 -/- mice. FNDC5 gene deletion aggravated obesity, insulin resistance, fat accumulation and inflammation accompanied with enhanced AMPK inhibition, macrophages recruitment and M1 polarization in mice fed with HFD. Exogenous FNDC5 inhibited LPS-induced M1 macrophage polarization and inflammatory cytokine production via AMPK phosphorylation in both RAW264.7 macrophages and PMs. FNDC5 overexpression attenuated insulin resistance, AMPK inhibition, M1 macrophage polarization and inflammatory cytokine production in adipose tissue of obese WT and FNDC5 -/- mice. FNDC5 attenuates adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated macrophage polarization in HFD-induced obesity. FNDC5 plays several beneficial roles in obesity and may be used as a therapeutic regimen for preventing

  17. In vitro progesterone production by luteinized human mural granulosa cells is modulated by activation of AMPK and cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdridge, E C; Vernon, M W; Flores, J A; Clemmer, M J

    2017-09-22

    Mural granulosa cells from IVF patients were provided by the West Virginia University Center for Reproductive Medicine in Morgantown, WV. The effect of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, primary cause of infertility, age, BMI, and pregnancy outcome on production of progesterone were examined separately. Isolated mural sheets from IVF patients (n = 26) were centrifuged, supernatant discarded, and the pellet re-suspended in 500 μl of DMEM/F12. Mural granulosa cells were plated at 10,000 cells/well in triplicate per treatment group with 300 μl DMEM/F12 media at 37 °C and 5% CO2 in a humidified incubator to permit luteinization. Four days after initial plating, cells were treated with either an AMPK inhibitor, DM; an AMPK activator, AICAR; or hCG. Cells were cultured for 24 h after treatment when medium was collected and frozen at -20 °C until assayed for P4 by radioimmunoassay. The AMPK activator, AICAR, inhibited P4 production (P Progesterone production increased when cells from patients whose primary cause of infertility was a partner having male infertility were treated with hCG compared to control (P = 0.0045), but not in patients with other primary infertility factors (P > 0.05). Additionally, hCG increased P4 production in patients between the ages 30-35 (P = 0.008) and 36-39 (P = 0.04), but not in patients ages 25-29 (P = 0.73). Patients with normal BMI had increased P4 production when treated with hCG (P production from cells of patients who were overweight or obese (P > 0.05). Cells from patients who became pregnant to IVF had greater P4 production when stimulated with hCG than those who did not become pregnant when compared to controls (P > 0.05). Understanding how AMPK activation is regulated in ovarian cells could lead to alternative or novel infertility treatments. Human mural granulosa cells can serve as a valuable model for understanding how AMPK affects P4 production in steroidogenic cells

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid attenuates experimental autoimmune arthritis by targeting Th17 and inducing pAMPK and transcriptional corepressor SMILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Park, Min-Jung; Jung, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Da-Som; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Choi, Jong Young; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2017-08-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been known that UDCA has prominent effects on liver, however, there is little known about its influence on autoimmune disease. Here, the benefit of UDCA on arthritis rheumatoid (RA) in vivo was tested. RA mouse were induced using collagen II (CIA, collagen induced arthritis) where the disease severity or UDCA-related signaling pathway such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or small heterodimer partner interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE) was evaluated by westerblot and immunohistochemical staining. Gene expression was measured by realtime-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The administration of UDCA effectively alleviated the arthritic score and incidence with decreased cartilage damage and lipid metabolic parameters. UDCA also suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It was confirmed that UDCA upregulated the expression of SMILE and transcriptional activity of PPARγ via controlling AMPK or p38 activity. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of UDCA inducing SMILE through AMPK activation in rheumatoid arthritis mouse as well as other autoimmune disease was proposed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. mTORC2 and AMPK differentially regulate muscle triglyceride content via Perilipin 3

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    Maximilian Kleinert

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: We identified a novel link between mTORC2 and PLIN3, which regulates lipid storage in muscle. While mTORC2 is a negative regulator, we further identified AMPK as a positive regulator of PLIN3, which impacts whole-body substrate utilization and nutrient partitioning.

  20. AMPK Agonist AICAR Improves Cognition and Motor Coordination in Young and Aged Mice

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    Kobilo, Tali; Guerrieri, Davide; Zhang, Yongqing; Collica, Sarah C.; Becker, Kevin G.; van Praag, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Normal aging can result in a decline of memory and muscle function. Exercise may prevent or delay these changes. However, aging-associated frailty can preclude physical activity. In young sedentary animals, pharmacological activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a transcriptional regulator important for muscle physiology, enhanced…

  1. 3-Iodothyronamine-mediated metabolic suppression increases the phosphorylation of AMPK and induces fuel choice toward lipid mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, H; Shin, H; Son, C; Park, K; Choi, I

    2015-07-01

    Despite broad medical application, induction of artificial hypometabolism in vitro and its biochemical consequence have been rarely addressed. This study aimed to elucidate whether 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) induces hypometabolism in an in vitro model with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and whether it leads to a switch in primary fuel from carbohydrates to lipids as observed in in vivo models. Mouse C2C12 myotube and T1AM, a natural derivative of thyroid hormone, were used in this study. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to 0-100 μM T1AM for up to 10 h. Upon 6-h of exposure to 75 μM T1AM, the OCR was reduced to 60 vs. ~ 95% for the control. The intracellular [AMP]/[ATP] was 1.35-fold higher in T1AM-treated cells. RT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses revealed that treated cells had upregulated p-AMPK/AMPK (1.8-fold), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 mRNA, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and downregulated acetyl CoA carboxylase (0.4-fold) and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. The treated cells had darker periodic acid-Schiff staining with 1.2-fold greater glycogen content than controls. Taken together, the hypometabolic response of myotubes to T1AM was dramatic and accompanied by increases in both the relative abundance of AMP and AMPK activation, and fuel choice favoring lipids over carbohydrates. These results are consistent with the general trends observed for rodent models and true hibernators. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. A Hepatic GAbp-AMPK Axis Links Inflammatory Signaling to Systemic Vascular Damage

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    Katharina Niopek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased pro-inflammatory signaling is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Although both inflammatory and energy substrate handling processes represent critical layers of metabolic control, their molecular integration sites remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the heterodimerization interface between the α and β subunits of transcription factor GA-binding protein (GAbp as a negative target of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α signaling. TNF-α prevented GAbpα and β complex formation via reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to the non-energy-dependent transcriptional inactivation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β1, which was identified as a direct hepatic GAbp target. Impairment of AMPKβ1, in turn, elevated downstream cellular cholesterol biosynthesis, and hepatocyte-specific ablation of GAbpα induced systemic hypercholesterolemia and early macro-vascular lesion formation in mice. As GAbpα and AMPKβ1 levels were also found to correlate in obese human patients, the ROS-GAbp-AMPK pathway may represent a key component of a hepato-vascular axis in diabetic long-term complications.

  3. The cAMP effectors PKA and Epac activate endothelial NO synthase through PI3K/Akt pathway in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Verónica; Luaces-Regueira, María; Campos-Toimil, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    3',5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) exerts an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant action by stimulating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity, and the subsequent NO release, through cAMP protein kinase (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) activation in endothelial cells. Here, we have investigated the mechanism by which the cAMP-Epac/PKA pathway activates eNOS. cAMP-elevating agents (forskolin and dibutyryl-cAMP) and the joint activation of PKA (6-Bnz-cAMP) and Epac (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) increased cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) in ≤30% of fura-2-loaded isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). However, these drugs did not modify [Ca 2+ ] c in fluo-4-loaded HUVEC monolayers. In DAF-2-loaded HUVEC monolayers, forskolin, PKA and Epac activators significantly increased NO release, and the forskolin effect was reduced by inhibition of PKA (Rp-cAMPs), Epac (ESI-09), eNOS (L-NAME) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K; LY-294,002). On the other hand, inhibition of CaMKII (KN-93), AMPK (Compound C), or total absence of Ca 2+ , was without effect. In Western blot experiments, Serine 1177 phosphorylated-eNOS was significantly increased in HUVEC by cAMP-elevating agents and PKA or Epac activators. In isolated rat aortic rings LY-294,002, but not KN-93 or Compound C, significantly reduced the vasorelaxant effects of forskolin in the presence of endothelium. Our results suggest that Epac and PKA activate eNOS via Ser 1177 phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, and independently of AMPK or CaMKII activation or [Ca 2+ ] c increase. This action explains, in part, the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effect of cAMP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses

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    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by ∼60%. However, supplementing gAd fully rescued insulin’s microvascular action and significantly improved the metabolic responses to insulin in HFD male rats and these actions were abolished by inhibition of either AMPK or nitric oxide production. We conclude that HFD induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but gAd administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin’s metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in male rats. Key points Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle

  5. Differential regulation by AMP and ADP of AMPK complexes containing different γ subunit isoforms

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    Ross, Fiona A; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Hardie, D Grahame

    2016-01-01

    The g subunits of heterotrimeric AMPK complexes contain the binding sites for the regulatory adenine nucleotides AMP, ADP and ATP. We addressed whether complexes containing different g isoforms display different responses to adenine nucleotides by generating cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged ve...

  6. Ghrelin potentiates cardiac reactivity to stress by modulating sympathetic control and beta-adrenergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Silva, Gabriel; Turones, Larissa Córdova; da Cruz, Kellen Rosa; Gomes, Karina Pereira; Mendonça, Michelle Mendanha; Nunes, Allancer; de Jesus, Itamar Guedes; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Pansani, Aline Priscila; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Santos, Robson; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky; Guatimosim, Silvia; de Castro, Carlos Henrique; Ianzer, Danielle; Ferreira, Reginaldo Nassar; Xavier, Carlos Henrique

    2018-03-01

    Prior evidence indicates that ghrelin is involved in the integration of cardiovascular functions and behavioral responses. Ghrelin actions are mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor subtype 1a (GHS-R1a), which is expressed in peripheral tissues and central areas involved in the control of cardiovascular responses to stress. In the present study, we assessed the role of ghrelin - GHS-R1a axis in the cardiovascular reactivity to acute emotional stress in rats. Ghrelin potentiated the tachycardia evoked by restraint and air jet stresses, which was reverted by GHS-R1a blockade. Evaluation of the autonomic balance revealed that the sympathetic branch modulates the ghrelin-evoked positive chronotropy. In isolated hearts, the perfusion with ghrelin potentiated the contractile responses caused by stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor, without altering the amplitude of the responses evoked by acetylcholine. Experiments in isolated cardiomyocytes revealed that ghrelin amplified the increases in calcium transient changes evoked by isoproterenol. Taken together, our results indicate that the Ghrelin-GHS-R1a axis potentiates the magnitude of stress-evoked tachycardia by modulating the autonomic nervous system and peripheral mechanisms, strongly relying on the activation of cardiac calcium transient and beta-adrenergic receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinases (CaMKKs) Effects on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Regulation of Chicken Sperm Functions.

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    Nguyen, Thi Mong Diep; Combarnous, Yves; Praud, Christophe; Duittoz, Anne; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Sperm require high levels of energy to ensure motility and acrosome reaction (AR) accomplishment. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been demonstrated to be strongly involved in the control of these properties. We address here the question of the potential role of calcium mobilization on AMPK activation and function in chicken sperm through the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs) mediated pathway. The presence of CaMKKs and their substrates CaMKI and CaMKIV was evaluated by western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. Sperm were incubated in presence or absence of extracellular Ca(2+), or of CaMKKs inhibitor (STO-609). Phosphorylations of AMPK, CaMKI, and CaMKIV, as well as sperm functions were evaluated. We demonstrate the presence of both CaMKKs (α and β), CaMKI and CaMKIV in chicken sperm. CaMKKα and CaMKI were localized in the acrosome, the midpiece, and at much lower fluorescence in the flagellum, whereas CaMKKβ was mostly localized in the flagellum and much less in the midpiece and the acrosome. CaMKIV was only present in the flagellum. The presence of extracellular calcium induced an increase in kinases phosphorylation and sperm activity. STO-609 reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) but not in its absence. STO-609 did not affect CaMKIV phosphorylation but decreased CaMKI phosphorylation and this inhibition was quicker in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) than in its absence. STO-609 efficiently inhibited sperm motility and AR, both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Our results show for the first time the presence of CaMKKs (α and β) and one of its substrate, CaMKI in different subcellular compartments in germ cells, as well as the changes in the AMPK regulation pathway, sperm motility and AR related to Ca(2+) entry in sperm through the Ca(2+)/CaM/CaMKKs/CaMKI pathway. The Ca(2+)/CaMKKs/AMPK pathway is activated only under conditions of extracellular Ca(2+) entry

  8. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinases (CaMKKs Effects on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK Regulation of Chicken Sperm Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Mong Diep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Sperm require high levels of energy to ensure motility and acrosome reaction (AR accomplishment. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has been demonstrated to be strongly involved in the control of these properties. We address here the question of the potential role of calcium mobilization on AMPK activation and function in chicken sperm through the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs mediated pathway. The presence of CaMKKs and their substrates CaMKI and CaMKIV was evaluated by western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. Sperm were incubated in presence or absence of extracellular Ca(2+, or of CaMKKs inhibitor (STO-609. Phosphorylations of AMPK, CaMKI, and CaMKIV, as well as sperm functions were evaluated. We demonstrate the presence of both CaMKKs (α and β, CaMKI and CaMKIV in chicken sperm. CaMKKα and CaMKI were localized in the acrosome, the midpiece, and at much lower fluorescence in the flagellum, whereas CaMKKβ was mostly localized in the flagellum and much less in the midpiece and the acrosome. CaMKIV was only present in the flagellum. The presence of extracellular calcium induced an increase in kinases phosphorylation and sperm activity. STO-609 reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+ but not in its absence. STO-609 did not affect CaMKIV phosphorylation but decreased CaMKI phosphorylation and this inhibition was quicker in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+ than in its absence. STO-609 efficiently inhibited sperm motility and AR, both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca(2+. Our results show for the first time the presence of CaMKKs (α and β and one of its substrate, CaMKI in different subcellular compartments in germ cells, as well as the changes in the AMPK regulation pathway, sperm motility and AR related to Ca(2+ entry in sperm through the Ca(2+/CaM/CaMKKs/CaMKI pathway. The Ca(2+/CaMKKs/AMPK pathway is activated only under conditions of extracellular Ca(2

  9. Zurampic Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from High Uric Acid Induced-Damage by Inhibiting URAT1 and Inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Zurampic is a US FDA approved drug for treatment of gout. However, the influence of Zurampic on pancreatic β-cells remains unclear. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zurampic on high uric acid-induced damage of pancreatic β-cells and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: INS-1 cells and primary rat islets were stimulated with Zurampic and the mRNA expression of urate transporter 1 (URAT1 was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic, and cell viability, apoptosis and ROS release were measured by MTT and flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expressions of active Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK. Finally, cells were stimulated with uric acid or uric acid plus Zurampic at low/high level of glucose (2.8/16.7 mM glucose, and the insulin release was assessed by ELISA. Results: mRNA expression of URAT1 was decreased by Zurampic in a dose-dependent manner. Uric acid decreased cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis and induced ROS release. Uric acid-induced alterations could be reversed by Zurampic. Activation of Caspase-3 and phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK were enhanced by uric acid, and the enhancements were reversed by Zurampic. Decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and ERK, induced by Zurampic, was further reduced by adding inhibitor of AMPK or ERK. Besides, uric acid inhibited high glucose-induced insulin secretion and the inhibition was rescued by Zurampic. Conclusions: Zurampic has a protective effect on pancreatic β-cells against uric acid induced-damage by inhibiting URAT1 and inactivating the ROS/AMPK/ERK pathway.

  10. Hypoglycemic Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Is Due to Enhanced Peripheral Glucose Uptake through Activation of AMPK/p38 MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-Gyou; Hahm, Young-Tae; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-12-09

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses, including diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic effects remain unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic activity of OFS was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo systems. OFS treatment inhibited α-glucosidase activity and intestinal glucose absorption assessed by Na⁺-dependent glucose uptake using brush border membrane vesicles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is widely recognized as an important regulator of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been proposed to be a component of AMPK-mediated signaling. In the present study, OFS dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells. The AMPK and p38 MAPK phosphorylations were stimulated by OFS, and inhibitors of AMPK (compound C ) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) abolished the effects of OFS. Furthermore, OFS increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane. OFS administration (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg body weight) in db/db mice dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were also dose-dependently improved with OFS treatment. OFS administration improved pancreatic function through increased β-cell mass in db/db mice. These findings suggest that OFS acts by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and enhancing glucose uptake from insulin-sensitive muscle cells through the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  11. Hypoglycemic Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Is Due to Enhanced Peripheral Glucose Uptake through Activation of AMPK/p38 MAPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Hyun Leem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses, including diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic effects remain unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic activity of OFS was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo systems. OFS treatment inhibited α-glucosidase activity and intestinal glucose absorption assessed by Na+-dependent glucose uptake using brush border membrane vesicles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is widely recognized as an important regulator of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK has been proposed to be a component of AMPK-mediated signaling. In the present study, OFS dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells. The AMPK and p38 MAPK phosphorylations were stimulated by OFS, and inhibitors of AMPK (compound C and p38 MAPK (SB203580 abolished the effects of OFS. Furthermore, OFS increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. OFS administration (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg body weight in db/db mice dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were also dose-dependently improved with OFS treatment. OFS administration improved pancreatic function through increased β-cell mass in db/db mice. These findings suggest that OFS acts by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and enhancing glucose uptake from insulin-sensitive muscle cells through the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  12. Metformin prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis through AMPK-PI3K-c-Jun NH2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T.W.; Lee, M.W.; Lee, Y.-J.; Kim, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to be partially associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress toxicity on pancreatic beta cells and the result of decreased insulin synthesis and secretion. In this study, we showed that a well-known insulin sensitizer, metformin, directly protects against dysfunction and death of ER stress-induced NIT-1 cells (a mouse pancreatic beta cell line) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase activation. We also showed that exposure of NIT-1 cells to metformin (5mM) increases cellular resistance against ER stress-induced NIT-1 cell dysfunction and death. AMPK and PI3 kinase inhibitors abolished the effect of metformin on cell function and death. Metformin-mediated protective effects on ER stress-induced apoptosis were not a result of an unfolded protein response or the induced inhibitors of apoptotic proteins. In addition, we showed that exposure of ER stressed-induced NIT-1 cells to metformin decreases the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK). These data suggest that metformin is an important determinant of ER stress-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells and may have implications for ER stress-mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction via regulation of the AMPK-PI3 kinase-JNK pathway.

  13. Characteristics of Participants in Australia's Get Healthy Telephone-Based Lifestyle Information and Coaching Service: Reaching Disadvantaged Communities and Those Most at Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Blythe J.; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2011-01-01

    To address increasing rates of overweight and obesity, a population-based telephone intervention was introduced in New South Wales, Australia. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service[R] (GHS) offered participants a 6-month coaching program or detailed self-help information. Determining the population reach of GHS is of public health…

  14. Growth hormone secretagogues protect mouse cardiomyocytes from in vitro ischemia/reperfusion injury through regulation of intracellular calcium.

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    Yi Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of mortality. To study this disease, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R models are widely used to mimic the process of transient blockage and subsequent recovery of cardiac coronary blood supply. We aimed to determine whether the presence of the growth hormone secretagogues, ghrelin and hexarelin, would protect/improve the function of heart from I/R injury and to examine the underlying mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isolated hearts from adult male mice underwent 20 min global ischemia and 30 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Ghrelin (10 nM or hexarelin (1 nM was introduced into the perfusion system either 10 min before or after ischemia, termed pre- and post-treatments. In freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from these hearts, single cell shortening, intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+](i transients and caffeine-releasable sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+ were measured. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blots were used to examine the expression level of GHS receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a, and phosphorylated phospholamban (p-PLB, respectively. Ghrelin and hexarelin pre- or post-treatments prevented the significant reduction in the cell shortening, [Ca(2+](i transient amplitude and caffeine-releasable SR Ca(2+ content after I/R through recovery of p-PLB. GHS-R1a antagonists, [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (200 nM and BIM28163 (100 nM, completely blocked the effects of GHS on both cell shortening and [Ca(2+](i transients. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Through activation of GHS-R1a, ghrelin and hexarelin produced a positive inotropic effect on ischemic cardiomyocytes and protected them from I/R injury probably by protecting or recovering p-PLB (and therefore SR Ca(2+ content to allow the maintenance or recovery of normal cardiac contractility. These observations provide supporting evidence for the potential therapeutic application of ghrelin and hexarelin in patients with cardiac I/R injury.

  15. Deficiency of insulin-like growth factor 1 reduces vulnerability to chronic alcohol intake-induced cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction: role of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Li, Qun; Turdi, Subat; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels are closely associated with cardiac performance although the role of IGF-1 in alcoholic cardiac dysfunction is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of severe liver IGF-1 deficiency (LID) on chronic alcohol-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) dysfunction. Adult male C57 and LID mice were placed on a 4% alcohol diet for 15 weeks. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt), time-to-relengthening (TR(90) ), change in fura-fluorescence intensity (ΔFFI) and intracellular Ca(2+) decay. Levels of apoptotic regulators caspase-3, Bcl-2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), the ethanol metabolizing enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), as well as the cellular fuel gauge AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were evaluated. Chronic alcohol intake enlarged myocyte cross-sectional area, reduced PS, ± dL/dt and ΔFFI as well as prolonged TR(90) and intracellular Ca(2+) decay, the effect of which was greatly attenuated by IGF-1 deficiency. The beneficial effect of LID against alcoholic cardiac mechanical defect was ablated by IGF-1 replenishment. Alcohol intake increased caspase-3 activity/expression although it down-regulated Bcl-2, ALDH2 and pAMPK without affecting JNK and AMPK. IGF-1 deficiency attenuated alcoholism-induced responses in all these proteins with the exception of Bcl-2. In addition, the AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside abrogated short-term ethanol incubation-elicited cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Taken together, these data suggested that IGF-1 deficiency may reduce the sensitivity to ethanol-induced myocardial mechanical dysfunction. Our data further depicted a likely role of Caspase-3, ALDH2 and AMPK activation in IGF-1 deficiency induced 'desensitization' of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. © 2011 The

  16. Enhanced amino acid utilization sustains growth of cells lacking Snf1/AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida; Guzzi, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    when grown with glucose excess. We show that loss of Snf1 in cells growing in 2% glucose induces an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, enhances glycolytic activity, fatty acid accumulation and reliance on amino acid utilization for growth. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Snf1/AMPK-deficient cells...... remodel their metabolism fueling mitochondria and show glucose and amino acids addiction, a typical hallmark of cancer cells....

  17. Regulation of Ghrelin Receptor by Periodontal Bacteria In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Damanaki, Anna; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Eick, Sigrun; Memmert, Svenja; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Götz, Werner; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jäger, Andreas; Deschner, James

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin plays a major role in obesity-related diseases which have been shown to be associated with periodontitis. This study sought to analyze the expression of the functional receptor for ghrelin (GHS-R1a) in periodontal cells and tissues under microbial conditions in vitro and in vivo. The GHS-R1a expression in human periodontal cells challenged with the periodontopathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum, in gingival biopsies from periodontally healthy and diseased individuals, and from rats with a...

  18. Tanshinone IIA suppresses FcεRI-mediated mast cell signaling and anaphylaxis by activation of the Sirt1/LKB1/AMPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Park, Soon Jin; Jin, Fansi; Deng, Yifeng; Yang, Ju Hye; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Jung-Ae; Lee, Youn Ju; Murakami, Makoto; Son, Kun Ho; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2018-06-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its upstream mediators liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) are generally known as key regulators of metabolism. We have recently reported that the AMPK pathway negatively regulates mast cell activation and anaphylaxis. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract that is currently used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, shows anti-diabetic activity and improves insulin resistance in db/db mice through activation of AMPK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-allergic activity of Tan IIA in vivo and to investigate the underlying mechanism in vitro in the context of AMPK signaling. The anti-allergic effect of Tan IIA was evaluated using mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) from AMPKα2 -/- or Sirt1 -/- mice, or BMMCs transfected with siRNAs specific for AMPKα2, LKB1, or Sirt1. AMPKα2 -/- and Sirt1 -/- mice were used to confirm the anti-allergic effect of Tan IIA in anaphylaxis in vivo. Tan IIA dose-dependently inhibited FcεRI-mediated degranulation and production of eicosanoids and cytokines in BMMCs. These inhibitory effects were diminished by siRNA-mediated knockdown or genetic deletion of AMPKα2 or Sirt1. Moreover, Tan IIA inhibited a mast cell-mediated local passive anaphylactic reaction in wild-type mice, but not in AMPKα2 -/- or Sirt1 -/- mice. In conclusion, Tan IIA suppresses FcεRI-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylaxis through activation of the inhibitory Sirt1-LKB1-AMPK pathway. Thus, Tan IIA may be useful as a new therapeutic agent for mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormalities of AMPK activation and glucose uptake in cultured skeletal muscle cells from individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome.

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    Audrey E Brown

    Full Text Available Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects.Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise.In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16 h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16 h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured.EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets.

  20. Berberine inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2 signaling pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Jun; Dong, Hui; Li, Jing-Bin; Xu, Li-Jun; Zou, Xin; Wang, Kai-Fu; Lu, Fu-Er; Yi, Ping

    2015-07-07

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of berberine inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in a diabetic rat model. The 40 rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was selected as the normal group. In the remaining groups (n = 8 each), the rats were fed on a high-fat diet for 1 mo and received intravenous injection of streptozotocin for induction of the diabetic models. Berberine (156 mg/kg per day) (berberine group) or metformin (184 mg/kg per day) (metformin group) was intragastrically administered to the diabetic rats and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (0.5 mg/kg per day) (AICAR group) was subcutaneously injected to the diabetic rats for 12 wk. The remaining eight diabetic rats served as the model group. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels as well as lipid profile were tested. The expressions of proteins were examined by western blotting. The nuclear translocation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator (TORC)2 was observed by immunohistochemical staining. Berberine improved impaired glucose tolerance and decreased plasma hyperlipidemia. Moreover, berberine decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Berberine upregulated protein expression of liver kinase (LK)B1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK). The level of phophorylated TORC2 (p-TORC2) protein in the cytoplasm was higher in the berberine group than in the model group, and no significant difference in total TORC2 protein level was observed. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that more TORC2 was localized in the cytoplasm of the berberine group than in the model group. Moreover, berberine treatment downregulated protein expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) in the liver tissues. Our findings revealed that berberine inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis via the regulation of the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2

  1. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ampelopsin-induced reactive oxygen species enhance the apoptosis of colon cancer cells by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated AMPK/MAPK/XAF1 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ga Bin; Jeong, Jee-Yeong; Kim, Daejin

    2017-01-01

    Ampelopsin (Amp) is bioactive natural product and exerts anti-cancer effects against several cancer types. The present study investigated the anti-colon cancer activity of Amp and explored its mechanism of action. The treatment of colon cancer cells with Amp resulted in the dose- and time-dependent induction of apoptosis via the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Salubrinal, an ER stress inhibitor, prevented the upregulation of ER stress-associated proteins, including phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase, phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, glucose-regulated protein 78, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, as well as suppressing AMPK activation and the MAPK signaling pathway. Knockdown of AMPK by RNA interference failed to block ER stress. Additionally, SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38-MAPK inhibitor) effectively inhibited apoptosis and attenuated the expression of X-linked IAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) and apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 and BCL2-associated X protein) in Amp-treated colon cancer cells. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress/AMPK apoptotic signaling pathway in Amp-treated colon cancer cells were markedly inhibited by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger. These results demonstrate that treatment with Amp induces the apoptotic death of colon cancer cells through ER stress-initiated AMPK/MAPK/XAF1 signaling. These results also provide experimental information for developing Amp as therapeutic drug against colon cancer. PMID:29250183

  3. Metformin inhibition of mTORC1 activation, DNA synthesis and proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells: Dependence on glucose concentration and role of AMPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnett-Smith, James; Kisfalvi, Krisztina; Kui, Robert; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metformin inhibits cancer cell growth but the mechanism(s) are not understood. ► We show that the potency of metformin is sharply dependent on glucose in the medium. ► AMPK activation was enhanced in cancer cells incubated in physiological glucose. ► Reciprocally, metformin potently inhibited mTORC1, DNA synthesis and proliferation. ► Metformin, at low concentrations, inhibited DNA synthesis through AMPK. -- Abstract: Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug, is emerging as a potential anticancer agent but the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the potency of metformin induced AMPK activation, as shown by the phosphorylation of its substrates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser 79 and Raptor at Ser 792 , was dramatically enhanced in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells PANC-1 and MiaPaCa-2 cultured in medium containing physiological concentrations of glucose (5 mM), as compared with parallel cultures in medium with glucose at 25 mM. In physiological glucose, metformin inhibited mTORC1 activation, DNA synthesis and proliferation of PDAC cells stimulated by crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors and insulin/IGF signaling systems, at concentrations (0.05–0.1 mM) that were 10–100-fold lower than those used in most previous reports. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown of the α 1 and α 2 catalytic subunits of AMPK, we demonstrated that metformin, at low concentrations, inhibited DNA synthesis through an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Our results emphasize the importance of using medium containing physiological concentrations of glucose to elucidate the anticancer mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells and other cancer cell types.

  4. Caudal fourth ventricular administration of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside regulates glucose and counterregulatory hormone profiles, dorsal vagal complex metabolosensory neuron function, and hypothalamic Fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Baher A; Tamrakar, Pratistha; Gujar, Amit D; Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Briski, Karen P

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that estrogen controls hindbrain AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and regulation of blood glucose, counterregulatory hormone secretion, and hypothalamic nerve cell transcriptional status. Dorsal vagal complex A2 noradrenergic neurons were laser microdissected from estradiol benzoate (E)- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized female rats after caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) delivery of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR), for Western blot analysis. E advanced AICAR-induced increases in A2 phospho-AMPK (pAMPK) expression and in blood glucose levels and was required for augmentation of Fos, estrogen receptor-α (ERα), monocarboxylate transporter-2, and glucose transporter-3 protein in A2 neurons and enhancement of corticosterone secretion by this treatment paradigm. CV4 AICAR also resulted in site-specific modifications in Fos immunolabeling of hypothalamic metabolic structures, including the paraventricular, ventromedial, and arcuate nuclei. The current studies demonstrate that estrogen regulates AMPK activation in caudal hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons during pharmacological replication of energy shortage in this area of the brain, and that this sensor is involved in neural regulation of glucostasis, in part, through control of corticosterone secretion. The data provide unique evidence that A2 neurons express both ERα and -β proteins and that AMPK upregulates cellular sensitivity to ERα-mediated signaling during simulated energy insufficiency. The results also imply that estrogen promotes glucose and lactate uptake by these cells under those conditions. Evidence for correlation between hindbrain AMPK and hypothalamic nerve cell genomic activation provides novel proof for functional connectivity between this hindbrain sensor and higher order metabolic brain loci while demonstrating a modulatory role for estrogen in this interaction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Contraction-induced skeletal muscle FAT/CD36 trafficking and FA uptake is AMPK independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Albers, Peter Hjorth; Rose, Adam John

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating FAT/CD36 translocation and fatty acid uptake in skeletal muscle during contractions. In one model, WT and AMPK KD mice were exercised or EDL and SOL muscles were contracted, ex vivo. In separate studies, FAT/CD36 translo...

  6. Reduction Levels and the Effects of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin via AMPK/eNOS in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, K; Guo, X; Huang, Q; Tan, Z; Xia, C; Wang, R; Yi, F; Li, W; Liu, J; Li, Y; Guo, S; Wang, H; Ji, Q; Tao, L

    2016-10-01

    Aim: This study was to investigate the change of high-molecula-weight (HMW) adiponectin (APN) isoform, the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and HMW APN isoform, the variation of Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), the effect of HMW APN isoform on AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in Chinese T2DM. Method: 169 patients aged at (48.7±9.4) years and 107 healthy control subjects aged at (42.6±7.8) years took part in this study. Anthropometric measures of the characters were assayed and different APN isoforms, DsbA-L, AMPK and eNOS levels were determined. Results: Ln(sRAGE) and Ln(Adiponectin) were significantly lower and significantly higher for the other characteristics in T2DM. Ln(Adiponectin) was negatively and significantly correlated with WHR, Ln(triglycerides), fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c (%) in control subjects and T2DM patients. Plasma and adipose tissue total APN and HMW APN were significantly reduced in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. DsbA-L was markedly down-regulated in diabetic adipose tissue. HMW APN caused significant decreases in AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation levels of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that total APN levels was closely related to the risk of T2DM and HMW APN reduction was involved in the diabetic vascular AMPK/eNOS signal pathway. The findings will provide insight into novel therapeutic approaches for reducing the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with T2DM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Wedelolactone Regulates Lipid Metabolism and Improves Hepatic Steatosis Partly by AMPK Activation and Up-Regulation of Expression of PPARα/LPL and LDLR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhao

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is considered one of the greatest risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and the underlying mechanism of wedelolactone, a plant-derived coumestan, in HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. We showed that in cultured HepG2 cells, wedelolactone up-regulated protein levels of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα as well as the gene expression of AMPK, PPARα, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR. Meanwhile, administration of wedelolactone for 4 weeks decreased the lipid profiles of plasma and liver in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters, including total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C. The activation of AMPK and up-regulation of PPARα was also observed with wedelolactone treatment. Furthermore, wedelolactone also increased the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreased the level of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA in the liver, therefore decreasing the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. In conclusion, we provide novel experimental evidence that wedelolactone possesses lipid-lowering and steatosis-improving effects, and the underlying mechanism is, at least in part, mediated by the activation of AMPK and the up-regulation of PPARα/LPL and LDLR.

  8. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Rosmarinic Acid Alleviates the Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Rat Aortic Rings via Activation of AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is the key player in the development and progression of vascular events. Oxidative stress is involved in endothelial injury. Rosmarinic acid (RA is a natural polyphenol with antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigates the protective effect of RA on endothelial dysfunction induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Compared with endothelium-denuded aortic rings, the endothelium significantly alleviated the decrease of vasoconstrictive reactivity to PE and KCl induced by H2O2. H2O2 pretreatment significantly injured the vasodilative reactivity to ACh in endothelium-intact aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner. RA individual pretreatment had no obvious effect on the vasoconstrictive reaction to PE and KCl, while its cotreatment obviously mitigated the endothelium-dependent relaxation impairments and the oxidative stress induced by H2O2. The RA cotreatment reversed the downregulation of AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation induced by H2O2 in HAEC cells. The pretreatment with the inhibitors of AMPK (compound C and eNOS (L-NAME wiped off RA’s beneficial effects. All these results demonstrated that RA attenuated the endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress by activating the AMPK/eNOS pathway.

  10. Role of Diet Modulation and AMPK in Ovarian Cancer Progression and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    and ovarian cancer. Recently some studies have suggested that low - fat dietary pattern may reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer. High energy and...energy metabolism using nature of diet (high vs low energy) focusing on AMPK as a central energy regulator in ovarian cancer progression using a...used in research (7.2% fat ; 61.6% carbohydrate ; 20.5% proteins). The nutritionally balanced HED consisted of 60% kilocalories from fat (35.7

  11. Hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism mediate thyroid regulation of energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    López, Miguel; Varela, Luis; Vázquez, María J; Rodríguez-Cuenca, Sergio; González, Carmen R; Velagapudi, Vidya R; Morgan, Donald A; Schoenmakers, Erik; Agassandian, Khristofor; Lage, Ricardo; de Morentin, Pablo Blanco Martínez; Tovar, Sulay; Nogueiras, Rubén; Carling, David; Lelliott, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have widespread cellular effects; however it is unclear whether their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to global energy balance. Here, we demonstrate that either whole body hyperthyroidism or central administration of triiodothyronine (T3) decreases the activity of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increases sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and upregulates thermogenic markers in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Inhibition of the lipog...

  12. Metformin inhibits heme oxygenase-1 expression in cancer cells through inactivation of Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling and AMPK-independent pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Hee; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to therapy is the major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often highly up-regulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. It has been suggested that inhibition of HO-1 expression is a potential therapeutic approach to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-tumor effects of metformin are mediated by suppression of HO-1 expression in cancer cells. Our results indicate that metformin strongly suppresses HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2, cervical cancer HeLa, and non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. Metformin also markedly reduced Nrf2 mRNA and protein levels in whole cell lysates and suppressed tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)-induced Nrf2 protein stability and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. We also found that metformin regulation of Nrf2 expression is mediated by a Keap1-independent mechanism and that metformin significantly attenuated Raf-ERK signaling to suppress Nrf2 expression in cancer cells. Inhibition of Raf-ERK signaling by PD98059 decreased Nrf2 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, confirming that the inhibition of Nrf2 expression is mediated by an attenuation of Raf-ERK signaling in cancer cells. The inactivation of AMPK by siRNA, DN-AMPK or the pharmacological AMPK inhibitor compound C, revealed that metformin reduced HO-1 expression in an AMPK-independent manner. These results highlight the Raf-ERK-Nrf2 axis as a new molecular target in anticancer therapy in response to metformin treatment. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits HO-1 expression in cancer cells. • Metformin attenuates Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling. • Suppression of HO-1 by metformin is independent of AMPK. • HO-1 inhibition contributes to anti-proliferative effects of metformin

  13. Resveratrol engages AMPK to attenuate ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons and inhibits incision-induced acute and chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillu Dipti V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in our understanding of basic mechanisms driving post-surgical pain, treating incision-induced pain remains a major clinical challenge. Moreover, surgery has been implicated as a major cause of chronic pain conditions. Hence, more efficacious treatments are needed to inhibit incision-induced pain and prevent the transition to chronic pain following surgery. We reasoned that activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK may represent a novel treatment avenue for the local treatment of incision-induced pain because AMPK activators inhibit ERK and mTOR signaling, two important pathways involved in the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors. Results To test this hypothesis we used a potent and efficacious activator of AMPK, resveratrol. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol profoundly inhibits ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion and that these effects are mediated by AMPK activation and independent of sirtuin activity. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is thought to play an important role in incision-induced pain and resveratrol potently inhibited IL-6-mediated signaling to ERK in sensory neurons and blocked IL-6-mediated allodynia in vivo through a local mechanism of action. Using a model of incision-induced allodynia in mice, we further demonstrate that local injection of resveratrol around the surgical wound strongly attenuates incision-induced allodynia. Intraplantar IL-6 injection and plantar incision induces persistent nociceptive sensitization to PGE2 injection into the affected paw after the resolution of allodynia to the initial stimulus. We further show that resveratrol treatment at the time of IL-6 injection or plantar incision completely blocks the development of persistent nociceptive sensitization consistent with the blockade of a transition to a chronic pain state by resveratrol treatment. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of signaling

  14. Glucose Metabolism and AMPK Signaling Regulate Dopaminergic Cell Death Induced by Gene (α-Synuclein)-Environment (Paraquat) Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Lei, Shulei; Levytskyy, Roman; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Cerny, Ronald L; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    While environmental exposures are not the single cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), their interaction with genetic alterations is thought to contribute to neuronal dopaminergic degeneration. However, the mechanisms involved in dopaminergic cell death induced by gene-environment interactions remain unclear. In this work, we have revealed for the first time the role of central carbon metabolism and metabolic dysfunction in dopaminergic cell death induced by the paraquat (PQ)-α-synuclein interaction. The toxicity of PQ in dopaminergic N27 cells was significantly reduced by glucose deprivation, inhibition of hexokinase with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), or equimolar substitution of glucose with galactose, which evidenced the contribution of glucose metabolism to PQ-induced cell death. PQ also stimulated an increase in glucose uptake, and in the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and Na + -glucose transporters isoform 1 (SGLT1) proteins, but only inhibition of GLUT-like transport with STF-31 or ascorbic acid reduced PQ-induced cell death. Importantly, while autophagy protein 5 (ATG5)/unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1)-dependent autophagy protected against PQ toxicity, the inhibitory effect of glucose deprivation on cell death progression was largely independent of autophagy or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. PQ selectively induced metabolomic alterations and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in the midbrain and striatum of mice chronically treated with PQ. Inhibition of AMPK signaling led to metabolic dysfunction and an enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic cells to PQ. In addition, activation of AMPK by PQ was prevented by inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide syntase (iNOS) with 1400W, but PQ had no effect on iNOS levels. Overexpression of wild type or A53T mutant α-synuclein stimulated glucose accumulation and PQ toxicity, and this toxic synergism was reduced by inhibition of glucose metabolism

  15. Neferine reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Tang, Yuling; Wen, Long; Kong, Xianglong; Chen, Xuelian; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Zhiguo; Chen, Wenhang; Xiao, Chenggen; Xiao, Ping; Xiao, Xiangcheng

    2017-03-11

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents; however, its clinical use is limited by serious side effects of which nephrotoxicity is the most important. Nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin is closely associated with autophagy reduction and caspase activation. In this study, we investigated whether neferine, an autophagy inducer, had a protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In an in vitro cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity model, we determined that neferine was able to induce autophagy and that pretreatment with neferine not only attenuated cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis but further activated cell autophagy. This pro-survival effect was abolished by the autophagic flux inhibitor chloroquine. Furthermore, neferine pretreatment activated the AMPK/mTOR pathway; however, pharmacological inhibition of AMPK abolished neferine-mediated autophagy and nephroprotection against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our findings suggest for the first time the possible protective mechanism of neferine, which is crucial for its further development as a potential therapeutic agent for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Salicylate activates AMPK and synergizes with metformin to reduce the survival of prostate and lung cancer cells ex vivo through inhibition of de novo lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Andrew J; Villani, Linda A; Broadfield, Lindsay A; Houde, Vanessa P; Galic, Sandra; Blandino, Giovanni; Kemp, Bruce E; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Muti, Paola; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2015-07-15

    Aspirin, the pro-drug of salicylate, is associated with reduced incidence of death from cancers of the colon, lung and prostate and is commonly prescribed in combination with metformin in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Salicylate activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by binding at the A-769662 drug binding site on the AMPK β1-subunit, a mechanism that is distinct from metformin which disrupts the adenylate charge of the cell. A hallmark of many cancers is high rates of fatty acid synthesis and AMPK inhibits this pathway through phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). It is currently unknown whether targeting the AMPK-ACC-lipogenic pathway using salicylate and/or metformin may be effective for inhibiting cancer cell survival. Salicylate suppresses clonogenic survival of prostate and lung cancer cells at therapeutic concentrations achievable following the ingestion of aspirin (Salicylate concentrations of 1 mM increased the phosphorylation of ACC and suppressed de novo lipogenesis and these effects were enhanced with the addition of clinical concentrations of metformin (100 μM) and eliminated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in AMPK β1. Supplementation of media with fatty acids and/or cholesterol reverses the suppressive effects of salicylate and metformin on cell survival indicating the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis is probably important. Pre-clinical studies evaluating the use of salicylate based drugs alone and in combination with metformin to inhibit de novo lipogenesis and the survival of prostate and lung cancers are warranted. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Metformin inhibition of mTORC1 activation, DNA synthesis and proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells: Dependence on glucose concentration and role of AMPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett-Smith, James; Kisfalvi, Krisztina; Kui, Robert [Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rozengurt, Enrique, E-mail: erozengurt@mednet.ucla.edu [Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center, David Geffen School of Medicine and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin inhibits cancer cell growth but the mechanism(s) are not understood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that the potency of metformin is sharply dependent on glucose in the medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK activation was enhanced in cancer cells incubated in physiological glucose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reciprocally, metformin potently inhibited mTORC1, DNA synthesis and proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin, at low concentrations, inhibited DNA synthesis through AMPK. -- Abstract: Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug, is emerging as a potential anticancer agent but the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the potency of metformin induced AMPK activation, as shown by the phosphorylation of its substrates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser{sup 79} and Raptor at Ser{sup 792}, was dramatically enhanced in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells PANC-1 and MiaPaCa-2 cultured in medium containing physiological concentrations of glucose (5 mM), as compared with parallel cultures in medium with glucose at 25 mM. In physiological glucose, metformin inhibited mTORC1 activation, DNA synthesis and proliferation of PDAC cells stimulated by crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors and insulin/IGF signaling systems, at concentrations (0.05-0.1 mM) that were 10-100-fold lower than those used in most previous reports. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown of the {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} catalytic subunits of AMPK, we demonstrated that metformin, at low concentrations, inhibited DNA synthesis through an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Our results emphasize the importance of using medium containing physiological concentrations of glucose to elucidate the anticancer mechanism of action of metformin in pancreatic cancer cells and other cancer cell types.

  18. Deferoxamine Suppresses Collagen Cleavage and Protease, Cytokine, and COL10A1 Expression and Upregulates AMPK and Krebs Cycle Genes in Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Tchetina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO on collagen cleavage, inflammation, and chondrocyte hypertrophy in relation to energy metabolism-related gene expression in osteoarthritic (OA articular cartilage. Full-depth explants of human OA knee articular cartilage from arthroplasty were cultured with exogenous DFO (1–50 μM. Type II collagen cleavage and phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (pAMPK concentrations were measured using ELISAs. Gene expression studies employed real-time PCR and included AMPK analyses in PBMCs. In OA explants collagen cleavage was frequently downregulated by 10–50 μM DFO. PCR analysis of 7 OA patient cartilages revealed that 10 μM DFO suppressed expression of MMP-1, MMP-13, IL-1β, and TNFα and a marker of chondrocyte hypertrophy, COL10A1. No changes were observed in the expression of glycolysis-related genes. In contrast, expressions of genes associated with the mitochondrial Krebs cycle (TCA, AMPK, HIF1α, and COL2A1 were upregulated. AMPK gene expression was reduced in OA cartilage and increased in PBMCs from the same patients compared to healthy controls. Our studies demonstrate that DFO is capable of suppressing excessive collagenase-mediated type II collagen cleavage in OA cartilage and reversing phenotypic changes. The concomitant upregulation of proanabolic TCA-related gene expressions points to a potential for availability of energy generating substrates required for matrix repair by end-stage OA chondrocytes. This might normally be prevented by high whole-body energy requirements indicated by elevated AMPK expression in PBMCs of OA patients.

  19. Anti-Diabetic Activities of Jiaotaiwan in db/db Mice by Augmentation of AMPK Protein Activity and Upregulation of GLUT4 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiaotaiwan (JTW, which is composed of Coptis chinensis (CC and cinnamon (CIN, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, we investigated the antidiabetic effects and mechanism of JTW in db/db mice. Results showed that JTW significantly decreased the level of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose and insulin tolerance better than CC or CIN alone. JTW also effectively protected the pancreatic islet shape, augmented the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the liver, and increased the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle and white fat. AMPK and GLUT4 contributed to glucose metabolism regulation and had an essential function in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, the mechanisms of JTW may be related to suppressing gluconeogenesis by activating AMPK in the liver and affecting glucose uptake in surrounding tissues through the upregulation of GLUT4 protein expression. These findings provided a new insight into the antidiabetic clinical applications of JTW and demonstrated the potential of JTW as a new drug candidate for DM treatment.

  20. Nuevos mecanismos de regulación del balance energético. Papel de AMPK y del estrés del retículo endoplasmático hipotalámico

    OpenAIRE

    Seoane Collazo, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    AMPK es un sensor celular que se activa en estado de baja energía. Las evidencias actuales vinculan la AMPK hipotalámica con la regulación central del balance energético. Sin embargo, cual es la isoforma de AMPK y el tipo neuronal que está mediando estos efectos todavía no se ha dilucidado. En esta Tesis, demostramos que la inhibición de AMPKα1 en las neuronas SF1 del núcleo ventromedial del hipotálamo protege contra la obesidad inducida por dieta al disminuir el estrés del retículo endoplasm...

  1. The 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK Is Involved in the Augmentation of Antioxidant Defenses in Cryopreserved Chicken Sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Mong Diep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Semen cryopreservation is a unique tool for the management of animal genetic diversity. However, the freeze-thaw process causes biochemical and physical alterations which make difficult the restoration of sperm energy-dependent functions needed for fertilization. 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK is a key sensor and regulator of intracellular energy metabolism. Mitochondria functions are known to be severely affected during sperm cryopreservation with deleterious oxidative and peroxidative effects leading to cell integrity and functions damages. The aim of this study was thus to examine the role of AMPK on the peroxidation/antioxidant enzymes defense system in frozen-thawed sperm and its consequences on sperm functions. Chicken semen was diluted in media supplemented with or without AMPK activators (AICAR or Metformin [MET] or inhibitor (Compound C [CC] and then cryopreserved. AMPKα phosphorylation, antioxidant enzymes activities, mitochondrial potential, ATP, citrate, viability, acrosome reaction ability (AR and various motility parameters were negatively affected by the freeze-thaw process while reactive oxygen species (ROS production, lipid peroxidation (LPO and lactate concentration were dramatically increased. AICAR partially restored superoxide dismutase (SOD, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx and Glutathione Reductase (GR, increased ATP, citrate, and lactate concentration and subsequently decreased the ROS and LPO (malondialdehyde in frozen-thawed semen. Motility parameters were increased (i.e., + 23% for motility, + 34% for rapid sperm as well as AR (+ 100%. MET had similar effects as AICAR except that catalase activity was restored and that ATP and mitochondrial potential were further decreased. CC showed effects opposite to AICAR on SOD, ROS, LPO and AR and motility parameters. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that, upon freeze-thaw process, AMPK stimulated intracellular anti-oxidative defense enzymes through ATP regulation

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction precedes depression of AMPK/AKT signaling in insulin resistance induced by high glucose in primary cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yunhua; Liu, Jing; Shi, Le; Tang, Ying; Gao, Dan; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated brain insulin signaling impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes. Hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia arising from diabetes have been linked to neuronal insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia induces peripheral sensory neuronal impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, how brain glucose at diabetic conditions elicits cortical neuronal insulin signaling impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction remains unknown. In the present study, we cultured primary cortical neurons with high glucose levels and investigated the neuronal mitochondrial function and insulin response. We found that mitochondrial function was declined in presence of 10 mmol/L glucose, prior to the depression of AKT signaling in primary cortical neurons. We further demonstrated that the cerebral cortex of db/db mice exhibited both insulin resistance and loss of mitochondrial complex components. Moreover, we found that adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inactivation is involved in high glucose-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in primary cortical neurons and neuroblastoma cells, as well as in cerebral cortex of db/db mice, and all these impairments can be rescued by mitochondrial activator, resveratrol. Taken together, our results extend the finding that high glucose (≥10 mmol/L) comparable to diabetic brain extracellular glucose level leads to neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant insulin resistance, and targeting mitochondria-AMPK signaling might be a promising strategy to protect against diabetes-related neuronal impairment in central nerves system. We found that high glucose (≥10 mmol/L), comparable to diabetic brain extracellular glucose level, leads to neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and resultant insulin resistance in an AMPK-dependent manner, and targeting mitochondria-AMPK signaling might be a promising strategy to protect against diabetes-related neuronal impairment in central

  3. PT-1 selectively activates AMPK-γ1 complexes in mouse skeletal muscle, but activates all three γ subunit complexes in cultured human cells by inhibiting the respiratory chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Ross, Fiona A; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    strategy to combat diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. We report that the AMPK activator PT-1 selectively increased the activity of γ1- but not γ3-containing complexes in incubated mouse muscle. PT-1 increased the AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of the autophagy-regulating kinase ULK1 on Ser555...

  4. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK-dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas T.; Schjerling, Peter; Goodyear, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Metformin-induced activation of the 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent on AMPK signaling. Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given to muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPKα2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 wk. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyses. Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (∼45%, P metformin treatment. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt and TBC1D4 protein expression as well as Akt Thr308/Ser473 and TBC1D4 Thr642/Ser711 phosphorylation were not changed by metformin treatment. Also, protein expressions of Rab4, GLUT4, and hexokinase II were unaltered after treatment. The acute metformin treatment did not affect glucose uptake in muscle of either of the genotypes. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence for a role of AMPK in potentiating the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in soleus muscle in response to chronic metformin treatment. PMID:24644243

  5. Light-to-moderate ethanol feeding augments AMPK-α phosphorylation and attenuates SREBP-1 expression in the liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammi, Srinivas; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2013-01-01

    Fatty liver disease, a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is one of the major causes of chronic liver diseases. Epidemiological studies suggest that regular light-to-moderate ethanol consumption lowers the risk of developing metabolic disorders including dislipidemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. However, the mechanism(s) of the protective effect of light-to-moderate ethanol consumption on the liver remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of light (6%, 0.94 g/kg/day) and moderate (12%, 1.88 g/kg/day) ethanol feeding in rats for 3 weeks on the circulating and hepatic biochemical profiles and on the hepatic protein expression and phosphorylation status of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α (AMPK-α) and other down-stream targets of this enzyme including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). Despite no significant difference in food-intake among the groups, light ethanol treatment significantly increased the body weight compared to control rats. Serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were not significantly different among the groups. However, serum free fatty acids were significantly reduced with light ethanol treatment. Both light and moderate ethanol treatment significantly increased the hepatic levels of phosphorylated AMPK-α protein and this was associated with significant reduction of SREBP-1 protein expression, suggesting an enhanced fatty acid oxidation. In addition, light ethanol treatment significantly decreased the SCAP protein expression in the liver. However, liver HMG-CoA protein expression was not significantly different with ethanol consumption. Chronic light-to-moderate ethanol consumption increased AMPK activation which was associated with decreased expression of SREBP

  6. Dose-Dependent AMPK-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms of Berberine and Metformin Inhibition of mTORC1, ERK, DNA Synthesis and Proliferation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ming

    Full Text Available Natural products represent a rich reservoir of potential small chemical molecules exhibiting anti-proliferative and chemopreventive properties. Here, we show that treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC cells (PANC-1, MiaPaCa-2 with the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine (0.3-6 µM inhibited DNA synthesis and proliferation of these cells and delay the progression of their cell cycle in G1. Berberine treatment also reduced (by 70% the growth of MiaPaCa-2 cell growth when implanted into the flanks of nu/nu mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that berberine decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP levels and induced potent AMPK activation, as shown by phosphorylation of AMPK α subunit at Thr-172 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC at Ser79. Furthermore, berberine dose-dependently inhibited mTORC1 (phosphorylation of S6K at Thr389 and S6 at Ser240/244 and ERK activation in PDAC cells stimulated by insulin and neurotensin or fetal bovine serum. Knockdown of α1 and α2 catalytic subunit expression of AMPK reversed the inhibitory effect produced by treatment with low concentrations of berberine on mTORC1, ERK and DNA synthesis in PDAC cells. However, at higher concentrations, berberine inhibited mitogenic signaling (mTORC1 and ERK and DNA synthesis through an AMPK-independent mechanism. Similar results were obtained with metformin used at doses that induced either modest or pronounced reductions in intracellular ATP levels, which were virtually identical to the decreases in ATP levels obtained in response to berberine. We propose that berberine and metformin inhibit mitogenic signaling in PDAC cells through dose-dependent AMPK-dependent and independent pathways.

  7. CAMKII and calcineurin regulate the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Xie, Qi; Ding, Yue-He; Li, Shang-Tong; Peng, Shengyi; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Tan, Dan; Yuan, Zengqiang; Dong, Meng-Qiu

    2013-06-25

    The insulin-like signaling pathway maintains a relatively short wild-type lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by phosphorylating and inactivating DAF-16, the ortholog of the FOXO transcription factors of mammalian cells. DAF-16 is phosphorylated by the AKT kinases, preventing its nuclear translocation. Calcineurin (PP2B phosphatase) also limits the lifespan of C. elegans, but the mechanism through which it does so is unknown. Herein, we show that TAX-6•CNB-1 and UNC-43, the C. elegans Calcineurin and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase type II (CAMKII) orthologs, respectively, also regulate lifespan through DAF-16. Moreover, UNC-43 regulates DAF-16 in response to various stress conditions, including starvation, heat or oxidative stress, and cooperatively contributes to lifespan regulation by insulin signaling. However, unlike insulin signaling, UNC-43 phosphorylates and activates DAF-16, thus promoting its nuclear localization. The phosphorylation of DAF-16 at S286 by UNC-43 is removed by TAX-6•CNB-1, leading to DAF-16 inactivation. Mammalian FOXO3 is also regulated by CAMKIIA and Calcineurin. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00518.001.

  8. Multi-regulatory network of ROS: the interconnection of ROS, PGC-1 alpha, and AMPK-SIRT1 during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirupathi, Anand; de Souza, Claudio Teodoro

    2017-11-01

    Transcriptional factors are easily susceptible to any stimuli, including exercise. Exercise can significantly influence PGC-1 α and AMPK-SIRT1 pathway, as it is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Exercise is a major energy deprivation process by which many of transcription factors get tuned positively. However, how transcription factors help to boost the antioxidant defense system at cellular level is elusive. It is well known that physical exercise can induce reactive oxygen species, but how these reactive oxygen species can help to regulate multiple transcription factors during exercise is an important area to be discussed yet. This review mainly focuses on interconnecting role of PGC-1 α and AMPK-SIRT1 pathway during exercise and how these proteins are getting tuned by reactive oxygen species in exercise condition.

  9. AMPK-α2 is involved in exercise training-induced adaptations in insulin-stimulated metabolism in skeletal muscle following high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Marcia J; Turcotte, Lorraine P

    2014-10-15

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been studied extensively and postulated to be a target for the treatment and/or prevention of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. Exercise training has been deemed a beneficial treatment for obesity and insulin resistance. Furthermore, exercise is a feasible method to combat high-fat diet (HFD)-induced alterations in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AMPK-α2 activity is required to gain beneficial effects of exercise training with high-fat feeding. Wild-type (WT) and AMPK-α2 dominant-negative (DN) male mice were fed standard diet (SD), underwent voluntary wheel running (TR), fed HFD, or trained with HFD (TR + HFD). By week 6, TR, irrespective of genotype, decreased blood glucose and increased citrate synthase activity in both diet groups and decreased insulin levels in HFD groups. Hindlimb perfusions were performed, and, in WT mice with SD, TR increased insulin-mediated palmitate uptake (76.7%) and oxidation (>2-fold). These training-induced changes were not observed in the DN mice. With HFD, TR decreased palmitate oxidation (61-64%) in both WT and DN and increased palmitate uptake (112%) in the WT with no effects on palmitate uptake in the DN. With SD, TR increased ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation, regardless of genotype. With HFD, TR reduced JNK1/2 phosphorylation, regardless of genotype, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 expression in WT, and CD36 expression in both DN and WT. These data suggest that low AMPK-α2 signaling disrupts, in part, the exercise training-induced adaptations in insulin-stimulated metabolism in skeletal muscle following HFD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Cell Death in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Repressing mTOR via AMPK Activation and PI3K/Akt Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer properties and mechanism of action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs have been demonstrated in several cancers; however, the mechanism in lung cancer remains unclear. Here, we show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a ω3-PUFA, induced apoptosis and autophagy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. DHA-induced cell death was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and inactivated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling. Knocking down AMPK and overexpressing Akt increased mTOR activity and attenuated DHA-induced cell death, suggesting that DHA induces cell death via AMPK- and Akt-regulated mTOR inactivation. This was confirmed in Fat-1 transgenic mice, which produce ω3-PUFAs. Lewis lung cancer (LLC tumor cells implanted into Fat-1 mice showed slower growth, lower phospho-Akt levels, and higher levels of apoptosis and autophagy than cells implanted into wild-type mice. Taken together, these data suggest that DHA-induced apoptosis and autophagy in NSCLC cells are associated with AMPK activation and PI3K/Akt inhibition, which in turn lead to suppression of mTOR; thus ω3-PUFAs may be utilized as potential therapeutic agents for NSCLC treatment.

  11. Silibinin Restores NAD⁺ Levels and Induces the SIRT1/AMPK Pathway in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Federico; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Godos, Justyna; Lembo, Vincenzo; Currenti, Walter; Cinà, Diana; Avola, Roberto; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Morisco, Filomena; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2017-09-30

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺) homeostasis is emerging as a key player in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is tightly linked to the SIRT1/5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. Silibinin, the main component of silymarin, has been proposed as a nutraceutical for the treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we aimed to identify whether silibinin may influence the NAD⁺/SIRT1 axis. To this end, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks, and were treated with silibinin or vehicle during the last 8 weeks. HepG2 cells were treated with 0.25 mM palmitate for 24 h with silibinin 25 µM or vehicle. HFD and palmitate administration led to oxidative stress, poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) activation, NAD⁺ consumption, and lower SIRT1 activity. In mice fed the HFD, and in HepG2 treated with palmitate, we consistently observed lower levels of phospho-AMPK Thr172 and phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylase Ser79 and higher levels of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 activity, indicating de novo lipogenesis. Treatment of mice and HepG2 with silibinin abolished oxidative stress, and inhibited PARP activation thus restoring the NAD⁺ pool. In agreement with preserved NAD⁺ levels, SIRT1 activity and AMPK phosphorylation returned to control levels in mice and HepG2. Our results further indicate silibinin as a promising molecule for the treatment of NAFLD.

  12. Discovery of biaryl-4-carbonitriles as antihyperglycemic agents that may act through AMPK-p38 MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Nag, Pankaj; Rahuja, Neha; Srivastava, Rohit; Chaurasia, Sumit; Gautam, Sudeep; Chandra, Sharat; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2014-08-25

    A series of functionalized biaryl-4-carbonitriles was synthesized in three steps and evaluated for PTP-1B inhibitory activity. Among the synthesized compounds, four biaryls 6a-d showed inhibition (IC50 58-75 μM) against in vitro PTP-1B assay possibly due to interaction with amino acid residues Lys120, Tyr46 through hydrogen bonding and aromatic-aromatic interactions, respectively. Two biaryl-4-carbonitriles 6b and 6c showed improved glucose tolerance, fasting as well as postprandial blood glucose, serum total triglycerides, and increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in SLM, STZ, STZ-S and C57BL/KsJ-db/db animal models. The bioanalysis of 4'-bromo-2,3-dimethyl-5-(piperidin-1-yl)biphenyl-4-carbonitrile (6b) revealed that like insulin, it increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells (L6 and C2C12 myotubes). The compound 6b significantly up-regulated the genes related to the insulin signaling pathways like AMPK, MAPK including glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) gene in muscle tissue of C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Furthermore, it was observed that the compound 6b up-regulated PPARα, UCP2 and HNF4α, which are key regulator of glucose, lipid, and fatty acid metabolism. Western blot analysis of the compound 6b showed that it significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and p38 MAPK and ameliorated glucose uptake in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice through the AMPK-p38 MAPK pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metformin inhibits proliferation and cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis via AMPK pathway in CD19-chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Q

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Qian Mu,1,2,* Miao Jiang,1,* Yuzhu Zhang,1 Fei Wu,1 Hui Li,1 Wen Zhang,1 Fang Wang,1 Jiang Liu,1 Liang Li,1 Dongshan Wang,3 Wenjuan Wang,1 Shiwu Li,1 Haibo Song,4 Dongqi Tang1 1Gene and Immunotherapy Center, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Health Management Center, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 4Central Research Laboratory, Zibo Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated to Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Zibo, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: CD19-chimericantigen receptor (CAR modified T cells (CD19-CAR T cells have been well documented to possess potent anti-tumor properties against CD19-expressingleukemia cells. As a traditional medicine, metformin has been widely used to treat type II diabetes mellitus and more recently has become a candidate for the treatment of cancer. However, no report has revealed the direct effect of metformin on CD19-CAR T cell biological function and its underling mechanisms. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to explore the effect of metformin on CD19-CAR T cell biological function and the mechanisms involved. Methods: CD19-CAR T cells proliferation, apoptosis and cytotoxicity were mainly tested by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and ELISA. The detection of mechanism primarily used western blot. Bioluminescence imaging is the main application technology of animal studies. Results: In the current study, it was found that metformin inhibited CD19-CAR T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, our study revealed that metformin activated AMPK and suppressed mTOR and HIF1α expression. By using an AMPK inhibitor, compound C, we demonstrated the crucial roles of AMPK in CD19

  14. Global phosphoproteomic analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals a network of exercise-regulated kinases and AMPK substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffman, Nolan J; Parker, Benjamin L; Chaudhuri, Rima

    2015-01-01

    -intensity exercise bout, revealing 1,004 unique exercise-regulated phosphosites on 562 proteins. These included substrates of known exercise-regulated kinases (AMPK, PKA, CaMK, MAPK, mTOR), yet the majority of kinases and substrate phosphosites have not previously been implicated in exercise signaling. Given...

  15. Environmental and genetic preconditioning for long-term anoxia responses requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby L LaRue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2 and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1 lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype.In this study we show that the combined growth environment of 25°C and a diet of HT115 E. coli will precondition adult hermaphrodites to survive long-term anoxia; many of these survivors have normal movement after anoxia treatment. Animals fed the drug metformin, which induces a dietary-restriction like state in animals and activates AMPK in mammalian cell culture, have a higher survival rate when exposed to long-term anoxia. Mutations in genes encoding components of AMPK (aak-2, aakb-1, aakb-2, aakg-2 suppress the environmentally and genetically induced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. We further determine that there is a correlation between the animals that survive long-term anoxia and increased levels of carminic acid staining, which is a fluorescent dye that incorporates in with carbohydrates such as glycogen.We conclude that small changes in growth conditions such as increased temperature and food source can influence the physiology of the animal thus affecting the responses to stress such as anoxia. Furthermore, this supports the idea that metformin should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for treatment of oxygen-deprived tissues. Finally, the capacity for an animal to survive long bouts of severe oxygen deprivation is likely dependent on specific subunits of the heterotrimeric

  16. Profiling hepatic microRNAs in zebrafish: fluoxetine exposure mimics a fasting response that targets AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Craig

    Full Text Available This study examined the similarities in microRNA profiles between fasted and fluoxetine (FLX exposed zebrafish and downstream target transcripts and biological pathways. Using a custom designed microarray targeting 270 zebrafish miRNAs, we identified 9 differentially expressed miRNAs targeting transcripts in biological pathways associated with anabolic metabolism, such as adipogenesis, cholesterol biosynthesis, triacylglycerol synthesis, and insulin signaling. Exposure of female zebrafish to 540 ng/L FLX, an environmentally relevant concentration and a known metabolic repressor, increased specific miRNAs indicating greater inhibition of these pathways in spite of continued feeding. Further examination revealed two specific miRNAs, dre-let-7d and dre-miR-140-5p, were predicted in silico to bind to a primary regulator of metabolism, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and more specifically the two isoforms of the catalytic subunit, AMPKα1 and α2, respectively. Real-time analysis of the relative transcript abundance of the α1 and α2 mRNAs indicated a significant inverse relationship between specific miRNA and target transcript. This suggests that AMPK-related pathways may be compromised during FLX exposure as a result of increased miRNA abundance. The mechanism by which FLX regulates miRNA abundance is unknown but may be direct at the liver. The serotonin transporter, slc6a4, is the target of FLX and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI and it was found to be expressed in the liver, although treatment did not alter expression of this transporter. Exposure to FLX disrupts key hepatic metabolic pathways, which may be indicative of reduced overall fitness and these effects may be linked to specific miRNA abundance. This has important implications for the heath of fish because concentrations of SSRIs in aquatic ecosystems are continually increasing.

  17. Effects of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis of the rat fetal spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Miho; Nakahara, Keiko; Goto, Shintaro; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Date, Yukari; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2006-01-01

    Expressions of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) mRNA and its protein were confirmed in rat fetal spinal cord tissues by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, over 3 nM ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induced significant proliferation of primary cultured cells from the fetal spinal cord. The proliferating cells were then double-stained using antibodies against the neuronal precursor marker, nestin, and the cell proliferation marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and the nestin-positive cells were also found to be co-stained with antibody against GHS-R. Furthermore, binding studies using [ 125 I]des-acyl ghrelin indicated the presence of a specific binding site for des-acyl ghrelin, and confirmed that the binding was displaced with unlabeled des-acyl ghrelin or ghrelin. These results indicate that ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induce proliferation of neuronal precursor cells that is both dependent and independent of GHS-R, suggesting that both ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are involved in neurogenesis of the fetal spinal cord

  18. Lack of Adipocyte AMPK Exacerbates Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis through Brown and Beige Adipose Tissue Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottillo, Emilio P; Desjardins, Eric M; Crane, Justin D

    2016-01-01

    Brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues play distinct roles in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis, and their dysfunction can contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor, but its role...

  19. Mutated CaV2.1 channels dysregulate CASK/P2X3 signaling in mouse trigeminal sensory neurons of R192Q Cacna1a knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Aswini; Bele, Tanja; Hullugundi, Swathi; Simonetti, Manuela; Ferrari, Michael D; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Nistri, Andrea; Fabbretti, Elsa

    2013-12-02

    ATP-gated P2X3 receptors of sensory ganglion neurons are important transducers of pain as they adapt their expression and function in response to acute and chronic nociceptive signals. The present study investigated the role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) in controlling P2X3 receptor expression and function in trigeminal ganglia from Cacna1a R192Q-mutated knock-in (KI) mice, a genetic model for familial hemiplegic migraine type-1. KI ganglion neurons showed more abundant CASK/P2X3 receptor complex at membrane level, a result that likely originated from gain-of-function effects of R192Q-mutated CaV2.1 channels and downstream enhanced CaMKII activity. The selective CaV2.1 channel blocker ω-Agatoxin IVA and the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 were sufficient to return CASK/P2X3 co-expression to WT levels. After CASK silencing, P2X3 receptor expression was decreased in both WT and KI ganglia, supporting the role of CASK in P2X3 receptor stabilization. This process was functionally observed as reduced P2X3 receptor currents. We propose that, in trigeminal sensory neurons, the CASK/P2X3 complex has a dynamic nature depending on intracellular calcium and related signaling, that are enhanced in a transgenic mouse model of genetic hemiplegic migraine.

  20. Papel de AMPK en la regulación del metabolismo y proliferación celular durante el proceso de tumorogénesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos García, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    AMPK es un sensor energético y ha sido relacionado con la inhibición de rutas anabólicas, apoptosis y ciclo celular. Aunque su papel en la homeostasis metabólica está bien documentado, su posible función en cáncer es todavía poco conocida. El principal objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar el papel de AMPK en metabolismo y proliferación de células tumorales, evaluando las implicaciones de dos rutas de señalización celular; Raf/MEK/ERK y PI3K/Akt. Para este fin hemos usado un modelo de gli...

  1. Reduction of SR Ca2+ leak and arrhythmogenic cellular correlates by SMP-114, a novel CaMKII inhibitor with oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Stefan; Mann, Christian; Zwenger, Anne; Dybkova, Nataliya; Maier, Lars S

    2017-07-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ leak induced by Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is centrally involved in atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis as well as heart failure remodeling. Consequently, treating SR Ca 2+ leak has been proposed as a novel therapeutic paradigm, but compounds for use in humans are lacking. SMP-114 ("Rimacalib") is a novel, orally available CaMKII inhibitor developed for human use that has already entered clinical phase II trials to treat rheumatoid arthritis. We speculated that SMP-114 might also be useful to treat cardiac SR Ca 2+ leak. SMP-114 significantly reduces SR Ca 2+ leak (as assessed by Ca 2+ sparks) in human atrial (0.72 ± 0.33 sparks/100 µm/s vs. control 3.02 ± 0.91 sparks/100 µm/s) and failing left ventricular (0.78 ± 0.23 vs. 1.69 ± 0.27 sparks/100 µm/s) as well as in murine ventricular cardiomyocytes (0.30 ± 0.07 vs. 1.50 ± 0.28 sparks/100 µm/s). Associated with lower SR Ca 2+ leak, we found that SMP-114 suppressed the occurrence of spontaneous arrhythmogenic spontaneous Ca 2+ release (0.356 ± 0.109 vs. 0.927 ± 0.216 events per 30 s stimulation cessation). In consequence, post-rest potentiation of Ca 2+ -transient amplitude (measured using Fura-2) during the 30 s pause was improved by SMP-114 (52 ± 5 vs. 37 ± 4%). Noteworthy, SMP-114 has these beneficial effects without negatively impairing global excitation-contraction coupling: neither systolic Ca 2+ release nor single cell contractility was compromised, and also SR Ca 2+ reuptake, in line with resulting cardiomyocyte relaxation, was not impaired by SMP-114 in our assays. SMP-114 demonstrated potential to treat SR Ca 2+ leak and consequently proarrhythmogenic events in rodent as well as in human atrial cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocytes from patients with heart failure. Further research is necessary towards clinical use in cardiac disease.

  2. Suppression of c-Myc induces apoptosis via an AMPK/mTOR-dependent pathway by 4-O-methyl-ascochlorin in leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Moon; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji; Bae, Young-Seuk; Chang, Young-Chae

    2016-05-01

    4-O-Methyl-ascochlorin (MAC) is a methylated derivative of the prenyl-phenol antibiotic ascochlorin, which was isolated from an incomplete fungus, Ascochyta viciae. Although the effects of MAC on apoptosis have been reported, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that MAC promoted apoptotic cell death and downregulated c-Myc expression in K562 human leukemia cells. The effect of MAC on apoptosis was similar to that of 10058-F4 (a c-Myc inhibitor) or c-Myc siRNA, suggesting that the downregulation of c-Myc expression plays a role in the apoptotic effect of MAC. Further investigation showed that MAC downregulated c-Myc by inhibiting protein synthesis. MAC promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its target proteins, including p70S6 K and 4E-BP-1. Treatment of cells with AICAR (an AMPK activator), rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor), or mTOR siRNA downregulated c-Myc expression and induced apoptosis to a similar extent to that of MAC. These results suggest that the effect of MAC on apoptosis induction in human leukemia cells is mediated by the suppression of c-Myc protein synthesis via an AMPK/mTOR-dependent mechanism.

  3. C1q/Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Protein-3 Attenuates Brain Injury after Intracerebral Hemorrhage via AMPK-dependent pathway in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3 is a recently discovered adiponectin paralog with established metabolic regulatory properties. However, the role of CTRP3 in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is still mostly unresolved. The aim of the present report was to explore the possible neuroprotective effect of CTRP3 in an ICH rat model and to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms. ICH was induced in rats by intracerebral infusion of autologous arterial blood. The effects of exogenous CTRP3 (recombinant or lentivirus CTRP3 on brain injury were explored on day 7. Treatment with CTRP3 reduced brain edema, protected against disruption of the blood-brain barrier, improved neurological functions, and promoted angiogenesis. Furthermore, CTRP3 greatly intensified phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in addition to expression of hypoxia inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Finally, the protective effects of CTRP3 could be blocked by either AMPK or VEGF inhibitors. Our findings give the first evidence that CTRP3 is a new proangiogenic and neuroprotective adipokine, which may exert its protective effects at least partly through an AMPK/HIF-1α/ VEGF-dependent pathway, and suggest that CTRP3 may provide a new therapeutic strategy for ICH.

  4. Alamandine acts via MrgD to induce AMPK/NO activation against Ang II hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Itamar Couto Guedes; Scalzo, Sergio; Alves, Fabiana; Marques, Kariny; Rocha-Resende, Cibele; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A Souza; Guatimosim, Silvia

    2018-02-14

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. New members of this system have been characterized and shown to have biologically relevant actions. Alamandine and its receptor MrgD are recently identified components of RAS. In the cardiovascular system alamandine actions included vasodilation, antihypertensive and anti-fibrosis effects. Currently, the actions of alamandine on cardiomyocytes are unknown. Here our goal was twofold: (1) to unravel the signaling molecules activated by the alamandine/MrgD axis in cardiomyocytes; (2) to evaluate the ability of this axis to prevent against Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy. In cardiomyocytes from C57BL/6 mice, alamandine treatment induced an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production, which was blocked by D-Pro 7 -Ang-(1-7), a MrgD antagonist. This NO rise correlated with increased phosphorylation of AMPK. Alamandine induced NO production was preserved in Mas -/- myocytes, and lost in MrgD -/- cells. Binding of fluorescent-labeled alamandine was observed in wild-type cells, but it was dramatically reduced in MrgD -/- myocytes. We also assessed the consequences of prolonged alamandine exposure to cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) treated with Ang II. Treatment of NRCMs with alamandine prevented Ang II-induced hypertrophy. Moreover, antihypertrophic actions of alamandine were mediated via MrgD and NO, since they could be prevented by D-Pro 7 -Ang-(1-7) or inhibitors of NO synthase or AMPK. β-alanine, a MrgD agonist, recapitulated alamandine's cardioprotective effects in cardiomyocytes. Our data show that alamandine via MrgD induces AMPK/NO signaling to counterregulate Ang II induced hypertrophy. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of the alamandine/MrgD axis in the heart.

  5. Curcumin inhibits EMMPRIN and MMP-9 expression through AMPK-MAPK and PKC signaling in PMA induced macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiatian; Han, Zhihua; Tian, Lei; Chen, Kan; Fan, Yuqi; Ye, Bozhi; Huang, Weijian; Wang, Changqian; Huang, Zhouqing

    2014-09-21

    In coronary arteries, plaque disruption, the major acute clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, leads to a subsequent cardiac event, such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina pectoris (UA). Numerous reports have shown that high expression of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9), MMP-13 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) and EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase induce) in monocyte/macrophage results in the plaque progression and destabilization. Curcumin exerts well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and probably has a protective role in the atherosclerosis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin affects MMP-9, MMP13 and EMMPRIN in PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) induced macrophages. Human monocytic cells (THP-1 cells) were pretreated with curcumin or compound C for 1 h, and then induced by PMA for 48 h. Total RNA and proteins were collected for real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. In the present study, the exposure to curcumin resulted in attenuated JNK, p38, and ERK activation and decreased expression of MMP-9, MMP-13 and EMMPRIN in PMA induced macrophages. Moreover, we demonstrated that AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and PKC (Protein Kinase C) was activated by PMA during monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, curcumin reversed PMA stimulated PKC activation and suppressed the chronic activation of AMPK, which in turn reduced the expression of MMP-9, MMP-13 and EMMPRIN. Therefore, it is suggested that curcumin by inhibiting AMPK-MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) and PKC pathway may led to down-regulated EMMPRIN, MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression in PMA-induced THP-1 cells.

  6. Cold stress accentuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction: role of TRPV1/AMPK-mediated autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Songhe; Xu, Dezhong

    2013-12-06

    Severe cold exposure and pressure overload are both known to prompt oxidative stress and pathological alterations in the heart although the interplay between the two remains elusive. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel activated in response to a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli including heat and capsaicin. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cold exposure on pressure overload-induced cardiac pathological changes and the mechanism involved. Adult male C57 mice were subjected to abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) prior to exposure to cold temperature (4 °C) for 4 weeks. Cardiac geometry and function, levels of TRPV1, mitochondrial, and autophagy-associated proteins including AMPK, mTOR, LC3B, and P62 were evaluated. Sustained cold stress triggered cardiac hypertrophy, compromised depressed myocardial contractile capacity including lessened fractional shortening, peak shortening, and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, enhanced ROS production, and mitochondrial injury, the effects of which were negated by the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Western blot analysis revealed upregulated TRPV1 level and AMPK phosphorylation, enhanced ratio of LC3II/LC3I, and downregulated P62 following cold exposure. Cold exposure significantly augmented AAC-induced changes in TRPV1, phosphorylation of AMPK, LC3 isoform switch, and p62, the effects of which were negated by SB366791. In summary, these data suggest that cold exposure accentuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile defect possibly through a TRPV1 and autophagy-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Ghrelin in the human myometrium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Margaret

    2010-05-28

    Abstract Background Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid octanolyated peptide, synthesised primarily in the stomach. It stimulates growth hormone release, food intake and exhibits many other diverse effects. Our group have previously determined that ghrelin inhibited human contractility in vitro. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the expression of ghrelin, its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHS-R1), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) which catalyses ghrelin octanoylation, prohormone convertase 1\\/3 (PC1\\/3) responsible for pro-ghrelin processing, in human myometrium, during pregnancy prior to labour, during labour and in the non-pregnant state. Modulation of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor expression in cultured myometrial cells was also investigated. Methods mRNA and protein were isolated from human myometrium and the myometrial smooth muscle cell line hTERT-HM; and real-time fluorescence RT-PCR, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy performed. The effects of β-Estradiol and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on hTERT-HM gene expression were evaluated by western blotting. Results We have reported for the first time the expression and processing of ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 expression in human myometrium, and also the down-regulation of ghrelin mRNA and protein expression during labour. Furthermore, GHS-R1 protein expression significantly decreased at labour. Myometrial GOAT expression significantly increased during term non-labouring pregnancy in comparison to both non-pregnant and labouring myometrium. Mature PC1\\/3 protein expression was significantly decreased at term pregnancy and labour in comparison to non-pregnant myometrium. Ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 mRNA and protein expression was also detected in the hTERT-HM cells. Ghrelin protein expression decreased upon LPS treatment in these cells while β-Estradiol treatment increased GHS-R1 expression. Conclusions Ghrelin processing occurred in the human

  8. Ghrelin in the human myometrium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid octanolyated peptide, synthesised primarily in the stomach. It stimulates growth hormone release, food intake and exhibits many other diverse effects. Our group have previously determined that ghrelin inhibited human contractility in vitro. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the expression of ghrelin, its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHS-R1), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) which catalyses ghrelin octanoylation, prohormone convertase 1\\/3 (PC1\\/3) responsible for pro-ghrelin processing, in human myometrium, during pregnancy prior to labour, during labour and in the non-pregnant state. Modulation of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor expression in cultured myometrial cells was also investigated. METHODS: mRNA and protein were isolated from human myometrium and the myometrial smooth muscle cell line hTERT-HM; and real-time fluorescence RT-PCR, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy performed. The effects of beta-Estradiol and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on hTERT-HM gene expression were evaluated by western blotting. RESULTS: We have reported for the first time the expression and processing of ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 expression in human myometrium, and also the down-regulation of ghrelin mRNA and protein expression during labour. Furthermore, GHS-R1 protein expression significantly decreased at labour. Myometrial GOAT expression significantly increased during term non-labouring pregnancy in comparison to both non-pregnant and labouring myometrium. Mature PC1\\/3 protein expression was significantly decreased at term pregnancy and labour in comparison to non-pregnant myometrium. Ghrelin, GHS-R1, GOAT and PC1\\/3 mRNA and protein expression was also detected in the hTERT-HM cells. Ghrelin protein expression decreased upon LPS treatment in these cells while beta-Estradiol treatment increased GHS-R1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Ghrelin processing occurred in the human

  9. Loss of miR-141/200c ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation by reprogramming multiple signaling pathways in NASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Melanie; Lee, Sang-Min; Shin, Dong-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of lipid droplets and inflammatory cell infiltration is the hallmark of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The roles of noncoding RNAs in NASH are less known. We aim to elucidate the function of miR-141/200c in diet-induced NASH. WT and miR-141/200c–/– mice were fed a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet for 2 weeks to assess markers of steatosis, liver injury, and inflammation. Hepatic miR-141 and miR-200c RNA levels were highly induced in human patients with NASH fatty liver and in WT MCD mice. miR-141/200c–/– MCD mice had reduced liver weights and triglyceride (TG) levels, which was associated with increased microsomal TG transfer protein (MTTP) and PPARα but reduced SREBP1c and FAS expression. Inflammation was attenuated and F4/80 macrophage activation was suppressed in miR-141/200c–/– mice, as evidenced by decreased serum aminotransferases and IL-6 and reduced hepatic proinflammatory, neutrophil, and profibrotic genes. Treatment with LPS in BM-derived macrophages isolated from miR-200c/141–/– mice polarized macrophages toward the M2 antiinflammatory state by increasing Arg1 and IL-10 levels while decreasing the M1 marker iNOS. In addition, elevated phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), p-AKT, and p-GSK3β and diminished TLR4 and p-mTOR/p-4EBP1 proteins were observed. Lipidomics and metabolomics revealed alterations of TG and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid species by miR-141/200c deficiency. In summary, miR-141/200c deficiency diminished NASH-associated hepatic steatosis and inflammation by reprogramming lipid and inflammation signaling pathways. PMID:29093267

  10. Interactions of TLR4 and PPARγ, Dependent on AMPK Signalling Pathway Contribute to Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vaccariae Hypaphorine in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background /Aims: Accumulating evidence indicates that endothelial inflammation is one of the critical determinants in pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Our previous studies had demonstrated that Vaccariae prevented high glucose or oxidative stress-triggered endothelial dysfunction in vitro. Very little is known about the potential effects of hypaphorine from Vaccariae seed on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of Vaccariae hypaphorine (VH on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-challenged endothelial EA.hy926 cells. The inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 were measured by real-time PCR (RT-PCR. The expressions of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ were detected by Western blotting or immunofluorescence. Results: We showed that LPS stimulated the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, VCAM-1 and TLR4, but attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC as well as PPARγ protein levels, which were reversed by VH pretreatment. Moreover, we observed that LPS-upregulated TLR4 protein expressions were inhibited by PPARγ agonist pioglitazone, and the downregulated PPARγ expressions in response to LPS were partially restored by knockdown of TLR4. The negative regulation loop between TLR4 and PPARγ response to LPS was modulated by AMPK agonist AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or acadesine or A769662. Conclusions: Taken together, our results suggested that VH ameliorated LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines production in endothelial cells via inhibition of TLR4 and activation of PPARγ, dependent on AMPK signalling pathway.

  11. CTRP9 ameliorates cellular senescence via PGC‑1α/AMPK signaling in mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; Zhu, Zhangzhang; Wang, Chengde; Cai, Lin; Lu, Jianglong; Wang, Yongchun; Xu, Jiadong; Su, Zhipeng; Zheng, Weiming; Chen, Xianbin

    2018-08-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide, and thus, it imposes great financial burdens on both individuals and society. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is a promising approach for ischemic brain injury. However, MSC treatment potential is progressively reduced with age, limiting their therapeutic efficacy for brain repair post‑stroke. C1q and tumor necrosis factor‑related protein 9 (CTRP9) is a novel cytoprotective cytokine with antioxidant effects, which is highly expressed in brain tissue. The present study tested the hypothesis that CTRP9 might act as an antisenescence factor to promote the rejuvenation of aged MSCs. MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of young (8‑weeks‑old) and aged (18‑months‑old) male C57BL/6 mice. Cell proliferation was measured by Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Gene expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑10 were evaluated with reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin‑like growth factor were measured by ELISA. The expression levels of proteins in the peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γcoactivator (PGC)‑1α/AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway were investigated with western blotting. Oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde. MSCs isolated from aged mice exhibited reduced proliferation and viability, and impaired immunoregulatory and paracrine abilities, compared with MSCs from younger mice. CTRP9 had a significant antisenescence effect in aged MSCs by activating PGC‑1α/AMPK signaling and decreasing the oxidative response. Silencing either PGC‑1α or AMPK abolished the above effects of CTRP9. These results suggest that CTRP9 may have a critical role in

  12. Caracterização da AMPK/mTOR hipotalâmica na anorexia induzida pelo câncer = : Characterization of hypothalamic AMPK/mTOR in cancer-induced anorexia

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Duarte Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: A teoria das doenças geradas por citocinas inflamatórias trouxe ao longo dos anos indícios que o organismo pode produzir citocinas que desempenham respostas biológicas benéficas ou prejudiciais. Com o passar dos anos ficou claro que a inflamação é um mecanismo chave na fisiopatologia do câncer. Interessantemente, diversos estudos sugerem que a AMPK e mTOR hipotalâmica, importantes moléculas no controle do balanço energética também seja responsável por modular a inflamação e anorexia. ...

  13. Extinction of Contextual Cocaine Memories Requires Cav1.2 within D1R-Expressing Cells and Recruits Hippocampal Cav1.2-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Caitlin E; Schierberl, Kathryn C; Lee, Anni S; Fischer, Delaney K; Van Kempen, Tracey A; Mudragel, Vladimir; Huganir, Richard L; Milner, Teresa A; Glass, Michael J; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M

    2017-12-06

    Exposure to cocaine-associated contextual cues contributes significantly to relapse. Extinction of these contextual associations, which involves a new form of learning, reduces cocaine-seeking behavior; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. We report that extinction, but not acquisition, of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice increased Ca v 1.2 L-type Ca 2+ channel mRNA and protein in postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions of the hippocampus, a brain region involved in drug-context associations. Moreover, viral-mediated deletion of Ca v 1.2 in the dorsal hippocampus attenuated extinction of cocaine CPP. Molecular studies examining downstream Ca v 1.2 targets revealed that extinction recruited calcium/calmodulin (Ca 2+ /CaMK)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) to the hippocampal PSD. This occurred in parallel with an increase in phosphorylation of the AMPA GluA1 receptor subunit at serine 831 (S831), a CaMKII site, along with an increase in total PSD GluA1. The necessity of S831 GluA1 was further demonstrated by the lack of extinction in S831A GluA1 phosphomutant mice. Of note hippocampal GluA1 levels remained unaltered at the PSD, but were reduced near the PSD and at perisynaptic sites of dendritic spines in extinction-resistant S831A mutant mice. Finally, conditional knock-out of Ca v 1.2 in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing cells resulted in attenuation of cocaine CPP extinction and lack of extinction-dependent changes in hippocampal PSD CaMKII expression and S831 GluA1 phosphorylation. In summary, we demonstrate an essential role for the hippocampal Ca v 1.2/CaMKII/S831 GluA1 pathway in cocaine CPP extinction, with data supporting contribution of hippocampal D1R-expressing cells in this process. These findings demonstrate a novel role for Ca v 1.2 channels in extinction of contextual cocaine-associated memories. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Continued drug-seeking behavior, a defining characteristic of

  14. Oral curcumin has anti-arthritic efficacy through somatostatin generation via cAMP/PKA and Ca(2+)/CaMKII signaling pathways in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Xin; Wei, Zhifeng; Dou, Yannong; Zhao, Di; Wang, Ting; Bian, Difei; Tong, Bei; Xia, Ying; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been proven to be clinically effective in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy, but its low oral bioavailability eclipses existent evidence that attempts to explain the underlying mechanism. Small intestine, the only organ exposed to a relatively high concentration of CUR, is the main site that generates gut hormones which are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. This study aims at addressing the hypothesis that one or more gut hormones serve as an intermediary agent for the anti-arthritic action of CUR. The protein and mRNA levels of gut hormones in CUR-treated rats were analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR. Somatostatin (SOM) depletor and receptor antagonist were used to verify the key role of SOM in CUR-mediated anti-arthritic effect. The mechanisms underlying CUR-induced upregulation of SOM levels were explored by cellular experiments and immunohistochemical staining. The data showed that oral administration of CUR (100 mg/kg) for consecutive two weeks in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats still exhibited an extremely low plasma exposure despite of a dramatic amelioration of arthritis symptoms. When injected intraperitoneally, CUR lost anti-arthritic effect in rats, suggesting that it functions in an intestine-dependent manner. CUR elevated SOM levels in intestines and sera, and SOM depletor and non-selective SOM receptor antagonist could abolish the inhibitory effect of CUR on arthritis. Immunohistochemical assay demonstrated that CUR markedly increased the number of SOM-positive cells in both duodenum and jejunum. In vitro experiments demonstrated that CUR could augment SOM secretion from intestinal endocrine cells, and this effect could be hampered by either MEK1/2 or Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CAMKII) inhibitor. In summary, oral administration of CUR exhibits anti-arthritic effect through augmenting SOM secretion from the endocrine cells in small intestines via cAMP/PKA and Ca(2+)/CaMKII signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Globular Adiponectin Inhibits the Apoptosis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by Hypoxia and Serum Deprivation via the AdipoR1-Mediated Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Qiu Tian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Poor viability of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs within the ischemic heart limits their therapeutic potential for cardiac repair. Globular adiponectin (gAPN exerts anti-apoptotic effects on several types of stem cells. Herein, we investigated the effect of gAPN on the MSCs against apoptosis induced by hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD. Methods: MSCs exposed to H/SD conditions were treated with different concentrations of gAPN. To identify the main type of receptor, MSCs were transfected with siRNA targeting adiponectin receptor 1 or 2 (AdipoR1 or AdipoR2. To elucidate the downstream pathway, MSCs were pre-incubated with AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated. Results: H/SD-induced MSCs apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were attenuated by gAPN in a concentration-dependent manner. gAPN increased Bcl-2 and decreased Bax expressions. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H/SD was also abolished by gAPN. The protective effect of gAPN was significantly attenuated after the knockdown of AdipoR1 rather than AdipoR2. Moreover, Compound C partly suppressed the anti-apoptotic effect of gAPN. Conclusions: gAPN inhibits H/SD-induced apoptosis in MSCs via AdipoR1-mediated pathway, possibly linked to the activation of AMPK. gAPN may be a novel survival factor for MSCs in the ischemic engraftment environment.

  16. Globular Adiponectin Inhibits the Apoptosis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by Hypoxia and Serum Deprivation via the AdipoR1-Mediated Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xia-Qiu; Yang, Yue-Jin; Li, Qing; Huang, Pei-Sen; Li, Xiang-Dong; Jin, Chen; Qi, Kang; Jiang, Lei-Pei; Chen, Gui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Poor viability of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the ischemic heart limits their therapeutic potential for cardiac repair. Globular adiponectin (gAPN) exerts anti-apoptotic effects on several types of stem cells. Herein, we investigated the effect of gAPN on the MSCs against apoptosis induced by hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD). MSCs exposed to H/SD conditions were treated with different concentrations of gAPN. To identify the main type of receptor, MSCs were transfected with siRNA targeting adiponectin receptor 1 or 2 (AdipoR1 or AdipoR2). To elucidate the downstream pathway, MSCs were pre-incubated with AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated. H/SD-induced MSCs apoptosis and caspase-3 activation were attenuated by gAPN in a concentration-dependent manner. gAPN increased Bcl-2 and decreased Bax expressions. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H/SD was also abolished by gAPN. The protective effect of gAPN was significantly attenuated after the knockdown of AdipoR1 rather than AdipoR2. Moreover, Compound C partly suppressed the anti-apoptotic effect of gAPN. gAPN inhibits H/SD-induced apoptosis in MSCs via AdipoR1-mediated pathway, possibly linked to the activation of AMPK. gAPN may be a novel survival factor for MSCs in the ischemic engraftment environment. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The acute effects of strength, endurance and concurrent exercises on the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 and AMPK signaling pathway responses in rat skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.de Souza

    Full Text Available The activation of competing intracellular pathways has been proposed to explain the reduced training adaptations after concurrent strength and endurance exercises (CE. The present study investigated the acute effects of CE, strength exercises (SE, and endurance exercises (EE on phosphorylated/total ratios of selected AMPK and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 pathway proteins in rats. Six animals per exercise group were killed immediately (0 h and 2 h after each exercise mode. In addition, 6 animals in a non-exercised condition (NE were killed on the same day and under the same conditions. The levels of AMPK, phospho-Thr172AMPK (p-AMPK, Akt, phospho-Ser473Akt (p-Akt, p70S6K1, phospho-Thr389-p70S6K1 (p-p70S6K1, mTOR, phospho-Ser2448mTOR (p-mTOR, and phospho-Thr1462-TSC2 (p-TSC2 expression were evaluated by immunoblotting in total plantaris muscle extracts. The only significant difference detected was an increase (i.e., 87% in Akt phosphorylated/total ratio in the CE group 2 h after exercise compared to the NE group (P = 0.002. There were no changes in AMPK, TSC2, mTOR, or p70S6K1 ratios when the exercise modes were compared to the NE condition (P ≥ 0.05. In conclusion, our data suggest that low-intensity and low-volume CE might not blunt the training-induced adaptations, since it did not activate competing intracellular pathways in an acute bout of strength and endurance exercises in rat skeletal muscle.

  18. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG Promotes Autophagy-Dependent Survival via Influencing the Balance of mTOR-AMPK Pathways upon Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Holczer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of cellular homeostasis is largely dependent on the ability of cells to give an adequate response to various internal and external stimuli. We have recently proposed that the life-and-death decision in endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response is defined by a crosstalk between autophagy, apoptosis, and mTOR-AMPK pathways, where the transient switch from autophagy-dependent survival to apoptotic cell death is controlled by GADD34. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major polyphenol of green tea, in promoting autophagy-dependent survival and to verify the key role in connecting GADD34 with mTOR-AMPK pathways upon prolonged ER stress. Our findings, obtained by using HEK293T cells, revealed that EGCG treatment is able to extend cell viability by inducing autophagy. We confirmed that EGCG-induced autophagy is mTOR-dependent and PKA-independent; furthermore, it also required ULK1. We show that pretreatment of cells with EGCG diminishes the negative effect of GADD34 inhibition (by guanabenz or siGADD34 treatment on autophagy. EGCG was able to delay apoptotic cell death by upregulating autophagy-dependent survival even in the absence of GADD34. Our data suggest a novel role for EGCG in promoting cell survival via shifting the balance of mTOR-AMPK pathways in ER stress.

  19. Resistance exercise-induced S6K1 kinase activity is not inhibited in human skeletal muscle despite prior activation of AMPK by high-intensity interval cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apró, William; Moberg, Marcus; Hamilton, D. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. This hypot......Combining endurance and strength training in the same session has been reported to reduce the anabolic response to the latter form of exercise. The underlying mechanism, based primarily on results from rodent muscle, is proposed to involve AMPK-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling...

  20. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Fu, Jianfang; Zhang, Shun; Zhao, Jie; Xie, Nianlin; Cai, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  1. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Fu, Jianfang [Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Shun [Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Jie [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Xie, Nianlin, E-mail: xienianlin@126.com [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Cai, Guoqing, E-mail: firstchair@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  2. ZL006 protects spinal cord neurons against ischemia-induced oxidative stress through AMPK-PGC-1α-Sirt3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Guang; Wang, Yun-Mei; Zhang, Yan-Jun; He, Xi-Jing; Ma, Tao; Song, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Min

    2017-09-01

    Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) induces a range of cellular and molecular cascades, including activation of glutamate receptors and downstream signaling. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) links neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors to form a ternary complex in the CNS. This molecular complex-mediated cytotoxicity has been implicated in brain ischemia, but its role in SCI has not been determined. The goal of the study was to investigate the potential protective effects of ZL006, a small-molecule inhibitor of the PSD-95/nNOS interaction, in an in vitro SCI model induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured spinal cord neurons. We found that ZL006 reduced OGD-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, neuronal apoptosis and loss of cell viability. This protection was accompanied by the preservation of mitochondrial function, as evidenced by reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress, attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, and enhanced ATP generation. In addition, ZL006 stimulated mitochondrial enzyme activities and SOD2 deacetylation in a Sirt3-dependent manner. The results of western blot analysis showed that ZL006 increased the activation of AMPK-PGC-1α-Sirt3 pathway, and the beneficial effects of ZL006 was partially abolished by AMPK inhibitor and PGC-1α knockdown. Therefore, our present data showed that, by the AMPK-PGC-1α-Sirt3 pathway, ZL006 protects spinal cord neurons against ischemia through reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress to prevent apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus by suppression of ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a manner dependent on AMPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jia; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yi; Wang, Xiangxiang; Liu, Baolin [Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 639, Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, China Pharmaceutical University, 639, Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198 (China); Fu, Qiang, E-mail: fuqiang@cpu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 639, Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, China Pharmaceutical University, 639, Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198 (China); Ma, Shiping, E-mail: spma@cpu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 639, Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, China Pharmaceutical University, 639, Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound in Curcuma longa with beneficial effects on neuronal protection. This study aims to investigate the action of curcumin in the hippocampus subjected to glutamate neurotoxicity. Glutamate stimulation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to damage in the hippocampus. Curcumin treatment in the hippocampus or SH-SY5Y cells inhibited IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation with suppression of intracellular ROS production. Curcumin increased AMPK activity and knockdown of AMPKα with specific siRNA abrogated its inhibitory effects on IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK activity was essential for the suppression of ER stress. As a result, curcumin reduced TXNIP expression and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by downregulation of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 induction, and thus reduced IL-1β secretion. Specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry analysis showed that curcumin prevented mitochondrial malfunction and protected cell survival from glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, oral administration of curcumin reduced brain infarct volume and attenuated neuronal damage in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin inhibited p-IRE1α, p-PERK and NLRP3 expression in hippocampus CA1 region. Together, these results showed that curcumin attenuated glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the regulation of AMPK, and thereby protected the hippocampus from ischemic insult. - Highlights: • Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. • Curcumin suppresses ER stress in glutamate-induced hippocampus slices. • Curcumin inhibits TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. • Regulation of AMPK by curcumin contributes to suppressing ER stress.

  4. Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus by suppression of ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a manner dependent on AMPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jia; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yi; Wang, Xiangxiang; Liu, Baolin; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound in Curcuma longa with beneficial effects on neuronal protection. This study aims to investigate the action of curcumin in the hippocampus subjected to glutamate neurotoxicity. Glutamate stimulation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to damage in the hippocampus. Curcumin treatment in the hippocampus or SH-SY5Y cells inhibited IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation with suppression of intracellular ROS production. Curcumin increased AMPK activity and knockdown of AMPKα with specific siRNA abrogated its inhibitory effects on IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK activity was essential for the suppression of ER stress. As a result, curcumin reduced TXNIP expression and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by downregulation of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 induction, and thus reduced IL-1β secretion. Specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry analysis showed that curcumin prevented mitochondrial malfunction and protected cell survival from glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, oral administration of curcumin reduced brain infarct volume and attenuated neuronal damage in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin inhibited p-IRE1α, p-PERK and NLRP3 expression in hippocampus CA1 region. Together, these results showed that curcumin attenuated glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the regulation of AMPK, and thereby protected the hippocampus from ischemic insult. - Highlights: • Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. • Curcumin suppresses ER stress in glutamate-induced hippocampus slices. • Curcumin inhibits TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. • Regulation of AMPK by curcumin contributes to suppressing ER stress

  5. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via AMPK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Jeong [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Gu, Dong Ryun [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Su Hyun [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun Ha [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seoung Hoon, E-mail: leesh2@wku.ac.kr [Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Metabolic Function Regulation (CMFR), School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of); Wonkwang Institute of Biomaterials and Implant, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 54538 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-17

    Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (malate dehydrogenase 1, MDH1) plays pivotal roles in the malate/aspartate shuttle that might modulate metabolism between the cytosol and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation and formation. MDH1 expression was induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) treatment. Knockdown of MDH1 by infection with retrovirus containing MDH1-specific shRNA (shMDH1) reduced mature osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. Moreover, the expression of marker genes associated with osteoclast differentiation was downregulated by shMDH1 treatment, suggesting a role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation. In addition, intracellular ATP production was reduced following the activation of adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor and negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, in shMDH1-infected osteoclasts compared to control cells. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a critical transcription factor of osteoclastogenesis, was decreased with MDH1 knockdown during RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings provide strong evidence that MDH1 plays a critical role in osteoclast differentiation and function via modulation of the intracellular energy status, which might affect AMPK activity and NFATc1 expression.

  6. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via AMPK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Jeong; Gu, Dong Ryun; Jin, Su Hyun; Park, Keun Ha; Lee, Seoung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (malate dehydrogenase 1, MDH1) plays pivotal roles in the malate/aspartate shuttle that might modulate metabolism between the cytosol and mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation and formation. MDH1 expression was induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) treatment. Knockdown of MDH1 by infection with retrovirus containing MDH1-specific shRNA (shMDH1) reduced mature osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. Moreover, the expression of marker genes associated with osteoclast differentiation was downregulated by shMDH1 treatment, suggesting a role of MDH1 in osteoclast differentiation. In addition, intracellular ATP production was reduced following the activation of adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor and negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, in shMDH1-infected osteoclasts compared to control cells. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a critical transcription factor of osteoclastogenesis, was decreased with MDH1 knockdown during RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings provide strong evidence that MDH1 plays a critical role in osteoclast differentiation and function via modulation of the intracellular energy status, which might affect AMPK activity and NFATc1 expression.

  7. Synthesis and In Vitro AMPK Activation of Cycloalkyl/Alkarylbiguanides with Robust In Vivo Antihyperglycemic Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gutierrez-Lara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design, synthesis in one step, and the in vitro, in vivo, and in silico antidiabetic evaluation of a series of ten alicyclic and aromatic (alkyl +aryl: alkarylbiguanides, analogues of metformin and phenformin. The design was conceived using isosteric replacement, chain-ring transformation, and lower and higher homologation strategies. All compounds were obtained as crystals and their structure was confirmed on the basis of their spectral data (NMR and mass spectra, and their purity was ascertained by microanalysis. Compounds were in vitro evaluated as activators of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK. The results indicated that compounds 4, 5, and 6 showed similar or even better effect compared to metformin. Docking analysis was performed with regulatory subunit γ of AMPK, showing several interactions with nucleotide binding pocket. The in vivo evaluation of compounds 4–6 at a single dose of 50 mg/kg was performed in a murine experimental model of diabetes. The results showed an important and robust decrease of plasmatic glucose levels (−40%. Compound 6 was selected for an oral glucose tolerance test, showing an antihyperglycemic effect similar to metformin. The in vivo results indicated that compounds 4–6 may be effective in treating experimental T2DM.

  8. Increased Asics Expression via the Camkii-CREB Pathway in a Novel Mouse Model of Trigeminal Pain

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    Yan Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Migraine is a disabling condition that severely impacts socioeconomic function and quality of life. The focus of this study was to develop a mouse model of trigeminal pain that mimics migraine. Methods: After undergoing dural cannulation surgery, mice were treated with repeated dural doses of an acidic solution to induce trigeminal pain. Results: The method elicited intermittent, head-directed wiping and scratching as well as the expression of both the c-FOS gene in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP in the periaqueductal grey matter. Interestingly, the acid-induced trigeminal pain behaviour was inhibited by amiloride, an antagonist of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs, but not by AMG-9810, an inhibitor of transient receptor potential cation channel V1(TRPV1. In addition, the relative mRNA and protein expression levels of ASIC1a and ASIC3 were increased in the acid-induced trigeminal nociceptive pathways. Furthermore, blocking CaMKII with KN-93 significantly reduced the acid-induced trigeminal pain behaviour and c-FOS gene expression. Conclusion: The data suggested that chronic intermittent administration of an acidic solution to mice resulted in trigeminal hypersensitivity and that dural acid-induced trigeminal pain behaviour in mice may mechanistically mimic migraine. The observations here identify an entirely novel treatment strategy for migraine.

  9. Salvianolic Acid A Protects the Peripheral Nerve Function in Diabetic Rats through Regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Du

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acid A (SalA is one of the main efficacious, water-soluble constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This study investigated the protective effects of SalA on peripheral nerve in diabetic rats. Administration of SalA (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, ig was started from the 5th week after strepotozotocin (STZ60 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection and continued for 8 weeks. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV were used to assess peripheral nerve function. The western blot methods were employed to test the expression levels of serine-threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α, silent information regulator protein3 (sirtuin 3/Sirt3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in sciatic nerve. Results showed that SalA administration could increase PWMT and MNCV in diabetic rats; reduce the deterioration of sciatic nerve pathology; increase AMPK phosphorylation level, up-regulate PGC-1α, Sirt3 and nNOS expression, but had no influence on LKB1. These results suggest that SalA has protective effects against diabetic neuropathy. The beneficial effects of SalA on peripheral nerve function in diabetic rats might be attributed to improvements in glucose metabolism through regulation of the AMPK-PGC1α-Sirt3 axis.

  10. Nutritional status modulates plasma leptin, AMPK and TOR activation, and mitochondrial biogenesis: Implications for cell metabolism and growth in skeletal muscle of the fine flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Safian, Diego; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Elorza, Alvaro A; Molina, Alfredo; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2013-06-01

    Insight of how growth and metabolism in skeletal muscle are related is still lacking in early vertebrates. In this context, molecules involved in these processes, such as leptin, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), target of rapamicyn (TOR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, and oxidative phosphorylation complexes (OXPHOS), were assessed in the skeletal muscle of a fish species. Periods of fasting foll