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Sample records for ghost-free interacting massless

  1. Interacting massless scalar and source-free electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyangar, B.R.N.; Mohanty, G.

    1985-01-01

    The relativistic field equations for interacting massless attractive scalar and source-free electromagnetic fields in a cylindrically symmetric spacetime of one degree of freedom with reflection symmetry have been reduced to a first order implicit differential equation depending on time which enables one to generate a class of solution to the field equations. The nature of the scalar and electromagnetic fields is discussed. It is shown that the geometry of the spacetime admits of an irrotational stiff fluid distribution without prejudice to the interacting electromagnetic fields. 10 refs. (author)

  2. Massive, massless and ghost modes of gravitational waves from higher-order gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanos, Charalampos; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    We linearize the field equations for higher order theories that contain scalar invariants other than the Ricci scalar. We find that besides a massless spin-2 field (the standard graviton), the theory contains also spin-0 and spin-2 massive modes with the latter being, in general, ghost modes. Then...

  3. Ghost counting in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.K.

    1978-04-01

    The elimination of unphysical degrees of freedom from a quantized massless Rarita-Schwinger field interacting with a (quantized or classical) gravitational field is analyzed on the one-loop level. It is shown that, besides the ordinary Faddeev-Popov ghosts, an extra ghost is needed to remove the effects of unphysical modes. The new ghost only couples to the S matrix if the gauge-fixing of the Rarita-Schwinger field involves the gravitational field, but it is necessary in the partition function for other gauge choices. (Auth.)

  4. Ghost counting in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.K.

    1978-01-01

    The elimination of unphysical degrees of freedom from a quantized massless Rarita-Schwinger field interacting with a (quantized or classical) gravitational field is analyzed on the one-loop level. It is shown that, besides the ordinary Faddeev-Popov ghosts, an extra ghost is needed to remove the effects of unphysical modes. The new ghost only couples to the S-matrix if the gauge-fixing of the Rarita-Schwinger field involves the gravitational field, but it is necessary in the partition function for other gauge choices. (Auth.)

  5. Masslessness of ghosts in equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golterman, Maarten; Zimmerman, Leah

    2005-01-01

    We show that the one-loop ghost self-energy in an equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory vanishes at zero momentum. A ghost mass is forbidden by equivariant BRST symmetry, and our calculation confirms this explicitly. The four-ghost self interaction which appears in the equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory is needed in order to obtain this result

  6. Unfolded Equations for Current Interactions of 4d Massless Fields as a Free System in Mixed Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfond, O A

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of massless fields of all spins in four dimensions with currents of any spin is shown to result from a solution of the linear problem that describes a gluing between rank-one (massless) system and rank-two (current) system in the unfolded dynamics approach. Since the rank-two system is dual to a free rank-one higher-dimensional system, that effectively describes conformal fields in six space-time dimensions, the constructed system can be interpreted as describing a mixture between linear conformal fields in four and six dimensions. Interpretation of the obtained results in spirit of AdS/CFT correspondence is discussed.

  7. Unfolded equations for current interactions of 4d massless fields as a free system in mixed dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfond, O. A., E-mail: gel@lpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of System Research (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, M. A., E-mail: vasiliev@lpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, I. E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Interactions of massless fields of all spins in four dimensions with currents of any spin are shown to result from a solution of the linear problem that describes a gluing between a rank-one (massless) system and a rank-two (current) system in the unfolded dynamics approach. Since the rank-two system is dual to a free rank-one higher-dimensional system that effectively describes conformal fields in six space-time dimensions, the constructed system can be interpreted as describing a mixture between linear conformal fields in four and six dimensions. An interpretation of the obtained results in the spirit of the AdS/CFT correspondence is discussed.

  8. Equations of motion of interacting massless fields of all spins as a free differential algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A

    1988-08-11

    It is argued that the equations of motion of interacting massless fields of all spins s=0, 1, ..., infinity can naturally be formulated in terms of a free differential algebra (FDA) constructed from one-forms and zero-forms that belong both to the adjoint representation of the infinite-dimensional superalgebra of higher spins and auxiliary fields proposed previously. This FDA is found explicitly in the first non-trivial order in the zero-forms. Various properties of the proposed FDA are discussed including the ways for incorporating internal (Yang-Mills) gauge symmetries via associative algebras.

  9. A Unitary and Renormalizable Theory of the Standard Model in Ghost-Free Light-Cone Gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2002-02-15

    Light-front (LF) quantization in light-cone (LC) gauge is used to construct a unitary and simultaneously renormalizable theory of the Standard Model. The framework derived earlier for QCD is extended to the Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam (GWS) model of electroweak interaction theory. The Lorentz condition is automatically satisfied in LF-quantized QCD in the LC gauge for the free massless gauge field. In the GWS model, with the spontaneous symmetry breaking present, we find that the 't Hooft condition accompanies the LC gauge condition corresponding to the massive vector boson. The two transverse polarization vectors for the massive vector boson may be chosen to be the same as found in QCD. The non-transverse and linearly independent third polarization vector is found to be parallel to the gauge direction. The corresponding sum over polarizations in the Standard model, indicated by K{sub {mu}{nu}}(k); has several simplifying properties similar to the polarization sum D{sub {mu}{nu}}(k) in QCD. The framework is ghost-free, and the interaction Hamiltonian of electroweak theory can be expressed in a form resembling that of covariant theory, except for few additional instantaneous interactions which can be treated systematically. The LF formulation also provides a transparent discussion of the Goldstone Boson (or Electroweak) Equivalence Theorem, as the illustrations show.

  10. Free massless scalar fields in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiivanov, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    A common Fock space for two free massless scalar fields, nonlocal with respect to each other, is constructed. The operators corresponding to the two formal charges are correctly defined and it is shown that they generate translationally invariant states from the vacuum

  11. Interacting ghost dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the QCD ghost model of dark energy in the framework of Brans-Dicke cosmology. First, we study the non-interacting ghost dark energy in a flat Brans-Dicke theory. In this case we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of ghost energy density. Interestingly enough, we find that the equation of state parameter of the non-interacting ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line (w D =-1) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably. Then, we generalize the study to the interacting ghost dark energy in both flat and non-flat Brans-Dicke framework and find out that the transition of w D to phantom regime can be more easily achieved for than when resort to the Einstein field equations is made.

  12. Spherical collapse of small masses in the ghost-free gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei; Netto, Tibério de Paula

    2015-01-01

    We discuss some properties of recently proposed models of a ghost-free gravity. For this purpose we study solutions of linearized gravitational equations in the framework of such a theory. We mainly focus on the version of the ghost-free theory with the exponential modification exp (◻/μ 2 )◻ −1 of the free propagator. The following three problems are discussed: (i) gravitational field of a point mass; (ii) Penrose limit of a point source boosted to the speed of light; and (iii) spherical gravitational collapse of null fluid. For the first problem we demonstrate that it can be solved by using the method of heat kernels and obtain a solution in a spacetime with arbitrary number of dimensions. For the second problem we also find the corresponding gyraton-type solutions of the ghost-free gravitational equations for any number of dimensions. For the third problem we obtain solutions for the gravitational field for the collapse of both “thin" and “thick" spherical null shells. We demonstrate how the ghost-free modification of the gravitational equations regularize the solutions of the linearized Einstein equations and smooth out their singularities.

  13. Spherical collapse of small masses in the ghost-free gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta,Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1 (Canada); Netto, Tibério de Paula [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta,Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1 (Canada); Departamento de Fisica - ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora,Campus da UFJF, CEP: 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2015-06-17

    We discuss some properties of recently proposed models of a ghost-free gravity. For this purpose we study solutions of linearized gravitational equations in the framework of such a theory. We mainly focus on the version of the ghost-free theory with the exponential modification exp (◻/μ{sup 2})◻{sup −1} of the free propagator. The following three problems are discussed: (i) gravitational field of a point mass; (ii) Penrose limit of a point source boosted to the speed of light; and (iii) spherical gravitational collapse of null fluid. For the first problem we demonstrate that it can be solved by using the method of heat kernels and obtain a solution in a spacetime with arbitrary number of dimensions. For the second problem we also find the corresponding gyraton-type solutions of the ghost-free gravitational equations for any number of dimensions. For the third problem we obtain solutions for the gravitational field for the collapse of both “thin' and “thick' spherical null shells. We demonstrate how the ghost-free modification of the gravitational equations regularize the solutions of the linearized Einstein equations and smooth out their singularities.

  14. Ghost problem of quantum field theories with higher derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrielides, A.; Kuo, T.K.; Lee, S.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Second-order theories, i.e., theories described by Lagrangians quadratic in second derivatives of the fields, are carefully examined and their ghost problems are isolated and clearly exhibited. In particular, theories with gauge symmetry are shown to have precisely the same ghost problems as theories without gauge symmetry. It is also shown that massless theories of the same nature are the limit of massive theories containing ghost states

  15. Triangle identity and free differential algebra of massless higher spins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1989-09-25

    In terms of Berezins's theory of symbols of operators, the integral formulation is suggested for the free differential algebra which gives rise to consistent equations of motion of interacting massless fields of all spins 0{le}s<{infinity} in the frameworks of gravity. In the first nontrivial order of the expansion in powers of curvatures, Frobenius consistency conditions for higher-spin equations of motion are shown to reduce to the simple geometrical fast that there are two ways for splitting any quadrangle in two triangles. To clarify our construction, we illustrate how it works in the simplest case of pure gravity. (orig.).

  16. Ghost-Free Massive $f(R)$ Theories Modelled as Effective Einstein Spaces and Cosmic Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Vacaru, Sergiu I

    2014-01-01

    We study how massive ghost-free gravity $f(R)$-modified theories, MGFTs, can be encoded into generic off-diagonal Einstein spaces. Using "auxiliary" connections completely defined by the metric fields and adapted to nonholonomic frames with associated to nonlinear connection structure, we decouple and integrate in certain general forms the field equations in MGFT. Imposing additional nonholonomic constraints, we can generate Levi--Civita, LC, configurations and mimic MGFT effects via off-diagonal interactions of effective Einstein and/or Einstein-Cartan gravity with nonholonomically induced torsion. The cosmological evolution of ghost-free off--diagonal Einstein spaces is investigated. Certain compatibility of MGFT cosmology to small off-diagonal deformations of $\\Lambda $CDM models is established. %

  17. On the state space of the dipole ghost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binegar, B.

    1984-01-01

    A particular representation of SO(4, 2) is identified with the state space of the free dipole ghost. This representation is then given an explicit realization as the solution space of a 4th-order wave equation on a spacetime locally isomorphic to Minkowski space. A discrete basis for this solution space is given, as well as an explicit expression for its SO(4, 2) invariant inner product. The connection between the modes of dipole field and those of the massless scalar field is clarified, and a recent conjecture concerning the restriction of the dipole representation to the Poincare subgroup is confirmed. A particular coordinate transformation then reveals the theory of the dipole ghost in Minkowski space. Finally, it is shown that the solution space of the dipole equation is not unitarizable in a Poincare invariant manner. (orig.)

  18. Field theory of interacting open superstrings of fermionic ghost representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Medvedev, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    Field theory of interacting open superstring in fermionic ghost representation based on anticommuting and commuting ghosts corresponding respectively to world sheet bosonic x μ and fermionic φ μ coordinates is presented. The author have to revise once more the field theory of the free Ramond (R) string and starting from general algebraic point of view they obtain that the number of degrees of freedom in the R and NS (Neveu-Schwartz) sectors equalise themselves permitting to construct a supersymmetric operator. It is proposed to solve a specific equation guaranteeing superinvariance in order to find the R-R-NS and NS-R-R vertices in the term of the NS-NS-NS vertex

  19. Infrared finite ghost propagator in the Feynman gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, A. C.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate how to obtain from the Schwinger-Dyson equations of QCD an infrared finite ghost propagator in the Feynman gauge. The key ingredient in this construction is the longitudinal form factor of the nonperturbative gluon-ghost vertex, which, contrary to what happens in the Landau gauge, contributes nontrivially to the gap equation of the ghost. The detailed study of the corresponding vertex equation reveals that in the presence of a dynamical infrared cutoff this form factor remains finite in the limit of vanishing ghost momentum. This, in turn, allows the ghost self-energy to reach a finite value in the infrared, without having to assume any additional properties for the gluon-ghost vertex, such as the presence of massless poles. The implications of this result and possible future directions are briefly outlined

  20. Vertex operators of ghost number three in Type IIB supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    We study the cohomology of the massless BRST complex of the Type IIB pure spinor superstring in flat space. In particular, we find that the cohomology at the ghost number three is nontrivial and transforms in the same representation of the supersymmetry algebra as the solutions of the linearized classical supergravity equations. Modulo some finite dimensional spaces, the ghost number three cohomology is the same as the ghost number two cohomology. We also comment on the difference between the naive and semi-relative cohomology, and the role of b-ghost.

  1. Cubic interaction in extended theories of massless higher-spin fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E S; Vasiliev, M A

    1987-08-17

    A cubic interaction of all massless higher-spin fields with s greater than or equal to 1 is constructed, based on the extended higher-spin superalgebras suggested previously by one of us (M.V.). This interaction incorporates gravitational and Yang-Mills interactions of massless higher-spin fields, which turn out to be consistent in the cubic order. An essential novel feature of the gravitational higher-spin interaction is its non-analyticity in the cosmological constant. An explicit form is found for deformed higher-spin gauge transformations leaving the action invariant.

  2. Evidence of ghost suppression in gluon mass scale dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Figueiredo, C. T.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we study the impact that the ghost sector of pure Yang-Mills theories may have on the generation of a dynamical gauge boson mass scale, which hinges on the appearance of massless poles in the fundamental vertices of the theory, and the subsequent realization of the well-known Schwinger mechanism. The process responsible for the formation of such structures is itself dynamical in nature, and is governed by a set of Bethe-Salpeter type of integral equations. While in previous studies the presence of massless poles was assumed to be exclusively associated with the background-gauge three-gluon vertex, in the present analysis we allow them to appear also in the corresponding ghost-gluon vertex. The full analysis of the resulting Bethe-Salpeter system reveals that the contribution of the poles associated with the ghost-gluon vertex are particularly suppressed, their sole discernible effect being a slight modification in the running of the gluon mass scale, for momenta larger than a few GeV. In addition, we examine the behavior of the (background-gauge) ghost-gluon vertex in the limit of vanishing ghost momentum, and derive the corresponding version of Taylor's theorem. These considerations, together with a suitable Ansatz, permit us the full reconstruction of the pole sector of the two vertices involved.

  3. Ghost-free, finite, fourth-order D = 3 gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deser, S

    2009-09-04

    Canonical analysis of a recently proposed linear + quadratic curvature gravity model in D = 3 establishes its pure, irreducibly fourth derivative, quadratic curvature limit as both ghost-free and power-counting UV finite, thereby maximally violating standard folklore. This limit is representative of a generic class whose kinetic terms are conformally invariant in any dimension, but it is unique in simultaneously avoiding the transverse-traceless graviton ghosts plaguing D > 3 quadratic actions as well as double pole propagators in its other variables. While the two-term model is also unitary, its additional mode's second-derivative nature forfeits finiteness.

  4. Covariant representations of massless Fermi fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, R.

    1983-01-01

    The author shows in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory that representations of the quasi-local algebra of a free, massless spinor field exist which fulfil two axioms of von Neumann. Furthermore, the current algebra of a charged, massless fermion is considered. Finally, representations with the spectral condition of a charged, massless fermion and the quasi-local algebra of a free, massless Majorana particle are constructed. (HSI) [de

  5. Ghost free massive gravity in the Stückelberg language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rham, Claudia de; Gabadadze, Gregory; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Massive gravity in 4 dimensions has been shown to be free of the Boulware-Deser (BD) ghost in the ADM language for a specific choice of mass terms. We show here how this is consistent with the Stückelberg language beyond the decoupling limit, and how the constraint required to remove the BD ghost arises in this framework non-perturbatively, without the use of field redefinitions. We emphasize a subtlety in obtaining this constraint, that has been overlooked in previous literature. In both the ADM and Stückelberg formalisms the vanishing of the determinant of a Hessian guarantees the absence of the BD ghost.

  6. Gravitational interaction of massless higher-spin fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E S; Vasiliev, M A

    1987-04-30

    We show that, despite a widespread belief, the gravitational interaction of massless higher-spin fields (s>2) does exist at least in the first nontrivial order. The principal novel feature of the gravitational higher-spin interaction is its non-analyticity in the cosmological constant. Our construction is based on an infinite-dimensional higher-spin superalgebra proposed previously that leads to an infinite system of all spins s>1.

  7. New proposal for non-linear ghost-free massive F(R) gravity: Cosmic acceleration and Hamiltonian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klusoň, Josef; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2013-01-01

    We propose new version of massive F(R) gravity which is natural generalization of convenient massive ghost-free gravity. Its Hamiltonian formulation in scalar-tensor frame is developed. We show that such F(R) theory is ghost-free. The cosmological evolution of such theory is investigated. Despite the strong Bianchi identity constraint the possibility of cosmic acceleration (especially, in the presence of cold dark matter) is established. Ghost-free massive F(R,T) gravity is also proposed

  8. Ghost free dual vector theories in 2+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazi, Denis

    2006-01-01

    We explore here the issue of duality versus spectrum equivalence in dual theories generated through the master action approach. Specifically we examine a generalized self-dual (GSD) model where a Maxwell term is added to the self-dual model. A gauge embedding procedure applied to the GSD model leads to a Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS) theory with higher derivatives. We show here that the latter contains a ghost mode contrary to the original GSD model. By figuring out the origin of the ghost we are able to suggest a new master action which interpolates between the local GSD model and a nonlocal MCS model. Those models share the same spectrum and are ghost free. Furthermore, there is a dual map between both theories at classical level which survives quantum correlation functions up to contact terms. The remarks made here may be relevant for other applications of the master action approach

  9. Interacting viscous ghost tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, K; Fahimi, K

    2013-01-01

    We study the correspondence between the interacting viscous ghost dark energy model with the tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models in the framework of Einstein gravity. We consider a spatially non-flat FRW universe filled with interacting viscous ghost dark energy and dark matter. We reconstruct both the dynamics and potential of these scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of the interacting viscous ghost dark energy model, which can describe the accelerated expansion of the universe. Our numerical results show that the interaction and viscosity have opposite effects on the evolutionary properties of the ghost scalar field models. (paper)

  10. Free massless fields of arbitrary spin in the de Sitter space and initial data for a higher spin superalgebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A

    1987-11-01

    Linearized curvatures are constructed for massless higher spin fields on the (anti-) de Sitter background. The quite uniform description for free massless fields of all integer and half-integer spins s greater than or equal to 3/2 is presented, based on these curvatures. In particular, the actions and the equations of motion are given in a simple form. The proposed linearized curvatures provide 'initial data' for determination of a non-Abelian higher spin symmetry that may correspond to a hypothetical non-trivial theory of higher spins interacting with gravity and themselves. It is noted that the conjugation law for fermion fields should be modified drastically after transition from the anti-de-Sitter geometry to the de Sitter one.

  11. Description of the higher massless irreducible integer spins in the BRST approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, A.; Tsulaya, M.

    1998-01-01

    The BRST approach is applied to the description of irreducible massless higher spins representations of the Poincare group in arbitrary dimensions. The total system of constraints in such theory includes both the first and the second class constraints. The corresponding nilpotent BRST charge contains terms up to the seventh degree in ghosts

  12. Cubic Interactions of Massless Bosonic Fields in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Karapet

    2018-06-01

    In this Letter, we take the first step towards construction of nontrivial Lagrangian theories of higher-spin gravity in a metriclike formulation in three dimensions. The crucial feature of a metriclike formulation is that it is known how to incorporate matter interactions into the description. We derive a complete classification of cubic interactions for arbitrary triples s1 , s2 , s3 of massless fields, which are the building blocks of any interacting theory with massless higher spins. We find that there is, at most, one vertex for any given triple of spins in 3D (with one exception, s1=s2=s3=1 , which allows for two vertices). Remarkably, there are no vertices for spin values that do not respect strict triangle inequalities and contain at least two spins greater than one. This translates into selection rules for three-point functions of higher-spin conserved currents in two dimensional conformal field theory. Furthermore, universal coupling to gravity for any spin is derived. Last, we argue that this classification persists in arbitrary Einstein backgrounds.

  13. New twistorial integral formulas for massless free fields of arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A manifestly scaling-invariant version of the Kirchoff-D'Adhemar-Penrose field integrals is presented. The invariant integral expressions for the spinning massless free fields are directly transcribed into the framework of twistor theory. It is then shown that the resulting twistorial field integrals can be thought of as being equivalent to the universal Penrose contour integral formulas for these fields

  14. Dark matter as a ghost free conformal extension of Einstein theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvinsky, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss ghost free models of the recently suggested mimetic dark matter theory. This theory is shown to be a conformal extension of Einstein general relativity. Dark matter originates from gauging out its local Weyl invariance as an extra degree of freedom which describes a potential flow of the pressureless perfect fluid. For a positive energy density of this fluid the theory is free of ghost instabilities, which gives strong preference to stable configurations with a positive scalar curvature and trace of the matter stress tensor. Instabilities caused by caustics of the geodesic flow, inherent in this model, serve as a motivation for an alternative conformal extension of Einstein theory, based on the generalized Proca vector field. A potential part of this field modifies the inflationary stage in cosmology, whereas its rotational part at the post inflationary epoch might simulate rotating flows of dark matter

  15. Single twistor description of massless, massive, AdS, and other interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Picon, Moises

    2006-01-01

    The Penrose transform between twistors and the phase space of massless particles is generalized from the massless case to an assortment of other particle dynamical systems, including special examples of massless or massive particles, relativistic or nonrelativistic, interacting or noninteracting, in flat space or curved spaces. Our unified construction involves always the same twistor Z A with only four complex degrees of freedom and subject to the same helicity constraint. Only the twistor to phase space transform differs from one case to another. Hence, a unification of diverse particle dynamical systems is displayed by the fact that they all share the same twistor description. Our single twistor approach seems to be rather different and a strikingly economical construction of twistors compared to other past approaches that introduced multiple twistors to represent some similar but far more limited set of particle phase space systems

  16. Smooth massless limit of field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronsdal, C.

    1980-01-01

    The massless limit of Fierz-Pauli field theories, describing fields with fixed mass and spin interacting with external sources, is examined. Results are obtained for spins, 1, 3/2, 2 and 3 using conventional models, and then for all half-integral spins in a relatively model-independent manner. It is found that the massless limit is smooth provided that the sources satisfy certain conditions. In the massless limit these conditions reduce to the conservation laws required by internal consistency of massless field theory. Smoothness simply requires that quantities that vanish in the massless case approach zero in a certain well-defined manner. (orig.)

  17. More on equations of motion for interacting massless field of all spins in 3+1 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A [Inst. of Theoretical Physics, Goteborg (Sweden)

    1992-07-09

    We establish the simple link between the recently proposed equations of motion for interacting massless fields of all spins 0{<=}s<{infinity} in 3+1 dimensions and conventional formulations of free higher-spin dynamics. In addition, we discuss various types of formal generalizations of the system of equations of Vasiliev which may give rise to interesting relativistic systems in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. In particular, it is shown that there exists a class of equations generalizing Vasiliev's system, parametrized by an arbitrary function of one variable. Self-dual higher-spin equations are discussed briefly. (orig.).

  18. Massive spin-one fields from couplings with five massless real scalars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizdadea, Constantin; Cioroianu, Eugen-Mihaita; Saliu, Solange-Odile

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we implement a new procedure by which one may generate mass for a vector field in the context of its interactions to a system of five real scalar fields. This purpose will be achieved by means of the general multi-step program from [1] adapted to the present situation: (1) we begin with a free theory in four space-time dimensions whose Lagrangian action is given by the sum between the standard Maxwell action and that for a collection consisting in five massless real scalar fields; (2) we construct a general class of gauge theories whose free limit is that from step (1) by means of the deformation of the solution to the master equation [2, 3] with the help of local BRST cohomology [4-6]; (3) we perform some suitable redefinitions of the free parameters that label interacting theories from (2) such that the mass terms become manifest in the new free limit. The outputs of our procedure can be synthesized in: (A) the vector field acquires mass; (B) the scalar fields gain gauge transformations; (C) the gauge algebras of the interacting theories are Abelian; (D) the propagator of the massive vector field emerging from the gauge-fixed actions behaves, in the limit of large Euclidean momenta, like that from the massless case.

  19. Free massless fermionic fields of arbitrary spin in d-dimensional anti-de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A

    1988-04-25

    Free massless fermionic fields of arbitrary spins, corresponding to fully symmetric tensor-spinor irreducible representations of the flat little group SO(d-2), are described in d-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in terms of differential forms. Appropriate linearized higher-spin curvature 2-forms are found. Explicitly gauge invariant higher-spin actions are constructed in terms of these linearized curvatures.

  20. A non-perturbative approach to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism in massless scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Nogueira, F.S.; Svaiter, N.F.

    1995-08-01

    We rederived non-perturbatively the Coleman-Weinberg expression for the effective potential for massless scalar QED. Our result is not restricted to small values of the coupling constants. This shows that the Coleman-Weinberg result can be established beyond the range of perturbation theory. Also, we derive it in a manifestly renormalization group invariant way. It is shown that with the derivation given no Landau ghost singularity arises. The finite temperature case is discussed. (author). 13 refs

  1. Partially massless fields during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Daniel; Goon, Garrett; Lee, Hayden; Pimentel, Guilherme L.

    2018-04-01

    The representation theory of de Sitter space allows for a category of partially massless particles which have no flat space analog, but could have existed during inflation. We study the couplings of these exotic particles to inflationary perturbations and determine the resulting signatures in cosmological correlators. When inflationary perturbations interact through the exchange of these fields, their correlation functions inherit scalings that cannot be mimicked by extra massive fields. We discuss in detail the squeezed limit of the tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum, and show that certain partially massless fields can violate the tensor consistency relation of single-field inflation. We also consider the collapsed limit of the scalar trispectrum, and find that the exchange of partially massless fields enhances its magnitude, while giving no contribution to the scalar bispectrum. These characteristic signatures provide clean detection channels for partially massless fields during inflation.

  2. New anomaly: nonvanishing interaction of longitudinal real photons in massless quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskij, A.S.; Ioffe, B.L.; Khodzhamiryan, A.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that in massless electrodynamics (when the electron mass is strictly zero) the cross section of longitudinal photon interaction on mass shell is nonvanishing. The reasons of appearance of this effects and its possible consequences as well as analogous effects in other quantum field theories (especially non-Abelian gauge theories) are discussed. 7 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Existence, uniqueness and cohomology of the classical BRST charge with ghosts of ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, J.; Stasheff, J.

    1989-01-01

    A complete canonical formulation of the BRST theory of systems with redundant gauge symmetries is presented. These systems include p-form gauge fields, the superparticle, and the superstring. We first define the Koszul-Tate differential and explicitly show how the introduction of the momenta conjugate to the ghosts of ghosts makes it acyclic. The global existence of the BRST generator is then demonstrated, and the BRST charge is proved to be unique up to canonical transformations in the extended phase space, which includes the ghosts. Finally, the BRST cohomology in classical mechanics is investigated and shown to be equal to the cohomology of the exterior derivative along the gauge orbits, as in the irreducible case. This is done by re-expressing the exterior algebra along the gauge orbits as a free differential algebra containing generators of higher degree, which are identified with the ghosts of ghosts. The quantum cohomology is not dealt with. (orig.)

  4. Examining Perceived Distance and Personal Authenticity as Mediators of the Effects of Ghost-Tweeting on Parasocial Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elizabeth L; Tyler, William J

    2016-05-01

    A number of high-profile public figures hire ghost-tweeters to post to their social media accounts on their behalf, but no research has examined how this social media practice can affect followers' feelings of connection to the public figures. College students (n = 132) participated in an online experiment to examine the effect of ghost-tweeting practices on parasocial interaction (PSI) with social media figures. Tweet authorship (use of a ghost-tweeter or not) was manipulated. Ghost-tweeting resulted in reduced PSI. Perceptions of distance, but not personal authenticity mediated this effect. However, authenticity and distance did serially mediate the relationship between ghost-tweeting and PSI. These findings shed light on the process of PSI with celebrities and other media figures on social network sites.

  5. Quasiparadoxes of massless QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilga, A.V.

    1990-04-01

    We show that the limit m e =0 in the conventional QED is not smooth. In contrast to the massless QED the massive QED, however small the mass is, involves finite probability chirality breaking processes. The chirality breaking effects may be observed provided the size of experimental installation is greater than the formation length ∼ E/m 2 . We discuss also the finite cross sections of virtual longitudinal photon production and scattering in massless QED recently found by Gorsky, Ioffe and Khodjamirian and argue that real longitudinal photons do not interact while the limit of zero virtuality is not smooth. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs

  6. Classical and quantum ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously. (paper)

  7. Noncanonical quantization-on the coexistence of particles and ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saller, H.

    1988-01-01

    Local interactions of quantized fields are sometimes parametrized with the aid of ghostlike degrees of freedom, e.g., in non-Abelian gauge theories. These ghosts do not necessarily lead to eigenstates of energy. Such a situation requires a discussion of the asymptotic boundary condition for the ghosts, leading to ghost propagation only for timelike distance. Coexisting particle and ghost degrees of freedom in one basic field operator allow the formulation of interactions for such a field without local ambiguities

  8. Are ghosts necessary in planar gauges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, W.

    1988-01-01

    The introduction of Faddeev-Popov ghosts in axial gauges and especially in the ones of the planar type is not a technical necessity for the general proof of renormalization and gauge independence. It is shown that all necessary identities for Green's functions and for one-particle-irreducible vertices arise in a completely ghost-free formulation as well

  9. Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with massless quarks and chiral 4-fermion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogut, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    N f = 2 lattice QCD with massless quarks and a weak 4-fermion interaction appears to have the expected second order transition, at least for N t ≥ 6. More work is needed to clarify the N t = 4 case. With more statistics the N t = 6 simulations should produce an accurate determination of the critical exponent β m . Moving to finite mass at β = β c should allow an accurate determination of σ. Hadronic screening masses need further analysis. Other order parameters remain to be analyzed. Unfortunately, there is no obvious way to include 4-fermion interactions with full SU(2) x SU(2) chiral flavor symmetry

  10. (2 + 1)-dimensional interacting model of two massless spin-2 fields as a bi-gravity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzadeh, S.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a new group-theoretical (Chern-Simons) formulation for the bi-metric theory of gravity in (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetime which describe two interacting massless spin-2 fields. Our model has been formulated in terms of two dreibeins rather than two metrics. We obtain our Chern-Simons gravity model by gauging mixed AdS-AdS Lie algebra and show that it has a two dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) at the boundary of the anti de Sitter (AdS) solution. We show that the central charge of the dual CFT is proportional to the mass of the AdS solution. We also study cosmological implications of our massless bi-gravity model.

  11. Quantum Hall effect of massless Dirac fermions and free fermions in Hofstadter's butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Masao

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new physical interpretation of the Diophantine equation of σ xy for the Hofstadter problem. First, we divide the energy spectrum, or Hofstadter's butterfly, into smaller self-similar areas called 'subcells', which were first introduced by Hofstadter to describe the recursive structure. We find that in the energy gaps between subcells, there are two ways to account for the quantization rule of σ xy , that are consistent with the Diophantine equation: Landau quantization of (1) massless Dirac fermions or (2) free fermions in Hofstadter's butterfly. (author)

  12. Ghost imaging with atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, R. I.; Henson, B. M.; Shin, D. K.; Hodgman, S. S.; Dall, R. G.; Baldwin, K. G. H.; Truscott, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Ghost imaging is a counter-intuitive phenomenon—first realized in quantum optics—that enables the image of a two-dimensional object (mask) to be reconstructed using the spatio-temporal properties of a beam of particles with which it never interacts. Typically, two beams of correlated photons are used: one passes through the mask to a single-pixel (bucket) detector while the spatial profile of the other is measured by a high-resolution (multi-pixel) detector. The second beam never interacts with the mask. Neither detector can reconstruct the mask independently, but temporal cross-correlation between the two beams can be used to recover a ‘ghost’ image. Here we report the realization of ghost imaging using massive particles instead of photons. In our experiment, the two beams are formed by correlated pairs of ultracold, metastable helium atoms, which originate from s-wave scattering of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates. We use higher-order Kapitza-Dirac scattering to generate a large number of correlated atom pairs, enabling the creation of a clear ghost image with submillimetre resolution. Future extensions of our technique could lead to the realization of ghost interference, and enable tests of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and Bell’s inequalities with atoms.

  13. Ghost Children: Invisible Middle Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2014-01-01

    For this study, 119 middle level teacher candidates identified, observed, and documented their interactions with middle school "ghost children" as part of their field placement activities. About two thirds of the 124 ghost children identified for this study were male. The teacher candidates documented additional characteristics of ghost…

  14. Twistor diagrams and massless Moeller scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of twistor diagrams, as devised by Penrose, is intended to lead to a manifestly finite account of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The theory is here extended to a more general type of interaction between massless fields than has hitherto been described. It is applied to the example of first-order massless Moeller scattering in quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that earlier studies of this example have failed to render a correct account, in particular by overlooking an infrared divergency, but that the scattering data can nevertheless be represented within the twistor formalism. (author)

  15. Kinetic k-essence ghost dark energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozas-Fernández, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    A ghost dark energy model has been recently put forward to explain the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this model, the energy density of ghost dark energy, which comes from the Veneziano ghost of QCD, is proportional to the Hubble parameter, ρ D =αH. Here α is a constant of order Λ QCD 3 where Λ QCD ∼100 MeV is the QCD mass scale. We consider a connection between ghost dark energy with/without interaction between the components of the dark sector and the kinetic k-essence field. It is shown that the cosmological evolution of the ghost dark energy dominated Universe can be completely described a kinetic k-essence scalar field. We reconstruct the kinetic k-essence function F(X) in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe according to the evolution of ghost dark energy density.

  16. Can massless neutrinos dominate the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The restrictions from cosmological considerations on masses and lifetimes of neutral, weakly interacting fermions are reviewed. In particular, the possibility that the massless decay products of a heavy neutrino dominate the energy density of the present universe is discussed in detail. 4 figures

  17. Gravitational field of static p -branes in linearized ghost-free gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Jens; Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    We study the gravitational field of static p -branes in D -dimensional Minkowski space in the framework of linearized ghost-free (GF) gravity. The concrete models of GF gravity we consider are parametrized by the nonlocal form factors exp (-□/μ2) and exp (□2/μ4) , where μ-1 is the scale of nonlocality. We show that the singular behavior of the gravitational field of p -branes in general relativity is cured by short-range modifications introduced by the nonlocalities, and we derive exact expressions of the regularized gravitational fields, whose geometry can be written as a warped metric. For large distances compared to the scale of nonlocality, μ r →∞ , our solutions approach those found in linearized general relativity.

  18. Unusual square roots in the ghost-free theory of massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovnev, Alexey; Smirnov, Fedor

    2017-06-01

    A crucial building block of the ghost free massive gravity is the square root function of a matrix. This is a problematic entity from the viewpoint of existence and uniqueness properties. We accurately describe the freedom of choosing a square root of a (non-degenerate) matrix. It has discrete and (in special cases) continuous parts. When continuous freedom is present, the usual perturbation theory in terms of matrices can be critically ill defined for some choices of the square root. We consider the new formulation of massive and bimetric gravity which deals directly with eigenvalues (in disguise of elementary symmetric polynomials) instead of matrices. It allows for a meaningful discussion of perturbation theory in such cases, even though certain non-analytic features arise.

  19. Ghost lines in Moessbauer relaxation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The appearance in Moessbauer relaxation spectra of 'ghost' lines, which are narrow lines that do not correspond to transitions between real hyperfine energy levels of the resonant system, is examined. It is shown that in many cases of interest, the appearance of these 'ghost' lines can be interpreted in terms of the relaxational averaging of one or more of the static interactions of the ion. (orig.)

  20. Investigations into light-front interactions for massless fields (I): non-constructibility of higher spin quartic amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, Anders K.H. [Academy of Textiles, Engineering and Economics, University of Borås,Allégatan 1, SE-50190 Borås (Sweden)

    2016-12-27

    The dynamical commutators of the light-front Poincaré algebra yield first order differential equations in the p{sup +} momenta for the interaction vertex operators. The homogeneous solution to the equation for the quartic vertex is studied. Consequences as regards the constructibility assumption of quartic higher spin amplitudes from cubic amplitudes are discussed. The existence of quartic contact interactions unrelated to cubic interactions by Poincaré symmetry indicates that the higher spin S-matrix is not constructible. Thus quartic amplitude based no-go results derived by BCFW recursion for Minkowski higher spin massless fields may be circumvented.

  1. Ghost story. II. The midpoint ghost vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, L; Maccaferri, C; Scherer Santos, R.J.; Tolla, D D

    2009-01-01

    We construct the ghost number 9 three strings vertex for OSFT in the natural normal ordering. We find two versions, one with a ghost insertion at z = i and a twist-conjugate one with insertion at z = -i. For this reason we call them midpoint vertices. We show that the relevant Neumann matrices commute among themselves and with the matrix G representing the operator K 1 . We analyze the spectrum of the latter and find that beside a continuous spectrum there is a (so far ignored) discrete one. We are able to write spectral formulas for all the Neumann matrices involved and clarify the important role of the integration contour over the continuous spectrum. We then pass to examine the (ghost) wedge states. We compute the discrete and continuous eigenvalues of the corresponding Neumann matrices and show that they satisfy the appropriate recursion relations. Using these results we show that the formulas for our vertices correctly define the star product in that, starting from the data of two ghost number 0 wedge states, they allow us to reconstruct a ghost number 3 state which is the expected wedge state with the ghost insertion at the midpoint, according to the star recursion relation.

  2. Ghost Stories, Ghost Estates: Melancholia in Irish Recession Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Slavin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers representations of melancholia in post-Celtic Tiger Irish literature. By situating their post-recession fictions in “ghost estates,” or largely uninhabited housing developments, Donal Ryan and Tana French present neoliberally-inflected varieties of melancholia for their contemporary readers to contemplate. The settings of the ghost estates – and the accompanying supernatural elements to the texts – call to mind ghosts of Ireland’s past and legacies of recent economically unsound policies, spurring the reader to think about the imagined loss of futurity that accompanied the Irish economic crash. “Ghost stories for ghost estates,” then, represent an important contribution to the growing field of post-recession Irish literature.

  3. Ghost telescope and ghost Fourier telescope with thermal light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Wenlin; Han Shensheng

    2011-01-01

    As important observation tools, telescopes are very useful in remote observations. We report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of ghost telescope scheme and show that, by measuring the intensity correlation of two light fields and only changing the position of the detector in the reference path, ghost telescope and ghost Fourier telescope can be obtained even if a single-pixel detector is fixed in Fresnel region of the object. Differences between conventional telescope and ghost telescope are also discussed.

  4. On a manifestation of the anomalies in the massless QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskij, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The questions concerned with the axial and conformal anomalies in the massless QED are discussed. It is shown that the interaction of the longitudinal real photons is proportional to the β function of the theory and the corresponding matrix element L |Θ αβ |γ L > where Θ αβ is energy-momentum tensor has a common features with the nonvanishing matrix element α |γ> in the massless limit. 7 refs.; 2 figs

  5. New non-linear modified massless Klein-Gordon equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenjo, Felipe A. [Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, UAI Physics Center, Santiago (Chile); Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Santiago (Chile); Hojman, Sergio A. [Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, UAI Physics Center, Santiago (Chile); Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Santiago (Chile); Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Recursos Educativos Avanzados, CREA, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    The massless Klein-Gordon equation on arbitrary curved backgrounds allows for solutions which develop ''tails'' inside the light cone and, therefore, do not strictly follow null geodesics as discovered by DeWitt and Brehme almost 60 years ago. A modification of the massless Klein-Gordon equation is presented, which always exhibits null geodesic propagation of waves on arbitrary curved spacetimes. This new equation is derived from a Lagrangian which exhibits current-current interaction. Its non-linearity is due to a self-coupling term which is related to the quantum mechanical Bohm potential. (orig.)

  6. Modular structure of local algebras associated with massless free quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hislop, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Tomita modular operators and the duality property for the local von Neumann algebras in quantum field models describing free massless particles with arbitrary helicity are studied. It is proved that the representation of the Poincare group in each model extends to a unitary representation SU(2,2), a covering group of the conformal group. An irreducible set of standard linear fields is shown to be covariant with respect to this representation. The von Neumann algebras associated with wedge, double-cone, and lightcone regions generated by these fields are proved to be unitarily equivalent. Using the results of Bisognano and Wichmann, the modular operators for these algebras are obtained in explicit form as conformal transformations and the duality property is proved. In the bose case, it is shown that the double-cone algebras constructed from any irreducible set of linear fields not including the standard fields do not satisfy duality and that any non-standard linear fields are not conformally covariant. A simple proof of duality, independent of the Tomita-Takesaki theory, for the double-cone algebras in the scalar case is also presented

  7. Invariant gauge families inherent in Abelian-gauge field theory. [Scalar dipole ghost field, free-field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Kan-ichi; Kubo, Reijiro

    1974-12-01

    The framework of the Nakanishi-Lautrup formalism should be enlarged by introducing a scalar dipole ghost field B(x), which is called gauge on field, together with its pair field. By taking free Lagrangian density, Free-field equations can be described. The vacuum is defined by using a neutral vector field U..mu..(x). The state-vector space is generated by the adjoining conjugates of U..mu..sup((+))(x), and auxiliary fields B(x), B/sub 1/(x) and B/sub 2/(x), which were introduced in the form of the Lagrangian density. The physical states can be defined by the supplementary conditions of the form B/sub 1/sup((+))(x) 1 phys>=B/sub 2/sup((+))(x) 1 phys>=0. It is seen that all the field equations and all the commutators are kept form-invariant, and that the gauge parameter ..cap alpha.. is transformed into ..cap alpha..' given by ..cap alpha..'=..cap alpha..+lambda, with epsilon unchanged. The Lagrangian density is specified only by the gauge invariant parameter epsilon. The gauge structure of theory has universal meaning over whole Abelian-gauge field. C-number gauge transformation and the gauge structure in the presence of interaction are also discussed.

  8. Infrared behavior of gluons and ghosts in ghost-antighost symmetric gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkofer, R.; Fischer, C.S.; Reinhardt, H.; Smekal, L. von

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of a ghost-antighost condensate, the coupled Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gluon and ghost propagators in Yang-Mills theories are derived in general covariant gauges, including ghost-antighost symmetric gauges. The infrared behavior of these two-point functions is studied in a bare-vertex truncation scheme which has proven to be successful in the Landau gauge. In all linear covariant gauges the same infrared behavior as in the Landau gauge is found: The gluon propagator is infrared-suppressed whereas the ghost propagator is infrared-enhanced. This infrared singular behavior provides an indication against a ghost-antighost condensate. In the ghost-antighost symmetric gauges we find that the infrared behavior of the gluon and ghost propagators cannot be determined when replacing all dressed vertices by bare ones. The question of a BRS invariant dimension-2 condensate remains to be further studied

  9. Hunting Down Massless Dark Photons in Kaon Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrichesi, M.; Gabrielli, E.; Mele, B.

    2017-07-01

    If dark photons are massless, they couple to standard-model particles only via higher dimensional operators, while direct (renormalizable) interactions induced by kinetic mixing, which motivates most of the current experimental searches, are absent. We consider the effect of possible flavor-changing magnetic-dipole couplings of massless dark photons in kaon physics. In particular, we study the branching ratio for the process K+→π+π0γ ¯ with a simplified-model approach, assuming the chiral quark model to evaluate the hadronic matrix element. Possible effects in the K0-K¯ 0 mixing are taken into account. We find that branching ratios up to O (10-7) are allowed—depending on the dark-sector masses and couplings. Such large branching ratios for K+→π+π0γ ¯ could be of interest for experiments dedicated to rare K+ decays like NA62 at CERN, where γ ¯ can be detected as a massless invisible system.

  10. Cosmological viability of theories with massive spin-2 fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koennig, Frank

    2017-03-30

    Theories of spin-2 fields take on a particular role in modern physics. They do not only describe the mediation of gravity, the only theory of fundamental interactions of which no quantum field theoretical description exists, it furthermore was thought that they necessarily predict massless gauge bosons. Just recently, a consistent theory of a massive graviton was constructed and, subsequently, generalized to a bimetric theory of two interacting spin-2 fields. This thesis studies both the viability and consequences at cosmological scales in massive gravity as well as bimetric theories. We show that all consistent models that are free of gradient and ghost instabilities behave like the cosmological standard model, LCDM. In addition, we construct a new theory of massive gravity which is stable at both classical background and quantum level, even though it suffers from the Boulware-Deser ghost.

  11. Giant wormholes in ghost-free bigravity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushkov, Sergey V.; Volkov, Mikhail S., E-mail: sergey_sushkov@mail.ru, E-mail: volkov@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    We study Lorentzian wormholes in the ghost-free bigravity theory described by two metrics, g and f. Wormholes can exist if only the null energy condition is violated, which happens naturally in the bigravity theory since the graviton energy-momentum tensors do not apriori fulfill any energy conditions. As a result, the field equations admit solutions describing wormholes whose throat size is typically of the order of the inverse graviton mass. Hence, they are as large as the universe, so that in principle we might all live in a giant wormhole. The wormholes can be of two different types that we call W1 and W2. The W1 wormholes interpolate between the AdS spaces and have Killing horizons shielding the throat. The Fierz-Pauli graviton mass for these solutions becomes imaginary in the AdS zone, hence the gravitons behave as tachyons, but since the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound is fulfilled, there should be no tachyon instability. For the W2 wormholes the g-geometry is globally regular and in the far field zone it becomes the AdS up to subleading terms, its throat can be traversed by timelike geodesics, while the f-geometry has a completely different structure and is not geodesically complete. There is no evidence of tachyons for these solutions, although a detailed stability analysis remains an open issue. It is possible that the solutions may admit a holographic interpretation.

  12. Giant wormholes in ghost-free bigravity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushkov, Sergey V. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Volkov, Mikhail S. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique CNRS-UMR 7350, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2015-06-09

    We study Lorentzian wormholes in the ghost-free bigravity theory described by two metrics, g and f. Wormholes can exist if only the null energy condition is violated, which happens naturally in the bigravity theory since the graviton energy-momentum tensors do not apriori fulfill any energy conditions. As a result, the field equations admit solutions describing wormholes whose throat size is typically of the order of the inverse graviton mass. Hence, they are as large as the universe, so that in principle we might all live in a giant wormhole. The wormholes can be of two different types that we call W1 and W2. The W1 wormholes interpolate between the AdS spaces and have Killing horizons shielding the throat. The Fierz-Pauli graviton mass for these solutions becomes imaginary in the AdS zone, hence the gravitons behave as tachyons, but since the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound is fulfilled, there should be no tachyon instability. For the W2 wormholes the g-geometry is globally regular and in the far field zone it becomes the AdS up to subleading terms, its throat can be traversed by timelike geodesics, while the f-geometry has a completely different structure and is not geodesically complete. There is no evidence of tachyons for these solutions, although a detailed stability analysis remains an open issue. It is possible that the solutions may admit a holographic interpretation.

  13. Behaviour of Charged Spinning Massless Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the classical theory of a relativistic massless charged point particle with spin and interacting with an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we give a proper definition of its kinetic energy and its total energy, the latter being conserved when the external field is stationary. We also write the conservation laws for the linear and angular momenta. Finally, we find that the particle’s velocity may differ from c as a result of the spin—electromagnetic field interaction, without jeopardizing Lorentz invariance.

  14. Non-perturbative power corrections to ghost and gluon propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, Philippe; Leroy, Jean-Pierre; Yaouanc, Alain Le; Lokhov, Alexey; Micheli, Jacques; Pene, Olivier; RodrIguez-Quintero, Jose; Roiesnel, Claude

    2006-01-01

    We study the dominant non-perturbative power corrections to the ghost and gluon propagators in Landau gauge pure Yang-Mills theory using OPE and lattice simulations. The leading order Wilson coefficients are proven to be the same for both propagators. The ratio of the ghost and gluon propagators is thus free from this dominant power correction. Indeed, a purely perturbative fit of this ratio gives smaller value ( ≅ 270MeV) of Λ M-barS-bar than the one obtained from the propagators separately( ≅ 320MeV). This argues in favour of significant non-perturbative ∼ 1/q 2 power corrections in the ghost and gluon propagators. We check the self-consistency of the method

  15. A unifying framework for ghost-free Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenliang

    2018-04-01

    We propose a framework for Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian field theories where Ostrogradsky's scalar ghosts could be absent. A key ingredient is the generalized Kronecker delta. The general Lagrangians are reformulated in the language of differential forms. The absence of higher order equations of motion for the scalar modes stems from the basic fact that every exact form is closed. The well-established Lagrangian theories for spin-0, spin-1, p-form, spin-2 fields have natural formulations in this framework. We also propose novel building blocks for Lagrangian field theories. Some of them are novel nonlinear derivative terms for spin-2 fields. It is nontrivial that Ostrogradsky's scalar ghosts are absent in these fully nonlinear theories.

  16. Living with ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Perturbation theory for gravity in dimensions greater than two requires higher derivatives in the free action. Higher derivatives seem to lead to ghosts, states with negative norm. We consider a fourth order scalar field theory and show that the problem with ghosts arises because, in the canonical treatment, φ and □φ are regarded as two independent variables. Instead, we base quantum theory on a path integral, evaluated in Euclidean space and then Wick rotated to Lorentzian space. The path integral requires that quantum states be specified by the values of φ and φ ,τ . To calculate probabilities for observations, one has to trace out over φ ,τ on the final surface. Hence one loses unitarity, but one can never produce a negative norm state or get a negative probability. It is shown that transition probabilities tend toward those of the second order theory, as the coefficient of the fourth order term in the action tends to zero. Hence unitarity is restored at the low energies that now occur in the universe

  17. Gravity in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory with the Randall-Sundrum background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jihn E.; Lee, Hyun Min

    2001-01-01

    We obtain the full 5D graviton propagator in the Randall-Sundrum model with the Gauss-Bonnet interaction. From the decomposition of the graviton propagator on the brane, we show that localization of gravity arises in the presence of the Gauss-Bonnet term. We also obtain the metric perturbation for observers on the brane with considering the brane bending and compute the amplitude of one massless graviton exchange. For the positive definite amplitude or no ghost states, the sign of the Gauss-Bonnet term should be negative in our convention, which is compatible with string amplitude computations. In that case, the ghost-free condition is sufficient for obtaining the Newtonian gravity. For a vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coefficient, the brane bending allows us to reproduce the correct graviton polarizations for the effective 4D Einstein gravity

  18. Parity violation and the masslessness of the neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannheim, P.D.

    1978-09-01

    It is proposed that the weak interaction be obtained by gauging the strong interaction chiral flavor group. The neutrinos are then four-component spinors. Pairs of right-handed neutrinos are allowed to condense into the vacuum. This produces maximal parity violation in both the quark and lepton sectors of the weak interaction, keeps the neutrinos massless, and also leads to the conventional Weinberg mixing pattern. The approach also in principle provides a way of calculating the Cabibbo angle. 11 references

  19. Parity violation and the masslessness of the neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannheim, P.D.

    1978-09-01

    It is proposed that the weak interaction be obtained by gauging the strong interaction chiral flavor group. The neutrinos are then four-component spinors. Pairs of right-handed neutrinos are allowed to condense into the vacuum. This produces maximal parity violation in both the quark and lepton sectors of the weak interaction, keeps the neutrinos massless, and also leads to the conventional Weinberg mixing pattern. The approach also in principle provides a way of calculating the Cabibbo angle. 11 references.

  20. Ghost D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Takuya; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    We define a ghost D-brane in superstring theories as an object that cancels the effects of an ordinary D-brane. The supergroups U(N|M) and OSp(N/M) arise as gauge symmetries in the supersymmetric world-volume theory of D-branes and ghost D-branes. A system with a pair of D-brane and ghost D-brane located at the same location is physically equivalent to the closed string vacuum. When they are separated, the system becomes a new brane configuration. We generalize the type I/heterotic duality by including n ghost D9-branes on the type I side and by considering the heterotic string whose gauge group is OSp(32+2n/2n). Motivated by the type IIB S-duality applied to D9- and ghost D9-branes, we also find type II-like closed superstrings with U(n/n) gauge symmetry

  1. Numerical Study of the Ghost-Ghost-Gluon Vertex on the Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, A.; Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that, in Landau gauge, the renormalization function of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex Z-tilde1 (p2) is finite and constant, at least to all orders of perturbation theory. On the other hand, a direct non-perturbative verification of this result using numerical simulations of lattice QCD is still missing. Here we present a preliminary numerical study of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex and of its corresponding renormalization function using Monte Carlo simulations in SU(2) lattice Landau gauge. Data were obtained in 4 dimensions for lattice couplings β = 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and lattice sides N = 4, 8, 16

  2. Numerical study of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, A.; Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that, in Landau gauge, the renormalization function of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex Z∼ 1 1(p 2 ) is finite and constant, at least to all orders of perturbation theory. On the other hand, a direct non-perturbative verification of this result using numerical simulations of lattice QCD is still missing. Here we present a preliminary numerical study of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex and of its corresponding renormalization function using Monte Carlo simulations in SU(2) lattice Landau gauge. Data were obtained in 4 dimensions for lattice couplings β= 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and lattice sides N = 4, 8, 16. (author)

  3. Massless particles, electromagnetism, and Rieffel induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, N.P.; Wiedemann, U.A.

    1994-06-01

    The connection between space-time covariant representations (obtained by inducing from the Lorentz group) and irreducible unitary representations (induced from Wigner's little group) of the Poincare groups is re-examined in the massless case. In the situation relevant to physics, it is found that these are related by Marsden-Weinstein reduction with respect to a gauge group. An analogous phenomenon is observed for classical massless relativistic particles. This symplectic reduction procedure can be ('second') quantized using a generalization of the Rieffel induction technique in operator algebra theory, which is carried through in detail for electromagnetism. Starting from the so-called Fermi representation of the field algebra generated by the free abelian gauge field, we construct a new ('rigged') sesquilinear form on the representation space, which is positive semi-definite, and given in terms of a Gaussian weak distribution (promeasure) on the gauge group (taken to be a Hilbert Lie group). This eventually constructs the algebra of observables of quantum electromagnetism (directly in its vacuum representation) as a representation of the so-called algebra of weak observables induced by the trivial representation of the gauge group. (orig.)

  4. Zero-mode effects in the lattice thermodynamics of massless bose field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.; Lipskikh, S.I.; Sorin, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The thermodynamics of free massless Bose field on a lattice is discussed. The coefficients characterizing the finite size effects are obtained. The use of these coefficients in the Yang-Mills thermodynamics allows one to make Monte-Carlo calculations, carried out on the different size lattices, self-consistent

  5. Entangled spins and ghost-spins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep P. Jatkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study patterns of quantum entanglement in systems of spins and ghost-spins regarding them as simple quantum mechanical toy models for theories containing negative norm states. We define a single ghost-spin as in [20] as a 2-state spin variable with an indefinite inner product in the state space. We find that whenever the spin sector is disentangled from the ghost-spin sector (both of which could be entangled within themselves, the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over all the ghost-spins gives rise to positive entanglement entropy for positive norm states, while negative norm states have an entanglement entropy with a negative real part and a constant imaginary part. However when the spins are entangled with the ghost-spins, there are new entanglement patterns in general. For systems where the number of ghost-spins is even, it is possible to find subsectors of the Hilbert space where positive norm states always lead to positive entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins. With an odd number of ghost-spins however, we find that there always exist positive norm states with negative real part for entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins.

  6. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  7. Non-perturbative materialization of ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Garriga, Jaume

    2006-01-01

    In theories with a hidden ghost sector that couples to visible matter through gravity only, empty space can decay into ghosts and ordinary matter by graviton exchange. Perturbatively, such processes can be very slow provided that the gravity sector violates Lorentz invariance above some cut-off scale. Here, we investigate non-perturbative decay processes involving ghosts, such as the spontaneous creation of self-gravitating lumps of ghost matter, as well as pairs of Bondi dipoles (i.e. lumps of ghost matter chasing after positive energy objects). We find the corresponding instantons and calculate their Euclidean action. In some cases, the instantons induce topology change or have negative Euclidean action. To shed some light on the meaning of such peculiarities, we also consider the nucleation of concentrical domain walls of ordinary and ghost matter, where the Euclidean calculation can be compared with the canonical (Lorentzian) description of tunneling. We conclude that non-perturbative ghost nucleation processes can be safely suppressed in phenomenological scenarios

  8. Massless radioactivity: a medical must?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H.Th

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The authoritative body in the field of nomenclature for radiochemistry is the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The concepts of specific activity, radioactivity concentration, carrier, carrier-free, and no-carrier-added have been) and are also recently discussed as to their correctness, relevance, clarity and consistency. Here, specific activity (sa) is suggested as to be defined as the activity (a) of a specified radioisotope in an amount of substance divided by the mass (m) of the total number of atoms (sa=a/m). Qaim, in a recent review of the future of medical radionuclides, justly argues that both yield, radionuclide purity and specific activity should be increased: here, again, however, the term specific activity deserves attention. What should be the goal in increasing specific activity? Up to as near as possible to massless? Approaching massless in terms of the smallest achievable m value? Taking the radionuclide n X, in physics specific activity is defined as both activity and mass related to n X, in radiochemistry specific activity is defined as the activity of n X related to the mass of all X, but in nuclear medicine most interest is in what IUPAC calls activity concentration, that is, the activity of n X in relation to the mass or volume of the material in which n X is present. This means that, apparently, nuclear medicine asks for high activity concentration of n X in non-isotopic carriers. Does this always imply the highest possible n X specific activity? The presentation focuses on this issue: examples are given that show both the absence of any need for the highest possible specific activity (e.g. 99 Mo, 166 Ho) and the need for 'as-near-as-possible to massless' (e.g. 99m Tc, 177 Lu, α-particles), in all cases in dependence of the radionuclide's position in the production chain and its eventual application in nuclear diagnostics or - therapy

  9. Dynamics of massless higher spins in the second order in curvatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1990-04-05

    The consistent equations of motion of interacting massless fields of all spins s=0, 1/2, 1, ..., {infinity} are constructed explicitly to the second order of the expansion in powers of the higher spin strengths. (orig.).

  10. Ghost hunting—an assessment of ghost particle detection and removal methods for tomographic-PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinga, G E; Tokgoz, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses and compares several methods, which aim to remove spurious peaks, i.e. ghost particles, from the volume intensity reconstruction in tomographic-PIV. The assessment is based on numerical simulations of time-resolved tomographic-PIV experiments in linear shear flows. Within the reconstructed volumes, intensity peaks are detected and tracked over time. These peaks are associated with particles (either ghosts or actual particles) and are characterized by their peak intensity, size and track length. Peak intensity and track length are found to be effective in discriminating between most ghosts and the actual particles, although not all ghosts can be detected using only a single threshold. The size of the reconstructed particles does not reveal an important difference between ghosts and actual particles. The joint distribution of peak intensity and track length however does, under certain conditions, allow a complete separation of ghosts and actual particles. The ghosts can have either a high intensity or a long track length, but not both combined, like all the actual particles. Removing the detected ghosts from the reconstructed volume and performing additional MART iterations can decrease the particle position error at low to moderate seeding densities, but increases the position error, velocity error and tracking errors at higher densities. The observed trends in the joint distribution of peak intensity and track length are confirmed by results from a real experiment in laminar Taylor–Couette flow. This diagnostic plot allows an estimate of the number of ghosts that are indistinguishable from the actual particles. (paper)

  11. Equations of motion of higher-spin gauge fields as a free differential algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the introduction of auxiliary dynamical variables that generalize the gravitational Weyl tensor permits one to reduce the equations of motion of free massless fields of all spins in the anti-de Sitter O(3,2) space to a form characteristic of free differential algebras. The equations of motion of auxiliary gauge fields introduced previously are modified analogously. Arguments are presented to the effect that the equations of motion of interacting massless fields of all spins should be described in terms of a free differential algebra which is a deformation of a known free differential algebra generated by 1- and 0-forms in the adjoint representation of a nonabelian superalgebra of higher spins and auxiliary fields

  12. Computational Ghost Imaging for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.

    2012-01-01

    This work relates to the generic problem of remote active imaging; that is, a source illuminates a target of interest and a receiver collects the scattered light off the target to obtain an image. Conventional imaging systems consist of an imaging lens and a high-resolution detector array [e.g., a CCD (charge coupled device) array] to register the image. However, conventional imaging systems for remote sensing require high-quality optics and need to support large detector arrays and associated electronics. This results in suboptimal size, weight, and power consumption. Computational ghost imaging (CGI) is a computational alternative to this traditional imaging concept that has a very simple receiver structure. In CGI, the transmitter illuminates the target with a modulated light source. A single-pixel (bucket) detector collects the scattered light. Then, via computation (i.e., postprocessing), the receiver can reconstruct the image using the knowledge of the modulation that was projected onto the target by the transmitter. This way, one can construct a very simple receiver that, in principle, requires no lens to image a target. Ghost imaging is a transverse imaging modality that has been receiving much attention owing to a rich interconnection of novel physical characteristics and novel signal processing algorithms suitable for active computational imaging. The original ghost imaging experiments consisted of two correlated optical beams traversing distinct paths and impinging on two spatially-separated photodetectors: one beam interacts with the target and then illuminates on a single-pixel (bucket) detector that provides no spatial resolution, whereas the other beam traverses an independent path and impinges on a high-resolution camera without any interaction with the target. The term ghost imaging was coined soon after the initial experiments were reported, to emphasize the fact that by cross-correlating two photocurrents, one generates an image of the target. In

  13. IR finiteness of the ghost dressing function from numerical resolution of the ghost SD equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J.P.; Yaouanc, A. Le; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; RodrIguez-Quintero, J.

    2008-01-01

    We solve numerically the Schwinger-Dyson ghost equation in the Landau gauge for a given, finite at k = 0 gluon propagator (i.e. the infrared exponent of its dressing function, α gluon , is 1) and under the usual assumption of constancy of the ghost-gluon vertex ; we show that there exist two possible types of ghost dressing function solutions, as we have previously inferred from analytical considerations: one which is singular at zero momentum (the infrared exponent of its dressing function, α ghost , (We shall use α G and α F as shorthands for α gluon and α ghost respectively; let us recall that we denote the gluon by a G and the ghost by a F, for ''fantome''.) is gluon +2α ghost = 0 and has therefore α ghost = -1/2, and another one which is finite at the origin with α ghost = 0 and violates the relation. It is most important that the type of solution which is realized depends on the value of the coupling constant. There are regular ones - α F = 0 - for any coupling below some value, while there is only one singular solution - α F <0 -, obtained for a single critical value of the coupling. For all momenta k <.5 GeV where they can be trusted, our lattice data exclude neatly the singular one, and agree very well with the regular solution we obtain at a coupling constant compatible with the bare lattice value.

  14. Partially massless higher-spin theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brust, Christopher [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hinterbichler, Kurt [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University,10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2017-02-16

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes “third-order” Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin algebra. We also discuss nuances in the theory that occur in specific dimensions; in particular, the theory dramatically truncates in bulk dimensions D=3,5 and has non-diagonalizable mixings which occur in D=4,7.

  15. Partially massless higher-spin theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes “third-order” Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin algebra. We also discuss nuances in the theory that occur in specific dimensions; in particular, the theory dramatically truncates in bulk dimensions D=3,5 and has non-diagonalizable mixings which occur in D=4,7.

  16. Ghost-Story Telling: Keeping It Appropriate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for telling ghost stories at camp involve considering children's fears at different ages, telling age appropriate stories, determining appropriate times for telling ghost stories, and minimizing fear when a child becomes frightened by a ghost story. Includes tips on the selection, preparation, and presentation of ghost stories. (LP)

  17. GHOST balloons around Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    The GHOST balloon position as a function of time data shows that the atmospheric circulation around the Antarctic Continent at the 100 mb and 200 mb levels is complex. The GHOST balloons supposedly follow the horizontal trajectory of the air at the balloon level. The position of GHOST balloon 98Q for a three month period in 1968 is shown. The balloon moved to within 2 deg of the South Pole on 1 October 1968 and then by 9 December 1968 was 35 deg from the South Pole and close to its position on 1 September 1968. The balloon generally moved from west to east but on two occasions moved in the opposite direction for a few days. The latitude of GHOST balloons 98Q and 149Z which was at 200 mb is given. Both balloons tended to get closer to the South Pole in September and October. Other GHOST balloons at the same pressure and time period may not indicate similar behavior.

  18. Elimination of ghost markers during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of multiple individual reflective markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroian, G.; Falco, T.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of dose delivery in radiotherapy is affected by the uncertainty in tumor localization. Motion of internal anatomy due to physiological processes such as respiration may lead to significant displacements which compromise tumor coverage and generate irradiation of healthy tissue. Real-time tracking with infrared-based systems is often used for tracking thoracic motion in radiation therapy. We studied the origin of ghost markers ('crosstalk') which may appear during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of independent reflective markers. Ghost markers occur when two or more reflective markers are coplanar with each other and with the sensors of the two camera-based infrared tracking system. Analysis shows that sensors are not points but they have a finite extent and this extent determines for each marker a 'ghost volume'. If one reflective marker enters the ghost volume of another marker, ghost markers will be reported by the tracking system; if the reflective markers belong to a surface their 'ghost volume' is reduced to a 'ghost surface' (ghost zone). Appearance of ghost markers is predicted for markers taped on the torso of an anthropomorphic phantom. This study illustrates the dependence of the shape, extent, and location of the ghost zones on the shape of the anthropomorphic phantom, the angle of view of the tracking system, and the distance between the tracking system and the anthropomorphic phantom. It is concluded that the appearance of ghost markers can be avoided by positioning the markers outside the ghost zones of the other markers. However, if this is not possible and the initial marker configuration is ghost marker-free, ghost markers can be eliminated during real-time tracking by virtue of the fact that they appear in the coordinate data sequence only temporarily

  19. On ghost fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grensing, G.

    2002-01-01

    The path integral for ghost fermions, which is heuristically made use of in the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky approach to quantization of constrained systems, is derived from first principles. The derivation turns out to be rather different from that of physical fermions since the definition of Dirac states for ghost fermions is subtle. With these results at hand, it is then shown that the nonminimal extension of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator must be chosen differently from the notorious choice made in the literature in order to avoid the boundary terms that have always plagued earlier treatments. Furthermore it is pointed out that the elimination of states with nonzero ghost number requires the introduction of a thermodynamic potential for ghosts; the reason is that Schwarz's Lefschetz formula for the partition function of the time-evolution operator is not capable, despite claims to the contrary, to get rid of nonzero ghost number states on its own. Finally, we comment on the problems of global topological nature that one faces in the attempt to obtain the solutions of the Dirac condition for physical states in a configuration space of nontrivial geometry; such complications give rise to anomalies that do not obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions. (orig.)

  20. Massive and massless gauge fields of any spin and symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Jarvis, P.D.

    1988-05-01

    An analysis of the BRST approach to massive and massless gauge fields of any spin and symmetry is presented. Previous results on massless gauge fields are extended to totally antisymmetric massless tensors and Kaehler-Dirac particles. Two methods for arriving at a BRST invariant, massive theory from the corresponding massless one are discussed. The first allows for an interpretation in terms of dimensional reduction, while the second keeps the BRST operator of the massless theory, but employs gauge invariant fields. (author). 10 refs

  1. Conformal covariance, modular structure, and duality for local algebras in free massless quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hislop, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Tomita modular operators and the duality property for the local von Neumann algebras in quantum field models describing free massless particles with arbitrary helicity are studied. It is proved that the representation of the Poincare group in each model extends to a unitary representation of SU(2, 2), a covering group of the conformal group. An irreducible set of ''standard'' linear fields is shown to be covariant with respect to this representation. The von Neumann algebras associated with wedge, double-cone, and lightcone regions generated by these fields are proved to be unitarily equivalent. The modular operators for these algebras are obtained in explicit form using the conformal covariance and the results of Bisognano and Wichmann on the modular structure of the wedge algebras. The modular automorphism groups are implemented by one-parameter groups of conformal transformations. The modular conjugation operators are used to prove the duality property for the double-cone algebras and the timelike duality property for the lightcone algebras. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  2. Massless Interacting Scalar Fields in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    López Nacir, Diana

    2016-10-28

    We present a method to compute the two-point functions for an $O(N)$ scalar field model in de Sitter spacetime, avoiding the well known infrared problems for massless fields. The method is based on an exact treatment of the Euclidean zero modes and a perturbative one of the nonzero modes, and involves a partial resummation of the leading secular terms. This resummation, crucial to obtain a decay of the correlation functions, is implemented along with a double expansion in an effective coupling constant $\\sqrt\\lambda$ and in $1/N$. The results reduce to those known in the leading infrared approximation and coincide with the ones obtained directly in Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime in the large $N$ limit. The new method allows for a systematic calculation of higher order corrections both in $\\sqrt\\lambda$ and in $1/N$.

  3. Cosmology with a light ghost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Tokareva, Anna A., E-mail: mikhail.ivanov@cern.ch, E-mail: anna.tokareva@epfl.ch [Institute of Physics, LPPC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-12-01

    We study the creation and evolution of cosmological perturbations in renormalizable quadratic gravity with a Weyl term. We adopt a prescription that implies the stability of the vacuum at the price of introducing a massive spin-two ghost state, leading to the loss of unitarity. The theory may still be predictive regardless the interpretation of non-unitary processes provided that their rate is negligible compared to the Universe expansion rate. This implies that the ghost is effectively stable. In such a setup, there are two scalar degrees of freedom excited during inflation. The first one is the usual curvature perturbation whose power spectrum appears to coincide with that of single-field inflation. The second one is a scalar component of the ghost encoded in the shift vector of the metric in the uniform inflaton gauge. The amplitudes of primordial tensor and vector perturbations are strongly suppressed. After inflation the ghost field starts to oscillate and its energy density shortly becomes dominant in the Universe. For all ghost masses allowed by laboratory constraints ghosts should have ''overclosed'' the Universe at temperatures higher than that of primordial nucleosynthesis. Thus, the model with the light Weyl ghost is ruled out.

  4. Super-acceleration from massless, minimally coupled phi sup 4

    CERN Document Server

    Onemli, V K

    2002-01-01

    We derive a simple form for the propagator of a massless, minimally coupled scalar in a locally de Sitter geometry of arbitrary spacetime dimension. We then employ it to compute the fully renormalized stress tensor at one- and two-loop orders for a massless, minimally coupled phi sup 4 theory which is released in Bunch-Davies vacuum at t=0 in co-moving coordinates. In this system, the uncertainty principle elevates the scalar above the minimum of its potential, resulting in a phase of super-acceleration. With the non-derivative self-interaction the scalar's breaking of de Sitter invariance becomes observable. It is also worth noting that the weak-energy condition is violated on cosmological scales. An interesting subsidiary result is that cancelling overlapping divergences in the stress tensor requires a conformal counterterm which has no effect on purely scalar diagrams.

  5. Extended higher-spin superalgebras and their massless representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstein, S E; Vasiliev, M A [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Fizicheskij Inst.

    1990-02-12

    Three two-parameter sequences of infinite-dimensional extended higher-spin superalgebras are constructed, which give rise to consistent equations of motion of interacting gauge fields of all spins in four dimensions. In the Yang-Mills sector of spin-1 gauge fields, these higher-spin superalgebras reduce to u(n) + u(m), o(n) + o(m) and usp(n) + usp(m) with arbitrary integer parameters n {ge} 0 and m {ge} 0 (n and m are assumed to be even for symplectic algebras). Massless unitary representations of the proposed higher-spin superalgebras are analyzed. It is shown that all these superalgebras obey the admissibility condition which requires them to possess massless unitary representations with just the same spectra of spins as follows from the structure of the related higher-spin gauge fields. We argue that the infinite-dimensional (super)algebras listed in this article classify all possible higher-spin rigid (super)symmetries in four dimensions. (orig.).

  6. Ghost condensate and generalized second law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Dubovsky and Sibiryakov recently proposed a scenario in which particles of different species propagate with different speeds due to their direct couplings to ghost condensate. It was argued that this extended version of ghost condensate allows a gedanken experiment leading to violation of the generalized second law. However, in the original ghost condensate scenario, difference in propagation speeds is suppressed by M 2 /M Pl 2 , where M is the order parameter of spontaneous Lorentz breaking and M Pl is the Planck scale. In this case the energy transfer necessary for the gedanken experiment is so slow that the timescale of decrease of entropy, if any, is always longer than the Jeans timescale of ghost condensate. Hence the generalized second law is not violated by the gedanken experiment in the original ghost condensate scenario. This conclusion trivially extends to gauged ghost condensation by taking into account accretion of gauged ghost condensate into a black hole.

  7. Black holes in the ghost condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how the ghost condensate reacts to black holes immersed in it. A ghost condensate defines a hypersurface-orthogonal congruence of timelike curves, each of which has the tangent vector u μ =-g μν ∂ ν φ. It is argued that the ghost condensate in this picture approximately corresponds to a congruence of geodesics. In other words, the ghost condensate accretes into a black hole just like a pressureless dust. Correspondingly, if the energy density of the ghost condensate at large distance is set to an extremely small value by cosmic expansion then the late-time accretion rate of the ghost condensate should be negligible. The accretion rate remains very small even if effects of higher derivative terms are taken into account, provided that the black hole is sufficiently large. It is also discussed how to reconcile the black-hole accretion with the possibility that the ghost condensate might behave like dark matter

  8. Unexorcized ghost in DGP brane world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izum, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takahiro; Koyama, Kazuya

    2007-01-01

    The brane world model proposed by Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati realizes self-acceleration of the universe. However, it is known that this cosmological solution contains a spin-2 ghost. We study the possibility of avoiding the appearance of the ghost by slightly modifying the model via the introduction of a second brane. First, we consider a simple model without stabilization of the brane separation. By changing the separation between the branes, we find that we can erase the spin-2 ghost. However, this can be done only at the expense of the appearance of a spin-0 ghost instead. We discuss why these two different types of ghosts are correlated. Then, we examine a model with stabilization of the brane separation. Even in this case, we find that the correlation between spin-0 and spin-2 ghosts remains. As a result we find that we cannot avoid the appearance of a ghost by introducing a second brane in the model

  9. Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%

  10. Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R. F.

    2005-01-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%

  11. Evidence of marine debris usage by the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Rangel, Danilo Freitas; Zalmon, Ilana Rosental

    2018-03-01

    Sandy beaches are sites of marine debris stranding, but the interaction of beach biota with waste is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata selects marine debris by types using a non-destructive method on sandy beaches of Southeastern Brazil. We found marine debris in 7% of 1696 surveyed burrows, and the ghost crabs selectivity was mainly by soft plastic (30%), straw (11%), rope (6%) and foam (4%). Burrows with marine debris showed higher occupation rate (~68%) compared to burrows without debris (~28%), indicating that these materials may increase the capacity of ghost crabs to memorize their burrows placement (homing). The percentage of marine debris was not always related to their amount in the drift line, but ghost crabs used more debris near urbanized areas. Future studies should test whether ghost crabs are using marine debris for feeding, homing or other mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infrared magneto-spectroscopy of two-dimensional and three-dimensional massless fermions: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlita, M., E-mail: milan.orlita@lncmi.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses, CNRS-UJF-UPS-INSA, 38042 Grenoble (France); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Faugeras, C.; Barra, A.-L.; Martinez, G.; Potemski, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses, CNRS-UJF-UPS-INSA, 38042 Grenoble (France); Basko, D. M. [LPMMC UMR 5493, Université Grenoble 1/CNRS, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Zholudev, M. S. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB, Université Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Institute for Physics of Microstructures, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod GSP-105 603950 (Russian Federation); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB, Université Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod GSP-105 603950 (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Neugebauer, P. [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Berger, C. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Institut Néel/CNRS-UJF BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Heer, W. A. de [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Here, we report on a magneto-optical study of two distinct systems hosting massless fermions—two-dimensional graphene and three-dimensional HgCdTe tuned to the zero band gap condition at the point of the semiconductor-to-semimetal topological transition. Both materials exhibit, in the quantum regime, a fairly rich magneto-optical response, which is composed from a series of intra- and interband inter-Landau level resonances with for massless fermions typical √(B) dependence. The impact of the system's dimensionality and of the strength of the spin-orbit interaction on the optical response is also discussed.

  13. Ghost imaging with a single detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, Yaron; Katz, Ori; Silberberg, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate pseudothermal ghost imaging and ghost diffraction using only a single detector. We achieve this by replacing the high-resolution detector of the reference beam with a computation of the propagating field, following a recent proposal by Shapiro [Phys. Rev. A 78, 061802(R) (2008)]. Since only a single detector is used, this provides experimental evidence that pseudothermal ghost imaging does not rely on nonlocal quantum correlations. In addition, we show the depth-resolving capability of this ghost imaging technique.

  14. Giving up the ghost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M; Mannheim, Philip D

    2008-01-01

    The Pais-Uhlenbeck model is a quantum theory described by a higher-derivative field equation. It has been believed for many years that this model possesses ghost states (quantum states of negative norm) and therefore that this model is a physically unacceptable quantum theory. The existence of such ghost states was believed to be attributable to the field equation having more than two derivatives. This paper shows that the Pais-Uhlenbeck model does not possess any ghost states at all and that it is a perfectly acceptable quantum theory. The supposed ghost states in this model arise if the Hamiltonian of the model is (incorrectly) treated as being Dirac Hermitian (invariant under combined matrix transposition and complex conjugation). However, the Hamiltonian is not Dirac Hermitian, but rather it is PT symmetric. When it is quantized correctly according to the rules of PT quantum mechanics, the energy spectrum is real and bounded below and all of the quantum states have positive norm

  15. Enhanced anti-proliferative efficacy of epothilone B loaded with Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 bacterial ghosts on the HeLa cells by mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenxing; Hao, Lujiang; Liu, Xinli; Orlando, Borrás-Hidalgo; Zhang, Yuyu

    2018-03-20

    Epothilones constitute a new class of microtubule-stabilizing anti-cancer agents with promising preclinical and clinical activity. However, its systemic application still causes some toxic side effects. To reduce these undesired effects, advanced drug delivery systems based on cell targeting carriers are needed currently. In this study, the high quality bacterial ghosts of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) were prepared in a large scale and retained fully intact surface structures for specific attachment to mammalian cells. The EcN ghosts could be efficiently loaded with the low hydrophilic drug Epothilone B (Epo B) and the maximal load efficiency was approximately 2.5% (w/w). Cytotoxicity assays revealed that Epo B-ghosts exhibited enhanced anti-proliferative properties on the HeLa cells. The Epo B associated with EcN ghosts was more cytotoxic at least 10 times than the free Epo B at the same concentrations. Apoptosis assays showed that both Epo B-ghosts and free Epo B induced time course-dependent apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells, respectively. While the former induced more apoptosis and necrosis than the latter. Furthermore, the cytochrome C release and the activation of caspase-3 were more remarkable after treatment with the Epo B-ghosts compared to the free Epo B, which implied that Epo B-ghosts might more effectively induce the apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial pathway in HeLa cells. Therefore, the higher anti-proliferative effects of the Epo B-ghosts on the HeLa cells were mediated by mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The EcN ghosts may provide a useful drug delivery carrier for drug candidates in cancer therapy.

  16. THE REPRESENTATION OF THE GHOST ARCHETYPE IN THE CANTERVILLE GHOST BY OSCAR WILDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaryan Agata Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the actual interdisciplinary problems of modern cognitive linguistics, psychology, literary criticism and is related to the study of the archetypal representations of ethnicity and changes reflected in the linguistic consciousness. These changes are mainly influenced by the works of fiction and the role of writer's worldview in their formation. Guided by the thesis of universality of the archetypes, the author mentions that though the archetype represents the inherent characteristics of certain ethnic and cultural space, it retains the features which make an image recognizable at all times. By this fact the author explains the existence of beliefs in ghosts with different embodiments in all cultures. The awakening of the archetype is caused by certain historical events, i.e. the revival and further embodiment of the ghost archetype was the result of reversion to the cultural heritage during the Victorian England. The complex analysis of the means of speech representation that called up the realization of the ghost archetype in Oscar Wilde's short story The Canterville Ghost allowed to reveal that alongside with features that constitute the archetypal nature of ghosts in general, there appear the ones peculiar to the author's individual worldview, which either complement or change the existing notions about this being from another world.

  17. Witten's ghost vertex made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    First, we diagonalize the bc-ghost 3-string Neumann matrices using the technique described in Phys. Rev. D 68, 066003 (2003). Their eigenvalues are in complete agreement with the previous authors. Second, we diagonalize the N-string gluing vertices for the bosonized ghost system. Third, we verify the descent and associativity relations for the combined bosonic matter+ghost gluing vertices. We find that in order for these relations to be true, the vertices must be normalized by the factor Z N . Here Z N is the partition function of the bosonic matter+ghost CFT on the gluing surface, which is the unit disk with the Neumann boundary conditions and the midpoint conelike singularity specified by the angle excess π(N-2)

  18. Fast ghost imaging and ghost encryption based on the discrete cosine transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanha, Mehrdad; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Kheradmand, Reza

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the discrete cosine transform as an advanced compression tool for images in computational ghost imaging. A novel approach to fast imaging and encryption, the discrete cosine transform, promotes the security level of ghost images and reduces the image retrieval time. To discuss the advantages of this technique we compare experimental outcomes with simulated ones. (paper)

  19. Ground states of the massless Derezinski-Gerard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    We consider the massless Derezinski-Gerard model introduced by Derezinski and Gerard in 1999. We give a sufficient condition for the existence of a ground state of the massless Derezinski-Gerard model without the assumption that the Hamiltonian of particles has compact resolvent.

  20. The Color Antisymmetric Ghost Propagator and One-Loop Vertex Renormalization

    OpenAIRE

    Furui, Sadataka

    2007-01-01

    The color matrix elements of the ghost triangle diagram that appears in the triple gluon vertex and the ghost-ghost-gluon triangle diagram that appears in the ghost-gluon-ghost vertex are calculated. The ghost-ghost-gluon triangle contains a loop consisting of two color diagonal ghosts and one gluon and a loop consisting of two color antisymmetric ghosts and one gluon. Consequently, the pQCD argument in the infrared region based on the one particle irreducible diagram should be modified. Impl...

  1. Stochastic massless fields I: Integer spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.

    1981-04-01

    Nelson's stochastic quantization scheme is applied to classical massless tensor potential in ''Coulomb'' gauge. The relationship between stochastic potential field in various gauges is discussed using the case of vector potential as an illustration. It is possible to identify the Euclidean tensor potential with the corresponding stochastic field in physical Minkowski space-time. Stochastic quantization of massless fields can also be carried out in terms of field strength tensors. An example of linearized stochastic gravitational field in vacuum is given. (author)

  2. Massless representations and admissibility condition for higher spin superalgebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstein, S E; Vasiliev, M A

    1989-01-16

    Massless particle representations of various infinite-dimensional higher spin superalgebras proposed previously are constructed. We analyse which of higher spin superalgebras obey the requirement (the admissibility condition) of possessing massless unitary representations with the same spectra of spins as predicted by the structure of gauge fields originating from these superalgebras. It is argued that those higher spin superalgebras, which obey the admissibility condition, can serve as rigid supersymmetries in nontrivial consistent gauge theories of massless fields of all spins.

  3. Ghost-in-the-Machine reveals human social signals for human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Jettka, Katharina; Giuliani, Manuel; de Ruiter, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    We used a new method called "Ghost-in-the-Machine" (GiM) to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognize the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognizers. Specifically, we measured which recognizer modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar) were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behavior necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognizers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognizers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer's requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human-robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience.

  4. Ghost-in-the-Machine reveals human social signals for human–robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Jettka, Katharina; Giuliani, Manuel; de Ruiter, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    We used a new method called “Ghost-in-the-Machine” (GiM) to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognize the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognizers. Specifically, we measured which recognizer modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar) were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behavior necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognizers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognizers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer’s requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human–robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience. PMID:26582998

  5. Partially-massless higher-spin algebras and their finite-dimensional truncations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Euihun; Mkrtchyan, Karapet

    2016-01-01

    The global symmetry algebras of partially-massless (PM) higher-spin (HS) fields in (A)dS d+1 are studied. The algebras involving PM generators up to depth 2 (ℓ−1) are defined as the maximal symmetries of free conformal scalar field with 2 ℓ order wave equation in d dimensions. We review the construction of these algebras by quotienting certain ideals in the universal enveloping algebra of (A)dS d+1 isometries. We discuss another description in terms of Howe duality and derive the formula for computing trace in these algebras. This enables us to explicitly calculate the bilinear form for this one-parameter family of algebras. In particular, the bilinear form shows the appearance of additional ideal for any non-negative integer values of ℓ−d/2 , which coincides with the annihilator of the one-row ℓ-box Young diagram representation of so d+2 . Hence, the corresponding finite-dimensional coset algebra spanned by massless and PM generators is equivalent to the symmetries of this representation.

  6. The color antisymmetric ghost propagator and one-loop vertex renormalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furui, Sadataka

    2008-01-01

    The color matrix elements of the ghost triangle diagram that appears in the triple gluon vertex and the ghost-ghost-gluon triangle diagram that appears in the ghost-gluon-ghost vertex are calculated. The ghost-ghost-gluon triangle contains a loop consisting of two color diagonal ghosts and one gluon and a loop consisting of two color antisymmetric ghosts and one gluon. Consequently, the pQCD argument in the infrared region based on the one particle irreducible diagram should be modified. Implications for the Kugo-Ojima color confinement and the QCD running coupling are discussed. (author)

  7. Partially massless graviton on beyond Einstein spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Hinterbichler, Kurt; von Strauss, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    We show that a partially massless graviton can propagate on a large set of spacetimes which are not Einstein spacetimes. Starting from a recently constructed theory for a massive graviton that propagates the correct number of degrees of freedom on an arbitrary spacetime, we first give the full explicit form of the scalar constraint responsible for the absence of a sixth degree of freedom. We then spell out generic conditions for the constraint to be identically satisfied, so that there is a scalar gauge symmetry which makes the graviton partially massless. These simplify if one assumes that spacetime is Ricci symmetric. Under this assumption, we find explicit non-Einstein spacetimes (some, but not all, with vanishing Bach tensors) allowing for the propagation of a partially massless graviton. These include in particular the Einstein static Universe.

  8. Inflation with light Weyl ghost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokareva Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflationary perturbations are considered in a renormalizable but non-unitary theory of gravity with the additional Weyl term. We obtained that ghost degrees of freedom do not spoil the inflation and the scalar perturbation amplitude at the linear level even in a case of the ghost with mass smaller than Hubble parameter at inflation. The ghost impact to the observables is also estimated to be negligible for the range of masses allowed by the experiment. The non-linear level of the theory and its possible application are also discussed.

  9. Using Ghost Reflections Rather than Removing Them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, G.; Berkhout, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In marine acquisition both a direct wavefield and a ghost wavefield are produced as well as recorded. Hence, the seismic data can be considered to be a natural blend of four wavefields related to the real sources, ghost sources, real detectors and ghost detectors respectively. We consider deghosting

  10. Accretion of Ghost Condensate by Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A

    2004-06-02

    The intent of this letter is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as tenth of a solar mass per second for 10MeV-scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.

  11. Infrared divergences of Green functions and renormalization in massless theories. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, S.A.; Zav'yalova, O.I.; Karchev, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    General theorems are proved concerning the infrared finiteness of Green functions in theories including massless particles. Considerations are based on α-representation of Feynman diagrams. Necessory conditions are considered for proving theorems in the case of diagrams with massive lines. Under certain conditions the contribution of the considered sections into the Feynman amplitude is shown to be free from infrared divergences, but only for those subgraphs which involve all the massive lines and contain all the outer vertexes in one affinity component

  12. Massless scalar field in de Sitter spacetime: unitary quantum time evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Blas, Daniel Martín-de; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M

    2013-01-01

    We prove that, under the standard conformal scaling, a free scalar field in de Sitter spacetime admits an O(4)-invariant Fock quantization such that time evolution is unitarily implemented. Since this applies in particular to the massless case, this result disproves previous claims in the literature. We discuss the relationship between this quantization with unitary dynamics and the family of O(4)-invariant Hadamard states given by Allen and Folacci, as well as with the Bunch–Davies vacuum. (paper)

  13. Correspondence between quantum gauge theories without ghost fields and their covariantly quantized theories with ghost fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hung; Tsai Ercheng

    1986-01-01

    We give a correspondence formula which equates transition amplitudes in a quantum gauge field theory without ghost fields to those in a quantum theory with the gauge fields covariantly quantized and coupled to ghost fields. (orig.)

  14. Infra-red ghost contribution to the gluon Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paccanoni, F.

    1985-01-01

    The Schwinger-Dyson equations for the ghost propagator and the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex function are studied in the Landau gauge. A confining infra-red singularity is assumed for the gluon propagator and a suitable approximation is devised for the solution of the integral equations. It is found that the bare values of the ghost propagator and coupling cannot be a consistent solution of either equation. It is determined a possible behaviour of the correction factor for the ghost propagator in the small-momentum limit and discussed the consistency of the approximation schemes for the gluon propagator that neglet Faddeev-Popov ghost

  15. Ghost quintessence in fractal gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, using the time-like fractal theory of gravity, we mainly focus on the ghost dark energy model which was recently suggested to explain the present acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Next, we establish a connection between the quintessence scalar field and fractal ghost dark energy density.

  16. Observability of complex ghosts and tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The complex ghost introduced previously by the present author is studied from a standpoint whether its effects are observable by experiments or not. According to the theory of complex ghost the scattering cross section of two real particles shows some particular properties. It has a kind of resonance peak at a certain energy which does not conform to the Breit-Wigner formula. It has also a peak for a certain energy transfer, if there exist tachyons. The tachyon is a kind of ghost and is allowed to exist in the theory. Using these properties the complex ghosts are expected to be detected by experiments. The recently observed resonance psi(3.1) is supposed to be the complex ghost of photon, since they have the same quantum numbers. If it is assumed, some properties of the resonance known by experiments are explained naturally to a certain extent. Along the same line it is not unnatural to expect that the photon is also accompanied by a tachyon as a ghost. An experiment to detect the tachyon is proposed. If the angular distribution of elastic electron-positron or electron-electron scattering is observed at a suitably high energy, then a peak will be found in the domain -1< cos theta<1, where it is assumed that the exchanged photon accompanies a tachyon. (auth.)

  17. Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2018-02-15

    By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.

  18. Partially massless higher-spin theory II: one-loop effective actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brust, Christopher [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hinterbichler, Kurt [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University,10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States)

    2017-01-30

    We continue our study of a generalization of the D-dimensional linearized Vasiliev higher-spin equations to include a tower of partially massless (PM) fields. We compute one-loop effective actions by evaluating zeta functions for both the “minimal” and “non-minimal” parity-even versions of the theory. Specifically, we compute the log-divergent part of the effective action in odd-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=7 through 19 (dual to the a-type conformal anomaly of the dual boundary theory), and the finite part of the effective action in even-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=4 through 8 (dual to the free energy on a sphere of the dual boundary theory). We pay special attention to the case D=4, where module mixings occur in the dual field theory and subtlety arises in the one-loop computation. The results provide evidence that the theory is UV complete and one-loop exact, and we conjecture and provide evidence for a map between the inverse Newton’s constant of the partially massless higher-spin theory and the number of colors in the dual CFT.

  19. Partially massless higher-spin theory II: one-loop effective actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We continue our study of a generalization of the D-dimensional linearized Vasiliev higher-spin equations to include a tower of partially massless (PM) fields. We compute one-loop effective actions by evaluating zeta functions for both the “minimal” and “non-minimal” parity-even versions of the theory. Specifically, we compute the log-divergent part of the effective action in odd-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=7 through 19 (dual to the a-type conformal anomaly of the dual boundary theory), and the finite part of the effective action in even-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=4 through 8 (dual to the free energy on a sphere of the dual boundary theory). We pay special attention to the case D=4, where module mixings occur in the dual field theory and subtlety arises in the one-loop computation. The results provide evidence that the theory is UV complete and one-loop exact, and we conjecture and provide evidence for a map between the inverse Newton’s constant of the partially massless higher-spin theory and the number of colors in the dual CFT.

  20. Modular structure of the local algebras associated with the free massless scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hislop, P.D.; Longo, R.

    1982-01-01

    The modular structure of the von Neuman algebra of local observables associated with a double cone in the vacuum representation of the free massless scalar field theory of any number of dimensions is described. The modular automorphism group is induced by the unitary implementation of a family of generalized fractional linear transformations on Minkowski space and is a subgroup of the conformal group. The modular conjugation operator is the anti-unitary impementation of a product of time reversal and relativistic ray inversion. The group generated by the modular conjugation operators for the local algebras associated with the family of double cone regions is the group of proper conformal transformations. A theorem is presented asserting the unitary equivalence of local algebras associated with lightcones, double cones and wedge regions. For the double cone algebras, this provides an explicitly realization of spacelike duality and establishes the known type III 1 factor property. It is shown that the timelike duality property of the lightcone algebras does not hold for the double cone algebras. A different definition of the von Neumann algebras associated with a region is introduced which agrees with the standard one for a lightcone or a double cone region but which allows the timelike duality property for the double cone algebras. In the case of one spatial dimension, the standard local algebras associated with the double cone regions satisfy both specelike and timelike duality. (orig.)

  1. Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Dam, H. van

    1970-01-01

    Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields are considered. It is found that there is a discrete difference between the zero-mass theories and the very small, but non-zero mass theories. In the case of gravitation, comparison of massive and mass-less theories with experiment, in

  2. Are ghost surfaces quadratic-flux-minimizing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Dewar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Two candidates for 'almost-invariant' toroidal surfaces passing through magnetic islands, namely quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFMin) surfaces and ghost surfaces, use families of periodic pseudo-orbits (i.e. paths for which the action is not exactly extremal). QFMin pseudo-orbits, which are coordinate-dependent, are field lines obtained from a modified magnetic field, and ghost-surface pseudo-orbits are obtained by displacing closed field lines in the direction of steepest descent of magnetic action, ∫A.dl. A generalized Hamiltonian definition of ghost surfaces is given and specialized to the usual Lagrangian definition. A modified Hamilton's Principle is introduced that allows the use of Lagrangian integration for calculation of the QFMin pseudo-orbits. Numerical calculations show QFMin and Lagrangian ghost surfaces give very similar results for a chaotic magnetic field perturbed from an integrable case, and this is explained using a perturbative construction of an auxiliary poloidal angle for which QFMin and Lagrangian ghost surfaces are the same up to second order. While presented in the context of 3-dimensional magnetic field line systems, the concepts are applicable to defining almost-invariant tori in other 11/2 degree-of-freedom nonintegrable Lagrangian/Hamiltonian systems.

  3. Ghost number anomaly in the Polyakov's light-cone gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi.

    1990-06-01

    The conformal (Weyl) anomaly of the ghost-anti-ghost system in the two-dimentional quantum gravity is calculated. A background covariant formalism allows us to treat the Polyakov's light-cone gauge in a systematic way. The anomaly gives a contribution to the central charge, -28, which agrees with the result of Kniznik, Polyakov and Zamolodchikov. The ghost number anomaly is also calculated, and the metric corrections to the naive ghost number current are given. It is suggested that a general scalar density in the light-cone gauge carries a screening ghost number. (author)

  4. Phantom dark ghost in Einstein-Cartan gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu-Chiao [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, LeCosPA, Taipei (China); Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao (Spain); Basque Foundation for Science, IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan University, Department of Physics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, LeCosPA, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Astrophysics, Taipei (China); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A class of dynamical dark energy models is constructed through an extended version of fermion fields corresponding to phantom dark ghost spinors, which are spin 1/2 with mass dimension 1. We find that if these spinors interact with torsion fields in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, then it does not imply any future dark energy singularity or any abrupt event, though the fermion has a negative kinetic energy. In fact, the equation of state of this dark energy model will asymptotically approach the value w = -1 from above without crossing the phantom divide and inducing therefore a de Sitter state. Consequently, we expect the model to be stable because no real phantom fields will be created. At late time, the torsion fields will vanish as the corresponding phantom dark ghost spinors dilute. As would be expected, intuitively, this result is unaffected by the presence of cold dark matter although the proof is not as straightforward as in general relativity. (orig.)

  5. Accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Andrei V.

    2004-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as a tenth of a solar mass per second for 10 MeV scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model

  6. Mass generation in perturbed massless integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controzzi, D.; Mussardo, G.

    2005-01-01

    We extend form-factor perturbation theory to non-integrable deformations of massless integrable models, in order to address the problem of mass generation in such systems. With respect to the standard renormalisation group analysis this approach is more suitable for studying the particle content of the perturbed theory. Analogously to the massive case, interesting information can be obtained already at first order, such as the identification of the operators which create a mass gap and those which induce the confinement of the massless particles in the perturbed theory

  7. Tensor ghosts in the inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clunan, Tim; Sasaki, Misao

    2010-01-01

    Theories with curvature-squared terms in the action are known to contain ghost modes in general. However, if we regard curvature-squared terms as quantum corrections to the original theory, the emergence of ghosts may be simply due to the perturbative truncation of a full non-perturbative theory. If this is the case, there should be a way to live with ghosts. In this paper, we take the Euclidean path integral approach, in which ghost degrees of freedom can be, and are integrated out in the Euclideanized spacetime. We apply this procedure to Einstein gravity with a Weyl curvature-squared correction in the inflationary background. We find that the amplitude of tensor perturbations is modified by a term of O(α 2 H 2 ) where α 2 is a coupling constant in front of the Weyl-squared term and H is the Hubble parameter during inflation.

  8. The Weinberg-Witten theorem on massless particles: an essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbert, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this essay we deal with the Weinberg-Witten theorem which imposes limitations on massless particles. First we motivate a classification of massless particles given by the Poincare group as the symmetry group of Minkowski spacetime. We then use the fundamental structure of the background in the form of Poincare covariance to derive restrictions on charged massless particles known as the Weinberg-Witten theorem. We address possible misunderstandings in the proof of this theorem motivated by several papers on this topic. In the last section the consequences of the theorem are discussed. We treat it in the context of known particles and as a constraint for emergent theories. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. High visibility temporal ghost imaging with classical light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbin; Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Hui; Zheng, Huaibin; Liu, Yanyan; Zhou, Yu; Li, Fu-li; Xu, Zhuo

    2018-03-01

    High visibility temporal ghost imaging with classical light is possible when superbunching pseudothermal light is employed. In the numerical simulation, the visibility of temporal ghost imaging with pseudothermal light, equaling (4 . 7 ± 0 . 2)%, can be increased to (75 ± 8)% in the same scheme with superbunching pseudothermal light. The reasons for that the retrieved images are different for superbunching pseudothermal light with different values of degree of second-order coherence are discussed in detail. It is concluded that high visibility and high quality temporal ghost image can be obtained by collecting sufficient number of data points. The results are helpful to understand the difference between ghost imaging with classical light and entangled photon pairs. The superbunching pseudothermal light can be employed to improve the image quality in ghost imaging applications.

  10. Ghost imaging with third-order correlated thermal light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, L-H; Kuang, L-M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a ghost imaging scheme with third-order correlated thermal light. We show that it is possible to produce the spatial information of an object at two different places in a nonlocal fashion by means of a third-order correlated imaging process with a third-order correlated thermal source and third-order correlation measurement. Concretely, we propose a protocol to create two ghost images at two different places from one object. This protocol involves two optical configurations. We derive the Gaussian thin lens equations and plot the geometrical optics of the ghost imaging processes for the two configurations. It is indicated that third-order correlated ghost imaging with thermal light exhibits richer correlated imaging effects than second-order correlated ghost imaging with thermal light

  11. Could a Weak Coupling Massless SU(5) Theory Underly the Standard Model S-Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alan R.

    2011-04-01

    The unitary Critical Pomeron connects to a unique massless left-handed SU(5) theory that, remarkably, might provide an unconventional underlying unification for the Standard Model. Multi-regge theory suggests the existence of a bound-state high-energy S-Matrix that replicates Standard Model states and interactions via massless fermion anomaly dynamics. Configurations of anomalous wee gauge boson reggeons play a vacuum-like role. All particles, including neutrinos, are bound-states with dynamical masses (there is no Higgs field) that are formed (in part) by anomaly poles. The contributing zero-momentum chirality transitions break the SU(5) symmetry to vector SU(3)⊗U(1) in the S-Matrix. The high-energy interactions are vector reggeon exchanges accompanied by wee boson sums (odd-signature for the strong interaction and even-signature for the electroweak interaction) that strongly enhance couplings. The very small SU(5) coupling, αQUD ≲ 1/120, should be reflected in small (Majorana) neutrino masses. A color sextet quark sector, still to be discovered, produces both Dark Matter and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking. Anomaly color factors imply this sector could be produced at the LHC with large cross-sections, and would be definitively identified in double pomeron processes.

  12. Ghost properties of generalized theories of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.; Moffat, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    We investigate theories of gravitation, in which spacetime is non-Riemannian and the metric g/sub munu/ is nonsymmetric, for ghosts and tachyons, using a spin-projection operator formalism. Ghosts are removed not by gauge invariance but by a Lagrange multiplier W/sub μ/, which occurs due to the breaking of projective invariance in the theory. Unified theories based on a Lagrangian containing a term lambdag/sup munu/g/sub / are proved to contain ghosts or tachyons

  13. Involution Requirement on a Boundary Makes Massless Fermions Compactified on a Finite Flat Disk Mass Protected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoč Borštnik, N. S.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2006-12-01

    The genuine Kaluza-Klein-like theories--with no fields in addition to gravity--have difficulties with the existence of massless spinors after the compactification of some space dimensions \\cite{witten}. We proposed (Phys. Lett. B 633 (2006)771) such a boundary condition for spinors in 1+5 compactified on a flat disk that ensures masslessness of spinors in d=1+3 as well as their chiral coupling to the corresponding background gauge field (which solves equations of motion for a free field linear in the Riemann curvature). In this paper we study the same toy model: M^{(1+3)} x M^{(2)}, looking this time for an involution which transforms a space of solutions of Weyl equations in d=1+5 from the outside of the flat disk in x^5 and x^6 into its inside, allowing massless spinor of only one handedness--and accordingly assures mass protection--and of one charge--1/2--and infinitely many massive spinors of the same charge, chirally coupled to the corresponding background gauge field. We reformulate the operator of momentum so that it is Hermitean on the vector space of spinor states obeying the involution boundary condition.

  14. The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.

    2011-01-01

    We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until 'forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.

  15. Perturbative Yang-Mills theory without Faddeev-Popov ghost fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffel, Helmuth; Markovic, Danijel

    2018-05-01

    A modified Faddeev-Popov path integral density for the quantization of Yang-Mills theory in the Feynman gauge is discussed, where contributions of the Faddeev-Popov ghost fields are replaced by multi-point gauge field interactions. An explicit calculation to O (g2) shows the equivalence of the usual Faddeev-Popov scheme and its modified version.

  16. Macroscopic (and microscopic massless modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Abbott

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study certain spinning strings exploring the flat directions of AdS3×S3×S3×S1, the massless sector cousins of su(2 and sl(2 sector spinning strings. We describe these, and their vibrational modes, using the D(2,1;α2 algebraic curve. By exploiting a discrete symmetry of this structure which reverses the direction of motion on the spheres, and alters the masses of the fermionic modes s→κ−s, we find out how to treat the massless fermions which were previously missing from this formalism. We show that folded strings behave as a special case of circular strings, in a sense which includes their mode frequencies, and we are able to recover this fact in the worldsheet formalism. We use these frequencies to calculate one-loop corrections to the energy, with a version of the Beisert–Tseytlin resummation.

  17. Lensless ghost imaging through the strongly scattering medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhe; Zhao Xueliang; Li Junlin; Zhao Lianjie; Qin Wei

    2016-01-01

    Lensless ghost imaging has attracted much interest in recent years due to its profound physics and potential applications. In this paper we report studies of the robust properties of the lensless ghost imaging system with a pseudo-thermal light source in a strongly scattering medium. The effects of the positions of the strong medium on the ghost imaging are investigated. In the lensless ghost imaging system, a pseudo-thermal light is split into two correlated beams by a beam splitter. One beam goes to a charge-coupled detector camera, labeled as CCD2. The other beam goes to an object and then is collected in another charge-coupled detector camera, labeled as CCD1, which serves as a bucket detector. When the strong medium, a pane of ground glass disk, is placed between the object and CCD1, the bucket detector, the quality of ghost imaging is barely affected and a good image could still be obtained. The quality of the ghost imaging can also be maintained, even when the ground glass is rotating, which is the strongest scattering medium so far. However, when the strongly scattering medium is present in the optical path from the light source to CCD2 or the object, the lensless ghost imaging system hardly retrieves the image of the object. A theoretical analysis in terms of the second-order correlation function is also provided. (paper)

  18. Ghost imaging and ghost diffraction with pseudo-thermal light generated by means of a programmable SLM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capeluto, M G; Schmiegelow, C T; Francisco, D; Ledesma, S; Iemmi, C; Duisterwinkel, H

    2011-01-01

    Ghost imaging and ghost diffraction are techniques in which information about the object or about its diffraction pattern is extracted by measuring the correlation between a reference beam and a beam that passes through the object. Although first experiments were carried on by using entangled photons, it was demonstrated that this technique can be performed by splitting incoherent pseudo-thermal radiation such as that obtained with a laser passing through a moving diffuser. In this work we implemented the use of a programmable phase spatial light modulator (SLM) in order to replace the rotating ground glass. In this way the random phase distributions obtained from the moving diffuser can be emulated by displaying onto the SLM different realizations of a random function with uniform distribution. Based on the programmability of the modulator we have studied the influence of diverse parameters such as speckle size or phase distributions in the final image quality. We carry on the experiment for two different cases ghost imaging and far field ghost diffraction.

  19. Ghost marker detection and elimination in marker-based optical tracking systems for real-time tracking in stereotactic body radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Guanghua; Li, Jonathan; Huang, Yin; Mittauer, Kathryn; Lu, Bo; Liu, Chihray

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a simple model to explain the origin of ghost markers in marker-based optical tracking systems (OTS) and to develop retrospective strategies to detect and eliminate ghost markers. Methods: In marker-based OTS, ghost markers are virtual markers created due to the cross-talk between the two camera sensors, which can lead to system execution failure or inaccuracy in patient tracking. As a result, the users have to limit the number of markers and avoid certain marker configurations to reduce the chances of ghost markers. In this work, the authors propose retrospective strategies to detect and eliminate ghost markers. The two camera sensors were treated as mathematical points in space. The authors identified the coplanar within limit (CWL) condition as the necessary condition for ghost marker occurrence. A simple ghost marker detection method was proposed based on the model. Ghost marker elimination was achieved through pattern matching: a ghost marker-free reference set was matched with the optical marker set observed by the OTS; unmatched optical markers were eliminated as either ghost markers or misplaced markers. The pattern matching problem was formulated as a constraint satisfaction problem (using pairwise distances as constraints) and solved with an iterative backtracking algorithm. Wildcard markers were introduced to address missing or misplaced markers. An experiment was designed to measure the sensor positions and the limit for the CWL condition. The ghost marker detection and elimination algorithms were verified with samples collected from a five-marker jig and a nine-marker anthropomorphic phantom, rotated with the treatment couch from −60° to +60°. The accuracy of the pattern matching algorithm was further validated with marker patterns from 40 patients who underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). For this purpose, a synthetic optical marker pattern was created for each patient by introducing ghost markers, marker position

  20. Ghost marker detection and elimination in marker-based optical tracking systems for real-time tracking in stereotactic body radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanghua, E-mail: yan@ufl.edu; Li, Jonathan; Huang, Yin; Mittauer, Kathryn; Lu, Bo; Liu, Chihray [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To propose a simple model to explain the origin of ghost markers in marker-based optical tracking systems (OTS) and to develop retrospective strategies to detect and eliminate ghost markers. Methods: In marker-based OTS, ghost markers are virtual markers created due to the cross-talk between the two camera sensors, which can lead to system execution failure or inaccuracy in patient tracking. As a result, the users have to limit the number of markers and avoid certain marker configurations to reduce the chances of ghost markers. In this work, the authors propose retrospective strategies to detect and eliminate ghost markers. The two camera sensors were treated as mathematical points in space. The authors identified the coplanar within limit (CWL) condition as the necessary condition for ghost marker occurrence. A simple ghost marker detection method was proposed based on the model. Ghost marker elimination was achieved through pattern matching: a ghost marker-free reference set was matched with the optical marker set observed by the OTS; unmatched optical markers were eliminated as either ghost markers or misplaced markers. The pattern matching problem was formulated as a constraint satisfaction problem (using pairwise distances as constraints) and solved with an iterative backtracking algorithm. Wildcard markers were introduced to address missing or misplaced markers. An experiment was designed to measure the sensor positions and the limit for the CWL condition. The ghost marker detection and elimination algorithms were verified with samples collected from a five-marker jig and a nine-marker anthropomorphic phantom, rotated with the treatment couch from −60° to +60°. The accuracy of the pattern matching algorithm was further validated with marker patterns from 40 patients who underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). For this purpose, a synthetic optical marker pattern was created for each patient by introducing ghost markers, marker position

  1. Phase-Sensitive Coherence and the Classical-Quantum Boundary in Ghost Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of partial coherence has a long and storied history in classical statistical optics. the vast majority of this work addresses fields that are statistically stationary in time, hence their complex envelopes only have phase-insensitive correlations. The quantum optics of squeezed-state generation, however, depends on nonlinear interactions producing baseband field operators with phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive correlations. Utilizing quantum light to enhance imaging has been a topic of considerable current interest, much of it involving biphotons, i.e., streams of entangled-photon pairs. Biphotons have been employed for quantum versions of optical coherence tomography, ghost imaging, holography, and lithography. However, their seemingly quantum features have been mimicked with classical-sate light, questioning wherein lies the classical-quantum boundary. We have shown, for the case of Gaussian-state light, that this boundary is intimately connected to the theory of phase-sensitive partial coherence. Here we present that theory, contrasting it with the familiar case of phase-insensitive partial coherence, and use it to elucidate the classical-quantum boundary of ghost imaging. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that classical phase-sensitive light produces ghost imaging most closely mimicking those obtained in biphotons, and we derived the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of a standoff-sensing ghost imager, taking into account target-induced speckle.

  2. The trace anomaly and massless scalar degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, Maurizio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mottola, Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The trace anomaly of quantum fields in electromagnetic or gravitational backgrounds implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. Considering first the axial anomaly and using QED as an example, we compute the full one-loop triangle amplitude of the fermionic stress tensor with two current vertices, {open_square}T{sup {mu}{nu}}J{sup {alpha}}J{sup {beta}}, and exhibit the scalar pole in this amplitude associated with the trace anomaly, in the limit of zero electron mass m{yields}0. To emphasize the infrared aspect of the anomaly, we use a dispersive approach and show that this amplitude and the existence of the massless scalar pole is determined completely by its ultraviolet finite terms, together with the requirements of Poincare invariance of the vacuum, Bose symmetry under interchange of J{sup {alpha}} and J{sup {beta}}, and vector current and stress-tensor conservation. We derive a sum rule for the appropriate positive spectral function corresponding to the discontinuity of the triangle amplitude, showing that it becomes proportional to {delta}(k{sup 2}) and therefore contains a massless scalar intermediate state in the conformal limit of zero electron mass. The effective action corresponding to the trace of the triangle amplitude can be expressed in local form by the introduction of two scalar auxiliary fields which satisfy massless wave equations. These massless scalar degrees of freedom couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects.

  3. Beam Dumping Ghost Signals in Electric Sweep Scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates

  4. Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.; SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; SNS Project, Oak Ridge

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure loW--energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates

  5. Conservation of lepton charges, massive majorana and massless neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcov, S.T.; Toshev, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the necessary and sufficient condition for the presence of k massless and (n-k) massive nondegenerate Majorana neutrinos in a theory with n neutrino flavours and a neutrino mass term of Majorana type is the existence of k standard and no other conserved lepton charges. Two-loop Majorana mass corrections for neutrinos, massless at tree level, are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  6. Confessions of Academic Ghost Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shahghasemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic plagiarism exists in all academic spheres, but contextual factors determine the level, intensity, and forms of it. Over the last few years, the phenomenon of “Ghost Authorship” has become widespread in Iran, and concerns have been expressed regarding this issue, not only by academicians but also by officials. In this study, 143 students participated in a two-step interview study in which they spoke about their experiences on either seeing a ghost author doing the research of someone else in exchange of money or they themselves being a ghost author. In all, 29 students said that they had done it once or so. The in-depth interviews with these 29 students showed how the plagiarism industry works in Iran, who the customers are, how they find each other, and so on.

  7. Wormhole solutions with a complex ghost scalar field and their instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta

    2018-01-01

    We study compact configurations with a nontrivial wormholelike spacetime topology supported by a complex ghost scalar field with a quartic self-interaction. For this case, we obtain regular asymptotically flat equilibrium solutions possessing reflection symmetry. We then show their instability with respect to linear radial perturbations.

  8. High-quality compressive ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heyan; Zhou, Cheng; Tian, Tian; Liu, Dongqi; Song, Lijun

    2018-04-01

    We propose a high-quality compressive ghost imaging method based on projected Landweber regularization and guided filter, which effectively reduce the undersampling noise and improve the resolution. In our scheme, the original object is reconstructed by decomposing of regularization and denoising steps instead of solving a minimization problem in compressive reconstruction process. The simulation and experimental results show that our method can obtain high ghost imaging quality in terms of PSNR and visual observation.

  9. Infrared Behavior of Gluon and Ghost Propagators in Landau Gauge QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Smekal, L.; Hauck, A.; Alkofer, R.

    1997-01-01

    A truncation scheme for the Dyson-Schwinger equations of Euclidean QCD in Landau gauge is presented. It implements the Slavnov-Taylor identities for the three-gluon and ghost-gluon vertices, whereas irreducible four-gluon couplings as well as the gluon-ghost and ghost-ghost scattering kernels are neglected. The infrared behavior of gluon and ghost propagators is obtained analytically: The gluon propagator vanishes for small momenta, whereas the ghost propagator diverges strongly. The numerical solutions are compared with recent lattice results. The running coupling approaches a fixed point, α c ≅9.5 , in the infrared. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Half-integer ghost states and simple BRST quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnelius, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quantum mechanical BRST systems are considered. As is well known an odd number of ghost operators has a representation with respect to the ghost number operator consisting of states with half-integer ghost numbers. Here it is shown that an eigenstate representation of the ghost operators requires a particular mixed Grassmann character of the states. It is also shown that such states always may be avoided provided only one starts from a lagrangian where the fundamental constraints are generated by Lagrange multipliers. In the latter case there also exists an anti-BRST charge. Some relevant properties of the different BRST approaches are displayed. The existence of inequivalent physical representations is demonstrated. (orig.)

  11. Ghost properties of algebraically extended theories of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, P.F.; Mann, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Recently a technique for extending general relativity called algebraic extension was shown to yield only five classes of gravitational theories (general relativity plus four extensions). The particle spectra of these theories are analysed and it is shown that only one of these extensions is ghost free. Two inequivalent theories are shown to result from this extension at the linearised level. One of these is the linearised version of Moffat's theory of gravitation; the other is a new theory which possesses an additional gauge invariance which has been associated with a closed string. (author)

  12. Quantum Prisoners' Dilemma in Fluctuating Massless Scalar Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming

    2017-12-01

    Quantum systems are easily affected by external environment. In this paper, we investigate the influences of external massless scalar field to quantum Prisoners' Dilemma (QPD) game. We firstly derive the master equation that describes the system evolution with initial maximally entangled state. Then, we discuss the effects of a fluctuating massless scalar field on the game's properties such as payoff, Nash equilibrium, and symmetry. We find that for different game strategies, vacuum fluctuation has different effects on payoff. Nash equilibrium is broken but the symmetry of the game is not violated.

  13. GHOST: global hepatitis outbreak and surveillance technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, Atkinson G; Sims, Seth; Rytsareva, Inna; Campo, David S; Skums, Pavel; Dimitrova, Zoya; Ramachandran, Sumathi; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Thai, Hong; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia; Lin, Yulin; Punkova, Lili T; Sue, Amanda; Mirabito, Massimo; Wang, Silver; Tracy, Robin; Bolet, Victor; Sukalac, Thom; Lynberg, Chris; Khudyakov, Yury

    2017-12-06

    Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters. Global Hepatitis Outbreak and Surveillance Technology (GHOST) is a cloud-based system enabling users, regardless of computational expertise, to analyze and visualize transmission clusters in an independent, accurate and reproducible way. We present and explore performance of several GHOST implemented algorithms using next-generation sequencing data experimentally obtained from hypervariable region 1 of genetically related and unrelated HCV strains. GHOST processes data from an entire MiSeq run in approximately 3 h. A panel of seven specimens was used for preparation of six repeats of MiSeq libraries. Testing sequence data from these libraries by GHOST showed a consistent transmission linkage detection, testifying to high reproducibility of the system. Lack of linkage among genetically unrelated HCV strains and constant detection of genetic linkage between HCV strains from known transmission pairs and from follow-up specimens at different levels of MiSeq-read sampling indicate high specificity and sensitivity of GHOST in accurate detection of HCV transmission. GHOST enables automatic extraction of timely and relevant public health information suitable for guiding effective intervention measures. It is designed as a virtual diagnostic system intended for use in molecular surveillance and outbreak investigations rather than in research. The system produces accurate and reproducible information on HCV transmission clusters for all users, irrespective of their level of bioinformatics

  14. Four loop massless propagators: An algebraic evaluation of all master integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikov, P.A.; Chetyrkin, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The old 'glue-and-cut' symmetry of massless propagators, first established in Ref. (Chetyrkin and Tkachov, 1981), leads -after reduction to master integrals is performed - to a host of non-trivial relations between the latter. The relations constrain the master integrals so tightly that they all can be analytically expressed in terms of only few, essentially trivial, watermelon-like integrals. As a consequence we arrive at explicit analytical results for all master integrals appearing in the process of reduction of massless propagators at three and four loops. The transcendental structure of the results suggests a clean explanation of the well-known mystery of the absence of even zetas (ζ 2n ) in the Adler function and other similar functions essentially reducible to massless propagators. Once a reduction of massless propagators at five loops is available, our approach should be also applicable for explicitly performing the corresponding five-loop master integrals.

  15. On massless representations of the Q-deformed Poincare algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.

    1993-01-01

    This talk is devoted to the construction of massless representations of the q-deformed Poincare algebra. In section 2 we give Hilbert space representations of the SL q (2, C)-covariant quantum space. We then show in the next section how the generators of the q-Poincare algebra can be expressed in terms of operators which live in the light cone. The q-deformed massless one-particle states are considered in section 4. (orig.)

  16. Towards numerical simulations of supersonic liquid jets using ghost fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Sahand; Afshari, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A ghost fluid method based solver is developed for numerical simulation of compressible multiphase flows. • The performance of the numerical tool is validated via several benchmark problems. • Emergence of supersonic liquid jets in quiescent gaseous environment is simulated using ghost fluid method for the first time. • Bow-shock formation ahead of the liquid jet is clearly observed in the obtained numerical results. • Radiation of mach waves from the phase-interface witnessed experimentally is evidently captured in our numerical simulations. - Abstract: A computational tool based on the ghost fluid method (GFM) is developed to study supersonic liquid jets involving strong shocks and contact discontinuities with high density ratios. The solver utilizes constrained reinitialization method and is capable of switching between the exact and approximate Riemann solvers to increase the robustness. The numerical methodology is validated through several benchmark test problems; these include one-dimensional multiphase shock tube problem, shock–bubble interaction, air cavity collapse in water, and underwater-explosion. A comparison between our results and numerical and experimental observations indicate that the developed solver performs well investigating these problems. The code is then used to simulate the emergence of a supersonic liquid jet into a quiescent gaseous medium, which is the very first time to be studied by a ghost fluid method. The results of simulations are in good agreement with the experimental investigations. Also some of the famous flow characteristics, like the propagation of pressure-waves from the liquid jet interface and dependence of the Mach cone structure on the inlet Mach number, are reproduced numerically. The numerical simulations conducted here suggest that the ghost fluid method is an affordable and reliable scheme to study complicated interfacial evolutions in complex multiphase systems such as supersonic liquid

  17. Kaluza-Klein theories and the signature of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Volovich, I.V.

    1985-06-01

    Higher-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theories with extra compactified time-like variables are considered. Topological criteria are presented for a compact manifold which prevent the appearance of massless ghosts in an effective four-dimensional theory. Some models are given in which these criteria hold. Among them is the bosonic sector of the low-energy limit of the anomaly-free superstring theories. As a rule, the extra time-like variables lead to compactification with a compact hyperbolic manifold. (author)

  18. Massless gluino and pseudoscalar meson family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilga, A.V.; Vysotskij, M.I.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that masslessness of the glUino leads necessarily to the existence of the light isosinglet pseudoscalar boson not observed in experiment. Thus, any realistic supersymmetry model must include the mechanism for generating the gluino mass

  19. Time-dependent massless Dirac fermions in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khantoul, Boubakeur, E-mail: bobphys@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Jijel, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Fring, Andreas, E-mail: a.fring@city.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Using the Lewis–Riesenfeld method of invariants we construct explicit analytical solutions for the massless Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions describing quasi-particles in graphene. The Hamiltonian of the system considered contains some explicit time-dependence in addition to one resulting from being minimally coupled to a time-dependent vector potential. The eigenvalue equations for the two spinor components of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant are found to decouple into a pair of supersymmetric invariants in a similar fashion as the known decoupling for the time-independent Dirac Hamiltonians. - Highlights: • An explicit analytical solution for a massless 2+1 dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation is found. • All steps of the Lewis–Riesenfeld method have been carried out.

  20. ''Massless'' vector field in de Sitter universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garidi, T.; Gazeau, J.-P.; Rouhani, S.; Takook, M. V.

    2008-01-01

    We proceed to the quantization of the massless vector field in the de Sitter (dS) space. This work is the natural continuation of a previous article devoted to the quantization of the dS massive vector field [J. P. Gazeau and M. V. Takook, J. Math. Phys. 41, 5920 (2000); T. Garidi et al., ibid. 43, 6379 (2002).] The term ''massless'' is used by reference to conformal invariance and propagation on the dS lightcone whereas ''massive'' refers to those dS fields which unambiguously contract to Minkowskian massive fields at zero curvature. Due to the combined occurrences of gauge invariance and indefinite metric, the covariant quantization of the massless vector field requires an indecomposable representation of the de Sitter group. We work with the gauge fixing corresponding to the simplest Gupta-Bleuler structure. The field operator is defined with the help of coordinate-independent de Sitter waves (the modes). The latter are simple to manipulate and most adapted to group theoretical approaches. The physical states characterized by the divergencelessness condition are, for instance, easy to identify. The whole construction is based on analyticity requirements in the complexified pseudo-Riemannian manifold for the modes and the two-point function

  1. ``Massless'' vector field in de Sitter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidi, T.; Gazeau, J.-P.; Rouhani, S.; Takook, M. V.

    2008-03-01

    We proceed to the quantization of the massless vector field in the de Sitter (dS) space. This work is the natural continuation of a previous article devoted to the quantization of the dS massive vector field [J. P. Gazeau and M. V. Takook, J. Math. Phys. 41, 5920 (2000); T. Garidi et al., ibid. 43, 6379 (2002).] The term ``massless'' is used by reference to conformal invariance and propagation on the dS lightcone whereas ``massive'' refers to those dS fields which unambiguously contract to Minkowskian massive fields at zero curvature. Due to the combined occurrences of gauge invariance and indefinite metric, the covariant quantization of the massless vector field requires an indecomposable representation of the de Sitter group. We work with the gauge fixing corresponding to the simplest Gupta-Bleuler structure. The field operator is defined with the help of coordinate-independent de Sitter waves (the modes). The latter are simple to manipulate and most adapted to group theoretical approaches. The physical states characterized by the divergencelessness condition are, for instance, easy to identify. The whole construction is based on analyticity requirements in the complexified pseudo-Riemannian manifold for the modes and the two-point function.

  2. On the consistent interactions in D=11 among a graviton, a massless gravitino and a three-form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioroianu, E.M.; Diaconu, E.; Sararu, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    The couplings that can be introduced between a massless Rarita-Schwinger field, a Pauli-Fierz field and an Abelian three-form gauge field in eleven spacetime dimensions are analyzed in the context of the deformation of the solution of the master equation. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Four loop massless propagators: An algebraic evaluation of all master integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baikov, P.A., E-mail: baikov@theory.sinp.msu.r [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Chetyrkin, K.G., E-mail: konstantin.chetyrkin@kit.ed [Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-01

    The old 'glue-and-cut' symmetry of massless propagators, first established in Ref. (Chetyrkin and Tkachov, 1981), leads -after reduction to master integrals is performed - to a host of non-trivial relations between the latter. The relations constrain the master integrals so tightly that they all can be analytically expressed in terms of only few, essentially trivial, watermelon-like integrals. As a consequence we arrive at explicit analytical results for all master integrals appearing in the process of reduction of massless propagators at three and four loops. The transcendental structure of the results suggests a clean explanation of the well-known mystery of the absence of even zetas ({zeta}{sub 2n}) in the Adler function and other similar functions essentially reducible to massless propagators. Once a reduction of massless propagators at five loops is available, our approach should be also applicable for explicitly performing the corresponding five-loop master integrals.

  4. Universally coupled massive gravity, III: dRGT–Maheshwari pure spin-2, Ogievetsky–Polubarinov and arbitrary mass terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, J. Brian, E-mail: jbp25@cam.ac.uk

    2016-02-15

    Einstein’s equations were derived for a free massless spin-2 field using universal coupling in the 1950–1970s by various authors; total stress–energy including gravity’s served as a source for linear free field equations. A massive variant was likewise derived in the late 1960s by Freund, Maheshwari and Schonberg, and thought to be unique. How broad is universal coupling? In the last decade four 1-parameter families of massive spin-2 theories (contravariant, covariant, tetrad, and cotetrad of almost any density weights) have been derived using universal coupling. The (co)tetrad derivations included 2 of the 3 pure spin-2 theories due to de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley; those two theories first appeared in the 2-parameter Ogievetsky–Polubarinov family (1965), which developed the symmetric square root of the metric as a nonlinear group realization. One of the two theories was identified as pure spin-2 by Maheshwari in 1971–1972, thus evading the Boulware–Deser–Tyutin–Fradkin ghost by the time it was announced. Unlike the previous 4 families, this paper permits nonlinear field redefinitions to build the effective metric. By not insisting in advance on knowing the observable significance of the graviton potential to all orders, one finds that an arbitrary graviton mass term can be derived using universal coupling. The arbitrariness of a universally coupled mass/self-interaction term contrasts sharply with the uniqueness of the Einstein kinetic term. One might have hoped to use universal coupling as a tie-breaking criterion for choosing among theories that are equally satisfactory on more crucial grounds (such as lacking ghosts and having a smooth massless limit). But the ubiquity of universal coupling implies that the criterion does not favor any particular theories among those with the Einstein kinetic term.

  5. Universally coupled massive gravity, III: dRGT–Maheshwari pure spin-2, Ogievetsky–Polubarinov and arbitrary mass terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J. Brian

    2016-01-01

    Einstein’s equations were derived for a free massless spin-2 field using universal coupling in the 1950–1970s by various authors; total stress–energy including gravity’s served as a source for linear free field equations. A massive variant was likewise derived in the late 1960s by Freund, Maheshwari and Schonberg, and thought to be unique. How broad is universal coupling? In the last decade four 1-parameter families of massive spin-2 theories (contravariant, covariant, tetrad, and cotetrad of almost any density weights) have been derived using universal coupling. The (co)tetrad derivations included 2 of the 3 pure spin-2 theories due to de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley; those two theories first appeared in the 2-parameter Ogievetsky–Polubarinov family (1965), which developed the symmetric square root of the metric as a nonlinear group realization. One of the two theories was identified as pure spin-2 by Maheshwari in 1971–1972, thus evading the Boulware–Deser–Tyutin–Fradkin ghost by the time it was announced. Unlike the previous 4 families, this paper permits nonlinear field redefinitions to build the effective metric. By not insisting in advance on knowing the observable significance of the graviton potential to all orders, one finds that an arbitrary graviton mass term can be derived using universal coupling. The arbitrariness of a universally coupled mass/self-interaction term contrasts sharply with the uniqueness of the Einstein kinetic term. One might have hoped to use universal coupling as a tie-breaking criterion for choosing among theories that are equally satisfactory on more crucial grounds (such as lacking ghosts and having a smooth massless limit). But the ubiquity of universal coupling implies that the criterion does not favor any particular theories among those with the Einstein kinetic term.

  6. Weyl and ghost number anomalies in the Polyakov's light-cone gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the conformal (Weyl) anomaly of the ghost-anti-ghost system in the 2-dimensional quantum gravity is calculated. A background covariant formalism allows us to treat the Polyakov's light-cone gauge in a systematic way. The anomaly gives a contribution to the central charge, -28, which agrees with the result of Kniznik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov. The ghost number anomaly is also calculated, and the metric corrections to the naive ghost number current are given. It is suggested that a general scalar density in the light-cone gauge carries a screening ghost number

  7. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  8. Massless fermions and Kaluza--Klein theory with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Zee, A.

    1984-01-01

    A pure Kaluza--Klein theory contains no massless fermion in four-dimensional theory. We investigate the effect of introducing torsion on the internal manifold and find that there are massless fermions. The hope is that given an isometry group the representation to which these fermions belong is fixed, in contrast to the situation in Yang--Mills theory. We show that this is indeed the case, but the representations do not appear to be the ones favored by current theoretical prejudice. The cases with parallelizable torsions on a group manifold as the internal manifold are analyzed in detail

  9. Massive and massless supersymmetry: Multiplet structure and unitary irreducible representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    UIR's of the supersymmetry algebra for the massive and massless cases are analyzed covariantly (without the use of induced representations) in terms of their component spins. For the massive case normalized basis vectors vertical-barp 2 >0, j 0 ; sigma; pjlambda> are constructed, where j 0 is the ''superspin'' and sigma is an additional quantum number serving to distinguish the different vertical-barpjlambda>, the constituent p 2 >0, spin-j UIR's of the Poincare group. For the massless case, normalized basis vectors vertical-barp 2 =0, lambda 0 ; plambda> are similarly constructed, where lambda 0 is the ''superhelicity.'' Matrix elements of the supersymmetry generators, in these bases, are explicitly given. The ''sigma basis'' is used to define weight diagrams for the massive UIR's of supersymmetry, and their properties are briefly described. Eigenfunctions ω/sub sigma/(theta) are also defined, and their connection with the reduction of higher spin massive superfields PHI/subJ/(x,theta) is discussed. Finally, it is shown how gauge dependence necessarily arises with certain massless superfields. The massless scalar superfield, both gauge-dependent and gauge-independent, is discussed as an example

  10. Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Gomez, M. E.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q 2 ). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M. Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.

  11. Ghost poles in the nucleon propagator in the linear σ model approach and its role in πN low-energy theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rocha, C.A.; Wilets, L.

    1997-01-01

    Complex mass poles, or ghost poles, are present in the Hartree-Fock solution of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the nucleon propagator in renormalizable models with Yukawa-type meson-nucleon couplings, as shown many years ago by Brown, Puff and Wilets (BPW). These ghosts violate basic theorems of quantum field theory and their origin is related to the ultraviolet behavior of the model interactions. Recently, Krein et.al, proved that the ghosts disappear when vertex corrections are included in a self-consistent way, softening the interaction sufficiently in the ultraviolet region. In previous studies of πN scattering using ''dressed'' nucleon propagator and bare vertices, did by Nutt and Wilets in the 70's (NW), it was found that if these poles are explicitly included, the value of the isospin-even amplitude A (+) is satisfied within 20% at threshold. The absence of a theoretical explanation for the ghosts and the lack of chiral symmetry in these previous studies led us to re-investigate the subject using the approach of the linear σ-model and study the interplay of low-energy theorems for πN scattering and ghost poles. For bare interaction vertices we find that ghosts are present in this model as well and that the A (+) value is badly described. As a first approach to remove these complex poles, we dress the vertices with phenomenological form factors and a reasonable agreement with experiment is achieved. In order to fix the two cutoff parameters, we use the A (+) value for the chiral limit (m π →0) and the experimental value of the isoscalar scattering length. Finally, we test our model by calculating the phase shifts for the S waves and we find a good agreement at threshold. (orig.)

  12. Off-Shell Interactions of Closed-String Tachyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabholkar, A

    2004-04-07

    Off-shell interactions for localized closed-string tachyons in C/Z{sub N} superstring backgrounds are analyzed and a conjecture for the effective height of the tachyon potential is elaborated. At large N, some of the relevant tachyons are nearly massless and their interactions can be deduced from the S-matrix. The cubic interactions between these tachyons and the massless fields are computed in a closed form using orbifold CFT techniques. The cubic interaction between nearly-massless tachyons with different charges is shown to vanish and thus condensation of one tachyon does not source the others. It is shown that to leading order in N, the quartic contact interaction vanishes and the massless exchanges completely account for the four point scattering amplitude. This indicates that it is necessary to go beyond quartic interactions or to include other fields to test the conjecture for the height of the tachyon potential.

  13. Roles of the color antisymmetric ghost propagator in the Infrared QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furui, S.

    2009-01-01

    The results of Coulomb gauge and Landau gauge lattice QCD simulation do not agree completely with continuum theory. There are indications that the ghost propagator in the infrared region has strong fluctuation whose modulus is compatible with that of the color diagonal ghost propagator. After presenting lattice simulation of configurations produced with Kogut-Susskind fermion (MILC collaboration) and those with domain wall fermion (RBC/UKQCD collaboration), I investigate in triple gluon vertex and the ghost-gluon-ghost vertex how the square of the color antisymmetric ghost contributes. Then the effect of the vertex correction to the gluon propagator and the ghost propagator is investigated. Recent Dyson-Schwinger equation analysis suggests the ghost dressing function G(0) = finite and no infrared enhancement or a G = 0. But the ghost propagator renormalized by the loop containing a product of color antisymmetric ghost is expected to behave as [cc] r = - (G(q 2 ))/(q 2 ) with G(q 2 ) ∝ q -2aG with a G = 0.5, if the fixed point scenario is valid. I interpret the a G = 0 solution should contain a vertex correction. The infrared exponent of our lattice Landau gauge gluon propagator of the RBC/UKQCD is a D = - 0.5 and that of MILC is about - 0.7. A possible interpretation of the origin of the fluctuation is given. (author)

  14. Physicochemical characterization of artificial nanoerythrosomes derived from erythrocyte ghost membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Róbert; Mihály, Judith; Szigyártó, Imola Cs; Wacha, András; Lelkes, Gábor; Bóta, Attila

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal stabile nanoerythrosomes with 200 nm average diameter were formed from hemoglobin-free erythrocyte ghost membrane via sonication and membrane extrusion. The incorporation of extra lipid (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC), added to the sonicated ghosts, caused significant changes in the thermotropic character of the original membranes. As a result of the increased DPPC ratio the chain melting of the hydrated DPPC system and the characteristic small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the lipid bilayers appeared. Significant morphological changes were followed by transmission electron microscopy combined with freeze fracture method (FF-TEM). After the ultrasonic treatment the large entities of erythrocyte ghosts transformed into nearly spherical nanoerythrosomes with diameters between 100 and 300 nm and at the same time a great number of 10-30 nm large membrane proteins or protein clusters were dispersed in the aqueous medium. The infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) pointed out, that the sonication did not cause changes in the secondary structures of the membrane proteins under our preparation conditions. About fivefold of extra lipid--compared to the lipid content of the original membrane--caused homogeneous dispersion of nanoerythrosomes however the shape of the vesicles was not uniform. After the addition of about tenfold of DPPC, monoform and monodisperse nanoerythrosomes became typical. The outer surfaces of these roughly spherical objects were frequently polygonal, consisting of a net of pentagons and hexagons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutron Ghost Imaging Technology Research on CARR Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ghost imaging is also known as quantum imaging. Different from the classical imaging, the neutron ghost imaging is based on the quantum mechanics properties of light field and its intrinsic parallel characteristic, and developed by new optical

  16. Kac--Moody current algebras of D = 2 massless gauge theories, their representations and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Nahm, W.; Narain, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    We give a classification of the Kac--Moody current algebras of all the possible massless fermion-gauge theories in two dimensions. It is shown that only Kac--Moody algebras based on A/sub N/, B/sub N/, C/sub N/, and D/sub N/ in the Cartan classification with all possible central charge occur.The representation of local fermion fields and simply laced Kac--Moody algebras with minimal central charge in terms of free boson fields on a compactified space is discussed in detail, where stress is laid on the role played by the boundary conditions on the various collective modes. Fractional solitons and the possible soliton representation of certain nonsimply laced algebras is also analysed. We briefly discuss the relationship between the massless bound state sector of these two-dimensional gauge theories and the critically coupled two-dimensional nonlinear sigma model, which share the same current algebra. Finally we briefly discuss the relevance of Sp(n) Kac--Moody algebras to the physics of monopole-fermion systems. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  17. Limit on possible energy-dependent velocities for massless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, T.J.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.; Berley, D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.; Sandberg, V.D.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Yodh, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    A basic tenet of special relativity is that all massless particles travel at a constant, energy-independent velocity. Astrophysical data, including observation of the Crab pulsar at ∼100 MeV and the recent detection of the pulsar in Hercules X-1 at energies ≥100 TeV, are used to place new experimental constraints on energy-dependent deviations from constant velocity for massless particles. Previous experiments reached energies ∼10 GeV; this analysis improves the previous constraints by 7 orders of magnitude

  18. On the Pomeranchuk singularity in massless vector theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Hamburg Univ.

    1980-06-01

    It is shown that the Pomeron in massless (abelian of nonabelian) vector theories, as derived from a perturbative high energy description which satisfies unitarity, comes as a diffusion problem in the logarithmic scale of transverse momentum. For a realistic theory there are reasons to expect that this diffusion should come to a stop: (a) the long range forces of the massless gluons should be screened, (b) the Pomeranchuk singularity in the j-plane should be t-dependant, and (c) there should not be a discontinuity in the zero mass limit at t = 0 or in the t 0 limit of the massless case. In the third part we outline a scheme for summing all diagrams which are required by unitarity. It uses reggeon field theory in zero transverse dimensions and leads to: (i) the diffusion comes to a stop (zero drift and zero diffusion constant); (ii) the total cross section is constant (up to powers of lns); (iii) in order to give a meaning to the divergent perturbation expansion, one has to add a nonperturbative term of the order exp(-const/g 2 ). (orig.)

  19. Publication ethics and the ghost management of medical publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sismondo, Sergio; Doucet, Mathieu

    2010-07-01

    It is by now no secret that some scientific articles are ghost authored - that is, written by someone other than the person whose name appears at the top of the article. Ghost authorship, however, is only one sort of ghosting. In this article, we present evidence that pharmaceutical companies engage in the ghost management of the scientific literature, by controlling or shaping several crucial steps in the research, writing, and publication of scientific articles. Ghost management allows the pharmaceutical industry to shape the literature in ways that serve its interests. This article aims to reinforce and expand publication ethics as an important area of concern for bioethics. Since ghost-managed research is primarily undertaken in the interests of marketing, large quantities of medical research violate not just publication norms but also research ethics. Much of this research involves human subjects, and yet is performed not primarily to increase knowledge for broad human benefit, but to disseminate results in the service of profits. Those who sponsor, manage, conduct, and publish such research therefore behave unethically, since they put patients at risk without justification. This leads us to a strong conclusion: if medical journals want to ensure that the research they publish is ethically sound, they should not publish articles that are commercially sponsored.

  20. BRST cohomology of the superstring at arbitrary ghost number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Myers, R.C.; Martin, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the cohomology of the BRST operator of the NSR superstring. No restriction is placed on the ghost number of the states. It is shown that every cohomology class can be written as a picture changed version of one of the known cohomology classes at a fixed ghost number. A generalization of this result is also found for the cohomology in the large algebra of a new bosonization of the superconformal ghosts. (orig.)

  1. Some issues in the ghost condensation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the recently proposed 'ghost condensation' scenario a model of consistent infrared modification of gravity was suggested. We first review the basic ideas of this scenario. We discuss various phenomenological aspects of the ghost condensation, such as stability of the condensate, bounds on the UV cut-off scale of the corresponding effective field theory and other issues. (author)

  2. Variational method for lattice spectroscopy with ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Tommy; Hagen, Christian; Gattringer, Christof; Glozman, Leonid Ya.; Lang, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the variational method used in lattice spectroscopy calculations. In particular we address the role of ghost contributions which appear in quenched or partially quenched simulations and have a nonstandard euclidean time dependence. We show that the ghosts can be separated from the physical states. Our result is illustrated with numerical data for the scalar meson

  3. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Erkmen, Baris I; Yu Nan

    2013-01-01

    The term 'ghost imaging' was coined in 1995 when an optical correlation measurement in combination with an entangled photon-pair source was used to image a mask placed in one optical channel by raster-scanning a detector in the other, empty, optical channel. Later, it was shown that the entangled photon source could be replaced with thermal sources of light, which are abundantly available as natural illumination sources. It was also shown that the bucket detector could be replaced with a remote point-like detector, opening the possibility to remote-sensing imaging applications. In this paper, we discuss the application of ghost-imaging-like techniques to astronomy, with the objective of detecting intensity-correlation signatures resulting from space objects of interest, such as exo-planets, gas clouds, and gravitational lenses. An important aspect of being able to utilize ghost imaging in astronomy, is the recognition that in interstellar imaging geometries the object of interest can act as an effective beam splitter, yielding detectable variations in the intensity-correlation signature.

  4. A ghost fluid method for sharp interface simulations of compressible multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Sahand; Afshari, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    A ghost fluid based computational tool is developed to study a wide range of compressible multiphase flows involving strong shocks and contact discontinuities while accounting for surface tension, viscous stresses and gravitational forces. The solver utilizes constrained reinitialization method to predict the interface configuration at each time step. Surface tension effect is handled via an exact interface Riemann problem solver. Interfacial viscous stresses are approximated by considering continuous velocity and viscous stress across the interface. To assess the performance of the solver several benchmark problems are considered: One-dimensional gas-water shock tube problem, shock-bubble interaction, air cavity collapse in water, underwater explosion, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, and ellipsoidal drop oscillations. Results obtained from the numerical simulations indicate that the numerical methodology performs reasonably well in predicting flow features and exhibit a very good agreement with prior experimental and numerical observations. To further examine the accuracy of the developed ghost fluid solver, the obtained results are compared to those by a conventional diffuse interface solver. The comparison shows the capability of our ghost fluid method in reproducing the experimentally observed flow characteristics while revealing more details regarding topological changes of the interface.

  5. A ghost fluid method for sharp interface simulations of compressible multiphase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Sahand; Afshari, Asghar [University of Tehran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    A ghost fluid based computational tool is developed to study a wide range of compressible multiphase flows involving strong shocks and contact discontinuities while accounting for surface tension, viscous stresses and gravitational forces. The solver utilizes constrained reinitialization method to predict the interface configuration at each time step. Surface tension effect is handled via an exact interface Riemann problem solver. Interfacial viscous stresses are approximated by considering continuous velocity and viscous stress across the interface. To assess the performance of the solver several benchmark problems are considered: One-dimensional gas-water shock tube problem, shock-bubble interaction, air cavity collapse in water, underwater explosion, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, and ellipsoidal drop oscillations. Results obtained from the numerical simulations indicate that the numerical methodology performs reasonably well in predicting flow features and exhibit a very good agreement with prior experimental and numerical observations. To further examine the accuracy of the developed ghost fluid solver, the obtained results are compared to those by a conventional diffuse interface solver. The comparison shows the capability of our ghost fluid method in reproducing the experimentally observed flow characteristics while revealing more details regarding topological changes of the interface.

  6. Analysis of ghost image in high power laser system using computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingquan; Liu Jinsong; Wang Kejia; Zhu Qihua; Zhao Runchang; Wang Fang

    2011-01-01

    Using a self-made software named CatchGhost the ghost points' position and energy in a coaxial optic systems were calculated accurately in a short time without omission. The software can carry out massive calculation in a short time, and pick out the harmful ghosts in system automatically. Because all the elements which are related to beams' energy,including the pinhole' effect, reflectivity,gain and loss,are counted, data of ghost points given by the software are exact and useful. (authors)

  7. Geometric ghosts and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-09-01

    A review is given of the geometrical identification of the renormalization ghosts and the resulting derivation of Unitarity equations (BRST) for various gauges: Yang-Mills, Kalb-Ramond, and Soft-Group-Manifold

  8. Ghost neutrinos as test fields in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audretsch, J.

    1976-01-01

    Without restricting to empty space-times, it is shown that ghost neutrinos (their energy-momentum tensor vanishes) can only be found in algebraically special space-times with a neutrino flux vector parallel to one of the principal null vectors of the conformal tensor. The optical properties are studied. There are no ghost neutrinos in the Kerr-Newman and in spherically symmetric space-times. The example of a non-vacuum gravitational pp-wave accompanied by a ghost neutrino pp-wave is discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Aspects of Weyl Supergravity arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Lust, Dieter

    In this paper we study the spectrum of all conformal, ${\\cal N}$-extended supergravities (${\\cal N}=1,2,3,4$) in four space-time dimensions. When these theories are obtained as massless limit of Einstein plus Weyl$^2$supergravity, the appropriate counting of the enhanced gauge symmetries allow us to derive the massless spectrum which consist of a dipole ghost graviton multiplet, a ${\\cal N}$-fold tripole ghost gravitino, the third state belonging to a spin 3/2 multiplet and a residual vector multiplet present for non-maximal ${\\cal N}<4$ theories. These theories are not expected to have a standard gravity holographic dual in five dimensions.

  10. Winding strings and AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We start a systematic study of string theory in AdS 3 black hole backgrounds. Firstly, we analyse in detail the geodesic structure of the BTZ black hole, including spacelike geodesics. Secondly, we study the spectrum for massive and massless scalar fields, paying particular attention to the connection between Sl(2,R) subgroups, the theory of special functions and global properties of the BTZ black holes. We construct classical strings that wind the black holes. Finally, we apply the general formalism to the vacuum black hole background, and formulate the boundary spacetime Virasoro algebra in terms of worldsheet operators. We moreover establish the link between a proposal for a ghost free spectrum for Sl(2,R) string propagation and the massless black hole background, thereby claryfing aspects of the AdS 3 /CFT correspondence. (author)

  11. Scale transformation and massless limit in neutral-vector field theory. [Gauge transformation unified theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, R; Takahashi, Y; Yokoyama, K

    1975-01-01

    In a wide class of neutral vector field theories, in which massive and massless fields are described in a unified way and a unique massless limit exists to quantum electrodynamics in covariant gauges, the commutability of the scale transformation and the massless limit is examined. It is shown that there occurs no anomaly with respect to the assignment for scale dimensions of relevant fields. Connection of scale transformation and gauge transformation is also discussed.

  12. Adler's theorem in finite massless QED and possible extensions to non-Abelian gauge theories. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.

    1975-01-01

    The indefinite metric produced by the ghost fields in the Coulomb gauge in Yang-Mills theories is discussed. It is shown that the ghosts greatly complicate the job of proving, or disproving, an Adler theorem in this gauge. An old result of Schwinger for Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theories is also found to be compromised by ghosts. (Auth.)

  13. Ghost basis for neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.

    1976-07-01

    A class of solutions of DIRAC'S equation in gravitational fields for ghost neutrinos is given. Comments are restricted to the neutrino cosmological model recently found by M. Novello e I.D. Soares [pt

  14. Ghost imaging with bucket detection and point detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Jian; Yin, Rao; Wang, Tong-Biao; Liao, Qing-Hua; Li, Hong-Guo; Liao, Qinghong; Liu, Jiang-Tao

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally investigate ghost imaging with bucket detection and point detection in which three types of illuminating sources are applied: (a) pseudo-thermal light source; (b) amplitude modulated true thermal light source; (c) amplitude modulated laser source. Experimental results show that the quality of ghost images reconstructed with true thermal light or laser beam is insensitive to the usage of bucket or point detector, however, the quality of ghost images reconstructed with pseudo-thermal light in bucket detector case is better than that in point detector case. Our theoretical analysis shows that the reason for this is due to the first order transverse coherence of the illuminating source.

  15. Plato's ghost the modernist transformation of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Plato's Ghost is the first book to examine the development of mathematics from 1880 to 1920 as a modernist transformation similar to those in art, literature, and music. Jeremy Gray traces the growth of mathematical modernism from its roots in problem solving and theory to its interactions with physics, philosophy, theology, psychology, and ideas about real and artificial languages. He shows how mathematics was popularized, and explains how mathematical modernism not only gave expression to the work of mathematicians and the professional image they sought to create for themselves, but how modernism also introduced deeper and ultimately unanswerable questions

  16. New Mexico Ghost Towns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data provides locations and non-spatial attributes of many ghost towns in the State of New Mexico, compiled from various sources. Locations provided with...

  17. UV-extending Ghost Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Mikhail M

    2014-01-01

    We present a setup that provides a partial UV-completion of the ghost inflation model up to a scale which can be almost as high as the Planck mass. This is achieved by coupling the inflaton to the Lorentz-violating sector described by the Einstein-aether theory or its khronometric version. Compared to previous works on ghost inflation our setup allows to go beyond the study of small perturbations and include the background dynamics in a unified framework. In the specific regime when the expansion of the Universe is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton we find that the model predicts rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 0.02 $\\div$ 0.2 and non-Gaussianity of equilateral type with f_NL in the range from -50 to -5.

  18. Ghost responses of the FitzHugh–Nagumo system induced by colored noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordet, M.; Morfu, S.; Marquié, P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate both numerically and experimentally how the triggering of Ghost Stochastic Resonance is affected by colored noise in a FitzHugh–Nagumo circuit. It is experimentally shown that when the circuit is excited with a bichromatic signal, weak colored noise can induce a response with a main ghost frequency which is not present in the excitation. We analyze the occurrence of this ghost frequency versus the noise intensity and the correlation time of the colored noise. Numerical simulations and experiments confirm that for larger noise correlation time, submultiples of this ghost frequency dominate the system response while the previous expected ghost frequency is less observed

  19. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality in the soft behavior of the dilaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchia, Paolo Di [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Marotta, Raffaele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli,Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126, Napoli (Italy); Mojaza, Matin [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-12-06

    We consider the tree-level scattering amplitudes in the NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz) massless sector of closed superstrings in the case where one external state becomes soft. We compute the amplitudes generically for any number of dimensions and any number and kind of the massless closed states through the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string. Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory.

  20. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality of the soft behavior of the dilaton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Vecchia, Paolo; Marotta, Raffaele; Mojaza, Matin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the tree-level scattering amplitudes in the NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz) massless sector of closed superstrings in the case where one external state becomes soft. We compute the amplitudes generically for any number of dimensions and any number and kind of the massless closed states through...... the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string....... Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory....

  1. Theoretical scheme of thermal-light many-ghost imaging by Nth-order intensity correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingchuan; Kuang Leman

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical scheme of many-ghost imaging in terms of Nth-order correlated thermal light. We obtain the Gaussian thin lens equations in the many-ghost imaging protocol. We show that it is possible to produce N-1 ghost images of an object at different places in a nonlocal fashion by means of a higher order correlated imaging process with an Nth-order correlated thermal source and correlation measurements. We investigate the visibility of the ghost images in the scheme and obtain the upper bounds of the visibility for the Nth-order correlated thermal-light ghost imaging. It is found that the visibility of the ghost images can be dramatically enhanced when the order of correlation becomes larger. It is pointed out that the many-ghost imaging phenomenon is an observable physical effect induced by higher order coherence or higher order correlations of optical fields.

  2. Hydrodynamical model with massless constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Wang, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Within the constituent hydrodynamical model, it is shown that the total number of constituents is conserved, if these constituents are massless and satisfy the Fermi-Dirac distribution. A simple scheme for the transition from the constituent-phase to the hadron-phase is suggested, and the hadron inclusive momentum spectra are presented for this case. This phase transition scheme predicts the average transverse momentum of meson resonances which is compatible with the data. (U.S.)

  3. Quasinormal modes for massless topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aros, Rodrigo; Martinez, Cristian; Troncoso, Ricardo; Zanelli, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    An exact expression for the quasinormal modes of scalar perturbation on a massless topological black hole in four and higher dimensions is presented. The massive scalar field is nonminimally coupled to the curvature, and the horizon geometry is assumed to have a negative constant curvature

  4. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi [Division of Mechanical and Space Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kodama, Tetsuya [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: kobakazu@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  5. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  6. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  7. Adler's theorem in finite massless QED and possible extensions to non- Abelian gauge theories II

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, J

    1975-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.B95, p.461 (1975). The indefinite metric produced by the ghost fields in the Coulomb gauge in Yang-Mills theories is discussed. It is shown that the ghosts greatly complicate the job of proving, or disproving, an Adler theorem in this gauge. An old result of Schwinger (1962) for Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theories is also found to be compromised by ghosts. (7 refs).

  8. Tunnelling of Massive/Massless Bosons from the Apparent Horizon of FRW Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimet Jusufi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Hawking radiation of vector particles from the apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW universe in the framework of quantum tunnelling method. Furthermore we use Proca equation, a relativistic wave equation for a massive/massless spin-1 particle (massless γ photons, weak massive W± and Z0 bosons, strong massless gluons, and ρ and ω mesons together with a Painlevé space-time metric for the FRW universe. We solve the Proca equation via Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ equation and the WKB approximation method. We recover the same result for the Hawking temperature associated with vector particles as in the case of scalar and Dirac particles tunnelled from outside to the inside of the apparent horizon in a FRW universe.

  9. Delayed transitions in non-linear replicator networks: About ghosts and hypercycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardanyes, Josep; Sole, Ricard V.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyze delayed transition phenomena associated to extinction thresholds in a mean field model for hypercycles composed of three and four units, respectively. Hence, we extend a previous analysis carried out with the two-membered hypercycle [see Sardanyes J, Sole RV. Ghosts in the origins of life? Int J Bifurcation Chaos 2006;16(9), in press]. The models we analyze show that, after the tangent bifurcation, these hypercycles also leave a ghost in phase space. These ghosts, which actually conserve the dynamical properties of the coalesced coexistence fixed point, delay the flows before hypercycle extinction. In contrast with the two-component hypercycle, both ghosts show a plateau in the delay as φ → 0, thus displacing the power-law dependence to higher values of φ, in which the scaling law is now given by τ ∼ φ β , with β = -1/3 (where τ is the delay and φ = ε - ε c , the parametric distance above the extinction bifurcation point). These results suggest that the presence of the ghost is a general property of hypercycles. Such ghosts actually cause a memory effect which might increase hypercycle survival chances in fluctuating environments

  10. Comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Boyd, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical comparison of the signal-to-noise characteristics of quantum versus thermal ghost imaging. We first calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of each process in terms of its controllable experimental conditions. We show that a key distinction is that a thermal ghost image always resides on top of a large background; the fluctuations in this background constitutes an intrinsic noise source for thermal ghost imaging. In contrast, there is a negligible intrinsic background to a quantum ghost image. However, for practical reasons involving achievable illumination levels, acquisition times for thermal ghost images are often much shorter than those for quantum ghost images. We provide quantitative predictions for the conditions under which each process provides superior performance. Our conclusion is that each process can provide useful functionality, although under complementary conditions.

  11. Ghost sector of vacuum string field theory and the projection equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potting, Robertus; Raeymaekers, Joris

    2002-01-01

    We study the ghost sector of vacuum string field theory where the BRST operator Q is given by the midpoint insertion proposed by Gaiotto, Rastelli, Sen and Zwiebach. We introduce a convenient basis of half-string modes in terms of which Q takes a particularly simple form. We show that there exists a field redefinition which reduces the ghost sector field equation to a pure projection equation for string fields satisfying the constraint that the ghost number is equally divided over the left- and right halves of the string. When this constraint is imposed, vacuum string field theory can be reformulated as a U(∞) cubic matrix model. Ghost sector solutions can be constructed from projection operators on half-string Hilbert space just as in the matter sector. We construct the ghost sector equivalent of various well-known matter sector projectors such as the sliver, butterfly and nothing states. (author)

  12. PLOTGEOMX: a program for display of a neutron target assembly by means of a GHOST plotting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1978-02-01

    The program PLOTGEOM has been modified to work on the A.E.R.E., Harwell IBM 370-167 computer using the GHOST graphics package. The control data routine has been altered to permit free format input and the program has been compiled and stored using the extended-H FORTRAN optimising compiler. (author)

  13. Gribov's horizon and the ghost dressing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-01-01

    We study a relation recently derived by K. Kondo at zero momentum between the Zwanziger's horizon function, the ghost dressing function and Kugo's functions u and w. We agree with this result as far as bare quantities are considered. However, assuming the validity of the horizon gap equation, we argue that the solution w(0)=0 is not acceptable since it would lead to a vanishing renormalized ghost dressing function. On the contrary, when the cutoff goes to infinity, u(0)→∞, w(0)→-∞ such that u(0)+w(0)→-1. Furthermore w and u are not multiplicatively renormalizable. Relaxing the gap equation allows w(0)=0 with u(0)→-1. In both cases the bare ghost dressing function, F(0,Λ), goes logarithmically to infinity at infinite cutoff. We show that, although the lattice results provide bare results not so different from the F(0,Λ)=3 solution, this is an accident due to the fact that the lattice cutoffs lie in the range 1-3 GeV -1 . We show that the renormalized ghost dressing function should be finite and nonzero at zero momentum and can be reliably estimated on the lattice up to powers of the lattice spacing; from published data on a 80 4 lattice at β=5.7 we obtain F R (0,μ=1.5 GeV)≅2.2.

  14. Ghost Spectroscopy with Classical Thermal Light Emitted by a Superluminescent Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2018-02-01

    We propose and realize the first classical ghost-imaging (GI) experiment in the frequency or wavelength domain, thus performing ghost spectroscopy using thermal light exhibiting photon bunching. The required wavelength correlations are provided by light emitted by spectrally broadband near-infrared amplified spontaneous emission of a semiconductor-based superluminescent diode. They are characterized by wavelength-resolved intensity cross-correlation measurements utilizing two-photon-absorption interferometry. Finally, a real-world spectroscopic application of this ghost spectroscopy with a classical light scheme is demonstrated in which an absorption band of trichloromethane (chloroform) at 1214 nm is reconstructed with a spectral resolution of 10 nm as a proof-of-principle experiment. This ghost-spectroscopy work fills the gap of a hitherto missing analogy between the spatial and the spectral domain in classical GI modalities, with the expectation of contributing towards a broader dissemination of correlated photon ghost modalities, hence paving the way towards more applications which exploit the favorable advantages.

  15. Gravitational lensing and ghost images in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schee, Jan; Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    We study deflection of light rays and gravitational lensing in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. Flatness of these spacetimes in the central region implies existence of interesting optical effects related to photons crossing the gravitational field of the no-horizon spacetimes with low impact parameters. These effects occur due to existence of a critical impact parameter giving maximal deflection of light rays in the Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. We give the critical impact parameter in dependence on the specific charge of the spacetimes, and discuss 'ghost' direct and indirect images of Keplerian discs, generated by photons with low impact parameters. The ghost direct images can occur only for large inclination angles of distant observers, while ghost indirect images can occur also for small inclination angles. We determine the range of the frequency shift of photons generating the ghost images and determine distribution of the frequency shift across these images. We compare them to those of the standard direct images of the Keplerian discs. The difference of the ranges of the frequency shift on the ghost and direct images could serve as a quantitative measure of the Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. The regions of the Keplerian discs giving the ghost images are determined in dependence on the specific charge of the no-horizon spacetimes. For comparison we construct direct and indirect (ordinary and ghost) images of Keplerian discs around Reissner-Nördström naked singularities demonstrating a clear qualitative difference to the ghost direct images in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. The optical effects related to the low impact parameter photons thus give clear signature of the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes, as no similar phenomena could occur in the black hole or naked singularity spacetimes. Similar direct ghost images have to occur in any regular no-horizon spacetimes having nearly flat central region

  16. Peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S Kamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT are uncommon lesions mainly with rare peripheral types. This report presents a case of peripheral DGCT on the left side of the mandibular alveolar ridge of a heavy smoker, a 68-year-old man, with main presenting feature as a mild pain. Submandibular lymphadenopathy and radiological "saucerization" were evident. Differential diagnosis included fibroma, neurofibroma, peripheral ameloblastoma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Histologically, ameloblastoma-like epithelial elements were seen in association with grouped ghost cells. Proliferating polyhedral cells and stellate reticulum-like cells with various densities were spread over a wide range of the field. The lesion was curetted and after 2 years of follow up, it did not recur.

  17. Analysis of Generalized Ghost Dark Energy in LQC and Galileon Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Mahasweta; Debnath, Ujjal

    2016-01-01

    A so-called ghost dark energy was recently proposed to explain the present acceleration of the universe. The energy density of ghost dark energy, which originates from Veneziano ghost of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), in a time dependent background, can be written in the form, ρ_D = (αH + βH"2) where H is the Hubble parameter. We investigate the generalized ghost dark energy (GGDE) model in the setup of loop quantum Cosmology (LQC) and Galileon Cosmology. We study the cosmological implications of the models. We also obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and differential equations governing the evolution of this dark energy model for LQC and Galileon Cosmology. (paper)

  18. An improved ghost-cell immersed boundary method for compressible flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Chi, Cheng

    2016-05-20

    This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary described using a level-set method to farther image points, incorporating a higher-order extra/interpolation scheme for the ghost cell values. A sensor is introduced to deal with image points near the discontinuities in the flow field. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to improve the representation of the geometry efficiently in the Cartesian grid system. The improved ghost-cell method is validated against four test cases: (a) double Mach reflections on a ramp, (b) smooth Prandtl-Meyer expansion flows, (c) supersonic flows in a wind tunnel with a forward-facing step, and (d) supersonic flows over a circular cylinder. It is demonstrated that the improved ghost-cell method can reach the accuracy of second order in L1 norm and higher than first order in L∞ norm. Direct comparisons against the cut-cell method demonstrate that the improved ghost-cell method is almost equally accurate with better efficiency for boundary representation in high-fidelity compressible flow simulations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ghost imaging is an optical imaging technique that utilizes the correlations between optical fields in two channels. One of the channels contains the object, however...

  20. Renormalization problem in nonrenormalizable massless PHI4 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symanzik, K.

    1975-05-01

    Nonrenormalizable massless PHI 4 theory is made finite by regularization via higher derivatives in the kinetic part of the Lagrangean. The theory is shown to remain finite in the infinite cutoff limit if certain integrals over functions of one variable, with computable Taylor expansion at the origin, are finite. The values of these integrals are the only unknowns in the double series in powers of g and gsup(2/epsilon) obtained for the Green's functions in massless (PHI 4 )sub(4 + epsilon) with generic epsilon. For epsilon = 1 and epsilon = 2, these series reduce to double series in powers of g and ln g. The problems of extension to (PHI 4 )sub(4 + epsilon) with mass, of causality and unitarity, of the relation to the BPHZ formalism, and of the indeterminacy of the result are discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Self-interacting spin-2 dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Garcia-Cely, Camilo

    2017-11-01

    Recent developments in bigravity allow one to construct consistent theories of interacting spin-2 particles that are free of ghosts. In this framework, we propose an elementary spin-2 dark matter candidate with a mass well below the TeV scale. We show that, in a certain regime where the interactions induced by the spin-2 fields do not lead to large departures from the predictions of general relativity, such a light dark matter particle typically self-interacts and undergoes self-annihilations via 3-to-2 processes. We discuss its production mechanisms and also identify the regions of the parameter space where self-interactions can alleviate the discrepancies at small scales between the predictions of the collisionless dark matter paradigm and cosmological N-body simulations.

  2. Ghost anomalous dimension in asymptotically safe quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Gies, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We compute the ghost anomalous dimension within the asymptotic-safety scenario for quantum gravity. For a class of covariant gauge fixings and using a functional renormalization group scheme, the anomalous dimension η c is negative, implying an improved UV behavior of ghost fluctuations. At the non-Gaussian UV fixed point, we observe a maximum value of η c ≅-0.78 for the Landau-deWitt gauge within the given scheme and truncation. Most importantly, the backreaction of the ghost flow onto the Einstein-Hilbert sector preserves the non-Gaussian fixed point with only mild modifications of the fixed-point values for the gravitational coupling and cosmological constant and the associated critical exponents; also their gauge dependence is slightly reduced. Our results provide further evidence for the asymptotic-safety scenario of quantum gravity.

  3. Quantum consistency of a gauge-invariant theory of a massive spin-3/2 particle interacting with external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindani, S.D.

    1989-03-01

    A gauge-invariant theory of a massive spin-3/2 particle interaction with external electromagnetic and gravitational fields, obtained earlier by Kaluza-Klein reduction of a massless Rarita-Schwinger theory, is quantized using Dirac's procedure. The field anticommutators are found to be positive definite. The theory, which was earlier shown to be free from the classical Velo-Zwanziger problem of noncausal propagation modes, is thus also free from the problem of negative-norm states, a long-standing problem associated with massive spin-3/2 theories with external interaction. (author). 19 refs

  4. Lag and ghosting in a clinical flat-panel selenium digital mammography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomquist, Aili K.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Hunter, David M.; Beideck, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    We present measurements of lag and ghosting in a FDA-approved digital mammography system that uses a dielectric/selenium based detector structure. Lag is the carryover of signal from a previous image, whereas ghosting is the reduction of sensitivity caused by previous exposure history of the detector. Data from six selenium units were acquired. For the type of selenium detector tested, and under typical clinical usage conditions, the lag was as high as 0.15% of source signal and the ghosting could be as high as 15%. The amount of lag and ghosting varied from unit to unit. Results were compared with data acquired on a phosphor-based full-field digital mammography system. Modifications in the technology of the selenium detectors appear to have resulted in a marked decrease in both lag and ghosting effects in more recent systems

  5. Exorcising ghosts in induced gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, Gaurav [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    Unitarity of the scale-invariant coupled theory of higher-derivative gravity and matter is investigated. A scalar field coupled with a Dirac fermion is taken as the matter sector. Following the idea of induced gravity the Einstein-Hilbert term is generated via dynamical symmetry breaking of scale invariance. The renormalisation group flows are computed and one-loop RG improved effective potential of scalar is calculated. The scalar field develops a new minimum via the Coleman-Weinberg procedure inducing the Newton constant and masses in the matter sector. The spin-2 problematic ghost and the spin-0 mode of the metric fluctuation get a mass in the broken phase of the theory. The energy dependence of the vacuum expectation value in the RG improved scenario implies a running for the induced parameters. This sets up platform to ask whether it is possible to evade the spin-2 ghost by keeping its mass always above the running energy scale? In broken phase this question is satisfactorily answered for a large domain of coupling parameter space where the ghost is evaded. The spin-0 mode can be made physically realisable or not depending upon the choice of the initial parameters. The induced Newton constant is seen to vanish in the ultraviolet case. By properly choosing parameters it is possible to make the matter fields physically unrealisable. (orig.)

  6. An Improved Ghost-cell Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Inviscid Flow Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Chi, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary described using a level-set method to farther image points, incorporating a higher-order extra/interpolation scheme for the ghost cell values. In addition, a shock sensor is in- troduced to deal with image points near the discontinuities in the flow field. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to improve the representation of the geometry efficiently. The improved ghost-cell method is validated against five test cases: (a) double Mach reflections on a ramp, (b) supersonic flows in a wind tunnel with a forward- facing step, (c) supersonic flows over a circular cylinder, (d) smooth Prandtl-Meyer expansion flows, and (e) steady shock-induced combustion over a wedge. It is demonstrated that the improved ghost-cell method can reach the accuracy of second order in L1 norm and higher than first order in L∞ norm. Direct comparisons against the cut-cell method demonstrate that the improved ghost-cell method is almost equally accurate with better efficiency for boundary representation in high-fidelity compressible flow simulations. Implementation of the improved ghost-cell method in reacting Euler flows further validates its general applicability for compressible flow simulations.

  7. QCD ghost f(T)-gravity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K.; Abdolmaleki, A.; Asadzadeh, S. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safari, Z. [Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Within the framework of modified teleparallel gravity, we reconstruct a f(T) model corresponding to the QCD ghost dark energy scenario. For a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter, we obtain the time evolution of the torsion scalar T (or the Hubble parameter). Then, we calculate the effective torsion equation of state parameter of the QCD ghost f(T)-gravity model as well as the deceleration parameter of the universe. Furthermore, we fit the model parameters by using the latest observational data including SNeIa, CMB and BAO data. We also check the viability of our model using a cosmographic analysis approach. Moreover, we investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics for our model. Finally, we point out the growth rate of matter density perturbation. We conclude that in QCD ghost f(T)-gravity model, the universe begins a matter dominated phase and approaches a de Sitter regime at late times, as expected. Also this model is consistent with current data, passes the cosmographic test, satisfies the GSL and fits the data of the growth factor well as the {Lambda}CDM model. (orig.)

  8. Visions of Inflation in World History: Ghost Story III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2013-01-01

    This article represents the third in a "ghost story" series by the same authors. Readers may recall that Mr. Bernanke was "visited" by the ghosts of Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes in the March/April 2010 issue of "Social Education" as these two famous economists debated the economic recovery (see EJ878912). Mr.…

  9. Ghost imaging and its visibility with partially coherent elliptical Gaussian Schell-model beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Meilan; Zhu, Weiting; Zhao, Daomu

    2015-01-01

    The performances of the ghost image and the visibility with partially coherent elliptical Gaussian Schell-model beams have been studied. In that case we have derived the condition under which the goal ghost image is achievable. Furthermore, the visibility is assessed in terms of the parameters related to the source to find that the visibility reduces with the increase of the beam size, while it is a monotonic increasing function of the transverse coherence length. More specifically, it is found that the inequalities of the source sizes in x and y directions, as well as the transverse coherence lengths, play an important role in the ghost image and the visibility. - Highlights: • We studied the ghost image and visibility with partially coherent EGSM beams. • We derived the condition under which the goal ghost image is achievable. • The visibility is assessed in terms of the parameters related to the source. • The source sizes and coherence lengths play role in the ghost image and visibility.

  10. 128 Gothicism/Ghost Stories in Nigerian Literature: Facts or Fiction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    In The Castle of Otranto, a gigantic hand in armour, a ghost ling figure, a vast helmet ... literature, the “literary ghost stories are stories written by creative artists who .... nurses, lovers, civil servants, the palm wine tapers, widows, job applicants ...

  11. CLONING HARDDISK MELALUI JARINGAN KOMPUTER DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN SOFTWARE GHOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mufadhol

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Kloning adalah proses duplikat isi harddisk ke harddisk yang lain. Jadi isi kedua harddisk adalah sama persis. Kloning harddisk dilakukan untuk mempercepat proses instalasi perangkat lunak dengan spesifikasi hardware yang sama. Kloning harddisk melalui jaringan komputer dapat dilakukan dari harddisk master ke harddisk slave atau harddisk tujuan. Pada proses kloning harddisk melalui jaringan komputer hardis induk berada di komputer server saja sedangkan slave harddisk berada di komputer klien saja. Harddisk setiap komputer tidak perlu digandeng (diparalel. Dalam melakukan kloning harddisk melalui jaringan komputer diperlukan beberapa program aplikasi antara lain: Ghost Cast Server, Boot Wizard, LAN Boot Floppy Klien, Ghost Explore. Aplikasi yang sering digunakan untuk kloning adalah software Ghost yang dirilis oleh Symantect Coorporation.

  12. 'Ghost of Mirach' Rears its Spooky Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The 'Ghost of Mirach' galaxy is shown in visible light on the left, and in ultraviolet as seen by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer on the right. The fields of view are identical in both pictures, with the Ghost of Mirach a galaxy called NGC 404 seen as the whitish spot in the center of the images. Mirach is a red giant star that looms large in visible light. Because NGC 404 is lost in the glare of this star, it was nicknamed the Ghost of Mirach. But when the galaxy is viewed in ultraviolet light, it comes to 'life,' revealing a never-before-seen ring. This ring, seen in blue in the picture on the right, contains new stars a surprise considering that the galaxy was previously thought to be, essentially, dead. The field of view spans 55,000 light years across. The Ghost of Mirach is located 11 million light-years from Earth. The star Mirach is very close in comparison it is only 200 light-years away and is visible with the naked eye. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md.

  13. Ghost circles in lattice Aubry-Mather theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mramor, Blaz; Rink, Bob

    Monotone lattice recurrence relations such as the Frenkel-Kontorova lattice, arise in Hamiltonian lattice mechanics, as models for ferromagnetism and as discretization of elliptic PDEs. Mathematically, they are a multi-dimensional counterpart of monotone twist maps. Such recurrence relations often admit a variational structure, so that the solutions x:Z→R are the stationary points of a formal action function W(x). Given any rotation vector ω∈R, classical Aubry-Mather theory establishes the existence of a large collection of solutions of ∇W(x)=0 of rotation vector ω. For irrational ω, this is the well-known Aubry-Mather set. It consists of global minimizers and it may have gaps. In this paper, we study the parabolic gradient flow {dx}/{dt}=-∇W(x) and we will prove that every Aubry-Mather set can be interpolated by a continuous gradient-flow invariant family, the so-called 'ghost circle'. The existence of these ghost circles is known in dimension d=1, for rational rotation vectors and Morse action functions. The main technical result of this paper is therefore a compactness theorem for lattice ghost circles, based on a parabolic Harnack inequality for the gradient flow. This implies the existence of lattice ghost circles of arbitrary rotation vectors and for arbitrary actions. As a consequence, we can give a simple proof of the fact that when an Aubry-Mather set has a gap, then this gap must be filled with minimizers, or contain a non-minimizing solution.

  14. Suppressing Ghost Diffraction in E-Beam-Written Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel; Backlund, Johan

    2009-01-01

    A modified scheme for electron-beam (E-beam) writing used in the fabrication of convex or concave diffraction gratings makes it possible to suppress the ghost diffraction heretofore exhibited by such gratings. Ghost diffraction is a spurious component of diffraction caused by a spurious component of grating periodicity as described below. The ghost diffraction orders appear between the main diffraction orders and are typically more intense than is the diffuse scattering from the grating. At such high intensity, ghost diffraction is the dominant source of degradation of grating performance. The pattern of a convex or concave grating is established by electron-beam writing in a resist material coating a substrate that has the desired convex or concave shape. Unfortunately, as a result of the characteristics of electrostatic deflectors used to control the electron beam, it is possible to expose only a small field - typically between 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide - at a given fixed position of the electron gun relative to the substrate. To make a grating larger than the field size, it is necessary to move the substrate to make it possible to write fields centered at different positions, so that the larger area is synthesized by "stitching" the exposed fields.

  15. Vertex operator construction of superconformal ghosts and string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Z.F.; Nakamura, S.; Tezuka, A.

    1987-01-01

    Superconformal ghosts in string theories are characterized by the SU(1,1) Kac-Moody algebra with central charge -1/2. These ghost fields are constructed as the vertex operators realizing spinor representations of the Kac-Moody algebra. Representations of the canonical commutation relations of the superconformal ghosts are analyzed extensively. All irreducible representations are found to possess only the trivial inner product but for one exceptional case. Consequently, in superstring field theory it is necessary to consider reducible representations in general. Hilbert spaces with a non-trivial inner product are explicitly obtained upon which second quantization of superstring may be carried out. (orig.)

  16. Defocusing effects of lensless ghost imaging and ghost diffraction with partially coherent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang-Xi; Sheng, Wei; Bi, Yu-Bo; Luo, Chun-Ling

    2018-04-01

    The defocusing effect is inevitable and degrades the image quality in the conventional optical imaging process significantly due to the close confinement of the imaging lens. Based on classical optical coherent theory and linear algebra, we develop a unified formula to describe the defocusing effects of both lensless ghost imaging (LGI) and lensless ghost diffraction (LGD) systems with a partially coherent source. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the influence of defocusing length on the quality of LGI and LGD. We find that the defocusing effects of the test and reference paths in the LGI or LGD systems are entirely different, while the LGD system is more robust against defocusing than the LGI system. Specifically, we find that the imaging process for LGD systems can be viewed as pinhole imaging, which may find applications in ultra-short-wave band imaging without imaging lenses, e.g. x-ray diffraction and γ-ray imaging.

  17. Loop expansion in massless three-dimensional QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.I.; Radulovic, Z.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown how the loop expansion in massless three-dimensional QED can be made finite, up to three loops, by absorbing the infrared divergences in a gauge-fixing term. The same method removes leading and first subleading singularities to all orders of perturbation theory, and all singularities of the fermion self-energy to four loops

  18. Translation-invariant global charges in a local scattering theory of massless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strube, D.

    1989-01-01

    The present thesis is dedicated to the study for specifically translation-invariant charges in the framework of a Wightman field theory without mass gap. The aim consists thereby in the determination of the effect of the charge operator on asymptotic scattering states of massless particles. In the first section the most important results in the massive case and of the present thesis in the massless case are presented. The object of the second section is the construction of asymptotic scattering states. In the third section the charge operator, which is first only defined on strictly local vectors, is extended to these scattering states, on which it acts additively. Finally an infinitesimal transformation of scalar asymptotic fields is determined. By this for the special case of translation-invariant generators and scalar massless asymptotic fields the same results is present as in the massive case. (orig./HSI) [de

  19. Ghost Imaging Using Orbital Angular Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵生妹; 丁建; 董小亮; 郑宝玉

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum. In the signal arm, object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix. For an N-grey-scale object, different phase matrices, varying from 0 to K with increment n/N, are used for different greyscales, and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator. According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system, these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement, and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm. By simulations and experiments, the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively. Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum, our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.%We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum.In the signal arm,object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix.For an N-grey-scale object,different phase matrices,varying from 0 to π with increment π/N,are used for different greyscales,and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator.According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system,these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement,and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm.By simulations and experiments,the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively.Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum,our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.

  20. Quantum spreading of a self-gravitating wave-packet in singularity free gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we will study for the first time how the wave-packet of a self-gravitating meso-scopic system spreads in theories beyond Einstein's general relativity. In particular, we will consider a ghost-free infinite derivative gravity, which resolves the 1 / r singularity in the potential - such that the gradient of the potential vanishes within the scale of non-locality. We will show that a quantum wave-packet spreads faster for a ghost-free and singularity-free gravity as compared to the Newtonian case, therefore providing us a unique scenario for testing classical and quantum properties of short-distance gravity in a laboratory in the near future.

  1. Ombud’s corner: Do you believe in ghosts?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    “Ghosting” is the common term used to describe situations when a piece of work is done by somebody but credited to somebody else. Ghosting often occurs in creative fields, such as writing texts, music, developing graphic charters or translating. Let’s celebrate Halloween this year by acknowledging the contributions of all the CERN ghosts who work tirelessly behind the scenes in all areas of the Organization.   “Ghosting” is a recognised job with international professional associations, particularly in the field of text writing. The role requires strict anonymity, good reciprocal trust and understanding between the people involved, and the professional flexibility to be able to adapt to different situations and different styles of expression as needed. At CERN there are many ghosts: you can find them in the Translation and Minute-writing service, whose members also provide valuable editing and proof-reading skills; in the Communications group w...

  2. AXAF-I ghost ray study: On orbit case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetz, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of baffles for control of singly reflected (and nonreflected) ghost rays is considered. The theory of baffle design for Wolter Type I grazing incidence optics is reviewed, and a set of sample baffle parameters is obtained subject to the assumptions of nominal mirror figures and perfect manufacture and alignment of baffles. It is found that baffles forward of the optics (in the thermal precollimator) and between the mirror elements (at the CAP) are sufficient to allow the simultaneous ghost image and vignetting requirements to be satisfied for HRMA shells P1H1, P3H3, and P4H4. However, these baffles are not sufficient for the innermost shell P6H6; at best the requirements are slightly violated and there is no margin for tolerances. The addition of a baffle interior to the P6 space at an axial station about one third of the way forward from the aft end of the paraboloid will allow the ghost ray and vignetting requirements to be met. The minimum ghost ray angles and the vignetting angles are sensitive functions of the baffle positions and radii; tolerances of considerably better than 1 mm will be required. The sensitivities are coupled and correlated; further investigations should be undertaken in order to obtain baffle parameters which, combined with likely achievable tolerances, will minimize the risk of the vignetting/ghost ray requirements not being met. The lightweight carbon-epoxy composite used for thermal baffles has insufficient X-ray opacity to be a suitable material for construction of the controlling X-ray baffles; further study is needed to determine an appropriate material and to investigate its thermal and mechanical implications.

  3. An improved ghost-cell immersed boundary method for compressible flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Chi, Cheng; Lee, Bok Jik; Im, Hong G.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary

  4. Nonplanar loops leave the Veneziano model photon massless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of a pole at p2=0 in the orientable nonplanar one-loop photon self-energy in the Veneziano model is verified. Thus the photon remains massless, and spontaneous symmetry breaking - at least as reported in this context in the literature - is not found.

  5. Nonplanar loops leave the Veneziano model photon massless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of a pole at p 2 =0 in the orientable nonplanar one-loop photon self-energy in the Veneziano model is verified. Thus the photon remains massless, and spontaneous symmetry breaking - at least as reported in this context in the literature - is not found. (orig.)

  6. Nonplanar loops leave the Veneziano model photon massless

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-04-16

    The absence of a pole at p/sup 2/=0 in the orientable nonplanar one-loop photon self-energy in the Veneziano model is verified. Thus the photon remains massless, and spontaneous symmetry breaking - at least as reported in this context in the literature - is not found.

  7. Effects of the quark field on the ghost propagator of lattice Landau gauge QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furui, Sadataka; Nakajima, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Infrared features of the ghost propagator of color-diagonal and color antisymmetric ghost propagator of quenched SU(2) and quenched SU(3) are compared with those of unquenched Kogut-Susskind fermion SU(3) lattice Landau gauge. We compare (i) the fluctuation of the ghost propagator (ii) the ghost condensate parameter v of the local composite operator (LCO) approach, and (iii) the Binder cumulant of color antisymmetric ghost propagator between quenched and unquenched configurations. The color-diagonal SU(3) ghost dressing function of unquenched configurations has weaker singularity than the quenched configurations. In both cases fluctuations become large in q c configuration samples is ∼0.002-0.04 GeV 2 while that of the SU(2) parallel tempering samples is consistent with 0. The Binder cumulant defined as U(q)=1-(1/3)( 4 >/( 2 >) 2 ), where φ-vector(q) is the color antisymmetric ghost propagator measured by the sample average of gauge fixed configurations via parallel tempering method, becomes ∼4/9 in all the momentum region. The Binder cumulant of the color antisymmetric ghost propagator of quenched SU(2) can be explained by the 3D Gaussian distribution, but that of the unquenched MILC c deviates slightly from that of the eight-dimensional Gaussian distribution. The stronger singularity and large fluctuation in the quenched configuration could be the cause of the deviation of the Kugo-Ojima confinement parameter c from 1, and the presence of ordering in the ghost propagator of unquenched configurations makes it closer to 1

  8. Geometrical theory of ghost and Higgs fields and SU(2/1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.; Thierry-Mieg, J.

    1979-10-01

    That a Principal Fiber Bundle provides a precise geometrical representation of Yang-Mills gauge theories has been known since 1963 and used since 1975. This work presents an entirely new domain of applications. The Feynman-DeWitt-Fadeev-Popov ghost-fields required in the renormalization procedure are identified with geometrical objects in the Principal Bundle. This procedure directly yields the BRS equations guaranteeing unitarity and Slavnov-Taylor invariance of the quantum effective Lagrangian. Except for one ghost field and its variation, this entire symmetry thus corresponds to classical notions, in that it is geometrical, and completely independent of the gauge-fixing procedure, which determines the quantized Lagrangian. These results may be used to fix the signs associated with the various ghost loops of quantum supergravity. The result is based upon the identification of a geometrical Z(2) x Z(2) double-gradation of the generalized fields in supergravity: [physical/ghost] fields and [integer/half integer] spins. Then the case of a supergroup as an internal symmetry gauge is considered. Ghosts geometrically associated to odd generators may be identified with the Goldstone-Nambu Higgs-Kibble scalar fields of conventional models with spontaneous symmetry breakdown. As an example, the chiral SU(3)/sub L/ x SU(3)/sub R/ flavor symmetry is realized by gauging the supergroup Q(3).Lastly, the main results concerning asthenodynamics (Weak-EM Unification) as given by the ghost-gauge SU(2/1) supergroup are recalled. 1 table

  9. Ghost tablet in feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Morishita, Yosuke; Urata, Haruo; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we encountered a female patient who identified the presence of a ghost tablet in her fecal matter. Interestingly, although the patient was prescribed potassium chloride capsules, elemental composition analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was unable to detect the presence of either potassium or chloride in the fecal tablet remnant.

  10. Ghostly footsteps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2001-01-01

    ), which is set in east London. Connections are also drawn with other recent projects in the same area by Rachel Lichtenstein and Iain Sinclair. The paper discusses how these artists raise important issues about the cultural geographies of the city relating to subjectivity, representation and memory....... Cardiff’s audio-walk in particular works with connections between the self and the city, between the conscious and unconscious, and between multiple selves and urban footsteps. In so doing, she directs attention to the significance of dreams and ghostly matters for thinking about the real and imagined...

  11. [3H]Ouabain binding and Na+, K+-ATPase in resealed human red cell ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, D.G.; Lauf, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of the cardiac glycoside [ 3 H]ouabain with the Na+, K+ pump of resealed human erythrocyte ghosts was investigated. Binding of [ 3 H]ouabain to high intracellular Na+ ghosts was studied in high extracellular Na+ media, a condition determined to produce maximal ouabain binding rates. Simultaneous examination of both the number of ouabain molecules bound per ghost and the corresponding inhibition of the Na+, K+-ATPase revealed that one molecule of [ 3 H]ouabain inhibited one Na+, K+-ATPase complex. Intracellular magnesium or magnesium plus inorganic phosphate produced the lowest ouabain binding rate. Support of ouabain binding by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was negligible, provided synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the residual adenylate kinase activity was prevented by the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A. Uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) alone did not support ouabain binding after inhibition of the endogenous nucleoside diphosphokinase by trypan blue and depletion of residual ATP by the incorporation of hexokinase and glucose. ATP acting solely at the high-affinity binding site of the Na+, K+ pump (Km approximately 1 microM) promoted maximal [ 3 H]ouabain binding rates. Failure of 5'-adenylyl-beta-gamma-imidophosphate (AMP-PNP) to stimulate significantly the rate of ouabain binding suggests that phosphorylation of the pump was required to expose the ouabain receptor

  12. Internal space-time symmetries of massive and massless particles and their unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    It is noted that the internal space-time symmetries of relativistic particles are dictated by Wigner's little groups. The symmetry of massive particles is like the three-dimensional rotation group, while the symmetry of massless particles is locally isomorphic to the two-dimensional Euclidean group. It is noted also that, while the rotational degree of freedom for a massless particle leads to its helicity, the two translational degrees of freedom correspond to its gauge degrees of freedom. It is shown that the E(2)-like symmetry of of massless particles can be obtained as an infinite-momentum and/or zero-mass limit of the O(3)-like symmetry of massive particles. This mechanism is illustrated in terms of a sphere elongating into a cylinder. In this way, the helicity degree of freedom remains invariant under the Lorentz boost, but the transverse rotational degrees of freedom become contracted into the gauge degree of freedom

  13. Wall-Current-Monitor based Ghost and Satellite Bunch Detection in the CERN PS and the LHC Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, R J; Belleman, J; Bohl, T; Damerau, H

    2012-01-01

    While most LHC detectors and instrumentation systems are optimised for a nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns, the LHC RF cavities themselves operate at the 10th harmonic of the maximum bunch frequency. Due to the beam production scheme and transfers in the injector chain, part of the nominally ‘empty’ RF buckets may contain particles, referred to as ghost or satellite bunches. These populations must be accurately quantified for high-precision experiments, luminosity calibration and control of parasitic particle encounters at the four LHC interaction points. This contribution summarises the wall-current-monitor based ghost and satellite bunch measurements in CERN’s PS and LHC accelerators. Instrumentation set-up, post-processing and achieved performance are discussed.

  14. Y-formalism and b ghost in the non-minimal pure spinor formalism of superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Ichiro; Tonin, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We present the Y-formalism for the non-minimal pure spinor quantization of superstrings. In the framework of this formalism we compute, at the quantum level, the explicit form of the compound operators involved in the construction of the b ghost, their normal-ordering contributions and the relevant relations among them. We use these results to construct the quantum-mechanical b ghost in the non-minimal pure spinor formalism. Moreover we show that this non-minimal b ghost is cohomologically equivalent to the non-covariant b ghost

  15. Burning behavior in a poor-ventilation compartment fire - ghosting fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawa, Osami; Kawagoe, Kunio; Oka, Yasushi

    1991-01-01

    We investigated compartment fire behavior under poor-ventilation conditions using a methyl alcohol pool fire as the source with a diameter of 30 cm set in a tight box of 2 m (W)x3 m(L)x0.6 m(H). The temperatures in the box and the fuel, gas concentrations of CO, CO 2 , and O 2 , and the fuel consumption rate were measured simultaneously. The burning fuel surface level was kept constant during the test by means of an automatic fuel supply system. It was found that the flame begun to detach from the fuel surface as the oxygen concentration decreased to about 16%, and the color changed to pale blue. The flame detached completely from the fuel and a 'ghosting flame' was observed just under the ceiling which showed a thin pale blue flame and looked line an aurora. The oxygen concentration measured in the ghosting period under the ceiling was 9-10 vol%, and CO 2 was 4.5 vol% so that the oxygen of such concentration acted as in inert gas. CO 2 gas concentration looked almost a single-layer with gradient in the upper half part in ghosting period. Temperatures in the same layer decreased after ghosting occurred with gradient. For poor-ventilated fires, air exchange rate as 1.6-2.4 times/hr was estimated in the test; the burning rate decreased finally to about 1/6 of the fuel controlled fire. It has been tacitly assumed that the flame (reaction zone) and pyrolyzing material area (fuel) exit in almost the same zone, but ghosting fire is not necessarily the case. Therefore, extinguishment of ghosting fire which may occur in an enclosure with fuel and energy rich but poor-ventilation such as a power plant will be extremely difficult. (orig.)

  16. 'Interaction-free' measurement: possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyatchanin, Sergei P; Khalili, Farit Ya

    2004-01-01

    The so-called 'interaction-free' measurement is a very interesting quantum effect that allows discovering the presence of an opaque object in a given spatial domain, with the probability that the object absorbs a photon being, in principle, as low as desired. This probability is bounded from below only by a value of the order of 1/ωτ, where ω is the frequency of light and τ is the measurement time. This corresponds to the average absorbed energy of the order of ℎ/τ. The 'interaction-free' technique can also be used to measure the coordinate of an object but only under the condition that the object is prepared in a special 'discretized' quantum state. Such is, for instance, the state of a ponderomotive meter of electromagnetic energy, which, in principle, enables the interaction-free' measurement of the energy contained in an electromagnetic cavity. Estimations show that with modern experimental equipment and with the help of 'interaction-free' measurement, single atoms can be registered inside optical cavities. (methodological notes)

  17. The gravitational shock wave of a massless particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't; Dray, T

    1985-01-01

    The (spherical) gravitational shock wave due to a massless particle moving at the speed of light along the horizon of the Schwarzchild black hole is obtained. Special cases of our procedure yield previous results by Aichelburg and Sexl[1] for a photon in Minkowski vpace and by Penrose [2] for

  18. Antioxidant effect of 4-nerolidylcatechol and α-tocopherol in erythrocyte ghost membranes and phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.S.; Silva, A.H.M.; Mendanha, S.A.; Rezende, K.R.; Alonso, A.

    2013-01-01

    4-Nerolidylcatechol (4-NC) is found in Pothomorphe umbellata root extracts and is reported to have a topical protective effect against UVB radiation-induced skin damage, toxicity in melanoma cell lines, and antimalarial activity. We report a comparative study of the antioxidant activity of 4-NC and α-tocopherol against lipid peroxidation initiated by two free radical-generating systems: 2,2′-azobis(2-aminopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and FeSO 4 /H 2 O 2 , in red blood cell ghost membranes and in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. Lipid peroxidation was monitored by membrane fluidity changes assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of a spin-labeled lipid and by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. When lipoperoxidation was initiated by the hydroxyl radical in erythrocyte ghost membranes, both 4-NC and α-tocopherol acted in a very efficient manner. However, lower activities were observed when lipoperoxidation was initiated by the peroxyl radical; and, in this case, the protective effect of α-tocopherol was lower than that of 4-NC. In egg PC vesicles, malondialdehyde formation indicated that 4-NC was effective against lipoperoxidation initiated by both AAPH and FeSO 4 /H 2 O 2 , whereas α-tocopherol was less efficient in protecting against lipoperoxidation by AAPH, and behaved as a pro-oxidant for FeSO 4 /H 2 O 2 . The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical assay indicated that two free radicals were scavenged per 4-NC molecule, and one free radical was scavenged per α-tocopherol molecule. These data provide new insights into the antioxidant capacity of 4-NC, which may have therapeutic applications for formulations designed to protect the skin from sunlight irradiation

  19. Quantum spreading of a self-gravitating wave-packet in singularity free gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buoninfante, Luca [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' , Fisciano (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); University of Groningen, Van Swinderen Institute, Groningen (Netherlands); Lambiase, Gaetano [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' , Fisciano (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Mazumdar, Anupam [University of Groningen, Van Swinderen Institute, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper we will study for the first time how the wave-packet of a self-gravitating meso-scopic system spreads in theories beyond Einstein's general relativity. In particular, we will consider a ghost-free infinite derivative gravity, which resolves the 1/r singularity in the potential - such that the gradient of the potential vanishes within the scale of non-locality. We will show that a quantum wave-packet spreads faster for a ghost-free and singularity-free gravity as compared to the Newtonian case, therefore providing us a unique scenario for testing classical and quantum properties of short-distance gravity in a laboratory in the near future. (orig.)

  20. Simplified pure spinor b ghost in a curved heterotic superstring background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovits, Nathan [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista,Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-03

    Using the RNS-like fermionic vector variables introduced in arXiv:1305.0693, the pure spinor b ghost in a curved heterotic superstring background is easily constructed. This construction simplifies and completes the b ghost construction in a curved background of arXiv:1311.7012.

  1. Ghost quintessence in fractal gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, using the time-like fractal theory of gravity, we mainly focus on the ghost ... Here a(t) is the cosmic scale factor and it measures the expansion of the Universe. ..... effectively appear as self-conserved dark energy, with a non-trivial ...

  2. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, David J; Eggert, J H; Celliers, P M; Hicks, D G

    2016-03-01

    A VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a Doppler velocity interferometer which is an important optical diagnostic in shockwave experiments at the national laboratories, used to measure equation of state (EOS) of materials under extreme conditions. Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can distort and obscure the true velocity signal. Accurately removing this so-called ghost artifact component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOS measurements, especially when the true light signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing the raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the proper center of this path, even under time varying intensity which can shift the perceived center. The ghost contribution is then solved by a simple translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous path. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe magnitude vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is an invaluable tool for determining accurate ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed graphically inspired methods which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities or assumptions of constant fringe magnitude to find the ghost offset. The technique can also remove window reflection artifacts in generic interferometers, such as in the metrology of surfaces.

  3. Exorcising the Ostrogradsky ghost in coupled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Remko; Roest, Diederik [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-07-27

    The Ostrogradsky theorem implies that higher-derivative terms of a single mechanical variable are either trivial or lead to additional, ghost-like degrees of freedom. In this letter we systematically investigate how the introduction of additional variables can remedy this situation. Employing a Lagrangian analysis, we identify conditions on the Lagrangian to ensure the existence of primary and secondary constraints that together imply the absence of Ostrogradsky ghosts. We also show the implications of these conditions for the structure of the equations of motion as well as possible redefinitions of the variables. We discuss applications to analogous higher-derivative field theories such as multi-Galileons and beyond Horndeski.

  4. Exorcising the Ostrogradsky ghost in coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Remko; Roest, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    The Ostrogradsky theorem implies that higher-derivative terms of a single mechanical variable are either trivial or lead to additional, ghost-like degrees of freedom. In this letter we systematically investigate how the introduction of additional variables can remedy this situation. Employing a Lagrangian analysis, we identify conditions on the Lagrangian to ensure the existence of primary and secondary constraints that together imply the absence of Ostrogradsky ghosts. We also show the implications of these conditions for the structure of the equations of motion as well as possible redefinitions of the variables. We discuss applications to analogous higher-derivative field theories such as multi-Galileons and beyond Horndeski.

  5. The Fermion boson interaction within the linear sigma model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, H.C.G.

    2000-01-01

    We study the interaction of massless bosons at finite temperature. Specifically, we calculate the self-energy of massless fermions due to interaction with massless bosons at high temperature, which is the region where thermal effects are maximal. The calculations are concentrated in the limit of vanishing fermion three momentum and after considering the effective boson dressed mass, we obtain the damping rate of the fermion. It is shown that in the limit k O 2 T + g 3 T. (author)

  6. Heavy spin-2 Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichev, Eugeny [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay (France); UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Schmidt-May, Angnis [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Urban, Federico; Veermäe, Hardi [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Strauss, Mikael von [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2016-09-12

    We provide further details on a recent proposal addressing the nature of the dark sectors in cosmology and demonstrate that all current observations related to Dark Matter can be explained by the presence of a heavy spin-2 particle. Massive spin-2 fields and their gravitational interactions are uniquely described by ghost-free bimetric theory, which is a minimal and natural extension of General Relativity. In this setup, the largeness of the physical Planck mass is naturally related to extremely weak couplings of the heavy spin-2 field to baryonic matter and therefore explains the absence of signals in experiments dedicated to Dark Matter searches. It also ensures the phenomenological viability of our model as we confirm by comparing it with cosmological and local tests of gravity. At the same time, the spin-2 field possesses standard gravitational interactions and it decays universally into all Standard Model fields but not into massless gravitons. Matching the measured DM abundance together with the requirement of stability constrains the spin-2 mass to be in the 1 to 100 TeV range.

  7. An Improved Ghost-cell Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Inviscid Flow Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Chi, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an improved ghost-cell immersed boundary approach to represent a solid body in compressible flow simulations. In contrast to the commonly used approaches, in the present work ghost cells are mirrored through the boundary

  8. Getting started with Ghost

    CERN Document Server

    Bracey, Kezz; Balderston, David

    2014-01-01

    If you are new to Ghost, this book is ideal for you. You might be completely new to content management systems or you might have experience with others such as WordPress. Some knowledge of web design basics such as HTML and CSS will be useful, but the book is designed so you can enter at the point relevant to you.

  9. Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaohui; Huang, Xianwei; Nan, Suqin; Li, Hengxing; Bai, Yanfeng; Fu, Xiquan

    2018-04-01

    Detector noise has a significantly negative impact on ghost imaging at low light levels, especially for existing recovery algorithm. Based on the characteristics of the additive detector noise, a method named modified compressive sensing ghost imaging is proposed to reduce the background imposed by the randomly distributed detector noise at signal path. Experimental results show that, with an appropriate choice of threshold value, modified compressive sensing ghost imaging algorithm can dramatically enhance the contrast-to-noise ratio of the object reconstruction significantly compared with traditional ghost imaging and compressive sensing ghost imaging methods. The relationship between the contrast-to-noise ratio of the reconstruction image and the intensity ratio (namely, the average signal intensity to average noise intensity ratio) for the three reconstruction algorithms are also discussed. This noise suppression imaging technique will have great applications in remote-sensing and security areas.

  10. Ghosts in the self-accelerating DGP branch with Gauss–Bonnet effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yen-Wei; Izumi, Keisuke; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2015-06-01

    The Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati brane-world model provides a possible approach to address the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, it has subsequently been pointed out that a ghost instability will arise on the self-accelerating branch. Here, we carefully investigate whether this ghost problem could be possibly cured by introducing the Gauss–Bonnet term in the five-dimensional bulk action, a natural generalization to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model. Our analysis is carried out for a background where a de Sitter brane is embedded in an anti–de Sitter bulk. Our result shows that the ghost excitations cannot be avoided even in this modified model.

  11. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, S; Castelletto, S; Aruldoss, C; Scholten, R E; Roberts, A

    2007-01-01

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres

  12. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, S; Castelletto, S; Aruldoss, C; Scholten, R E; Roberts, A [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres.

  13. Honorary and ghost authorship in nursing publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Maureen Shawn; Barnsteiner, Jane; Daly, John

    2014-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the prevalence of articles with honorary authors and ghost authors in 10 leading peer-reviewed nursing journals between 2010 to 2012; (b) compare the results to prevalence reported by authors of articles published in high-impact medical journals; and (c) assess the experiences of editors in the International Academy of Nursing Editors with honorary and guest authorship. Corresponding authors of articles published in 10 nursing journals between 2010 and 2012 were invited to complete an online survey about the contributions of coauthors to see if the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors () criteria for authorship were met. Additionally, members of the International Academy of Nursing Editors were invited to complete an online survey about their experiences in identifying honorary or ghost authors in articles submitted for publication. The prevalence of articles published in 10 nursing journals with honorary authors was 42%, and the prevalence of ghost authorship was 27.6%. This is a greater prevalence than what has been reported among medical journals. Qualitative data yielded five themes: lack of awareness around the rules for authorship; acknowledged need for debate, discussion, and promotion of ethical practice; knowingly tolerating, and sometimes deliberately promoting, transgressions in practice; power relations and expectations; and avoiding scrutiny. Among the 60 respondents to the editor survey, 22 (36.7%) reported identifying honorary authors and 13 (21.7%) reported ghost authors among papers submitted to their publications. Inappropriate authorship is a significant problem among scholarly nursing publications. If nursing scholarship is to maintain integrity and be considered trustworthy, and if publications are to be a factor in professional advancement, editors, nursing leaders, and faculty need to disseminate and adhere to ethical authorship practices. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Ghost-tree: creating hybrid-gene phylogenetic trees for diversity analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquier, Jennifer; Rideout, Jai Ram; Bolyen, Evan; Chase, John; Shiffer, Arron; McDonald, Daniel; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Kelley, Scott T

    2016-02-24

    Fungi play critical roles in many ecosystems, cause serious diseases in plants and animals, and pose significant threats to human health and structural integrity problems in built environments. While most fungal diversity remains unknown, the development of PCR primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) combined with next-generation sequencing has substantially improved our ability to profile fungal microbial diversity. Although the high sequence variability in the ITS region facilitates more accurate species identification, it also makes multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis unreliable across evolutionarily distant fungi because the sequences are hard to align accurately. To address this issue, we created ghost-tree, a bioinformatics tool that integrates sequence data from two genetic markers into a single phylogenetic tree that can be used for diversity analyses. Our approach starts with a "foundation" phylogeny based on one genetic marker whose sequences can be aligned across organisms spanning divergent taxonomic groups (e.g., fungal families). Then, "extension" phylogenies are built for more closely related organisms (e.g., fungal species or strains) using a second more rapidly evolving genetic marker. These smaller phylogenies are then grafted onto the foundation tree by mapping taxonomic names such that each corresponding foundation-tree tip would branch into its new "extension tree" child. We applied ghost-tree to graft fungal extension phylogenies derived from ITS sequences onto a foundation phylogeny derived from fungal 18S sequences. Our analysis of simulated and real fungal ITS data sets found that phylogenetic distances between fungal communities computed using ghost-tree phylogenies explained significantly more variance than non-phylogenetic distances. The phylogenetic metrics also improved our ability to distinguish small differences (effect sizes) between microbial communities, though results were similar to non

  15. Generalized Galileons: instabilities of bouncing and Genesis cosmologies and modified Genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libanov, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Mironov, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Physics Faculty,M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,Vorobjevy Gory, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-18

    We study spatially flat bouncing cosmologies and models with the early-time Genesis epoch in a popular class of generalized Galileon theories. We ask whether there exist solutions of these types which are free of gradient and ghost instabilities. We find that irrespectively of the forms of the Lagrangian functions, the bouncing models either are plagued with these instabilities or have singularities. The same result holds for the original Genesis model and its variants in which the scale factor tends to a constant as t→−∞. The result remains valid in theories with additional matter that obeys the Null Energy Condition and interacts with the Galileon only gravitationally. We propose a modified Genesis model which evades our no-go argument and give an explicit example of healthy cosmology that connects the modified Genesis epoch with kination (the epoch still driven by the Galileon field, which is a conventional massless scalar field at that stage).

  16. How to translate a massless particle (the Weyl neutrino)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    Previous work indicated a deep connection between translations and rotations for a Weyl neutrino (a massless particle). In the letter the explicit form of a translation in the z-direction is given assuming a translation operator of the form esup(i anti g.anti x). (author)

  17. On the quantization of free fields of spin 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigore, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The second quantization of an 'elementary' particle, that is a projective unitary irreducible representation of the Poincare group (H,U) (here the first entry is the Hilbert space where the representation U acts) is a prescription of constructing an associated Hilbert space (called Fock space) H phys ≡ F ± (H), where the sign indicates the statistics. For particles of higher spin, appearing in electromagnetism, Yang-Mills theories or gravitation it is convenient to extend the Fock space by adding fictitious particles (called ghosts). If the extended Hilbert space is H gh then one tries to determine an operator Q, called supercharge which verifies Q 2 = 0 and such that the physical Hilbert space is H phys = Ker(Q) Im(Q). The rigorous proof of this equivalence seems to be missing from the literature. Although, no general theorem of this type seems to be available, this is a proof for the case of the massless particle, of helicity 1 (photon), the massive particle of spin 1, (heavy Bosons) and massless spin 2 particle (the graviton). As a consequence, we argue that the condition of gauge invariance which is generally postulated in these theories, is in fact not an independent axiom but the rather natural condition that the S-matrix factorizes to the physical Hilbert space. (author)

  18. The massless supersymmetric ladder with L rungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, G.C.; Stanev, Ya.S.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in the massless N=1 supersymmetric Wess-Zumino theory it is possible to devise a computational strategy by which the x-space calculation of the ladder 4-point correlators can be carried out without introducing any regularization. As an application we derive a representation valid at all loop orders in terms of conformal invariant integrals. We obtain an explicit expression of the 3-loop ladder diagram for collinear external points

  19. Antioxidant effect of 4-nerolidylcatechol and α-tocopherol in erythrocyte ghost membranes and phospholipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K.S.; Silva, A.H.M.; Mendanha, S.A.; Rezende, K.R.; Alonso, A.

    2013-01-01

    4-Nerolidylcatechol (4-NC) is found in Pothomorphe umbellata root extracts and is reported to have a topical protective effect against UVB radiation-induced skin damage, toxicity in melanoma cell lines, and antimalarial activity. We report a comparative study of the antioxidant activity of 4-NC and α-tocopherol against lipid peroxidation initiated by two free radical-generating systems: 2,2′-azobis(2-aminopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and FeSO4/H2O2, in red blood cell ghost membranes and in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. Lipid peroxidation was monitored by membrane fluidity changes assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of a spin-labeled lipid and by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. When lipoperoxidation was initiated by the hydroxyl radical in erythrocyte ghost membranes, both 4-NC and α-tocopherol acted in a very efficient manner. However, lower activities were observed when lipoperoxidation was initiated by the peroxyl radical; and, in this case, the protective effect of α-tocopherol was lower than that of 4-NC. In egg PC vesicles, malondialdehyde formation indicated that 4-NC was effective against lipoperoxidation initiated by both AAPH and FeSO4/H2O2, whereas α-tocopherol was less efficient in protecting against lipoperoxidation by AAPH, and behaved as a pro-oxidant for FeSO4/H2O2. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical assay indicated that two free radicals were scavenged per 4-NC molecule, and one free radical was scavenged per α-tocopherol molecule. These data provide new insights into the antioxidant capacity of 4-NC, which may have therapeutic applications for formulations designed to protect the skin from sunlight irradiation. PMID:24068194

  20. Antioxidant effect of 4-nerolidylcatechol and α-tocopherol in erythrocyte ghost membranes and phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K. S.; Silva, A. H.M.; Mendanha, S. A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Rezende, K. R. [Laboratório de Biofarmácia e Farmacocinética de Substâncias Bioativas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Alonso, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2013-09-06

    4-Nerolidylcatechol (4-NC) is found in Pothomorphe umbellata root extracts and is reported to have a topical protective effect against UVB radiation-induced skin damage, toxicity in melanoma cell lines, and antimalarial activity. We report a comparative study of the antioxidant activity of 4-NC and α-tocopherol against lipid peroxidation initiated by two free radical-generating systems: 2,2′-azobis(2-aminopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) and FeSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, in red blood cell ghost membranes and in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. Lipid peroxidation was monitored by membrane fluidity changes assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of a spin-labeled lipid and by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. When lipoperoxidation was initiated by the hydroxyl radical in erythrocyte ghost membranes, both 4-NC and α-tocopherol acted in a very efficient manner. However, lower activities were observed when lipoperoxidation was initiated by the peroxyl radical; and, in this case, the protective effect of α-tocopherol was lower than that of 4-NC. In egg PC vesicles, malondialdehyde formation indicated that 4-NC was effective against lipoperoxidation initiated by both AAPH and FeSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, whereas α-tocopherol was less efficient in protecting against lipoperoxidation by AAPH, and behaved as a pro-oxidant for FeSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical assay indicated that two free radicals were scavenged per 4-NC molecule, and one free radical was scavenged per α-tocopherol molecule. These data provide new insights into the antioxidant capacity of 4-NC, which may have therapeutic applications for formulations designed to protect the skin from sunlight irradiation.

  1. Adaptive compressive ghost imaging based on wavelet trees and sparse representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Li, Ming-Fei; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Ling-An; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2014-03-24

    Compressed sensing is a theory which can reconstruct an image almost perfectly with only a few measurements by finding its sparsest representation. However, the computation time consumed for large images may be a few hours or more. In this work, we both theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a method that combines the advantages of both adaptive computational ghost imaging and compressed sensing, which we call adaptive compressive ghost imaging, whereby both the reconstruction time and measurements required for any image size can be significantly reduced. The technique can be used to improve the performance of all computational ghost imaging protocols, especially when measuring ultra-weak or noisy signals, and can be extended to imaging applications at any wavelength.

  2. The b ghost of the pure spinor formalism is nilpotent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo, E-mail: osvaldo.chandia@uai.c [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-01-10

    The ghost for world-sheet reparametrization invariance is not a fundamental field in the pure spinor formalism. It is written as a combination of pure spinor variables which have conformal dimension two and such that it commutes with the BRST operator to give the world-sheet stress tensor. We show that the ghost variable defined in this way is nilpotent since the OPE of b with itself does not have singularities.

  3. The Ghost in the Touchscreen: Social Scaffolds Promote Learning by Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Laura; Moser, Alecia; Lee, Herietta; Gerhardstein, Peter; Barr, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a "ghost" demonstration on toddlers' imitation. In the "ghost" condition, virtual pieces moved to make a fish or boat puzzle. Fifty-two 2.5- and 3-year-olds were tested on a touchscreen (no transfer) or with 3D pieces (transfer); children tested with 3D pieces scored above a no demonstration…

  4. Renormalization and operator product expansion in theories with massless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, S.A.; Smirnov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Renormalization procedure in theories including massless particles is presented. With the help of counterterm formalism the operator product expansion for arbitrary composite fields is derived. The coefficient functions are explicitly expressed in terms of certain Green's functions. (author)

  5. Systematics, phylogeny, and taphonomy of ghost shrimps (Decapoda): a perspective from the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps of Callianassidae and Ctenochelidae are soft-bodied, usually heterochelous decapods representing major bioturbators of muddy and sandy (sub)marine substrates. Ghost shrimps have a robust fossil record spanning from the Early Cretaceous (~ 133 Ma) to the Holocene and their remains are present in most assemblages of Cenozoic decapod crustaceans. Their taxonomic interpretation is in flux, mainly because the generic assignment is hindered by their insufficient preservation and disagreement in the biological classification. Furthermore, numerous taxa are incorrectly classified within the catch-all taxon Callianassa. To show the historical patterns in describing fossil ghost shrimps and to evaluate taphonomic aspects influencing the attribution of ghost shrimp remains to higher level taxa, a database of all fossil species treated at some time as belonging to the group has been compiled: 250 / 274 species are considered valid ghost shrimp taxa herein. More than half of these taxa (160 species, 58.4%) are known only from distal cheliped elements, i.e., dactylus and / or propodus, due to the more calcified cuticle locally. Rarely, ghost shrimps are preserved in situ in burrows or in direct association with them, and several previously unpublished occurrences are reported herein. For generic assignment, fossil material should be compared to living species because many of them have modern relatives. Heterochely, intraspecific variation, ontogenetic changes and sexual dimorphism are all factors that have to be taken into account when working with fossil ghost shrimps. Distal elements are usually more variable than proximal ones. Preliminary results suggest that the ghost shrimp clade emerged not before the Hauterivian (~ 133 Ma). The divergence of Ctenochelidae and Paracalliacinae is estimated to occur within the interval of Hauterivian to Albian (133–100 Ma). Callichirinae and Eucalliacinae likely diverged later during the Late Cretaceous (100–66 Ma

  6. String-localized quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de

    2009-01-01

    Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)

  7. A review of ghost gear entanglement amongst marine mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelfox, Martin; Hudgins, Jillian; Sweet, Michael

    2016-10-15

    This review focuses on the effect that ghost gear entanglement has on marine megafauna, namely mammals, reptiles and elasmobranchs. A total of 76 publications and other sources of grey literature were assessed, and these highlighted that over 5400 individuals from 40 different species were recorded as entangled in, or associated with, ghost gear. Interestingly, there appeared to be a deficit of research in the Indian, Southern, and Arctic Oceans; and so, we recommend that future studies focus efforts on these areas. Furthermore, studies assessing the effects of ghost gear on elasmobranchs, manatees, and dugongs should also be prioritised, as these groups were underrepresented in the current literature. The development of regional databases, capable of recording entanglement incidences following a minimum global set of criteria, would be a logical next step in order to analyse the effect that ghost gear has on megafauna populations worldwide. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ghost Whisperer's Ghost in the Machine: An example of pop cultural representation of virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of an episode of the CBS series "Ghost Whisperer" for how it depicts a) what is a virtual world and b) the tensions that are involved in discussing the uses and effects of a virtual world.  Discussion focuses on the overriding negative reception of virtual worlds in popular culture due...

  9. Consistent equations for interacting gauge fields of all spins in 3+1 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj Fiziki (USSR)

    1990-07-05

    Consistent equations of motion of interacting gauge fields of all spins in 3+1 dimensions are formulated in a closed form. These equations are explicitly general coordinate invariant, possess all necessary higher spin gauge symmetries and reduce to the usual equations of free massless fields of all spins s=0, 1/2, 1, ..., {infinity} at the linearized level. In the spin-2 sector, the proposed equations are equivalent to the Einstein equations with the cosmological term. (orig.).

  10. The BRST quantization and the no-ghost theorem for AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masako; Natsuume, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    In our previous papers, we prove the no-ghost theorem without light-cone directions. We point out that our results are valid for more general backgrounds. In particular, we prove the no-ghost theorem for AdS 3 in the context of the BRST quantization (with the standard restriction on the spin). We compare our BRST proof with the OCQ proof and establish the BRST-OCQ equivalence for AdS 3 . The key in both approaches lies in the certain structure of the matter Hilbert space as a product of two Verma modules. We also present the no-ghost theorem in the most general form. (author)

  11. Conformally covariant massless spin-two field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, M.S.; Gegenberg, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An explicit proof is constructed to show that the field equations for a symmetric tensor field hsub(ab) describing massless spin-2 particles in Minkowski space-time are not covariant under the 15-parameter group SOsub(4,2); this group is usually associated with conformal transformations on flat space, and here it will be considered as a global gauge group which acts upon matter fields defined on space-time. Notwithstanding the above noncovariance, the equations governing the rank-4 tensor Ssub(abcd) constructed from hsub(ab) are shown to be covariant provided the contraction Ssub(ab) vanishes. Conformal covariance is proved by demonstrating the covariance of the equations for the equivalent 5-component complex field; in fact, covariance is proved for a general field equation applicable to massless particles of any spin >0. It is shown that the noncovariance of the hsub(ab) equations may be ascribed to the fact that the transformation behaviour of hsub(ab) is not the same as that of a field consisting of a gauge only. Since this is in contradistinction to the situation for the electromagnetic-field equations, the vector form of the electromagnetic equations is cast into a form which can be duplicated for the hsub(ab)-field. This procedure results in an alternative, covariant, field equation for hsub(ab). (author)

  12. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  13. Hunting The Ghost Gun: An Analysis Of The U.S. Army Infantry Rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT HUNTING THE GHOST GUN : AN ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. ARMY......LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HUNTING THE GHOST GUN : AN ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. ARMY INFANTRY

  14. A robust mass spectrometry method for rapid profiling of erythrocyte ghost membrane proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fye, Haddy K S; Mrosso, Paul; Bruce, Lesley; Thézénas, Marie-Laëtitia; Davis, Simon; Fischer, Roman; Rwegasira, Gration L; Makani, Julie; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) physiology is directly linked to many human disorders associated with low tissue oxygen levels or anemia including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, sleep apnea and sickle cell anemia. Parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and phylum Apicomplexa directly target RBCs, and surface molecules within the RBC membrane are critical for pathogen interactions. Proteomics of RBC membrane 'ghost' fractions has therefore been of considerable interest, but protocols described to date are either suboptimal or too extensive to be applicable to a larger set of clinical cohorts. Here, we describe an optimised erythrocyte isolation protocol from blood, tested for various storage conditions and explored using different fractionation conditions for isolating ghost RBC membranes. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis on a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument was used to profile proteins isolated from the comparative conditions. Data analysis was run on the MASCOT and MaxQuant platforms to assess their scope and diversity. The results obtained demonstrate a robust method for membrane enrichment enabling consistent MS based characterisation of > 900 RBC membrane proteins in single LC-MS/MS analyses. Non-detergent based membrane solubilisation methods using the tissue and supernatant fractions of isolated ghost membranes are shown to offer effective haemoglobin removal as well as diverse recovery including erythrocyte membrane proteins of high and low abundance. The methods described in this manuscript propose a medium to high throughput framework for membrane proteome profiling by LC-MS of potential applicability to larger clinical cohorts in a variety of disease contexts.

  15. Symmetry breaking due to quantum fluctuations in massless field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, P.; Datta, A.

    1977-10-01

    It is shown that quantum fluctuations can act as the driving mechanism for the spontaneous breakdown of both scale and the discrete phi→-phi symmetries in a lamdaphi 4 theory which is massless and scale invariant in the tree approximation. Consequently dimensional transformation occurs and the dimensionless and only parameter lambda in the theory is fixed and replaced by the vacuum expectation value of the field. These results are shown to be consistent with the appropriate renormalization group equation for the theory. A scalar electrodynamics which is massless and scale invariant in the tree approximation is also considered, and it is shown that the Higgs meson in such a theory is much heavier than the vector meson for small values of the gauge coupling constant e. Another interesting consequence of such a theory is that it possesses vortex-line solutions only when quantum fluctuations are taken into account

  16. Dynamical equations for a Regge theory with crossing symmetry and unitarity. II. The case of strong coupling, and elimination of ghost poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.W.; Warnock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Equations for the construction of a crossing-symmetric unitary Regge theory of meson-meson scattering are described. In the case of strong coupling, Regge trajectories are to be generated dynamically as zeros of the D function in a nonlinear N/D system. This paper is concerned mainly with writing the inputs to the N/D system in such a way that a convergent theory with exact crossing symmetry is defined. The scheme demands elimination of ghosts, i.e., bound-state poles at energies below threshold where trajectories pass through zero. A method for ghost elimination is proposed which entails an s-wave subtraction constant, and allows the physical s wave to be different from the l-analytic amplitude evaluated at l = 0. A dynamical model is suggested in which the subtraction constant alone generates the meson-meson interaction. An alternative ghost-elimination scheme proposed by Gell-Mann, in which only l-analytic amplitudes are involved, can be discussed in a formalism including channels with spin

  17. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided.

  18. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  19. A Value Chain Analysis of ghost nets in the Arafura Sea: identifying trans-boundary stakeholders, intervention points and livelihood trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R A; Gunn, R; Berry, H L; Wagey, G A; Hardesty, B D; Wilcox, C

    2013-07-15

    Lost or discarded fishing nets are a significant component of marine debris which has trans-boundary impacts in large marine ecosystems. Such 'ghost nets' cause the by-catch of marine fauna and require retrieval from coastlines where they wash up. Identifying the causes of discarded nets and feasible intervention points requires analysis of a complex value chain and the stakeholders within it, yet no studies have attempted this. In this paper we combine Value Chain Analysis, commonly applied to understand value-adding for a commodity, with elements of Life Cycle Assessment and social network analysis to examine the drivers, stakeholders, economic, environmental and social costs and benefits in the life of a trawl net. We use the Arafura Sea as a case study, which is shared by Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, and is the focus of a Trans-boundary Diagnostic Assessment (TDA) within the Arafura-Timor Seas Ecosystem Action program (ATSEA). We follow a trawl net through four sub-systems: manufacture of webbing in South Korea, fishing and loss by an Indonesian vessel, retrieval as ghost net on the northern Australian coastline by Indigenous rangers, and disposal or re-cycling as 'GhostNet Art' by Indigenous artists. Primary stakeholders along the value chain incur economic and social benefits, and economic and environmental costs. There is an anomaly in the chain between Indonesian fishermen and Indigenous rangers, artists and communities due to the lack of market linkages between these primary stakeholders. The first 'nexus of influence' where reductions in net losses and environmental costs can be achieved is through interactions between GhostNets Australia, the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Australian Government, which can influence Indonesian fishery management institutions and fishing crews. The second nexus is via the international art market which by publicising GhostNet Art can raise awareness amongst fish consumers about the impacts of ghost nets

  20. On the Construction of Scattering Amplitudes for Spinning Massless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Berends, F A

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the general form of scattering amplitudes for massless particles with equal spins s ($s s \\to s s$) or unequal spins ($s_a s_b \\to s_a s_b$) are derived. The imposed conditions are that the amplitudes should have the lowest possible dimension, have propagators of dimension $m^{-2}$, and obey gauge invariance. It is shown that the number of momenta required for amplitudes involving particles with s > 2 is higher than the number implied by 3-vertices for higher spin particles derived in the literature. Therefore, the dimension of the coupling constants following from the latter 3-vertices has a smaller power of an inverse mass than our results imply. Consequently, the 3-vertices in the literature cannot be the first interaction terms of a gauge-invariant theory. When no spins s > 2 are present in the process the known QCD, QED or (super) gravity amplitudes are obtained from the above general amplitudes.

  1. Building Shadow Detection from Ghost Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Sha, J.; Yue, T.; Wang, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, S.; Pan, Q.; Wei, J.

    2018-05-01

    Shadow is one of the basic features of remote sensing image, it expresses a lot of information of the object which is loss or interference, and the removal of shadow is always a difficult problem to remote sensing image processing. In this paper, it is mainly analyzes the characteristics and properties of shadows from the ghost image (traditional orthorectification). The DBM and the interior and exterior orientation elements of the image are used to calculate the zenith angle of sun. Then this paper combines the scope of the architectural shadows which has be determined by the zenith angle of sun with the region growing method to make the detection of architectural shadow areas. This method lays a solid foundation for the shadow of the repair from the ghost image later. It will greatly improve the accuracy of shadow detection from buildings and make it more conducive to solve the problem of urban large-scale aerial imagines.

  2. BUILDING SHADOW DETECTION FROM GHOST IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shadow is one of the basic features of remote sensing image, it expresses a lot of information of the object which is loss or interference, and the removal of shadow is always a difficult problem to remote sensing image processing. In this paper, it is mainly analyzes the characteristics and properties of shadows from the ghost image (traditional orthorectification. The DBM and the interior and exterior orientation elements of the image are used to calculate the zenith angle of sun. Then this paper combines the scope of the architectural shadows which has be determined by the zenith angle of sun with the region growing method to make the detection of architectural shadow areas. This method lays a solid foundation for the shadow of the repair from the ghost image later. It will greatly improve the accuracy of shadow detection from buildings and make it more conducive to solve the problem of urban large-scale aerial imagines.

  3. Automated computation of one-loop integrals in massless theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameren, A. van; Vollinga, J.; Weinzierl, S.

    2005-01-01

    We consider one-loop tensor and scalar integrals, which occur in a massless quantum field theory, and we report on the implementation into a numerical program of an algorithm for the automated computation of these one-loop integrals. The number of external legs of the loop integrals is not restricted. All calculations are done within dimensional regularization. (orig.)

  4. The Casimir interaction of a massive vector field between concentric spherical bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Casimir interaction energy due to the vacuum fluctuations of a massive vector field between two perfectly conducting concentric spherical bodies is computed. The TE contribution to the Casimir interaction energy is a direct generalization of the massless case but the TM contribution is much more complicated. Each TM mode is a linear combination of a transverse mode which is the generalization of a TM mode in the massless case and a longitudinal mode that does not appear in the massless case. In contrast to the case of two parallel perfectly conducting plates, there are no TM discrete modes that vanish identically in the perfectly conducting spherical bodies. Numerical simulations show that the Casimir interaction force between the two bodies is always attractive.

  5. A simple approach for EPID dosimetric calibration to overcome the effect of image-lag and ghosting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshanqity, Mukhtar; Duane, Simon; Nisbet, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    EPID dosimetry has known drawbacks. The main issue is that a measurable residual signal is observed after the end of irradiation for prolonged periods of time, thus making measurement difficult. We present a detailed analysis of EPID response and suggest a simple, yet accurate approach for calibration that avoids the complexity of incorporating ghosting and image-lag using the maximum integrated signal instead of the total integrated signal. This approach is linear with dose and independent of dose rate. - Highlights: ► Image-lag and ghosting effects dosimetric accuracy. ► Image-lag and ghosting result in the reduction of total integrated signal for low doses. ► Residual signal is the most significant result for the image-lag and ghosting effects. ► Image-lag and ghosting can result in under-dosing of up to 2.5%.

  6. Harry Potter and the Ghost Teacher: Resurrecting the Lost Art of Lecturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kathryn N.

    2010-01-01

    A significant image of classroom lectures is the one presented in J. K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series. At Harry's Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, the most torturous class is easily History of Magic, which is, incidentally, the only class in the school taught by a ghost. Being taught by a ghost could be quite exciting: not so in…

  7. Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornhop, D.J.; Latham, J.C.; Kussrow, A.

    2007-01-01

    Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions were investigated with back-scattering interferometry in a simple optical train composed of a helium-neon laser, a microfluidic channel, and a position sensor. Molecular binding interactions between proteins, ions and protein, and small molecules...... and protein, were determined with high dynamic range dissociation constants (K-d spanning six decades) and unmatched sensitivity (picomolar K-d's and detection limits of 10,000s of molecules). With this technique, equilibrium dissociation constants were quantified for protein A and immunoglobulin G...

  8. The Ghost Tradition: Helen Of Troy In The Elizabethan Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADUCANU ADRIANA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reputedly the most beautiful woman who has ever lived, Helen of Troy (or Sparta is less well known for her elusive, ghost-like dimension. Homer wrote that the greatest war of Western classical antiquity started because of Helen's adultery followed by her elopement to Troy. Other ancient writers and historians, among theme Aeschylus, Stesichorus, Hesiod, Pausanias, Aristophanes, Euripides and Gorgias of Leontini, challenged the Homeric version, in various ways and attempted to exonerate Helen either by focusing on her phantom/ ghost/ as the generic object of man's desire and scorn or by casting doubt on the mechanisms of the blaming process. This paper argues that the Elizabethans Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare adopted and adapted the anti-Homer version of the depiction of Helen, what I here call “the ancient Helen ghost tradition”; nevertheless, in so doing they further reinforced the character's demonic features and paradoxically achieved a return to the adulterous Homeric Helen.

  9. 50 CFR 697.21 - Gear identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. 697.21 Section 697.21 Wildlife and Fisheries... identification and marking, escape vent, maximum trap size, and ghost panel requirements. (a) Gear identification... Administrator finds to be consistent with paragraph (c) of this section. (d) Ghost panel. (1) Lobster traps not...

  10. Lucia's Ghosts: Sonic, Gothic, and Postmodern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fillerup, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I use an intertextual interference – the spectral presence of Norma Desmond in a performance of Donizetti’s Lucia di Lammermoor – as a locus through which to explore the consequences of the ‘open’ text in theatrical spectatorship, criticism and historical study. Norma’s ghosting...

  11. GHOSTS I: A new faint very isolated dwarf galaxy at D = 12 ± 2 Mpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Vlajić, Marija; Bailin, Jeremy; Holwerda, Benne W.; Alyson Ford, H.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new faint dwarf galaxy, GHOSTS I, using HST/ACS data from one of our GHOSTS (Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disk, and Star clusters) fields. Its detected individual stars populate an approximately 1 mag range of its luminosity function (LF). Using synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to compare with the galaxy's CMD, we find that the colors and magnitudes of GHOSTS I's individual stars are most consistent with being young helium-burning and asymptotic giant branch stars at a distance of ∼12 ± 2 Mpc. Morphologically, GHOSTS I appears to be actively forming stars, so we tentatively classify it as a dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxy, although future Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations deep enough to resolve a larger magnitude range in its LF are required to make a more secure classification. GHOSTS I's absolute magnitude is M V ∼−9.85 −0.33 +0.40 , making it one of the least luminous dIrr galaxies known, and its metallicity is lower than [Fe/H] = –1.5 dex. The half-light radius of GHOSTS I is 226 ± 38 pc and its ellipticity is 0.47 ± 0.07, similar to Milky Way and M31 dwarf satellites at comparable luminosity. There are no luminous massive galaxies or galaxy clusters within ∼4 Mpc from GHOSTS I that could be considered as its host, making it a very isolated dwarf galaxy in the local universe.

  12. Identification of ghost artifact using texture analysis in pediatric spinal cord diffusion tensor images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mahdi; Conklin, Chris J; Middleton, Devon M; Shah, Pallav; Saksena, Sona; Krisa, Laura; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Faro, Scott H; Mulcahey, M J; Mohamed, Feroze B

    2018-04-01

    Ghost artifacts are a major contributor to degradation of spinal cord diffusion tensor images. A multi-stage post-processing pipeline was designed, implemented and validated to automatically remove ghost artifacts arising from reduced field of view diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the pediatric spinal cord. A total of 12 pediatric subjects including 7 healthy subjects (mean age=11.34years) with no evidence of spinal cord injury or pathology and 5 patients (mean age=10.96years) with cervical spinal cord injury were studied. Ghost/true cords, labeled as region of interests (ROIs), in non-diffusion weighted b0 images were segmented automatically using mathematical morphological processing. Initially, 21 texture features were extracted from each segmented ROI including 5 first-order features based on the histogram of the image (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis and entropy) and 16s-order feature vector elements, incorporating four statistical measures (contrast, correlation, homogeneity and energy) calculated from co-occurrence matrices in directions of 0°, 45°, 90° and 135°. Next, ten features with a high value of mutual information (MI) relative to the pre-defined target class and within the features were selected as final features which were input to a trained classifier (adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system) to separate the true cord from the ghost cord. The implemented pipeline was successfully able to separate the ghost artifacts from true cord structures. The results obtained from the classifier showed a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 79%, and accuracy of 84% in separating the true cord from ghost artifacts. The results show that the proposed method is promising for the automatic detection of ghost cords present in DTI images of the spinal cord. This step is crucial towards development of accurate, automatic DTI spinal cord post processing pipelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Fermion boson interaction within the linear sigma model at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, H.C.G. [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais (DCNAT)

    2000-07-01

    We study the interaction of massless bosons at finite temperature. Specifically, we calculate the self-energy of massless fermions due to interaction with massless bosons at high temperature, which is the region where thermal effects are maximal. The calculations are concentrated in the limit of vanishing fermion three momentum and after considering the effective boson dressed mass, we obtain the damping rate of the fermion. It is shown that in the limit k{sub O} <

  14. Comparative studies on osmosis based encapsulation of sodium diclofenac in porcine and outdated human erythrocyte ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukara, Katarina; Drvenica, Ivana; Ilić, Vesna; Stančić, Ana; Mišić, Danijela; Vasić, Borislav; Gajić, Radoš; Vučetić, Dušan; Kiekens, Filip; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-12-20

    The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes derived from two readily available materials - porcine slaughterhouse and outdated transfusion human blood. Starting erythrocytes, empty erythrocyte ghosts and diclofenac loaded ghosts were compared in terms of the encapsulation efficiency, drug releasing profiles, size distribution, surface charge, conductivity, surface roughness and morphology. The encapsulation of sodium diclofenac was performed by an osmosis based process - gradual hemolysis. During this process sodium diclofenac exerted mild and delayed antihemolytic effect and increased potassium efflux in porcine but not in outdated human erythrocytes. FTIR spectra revealed lack of any membrane lipid disorder and chemical reaction with sodium diclofenac in encapsulated ghosts. Outdated human erythrocyte ghosts with detected nanoscale damages and reduced ability to shrink had encapsulation efficiency of only 8%. On the other hand, porcine erythrocyte ghosts had encapsulation efficiency of 37% and relatively slow drug release rate. More preserved structure and functional properties of porcine erythrocytes related to their superior encapsulation and release performances, define them as more appropriate for the usage in sodium diclofenac encapsulation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vacuum polarization of massless fields in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'nikov, A.I.; Frolov, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter contains a detailed survey of the fundamental results from an investigation of the contribution of massless fields to vacuum polarization near black holes. A method is developed for calculating the vacuum average energy-momentum tensor for the electromagnetic field on the surface of a black hole. An explicit value is derived for the renormalized energy-momentum tensor of an electromagnetic field near the event horizon of a rotating black hole

  16. Instanton density in a theory with massless quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.A.; Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of the complex structure of the QCD vacuum on the density of small-sized instantons is discussed. The method which allows to account for this effect of vacuum quark and gluon condensate is developed. Evaluation of the instanton density is given in the framework of the theory with one, two or three massless quarks. The results of the paper are presented for the cases of SU(2) and SU(3) color groups

  17. Instantons and Massless Fermions in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, C. G. Jr.; Dashen, R.; Gross, D. J.

    1977-05-01

    The role of instantons in the breakdown of chiral U(N) symmetry is studied in a two dimensional model. Chiral U(1) is always destroyed by the axial vector anomaly. For N = 2 chiral SU(N) is also spontaneously broken yielding massive fermions and three (decoupled) Goldstone bosons. For N greater than or equal to 3 the fermions remain massless. Realistic four dimensional theories are believed to behave in a similar way but the critical N above which the fermions cease to be massive is not known in four dimensions.

  18. The massless two-loop two-point function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Weinzierl, S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the massless two-loop two-point function with arbitrary powers of the propagators and derive a representation from which we can obtain the Laurent expansion to any desired order in the dimensional regularization parameter ε. As a side product, we show that in the Laurent expansion of the two-loop integral only rational numbers and multiple zeta values occur. Our method of calculation obtains the two-loop integral as a convolution product of two primitive one-loop integrals. We comment on the generalization of this product structure to higher loop integrals. (orig.)

  19. Cinematography in Motherhood: a Hong Kong film adaptation of Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-kan Tam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of a Hong Kong Chinese film adaptation of Ghosts made in 1960. It deals with processes of cross-cultural and cross-media adaptation, and probes issues of how stage techniques are turned into cinematographic devices. Ibsen’s plays, except Ghosts, have been adapted numerous times for the Chinese stage and screen in Hong Kong and China. Unlike in China, the reception of Ibsen in Hong Kong is not meant for political purposes. In most Hong Kong adaptations, Ibsen is valued for the purpose of theatrical experimentation. Among the stage adaptations, A Doll’s House and The Master Builder are the most popular. However, there was a film adaptation of Ghosts in 1960, which has never been discussed in Ibsen scholarship. In this adaptation, Director Tso Kea borrowed the plot from Ghosts and made a perfect Chinese melodrama film highlighting the Chinese emotions and relations in a wealthy family that undergoes a crisis. In traditional Chinese drama, there is the lack of psychological rendering in characterization and characters act according to moral considerations. In Tso Kea’s film, the portrayal of the mother provides a new sense of characterization by combining Mrs Alving with the traditional Chinese mother figure. The borrowing from Ibsen makes it possible for the Chinese film to create a character with emotional and psychological complexities. Images from the film are selected as illustration in the article.

  20. Ghosts in high dimensional non-linear dynamical systems: The example of the hypercycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardanyes, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Ghost-induced delayed transitions are analyzed in high dimensional non-linear dynamical systems by means of the hypercycle model. The hypercycle is a network of catalytically-coupled self-replicating RNA-like macromolecules, and has been suggested to be involved in the transition from non-living to living matter in the context of earlier prebiotic evolution. It is demonstrated that, in the vicinity of the saddle-node bifurcation for symmetric hypercycles, the persistence time before extinction, T ε , tends to infinity as n→∞ (being n the number of units of the hypercycle), thus suggesting that the increase in the number of hypercycle units involves a longer resilient time before extinction because of the ghost. Furthermore, by means of numerical analysis the dynamics of three large hypercycle networks is also studied, focusing in their extinction dynamics associated to the ghosts. Such networks allow to explore the properties of the ghosts living in high dimensional phase space with n = 5, n = 10 and n = 15 dimensions. These hypercyclic networks, in agreement with other works, are shown to exhibit self-maintained oscillations governed by stable limit cycles. The bifurcation scenarios for these hypercycles are analyzed, as well as the effect of the phase space dimensionality in the delayed transition phenomena and in the scaling properties of the ghosts near bifurcation threshold

  1. Dark matter scenarios with multiple spin-2 fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Albornoz, N. L.; Schmidt-May, Angnis; von Strauss, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    We study ghost-free multimetric theories for (N+1) tensor fields with a coupling to matter and maximal global symmetry group SN×(Z2)N. Their mass spectra contain a massless mode, the graviton, and N massive spin-2 modes. One of the massive modes is distinct by being the heaviest, the remaining (N‑1) massive modes are simply identical copies of each other. All relevant physics can therefore be understood from the case N=2. Focussing on this case, we compute the full perturbative action up to cubic order and derive several features that hold to all orders in perturbation theory. The lighter massive mode does not couple to matter and neither of the massive modes decay into massless gravitons. We propose the lighter massive particle as a candidate for dark matter and investigate its phenomenology in the parameter region where the matter coupling is dominated by the massless graviton. The relic density of massive spin-2 can originate from a freeze-in mechanism or from gravitational particle production, giving rise to two different dark matter scenarios. The allowed parameter regions are very different from those in scenarios with only one massive spin-2 field and more accessible to experiments.

  2. Spikes and matter inhomogeneities in massless scalar field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A A; Lim, W C

    2016-01-01

    We shall discuss the general relativistic generation of spikes in a massless scalar field or stiff perfect fluid model. We first investigate orthogonally transitive (OT) G 2 stiff fluid spike models both heuristically and numerically, and give a new exact OT G 2 stiff fluid spike solution. We then present a new two-parameter family of non-OT G 2 stiff fluid spike solutions, obtained by the generalization of non-OT G 2 vacuum spike solutions to the stiff fluid case by applying Geroch’s transformation on a Jacobs seed. The dynamics of these new stiff fluid spike solutions is qualitatively different from that of the vacuum spike solutions in that the matter (stiff fluid) feels the spike directly and the stiff fluid spike solution can end up with a permanent spike. We then derive the evolution equations of non-OT G 2 stiff fluid models, including a second perfect fluid, in full generality, and briefly discuss some of their qualitative properties and their potential numerical analysis. Finally, we discuss how a fluid, and especially a stiff fluid or massless scalar field, affects the physics of the generation of spikes. (paper)

  3. A ghost-cell immersed boundary method for flow in complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Y.-H.; Ferziger, Joel H.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient ghost-cell immersed boundary method (GCIBM) for simulating turbulent flows in complex geometries is presented. A boundary condition is enforced through a ghost cell method. The reconstruction procedure allows systematic development of numerical schemes for treating the immersed boundary while preserving the overall second-order accuracy of the base solver. Both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions can be treated. The current ghost cell treatment is both suitable for staggered and non-staggered Cartesian grids. The accuracy of the current method is validated using flow past a circular cylinder and large eddy simulation of turbulent flow over a wavy surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and boundary-fitted grid results. The method is further extended to an existing ocean model (MITGCM) to simulate geophysical flow over a three-dimensional bump. The method is easily implemented as evidenced by our use of several existing codes

  4. Current-induced massless mode of the interband phase difference in two-band superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kato, G.; Nishio, T.; Arisawa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A current induces an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. • By controlling the boundary conditions, we can trap this phase difference. • A phase difference soliton is observed after switching off the current. - Abstract: There is a current-induced massless mode of an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. For a thin wire, the externally applied current always invokes a finite interband phase difference when the end of the wire is terminated by a natural boundary condition, i.e., where the total current is specified but the other parameters are left as free and a finite interband phase difference is allowed. This condition can be realized by the normal state region formed by the shrinking of a cross section of the wire where the critical current density is lower than that of the other region of the wire. The interband interaction in the wire cannot completely prevent the emergence of the interband phase difference, though it reduces it somewhat. Instead, boundary conditions determine the presence of the interband phase difference. By reverting the normal state into the superconducting state at the shrunken region by decreasing the current, we may trap a rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians of the interband phase difference in the wire. After switching off the current, this rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians, which continuously spreads over the whole wire, is separated into several interband phase difference solitons (i-solitons), where one i-soliton locally generates a 2π interband phase difference

  5. Ghost imaging based on Pearson correlation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wen-Kai; Yao Xu-Ri; Liu Xue-Feng; Li Long-Zhen; Zhai Guang-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Correspondence imaging is a new modality of ghost imaging, which can retrieve a positive/negative image by simple conditional averaging of the reference frames that correspond to relatively large/small values of the total intensity measured at the bucket detector. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a more rigorous and general approach in which a ghost image is retrieved by calculating a Pearson correlation coefficient between the bucket detector intensity and the brightness at a given pixel of the reference frames, and at the next pixel, and so on. Furthermore, we theoretically provide a statistical interpretation of these two imaging phenomena, and explain how the error depends on the sample size and what kind of distribution the error obeys. According to our analysis, the image signal-to-noise ratio can be greatly improved and the sampling number reduced by means of our new method. (paper)

  6. Gauge-invariant dressed fermion propagator in massless QED3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Indrajit; Ratabole, Raghunath; Sharatchandra, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    The infrared behaviour of the gauge-invariant dressed fermion propagator in massless QED 3 is discussed for three choices of dressing. It is found that only the propagator with the isotropic (in three Euclidean dimensions) choice of dressing is acceptable as the physical fermion propagator. It is explained that the negative anomalous dimension of this physical fermion does not contradict any field-theoretical requirement

  7. Multiloop amplitudes and vanishing theorems using the pure spinor formalism for the superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovits, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    A ten-dimensional super-Poincare covariant formalism for the superstring was recently developed which involves a BRST operator constructed from superspace matter variables and a pure spinor ghost variable. A super-Poincare covariant prescription was defined for computing tree amplitudes and was shown to coincide with the standard RNS prescription. In this paper, picture-changing operators are used to define functional integration over the pure spinor ghosts and to construct a suitable b ghost. A super-Poincare covariant prescription is then given for the computation of N-point multiloop amplitudes. One can easily prove that massless N-point multiloop amplitudes vanish for N 4 terms in the effective action receive no perturbative contributions above one loop. (author)

  8. Combining extrapolation with ghost interaction correction in range-separated ensemble density functional theory for excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Mehboob; Deur, Killian; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    The extrapolation technique of Savin [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A509 (2014)], which was initially applied to range-separated ground-state-density-functional Hamiltonians, is adapted in this work to ghost-interaction-corrected (GIC) range-separated ensemble density-functional theory (eDFT) for excited states. While standard extrapolations rely on energies that decay as μ-2 in the large range-separation-parameter μ limit, we show analytically that (approximate) range-separated GIC ensemble energies converge more rapidly (as μ-3) towards their pure wavefunction theory values (μ → +∞ limit), thus requiring a different extrapolation correction. The purpose of such a correction is to further improve on the convergence and, consequently, to obtain more accurate excitation energies for a finite (and, in practice, relatively small) μ value. As a proof of concept, we apply the extrapolation method to He and small molecular systems (viz., H2, HeH+, and LiH), thus considering different types of excitations such as Rydberg, charge transfer, and double excitations. Potential energy profiles of the first three and four singlet Σ+ excitation energies in HeH+ and H2, respectively, are studied with a particular focus on avoided crossings for the latter. Finally, the extraction of individual state energies from the ensemble energy is discussed in the context of range-separated eDFT, as a perspective.

  9. Gauge structure of neutral-vector field theory. [Massive vector fields, massless limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, R; Yokoyama, [Hiroshima univ., Takehara (Japan). Research Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    1975-03-01

    General aspects of gauge structure of neutral-vector field theory are investigated from an extended standpoint, where massive vector fields are treated in a form corresponding to the electromagnetic fields in a general gauge formalism reported previously. All results obtained are shown to have unique massless limits. It is shown that a generalized q-number gauge transformation for fields makes the theory invariant in cooperation with a simultaneous transformation for relevant gauge parameters. A method of differentiation with respect to a gauge variable is found to clarify some essential features of the gauge structure. Two possible types of gauge structure also emerge correspondingly to the massless case. A neutral-vector field theory proposed in a preceding paper is included in the present framework as the most preferable case.

  10. Multi-flavor massless QED{sub 2} at finite densities via Lefschetz thimbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Yuya [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory,Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Tachibana, Motoi [Department of Physics, Saga University,Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    We consider multi-flavor massless (1+1)-dimensional QED with chemical potentials at finite spatial length and the zero-temperature limit. Its sign problem is solved using the mean-field calculation with complex saddle points.

  11. Biological amine transport in chromaffin ghosts. Coupling to the transmembrane proton and potential gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R G; Pfister, D; Carty, S E; Scarpa, A

    1979-11-10

    The effect of the transmembrane proton gradient (delta pH) and potential gradient (delta psi) upon the rate and extent of amine accumulation was investigated in chromaffin ghosts. The chromaffin ghosts were formed by hypo-osmotic lysis of isolated bovine chromaffin granules and extensive dialysis in order to remove intragranular binding components and dissipate the endogenous electrochemical gradients. Upon ATP addition to suspensions of chromaffin ghosts, a transmembrane proton gradient alone, a transmembrane gradient alone, or both, could be established, depending upon the compositions of the media in which the ghosts were formed and resuspended. When chloride was present in the medium, addition of ATP resulted in the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient, acidic inside of 1 pH unit (measured by [14C]methylamine distribution), and no transmembrane potential (measured by [14C]-thiocyanate distribution). When ATP was added to chromaffin ghosts suspended in a medium in which chloride was substituted by isethionate, a transmembrane potential, inside positive, of 45 mV and no transmembrane proton gradient, was measured. In each medium, the addition of agents known to affect proton or potential gradients, respectively, exerted a predictable mechanism of action. Accumulation of [14C]epinephrine or [14C]5-hydroxytryptamine was over 1 order of magnitude greater in the presence of the transmembrane proton gradient or the transmembrane potential than in the absence of any gradient and, moreover, was related to the magnitude of the proton or potential gradient in a dose-dependent manner. When ghosts were added to a medium containing chloride and isethionate, both a delta pH and delta psi could be generated upon addition of ATP. In this preparation, the maximal rate of amine accumulation was observed. The results indicate that amine accumulation into chromaffin ghosts can occur in the presence of either a transmembrane proton gradient, or a transmembrane potential

  12. Correlation of the ghost and the quark in the lattice Landau gauge QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furui, Sadataka; Nakajima, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Effects of the quark field on the ghost propagator of the lattice Landau gauge are investigated by using the unquenched SU(3) configurations produced by the MILC collaboration and compared with quenched gauge configurations of SU(2) first copy of the over relaxation gauge fixing, the parallel tempering (PT) gauge fixing and quenched SU(3) 56 4 configurations. We measure the color symmetric and the color antisymmetric ghost propagator and the Binder cumulant of the l 1 norm and the l 2 norm of color antisymmetric ghost propagators and investigate deviation from those of Gaussian distributions. In the first copy samples of quenched SU(2) we observe a large fluctuation in the Binder cumulant at the lowest momentum point. This fluctuation is reduced in the P T gauge fixed samples. The color anti-symmetric ghost propagator of quenched SU(3) configurations depends on the lattice size and is small as compared to the symmetric one in the large lattice of 56 4 . The Binder cumulant of the quenched SU(2) and the N f = 2 + 1 unquenched SU(3) are almost consistent with 3-d and 8-d Gaussian distribution, respectively. A comparison of the SU(3) unquenched configurations and quenched configurations indicates that the dynamical quarks have the effect of making color antisymmetric ghost propagator closer to the Gaussian distribution and the Kugo-Ojima color confinement parameter c closer to 1. (author)

  13. Theoretical study of ghost imaging with cold atomic waves under the condition of partial coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun; Liu, Yun-Xian

    2014-01-01

    A matter wave ghost imaging mechanism is proposed and demonstrated theoretically. This mechanism is based on the Talbot-Lau effect. Periodic gratings of matter wave density, which appear as a result of interference of atoms diffracted by pulses of an optical standing wave, are utilized to produce the reference wave and the signal wave simultaneously for the ghost imaging. An advantage of this mechanism is that during the imaging process, the beam-splitter is not needed, which highly simplifies the experimental setup and makes the ghost imaging possible in the field of matter wave

  14. Pseudo color ghost coding imaging with pseudo thermal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, De-yang; Xia, Yun-jie

    2018-04-01

    We present a new pseudo color imaging scheme named pseudo color ghost coding imaging based on ghost imaging but with multiwavelength source modulated by a spatial light modulator. Compared with conventional pseudo color imaging where there is no nondegenerate wavelength spatial correlations resulting in extra monochromatic images, the degenerate wavelength and nondegenerate wavelength spatial correlations between the idle beam and signal beam can be obtained simultaneously. This scheme can obtain more colorful image with higher quality than that in conventional pseudo color coding techniques. More importantly, a significant advantage of the scheme compared to the conventional pseudo color coding imaging techniques is the image with different colors can be obtained without changing the light source and spatial filter.

  15. Two-loop ghost-antighost condensation for SU(2) Yang-Mills theories in the maximal abelian gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the formalism of Cornwall et.al. for composite operators I study the ghost-antighost condensation in SU(2) Yang-Mills theories quantized in the Maximal Abelian Gauge and derive analytically a condensating effective potential at two ghost loops. I find that in this approximation the one-loop pairing ghost-antighost is not destroyed and no mass is generated if the ansatz for the propagator suggested by the tree level Hubbard-Stratonovich transformations is used

  16. Spectral asymmetry of the massless Dirac operator on a 3-torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, Robert J.; Vassiliev, Dmitri; Levitin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Consider the massless Dirac operator on a 3-torus equipped with Euclidean metric and standard spin structure. It is known that the eigenvalues can be calculated explicitly: the spectrum is symmetric about zero and zero itself is a double eigenvalue. The aim of the paper is to develop a perturbation theory for the eigenvalue with smallest modulus with respect to perturbations of the metric. Here the application of perturbation techniques is hindered by the fact that eigenvalues of the massless Dirac operator have even multiplicity, which is a consequence of this operator commuting with the antilinear operator of charge conjugation (a peculiar feature of dimension 3). We derive an asymptotic formula for the eigenvalue with smallest modulus for arbitrary perturbations of the metric and present two particular families of Riemannian metrics for which the eigenvalue with smallest modulus can be evaluated explicitly. We also establish a relation between our asymptotic formula and the eta invariant

  17. Hydrogen atom in a magnetic field: Ghost orbits, catastrophes, and uniform semiclassical approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main, J.; Wunner, G.

    1997-01-01

    Applying closed-orbit theory to the recurrence spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field, one can interpret most, but not all, structures semiclassically in terms of closed classical orbits. In particular, conventional closed-orbit theory fails near bifurcations of orbits where semiclassical amplitudes exhibit unphysical divergences. Here we analyze the role of ghost orbits living in complex phase space. The ghosts can explain resonance structures in the spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field at positions where no real orbits exist. For three different types of catastrophes, viz. fold, cusp, and butterfly catastrophes, we construct uniform semiclassical approximations and demonstrate that these solutions are completely determined by classical parameters of the real orbits and complex ghosts. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Casimir energy of a BEC: from moderate interactions to the ideal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiefele, J; Henkel, C

    2009-01-01

    Considering the Casimir effect due to phononic excitations of a weakly interacting dilute Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we derive a renormalized expression for the zero-temperature Casimir energy E C of a BEC confined to a parallel plate geometry with periodic boundary conditions. Our expression is formally equivalent to the free energy of a bosonic field at finite temperature, with a nontrivial density of modes that we compute analytically. As a function of the interaction strength, E C smoothly describes the transition from the weakly interacting Bogoliubov regime to the non-interacting ideal BEC. For the weakly interacting case, E C reduces to leading order to the Casimir energy due to zero-point fluctuations of massless phonon modes. In the limit of an ideal Bose gas, our result correctly describes the Casimir energy going to zero

  19. Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we will study the spontaneous breakdown of the Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity. Our analysis will be done in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. We will also analyse the modification of the BRST and anti-BRST transformations by the formation of this ghost condensate. It will be shown that even though the modified BRST and anti-BRST transformations are not nilpotent, their nilpotency is restored on-shell.

  20. Continuing between closed and open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.B.; Thorn, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    A family of dual models is defined that interpolates between the tree diagrams of non-orientable bosonic closed-string theory (which has a massless spin-2 state) and the open-string theory with no internal symmetry (in which the lowest-mass spin-2 state is massive). These models are parametrized by the intercept, Δ, of the leading Regge pole. The only models that have an infinite-dimensional conformal invariance and are consequently free of ghosts are the two familiar string theories with Δ=2 (closed strings) and Δ=1 (open strings with no internal symmetry). For arbitrary Δ the models are invariant under the finite dimensional conformal group, SO(Δ,2), which guarantees the crossing symmetry and consistent factorization of tree amplitudes. The spectrum of the level-two states is exhibited explicitly as Δ varies from 2 to 1 in order to illustrate the manner in which the graviton (the lowest-mass spin-2 state) acquires a mass. The scalar ghost generically associated with massive gravity cancels with the 'dilaton' precisely at Δ=1. (orig.)

  1. Formation of ghost images due to metal objects on the surface of the patient's face: A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bárbara Couto; da Silva Izar, Bruna Raquel; Pereira, Jéssica Lourdes Costa; Souza, Priscilla Sena; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Tuji, Fabrício Mesquita; Manzi, Flávio Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    Panoramic radiographs are a relatively simple technique that is commonly used in all dental specialties. In panoramic radiographs, in addition to the formation of real images of metal objects, ghost images may also form, and these ghost images can hinder an accurate diagnosis and interfere with the accuracy of radiology reports. Dentists must understand the formation of these images in order to avoid making incorrect radiographic diagnoses. Therefore, the present study sought to present a study of the formation of panoramic radiograph ghost images caused by metal objects in the head and neck region of a dry skull, as well as to report a clinical case n order to warn dentists about ghost images and to raise awareness thereof. An understanding of the principles of the formation of ghost images in panoramic radiographs helps prevent incorrect diagnoses.

  2. A spectre is haunting the cosmos: quantum stability of massive gravity with ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Könnig, Frank; Nersisyan, Henrik; Akrami, Yashar; Amendola, Luca; Zumalacárregui, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Many theories of modified gravity with higher order derivatives are usually ignored because of serious problems that appear due to an additional ghost degree of freedom. Most dangerously, it causes an immediate decay of the vacuum. However, breaking Lorentz invariance can cure such abominable behavior. By analyzing a model that describes a massive graviton together with a remaining Boulware-Deser ghost mode we show that even ghostly theories of modified gravity can yield models that are viable at both classical and quantum levels and, therefore, they should not generally be ruled out. Furthermore, we identify the most dangerous quantum scattering process that has the main impact on the decay time and find differences to simple theories that only describe an ordinary scalar field and a ghost. Additionally, constraints on the parameters of the theory including some upper bounds on the Lorentz-breaking cutoff scale are presented. In particular, for a simple theory of massive gravity we find that a breaking of Lorentz invariance is allowed to happen even at scales above the Planck mass. Finally, we discuss the relevance to other theories of modified gravity.

  3. Massless versus Kaluza-Klein gravitons at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Aquino, Priscila de; Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    We show that the LHC will be able to differentiate between a four-dimensional model with quantum gravity at ∼1 TeV where the (massless) graviton becomes strongly coupled to standard model particles at 1 TeV and brane world type models with a large extra-dimensional volume and massive Kaluza-Klein gravitons. We estimate that the 14 TeV LHC could put a limit of the order of ∼5 TeV on the four-dimensional Planck mass in a model independent way.

  4. The Ghosts of Acetylcholine : structure-activity relationships of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ghosts of Acetylcholine : structure-activity relationships of muscle relaxants : registrar communication. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  5. Vacuum correlation functions for ghost superfields and multiloop amplitudes in the theory of closed superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    A new formalism for ghosts on complex (1 bar 1) supermanifolds of genus n > 1 is discussed in superstring theory. In this formalism, vacuum correlation functions for ghost superfields differ substantially from correlation functions discussed earlier. In particular, the new correlation functions do not have unphysical poles. Among other things, these correlation functions take into account contributions to partition functions from the phase space of modular forms and from zero modes of ghosts. The above correlation functions, obtained for all even spinor structures, can be used to evaluate partition functions from equations that are nothing but Ward identities. 21 refs

  6. Ghost image in enhanced self-heterodyne synthetic aperture imaging ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Zhiyong; Li, Guangyuan; Xu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Bo; Lao, Chenzhe; He, Hongyu

    2018-03-01

    The enhanced self-heterodyne synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) self-heterodynes two polarization-orthogonal echo signals to eliminate the phase disturbance caused by atmospheric turbulence and mechanical trembling, uses heterodyne receiver instead of self-heterodyne receiver to improve signal-to-noise ratio. The principle and structure of the enhanced self-heterodyne SAIL are presented. The imaging process of enhanced self-heterodyne SAIL for distributed target is also analyzed. In enhanced self-heterodyne SAIL, the phases of two orthogonal-polarization beams are modulated by four cylindrical lenses in transmitter to improve resolutions in orthogonal direction and travel direction, which will generate ghost image. The generation process of ghost image in enhanced self-heterodyne SAIL is mathematically detailed, and a method of eliminating ghost image is also presented, which is significant for far-distance imaging. A number of experiments of enhanced self-heterodyne SAIL for distributed target are presented, these experimental results verify the theoretical analysis of enhanced self-heterodyne SAIL. The enhanced self-heterodyne SAIL has the capability to eliminate the influence from the atmospheric turbulence and mechanical trembling, has high advantage in detecting weak signals, and has promising application for far-distance ladar imaging.

  7. Honorary and ghost authorship in high impact biomedical journals: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wislar, Joseph S; Flanagin, Annette; Fontanarosa, Phil B; Deangelis, Catherine D

    2011-10-25

    To assess the prevalence of honorary and ghost authors in six leading general medical journals in 2008 and compare this with the prevalence reported by authors of articles published in 1996. Cross sectional survey using a web based questionnaire. International survey of journal authors. Sample of corresponding authors of 896 research articles, review articles, and editorial/opinion articles published in six general medical journals with high impact factors in 2008: Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, Nature Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine, and PLoS Medicine. Self reported compliance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for all authors on the selected articles. A total of 630/896 (70.3%) corresponding authors responded to the survey. The prevalence of articles with honorary authorship or ghost authorship, or both, was 21.0% (95% CI 18.0% to 24.3%), a decrease from 29.2% reported in 1996 (P = 0.004). Based on 545 responses on honorary authorship, 96 articles (17.6% (95% CI 14.6% to 21.0%)) had honorary authors (range by journal 12.2% to 29.3%), a non-significant change from 1996 (19.3%; P = 0.439). Based on 622 responses on ghost authorship, 49 articles (7.9% (6.0% to 10.3%)) had ghost authors (range by journal 2.1% to 11.0%), a significant decline from 1996 (11.5%; P = 0.023). The prevalence of honorary authorship was 25.0% in original research reports, 15.0% in reviews, and 11.2% in editorials, whereas the prevalence of ghost authorship was 11.9% in research articles, 6.0% in reviews, and 5.3% in editorials. Evidence of honorary and ghost authorship in 21% of articles published in major medical journals in 2008 suggests that increased efforts by scientific journals, individual authors, and academic institutions are essential to promote responsibility, accountability, and transparency in authorship, and to maintain integrity in scientific publication.

  8. Gauge dependence of the infrared behaviour of massless QED3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Indrajit; Ratabole, Raghunath; Sharatchandra, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Zumino identities it is shown that in a class of non-local gauges, massless QED 3 has an infrared behaviour of a conformal field theory with a continuously varying anomalous dimension of the fermion. In the usual Lorentz gauge, the fermion propagator falls off exponentially for a large separation, but this apparent fermion mass is a gauge artifact

  9. IR finite one-loop box scalar integral with massless internal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplancic, G.; Nizic, B.

    2002-01-01

    The IR finite one-loop box scalar integral with massless internal lines has been recalculated. The result is very compact, simple and valid for arbitrary values of the relevant kinematic variables. It is given in terms of only two dilogarithms and a few logarithms, all of very simple arguments. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of ghosting effects for three commercial a-Si EPIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, L. N.; Nijsten, S. M. J. J. G.; Sonke, J.-J.; Partridge, M.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have reported dosimetric characteristics of amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). Some studies ascribed a non-linear signal to gain ghosting and image lag. Other reports, however, state the effect is negligible. This study compares the signal-to-monitor unit (MU) ratio for three different brands of EPID systems. The signal was measured for a wide range of monitor units (5-1000), dose-rates, and beam energies. All EPIDs exhibited a relative under-response for beams of few MUs; giving 4 to 10% lower signal-to-MU ratios relative to that of 1000 MUs. This under-response is consistent with ghosting effects due to charge trapping

  11. The ghost of Afrikaner identity in Ancestral voices, Leap year and The long silence of Mario Salviati (Etienne van Heerden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtte van Graan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ghost characters are a characteristic of the novels of Etienne van Heerden, but little research has been done concerning the nature and function of these ghost characters. In this article I discuss Van Heerden’s use of ghost characters diachronically with reference to the novels Ancestral voices (1986, Leap year (1993 and The long silence of Mario Salviati (2000. In order to clarify the nature of these ghosts, I use the so-called science of the paranormal as a framework. The ghosts in the three novels will be classified accordingly, and then discussed within the context of the novels in which they appear. In this way, I shall show how the ghost characters in these novels can be read as a constantly changing embodiment of Afrikaner identity (a central theme in Van Heerden’s oeuvre. Van Heerden’s Afrikaner changes with the times: in Ancestral voices the ghost characters form a collective that represents a fragmented image of the stereotypical, archaic male Afrikaner identity; in Leap year a liminal character is written in a liminal time to embody a liminal Afrikaner identity; and in The long silence of Mario Salviati Van Heerden moves away from the exclusive Afrikaner identity to a broader South African identity by using ghost characters from very different backgrounds and origins. In conclusion I shall compare these identities and the historical contexts of these novels in order to show the function of Van Heerden’s ghost characters as constant rewritings of South African identities.

  12. Asymptotic fermion propagator in massless three-dimensional QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    Massless quantum electrodynamics in two spatial and one time dimensions has a logarithmically confining static Coulomb potential, and thus nontrivial infrared behavior. We apply a technique developed for ordinary four-dimensional quantum electrodynamics in which the charged asymptotic states in the theory are dressed with soft vector bosons, in order to improve the representation of the infrared dynamics in perturbation theory. The resulting modification to the mass-shell behavior of the fermion propagator is determined, with the result that the propagator no longer possesses a mass-shell singularity

  13. Superconformal ghost correlators and picture changing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, M.; Iengo, R.; Nunez, C.

    1988-12-01

    We compute the correlation functions for the system of superconformal ghosts β, γ(λ=3/2), including the corresponding spin fields, on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. Using fermionization, defined as a change of variables in the functional integration, we derive and generalize previous results obtained by bosonization. As an application we study the picture changing mechanism in the Ramond sector of the superstring. (author). 11 refs

  14. Superrenormalizable quantum gravity with complex ghosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics & Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, 200433, Shanghai (China); Shapiro, Ilya L., E-mail: shapiro@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Fisica – ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 33036-900 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Tomsk State Pedagogical University and Tomsk State University, 634041, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-10

    We suggest and briefly review a new sort of superrenormalizable models of higher derivative quantum gravity. The higher derivative terms in the action can be introduced in such a way that all the unphysical massive states have complex poles. According to the literature on Lee–Wick quantization, in this case the theory can be formulated as unitary, since all massive ghosts-like degrees of freedom are unstable.

  15. All-order results for infrared and collinear singularities in massless gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lance J; Magnea, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We review recent results concerning the all-order structure of infrared and collinear divergences in massless gauge theory amplitudes. While the exponentiation of these divergences for nonabelian gauge theories has been understood for a long time, in the past couple of years we have begun to unravel the all-order structure of the anomalous dimensions that build up the perturbative exponent. In the large-Nc limit, all infrared and collinear divergences are determined by just three functions; one of them, the cusp anomalous dimension, plays a key role also for non-planar contributions. Indeed, all infrared and collinear divergences of massless gauge theory amplitudes with any number of hard partons may be captured by a surprisingly simple expression constructed as a sum over color dipoles. Potential corrections to this expression, correlating four or more hard partons at three loops or beyond, are tightly constrained and are currently under study.

  16. Polarization-multiplexing ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongfeng, Shi; Jiamin, Zhang; Jian, Huang; Yingjian, Wang; Kee, Yuan; Kaifa, Cao; Chenbo, Xie; Dong, Liu; Wenyue, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    A novel technique for polarization-multiplexing ghost imaging is proposed to simultaneously obtain multiple polarimetric information by a single detector. Here, polarization-division multiplexing speckles are employed for object illumination. The light reflected from the objects is detected by a single-pixel detector. An iterative reconstruction method is used to restore the fused image containing the different polarimetric information by using the weighted sum of the multiplexed speckles based on the correlation coefficients obtained from the detected intensities. Next, clear images of the different polarimetric information are recovered by demultiplexing the fused image. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  17. Magnetic ghosts and monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandewalle, N; Dorbolo, S

    2014-01-01

    While the physics of equilibrium systems composed of many particles is well known, the interplay between small-scale physics and global properties is still a mystery for athermal systems. Non-trivial patterns and metastable states are often reached in those systems. We explored the various arrangements adopted by magnetic beads along chains and rings. Here, we show that it is possible to create mechanically stable defects in dipole arrangements keeping the memory of dipole frustration. Such defects, nicknamed ‘ghost junctions’, seem to act as macroscopic magnetic monopoles, in a way reminiscent of spin ice systems. (paper)

  18. The Ghostly Workings of Danish Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Justine Grønbaek

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for thinking about the ghostly, thus arguing that policy can be understood as a landscape of intersecting and colliding temporalities from which arouse curious workings of barely-there forces, spooky energies and vibrating saturations of affective ambivalences. I present an empirical study of a policy agenda of…

  19. Annual air pollution caused by the Hungry Ghost Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, B; Chan, Y Y; Tiong, L Y D; Webster, R D

    2015-09-01

    Burning of joss paper and incense is still a very common traditional custom in countries with a majority Chinese population. The Hungry Ghost Festival which is celebrated in the 7 month of the Chinese calendar is one of the events where joss paper and incense are burned as offerings. This study investigates the impact of the Ghost Month Festival (open burning event) on air quality by analysis of the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) and rainwater samples collected during this event, compared with data collected throughout the year, as well as bottom ash samples from burning the original joss paper and incense. The results showed that the change in the chemical composition of the rainwater and PM2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5 μm) atmospheric samples could be correlated directly with burning events during this festival, with many elements increasing between 18% and 60% during August and September compared to the yearly mean concentrations. The order of percentage increase in elemental composition (in rain water and PM2.5) during the Hungry Ghost Festival is as follows: Zn > Ca > K > Mg > Fe > Al > Na ∼ Mn ∼ Ti ∼ V > Cu > As > Ni > Co > Cd > Cr > Pb. The chemical composition of the original source materials (joss paper and incense for combustion) and their associated bottom ash were analysed to explain the impact of burning on air quality.

  20. Dilations and interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Fredenhagen, K.

    1976-07-01

    As a consequence of the geometrical features of dilations massless particles do not interact in a local, dilationally invariant quantum theory. This result also holds in models in which dilations are only an asymptotically visible symmetry of the S-matrix. (orig.) [de

  1. Are the dressed gluon and ghost propagators in the Landau gauge presently determined in the confinement regime of QCD?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M. R.; Wilson, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    The gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge QCD are investigated using the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach. Working in Euclidean spacetime, we solve for these propagators using a selection of vertex inputs, initially for the ghost equation alone and then for both propagators simultaneously. The results are shown to be highly sensitive to the choices of vertices. We favor the infrared finite ghost solution from studying the ghost equation alone where we argue for a specific unique solution. In order to solve this simultaneously with the gluon using a dressed-one-loop truncation, we find that a nontrivial full ghost-gluon vertex is required in the vanishing gluon momentum limit. The self-consistent solutions we obtain correspond to having a masslike term in the gluon propagator dressing, in agreement with similar studies supporting the long-held proposal of Cornwall.

  2. Gauge-invariant dressed fermion propagator in massless QED{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Indrajit [Theory Group, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan-Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)]. E-mail: indrajit.mitra@saha.ac.in; Ratabole, Raghunath [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: raghu@imsc.res.in; Sharatchandra, H.S. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: sharat@imsc.res.in

    2006-04-27

    The infrared behaviour of the gauge-invariant dressed fermion propagator in massless QED{sub 3} is discussed for three choices of dressing. It is found that only the propagator with the isotropic (in three Euclidean dimensions) choice of dressing is acceptable as the physical fermion propagator. It is explained that the negative anomalous dimension of this physical fermion does not contradict any field-theoretical requirement.

  3. No nonminimally coupled massless scalar hair for spherically symmetric neutral black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide a remarkably compact proof that spherically symmetric neutral black holes cannot support static nonminimally coupled massless scalar fields. The theorem is based on causality restrictions imposed on the energy-momentum tensor of the fields near the regular black-hole horizon.

  4. Ghost instabilities of cosmological models with vector fields nonminimally coupled to the curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himmetoglu, Burak; Peloso, Marco; Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2009-01-01

    We prove that many cosmological models characterized by vectors nonminimally coupled to the curvature (such as the Turner-Widrow mechanism for the production of magnetic fields during inflation, and models of vector inflation or vector curvaton) contain ghosts. The ghosts are associated with the longitudinal vector polarization present in these models and are found from studying the sign of the eigenvalues of the kinetic matrix for the physical perturbations. Ghosts introduce two main problems: (1) they make the theories ill defined at the quantum level in the high energy/subhorizon regime (and create serious problems for finding a well-behaved UV completion), and (2) they create an instability already at the linearized level. This happens because the eigenvalue corresponding to the ghost crosses zero during the cosmological evolution. At this point the linearized equations for the perturbations become singular (we show that this happens for all the models mentioned above). We explicitly solve the equations in the simplest cases of a vector without a vacuum expectation value in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry, and of a vector with a vacuum expectation value plus a cosmological constant, and we show that indeed the solutions of the linearized equations diverge when these equations become singular.

  5. Optical encryption with selective computational ghost imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafari, Mohammad; Kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab

    2014-01-01

    Selective computational ghost imaging (SCGI) is a technique which enables the reconstruction of an N-pixel image from N measurements or less. In this paper we propose an optical encryption method based on SCGI and experimentally demonstrate that this method has much higher security under eavesdropping and unauthorized accesses compared with previous reported methods. (paper)

  6. Strongly interacting Higgs sector without technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuan; Kuti, J.

    1994-12-01

    Simulation results are presented on Higgs mass calculations in the spontaneously broken phase of the Higgs sector in the minimal Standard Model with a higher derviative regulator. A heavy Higgs particle is found in the TeV mass range in the presence of a complex conjugate ghost pair at higher energies. The ghost pair evades easy experimental detection. As a finite and unitary theory in the continuum, this model serves as an explicit and simple example of a strong interacting Higgs sector without technicolor. (orig.)

  7. 76 FR 76812 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BARBARY GHOST; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD 2011 0148] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel BARBARY GHOST; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... BARBARY GHOST is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Sightseeing tours in the San Francisco Bay for a...

  8. Cross section evaluation by spinor integration: The massless case in 4D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bo; Huang Rijun; Jia Yin; Luo Mingxing; Wang Honghui

    2010-01-01

    To get the total cross section of one interaction from its amplitude M, one needs to integrate |M| 2 over phase spaces of all outgoing particles. Starting from this paper, we will propose a new method to perform such integrations, which is inspired by the reduced phase space integration of one-loop unitarity cut developed in the last few years. The new method reduces one constrained three-dimension momentum space integration to a one-dimensional integration, plus one possible Feynman parameter integration. There is no need to specify a reference framework in our calculation, since every step is manifestly Lorentz invariant by the new method. The current paper is the first paper of a series for the new method. Here we have exclusively focused on massless particles in 4D. There is no need to carve out a complicated integration region in the phase space for this particular simple case because the integration region is always simply [0,1].

  9. Characterization of Chemically-Induced Bacterial Ghosts (BGs Using Sodium Hydroxide-Induced Vibrio parahaemolyticus Ghosts (VPGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acellular bacterial ghosts (BGs are empty non-living bacterial cell envelopes, commonly generated by controlled expression of the cloned lysis gene E of bacteriophage PhiX174. In this study, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ghosts (VPGs were generated by chemically-induced lysis and the method is based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, acetic acid, boric acid, citric acid, maleic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. The MIC values of the respective chemicals were 3.125, 6.25, <50.0, 25.0, 6.25, 1.56, and 0.781 mg/mL. Except for boric acid, the lysis efficiency reached more than 99.99% at 5 min after treatment of all chemicals. Among those chemicals, NaOH-induced VPGs appeared completely DNA-free, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Besides, lipopolysaccharides (LPS extracted from the NaOH-induced VPGs showed no distinctive band on SDS-PAGE gel after silver staining. On the other hand, LPS extracted from wild-type bacterial cells, as well as the organic acids-induced VPGs showed triple major bands and LPS extracted from the inorganic acids-induced VPGs showed double bands. It suggests that some surface structures in LPS of the NaOH-induced VPGs may be lost, weakened, or modified by the MIC of NaOH. Nevertheless, Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay revealed that there is no significant difference in endotoxic activity between the NaOH-induced VPGs and wild-type bacterial cells. Macrophages exposed to the NaOH-induced VPGs at 0.5 × 106 CFU/mL showed cell viability of 97.9%, however, the MIC of NaOH did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Like Escherichia coli LPS, the NaOH-induced VPGs are an excellent activator of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and iNOS, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10, and dual activities (IL-6 in the stimulated macrophage cells. On the other hand, the induction of TNF-α mRNA was remarkable in the macrophages exposed with wild-type cells. Scanning

  10. Theory of Coulomb drag for massless Dirac fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrega, M; Principi, A; Polini, M; Tudorovskiy, T; Katsnelson, M I

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb drag between two unhybridized graphene sheets separated by a dielectric spacer has recently attracted considerable theoretical interest. We first review, for the sake of completeness, the main analytical results which have been obtained by other authors. We then illustrate pedagogically the minimal theory of Coulomb drag between two spatially separated two-dimensional systems of massless Dirac fermions which are both away from the charge-neutrality point. This relies on second-order perturbation theory in the screened interlayer interaction and on Boltzmann-transport theory. In this theoretical framework and in the low-temperature limit, we demonstrate that, to leading (i.e. quadratic) order in temperature, the drag transresistivity is completely insensitive to the precise intralayer momentum-relaxation mechanism (i.e. to the functional dependence of the transport scattering time on energy). We also provide analytical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for both cases of ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ spacers and for arbitrary values of the dielectric constants of the media surrounding the two Dirac-fermion layers. Finally, we present numerical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for the case when one of the media surrounding the Dirac-fermion layers has a frequency-dependent dielectric constant. We conclude by suggesting an experiment that can potentially allow for the observation of departures from the canonical quadratic-in-temperature behavior of the transresistivity. (paper)

  11. Gravity as a dynamical consequence of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-12-01

    A coherent and reasonable account of gravitational physics is shown to be possible. The three non-gravitational interactions are described by a scale and conformal invariant and asymptotically free Yang-Mills theory with massless fermions. Conformal invariance is required so that the gravitational sector of the theory is given by the Weyl action. The theory is renormalizable and has a unitary S-matrix. Possible breakdown of causality is observable only at the Planck length. In this theory, Einstein's theory of gravity is induced as an effective long-distance theory. An R 2 term is also induced with a finite and physically desired sign

  12. Experimental Investigation of Quality of Lensless Ghost Imaging with Pseudo-Thermal Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Shen; Yan-Feng, Bai; Tao, Qin; Shen-Sheng, Han

    2008-01-01

    Factors influencing the quality of lensless ghost imaging are investigated. According to the experimental results, we find that the imaging quality is determined by the number of independent sub light sources on the imaging plane of the reference arm. A qualitative picture based on advanced wave optics is presented to explain the physics behind the experimental phenomena. The present results will be helpful to provide a basis for improving the quality of ghost imaging systems in future works. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  13. Study of key technology of ghost imaging via compressive sensing for a phase object based on phase-shifting digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leihong, Zhang; Dong, Liang; Bei, Li; Zilan, Pan; Dawei, Zhang; Xiuhua, Ma

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the algorithm of compressing sensing is used to improve the imaging resolution and realize ghost imaging via compressive sensing for a phase object based on the theoretical analysis of the lensless Fourier imaging of the algorithm of ghost imaging based on phase-shifting digital holography. The algorithm of ghost imaging via compressive sensing based on phase-shifting digital holography uses the bucket detector to measure the total light intensity of the interference and the four-step phase-shifting method is used to obtain the total light intensity of differential interference light. The experimental platform is built based on the software simulation, and the experimental results show that the algorithm of ghost imaging via compressive sensing based on phase-shifting digital holography can obtain the high-resolution phase distribution figure of the phase object. With the same sampling times, the phase clarity of the phase distribution figure obtained by the algorithm of ghost imaging via compressive sensing based on phase-shifting digital holography is higher than that obtained by the algorithm of ghost imaging based on phase-shift digital holography. In this article, this study further extends the application range of ghost imaging and obtains the phase distribution of the phase object. (letter)

  14. Influence of some DNA-alkylating drugs on thermal stability, acid and osmotic resistance of the membrane of whole human erythrocytes and their ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I T; Gadjeva, V

    2000-09-01

    Human erythrocytes and their resealed ghosts were alkylated under identical conditions using three groups of alkylating antitumor agents: mustards, triazenes and chloroethyl nitrosoureas. Osmotic fragility, acid resistance and thermal stability of membranes were changed only in alkylated ghosts in proportion to the concentration of the alkylating agent. All the alkylating agents decreased acid resistance in ghosts. The clinically used drugs sarcolysine, dacarbazine and lomustine all decreased osmotic fragility and thermal stability of ghost membranes depending on their lipophilicity. DM-COOH did not decrease osmotic fragility and thermal stability of ghost membranes, while NEM increased thermal stability of membranes. The preliminary but not subsequent treatment of ghosts with DM-COOH fully abolished the alkylation-induced thermal labilization of ghost membrane proteins while NEM had a partial effect only. The present study gives direct evidence that alkylating agents, having a high therapeutic activity against malignant growth, bind covalently to proteins of cellular membranes.

  15. Casimir energy of massless fermions in the Slab-bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paola, R.D.M. de; Rodrigues, R.B.; Svaiter, N.F.

    1999-04-01

    The zero-point energy of a massless fermion field in the interior of two parallel plates in a D-dimensional space-time at zero temperature is calculated. In order to regularize the model, a mix between dimensional and zeta function regularization procedure is used and it is founded that the regularized zero-point energy density is finite for any number of space-time dimensions. We present a general expression for the Casimir energy for the fermionic field in such a situation. (author)

  16. On the conformal transformations in the massless Thirring model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiivanov, L.K.; Mikhov, S.G.; Stoyanov, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of solutions for the massless scalar field in the two dimensional space-time the fields satisfying the renormalized Thirring equation are constructed. Both infinitesimal and global transformations with respect to the two-dimensional conformal group for these fields are obtained. The latter do not coincide with the standard ones. The renormalized Thirring equation is proved to be covariant under infinitesimal conformal group transformations as well as under the global transformations belonging to the universal covering of the conformal group

  17. Massless fields in curved space-time: The conformal formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnino, M.A.; Sztrajman, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    A conformally invariant theory for massless quantum fields in curved space-time is formulated. We analyze the cases of spin-0, - 1/2 , and -1. The theory is developed in the important case of an ''expanding universe,'' generalizing the particle model of ''conformal transplantation'' known for spin-0 to spins- 1/2 and -1. For the spin-1 case two methods introducing new conformally invariant gauge conditions are stated, and a problem of inconsistency that was stated for spin-1 is overcome

  18. IGLANCE: interactive free viewpoint for 3D TV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinger, S.; Do, Q.L.; Ruijters, D.; With, de P.H.N.

    2010-01-01

    The iGLANCE project aims at making interactive free viewpoint selection possible in 3D TV broadcasted media. This means that the viewer can select and interactively change the viewpoint of a stereoscopic streamed video. The interactivity is enabled by broad-casting a number of video streams from

  19. Massless phases and confinement in extended Z(4) gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, F.C.; Jacobs, L.

    1983-01-01

    We analyze a general Z(4) lattice gauge theory in four dimensions. The two-parameter model is shown to possess four distinct phases characterized by the behavior of Wilson loops carrying one or two units of flux. The appearance of a bifurcation in the phase plane just below the Wilson action is conjectured to be the precursor of the massless electrodynamicslike phase seen in the larger-N models

  20. The hunters of humanity: creatures of horror in M. R. James's ghost stories

    OpenAIRE

    Oryshchuk, Nataliya

    2017-01-01

    In his ghost stories, M.R. James disclosed the most irrational and fearful aspects of archaic demonology still haunting the modern world. He turns humans into prey species, hunted and haunted by repulsive insect- and spider-like demons. This paper offers a closer look at the creatures of horror and the recurrent theme of the hunt in James's ghost stories, viewing them in the context of Victorian evolutionary theories as well as traditional medieval beliefs. James's protagonists, unimaginative...

  1. The free-energy cost of interaction between DNA loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lifang; Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Zhou, Tianshou; Yu, Jianshe

    2017-10-03

    From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, the formation of DNA loops and the interaction between them, which are all non-equilibrium processes, result in the change of free energy, affecting gene expression and further cell-to-cell variability as observed experimentally. However, how these processes dissipate free energy remains largely unclear. Here, by analyzing a mechanic model that maps three fundamental topologies of two interacting DNA loops into a 4-state model of gene transcription, we first show that a longer DNA loop needs more mean free energy consumption. Then, independent of the type of interacting two DNA loops (nested, side-by-side or alternating), the promotion between them always consumes less mean free energy whereas the suppression dissipates more mean free energy. More interestingly, we find that in contrast to the mechanism of direct looping between promoter and enhancer, the facilitated-tracking mechanism dissipates less mean free energy but enhances the mean mRNA expression, justifying the facilitated-tracking hypothesis, a long-standing debate in biology. Based on minimal energy principle, we thus speculate that organisms would utilize the mechanisms of loop-loop promotion and facilitated tracking to survive in complex environments. Our studies provide insights into the understanding of gene expression regulation mechanism from the view of energy consumption.

  2. Ghost condensation and a consistent IR modification of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani Hamed, N.; Cheng, H.S.; Luty, M.A.; Mukohyama, S.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a theoretically consistent modification of gravity in the infrared, which is compatible with all current experimental observations. This is an analog of Higgs mechanism in general relativity, and can be thought of as arising from ghost condensation-a background where a scalar field φhas a constant velocity, = M 2 . The ghost condensate is a new kind of fluid that can fill the universe, which has the same equation of state, ρ = -p, as a cosmological constant, and can hence drive de Sitter expansion of the universe. However, unlike a cosmological constant, it is a physical fluid with a physical scalar excitation, which can be described by a systematic effective field theory at low energies. The excitation has an unusual low-energy dispersion relation ω 2 ∼ k 4 /M 2 . If coupled to matter directly, it gives rise to small Lorentz-violating effects and a new long-range 1/r 2 spin dependent force. In the ghost condensate, the energy that gravitates is not the same as the particle physics energy, leading to the possibility of both sources that can gravitate and antigravitate. The Newtonian potential is modified with an oscillatory behavior starting at the distance scale M Pl /M 2 and the time scale M Pl 2 /M 3 . This theory opens up a number of new avenues for attacking cosmological problems, including inflation, dark matter and dark energy. (author)

  3. Quantum solitonic wave-packet of a meso-scopic system in singularity free gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we will discuss how to localise a quantum wave-packet due to self-gravitating meso-scopic object by taking into account gravitational self-interaction in the Schrödinger equation beyond General Relativity. In particular, we will study soliton-like solutions in infinite derivative ghost free theories of gravity, which resolves the gravitational 1 / r singularity in the potential. We will show a unique feature that the quantum spread of such a gravitational system is larger than that of the Newtonian gravity, therefore enabling us a window of opportunity to test classical and quantum properties of such theories of gravity in the near future at a table-top experiment.

  4. Formation of ghost images due to meta objects on the surface of the patient's face: A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramons, BarbaraCouto; Da Silva Izar, Bruna Raquel; Pereira, Jessica Lourdes Costa; Souza Priscilla Serna; Valerio, Cludia Scigliano; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo; Tuji, Fabricio Mesquita

    2016-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs are a relatively simple technique that is commonly used in all dental specialties. In panoramic radiographs, in addition to the formation of real images of metal objects, ghost images may also form, and these ghost images can hinder an accurate diagnosis and interfere with the accuracy of radiology reports. Dentists must understand the formation of these images in order to avoid making incorrect radiographic diagnoses. Therefore, the present study sought to present a study of the formation of panoramic radiograph ghost images caused by metal objects in the head and neck region of a dry skull, as well as to report a clinical case n order to warn dentists about ghost images and to raise awareness thereof. An understanding of the principles of the formation of ghost images in panoramic radiographs helps prevent incorrect diagnoses

  5. Formation of ghost images due to meta objects on the surface of the patient's face: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramons, BarbaraCouto; Da Silva Izar, Bruna Raquel; Pereira, Jessica Lourdes Costa; Souza Priscilla Serna; Valerio, Cludia Scigliano; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Tuji, Fabricio Mesquita [Federal University of Pará, Belém do Pará (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Panoramic radiographs are a relatively simple technique that is commonly used in all dental specialties. In panoramic radiographs, in addition to the formation of real images of metal objects, ghost images may also form, and these ghost images can hinder an accurate diagnosis and interfere with the accuracy of radiology reports. Dentists must understand the formation of these images in order to avoid making incorrect radiographic diagnoses. Therefore, the present study sought to present a study of the formation of panoramic radiograph ghost images caused by metal objects in the head and neck region of a dry skull, as well as to report a clinical case n order to warn dentists about ghost images and to raise awareness thereof. An understanding of the principles of the formation of ghost images in panoramic radiographs helps prevent incorrect diagnoses.

  6. Ghost cells in pilomatrixoma, craniopharyngioma, and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor: histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumayor, Alicia; Carlos, Román; Kirsch, Hernán Molina; de Andrade, Bruno A Benevenuto; Romañach, Mario J; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2015-04-01

    Pilomatrixoma, craniopharyngioma, and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor are the main entities presenting ghost cells as an important histological feature, in spite their quite different clinical presentation; it seems that they share a common pathway in the formation of these cells. The aim of this study is to examine and compare the characteristics of ghost and other cells that form these lesions. Forty-three cases including 21 pilomatrixomas, 14 craniopharyngiomas, and eight calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins, CD138, β-catenin, D2-40, Glut-1, FAS, CD10 and also by scanning electron microscopy. The CKs, CD138, β-catenin, Glut-1, FAS, and CD10 were more often expressed by transitional cells of craniopharyngioma and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, compared with pilomatrixoma. Basaloid cells of pilomatrixoma showed strong positivity for CD138 and CD10. Differences on expression pattern were identified in transitional and basal cells, as ghost cells were negative for most antibodies used, except by low expression for cytokeratins. By scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of ghost cells were similar in their fibrillar cytoplasm, but their pattern varied from sheets in pilomatrixoma to small clusters in craniopharyngioma and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor. Mechanisms involved in formation of ghost cells are unknown, but probably they follow different pathways as protein expression in the basal/transitional cells was not uniform in the three tumors studied. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Remarks on the paper ''Two-dimensional quantum field theories involving massless particles'' by N.Nakanishi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D.Ts.

    1978-01-01

    Some critical remarks on the paper by N.Nakanishi ''Tso-Dimensional Quantum Field Theories Involving Massless Particles'' are presented. It is stated that because of the obtained commutation relations the massless scalar fields of the theory connot have the asymptotic behaviour assumed by N.Nakanishi. The contradiction, appearing in the proof of the irreducibility of the scalar field, is demonstrated. Therefore, the theory constructed by Nakanishi, in which an attempt is made to formulate it with the help of one scalar field and correspondingly with one topological charge, is contradictory. It is shown that the statistics of the solutions is not fixed and the solutions satisfying Bose or Fermi statistics differ by constant operator factors

  8. On the exponentiation of leading infrared divergences in massless Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, J.; Garcia, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    We derive, in the axial gauge, the effective U-matrix which governs the behaviour of leading infrared singularities in the self-energy functions of Yang-Mills particles. We then show in a very simple manner, that these divergences, which determine the leading singularities in massless Yang-Mills theories, exponentiate [pt

  9. Gauge dependence of the infrared behaviour of massless QED{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Indrajit [Theory Group, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan-Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)]. E-mail: indrajit.mitra@saha.ac.in; Ratabole, Raghunath [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Taramani PO, Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: raghu@imsc.res.in; Sharatchandra, H.S. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Taramani PO, Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: sharat@imsc.res.in

    2006-03-23

    Using the Zumino identities it is shown that in a class of non-local gauges, massless QED{sub 3} has an infrared behaviour of a conformal field theory with a continuously varying anomalous dimension of the fermion. In the usual Lorentz gauge, the fermion propagator falls off exponentially for a large separation, but this apparent fermion mass is a gauge artifact.

  10. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  11. Metastatic ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma: description of a case and search for actionable targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilien J. Rappaport

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC is an exceedingly rare malignant tumor on the spectrum of already uncommon odontogenic or dentinogenic tumors. We describe here the case of metastatic GCOC in a patient with a history of recurrent dentinogenic ghost cell tumor of the mandible, now presenting with bilateral pleural effusions. We will discuss typical histopathologic and histochemical features of GCOC, along with results of genomic testing and their role in directing therapy.

  12. Superrenormalizable quantum gravity with complex ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Modesto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We suggest and briefly review a new sort of superrenormalizable models of higher derivative quantum gravity. The higher derivative terms in the action can be introduced in such a way that all the unphysical massive states have complex poles. According to the literature on Lee–Wick quantization, in this case the theory can be formulated as unitary, since all massive ghosts-like degrees of freedom are unstable. Keywords: Quantum gravity, Higher derivatives, Complex poles

  13. Coarse-grained versus atomistic simulations : realistic interaction free energies for real proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Ali; Pool, René; van Dijk, Erik; Bijlard, Jochem; Abeln, Sanne; Heringa, Jaap; Feenstra, K Anton

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: To assess whether two proteins will interact under physiological conditions, information on the interaction free energy is needed. Statistical learning techniques and docking methods for predicting protein-protein interactions cannot quantitatively estimate binding free energies. Full

  14. Coarse-grained versus atomistic simulations: realistic interaction free energies for real proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, A.; Pool, R.; van Dijk, E.; Bijlard, J.; Abeln, S.; Heringa, J.; Feenstra, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: To assess whether two proteins will interact under physiological conditions, information on the interaction free energy is needed. Statistical learning techniques and docking methods for predicting protein-protein interactions cannot quantitatively estimate binding free energies. Full

  15. Schwinger-Dyson operator of Yang-Mills matrix models with ghosts and derivations of the graded shuffle algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnaswami, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider large-N multi-matrix models whose action closely mimics that of Yang-Mills theory, including gauge-fixing and ghost terms. We show that the factorized Schwinger-Dyson loop equations, expressed in terms of the generating series of gluon and ghost correlations G( ), are quadratic equations

  16. Resonant frequencies of massless scalar field in rotating black-brane spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ji-Liang; Pan Qi-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the resonant frequencies of the massless scalar field in the near extremal Kerr-like black-brahe spacetime. It is shown that the different angular quantum number will present different resonant frequencies. It is also shown that the real part of the resonant frequencies increases as the compact dimensions parameter μi increases, but the magnitude of the imaginary part decreases as μi increases.

  17. Production of massless particles in collisions of strings at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    The authors obtain explicit formulas (generalizing the Low-Gribov expressions) for the production amplitude of massless particles (gluons and gravitons) with low transverse momenta in the scattering of lower-mass excitations of open and closed strings. In the limit α' → 0 they reproduce the results of calculation of effective vertices for inelastic scattering amplitudes in multi-Regge kinematics in the Yang-Mills theory and in gravitation

  18. On the bosonization of the massless spinor electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhov, S.G.; Stoyanov, D.Ts.

    1979-01-01

    A method for constructing a field transformed according to a linear representation of a Lie group out of fields transformed nonlinearly under the action of the same group is proposed. This procedure is used in order to construct spinor fields out of tensor ones. Such a ''bosonization'' of the spinor field is used to reformulate the massless spinor electrodynamics in terms of nonlinear tensor fields. It appears in this formulation that the Dirac equation is reduced to a definition of the electromagnetic vector potential in terms of the nonlinear tensor fields and to the current conservations playing the role of a consistency condition for this formulation

  19. Elimination of ghost images in the response of PHASAR-demultiplexers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van C.; Staring, A.A.M.; Jansen, E.J.; Binsma, J.J.M.; Dongen, van T.; Smit, M.K.; Verbeek, B.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the occurrence of first-order modes in the performance of phased-array demultiplexers is investigated. It is found that they cause "ghost" images, which can be circumvented by optimising waveguide junctions

  20. Nuclear structure calculations in the dynamic-interaction propagator approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, C.A.; Hahne, F.J.W.; Heiss, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamic-interaction propagator approach provides a natural method for the handling of energy-dependent effective two-body interactions induced by collective excitations of a many-body system. In this work this technique is applied to the calculation of energy spectra and two-particle strengths in mass-18 nuclei. The energy dependence is induced by the dynamic exchange of the lowest 3 - octupole phonon in O 16 , which is described within a normal static particle-hole RPA. This leads to poles in the two-body self-energy, which can be calculated if other fermion lines are restricted to particle states. The two-body interaction parameters are chosen to provide the correct phonon energy and reasonable negative-parity mass-17 and positive-parity mass-18 spectra. The fermion lines must be dressed consistently with the same exchange phonon to avoid redundant solutions or ghosts. The negative-parity states are then calculated in a parameter-free way which gives good agreement with the observed spectra [af

  1. Quantization of gauge theories with open algebra in the representation with the third ghost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalin, I.A.; Kallosh, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    We suggest a modified representation of the general BRS construction, which gives in a closed form the quantization of gauge theories with open algebra. Instead of gauging the Lagrange multiplier in this representation, we have the third ghost πsup(α) which appears in the quantization procedure on equal footing with the Faddeev-Popov ghosts anti Csup(α), Csup(α). This new representation is especially convenient in the non-singular gauges of the form 1/2#betta#sub(α#betta#chi)sup(#betta#)sub(chi)sup(α), where both sub(chi)sup(α) and #betta#sub(α#betta#) may arbitrarily depend on quantum fields. In the closed algebra case, we recover the result of Nielsen, whereas for the theories with open algebra we find new ghost couplings of the form anti Csup(n)Csup(n)πsup(m), n = 1, ...; m = 0, 1, ..., n. (orig.)

  2. Reduction of respiratory ghosting motion artifacts in conventional two-dimensional multi-slice Cartesian turbo spin-echo: which k-space filling order is the best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuuji; Yoneyama, Masami; Nakamura, Masanobu; Takemura, Atsushi

    2018-06-01

    The two-dimensional Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence is widely used in routine clinical studies, but it is sensitive to respiratory motion. We investigated the k-space orders in Cartesian TSE that can effectively reduce motion artifacts. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between k-space order and degree of motion artifacts using a moving phantom. We compared the degree of motion artifacts between linear and asymmetric k-space orders. The actual spacing of ghost artifacts in the asymmetric order was doubled compared with that in the linear order in the free-breathing situation. The asymmetric order clearly showed less sensitivity to incomplete breath-hold at the latter half of the imaging period. Because of the actual number of partitions of the k-space and the temporal filling order, the asymmetric k-space order of Cartesian TSE was superior to the linear k-space order for reduction of ghosting motion artifacts.

  3. Lucia's Ghosts: Sonic, Gothic, and Postmodern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fillerup, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I use an intertextual interference – the spectral presence of Norma Desmond in a performance of Donizetti’s Lucia di Lammermoor – as a locus through which to explore the consequences of the ‘open’ text in theatrical spectatorship, criticism and historical study. Norma’s ghosting...... the lens of Sunset Boulevard inverts chronological sequence, it acknowledges the temporal contradictions inherent in historical work and assigns productive meaning to nostalgic impulses that engage a reflective mode of thought....

  4. Renormalization group analysis of the temperature dependent coupling constant in massless theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hirofumi.

    1987-06-01

    A general analysis of finite temperature renormalization group equations for massless theories is presented. It is found that in a direction where momenta and temperature are scaled up with their ratio fixed the coupling constant behaves in the same manner as in zero temperature and that asymptotic freedom at short distances is also maintained at finite temperature. (author)

  5. Long-distance thermal temporal ghost imaging over optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Hao; You, Lixing; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yidong

    2018-02-01

    A thermal ghost imaging scheme between two distant parties is proposed and experimentally demonstrated over long-distance optical fibers. In the scheme, the weak thermal light is split into two paths. Photons in one path are spatially diffused according to their frequencies by a spatial dispersion component, then illuminate the object and record its spatial transmission information. Photons in the other path are temporally diffused by a temporal dispersion component. By the coincidence measurement between photons of two paths, the object can be imaged in a way of ghost imaging, based on the frequency correlation between photons in the two paths. In the experiment, the weak thermal light source is prepared by the spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide. The temporal dispersion is introduced by single mode fibers of 50 km, which also could be looked as a fiber link. Experimental results show that this scheme can be realized over long-distance optical fibers.

  6. Reconstruction of Stress and Composition Profiles from X-ray Diffraction Experiments - How to Avoid Ghost Stresses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2004-01-01

    On evaluating lattice strain-depth or stress-depth profiles with X-ray diffraction, the variation of the information depth while combining various tilt angles,psi, in combination with lattice spacing gradients leads to artefacts,so-called ghost or fictitious stresses. X-ray diffraction lattice...... method for the evaluation of stress/strain and composition profiles, while minimising the risk for ghost stresses....

  7. Hunting for CDF multi-muon ''ghost'' events at collider and fixed-target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornhauser, Nicki; Drees, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the CDF collaboration discovered a large excess of events containing two or more muons, at least one of which seemed to have been produced outside the beam pipe. We investigate whether similar ''ghost'' events could (and should) have been seen in already completed experiments. The CDF di-muon data can be reproduced by a simple model where a relatively light X particle undergoes 4-body decay. This model predicts a large number of ghost events in Fermilab fixed-target experiments E772, E789 and E866, applying the cuts optimized for analyses of Drell-Yan events. A correct description of events with more than two muons requires a more complicated model, where two X particles are produced from a very broad resonance Y. This model can be tested in fixed-target experiments only if the cut on the angles, or rapidities, of the muons can be relaxed. Either way, the UA1 experiment at the CERN p anti p collider should have observed O(100) ghost events. (orig.)

  8. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  9. Partition function of free conformal fields in 3-plet representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, Matteo [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento & INFN,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Tseytlin, Arkady A. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-10

    Simplest examples of AdS/CFT duality correspond to free CFTs in d dimensions with fields in vector or adjoint representation of an internal symmetry group dual in the large N limit to a theory of massless or massless plus massive higher spins in AdS{sub d+1}. One may also study generalizations when conformal fields belong to higher dimensional representations, i.e. carry more than two internal symmetry indices. Here we consider the case of the 3-fundamental (“3-plet”) representation. One motivation is a conjectured connection to multiple M5-brane theory: heuristic arguments suggest that it may be related to an (interacting) CFT of 6d (2,0) tensor multiplets in 3-plet representation of large N symmetry group that has an AdS{sub 7} dual. We compute the singlet partition function Z on S{sup 1}×S{sup d−1} for a free field in 3-plet representation of U(N) and analyse its novel large N behaviour. The large N limit of the low temperature expansion of Z which is convergent in the vector and adjoint cases here is only asymptotic, reflecting the much faster growth of the number of singlet operators with dimension, indicating a phase transition at very low temperature. Indeed, while the critical temperatures in the vector (T{sub c}∼N{sup γ}, γ>0) and adjoint (T{sub c}∼1) cases are finite, we find that in the 3-plet case T{sub c}∼(log N){sup −1}, i.e. it approaches zero at large N. We discuss some details of large N solution for the eigenvalue distribution. Similar conclusions apply to higher p-plet representations of U(N) or O(N) and also to the free p-tensor theories invariant under [U(N)]{sup p} or [O(N)]{sup p} with p≥3.

  10. Use of the Location Inverse Solution to Reduce Ghost Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhong Hu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through-the-wall imaging (TWI is a difficult but important task for both law enforcement and military missions. Acquiring information on both the internal features of a structure and the location of people inside plays an important role in many fields such as antiterrorism, hostage search and rescue, and barricade situations. Up to now, a number of promising experimental systems have been developed to validate and evaluate diverse imaging methods, most of which are based on a linear antenna array to obtain an image of the objects. However, these methods typically use the backward projection (BP algorithm based on ellipse curves, which usually generates additional ghost images. In this paper, the algorithm using the location inverse solution (LIS to reduce the ghost images is proposed and simulated. The results of simulation show that this approach is feasible.

  11. Scalar trace anomaly and anti-gravitational interaction in a perturbative approach to self-consistent cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunzig, E.; Nardone, P.

    1984-01-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the equations controlling the behavior of the recently proposed self-consistent, causal, singularity-free cosmologies. This approach sheds a new light on the threshold mass which governs both the (in)stability of empty Minkowski space and the existence of these cosmologies. An unexpected fact arises at the lower order of this perturbative scheme: the mass of the massive (scalar) field coupled non-minimally to gravitation is completely absorbed in a rescaling of the gravitational constant. The latter becomes negative, thereby causing an effective anti-gravitational interaction when the corresponding mass exceeds the minkowskian instability threshold. Moreover, the source of this effective antigravitational interaction is the usual scalar trace anomaly associated with the residual massless part of the matter field. (orig.)

  12. Singletons, higher spin massless states and the supermembrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Salam, A.; Sezgin, E.; Tanii, Yoshiaki.

    1988-01-01

    We analyse the spectrum of the eleven dimensional supermembrane quantized in AdS 4 xS 7 background. The classical membrane lives at the boundary of AdS 4 which is S 2 xS 1 , and has OSp(8,4) symmetry. We find that the spectrum contains, in addition to the N=8 supersymmetric (massive) singletons (which may possibly be the ultimate preons), also massless states of all higher integer and half-integer spin. These states fill the irreducible representations of OSp(8,4) with highest spin s max =2,4,6,... The s max =2 multiplet corresponds to the states of the de Wit-Nicolai's N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions. (author). 24 refs

  13. Analytic continuation of massless two-loop four-point functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrmann, T.; Remiddi, E.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the analytic continuation of two-loop four-point functions with one off-shell external leg and internal massless propagators from the Euclidean region of space-like 1→3 decay to Minkowskian regions relevant to all 1→3 and 2→2 reactions with one space-like or time-like off-shell external leg. Our results can be used to derive two-loop master integrals and unrenormalized matrix elements for hadronic vector-boson-plus-jet production and deep inelastic two-plus-one-jet production, from results previously obtained for three-jet production in electron-positron annihilation. (author)

  14. The x-ray time of flight method for investigation of ghosting in amorphous selenium-based flat panel medical x-ray imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.W.; Bakueva, L.; Rowlands, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) based real-time flat-panel imagers (FPIs) are finding their way into the digital radiology department because they offer the practical advantages of digital x-ray imaging combined with an image quality that equals or outperforms that of conventional systems. The temporal imaging characteristics of FPIs can be affected by ghosting (i.e., radiation-induced changes of sensitivity) when the dose to the detector is high (e.g., portal imaging and mammography) or the images are acquired at a high frame rate (e.g., fluoroscopy). In this paper, the x-ray time-of-flight (TOF) method is introduced as a tool for the investigation of ghosting in a-Se photoconductor layers. The method consists of irradiating layers of a-Se with short x-ray pulses. From the current generated in the a-Se layer, ghosting is quantified and the ghosting parameters (charge carrier generation rate and carrier lifetimes and mobilities) are assessed. The x-ray TOF method is novel in that (1) x-ray sensitivity (S) and ghosting parameters can be measured simultaneously (2) the transport of both holes and electrons can be isolated, and (3) the method is applicable to the practical a-Se layer structure with blocking contacts used in FPIs. The x-ray TOF method was applied to an analysis of ghosting in a-Se photoconductor layers under portal imaging conditions, i.e., 1 mm thick a-Se layers, biased at 5 V/μm, were irradiated using a 6 MV LINAC x-ray beam to a total dose (ghosting dose) of 30 Gy. The initial sensitivity (S 0 ) of the a-Se layers was 63±2 nC cm -2 cGy -1 . It was found that S decreases to 30% of S 0 after a ghosting dose of 5 Gy and to 21% after 30 Gy at which point no further change in S occurs. At an x-ray intensity of 22 Gy/s (instantaneous dose rate during a LINAC x-ray pulse), the charge carrier generation rate was 1.25±0.1x10 22 ehp m -3 s -1 and, to a first approximation, independent of the ghosting dose. However, both hole and electron transport showed a

  15. Infrared divergence cancellation in pure Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    Virtual and real corrections to massless external lines in pure Yang-Mills theory are considered in order to look for general features of the infrared divergence cancellation. Use of the Ward identities and sums over transverse polarization states give rise to terms formally corresponding to real ghost emission, cancelling ghost loop singularities, and to a factorisation of the hard narrow single gauge boson emission. Other virtual corrections are examined in the soft region and a graph by graph cancellation is also found. An illustrative explicit calculation of scattering of a gauge particle in an external scalar potential, including hard narrow angle emission is presented. (Auth.)

  16. Tsunami and ghost stories in Thailand: exploring the psychology of ghosts and religious rituals within the context of Thai Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorajjakool, Siroj

    2007-01-01

    The post-tsunami ghost phenomena in Thailand may be understood, in Jungian terms, as an expression of the autonomous complex of the collective psyche resulting from traumatic loss. Religious rituals, as in the context of Thai Buddhism, provide an alternative method of dealing with grief, and hence they affirm the place of religious practices in the overall psychological well-being of people from various cultural backgrounds.

  17. Chandra Finds Ghosts Of Eruption In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    "Ghostly" relics of an ancient eruption that tore through a cluster of galaxies were recently uncovered by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The discovery implies that galaxy clusters are the sites of enormously energetic and recurring explosions, and may provide an explanation why galaxy clusters behave like giant cosmic magnets. "Chandra's image revealed vast regions in the galaxy cluster Abell 2597 that contain almost no X-ray or radio emission. We call them ghost cavities," said Brian McNamara of Ohio University in Athens today during a press conference at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington. "They appear to be remnants of an old explosion where the radio emission has faded away over millions of years." The ghost cavities were likely created by extremely powerful explosions, due to material falling toward a black hole millions of times more massive than the Sun. As the matter swirled around the black hole, located in a galaxy near the center of the cluster, it generated enormous electromagnetic fields that expelled material from the vicinity of the black hole at high speeds. This explosive activity in Abell 2597 created jets of highly energetic particles that cleared out voids in the hot gas. Because they are lighter than the surrounding material, the cavities will eventually push their way to the edge of the cluster, just as air bubbles in water make their way to the surface. Researchers also found evidence that this explosion was not a one-time event. "We detected a small, bright radio source near the center of the cluster that indicates a new explosion has occurred recently," said team member Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, "so the cycle of eruption is apparently continuing." Though dim, the ghost cavities are not completely empty. They contain a mixture of very hot gas, high-energy particles and magnetic fields -- otherwise the cavities would have collapsed under the pressure of the surrounding hot

  18. On the identification of gravitation with the massless spin 2 field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, A.

    1984-05-01

    The identification of gravitation with the massless spin 2 gauge field (the gauge group is the group of translations) requires to restrict the solutions of Einstein's equations to the class of topologically trivial manifolds. It is shown that the validity of this restriction in nature is supported by the present-day empirical facts. The identification has a drastic impact on cosmology, because the fulfilment of the cosmological principle seems to be improbable. (author)

  19. Quantum spreading of a self-gravitating wave-packet in singularity free gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam

    In this paper we will study for the first time how the wave-packet of a self-gravitating meso-scopic system spreads in theories beyond Einstein’s general relativity. In particular, we will consider a ghost-free infinite derivative gravity, which resolves the 1 / r singularity in the potential – such

  20. Living in the “Ghost City”: Media Discourses and the Negotiation of Home in Ordos, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ordos is notoriously represented in media discourses as one of China’s principal “ghost cities”, with skyscrapers, apartment estates and grandiose squares largely unoccupied. The “ghost city” emerges from massive (overinvestment in the urban built environment. Aware that economic and financial sustainability are in question, we nonetheless choose to investigate this issue from the perspective of social sustainability, utilizing a theoretical framework informed by geographies of home. Relatively little analysis has thus far been applied to local residents’ everyday practice and agency in making place and home in allegedly “unhomely” ghost cities. This article first examines media discourses and representations of the “ghostly” aspect of the new town in Ordos. It then investigates the ways in which local residents practice and perform their place identity and sense of home in an alleged “ghost city”. Our empirical research in Kangbashi New Town demonstrates that the discourse of ghost cities is valid in so far as we take into account the local residents’ engagement in a process of home-making from below. This sense of place is created by connecting new and old homes, and constructing an emotionally delineated place identity. We argue that the issue of social sustainability in Ordos is multifaceted, and more nuanced than it has hitherto been represented in media reports.

  1. Thermodynamic limit of particle-hole form factors in the massless XXZ Heisenberg chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanine, N. [Univ. de Bourgogne (France). IMB, UMR 5584 du CNRS; Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M.; Terras, V. [ENS Lyon (France). UMR 5672 du CNRS, Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    We study the thermodynamic limit of the particle-hole form factors of the XXZ Heisenberg chain in the massless regime. We show that, in this limit, such form factors decrease as an explicitly computed power-law in the system size. Moreover, the corresponding amplitudes can be obtained as a product of a ''smooth'' and a ''discrete'' part: the former depends continuously on the rapidities of the particles and holes, whereas the latter has an additional explicit dependence on the set of integer numbers that label each excited state in the associated logarithmic Bethe equations. We also show that special form factors corresponding to zero-energy excitations lying on the Fermi surface decrease as a power-law in the system size with the same critical exponents as in the longdistance asymptotic behavior of the related two-point correlation functions. The methods we develop in this article are rather general and can be applied to other massless integrable models associated to the six-vertex R-matrix and having determinant representations for their form factors. (orig.)

  2. Error threshold ghosts in a simple hypercycle with error prone self-replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardanyes, Josep

    2008-01-01

    A delayed transition because of mutation processes is shown to happen in a simple hypercycle composed by two indistinguishable molecular species with error prone self-replication. The appearance of a ghost near the hypercycle error threshold causes a delay in the extinction and thus in the loss of information of the mutually catalytic replicators, in a kind of information memory. The extinction time, τ, scales near bifurcation threshold according to the universal square-root scaling law i.e. τ ∼ (Q hc - Q) -1/2 , typical of dynamical systems close to a saddle-node bifurcation. Here, Q hc represents the bifurcation point named hypercycle error threshold, involved in the change among the asymptotic stability phase and the so-called Random Replication State (RRS) of the hypercycle; and the parameter Q is the replication quality factor. The ghost involves a longer transient towards extinction once the saddle-node bifurcation has occurred, being extremely long near the bifurcation threshold. The role of this dynamical effect is expected to be relevant in fluctuating environments. Such a phenomenon should also be found in larger hypercycles when considering the hypercycle species in competition with their error tail. The implications of the ghost in the survival and evolution of error prone self-replicating molecules with hypercyclic organization are discussed

  3. The paradoxes of the interaction-free measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidman, L.; Tel Aviv Univ.

    2001-01-01

    Interaction-free measurements introduced by Elitzur and Vaidman (1993) allow finding infinitely fragile objects without destroying them. Paradoxical features of these and related measurements are discussed. The resolution of the paradoxes in the framework of the Many-Worlds Interpretation is proposed. (orig.)

  4. How Do We Think about Death?--A Cultural Glance of Superstitious Ideas from Chinese and Western Ghost Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli

    2009-01-01

    Superstitious ideas are always in people's life in spite of scientific and technological advancement. Hungry Ghost Festival in China, Halloween in some western countries and Day of the Dead in Mexico are three religious festivals which are observed every year. They reveal people's idea about ghosts and spirits after death. They also include…

  5. Non-Schwinger solution of the two-dimensional massless spinor electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhov, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    In the present paper a regularization procedure is formulated for the current in the two-dimensional massless spinor electrodynamics that is both gauge and γ 5 -gauge invariant. This gives rise to an operator solution of the model that does not involve a massive photon. The latter solution is studied in some detail, and it is shown that although a charge operator exists, it does not define the electric charge of the spinor field. This can be a manifestation of the charge screening mechanism that is present in the Schwinger model [ru

  6. Massless second-order tetradic spin-3 and higher-helicity bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragone, C; La Roche, H [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela) Dept. de Fisica

    1982-11-21

    The unique, uniform, second-order formulation of massless bosons of helicity >=3 is presented here in terms of tetradic fields. The actions we find are shown to coincide both with the first-order (tetradic) formulation of Vasiliev and with the symmetric second-order description of Fronsdal. We carefully analyse the gravitational coupling of the spin-3 field and find that tetradic spin-3 matter presents the same translational consistency problem as symmetric matter does. Furthermore, in the curved tetradic case the generalized Lorentz invariance can be restored by the addition of nominimal terms.

  7. Ghost imaging with paired x-ray photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, A.; Borodin, D.; Tamasaku, K.; Shwartz, S.

    2018-06-01

    We report the experimental observation of ghost imaging with paired x-ray photons, which are generated by parametric downconversion. We use the one-to-one relation between the photon energies and the emission angles and the anticorrelation between the k -vectors of the signal and the idler photons to reconstruct the images of slits with nominally zero background levels. Further extension of our procedure can be used for the observation of various quantum phenomena at x-ray wavelengths.

  8. Faddeev-Jackiw Hamiltonian reduction for free and gauged Rarita-Schwinger theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dengiz, Suat [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Theoretical Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    We study the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic Hamiltonian reduction for 3 + 1-dimensional free and Abelian gauged Rarita-Schwinger theories that comprise Grassmannian fermionic fields. We obtain the relevant fundamental brackets and find that they are in convenient forms for quantization. The brackets are independent of whether the theories contain mass or gauge fields, and the structures of constraints and symplectic potentials largely determine characteristic behaviors of the theories. We also note that, in contrast to the free massive theory, the Dirac field equations for free massless Rarita-Schwinger theory cannot be obtained in a covariant way. (orig.)

  9. Ghost-gluon vertex in the presence of the Gribov horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, B. W.; Palhares, L. F.; Sorella, S. P.; Pereira, A. D.

    2018-02-01

    We consider Yang-Mills theories quantized in the Landau gauge in the presence of the Gribov horizon via the refined Gribov-Zwanziger (RGZ) framework. As the restriction of the gauge path integral to the Gribov region is taken into account, the resulting gauge field propagators display a nontrivial infrared behavior, being very close to the ones observed in lattice gauge field theory simulations. In this work, we explore a higher correlation function in the refined Gribov-Zwanziger theory: the ghost-gluon interaction vertex, at one-loop level. We show explicit compatibility with kinematical constraints, as required by the Ward identities of the theory, and obtain analytical expressions in the limit of vanishing gluon momentum. We find that the RGZ results are nontrivial in the infrared regime, being compatible with lattice Yang-Mills simulations in both SU(2) and SU(3), as well as with solutions from Schwinger-Dyson equations in different truncation schemes, Functional Renormalization Group analysis, and the renormalization group-improved Curci-Ferrari model.

  10. Gravitational Collapse of Massless Fields in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Chul-Moon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field with the periodic boundary condition in a cubic box is reported. This system can be regarded as a lattice universe model. The initial data is constructed for a Gaussian like profile of the scalar field taking the integrability condition associated with the periodic boundary condition into account. For a large initial amplitude, a black hole is formed after a certain period of time. While the scalar field spreads out in the whole region for a small initial amplitude. The difference of the late time expansion law of the lattice universe depending on the final fate of the gravitational collapse is discussed.

  11. Luisa's Ghosts: Haunted Legality and Collective Expressions of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Amy

    2018-04-25

    Feminist health care providers have debated the efficacy of the decriminalization of abortion in Mexico City. Luisa, a counselor in a private clinic, suggested that while the law has expanded the visibility of, and access to safe abortion, it has also called forth "other ghosts." In this article, I take Luisa's critical perspective as a starting point for examining ongoing criminalization and moral stigma as forms of haunting that arise in the wake of the Mexico City abortion policy. Drawing on ethnographic research, I explore how Luisa's ghosts materialize in the embodied- affective relations between patients in new legal clinics. Women who attend public clinics negotiate moral stigma along with religious and familial pressures in the ways they suffer, as well as normalize abortion as a painful experience. Rather than approach pain as purely a sign of victimization, I suggest that its expression constitutes an effervescent collectivity between women in the clinic, making explicit, while at the same time dissipating, an intractable moral-affective knot that might otherwise be ignored.

  12. dS/CFT correspondence from a holographic description of massless scalar fields in Minkowski space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loran, Farhang

    2004-01-01

    We solve Klein-Gordon equation for massless scalars on (d+1)-dimensional Minkowski (Euclidean) space in terms of the Cauchy data on the hypersurface t=0. By inserting the solution into the action of massless scalars in Minkowski (Euclidean) space we obtain the action of dual theory on the boundary t=0 which is exactly the holographic dual of conformally coupled scalars on (d+1)-dimensional (Euclidean anti) de Sitter space obtained in (A)dS/CFT correspondence. The observed equivalence of dual theories is explained using the one-to-one map between conformally coupled scalar fields on Minkowski (Euclidean) space and (Euclidean anti) de Sitter space which is an isomorphism between the hypersurface t=0 of Minkowski (Euclidean) space and the boundary of (A)dS space

  13. Extended nonabelian symmetries for free fermionic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    The higher spin symmetry for both Dirac and Majorana massless free fermionic field models are considered. An infinite Lie algebra which is a linear realization of the higher spin extension of the cross products of the Virasoro and affine Kac-Moody algebras is obtained. The corresponding current algebra is closed which is not the case of analogous current algebra in the WZNW model. The gauging procedure for the higher spin symmetry is also given. (author). 12 refs

  14. Infrared behavior of massless field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapirstein, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Typical infrared effects in several gauge field theories with massless particles are investigated in perturbation theory. It is first shown that divergences occurring in individual Feynman graphs arising from integrations over the long-wavelength modes of the fields cancel when the graphs are grouped together in a particular way, in a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck treatment of QED. As one of the requirements of finiteness is renormalization of the vector propagator off shell, the charge in these theories is not directly related to classical experiment. In an effort to find the meaning of charge the low-energy theorem is considered. Although in lowest order the graphs reproduce the Thompson limit, it is found that loop corrections are singular in the low-energy limit; a simple definition of the charge is thus precluded. Finally, the behavior of the quark color magnetic moment is treated. An apparent infrared singularity of this moment is shown to be due to an improper use of perturbation theory, and is removed and replaced with a finite, field-dependent moment, by use of Furry picture propagators

  15. Relevance of metric-free interactions in flocking phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginelli, Francesco; Chaté, Hugues

    2010-10-15

    We show that the collective properties of self-propelled particles aligning with their topological (Voronoi) neighbors are qualitatively different from those of usual models where metric interaction ranges are used. This relevance of metric-free interactions, shown in a minimal setting, indicate that realistic models for the cohesive motion of cells, bird flocks, and fish schools may have to incorporate them, as suggested by recent observations.

  16. Ghosted images: old lesbians on screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainitzki, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Screen images of old lesbians combine modes of representing female gender, lesbian sexuality, and old age, all of which contain layers of otherness within a hetero-patriarchal and youth-centered society. Analyzing a range of films, from independent to mainstream cinema, this article explores how the ghosted lesbian paradigm intersects with narratives of aging as decline in representations of lesbian characters who are over the age of sixty. The spectral matters of illness, death, mourning, and widowhood inevitably culminate in an unhappy ending. Removed from a lesbian community context, intergenerational continuity vanishes and the old lesbian emerges as the cultural other.

  17. On the zero crossing of the three-gluon vertex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athenodorou, A. [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, POB 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Binosi, D., E-mail: binosi@ectstar.eu [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas - ECT* and Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Villa Tambosi, Strada delle Tabarelle 286, I-38050 Villazzano (Italy); Boucaud, Ph. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (UMR8627), CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); De Soto, F. [Dpto. Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales, Univ. Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Papavassiliou, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, E-46100, Valencia (Spain); Rodríguez-Quintero, J. [Department of Integrated Sciences, University of Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Zafeiropoulos, S. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-10-10

    We report on new results on the infrared behavior of the three-gluon vertex in quenched Quantum Chromodynamics, obtained from large-volume lattice simulations. The main focus of our study is the appearance of the characteristic infrared feature known as ‘zero crossing’, the origin of which is intimately connected with the nonperturbative masslessness of the Faddeev–Popov ghost. The appearance of this effect is clearly visible in one of the two kinematic configurations analyzed, and its theoretical origin is discussed in the framework of Schwinger–Dyson equations. The effective coupling in the momentum subtraction scheme that corresponds to the three-gluon vertex is constructed, revealing the vanishing of the effective interaction at the exact location of the zero crossing.

  18. Pedagogies of Hauntology in History Education: Learning to Live with the Ghosts of Disappeared Victims of War and Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2013-01-01

    Michalinos Zembylas examines how history education can be reconceived in terms of Jacques Derrida's notion of "hauntology," that is, as an ongoing conversation with the "ghost"--in the case of this essay, the ghosts of disappeared victims of war and dictatorship. Here, Zembylas uses hauntology as both metaphor and pedagogical methodology for…

  19. Ghosts, Meaning, and Faith: After-Death Communications in Bereavement Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwilecki, Susan

    2011-01-01

    After-death communications (ADCs) are reported encounters with a deceased loved one, a contemporary type of ghost experience heralded as therapeutic in coping with bereavement. Pertinent literature generally illustrates the healing power of ADCs with brief, self-contained episodes. The functions of ADCs over the course of grief need exploration.…

  20. Teen Girls' Resistance and the Disappearing Social in "Ghost World."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines "Ghost World," a Hollywood film about youth, friendship, alienation, and survival, critically investigating how popular representations of youth signal a particular crisis of the social through a discourse of privatization, which fails to locate youth and problems they face within the related geographies of the social and political. The…

  1. Support-free interior carving for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent interior carving methods for functional design necessitate a cumbersome cut-and-glue process in fabrication. We propose a method to generate interior voids which not only satisfy the functional purposes but are also support-free during the 3D printing process. We introduce a support-free unit structure for voxelization and derive the wall thicknesses parametrization for continuous optimization. We also design a discrete dithering algorithm to ensure the printability of ghost voxels. The interior voids are iteratively carved by alternating the optimization and dithering. We apply our method to optimize the static and rotational stability, and print various results to evaluate the efficacy. Keywords: Interior carving, Support-free, Voxels dithering, Shape optimization, 3D printing

  2. Ghost crabs on a treadmill: Oxygen Uptake and Haemocyanin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghost crabs Ocypode ceratophthalmus were exercised on a specially constructed treadmill. At a running speed of 13,3 cm s-1, most crabs ran for 2 h before getting fatigued. At this speed the oxygen consumption rate (MO2) was measured in time intervals for a total of 52 min. For exercised crabs the MO2 values are about ...

  3. A specter of coexistence: Is centrifugal community organization haunted by the ghost of competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In a centrifugally organized community species prefer the same habitat (called "core") but differ in their secondary habitat preferences. The first model of centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicted that optimally foraging, symmetrically competing species would share use of the core habitat at all density combinations. But one might also assume that the competition in the core habitat is asymmetrical, that is, that one of the species (the dominant) has a behavioral advantage therein. In this study, we asked how should habitat use evolve in a centrifugally organized community if its species compete asymmetrically in the core habitat? To address this question we developed an "isoleg model". The model predicts that in a centrifugally organized community, asymmetric competition promotes the use of the core habitat exclusively by the dominant species at most points in the state space. The separation of the core habitat use by the species ("the ghost of competition past") may be either complete or partial ("partial ghost"), and behavior at the stable competitive equilibrium between the species could determine whether coexistence should occur at the "complete-" or the "partial ghost" regions. This version of CCO should be a common feature of competitive systems.

  4. Three-point Green's function of massless QED in position space to lowest order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    The transverse part of the three-point Green's function of massless QED is determined to the lowest order in position space. Taken together with the evaluation of the longitudinal part in Mitra (2008) (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 315401), this gives a relation for QED which is analogous to the star-triangle relation. We relate our result to conformal-invariant three-point functions

  5. A Novel Probability Model for Suppressing Multipath Ghosts in GPR and TWI Imaging: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yun-hua

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel concept for suppressing the problem of multipath ghosts in Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR and Through-Wall Imaging (TWI is presented. Ghosts (i.e., false targets mainly arise from the use of the Born or single-scattering approximations that lead to linearized imaging algorithms; however, these approximations neglect the effect of multiple scattering (or multipath between the electromagnetic wavefield and the object under investigation. In contrast to existing methods of suppressing multipath ghosts, the proposed method models for the first time the reflectivity of the probed objects as a probability function up to a normalized factor and introduces the concept of random subaperture by randomly picking up measurement locations from the entire aperture. Thus, the final radar image is a joint probability distribution that corresponds to radar images derived from multiple random subapertures. Finally, numerical experiments are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed methodology in GPR and TWI imaging.

  6. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  7. Cubic scattering amplitudes for all massless representations of the Poincare group in any space-time dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Metsaev, R.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using the language of highest weight representations and the light cone formalism we construct a full list of cubic amplitudes of scattering for all bosonic massless representations of the Poincare group in any even space-time dimension. (author). 29 refs

  8. Measurement of the interaction between the flow and the free surface of a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Koji [Univ. of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan); Schmidl, W.D.; Philip, O.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The interaction between the flow and free surface was evaluated measuring the velocity distribution and surface movement simultaneously. The test section was a rectangular tank having a free surface. A rectangular nozzle was set near the free surface, causing the wavy free surface condition. The flow under the free surface was visualized by a laser light sheet and small tracer particles. With image processing techniques, the movement of the free surface and the movement of the particles were simultaneously measured from the recorded images, resulting in the velocity distributions and surface locations. Then, the interactions between the flow and free surface were evaluated using the form of turbulent energy and surface-related turbulent values. By increasing the turbulent energy near the free surface, the fluctuations of the free surface height and the inclination of the free surface were increased. The higher fluctuation of horizontal velocity was related to the higher surface position and negative inclination. The image processing technique is found to be very useful to evaluate the interaction between free surface and flow.

  9. Measurement of the interaction between the flow and the free surface of a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Schmidl, W.D.; Philip, O.G.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between the flow and free surface was evaluated measuring the velocity distribution and surface movement simultaneously. The test section was a rectangular tank having a free surface. A rectangular nozzle was set near the free surface, causing the wavy free surface condition. The flow under the free surface was visualized by a laser light sheet and small tracer particles. With image processing techniques, the movement of the free surface and the movement of the particles were simultaneously measured from the recorded images, resulting in the velocity distributions and surface locations. Then, the interactions between the flow and free surface were evaluated using the form of turbulent energy and surface-related turbulent values. By increasing the turbulent energy near the free surface, the fluctuations of the free surface height and the inclination of the free surface were increased. The higher fluctuation of horizontal velocity was related to the higher surface position and negative inclination. The image processing technique is found to be very useful to evaluate the interaction between free surface and flow

  10. Light-cone gauge versus proper-time gauge for massless spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerstam, B.S.; Stern, A.

    1987-01-01

    Although the light-cone gauge is convenient for many applications in physics, it is known to distort topology. We show that as a consequence, some interesting, possibly physical, features of a quantum theory may be missed when working in the light-cone gauge. We shall illustrate this by examining the description of massless spinning particles in an arbitrary number of space-time dimensions. When quantizing such particles in four space-time dimensions (without introducing Grassmann degrees of freedom), the light-cone gauge yields a purely bosonic spectrum, i.e. the helicity λ is integer-valued. The problem is rectified by going to the proper-time gauge; there λ = 0, ±1/2, ±1, ... Upon using the proper-time gauge to quantize massless particle systems in more than four space-time dimensions, we find the following interesting features: Except for space-time dimension d equal to 5 and 9, (i) wave functions cannot be expressed as global functions of momentum (or position). (This is also true for d=4.) Further, for d ≠ 5 and 9, (ii) the helicity group spin (d-2) and (iii) canonical position operators do not exist, globally. (The result that helicity cannot be globally defined resembles a known property of nonabelian monopoles arising in grand unified theories. There, topological obstructions prevent one from defining the color group, globally.) All of the features (i)-(iii) are missed when working in the light-cone gauge. (orig.)

  11. "Haunting experiences: Ghosts in contemporary folklore," by Diane E. Goldstein et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Levitt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diane E. Goldstein, Sylvia Ann Grider, and Jeannie Banks Thomas. Haunting experiences: Ghosts in contemporary folklore. Logan: Utah State University Press, 2007, paperback, $24.95 (272p ISBN 978-0-87421-636-3.

  12. Particle swarm optimization with scale-free interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available The particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, in which individuals collaborate with their interacted neighbors like bird flocking to search for the optima, has been successfully applied in a wide range of fields pertaining to searching and convergence. Here we employ the scale-free network to represent the inter-individual interactions in the population, named SF-PSO. In contrast to the traditional PSO with fully-connected topology or regular topology, the scale-free topology used in SF-PSO incorporates the diversity of individuals in searching and information dissemination ability, leading to a quite different optimization process. Systematic results with respect to several standard test functions demonstrate that SF-PSO gives rise to a better balance between the convergence speed and the optimum quality, accounting for its much better performance than that of the traditional PSO algorithms. We further explore the dynamical searching process microscopically, finding that the cooperation of hub nodes and non-hub nodes play a crucial role in optimizing the convergence process. Our work may have implications in computational intelligence and complex networks.

  13. Free radical interactions between raw materials in dry soup powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-12-01

    Interactions at the free radical level were observed between dry ingredients in cauliflower soup powder, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, which may be of importance for quality deterioration of such dry food products. The free radical concentrations of cauliflower soup powder, obtained by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, rapidly become smaller during storage (40°C and relative humidity of 75%) than the calculated concentrations of free radicals based on the free radical concentrations of the powder ingredients used to make the soup powder and stored separately under similar conditions. Similarly, free radical concentrations decreased faster when any combination of two powder ingredients (of the three major ingredients of the soup powder) were mixed together and stored at 50°C for 1week than when each powder component was stored separately. Furthermore, yeast extract powder was found to play a key role when free radical interactions between powder ingredients occurred. The incubation of rapeseed oil with powder ingredients at 45°C for 24h, indicated the ability of cauliflower powder to increase the concentration of hydroperoxides in rapeseed oil, while yeast extract powder was found to prevent this hydroperoxide formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Equilibrium thermodynamics of the partitioning of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs into human erythrocyte ghost membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Bar diagram representing thermodynamic parameters obtained for the partitioning of NSAIDs into human erythrocyte ghost membranes at physiological pH; 7.4. Highlights: • Partition coefficients of NSAIDs into HEG membranes were determined. • Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and successfully analyzed. • Partitioning of NSAIDs into HEG membranes was exothermic. • Partitioning of NSAIDs into HEG is spontaneous with negative free energy values. • Identical partitioning enthalpy–entropy driven compensation mechanism was shown. -- Abstract: In this work,second derivative spectrophotometry was applied for determining the partition coefficients (K p s) of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; flufenamic, meclofenamic, mefenamic and niflumic acids) into human erythrocyte ghost (HEG) membranes over a temperature range from (283.2 to 313.2) K. The proposed method allowed the evaluation and direct analyses of thermodynamic parameters; enthalpy (ΔH W→M ), Gibbs energy (ΔG W→M ) and entropy (ΔS W→M ) changes of the partitioning of NSAIDs into HEG membranes. The partitioning of NSAIDs between polar aqueous phase and non-polar lipid bilayer HEG membrane phase was exothermic with negative (ΔH W→M ) which compensated for the changes in (ΔS W→M ). The negative values of (ΔG W→M ) revealed that the partitioning of NSAIDs into HEG, owing to their transfer from polar aqueous phase and non-polar HEG phase is spontaneous. The enthalpy–entropy correlation analysis resulted in a good linearity that suggests an identical partitioning enthalpy–entropy driven compensation mechanism for the studied NSAIDs

  15. On operators of the ghost number and conjugation in the BRST quantization formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, T.Ya.; Khoruzhij, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed and rigorous study is made of operators of the ghost number Q c and ghost conjugation U c which are operators in Krein spaces arising in the BRST quantization formalism for constrained dynamical systems. A number of conditions are obtained which guarantee that Q c is well-defined and J-symmetric. It is shown that properties of Q c are related to the following geometrical problem: to find conditions under which a pair of lineals in the Krein space can be made neutral by the appropriate choice of J-metrics. The complete solution of this problem is given. Whole series of examples is constructed which demonstrate the connections between properties of Q c and geometry of its spectral subspaces

  16. Effects of Low Anisotropy on Generalized Ghost Dark Energy in Galileon Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossienkhani, H.; Fayaz, V.; Jafari, A.; Yousefi, H.

    2018-04-01

    The definition of the Galileon gravity form is extended to the Brans-Dicke theory. Given, the framework of the Galileon theory, the generalized ghost dark energy model in an anisotropic universe is investigated. We study the cosmological implications of this model. In particular, we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of this dark energy in Bianchi type I model. We also probe observational constraints by using the latest observational data on the generalized ghost dark energy models as the unification of dark matter and dark energy. In order to do so, we focus on observational determinations of the Hubble expansion rate (namely, the expansion history) H(z). As a result, we show the influence of the anisotropy (although low) on the evolution of the universe in the statefinder diagrams for Galileon gravity.

  17. An Embedded Ghost-Fluid Method for Compressible Flow in Complex Geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Almarouf, Mohamad Abdulilah Alhusain Alali

    2016-06-03

    We present an embedded ghost-fluid method for numerical solutions of the compressible Navier Stokes (CNS) equations in arbitrary complex domains. The PDE multidimensional extrapolation approach of Aslam [1] is used to reconstruct the solution in the ghost-fluid regions and impose boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface. The CNS equations are numerically solved by the second order multidimensional upwind method of Colella [2] and Saltzman [3]. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement implemented under the Chombo framework is utilized to reduce the computational cost while keeping high-resolution mesh around the embedded boundary and regions of high gradient solutions. Numerical examples with different Reynolds numbers for low and high Mach number flow will be presented. We compare our simulation results with other reported experimental and computational results. The significance and advantages of our implementation, which revolve around balancing between the solution accuracy and implementation difficulties, are briefly discussed as well. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications.

  18. An Embedded Ghost-Fluid Method for Compressible Flow in Complex Geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Almarouf, Mohamad Abdulilah Alhusain Alali; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We present an embedded ghost-fluid method for numerical solutions of the compressible Navier Stokes (CNS) equations in arbitrary complex domains. The PDE multidimensional extrapolation approach of Aslam [1] is used to reconstruct the solution in the ghost-fluid regions and impose boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface. The CNS equations are numerically solved by the second order multidimensional upwind method of Colella [2] and Saltzman [3]. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement implemented under the Chombo framework is utilized to reduce the computational cost while keeping high-resolution mesh around the embedded boundary and regions of high gradient solutions. Numerical examples with different Reynolds numbers for low and high Mach number flow will be presented. We compare our simulation results with other reported experimental and computational results. The significance and advantages of our implementation, which revolve around balancing between the solution accuracy and implementation difficulties, are briefly discussed as well. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications.

  19. At the Table with Hungry Ghosts: Intimate Borderwork in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duruz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the project of sustaining cultural diversity within global cities’ intimate spaces. Specifically, it sketches the culinary histories of an Anglo-Australian woman (who, in 1968, settled permanently in Mexico and her male partner (who grew up in Mexico; his mother Mexican, his father Cantonese. Drawing on the tools of ‘borderwork’ (Hodge and O’Carroll, the argument positions culturally diverse landscapes of ‘Sydney’, ‘China’ and ‘Mexico City’ as distinct yet overlapping geographies. Meanwhile, analysis of curious moments in the couple’s intersecting histories contributes much fluidity to this cartography. In the process, a company of hungry ghosts appears at the dinner table – ghosts of diversity, diaspora and cosmopolitanism; nostalgia and memory; gender and ethnicity; home and belonging. The article concludes that even when borderwork is conducted amiably behind closed doors, it relies on contradictions for cultural sustenance. At the same time, its tensions resonate with possibilities for creative practice.

  20. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Pryer, Daniel; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential. (orig.)

  1. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, Xavier; Pryer, Daniel [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential. (orig.)

  2. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Xavier; Capozziello, Salvatore; Pryer, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential.

  3. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Xavier; Capozziello, Salvatore; Pryer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential.

  4. Simultaneous dense coding affected by fluctuating massless scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming; Ye, Yiyong; Luo, Darong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous dense coding (SDC) protocol affected by fluctuating massless scalar field. The noisy model of SDC protocol is constructed and the master equation that governs the SDC evolution is deduced. The success probabilities of SDC protocol are discussed for different locking operators under the influence of vacuum fluctuations. We find that the joint success probability is independent of the locking operators, but other success probabilities are not. For quantum Fourier transform and double controlled-NOT operators, the success probabilities drop with increasing two-atom distance, but SWAP operator is not. Unlike the SWAP operator, the success probabilities of Bob and Charlie are different. For different noisy interval values, different locking operators have different robustness to noise.

  5. Radiation-induced structural changes in membrane proteins of human erythrocytes and ghosts and the relation to cellular morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurhuis, G.J.; Hommes, J.; Vos, J.; Molenaar, I.; Konings, A.W.T. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands))

    1984-02-01

    Isolated human erythrocytes and ghosts were irradiated with X-rays under different experimental conditions and the effect examined with regard to the structure of membrane proteins and morphology of whole cells and ghosts. From sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis it is concluded that spectrin (band 1 and 2) is the most radiosensitive of the membrane proteins examined. X-irradiation of cells and ghosts induced covalent cross-linking of a small fraction of membrane proteins. In the protein aggregates thus formed spectrin was found to be the major component. Molecular disulphide (-SS-) bridges seemed to account for part of the cross-links observed. Some nondisulphide cross-links were found, especially when ghosts were irradiated. Significant amounts of spectrin aggregates were formed during post-irradiation incubation at 37/sup 0/C but not at 4/sup 0/C. In the intact cell a transformation in shape from discocyte to echinocyte accompanied the process of post-irradiation spectrin aggregation. The characteristics of both processes, such as their reversibility with adenosine, point to a metabolic involvement. It is shown that there is no causal relationship between the two phenomena observed. Possible causes of the post-irradiation effects and the parallelism with similar processes in non-irradiated metabolically depleted cells are discussed.

  6. Radiation-induced structural changes in membrane proteins of human erythrocytes and ghosts and the relation to cellular morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurhuis, G.J.; Hommes, J.; Vos, J.; Molenaar, I.; Konings, A.W.T.

    1984-01-01

    Isolated human erythrocytes and ghosts were irradiated with X-rays under different experimental conditions and the effect examined with regard to the structure of membrane proteins and morphology of whole cells and ghosts. From sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis it is concluded that spectrin (band 1 and 2) is the most radiosensitive of the membrane proteins examined. X-irradiation of cells and ghosts induced covalent cross-linking of a small fraction of membrane proteins. In the protein aggregates thus formed spectrin was found to be the major component. Molecular disulphide (-SS-) bridges seemed to account for part of the cross-links observed. Some nondisulphide cross-links were found, especially when ghosts were irradiated. Significant amounts of spectrin aggregates were formed during post-irradiation incubation at 37 0 C but not at 4 0 C. In the intact cell a transformation in shape from discocyte to echinocyte accompanied the process of post-irradiation spectrin aggregation. The characteristics of both processes, such as their reversibility with adenosine, point to a metabolic involvement. It is shown that there is no causal relationship between the two phenomena observed. Possible causes of the post-irradiation effects and the parallelism with similar processes in non-irradiated metabolically depleted cells are discussed. (author)

  7. The classical electromagnetic theory which corresponds to the two dimensions quantum electrodynamics with massless fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, C.A.P.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The classical electromagnetic theory is analysed which corresponds to the two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics with massless spinor fields (Schwinger model). The chiral anomaly is introduced as a currents property, which in the two-dimensional spinor fields are duality related. It is also shown that the resulting classical theory is consistent. (author). 5 refs

  8. Gravity and magnetic data across the Ghost Dance Fault in WT-2 Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data were obtained in September 1993 along a 4,650 ft-long profile across the Ghost Dance Fault system in WT-2 Wash. Gravity stations were established every 150 feet along the profile. Total-field magnetic measurements made initially every 50 ft along the profile, then remade every 20 ft through the fault zone. These new data are part of a geologic and geophysical study of the Ghost Dance Fault (GDF) which includes detailed geologic mapping, seismic reflection, and some drilling including geologic and geophysical logging. The Ghost Dance Fault is the only through-going fault that has been identified within the potential repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Preliminary gravity results show a distinct decrease of 0.1 to 0.2 mGal over a 600-ft-wide zone to the east of and including the mapped fault. The gravity decrease probably marks a zone of brecciation. Another fault-offset located about 2,000 ft to the east of the GDF was detected by seismic reflection data and is also marked by a distinct gravity low. The ground magnetic data show a 200-ft-wide magnetic low of about 400 nT centered about 100 ft east of the Ghost Dance Fault. The magnetic low probably marks a zone of brecciation within the normally polarized Topopah Spring Tuff, the top of which is about 170 ft below the surface, and which is known from drilling to extend to a depth of about 1,700 ft. Three-component magnetometer logging in drill hole WT-2 located about 2,700 ft east of the Ghost Dance Fault shows that the Topopah Spring Tuff is strongly polarized magnetically in this area, so that fault brecciation of a vertical zone within the Tuff could provide an average negative magnetic contrast of the 4 Am -1 needed to produce the 400 nT low observed at the surface

  9. The covariant consistent quantization of bosonized chiral Schwinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Y.S.

    1988-01-01

    From Ward-Takahashi identifies and full propagators, the authors obtain a massive Proca field U/sub μ/ which has the positive norm state. There also exists a massless physical scalar field H which turns out to be the positive norm state only for 4e/sup 2/ > 1. It is further shown that a dipole ghost field D and auxiliary field B, as quartet members, belong to the zero norm states

  10. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, Madhumita [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); Lenske, Horst [Justus-Liebig University Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new approach to the SU(3) flavour symmetric meson-exchange model is introduced to describe free space baryon-baryon interaction. The Bethe-Salpeter equations are solved in a 3-D reduction scheme. The coupling of the various channels of total strangeness S and conserved total charge Q is studied in detail. Special attention is paid to the physical thresholds. The derived vacuum interaction has then been used to derive nuclear medium effect by employing the Pauli projector operator in 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. The in-medium properties of the interaction are clearly seen in the variation of the in-medium low-energy parameters as a function of density.

  11. Boltzmann hierarchy for interacting neutrinos I: formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the collisional Boltzmann equation, we derive for the first time and from first principles the Boltzmann hierarchy for neutrinos including interactions with a scalar particle. Such interactions appear, for example, in majoron-like models of neutrino mass generation. We study two limits of the scalar mass: (i) An extremely massive scalar whose only role is to mediate an effective 4-fermion neutrino-neutrino interaction, and (ii) a massless scalar that can be produced in abundance and thus demands its own Boltzmann hierarchy. In contrast to, e.g., the first-order Boltzmann hierarchy for Thomson-scattering photons, our interacting neutrino/scalar Boltzmann hierarchies contain additional momentum-dependent collision terms arising from a non-negligible energy transfer in the neutrino-neutrino and neutrino-scalar interactions. This necessitates that we track each momentum mode of the phase space distributions individually, even if the particles were massless. Comparing our hierarchy with the commonly used (c eff 2 ,c vis 2 )-parameterisation, we find no formal correspondence between the two approaches, which raises the question of whether the latter parameterisation even has an interpretation in terms of particle scattering. Lastly, although we have invoked majoron-like models as a motivation for our study, our treatment is in fact generally applicable to all scenarios in which the neutrino and/or other ultrarelativistic fermions interact with scalar particles

  12. Geometric representation of the generator of duality in massless and massive p-form field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, Ernesto; Martinez, Yisely; Leal, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We study the invariance under duality transformations in massless and massive p-form field theories and obtain the Noether generators of the infinitesimal transformations that correspond to this symmetry. These generators can be realized in geometrical representations that generalize the loop representation of the Maxwell field, allowing for a geometrical interpretation which is studied.

  13. Regulating the infrared by mode matching: a massless scalar in expanding spaces with constant deceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a massless scalar field, with a possible coupling ξ to the Ricci scalar in a D dimensional Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with a constant deceleration parameter q=ϵ-1, ϵ=-H˙/H2. Correlation functions for the Bunch-Davies vacuum of such a theory have long

  14. Computational ghost imaging using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Nishitsuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Takayuki; Nagahama, Yuki; Hasegawa, Satoki; Sano, Marie; Hirayama, Ryuji; Kakue, Takashi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    Computational ghost imaging (CGI) is a single-pixel imaging technique that exploits the correlation between known random patterns and the measured intensity of light transmitted (or reflected) by an object. Although CGI can obtain two- or three-dimensional images with a single or a few bucket detectors, the quality of the reconstructed images is reduced by noise due to the reconstruction of images from random patterns. In this study, we improve the quality of CGI images using deep learning. A deep neural network is used to automatically learn the features of noise-contaminated CGI images. After training, the network is able to predict low-noise images from new noise-contaminated CGI images.

  15. Debris Likelihood, based on GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS, and GOES Imager, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Debris Likelihood Index (Estimated) is calculated from GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended...

  16. Kaehler-Dirac ghosts for self-dual fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labastida, J.M.F.; Pernici, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present the generalization to spacetime dimension D=4n+2 of the Lorentz covariant quadratic lagrangian for pairs of (anti)self-dual fields previously obtained by the authors in D=2. In the process of BRST quantizing this lagrangian a first-order quadratic lagrangian for ghost (anti)self-dual fields is found which, after gauge fixing, can be written in terms of bispinors and it turns out to be a Kaehler-Dirac lagrangian. The coupling to gravity is straightforward and the gravitational anomaly due to (anti)self-dual fields is obtained directly from an action principle. (orig.)

  17. An algebraic approach to laying a ghost to rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucci, M C; Leach, P G L

    2010-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been a resurgence of interest in the fourth-order field-theoretic model of Pais-Uhlenbeck (1950 Phys. Rev. 79 145-65) which has not had a good reception over the past half a century due to the existence of ghosts in the properties of the quantum mechanical solution. Bender and Mannheim (2008 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 304018) were successful in persuading the corresponding quantum operator to 'give up the ghost'. Their success had the advantage of making the model of Pais-Uhlenbeck acceptable to the physics community and in the process added further credit to the cause of advancement of the use of PT symmetry. We present a case for the acceptance of the Pais-Uhlenbeck model in the context of Dirac's theory by providing an Hamiltonian that is not quantum mechanically haunted. The essential point is the manner in which a fourth-order equation is rendered into a system of second-order equations. We show by means of the method of reduction of order (Nucci M C 1996 J. Math. Phys. 37 1772-5) that it is possible to construct a Hamiltonian that gives rise to a satisfactory quantal description without having to abandon Dirac.

  18. Infrared behaviour of massless QED in space-time dimensions 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Indrajit; Ratabole, Raghunath; Sharatchandra, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the logarithmic infrared divergences in electron self-energy and vertex function of massless QED in 2+1 dimensions can be removed at all orders of 1/N by an appropriate choice of a non-local gauge. Thus the infrared behaviour given by the leading order in 1/N is not modified by higher order corrections. Our analysis gives a computational scheme for the Amati-Testa model, resulting in a non-trivial conformal invariant field theory for all space-time dimensions 2< d<4

  19. Infrared behaviour of massless QED in space-time dimensions 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Indrajit [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India) and Theory Group, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan-Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)]. E-mail: indra@theory.saha.ernet.in; Ratabole, Raghunath [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: raghu@imsc.res.in; Sharatchandra, H.S. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: sharat@imsc.res.in

    2005-04-07

    We show that the logarithmic infrared divergences in electron self-energy and vertex function of massless QED in 2+1 dimensions can be removed at all orders of 1/N by an appropriate choice of a non-local gauge. Thus the infrared behaviour given by the leading order in 1/N is not modified by higher order corrections. Our analysis gives a computational scheme for the Amati-Testa model, resulting in a non-trivial conformal invariant field theory for all space-time dimensions 2

  20. Lattice Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. Precise extraction of the mass gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Poznan Univ.; Kujawa-Cichy, Agnieszka; Szyniszewski, Marcin; Manchester Univ.

    2012-12-01

    We present results of applying the Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. A finite basis is constructed using the strong coupling expansion to a very high order. Using exact diagonalization, the continuum limit can be reliably approached. This allows to reproduce the analytical results for the ground state energy, as well as the vector and scalar mass gaps to an outstanding precision better than 10 -6 %.