WorldWideScience

Sample records for ghg mitigation technology

  1. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  2. Assessment of GHG mitigation technology measures in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raptsoun, N.; Parasiouk, N.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992 the representatives of 176 countries including Ukraine met in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference to coordinate its efforts in protecting and guarding the environment. Signature of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change by around 150 countries indicates that climate change is potentially a major threat to the world`s environment and economic development. The project {open_quotes}Country Study on Climate Change in Ukraine{close_quotes} coordinated by the Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENIA-ECO) and supported by the US Country Studies Program Support for Climate Change Studies. The aim of the project is to make the information related to climate change in Ukraine available for the world community by using the potential of Ukrainian research institutes for further concerted actions to solve the problem of climate change on the global scale. The project consists of four elements: (1) the development of the GHG Inventory in Ukraine; (2) assessments of ecosystems-vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options; and (3) mitigation options analysis; (4) public education and outreach activities. This paper contains the main results of the third element for the energy and non-energy sectors. Main tasks of the third element were: (1) to select, test and describe or develop the methodology for mitigation options assessment; (2) to analyze the main sources of GHG emissions in Ukraine; (3) to give the macro economic analysis of Ukrainian development and the development of main economical sectors industry, energy, transport, residential, forestry and agriculture; (4) to forecast GHG emissions for different scenarios of the economic development; and (5) to analyze the main measures to mitigate climate change.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database and Tool - Data repository of GHG mitigation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry and electricity production facilities generate over 50 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the primary cause of climate change is anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing GHG emi...

  4. Genetic mitigation strategies to tackle agricultural GHG emissions: The case for biological nitrification inhibition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Arango, J; Masahiro, K; Hooper, A M; Yoshihashi, T; Ando, Y; Nakahara, K; Deshpande, S; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Ishitani, M; Peters, M; Chirinda, N; Wollenberg, L; Lata, J C; Gerard, B; Tobita, S; Rao, I M; Braun, H J; Kommerell, V; Tohme, J; Iwanaga, M

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment. This will reinforce the adaptation or mitigation impact of other climate-smart agriculture technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of GHG mitigation and CDM technology in urban transport sector of Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nitin; Gurjar, Bhola Ram; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2018-01-01

    The increase in number of vehicles in metropolitan cities has resulted in increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in urban environment. In this study, emission load of GHGs (CO, N 2 O, CO 2 ) from Chandigarh road transport sector has been estimated using Vehicular Air Pollution Inventory (VAPI) model, which uses emission factors prevalent in Indian cities. Contribution of 2-wheelers (2-w), 3-wheelers (3-w), cars, buses, and heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs) to CO, N 2 O, CO 2 , and total GHG emissions was calculated. Potential for GHG mitigation through clean development mechanism (CDM) in transport sector of Chandigarh under two scenarios, i.e., business as usual (BAU) and best estimate scenario (BES) using VAPI model, has been explored. A major contribution of GHG load (~ 50%) in Chandigarh was from four-wheelers until 2011; however, it shows a declining trend after 2011 until 2020. The estimated GHG emission from motor vehicles in Chandigarh has increased more than two times from 1065 Gg in 2005 to 2486 Gg by 2011 and is expected to increase to 4014 Gg by 2020 under BAU scenario. Under BES scenario, 30% of private transport has been transformed to public transport; GHG load was possibly reduced by 520 Gg. An increase of 173 Gg in GHGs load is projected from additional scenario (ADS) in Chandigarh city if all the diesel buses are transformed to CNG buses by 2020. Current study also offers potential for other cities to plan better GHG reduction strategies in transport sector to reduce their climate change impacts.

  6. Liberalised electricity markets, new bioenergy technologies, and GHG emission reductions: interactions and CO2 mitigation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Madlener, R.

    1999-01-01

    We contrast recent developments in power and heat production with bioenergy, and natural-gas-fired condensing plants with and without decarbonisation, in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Our main focus is on CO 2 mitigation costs and carbon tax sensitivity of production costs. We find that CO 2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems using IGCC technology than for natural gas system using decarbonisation. However, based on current fuel prices natural-gas fired co-generation plants have the lowest production costs. Hence energy policy measures will be needed to promote biomass technologies and decarbonisation options on a liberalised market. (author)

  7. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  8. Precision Agriculture Technologies Positively Contributing to GHG Emissions Mitigation, Farm Productivity and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Balafoutis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a short description of the technology and the impacts that have been reported in literature on greenhouse gases reduction and the associated impacts on farm productivity and economics. The technologies presented span all agricultural practices, including variable rate sowing/planting, fertilizing, spraying, weeding and irrigation.

  9. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in Indian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Feliciano, Diana; Sapkota, Tek; Hillier, Jon; Smith, Pete; Stirling, Clare

    2016-04-01

    India is one of the world's largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, accounting for about 5% of global emissions with further increases expected in the future. The Government of India aims to reduce emission intensities by 20-25% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level. In a recent departure from past practice the reconvened Council on Climate Change stated that climate change in agriculture would include a component that would focus on reducing emissions in agriculture, particularly methane and nitrous oxide emissions. To develop recommendations for mitigation in agriculture in India, a baseline study is presented to analyse the GHG emissions from agriculture for current management (Directorate of Economics and Statistics of the government of India). This analysis is done for the two states Bihar and Haryana, which differ in their management and practises based on different climate and policies. This first analysis shows were the highest GHG emissions in agriculture is produced and were the highest mitigation potential might be. The GHG emissions and mitigation potential are calculated using the CCAFS Mitigation Option Tool (CCAFS-MOT) (https://ccafs.cgiar.org/mitigation-option-tool-agriculture#.VpTnWL826d4) with modifications for the special modelling. In a second step, stakeholder meetings provided a wide range of possible and definite scenarios (management, policy, technology, costs, etc.) for the future to mitigate emissions in agriculture as well as how to increase productivity. These information were used to create scenarios to give estimates for the mitigation potential in agriculture for India in 2020.

  10. GHG mitigation of agricultural peatlands requires coherent policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regina, Kristina; Budiman, Arif; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    As soon as peat soil is drained for agricultural production, the peat starts to degrade, which causes emissions to the atmosphere. In countries with large peatland areas, the GHG mitigation potential related to management of these soils is often estimated as the highest amongst the measures...

  11. Estimating GHG emission mitigation supply curves of large-scale biomass use on a country level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, Veronika; Dam, Jinke van; Faaij, Andre

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the possible influences of a large-scale introduction of biomass material and energy systems and their market volumes on land, material and energy market prices and their feedback to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation costs. GHG emission mitigation supply curves for large-scale biomass use were compiled using a methodology that combines a bottom-up analysis of biomass applications, biomass cost supply curves and market prices of land, biomaterials and bioenergy carriers. These market prices depend on the scale of biomass use and the market volume of materials and energy carriers and were estimated using own-price elasticities of demand. The methodology was demonstrated for a case study of Poland in the year 2015 applying different scenarios on economic development and trade in Europe. For the key technologies considered, i.e. medium density fibreboard, poly lactic acid, electricity and methanol production, GHG emission mitigation costs increase strongly with the scale of biomass production. Large-scale introduction of biomass use decreases the GHG emission reduction potential at costs below 50 Euro /Mg CO 2eq with about 13-70% depending on the scenario. Biomaterial production accounts for only a small part of this GHG emission reduction potential due to relatively small material markets and the subsequent strong decrease of biomaterial market prices at large scale of production. GHG emission mitigation costs depend strongly on biomass supply curves, own-price elasticity of land and market volumes of bioenergy carriers. The analysis shows that these influences should be taken into account for developing biomass implementations strategies

  12. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Pakistan - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Jalal, A.I.; Mumtaz, A.; Latif, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although Pakistan's contribution to global GHG emissions is very small (currently only 0.3% of world-wide emissions), it shares with the world community the concerns of climate change due to the build-up of GHGs. Pakistan is committed to co-operating with global efforts to avert the potential threat of global warming and is already working towards its own socio-economic development in a sustainable manner. However, due to the country's limited technical and financial capabilities, its efforts are diluted and limited to only high priority areas of national interest. There is a large potential for expanding these efforts, if the necessary technical and financial support can be made available, and such an expansion would contribute significantly to the collective global objective of sustainable development. One such step is the reduction of GHG emissions from Pakistan's power sector by introducing advanced cleaner technologies. Nuclear power is one such technology

  14. Evaluating experience with electricity generating GHG mitigation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2003-07-01

    theoretical and practical level. The paper examines the experience to date with how baselines and additionality have been calculated or assessed for selected electricity-generating GHG mitigation projects. It will focus on CDM and CDM-type projects, including for projects that have been accepted or rejected by particular programmes (e.g. CERUPT) and projects where the associated baseline and monitoring methodologies have been submitted to the CDM's Executive Board. Thus, it will focus on larger-scale (>15MW) and grid-connected projects. The paper will also assess how the baseline methods for projects currently under development 'fit' with the three baseline 'approaches outlined in the Marrakech Accords.

  15. Modeling the Heterogeneous Effects of GHG Mitigation Policies on Global Agriculture and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, A.; Henderson, B.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.; Sohngen, B.

    2010-12-01

    Agriculture and forestry are envisioned as potentially key sectors for climate change mitigation policy, yet the depth of analysis of mitigation options and their economic consequences remains remarkably shallow in comparison to that for industrial mitigation. Farming and land use change - much of it induced by agriculture -account for one-third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Any serious attempt to curtail these emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on agricultural expansion into areas currently under more carbon-intensive land cover. However, agriculture and forestry are extremely heterogeneous, both in the technology and intensity of production, as well as in the GHG emissions intensity of these activities. And these differences, in turn, give rise to significant changes in the distribution of agricultural production, trade and consumption in the wake of mitigation policies. This paper assesses such distributional impacts via a global economic analysis undertaken with a modified version of the GTAP model. The paper builds on a global general equilibrium GTAP-AEZ-GHG model (Golub et al., 2009). This is a unified modeling framework that links the agricultural, forestry, food processing and other sectors through land, and other factor markets and international trade, and incorporates different land-types, land uses and related CO2 and non-CO2 GHG emissions and sequestration. The economic data underlying this work is the global GTAP data base aggregated up to 19 regions and 29 sectors. The model incorporates mitigation cost curves for different regions and sectors based on information from the US-EPA. The forestry component of the model is calibrated to the results of the state of the art partial equilibrium global forestry model of Sohngen and Mendelson (2007). Forest carbon sequestration at both the extensive and intensive margins are modeled separately to better isolate land competition between

  16. Viet Nam - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Doan Phac; Nguyen Tien Nguyen; Le Van Hong; Nguyen Huu Thanh; Nguyen Anh Tuan

    2000-01-01

    The Government of Viet Nam has recently formulated a national energy programme entitled Strategy and Policy of Sustainable Energy Development. Its aim is to define a development policy for the country for the period from 2000 to 2020. The main objectives of the national energy programme are: 1. Increasing energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) 2. Expanding rural electrification 3. Defining an energy price policy (e.g. pricing such that revenues cover costs) 4. Minimizing environmental impacts 5. Encouraging private investment in the energy and electricity sectors 6. Energy supply security 7. Diversifying energy sources, and 8. Exploring the potential role of nuclear power in Viet Nam. In formulating this programme, one of the objectives has been to minimize environmental impacts, including those caused by the electricity sector. Nevertheless, the shortage of investment capital in Viet Nam and the difficulty of securing favourable financial arrangements are crucial obstacles to the introduction of new technology options to mitigate GHG emissions. Viet Nam views CDM as an opportunity to find ways to overcome such problems and expects that all GHG mitigating technologies will be considered equally under the CDM

  17. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  18. India - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nema, A.K.; Pathak, B.K.; Grover, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing use of the earth's resources to improve our quality of life has led to certain deleterious effects on the environment. The increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is one such important effect. GHG emissions have come primarily from industrialized countries. Currently industrialized countries emit 11.4 tonnes of carbon per year per capita. For India the corresponding figure is 1.0, and for China it is 2.7. We recognize the necessity of both meeting the development needs of all the countries in the South, and ensuring that such development is sustainable. The CDM may have an important role to play, although the positions of a number of countries, including India, with respect to the CDM appear to be still evolving. In any event, nuclear energy should be an important energy option under the CDM, if and when the CDM is ready to be implemented. The present study is an attempt to understand the implications of setting up a nuclear power plant (NPP) in India as a CDM project

  19. Fossil energy savings and GHG mitigation potentials of ethanol as a gasoline substitute in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    One of the Thai government's measures to promote ethanol use is excise tax exemption, making gasohol cheaper than gasoline. The policy in favour of biofuels is being supported by their contribution to fossil energy savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. An analysis of energy balance (EnB), GHG balance and GHG abatement cost has been done to evaluate molasses-based ethanol (MoE) in Thailand. A positive EnB of 19.2 MJ/L implies that MoE is a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy savings. GHG balance assessment based on the baseline scenario shows that emissions are most likely to increase with the substitution. Scenarios using biogas captured from spent wash treatment and rice husk to substitute coal used in ethanol conversion give encouraging results in improving the GHG balance. However, the higher price of MoE over gasoline currently has resulted in high GHG abatement costs, even under the best-case scenario. Compared to the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand, MoE is much less cost effective. Governed by the rule of supply and demand, a strong fluctuation in molasses price is considered the main cause of volatile MoE price. Once supplies are stable, the trend of price drops would make MoE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  20. Assessment of mitigation pathways of GHG emissions from the Korean waste sector through 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Chung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The waste sector may play a significant role in national mitigation policies with further greenhouse gas (GHG reduction opportunities mainly because of its linkage to other sectors. However, the waste sector has not drawn much attention from research community mainly because the amount of GHG emissions from the waste sector is notably smaller than other sectors. This study presents emissions estimation and mitigation potentials of the waste sector in Korea. Emission estimates and business-as-usual emissions through 2050 are estimated based on four different treatment methods, including landfill, incineration, wastewater, and biological treatment by considering country-specific emission parameters of wastes, where available. Different types of wastes for each treatment method are investigated to obtain accurate emission estimates. It is expected that GHG emissions in 2050 are about 12.0 Tg CO2eq, which is 17% less than those in 2010. Mitigation potentials and economic impacts of five different measures are also investigated, and it is revealed that the production of refuse drive fuel from combustible municipal solid wastes may render the greatest benefit with the most mitigation potential of 649 kt CO2eq. An interdependent nature among mitigation measures is further discussed and it is shown that, if implemented together, the accumulated mitigation potentials are far less than the simple sum of individual potentials. It is implied that an aggregate potential of individual measures needs to be examined when implementing several mitigation measures simultaneously. This study outlines how to investigate emissions estimation and mitigation pathways for the waste sector in a national level. Keywords: Greenhouse gas, Emissions estimation, Waste treatment, Mitigation potential, Marginal abatement cost

  1. Uncertainty in estimating and mitigating industrial related GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Zeinati, M.; Ghaddar, N.; Mezher, T.

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change has been one of the challenging environmental concerns facing policy makers in the past decade. The characterization of the wide range of greenhouse gas emissions sources and sinks as well as their behavior in the atmosphere remains an on-going activity in many countries. Lebanon, being a signatory to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is required to submit and regularly update a national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions sources and removals. Accordingly, an inventory of greenhouse gases from various sectors was conducted following the guidelines set by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory indicated that the industrial sector contributes about 29% to the total greenhouse gas emissions divided between industrial processes and energy requirements at 12 and 17%, respectively. This paper describes major mitigation scenarios to reduce emissions from this sector based on associated technical, economic, environmental, and social characteristics. Economic ranking of these scenarios was conducted and uncertainty in emission factors used in the estimation process was emphasized. For this purpose, theoretical and experimental emission factors were used as alternatives to default factors recommended by the IPCC and the significance of resulting deviations in emission estimation is presented. (author)

  2. Potential GHG mitigation options for agriculture in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erda, Lin; Yue, Li; Hongmin, Dong [Agrometeorology Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Agriculture contributes more or less to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). China`s agriculture accounts for about 5-15% of total emissions for these gases. Land-use changes related to agriculture are not major contributors in China. Mitigation options are available that could result in significant decrease in CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural systems. If implemented, they are likely to increase crop and animal productivity. Implementation has the potential to decrease CH{sub 4} emissions from rice, ruminants, and animal waste by 4-40%. The key to decreasing N{sub 2}O emissions is improving the efficiency of plant utilization of fertilizer N. This could decrease N{sub 2}O emissions from agriculture by almost 20%. Using animal waste to produce CH{sub 4} for energy and digested manure for fertilizer may at some time be cost effective. Economic analyses of options proposed should show positive economic as well as environmental benefits.

  3. Linkage between forest-based mitigation and GHG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, C.

    2008-01-01

    According to the latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, deforestation and forest degradation contributed to 23% of global carbon dioxide emissions and 17% of global emissions of all greenhouse gases in 2004 (IPCC AR4 SPM, 2007). Despite significant uncertainties, these figures stress the relevance of addressing deforestation into the new global climate governance regime. Deforestation is primarily a concern for tropical regions nowadays and FAO's Forest resource assessments (2005) highlight significant national disparities as a consequence of history, soil and climate conditions and current policies and socio-economic conditions. The Stern Review (2006) pointed to deforestation abatement as a must-seize opportunity to cut global greenhouse emissions with good cost/efficiency and numerous co-benefits. Under the framework of the 2007 Bali Action Plan, the UNFCCC is now considering policy approaches to promote the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and also forest conservation, sustainable forest management and forestation ('REDD+'). At the same time, the European Union is engaged in a major review of its climate and energy legislation. The EU climate/energy package has entered into the final stages of negotiation and the outcome should provide funding for REDD+ actions on the long run through some sort of connection to carbon markets. These are moments of historic significance both for world forests and climate protection, but significant challenges remain. This workshop focuses on one of these challenges: while mechanisms are being designed to connect greenhouse gas emission trading schemes and REDD+ actions, we must ensure that they enable broad and far-reaching actions while safeguarding against various sorts of unintended consequences. This background paper intends to provide a rapid initial overview on three aspects of the linkage between forest-based mitigation and emission trading schemes: (i

  4. Assessment of Air Pollution and GHG Mitigation Strategies in Malaysia using the GAINS Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Planning for future energy development, taking into account the national obligations to mitigate climate change and air quality pressures is a major challenge faced by Malaysia. This research facilitates the impact assessment of simultaneous control of air pollution and GHG abatement through a set of emission scenarios while considering current and future Malaysian policies. The IIASAs GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model is used for the estimation of emissions and costs, and the outputs of the MESSAGE and MAED energy models provide the underlying energy projections by 2050. Results show that current air-quality policies are efficient in keeping emissions growth at moderate rate, however, significant reduction potential exists if best available control technologies are introduced. Malaysian climate policies - modeled here for power sector - aiming at the -40 % decrease in carbon-intensity, result in important reductions of air pollutants, while the overall co-benefits can be substantial if other sectors are tackled by climate strategies. Initial results indicate the reduction of air pollutant control cost due to climate measures is comparable to the invoked cost-increase in power sector by 2030. Thereby, these co-benefits help to moderate total expenditures for meeting national climate policy targets. (author)

  5. Reporting and Recording Post 2012 GHG Mitigation Commitments, Actions and Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This study assesses the long-term economic and environmental effects of introducing price caps and price floors in hypothetical climate change mitigation architecture, which aims to reduce global energy-related CO2 emissions by 50% by 2050. Based on abatement costs in IPCC and IEA reports, this quantitative analysis confirms what qualitative analyses have already suggested: introducing price caps could significantly reduce economic uncertainty. This uncertainty stems primarily from unpredictable economic growth and energy prices, and ultimately unabated emission trends. In addition, the development of abatement technologies is uncertain. With price caps, the expected costs could be reduced by about 50% and the uncertainty on economic costs could be one order of magnitude lower. Reducing economic uncertainties may spur the adoption of more ambitious policies by helping to alleviate policy makers' concerns of economic risks. Meanwhile, price floors would reduce the level of emissions beyond the objective if the abatement costs ended up lower than forecasted. If caps and floors are commensurate with the ambition of the policy pursued and combined with slightly tightened emission objectives, climatic results could be on average similar to those achieved with 'straight' objectives (i.e. with no cost-containment mechanism). This papers reviews current proposals in the UNFCCC negotiations for future mechanisms to report and record Parties' GHG mitigation actions and commitments, as well as support provided for such actions. It explores the possible purposes, coverage and form of a reporting/recording mechanism post-2012 and highlights the decision points that are needed in order to establish such a mechanism. It examines what information such a mechanism could include in terms of actions, commitments and support, as well as the institutional implications of different design options.

  6. FUTURE FOSSIL FUEL PRICE IMPACTS ON NDC ACHIEVEMENT; ESTIMATION OF GHG EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Arino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Shale Revolution in the US, a supply-side innovation in oil and gas production, has been dramatically changing the world’s fossil fuel energy markets – leading to a decrease in oil, gas and coal prices. Some projections suggest that low fossil fuel prices might continue at least over the next few decades. Uncertainty in fossil fuel prices might affect the levels of emission reductions expected from submitted nationally determined contributions (NDCs and/or influence the difficulty of achieving the NDCs. This paper evaluated the impact of different (high, medium, and low fossil fuel prices, sustained through to 2050, on worldwide GHG emissions reductions and associated costs (mainly marginal abatement costs (MACs. Total global GHG emissions were estimated to be 57.5-61.5 GtCO2eq by 2030, with the range shown reflecting uncertainties about fossil fuel prices and the target levels of several NDCs (i.e., whether their upper or lower targets were adopted. It was found that lower fuel prices not only diminished the environmental effectiveness of global NDCs but also widened regional differences of marginal and total abatement costs, thereby generating more room for carbon leakage. One possible policy direction in terms of abatement efficiency, fairness and environmental effectiveness would be to require countries with low marginal and total abatement costs but having a major influence on global GHG emissions (such as China and India to increase their mitigation efforts, especially in a low-fuelprice world.

  7. General equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option under the Clean Development Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M

    2006-09-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.

  8. Challenges in Implementing Emission Mitigation Technologies in Indonesia Agricultural Sector: Criticizing the Available Mitigation Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahayati Marissa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of Green House Gas (GHG emissions in the agricultural sector is the main target for reducing non-CO2 emissions. In Indonesia, the agricultural sector is the third largest GHG emitter, far behind that from Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF and the energy sector. However, the agricultural sector is the biggest contributor of non-CO2 emissions and is also the most vulnerable sector to climate change. The Indonesian government is committed to reduce total emission inform current levels by 29% by 2030 under Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC. This will require reductions in emissions from all sectors including agriculture. Several mitigation technologies have been recommended by UNFCCC for implementation such as replacing urea with ammonium sulfate fertilizer; replacing nitrogen fertilizer with multicontent fertilizer; water irrigation management; replacing roughage with concentrate as livestock feed; and building biogas digesters. From our Computer General Equilibrium (CGE simulation, if the focus of mitigation technology implementation in agriculture is to reduce non-CO2 emissions gases such as CH4 and N2O, then a comprehensive approach is needed. If the government implements the technology partially, we predict there will be a trade-off between CH4 and N2O emission. However, our simulation shows the loss to GDP caused by a new emission mitigation policy is very high even though Indonesia has invested for mitigation technology in agriculture. This is because we consider the additional investment needed will be costly and some technologies may not be suitable for implementation in Indonesia. In this research, we review current literature and examine each technology and its cost and compatibility with Indonesian situations in order to make policy recommendations for implementation by the Indonesia government.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures: The case of Xiamen city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianyi; Cao Bin; Cui Shenghui; Wang Wei; Bai Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures, a detailed Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model is developed and applied to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen city. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future energy strategies in relation to the development of Xiamen city. The 'Business as Usual' scenario assumes that the government will do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. An 'Integrated' scenario, on the other hand, is generated to assess the cumulative impact of a series of available reduction measures: clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control, and new and renewable energy development and utilization. The reduction potentials in energy consumption and GHG emissions are estimated for a time span of 2007-2020 under these different scenarios. The calculation results in Xiamen show that the clean energy substitution measure is the most effective in terms of energy saving and GHG emissions mitigation, while the industrial sector has the largest abatement potential.

  10. Research and Development of a DNDC Online Model for Farmland Carbon Sequestration and GHG Emissions Mitigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zaidi; Yin, Shan; Zhang, Xianxian; Li, Changsheng; Shen, Guangrong; Zhou, Pei; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-12-01

    Appropriate agricultural practices for carbon sequestration and emission mitigation have a significant influence on global climate change. However, various agricultural practices on farmland carbon sequestration usually have a major impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is very important to accurately quantify the effect of agricultural practices. This study developed a platform-the Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) online model-for simulating and evaluating the agricultural carbon sequestration and emission mitigation based on the scientific process of the DNDC model, which is widely used in the simulation of soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. After testing the adaptability of the platform on two sampling fields, it turned out that the simulated values matched the measured values well for crop yields and GHG emissions. We used the platform to estimate the effect of three carbon sequestration practices in a sampling field: nitrogen fertilization reduction, straw residue and midseason drainage. The results indicated the following: (1) moderate decrement of the nitrogen fertilization in the sampling field was able to decrease the N₂O emission while maintaining the paddy rice yield; (2) ground straw residue had almost no influence on paddy rice yield, but the CH₄ emission and the surface SOC concentration increased along with the quantity of the straw residue; (3) compared to continuous flooding, midseason drainage would not decrease the paddy rice yield and could lead to a drop in CH₄ emission. Thus, this study established the DNDC online model, which is able to serve as a reference and support for the study and evaluation of the effects of agricultural practices on agricultural carbon sequestration and GHG emissions mitigation in China.

  11. GHG emission scenarios in Asia and the world: The key technologies for significant reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Osamu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kainuma, Mikiko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world as part of the Asian Modeling Exercise and assess technology options for meeting a 2.6 W/m 2 radiative forcing target using AIM/Enduse[Global] and AIM/Impact[Policy]. Global GHG emissions in 2050 are required to be reduced by 72% relative to a reference scenario, which corresponds to a 57% reduction from the 2005 level, in order to meet the above target. Energy intensity improvement contributes a lot to curbing CO 2 emission in the short-term. Meanwhile, carbon intensity reduction and CO 2 capture play a large role for further emission reduction in the mid to long-term. The top five key technologies in terms of reduction amount are CCS, solar power generation, wind power generation, biomass power generation and biofuel, which, in total, account for about 60% of global GHG emissions reduction in 2050. We implement additional model runs, each of which enforced limited availability of one of the key technology. The result shows that the 2.6 W/m 2 target up to 2050 is achievable even if availability of any one of the key technologies is limited to half the level achieved in the default simulation. However, if the use of CCS or biomass is limited, the cumulative GHG abatement cost until 2050 increases considerably. Therefore CCS and biomass have a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions. - Highlights: ► We explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world. ► Significant GHG emission reduction is required to limit radiative forcing at low level. ► We assess technology options for achieving significant GHG emission reduction. ► CCS, solar power, wind power, and biomass are the key technologies for reduction. ► Especially, CCS and biomass play a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions.

  12. New power generation technology options under the greenhouse gases mitigation scenario in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiang [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, 19A Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Energy Research Institute, Guohong Mansion, Xicheng District, Beijing 100038 (China); Shi, Minjun [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, 19A Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang, Kejun [Energy Research Institute, Guohong Mansion, Xicheng District, Beijing 100038 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Climate change has become a global issue. Almost all countries, including China, are now considering adopting policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The power generation sector, as a key source of GHG emissions, will also have significant potential for GHG mitigation. One of the key options is to use new energy technologies with higher energy efficiencies and lower carbon emissions. In this article, we use an energy technology model, MESSAGE-China, to analyze the trend of key new power generation technologies and their contributions to GHG mitigation in China. We expect that the traditional renewable technologies, high-efficiency coal power generation and nuclear power will contribute substantially to GHG mitigation in the short term, and that solar power, biomass energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) will become more important in the middle and long term. In the meantime, in order to fully bring the role of technology progress into play, China needs to enhance the transfer and absorption of international advanced technologies and independently strengthen her ability in research, demonstration and application of new power generation technologies. (author)

  13. New power generation technology options under the greenhouse gases mitigation scenario in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Liu [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, 19A Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Energy Research Institute, Guohong Mansion, Xicheng District, Beijing 100038 (China)], E-mail: liuqiang@eri.org.cn; Minjun, Shi [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, 19A Yu Quan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Kejun, Jiang [Energy Research Institute, Guohong Mansion, Xicheng District, Beijing 100038 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Climate change has become a global issue. Almost all countries, including China, are now considering adopting policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The power generation sector, as a key source of GHG emissions, will also have significant potential for GHG mitigation. One of the key options is to use new energy technologies with higher energy efficiencies and lower carbon emissions. In this article, we use an energy technology model, MESSAGE-China, to analyze the trend of key new power generation technologies and their contributions to GHG mitigation in China. We expect that the traditional renewable technologies, high-efficiency coal power generation and nuclear power will contribute substantially to GHG mitigation in the short term, and that solar power, biomass energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) will become more important in the middle and long term. In the meantime, in order to fully bring the role of technology progress into play, China needs to enhance the transfer and absorption of international advanced technologies and independently strengthen her ability in research, demonstration and application of new power generation technologies.

  14. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  15. Impact of non-petroleum vehicle fuel economy on GHG mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy of gasoline vehicles will increase to meet 2025 corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFE). However, dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) already exceed future CAFE fuel economy targets because only 15% of non-petroleum energy use is accounted for when determining compliance. This study aims to inform stakeholders about the potential impact of CAFE on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, should non-petroleum fuel vehicles displace increasingly fuel efficient petroleum vehicles. The well-to-wheel GHG emissions of a set of hypothetical model year 2025 light-duty vehicles are estimated. A reference gasoline vehicle is designed to meet the 2025 fuel economy target within CAFE, and is compared to a set of dedicated CNG vehicles and BEVs with different fuel economy ratings, but all vehicles meet or exceed the fuel economy target due to the policy’s dedicated non-petroleum fuel vehicle incentives. Ownership costs and BEV driving ranges are estimated to provide context, as these can influence automaker and consumer decisions. The results show that CNG vehicles that have lower ownership costs than gasoline vehicles and BEVs with long distance driving ranges can exceed the 2025 CAFE fuel economy target. However, this could lead to lower efficiency CNG vehicles and heavier BEVs that have higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions than gasoline vehicles on a per km basis, even if the non-petroleum energy source is less carbon intensive on an energy equivalent basis. These changes could influence the effectiveness of low carbon fuel standards and are not precluded by the light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards, which regulate tailpipe but not fuel production emissions. (letter)

  16. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  17. Republic of Korea - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae-Young; Lee, Keun-Sung

    2000-01-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. Korea's population in 2000 is 47.3 million, and the population density is over 450 persons per km 2 , the third highest in the world. However, the effective implementation of family planning policies has slowed population growth from 3.0% in 1960 to less than 1% currently. Korea's economy has changed markedly in every respect since the government launched a series of economic development plans in the early 1970s. Average economic growth over the last decade was above 8% per year, excluding the financial crisis period. High economic growth has inevitably led to rapid growth in energy consumption. Due to a lack of domestic energy resources, the overseas dependence rate of energy consumption has continuously increased from 47.5% in 1970 to 97.5% in 1997. Especially fossil fuels, such as oil, coal and gas, accounted for 88.2% of total energy consumption in 1997. These also caused a rapid increase in greenhouse gas emissions including CO 2 . In 1997, 140 million tonnes of carbon (MtC) were emitted - 1.8% of total world greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: GHG [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term GHG 名詞 一般 * * * * 温室効果ガス オンシツコウカガス オンシツコーカガス Thesaurus2015 200906034745287750 C KA01 UNKNOWN_1 GHG

  19. On the Commons and Climate Change: Collective Action and GHG Mitigation - Working Paper No. 2012-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, Ian

    2012-07-01

    Reducing greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from anthropogenic activity may be one of the greatest collective-action problems faced by humanity. This poses challenges not only in terms of the institutional configurations to support coordinated governance processes, but equally the information tools and expertise necessary to link GHG mitigation with other policy priorities. This paper theoretically explores how the adoption of a modified theory of collective action based upon a behavioral theory of the individual allows for a re-framing of the climate-change policy challenge. As such, it appears important to develop a context within which collective action becomes possible where success is no longer solely tied to incentives, but equally to the provision of information, learning, and interaction between stakeholders while simultaneously fostering trust and reciprocity among actors. At all levels of government, information plays a key role to both inform and to facilitate communication, as well as to identify and develop the necessary actions and investments and to track changes in conditions. In the case of climate change, greenhouse-gas inventories and other informational tools are necessary components to track an a priori intangible emission. As such, it is key to analyze the legitimacy, credibility and saliency of information and expertise integrated into the decision-making process. Further, it is important to recognize that the construction of indicators and other information tools is not apolitical, but rather the product of a number of assumptions, interests and decisions concerning what is included and what is excluded shaped by the involved actors. (author)

  20. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Minh Giang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and composting from various management scenarios. In oder to use Tier 2 model of IPCC 2006 for GHG estimation from landfills, an analysis on current household solid waste management system of the city was obtained by using material flow analysis approach. A case study in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam was carried out in this research. As a result, there was a reduced of over 70% of the amount of CH4 emissions and  up to 53% of total GHG saving (CO2-eq from avoiding organic waste to landfill. In addition, applying an energy recovery from LFG system to available landfills would lead to aproximately 75% of GHG saved compare to current emission of waste sector.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16Citation: Giang, H.M.,Luong, N.D., and Huong, L.T.M.2013. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies. . Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16

  1. National economic development programmes and GHG mitigation strategies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokona, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Increasingly, it is being acknowledged there that there is no need for more scientific evidence about the deleterious effects of anthropogenic emissions before taking action. Moreover, there is no longer any doubt that any perspective for the mitigation or stabilization of these gases can only be envisaged from a global approach. The most privileged nations, just as the least favoured nations, find themselves faced with a specific emergency period of immeasurable limits. In other words, this phenomenon can result in irreversible consequences or incur such high costs in being resolved that we must not wait before taking precautionary measures on a collective scale. When presented as such, this environmental issue is far too limited to its 'direct effects' which, for most Third World countries, are only a small part of a much larger problem, and a crucial aspect is the relationship between environment and development. The Third World countries, and particularly those of sub-Saharan Africa, confronted with an endemic crisis, might be tempted to treat their problems linked to anthropic emissions by paralipsis. But this could hardly be held against them, for they are assailed by a number of concurrent problems of proportions until now unheard of on our planet. However, it is not preposterous to think that sustained reflection on the planet's environmental problems such as greenhouse gas emissions could enhance their capacity to solve their own problems. Provided, however, that they have real power in decision-making and in taking action. (au)

  2. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  3. Nitrous Oxide Abatement Coupled with Biopolymer Production As a Model GHG Biorefinery for Cost-Effective Climate Change Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Osvaldo D; Cortes, Irene; Cantera, Sara; Arnaiz, Esther; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2017-06-06

    N 2 O represents ∼6% of the global greenhouse gas emission inventory and the most important O 3 -depleting substance emitted in this 21st century. Despite its environmental relevance, little attention has been given to cost-effective and environmentally friendly N 2 O abatement methods. Here we examined, the potential of a bubble column (BCR) and an internal loop airlift (ALR) bioreactors of 2.3 L for the abatement of N 2 O from a nitric acid plant emission. The process was based on the biological reduction of N 2 O by Paracoccus denitrificans using methanol as a carbon/electron source. Two nitrogen limiting strategies were also tested for the coproduction of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) coupled with N 2 O reduction. High N 2 O removal efficiencies (REs) (≈87%) together with a low PHBV cell accumulation were observed in both bioreactors in excess of nitrogen. However, PHBV contents of 38-64% were recorded under N limiting conditions along with N 2 O-REs of ≈57% and ≈84% in the ALR and BCR, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed that P. denitrificans was dominant (>50%) after 6 months of experimentation. The successful abatement of N 2 O concomitant with PHBV accumulation confirmed the potential of integrating biorefinery concepts into biological gas treatment for a cost-effective GHG mitigation.

  4. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalos@upm.es [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Groenigen, Jan Willem van [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Vallejo, Antonio [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P < 0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P < 0.005) but increased CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N{sub 2}O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO{sub 3}{sup −}-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • The effect of fertigation management techniques on GHG and NO emissions was studied. • Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O by a factor of 2.4. • Daily irrigation reduced NO (42%) but increased CO

  5. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Agriculture Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uprety, D.C.; Dhar, Subash; Hongmin, Dong

    This guidebook describes crop and livestock management technologies and practices that contribute to climate change mitigation while improving crop productivity, reducing reliance on synthetic fertilizers, and lowering water consumption. It is co-authored by internationally recognised experts...

  6. Opportunities to integrate solar technologies into the Chilean lithium mining industry - reducing process related GHG emissions of a strategic storage resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsnig, Thomas; Potz, Christian; Haas, Jannik; Eltrop, Ludger; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The arid northern regions of Chile are characterized by an intensive mineral mining industry and high solar irradiance levels. Besides Chile's main mining products, copper, molybdenum and iron, the production of lithium carbonate from lithium containing brines has become strategically important due to the rising demand for battery technologies worldwide. Its energy-intensive production may affect the ecological footprint of the product and the country's climate targets. Thus, the use of solar technologies for electricity and heat production might constitute an interesting option for CO2 mitigation. This study aims to quantify the impacts of the lithium carbonate production processes in Chile on climate change, and to identify site-specific integration options of solar energy technologies to reduce GHG life-cycle emissions. The considered solar integration options include a parabolic trough power plant with a molten salt storage, a solar tower power plant with molten salt receiver and molten salt storage, a one-axis tracking photovoltaic energy system for electricity, and two solar thermal power plants with Ruths storage (steam accumulator) for thermal heat production. CSP plants were identified as measures with the highest GHG mitigation potential reducing the CO2 emissions for the entire production chain and the lithium production between 16% and 33%. In a scenario that combines solar technologies for electricity and thermal energy generation, up to 59% of the CO2 emissions at the lithium production sites in Chile can be avoided. A comparison of the GHG abatement costs of the proposed solar integration options indicates that the photovoltaic system, the solar thermal plant with limited storage and the solar tower power plant are the most cost effective options.

  7. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingbo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); South China Univ. of Technology (SCUT), Guangzhou (China); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry’s processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry’s energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

  9. Socio-technological impact analysis using an energy IO approach to GHG emissions issues in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Whan-Sam; Tohno, Susumu; Choi, Ki-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Using the Sato-Vartia index for the three periods of 1985-1995, 1995-2000, and 2000-2005, the changes in three factors affecting GHG emissions in South Korea were analyzed. → A total emission matrix including both direct and indirect GHG emissions showed plain shape; however, ripple effects were observed in some sectors. → This process is useful in measuring national energy policies. → Several limitations of the Divisia decomposition analysis were pointed out. -- Abstract: Through energy input-output (E-IO) analyses from 1985 to 2005, the changes in three factors affecting GHG emissions in South Korea were analyzed. Based on the E-IO results, the changes in the direct and total (embodied) GHG emissions from the pertinent sectors were decomposed into three factors-the energy consumption effect, the social effect, and the technological effect-using the Sato-Vartia index for the three periods of 1985-1995, 1995-2000, and 2000-2005. The decomposition analysis demonstrated that a total emission matrix including both direct and indirect GHG emissions showed an evolution pattern that was very similar to the changes in direct GHG emissions; however, ripple effects were observed in the case of emissions from sector number -59 (Synthetic resins, synthetic rubber-p). The results showed that national energy policies such as those pertaining to the diversification of energy sources, shifts in the energy consumption structure (social effect), and the transformation to a low-carbon energy economy (technology effect) were effective. Finally, several limitations of the Divisia decomposition analysis were pointed out.

  10. Technologies for climate change mitigation - Agriculture sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uprety, D.C.; Dhar, S.; Hongmin, D.; Kimball, B.A.; Garg, A.; Upadhyay, J.

    2012-07-15

    This guidebook describes crop and livestock management technologies and practices that contribute to climate change mitigation while improving crop productivity, reducing reliance on synthetic fertilizers, and lowering water consumption. It is co-authored by internationally recognised experts in the areas of crops, livestock, emissions, and economics, and we are grateful for their efforts in producing this cross disciplinary work. This publication is part of a technical guidebook series produced by the UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC) as part of the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project (http://tech-action.org) that is assisting developing countries in identifying and analysing the priority technology needs for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The TNA process involves different stakeholders in a consultative process, enabling all stakeholders to understand their technology needs in a cohesive manner, and prepare Technology Action Plans (TAPs) accordingly. The TNA project is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and is being implemented by UNEP and the URC in 36 developing countries. (Author)

  11. Assessment of the GHG budget mitigation potential of intercrops: analysis on several trials and intercrops species in the Southwest of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlicoq, M.; Ceschia, E.; Brut, A.; VandeWalle, A.

    2012-04-01

    by a very dry summer in 2009. FO ranged between 9.9 and 12.7 for the different trials. Compared to the other terms, they have a relative low impact on the GHG budget. They represented at most 13g eq-C during the IC period, 60% of those emissions are caused by the use of machinery. GHG budgets over the IC period are largely positive (source effect), due to low biomass production, mainly because of poor emergence and/or development. Still carbon fixation in the biomass mitigated the emissions. To balance the GHG budget, biomass production should be doubled for mustard (1.5 ton biomass ha-1) which is realistic and increased by a factor 4 for oat/phacelia and oat/vetch associations. In general, we can conclude that except for the black oat (biomass production is too low), these intercrops improve the GHG budget. Nevertheless, to get real advantages from these intercrops, they need to produce more than 0.26 t/ ha to compensate technical operations and additional CO2 emissions associated to IC decomposition will have to be assessed.

  12. Life cycle energy use and GHG emission assessment of coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for SNG and power cogeneration. • A model based on a Chinese domestic database is developed for evaluation. • Cogeneration shows lower GHG emissions than coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration has lower life cycle energy use than supercritical coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies. - Abstract: Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) and power cogeneration/polygenereation (PG) technology and its competitive alternatives. Four main SNG applications are considered, including electricity generation, steam production, SNG vehicle and battery electric vehicle (BEV). Analyses show that if SNG is produced from a single product plant, the lower limits of its life cycle energy use and GHG emissions can be comparable to the average levels of coal-power and coal-BEV pathways, but are still higher than supercritical and ultra supercritical (USC) coal-power and coal-BEV pathways. If SNG is coproduced from a PG plant, when it is used for power generation, steam production, and driving BEV car, the life cycle energy uses for PG based pathways are typically lower than supercritical coal-power pathways, but are still 1.6–2.4% higher than USC coal-power pathways, and the average life cycle GHG emissions are lower than those of all coal-power pathways including USC units. If SNG is used to drive vehicle car, the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of PG-SNGV-power pathway are both much higher than all combined coal-BEV and coal-power pathways, due to much higher energy consumption in a SNG driven car than in a BEV car. The coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology shows comparable or better energy and environmental performances when compared to other coal-based alternatives, and is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies.

  13. Enhancing international technology cooperation for climate change mitigation. Lessons from an electromobility case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasin, Shikha

    2014-07-01

    As a global agreement on climate mitigation and absolute emissions reductions remains grid-locked, this paper assesses whether the prospects for international technology cooperation in low-carbon sectors can be improved. It analyses the case of international cooperation on electric vehicle technologies to elaborate on the trade-offs that cooperation such as this inherently attempts to balance- national growth objectives of industrial and technology development versus the global goods benefit of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It focuses on bilateral German-Chinese programmes for electric vehicle development, as well as multilateral platforms on low-carbon technology cooperation related to electric vehicles. Based on insights from these cases studies, this paper ultimately provides policy recommendations to address gaps in international technology cooperation at a bilateral level for ongoing German-Chinese engagement on electric vehicles; and at a multilateral level with a focus on the emerging technology cooperation framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  14. Enhancing international technology cooperation for climate change mitigation. Lessons from an electromobility case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    As a global agreement on climate mitigation and absolute emissions reductions remains grid-locked, this paper assesses whether the prospects for international technology cooperation in low-carbon sectors can be improved. It analyses the case of international cooperation on electric vehicle technologies to elaborate on the trade-offs that cooperation such as this inherently attempts to balance- national growth objectives of industrial and technology development versus the global goods benefit of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It focuses on bilateral German-Chinese programmes for electric vehicle development, as well as multilateral platforms on low-carbon technology cooperation related to electric vehicles. Based on insights from these cases studies, this paper ultimately provides policy recommendations to address gaps in international technology cooperation at a bilateral level for ongoing German-Chinese engagement on electric vehicles; and at a multilateral level with a focus on the emerging technology cooperation framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  15. Possibilities for Near-term Bioenergy Production and GHG-Mitigation through Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture and Forestry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Bentsen, Niclas S; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate climate change it is necessary to further increase the deployment of renewable energy, including bioenergy. This analysis shows how this can be achieved in Danish agriculture and forestry before 2020. The key is a sustainable intensification and we show through three scenarios how...

  16. Greenhouse gas energy scenarios for Mexico in year 2020, and mitigation potential of renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Robles, Guillermo; Rodriguez V, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Massera, Omar [UNAM, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the structure of the Mexican Energy-Emission Scenario Model (MEESM). In explains the importance of developing a bottom-up model for GHG mitigation assessment in Mexico. Also, the paper presents results of CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios for year 2020 for five renewable energy technologies: solar water heaters, geothermal, biomass, mini/micro hydro and wind power generation. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of simulation accounting bottom-up models as tools for GHG mitigation policies. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta la estructura del Modelo de Escenario de Emision de Energia Mexicano (MEESM). En el se explica la importancia de desarrollar un modelo organizacional de abajo hacia arriba para la evaluacion de la mitigacion del efecto invernadero en Mexico. El articulo presenta tambien los resultados de los escenarios de mitigacion de CO{sub 2} para el ano 2020 utilizando cinco tecnologias de energia renovable: calentadores solares de agua, geotermia, biomasa, y mini/micro generacion de energia por agua y viento. El articulo concluye con el analisis de la importancia de la simulacion tomando en cuenta modelos organizacionales de abajo hacia arriba como herramientas para las politicas de mitigacion del efecto invernadero.

  17. Thailand's Low-Carbon Scenario 2050: The AIM/CGE analyses of CO2 mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thepkhun, Panida; Limmeechokchai, Bundit; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and CO 2 mitigation have become increasingly important environmental issues. Recently Thailand has proposed policies on GHG mitigation such as Thailand’s Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA), which aims at GHG mitigation in the energy sector. This study used the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, called “AIM/CGE” model, to analyse GHG mitigation measures under emission trading and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Thailand. Results show that the international free emission trading policy can drive more GHG reduction by decreasing energy supply and demand, and increasing prices of emissions. The CCS technologies would balance emission reduction but they would reduce energy efficiency improvement and renewable energy utilization. In the energy security aspect, the policy options in this study would improve energy security, energy import dependency, and co-benefits of GHG mitigation in forms of improving local air quality. Results are also helpful to GHG mitigation policy in developing countries. -- Highlights: •A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model was used to analyze GHG mitigation policies in Thailand. •The CCS and emission trading will increase GHG mitigation in Thailand. •The 30% GHG mitigation target with 50% emission trading will give the best result in GDP. •The share of biomass resource and energy efficiency will decrease with CCS. •The emission trading will play an important role in decreasing fossil consumption and increasing renewable energy utilization

  18. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by adopting anaerobic digestion technology on dairy, sow and pig farms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J. [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The impact of anaerobic digestion (AD) technology on mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management on typical dairy, sow and pig farms in Finland was compared. Firstly, the total annual GHG emissions from the farms were calculated using IPCC guidelines for a similar slurry type manure management system. Secondly, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to estimate methane (CH{sub 4}) potentials and process parameters for semi-continuous digestion of manures. Finally, the obtained experimental data were used to evaluate the potential renewable energy production and subsequently, the possible GHG emissions that could be avoided through adoption of AD technology on the studied farms. Results showed that enteric fermentation (CH{sub 4}) and manure management (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) accounted for 231.3, 32.3 and 18.3 Mg of CO{sub 2} eq. yr{sup -1} on dairy, sow and pig farms, respectively. With the existing farm data and experimental methane yields, an estimated renewable energy of 115.2, 36.3 and 79.5 MWh of heat yr{sup -1} and 62.8, 21.8 and 47.7 MWh of electricity yr{sup -1} could be generated in a CHP plant on these farms respectively. The total GHG emissions that could be offset on the studied dairy cow, sow and pig farms were 177, 87.7 and 125.6 Mg of CO{sub 2} eq. yr{sup -1}, respectively. The impact of AD technology on mitigating GHG emissions was mainly through replaced fossil fuel consumption followed by reduced emissions due to reduced fertilizer use and production, and from manure management. (author)

  19. Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, A.; Greene, B.; Dussich, J.; Sorkin, A.; Olsen, W.

    2017-01-01

    The Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) Principal Center and its predecessor organization the Acquisition Pollution Prevention Program (AP2) supported the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in identifying technology solutions to risks and costs to NASA programs driven by environmental regulations and requirements. TEERM researched the commercial and government marketplace to locate viable and available technologies that met NASAs needs. TEERM focused on addressing environmentally-driven risks of direct concern to NASA programs and facilities, including hazardous materials in NASA operations and materials that became obsolescent because of environmental regulations. TEERM projects aimed to reduce cost; ensure the health and safety of people, assets, and the environment; promote efficiency; and minimize duplication. Major TEERM and AP2 projects focused on waste minimization and hazardous waste treatment, recycling, corrosion prevention and control, solvent and ozone depleting substances substitution, and aqueous based cleaners. In 2017, NASA made the decision to terminate the TEERM Principal Center. This Compendium Report documents TEERM and AP2 project successes. The Compendium Report traces the evolution of TEERM based on evolving risks and requirements for NASA and its relationship to the Space Shuttle Program, the United States Department of Defense, the European Space Agency, and other public and private stakeholders. This Compendium Report also documents project details from Project Summaries and Joint Test Plans and describes project stakeholders and collaborative effort results.

  20. The 'Environmental Manual for Power Development': a tool for GHG mitigation and cost analysis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, Uwe R.; Liptow, Holger

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Manual for Power Development (EM) is a computerised tool to include environmental and cost data into the decision-making for energy projects in developing countries. The EM is sponsored by German BMZ (Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development), Dutch DGIS (Directorate General for International Co-operation), British DfID (Department for International Development), and the World Bank. The EM was developed by GTZ with scientific support from Oeko-Institut (Institute for applied ecology). The EM tracks down the emissions and costs of e.g. the existing power supply system in a country, region, or of a specific energy project, and compares those to alternative options to deliver the same energy service, e.g. electricity, or process heat, or transport services. To do so, the EM maintains a comprehensive database on environmental and cost impacts of energy technologies, and determines environmental impacts for life-cycles: All impacts from mining, transport, conversion etc. can be accounted for. To consistently handle all life-cycles, the EM database offers a variety of pre-defined fuel-and life-cycles to work with. The Em database covers generic energy technologies in developing countries, especially fossil-fueled electricity and heating systems, cogeneration, renewable energies, selected energy efficiency technologies, nuclear power systems, as well as data for upstream activities like mining, fuel benefication, transport, and emission control technologies like flue-gas desulfurisation, low-NO x burners, etc. The EM analyses and compares airborne and greenhouse gas emissions, solid wastes, and land use, as well as internal and external costs associated with investment and operation of energy technologies, including their life-cycle (upstream fuel-cycles, materials). The Em helps to check the compliance of energy processes with given emission standards - its database offers such standard for various countries and regions, and users can test if

  1. International workshop on greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and measures: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the global climate system. Climate change country studies are a significant step for developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet their national reporting commitments to the FCCC. These studies also provide the basis for preparation of National Climate Change Action Plans and implementation of technologies and practices which reduce greenhouse gas emissions or enhance carbon sinks. The broad goals of the workshop were to: (1) present results of country study mitigation assessments, (2) identify promising no-regrets greenhouse gas mitigation options in land-use and energy sectors, (3) share information on development of mitigation technologies and measures which contribute to improved National Climate Change Actions Plans, and (4) begin the process of synthesizing mitigation assessments for use by FCCC subsidiary bodies. The 59 papers are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) national mitigation assessments, technology priorities, and measures; (2) sector-specific mitigation assessment results, subdivided further into: energy sector; non-energy sector; renewable energy; energy efficiency in industry and buildings; transportation; electricity supply; forestry; and methane mitigation; (3) support for mitigation technologies and measures; and (4) activities implemented jointly. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. The Forgotten Benefits of Climate Change Mitigation. Innovation, Technological Leapfrogging, Employment, and Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochem, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Madlener, R. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics CEPE, ETH Zentrum, WEC, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    Traditional concepts for ancillary benefit/co-benefit frameworks reflect a macro and welfare economics perspective. They are often designed to serve certain modelling requirements, and typically focus primarily on avoided environmental damages and/or on induced net employment. This paper presents a conceptual framework that is extended to non-environmental and non-climate-change externalities. It not only includes the net ancillary and co-benefits that accrue from the dynamics of technological innovation and market diffusion, but also those from spillover effects that arise from global trade, communications, and technology transfer, which can all have important impacts on both the business economics and the macroeconomic level. We show that multi-functionality of energy-efficient technologies at the useful energy level, in contrast to mono-functionality of energy conversion technologies, leads to net ancillary benefits/co-benefits of GHG mitigation that may go far beyond fossil energy savings and emission mitigation, and that are in many cases not (or at least not sufficiently) accounted for in investment decision-making and policy-making processes. Several illustrative examples are provided to underline the points that are made.

  3. Making it easier for clean technologies to get returns from GHG credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how clean technologies can get returns from greenhouse gases credits. Businesses recognize that climate change opportunity is bigger than information technology. Clean technologies and climate change will transform the economy. Clean technologies will bring business opportunities, revitalize industry and the economy, bring jobs and increase exports.

  4. Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-12-01

    US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some

  5. Russia at GHG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the first Kyoto commitment period Russia could be the major supplier for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions market. Potential Russian supply depends on the ability of Russia to keep GHG emissions lower than the Kyoto target. In the literature there is no common understanding of the total trading potential of Russia at the international carbon market. In this paper we focus on CO2 emission, which constituted nearly 80% of Russian GHG emission. We compare different projections of Russian CO2 emission and analyze the most important factors, which predetermine the CO2 emission growth. In a transition economy these factors are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dynamic, changes of GDP structure, innovation activity, transformation of export-import flows and response to the market signals. The input-output macroeconomic model with the two different input-output tables representing old and new production technologies has been applied for the analysis to simulate technological innovations and structural changes in the Russian economy during transition period. The Russian supply at the international GHG market without forest sector may be up to 3 billion metric ton of CO2 equivalent. Earlier actions to reduce CO2 emission are critical to insure the Russian supply at the international carbon market. With regard to the current status of the Russian capital market, the forward trading with OECD countries is only the possibility to raise initial investments to roll no-regret and low-cost GHG reduction. This paper discusses uncertainties of Russian CO2 emission dynamics and analyzes the different incentives to lower the emission pathway

  6. Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Schimmerling, W.

    2004-01-01

    Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods

  7. Proceedings of the 2002 climate change and GHG technology conference and tradeshow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The emphasis of this conference and tradeshow was to provide all participants, from corporate planners and decision makers to technical staff and technology solution providers, with a forum where they could exchange views concerning economical climate change technology solutions applicable to the oil and gas, oilsands, coal, mining, pipeline and petrochemical industries operating in Western Canada. There were six major objectives for this conference: (1) disseminate information with regard to how implementing climate change and greenhouse gas technologies and associated projects can improve financial and environmental performance, (2) look at case studies on economical climate change and greenhouse gas technologies and projects that have helped organizations improve their environmental and economical performance, (3) stimulate the launch of new projects and partnerships and further advance existing projects, (4) identify and facilitate new opportunities for implementation of climate change and greenhouse gas technologies and projects in the long term, (5) participate in a tradeshow as a greenhouse gas technology supplier or customer, and (6) network with other industry representatives. Six half-day sessions comprised the conference with topics as follows: session 1 dealt with business risk, economics and opportunities, session 2 discussed fugitive emissions and energy efficiency, session 3 was concerned with carbon dioxide capture, transportation, storage and use, session 4 was devoted to flaring and venting, session 5 dealt with long-term verification and monitoring technologies, and session 6 included additional technology solution presentations. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Technology for biomass feedstock production in southern forests and GHG implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Rummer; John Klepac; Jason Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Woody biomass production in the South can come from four distinct feedstocks - logging residues, thinnings, understory harvesting, or energywood plantations. A range of new technology has been developed to collect, process and transport biomass and a key element of technology development has been to reduce energy consumption. We examined three different woody feedstock...

  9. Explaining Information Technology Users' Ways of Mitigating Technostress

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Markus; Pirkkalainen, Henri; Chua, Cecil; Koskelainen, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Technostress refers to the inability of an individual to deal with information technology (IT) in a healthy manner. Researchers, practitioners, and medical professionals have emphasized the omnipresence of technostress and its severe outcomes, including poor well-being and burnout. Despite the importance of the phenomenon, prior research has paid limited attention to how technostress can be mitigated. The few existing studies examine organizational mitigation mechanisms, but we co...

  10. Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model (SAE 2016-01-0910)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA identified the best, or most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to predict the GHG emissions would be from a midsized car incorporating the best combination of these technologies.

  11. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful

  12. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  13. Strategic GHG reduction through the use of ground source heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanova, J; Dowlatabadi, H

    2007-01-01

    Higher energy prices and concern about climate change is drawing increasing attention to ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. Their clear advantage lies in being able to provide heating using 25 to 30% of the energy consumed by even the most efficient conventional alternatives. Their drawback has been high capital costs and uncertainty about whether the emissions associated with the electric power used to energise the system has higher system-wide emissions than the highest-efficiency furnaces. This study delineates circumstances under which GSHP systems achieve net emission reductions, for different electricity generation methods, heat pump efficiencies, and heating loads. We illustrate the effect of relative fuel prices on annual operating savings using fuel prices in multiple countries. Annual operating savings determine how rapidly the technology achieves payback and then generates return on the initial capital investment. Finally, we highlight the least cost supply curve for using GSHP to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Using the United States as a base reference case, this study explores the potential of GSHP in cold-climate countries worldwide

  14. Technologies for climate change mitigation - transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, R.; Newman, P. (Curtin Univ. Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Perth, WA (Australia)); Dhar, S. (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    The options outlined in this guidebook are designed to assist you in the process of developing transport services and facilities in your countries and localities - transport that better serves people's needs and enhances their lives while at the same time producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions. This is a new challenge, as previously improving transport generally led to increased greenhouse gases. The challenge now is to provide transport that: 1) is cheaper, more extensive and better quality 2) reduces pollution, congestion, traffic accidents and other threats to health and wellbeing 3) is accessible to all 4) supports economic development 5) reduces greenhouse emissions overall. This can be achieved if: 1) mass transit, walking and cycling are supported and encouraged, and integrated in a way that allows seamless multimodal travel, including networks of taxis, auto-rickshaws and small buses. 2) the mass transit services - including trains, buses and light-rail - are frequent, extensive, attractive, comfortable, affordable and faster than alternatives, with features like integrated ticketing and real time information accessible through mobile phones and other sources 3) private vehicle use and air travel are discouraged through pricing and other demand management measures, and through the availability of better alternative modes 4) there is support for the adoption of cleaner, lower carbon fuels and technologies and better maintenance practices for all transport modes, including private vehicles, water transport, auto-rickshaws and freight vehicles 5) the overall need for travel is reduced through the development of denser localities with more mixed land use and better access to mass transit (which reduces overall travel in ways that will be explained) 6) travel space is better managed to give higher priority to more sustainable transport modes, to promote safety, and to prevent traffic from adversely affecting residents and businesses. As you address these

  15. Technologies for climate change mitigation - transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, R; Newman, P [Curtin Univ. Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Perth, WA (Australia); Dhar, S [UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-03-15

    The options outlined in this guidebook are designed to assist you in the process of developing transport services and facilities in your countries and localities - transport that better serves people's needs and enhances their lives while at the same time producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions. This is a new challenge, as previously improving transport generally led to increased greenhouse gases. The challenge now is to provide transport that: 1) is cheaper, more extensive and better quality 2) reduces pollution, congestion, traffic accidents and other threats to health and wellbeing 3) is accessible to all 4) supports economic development 5) reduces greenhouse emissions overall. This can be achieved if: 1) mass transit, walking and cycling are supported and encouraged, and integrated in a way that allows seamless multimodal travel, including networks of taxis, auto-rickshaws and small buses. 2) the mass transit services - including trains, buses and light-rail - are frequent, extensive, attractive, comfortable, affordable and faster than alternatives, with features like integrated ticketing and real time information accessible through mobile phones and other sources 3) private vehicle use and air travel are discouraged through pricing and other demand management measures, and through the availability of better alternative modes 4) there is support for the adoption of cleaner, lower carbon fuels and technologies and better maintenance practices for all transport modes, including private vehicles, water transport, auto-rickshaws and freight vehicles 5) the overall need for travel is reduced through the development of denser localities with more mixed land use and better access to mass transit (which reduces overall travel in ways that will be explained) 6) travel space is better managed to give higher priority to more sustainable transport modes, to promote safety, and to prevent traffic from adversely affecting residents and businesses. As you address these

  16. A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population) to…

  17. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  18. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  19. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    2014-01-01

    -specific nutrient losses in drainage. The “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2015), funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective drainage filter technologies to retain P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches...... high risks areas of P loss and applying site-specific measures therefore seems a more cost-efficient approach. The Danish Commission for Nature and Agriculture has now called for a shift of paradigm towards targeted mitigation and development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site......-scale surface-flow constructed wetland. In the former, various natural and industrial P filter substrates have been tested for their ability to reduce inlet P concentrations to below environmental threshold values (

  20. The impact of uncertainties on predicted GHG emissions of dairy cow production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehetmeier, M.; Gandorfer, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Muller, U.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy farms produce significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and are therefore a focal point for GHG-mitigation practices. To develop viable mitigation options, we need robust (insensitive to changes in model parameters and assumptions) predictions of GHG emissions. To this end, we developed a

  1. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Bhattacharya, S.C.; Pham, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios were considered, namely the base case with no mitigation options, replacement of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) by biogas stove, substitution of gasoline by ethanol in transport sector, replacement of coal by wood as fuel in industrial boilers, electricity generation with biomass energy technologies and an integrated scenario including all the options together. Substitution of coal stoves by biogas stove has positive abatement cost, as the cost of wood in Vietnam is higher than coal. Replacement of kerosene and LPG cookstoves by biomass stove also has a positive abatement cost. Replacement of gasoline by ethanol can be realized after a few years, as at present the cost of ethanol is more than the cost of gasoline. The replacement of coal by biomass in industrial boiler is also not an attractive option as wood is more expensive than coal in Vietnam. The substitution of fossil fuel fired plants by packages of BETs has a negative abatement cost. This option, if implemented, would result in mitigation of 10.83 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 in 2010

  2. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT (TNA FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR: CRITERIA, PRIORITIZING AND BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasdi Subagyono

    2010-11-01

    greenhouse gas emission, yet technologies need for have not been assessed. The technology needs assessment for the agriculture sector cover paddy field, perennial crops, peat soil, and livestock. The concern of the assessment is categorized into technology options, priority/key technology, barriers, and modalities. Selected technologies are based on criteria and priority options of technology needs. Data and information have been collected from related agencies, center, institutes and other relevant sources as well as through a workshop. Technology selection process for mitigation considered general criteria of reducing GHG emissions from crops and livestock, promoting resource conservation, promoting sustainable biodiversity, promoting green energy, sustaining food security, and promoting energy alternative; and specific criteria of promoting local technology for mitigation, sustaining site-specific germ plasms, promoting simple and cheap technology for poor farmers, promoting less emission crop varieties, substituting chemical with organic fertilizers/compost, and reduce CH4 emissions. Those criteria are scored into 4 classes, i.e. high value/high relevant/high impact (score: 5, Medium value/relevant/med impact (score: 3; Low value/less relevant/less impact (score: 1; nil – not relevant/no impact (score: 0. The assessment has come up with the results that priority technologies needed for mitigation are (a low methane emitter crops varieties, appropriate fertilizing, no tillage, and intermittent irrigation for paddy fields, (b appropriate slash and burn and bio-fuel for perennial crops, (c composting manure and biogas production for livestock, and (d overcoming slash and burn, avoiding over drain and maintaining soil moisture for peat soils.

  3. Methane mitigation timelines to inform energy technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mandira; Edwards, Morgan R.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2015-11-01

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) vary significantly in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the distinct atmospheric lifetimes and radiative efficiencies of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) with a fixed time horizon do not account for the timing of emissions in relation to climate policy goals. Here we develop a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts based on the temporal proximity of emissions to a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher-CH4-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by CH4-light technologies as the stabilization year approaches. We apply the model to evaluate transportation technology pairs and find that accounting for dynamic emissions impacts, in place of using the static GWP, can result in CH4 mitigation timelines and technology transitions that allow for significantly greater energy consumption while meeting a climate policy target. The results can inform the forward-looking evaluation of energy technologies by engineers, private investors, and policy makers.

  4. Methane mitigation timelines to inform energy technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Mandira; Edwards, Morgan R; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) vary significantly in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the distinct atmospheric lifetimes and radiative efficiencies of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) with a fixed time horizon do not account for the timing of emissions in relation to climate policy goals. Here we develop a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts based on the temporal proximity of emissions to a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher-CH 4 -emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by CH 4 -light technologies as the stabilization year approaches. We apply the model to evaluate transportation technology pairs and find that accounting for dynamic emissions impacts, in place of using the static GWP, can result in CH 4 mitigation timelines and technology transitions that allow for significantly greater energy consumption while meeting a climate policy target. The results can inform the forward-looking evaluation of energy technologies by engineers, private investors, and policy makers. (letter)

  5. Toward a Multi-City Framework for Urban GHG Estimation in the United States: Methods, Uncertainties, and Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K. L.; Callahan, W.; Davis, K. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Duren, R. M.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Keeling, R. F.; Kim, J.; Lauvaux, T.; Miller, C. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Turnbull, J. C.; Weiss, R. F.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    City and State governments are increasingly interested in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to improve sustainability within their jurisdictions. Estimation of urban GHG emissions remains an active research area with many sources of uncertainty. To support the effort of improving measurement of trace gas emissions in city environments, several federal agencies along with academic, research, and private entities have been working within a handful of domestic metropolitan areas to improve both (1) the assessment of GHG emissions accuracy using a variety of measurement technologies, and (2) the tools that can better assess GHG inventory data at urban mitigation scales based upon these measurements. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) activities have focused on three areas, or testbeds: Indianapolis (INFLUX experiment), Los Angeles (the LA Megacities project), and the Northeastern Corridor areas encompassing Washington and Baltimore (the NEC/BW GHG Measurements project). These cities represent diverse meteorological, terrain, demographic, and emissions characteristics having a broad range of complexities. To date this research has involved multiple measurement systems and integrated observing approaches, all aimed at advancing development of a robust, science-base upon which higher accuracy quantification approaches can rest. Progress toward such scientifically robust, widely-accepted emissions quantification methods will rely upon continuous performance assessment. Such assessment is challenged by the complexities of cities themselves (e.g., population, urban form) along with the many variables impacting a city's technological ability to estimate its GHG emissions (e.g., meteorology, density of observations). We present the different NIST testbeds and a proposal to initiate conceptual development of a reference framework supporting the comparison of multi-city GHG emissions estimates. Such a reference framework has potential to provide

  6. Fluid-based radon mitigation technology development for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.V.; Gabor, J.D.; Holtz, R.E.; Gross, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the radon mitigation technology development effort is to develop an efficient and economical radon gas removal technology based on a fluid absorption process. The technology must be capable of cleaning up a wide range of radon gas stream concentrations to a level that meets EPA gas emission standards for residential and industrial applications. Argonne has recently identified a phenomenon that offers the possibility of radon recovery from the atmosphere with high efficiency at room temperature, and radon release at slightly elevated temperatures (50-60 degrees C.) such a device would offer numerous substantial advantages over conventional cryogenic charcoal systems for the removal of radon. Controlled sources of radon in Argonne's radon research facility are being used to quantitatively assess the performance of a selected class of absorbing fluids over a range of radon concentrations. This paper will discuss the design of laboratory- and engineering-scale radon absorption units and present some preliminary experimental test results

  7. Development of Nanosatellite Technology with APRS Module for Disaster Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahyang, S. Y.; Dhiya’Ulhaq, M. Z.; Golim, O. P.; Gunawan, R.; Suhandinata; Jahja, E.; Nelwan, E. R. G.; Ananta, C.; Chow, I. M.; Mali, N. D. F.

    2018-05-01

    Development of nanosatellite technology has enabled satellites to be developed with multiple capabilities for a specific mission in a short time with a low cost. Satellite communications are proved to be more effective in delivering information due to its large coverage area. Surya Satellite-1 will become the first Indonesian nanosatellite developed by undergraduate students. It is designed with low-cost commercial payloads, including an APRS module for communication and operated on VHF and UHF amateur radio frequencies. The mission of the satellites focused on disaster mitigation through APRS communication network with remote stations located on disaster-prone areas.

  8. Microencapsulation Technology for Corrosion Mitigation by Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    A multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion is being developed based on micro-encapsulation technology. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection effectiveness. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed to be incorporated into a smart coating that will deliver corrosion inhibitors to mitigate corrosion autonomously. Key words: smart coating, corrosion inhibition, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH sensitive microcapsule, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion protection pain

  9. Use of Space Technology in Flood Mitigation (Western Province, Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulando, A.

    2001-05-01

    Disasters, by definition are events that appear suddenly and with little warning. They are usually short lived, with extreme events bringing death, injury and destruction of buildings and communications. Their aftermath can be as damaging as their physical effects through destruction of sanitation and water supplies, destruction of housing and breakdown of transport for food, temporary shelter and emergency services. Since floods are one of the natural disasters which endanger both life and property, it becomes vital to know its extents and where the hazards exists. Flood disasters manifest natural processes on a larger scale and information provided by Remote Sensing is a most appropriate input to analysis of actual events and investigations of potential risks. An analytical and qualitative image processing and interpretation of Remotely Sensed data as well as other data such as rainfall, population, settlements not to mention but a few should be used to derive good mitigation strategies. Since mitigation is the cornerstone of emergency management, it therefore becomes a sustained action that will reduce or eliminate long term risks to people and property from natural hazards such as floods and their effects. This will definitely involve keeping of homes and other sensitive structures away from flood plains. Promotion of sound land use planning based on this known hazard, "FLOODS" is one such form of mitigation that can be applied in flood affected areas within flood plain. Therefore future mitigation technologies and procedures should increasingly be based on the use of flood extent information provided by Remote Sensing Satellites like the NOAA AVHRR as well as information on the designated flood hazard and risk areas.

  10. The 'Environmental Manual for Power Development': a tool for GHG mitigation and cost analysis in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsche, Uwe R. [Oeko-Institut, Energy Div., Darmstadt (Germany); Liptow, Holger [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Climate Change Programme, Eschborn (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The Environmental Manual for Power Development (EM) is a computerised tool to include environmental and cost data into the decision-making for energy projects in developing countries. The EM is sponsored by German BMZ (Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development), Dutch DGIS (Directorate General for International Co-operation), British DfID (Department for International Development), and the World Bank. The EM was developed by GTZ with scientific support from Oeko-Institut (Institute for applied ecology). The EM tracks down the emissions and costs of e.g. the existing power supply system in a country, region, or of a specific energy project, and compares those to alternative options to deliver the same energy service, e.g. electricity, or process heat, or transport services. To do so, the EM maintains a comprehensive database on environmental and cost impacts of energy technologies, and determines environmental impacts for life-cycles: All impacts from mining, transport, conversion etc. can be accounted for. To consistently handle all life-cycles, the EM database offers a variety of pre-defined fuel-and life-cycles to work with. The Em database covers generic energy technologies in developing countries, especially fossil-fueled electricity and heating systems, cogeneration, renewable energies, selected energy efficiency technologies, nuclear power systems, as well as data for upstream activities like mining, fuel benefication, transport, and emission control technologies like flue-gas desulfurisation, low-NO{sub x} burners, etc. The EM analyses and compares airborne and greenhouse gas emissions, solid wastes, and land use, as well as internal and external costs associated with investment and operation of energy technologies, including their life-cycle (upstream fuel-cycles, materials). The Em helps to check the compliance of energy processes with given emission standards - its database offers such standard for various countries and regions, and users can

  11. Crowd-Sourcing Management Activity Data to Drive GHG Emission Inventories in the Land Use Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, K.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the land use sector constitute the largest source category for many countries in Africa. Enhancing C sequestration and reducing GHG emissions on managed lands in Africa has to potential to attract C financing to support adoption of more sustainable land management practices that, in addition to GHG mitigation, can provide co-benefits of more productive and climate-resilient agroecosystems. However, robust systems to measure and monitor C sequestration/GHG reductions are currently a significant barrier to attracting more C financing to land use-related mitigation efforts.Anthropogenic GHG emissions are driven by a variety of environmental factors, including climate and soil attributes, as well as human-activities in the form of land use and management practices. GHG emission inventories typically use empirical or process-based models of emission rates that are driven by environmental and management variables. While a lack of field-based flux and C stock measurements are a limiting factor for GHG estimation, we argue that an even greater limitation may be availabiity of data on the management activities that influence flux rates, particularly in developing countries in Africa. In most developed countries there is a well-developed infrastructure of agricultural statistics and practice surveys that can be used to drive model-based GHG emission estimations. However, this infrastructure is largely lacking in developing countries in Africa. While some activity data (e.g. land cover change) can be derived from remote sensing, many key data (e.g., N fertilizer practices, residue management, manuring) require input from the farmers themselves. The explosive growth in cellular technology, even in many of the poorest parts of Africa, suggests the potential for a new crowd-sourcing approach and direct engagement with farmers to 'leap-frog' the land resource information model of developed countries. Among the many benefits of this approach

  12. The effects of economic and policy incentives on carbon mitigation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, Richard G.; Jaffe, Adam B.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to estimate the likely effects of potential climate change policies on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requires an improved understanding of the relationship between different policy alternatives and energy-saving and GHG-reducing changes in technology. A particularly important and understudied aspect of this set of issues is the conceptual and empirical modeling of how the various stages of technological change are interrelated, how they unfold over time in response to market forces, and the differential impact of various policies (for example, R and D subsidies, environmental taxes, information programs). We summarize several contributions to this literature and suggest promising areas for continued research on empirical analysis and modeling of induced technological change

  13. Teachers' Initial and Sustained Use of an Instructional Assistive Technology Tool: Exploring the Mitigating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Flanagan, Sara; Heutsche, Anne; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Englert, Carol Sue

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explored factors that mitigated teachers implementing an instructional assistive technology and factors that mitigated its sustained use. Specifically, it explored these issues in relation to a social studies based instructional assistive technology (Virtual History Museum [VHM]), which was originally implemented…

  14. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Jacqueline; Babbitt, Callie; Winer, Martin; Hilton, Brian; Williamson, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO 2 e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  15. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 1. Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C. [Energy and Environment Division, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Mitigating climate change and achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas atmospheric concentrations will require deep reductions in global emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Developing and disseminating new, low-carbon energy technology will thus be needed. Two previous AIXG papers have focused on possible drivers for such a profound technological change: Technology Innovation, Development and Diffusion, released in June 2003, and International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, released in June 2004. The first of these papers assesses a broad range of technical options for reducing energy-related CO2 emissions. It examines how technologies evolve and the role of research and development efforts, alternative policies, and short-term investment decisions in making long-term options available. It considers various policy tools that may induce technological change, some very specific, and others with broader expected effects. Its overall conclusion is that policies specifically designed to promote technical change, or 'technology push', could play a critical role in making available and affordable new energy technologies. However, such policies would not be sufficient to achieve the Convention's objective in the absence of broader policies. First, because there is a large potential for cuts that could be achieved in the short run with existing technologies; and second, the development of new technologies requires a market pull as much as a technology push. The second paper considers the potential advantages and disadvantages of international energy technology collaboration and transfer for promoting technological change. Advantages of collaboration may consist of lowering R and D costs and stimulating other countries to invest in R and D; disadvantage may include free-riding and the inefficiency of reaching agreement between many actors. This paper sets the context for further discussion on the role of

  16. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  17. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  18. Chapter 5. Assessing the Need for High Impact Technology Research, Development & Deployment for Mitigating Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Auston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a centrally important component of all strategies to mitigate climate change. As such, it encompasses a multi-dimensional space that is far too large to be fully addressed in this brief chapter. Consequently, we have elected to focus on a subset of topics that we believe have the potential for substantial impact. As researchers, we have also narrowed our focus to address applied research, development and deployment issues and omit basic research topics that have a longer-term impact. This handful of topics also omits technologies that we deem to be relatively mature, such as solar photovoltaics and wind turbines, even though we acknowledge that additional research could further reduce costs and enhance performance. These and other mature technologies such as transportation are discussed in Chapter 6. This report and the related Summit Conference are an outgrowth of the University of California President’s Carbon Neutrality Initiative, and consequently we are strongly motivated by the special demands of this ambitious goal, as we are also motivated by the corresponding goals for the State of California, the nation and the world. The unique feature of the UC Carbon Neutrality Initiative is the quest to achieve zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 at all ten 10 campuses. It should be emphasized that a zero emission target is enormously demanding and requires careful strategic planning to arrive at a mix of technologies, policies, and behavioral measures, as well as highly effective communication – all of which are far more challenging than reducing emissions by some 40% or even 80%. Each campus has a unique set of requirements based on its current energy and emissions. Factors such as a local climate, dependence on cogeneration, access to wholesale electricity markets, and whether a medical school is included shape the specific challenges of the campuses, each of which is a “living laboratory” setting a model for others to

  19. Assessment of the potential REDD+ as a new international support measure for GHG reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ahn, J.; Kim, H.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Paris Agreement, the mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has high potential to simultaneously contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation through forest conservation and poverty alleviation. Some of 162 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted by 189 countries representing approximately 98.8% of global GHG emissions include not only unconditional mitigation goals but also conditional goals based on the condition of the provision of international support such as finance, technology transfer and capacity building. Considering REDD+ as one of the main mechanisms to support such work, this study selected ten countries from among Korea's 24 ODA priority partners, taking into consideration their conditional INDC targets alongside sectoral quantified targets such as land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). The ten selected countries are Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Ghana, Senegal, Colombia, Peru and Paraguay. Of these countries, most REDD+ projects have been conducted in Indonesia mainly due to the fact that 85% of the country's total GHG emissions are caused by forest conversion and peatland degradation. Therefore, GHG reduction rates and associated projected costs of the Indonesia's REDD+ projects were analyzed in order to offer guidance on the potential of REDD+ to contribute to other INDCs' conditional goals. The result showed that about 0.9 t CO2 ha-1 could be reduced at a cost of USD 23 per year. Applying this estimation to the Cambodian case, which has submitted a conditional INDC target of increasing its forest coverage by 60% (currently 57%) by 2030, suggests that financial support of USD 12.8 million would reduce CO2 emissions by about 5.1 million tones by increasing forest coverage. As there is currently no consideration of LULUCF in Cambodia's INDC, this result represents the opportunity for an additional contribution to

  20. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  1. Advanced CO2 Leakage Mitigation using Engineered Biomineralization Sealing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Phillips, Adrienne [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This research project addresses one of the goals of the DOE Carbon Sequestration Program (CSP). The CSP core R&D effort is driven by technology and is accomplished through laboratory and pilot scale research aimed at new technologies for greenhouse gas mitigation. Accordingly, this project was directed at developing novel technologies for mitigating unwanted upward leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) injected into the subsurface as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) activities. The technology developed by way of this research project is referred to as microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP).

  2. Progress toward an Integrated Global GHG Information System (IG3IS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCola, Philip

    2016-04-01

    from a specific human activity. Based upon the recent advances in GHG observation technologies, new data-mining tools for acquiring socioeconomic activity data, and enhancements to the computational models used to merge this data, WMO and its partners are developing a plan for an Integrated Global GHG Information System (IG3IS) able to evaluate the efficacy of policy, reduce emission inventory uncertainty, and inform additional mitigation actions. The presentation will cover the principles and objectives of IG3IS, as well as progress toward answering the questions: What research capabilities are ready and able to deliver useful information for whom? What decisions will be informed? What valuable and additional outcomes will result?

  3. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  4. Carbon Lock-In: Barriers to the Deployment of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Brown, Marilyn A. [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The United States shares with many other countries the objective of stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Many believe that accelerating the pace of technology improvement and deployment could significantly reduce the cost of achieving this goal. The critical role of new technologies is underscored by the fact that most anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted over the next century will come from equipment and infrastructure built in the future. As a result, new technologies and fuels have the potential to transform the nation's energy system while meeting climate change as well as energy security and other goals.

  5. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  6. Mitigation: cross-sectoral and other issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, R. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Coordination Center for Effects

    1996-12-31

    Measures, methodologies and technologies to reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases (GHG) are assessed in this paper, together with other options for limiting anthropogenic climatic change and consequences. This chapter of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group II`s 1996 report discusses the cross-sectorial potential for reducing emissions between areas discussed specifically in other chapters namely energy supply, industry, transportation, human settlements, agriculture and forestry, aiming to provide an integrated analysis of mitigation options with cross-cutting themes. Energy supply and demand issues within a low GHG emissions scenario are discussed as are issues relating to land use and land cover. Broadly-based concepts for counterbalancing climatic change are described and their mitigation potential assessed. (UK)

  7. 15 CFR 971.604 - Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Best available technologies (BAT) and... Environmental Effects § 971.604 Best available technologies (BAT) and mitigation. (a) The Administrator shall..., NOAA is unable either to specify particular equipment or procedures comprising BAT or to define...

  8. The Welfare Costs of GHG Reduction with Renewable Energy Policies in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Madhu; Oliver, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A range of policies have been implemented in the agricultural, transportation, and electric power sectors, which comprise the majority of GHG emissions in the US. Two prominent policy sets are the national RFS and state-level RPSs. The purpose of this research is to examine the GHG implications of the state RPSs and their welfare costs of mitigating GHG emissions. We also analyze the interactions between the RFS and state RPS policies and the extent to which these policies create competition ...

  9. Technology learning for renewable energy: Implications for South Africa's long-term mitigation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Hughes, Alison; Haw, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Technology learning can make a significant difference to renewable energy as a mitigation option in South Africa's electricity sector. This article considers scenarios implemented in a Markal energy model used for mitigation analysis. It outlines the empirical evidence that unit costs of renewable energy technologies decline, considers the theoretical background and how this can be implemented in modeling. Two scenarios are modelled, assuming 27% and 50% of renewable electricity by 2050, respectively. The results show a dramatic shift in the mitigation costs. In the less ambitious scenario, instead of imposing a cost of Rand 52/t CO 2 -eq (at 10% discount rate), reduced costs due to technology learning turn renewables into negative cost option. Our results show that technology learning flips the costs, saving R143. At higher penetration rate, the incremental costs added beyond the base case decline from R92 per ton to R3. Including assumptions about technology learning turns renewable from a higher-cost mitigation option to one close to zero. We conclude that a future world in which global investment in renewables drives down unit costs makes it a much more cost-effective and sustainable mitigation option in South Africa.

  10. Co-benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation: a review and classification by type, mitigation sector, and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Mei; Liang, Qiao-Mei; Liu, Li-Jing; Diaz Anadon, Laura

    2017-12-01

    The perceived inability of climate change mitigation goals alone to mobilize sufficient climate change mitigation efforts has, among other factors, led to growing research on the co-benefits of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study conducts a systematic review (SR) of the literature on the co-benefits of mitigating GHG emissions resulting in 1554 papers. We analyze these papers using bibliometric analysis, including a keyword co-occurrence analysis. We then iteratively develop and present a typology of co-benefits, mitigation sectors, geographic scope, and methods based on the manual double coding of the papers resulting from the SR. We find that the co-benefits from GHG mitigation that have received the largest attention of researchers are impacts on ecosystems, economic activity, health, air pollution, and resource efficiency. The co-benefits that have received the least attention include the impacts on conflict and disaster resilience, poverty alleviation (or exacerbation), energy security, technological spillovers and innovation, and food security. Most research has investigated co-benefits from GHG mitigation in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU), electricity, transport, and residential sectors, with the industrial sector being the subject of significantly less research. The largest number of co-benefits publications provide analysis at a global level, with relatively few studies providing local (city) level analysis or studying co-benefits in Oceanian or African contexts. Finally, science and engineering methods, in contrast to economic or social science methods, are the methods most commonly employed in co-benefits papers. We conclude that given the potential mobilizing power of understudied co-benefits (e.g. poverty alleviation) and local impacts, the magnitude of GHG emissions from the industrial sector, and the fact that Africa and South America are likely to be severely affected by climate change, there is an opportunity

  11. Technological change and the timing of mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruebler, A.; Messner, S.

    1998-01-01

    We use a coupled carbon-cycle and energy systems engineering model to analyze the future time path of carbon emissions under an illustrative CO 2 concentration stabilization limit of 550 ppm. Our findings confirm the emission pattern as found by WRE: global emissions rise initially, pass through stabilization, in order to decline in the second half of the 21st century. We show that for a given CO 2 concentration target, emission trajectories within an intertemporal optimization framework depend mainly on two factors: the discount rate, and the representation of technological change as either static or dynamic. We obtain a similar near-term emission time path as WRE when using a model with static technology and a discount rate of 7%. We obtain a trajectory with lower emissions in the near-term when using a lower discount rate and/or treating technology dynamics endogenously in the model. We briefly outline a model that endogenizes technological change through learning curves. We then compare differences in emission trajectories between alternative model formulations of technological change. They are sufficiently small as to be of secondary importance when compared to treating CO 2 concentration stabilization as an inter-temporal optimization problem or not. Whereas our results confirm the computational results of WRE, we arrive nonetheless at different policy conclusions. If long-term emission reduction is the goal, we cannot follow 'business as usual' even in the short-term. Action needs to start now. Action does not necessarily mean aggressive short-term emission reductions but rather enhanced R and D and technology demonstration efforts that stimulate technological learning. These are the necessary preconditions that long-term reduction targets can be met with improved technology and at costs lower than today. We close by pointing out two further critical issues: uncertainty, and the possible mismatch between the world of economic models and that of climate

  12. International technology transfer for climate change mitigation and the cases of Russia and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinot, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group]|[Stockholm Environment Inst., Boston, MA (United States); Sinton, J.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Haddad, B.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The environmental agenda for mitigating climate change through international transfers of technology is linked with a diverse literature, reviewed here within a framework that combines technological, agent/agenda, and market/transaction perspectives. Literature that bears on international technology transfer for climate change mitigation is similar in many ways for Russia and China: opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy, economic reform and restructuring, the difficulties enterprises face in responding to market conditions, international assistance policies, international joint ventures, market intermediation, and capacity building for market development. In both countries, capacity building means enhancing market-oriented capabilities in addition to technological capabilities. For Russia, institutional development is critical, such as new commercial legal codes and housing-sector changes beyond privatization. For China, technology policies and modernization programs significantly influence technology transfers. 234 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. International technology transfer for climate change mitigation and the cases of Russia and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, E.; Sinton, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental agenda for mitigating climate change through international transfers of technology is linked with a diverse literature, reviewed here within a framework that combines technological, agent/agenda, and market/transaction perspectives. Literature that bears on international technology transfer for climate change mitigation is similar in many ways for Russia and China: opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy, economic reform and restructuring, the difficulties enterprises face in responding to market conditions, international assistance policies, international joint ventures, market intermediation, and capacity building for market development. In both countries, capacity building means enhancing market-oriented capabilities in addition to technological capabilities. For Russia, institutional development is critical, such as new commercial legal codes and housing-sector changes beyond privatization. For China, technology policies and modernization programs significantly influence technology transfers. 234 refs., 3 tabs

  14. The theory-practice gap of black carbon mitigation technologies in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishi; Li, Aitong; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Junfeng

    2018-02-01

    Black carbon mitigation has received increasing attention for its potential contribution to both climate change mitigation and air pollution control. Although different bottom-up models concerned with unit mitigation costs of various technologies allow the assessment of alternative policies for optimized cost-effectiveness, the lack of adequate data often forced many reluctant explicit and implicit assumptions that deviate away from actual situations of rural residential energy consumption in developing countries, where most black carbon emissions occur. To gauge the theory-practice gap in black carbon mitigation - the unit cost differences that lie between what is estimated in the theory and what is practically achieved on the ground - this study conducted an extensive field survey and analysis of nine mitigation technologies in rural China, covering both northern and southern regions with different residential energy consumption patterns. With a special focus on two temporal characteristics of those technologies - lifetimes and annual utilization rates, this study quantitatively measured the unit cost gaps and explain the technical as well as sociopolitical mechanisms behind. Structural and behavioral barriers, which have affected the technologies' performance, are discussed together with policy implications to narrow those gaps.

  15. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  17. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  18. NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, James

    2013-01-01

    NASA is committed to finding solutions to agency cleanup problems that are better, cheaper, and more effective than the status quo. Unfortunately, some potential solutions involve innovative technologies for which NASA remediation managers may not have a high level of understanding or confidence. Since 2004, NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) in Mississippi has been pumping groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOC) from their cleanup location designated "Area G" through extraction wells to an aboveground treatment system. Over time, however, the effectiveness of this treatment strategy has diminished and an alternative approach is needed. In 2012, professionals from NASA's Principal Center for Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) introduced SSC managers to an innovative technology for enhancing the performance of SSC's existing pump and treat system. The technology, generally referred to as in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), involves slowly and continuously injecting a strong but safe chemical oxidant into the groundwater. Treatment is enhanced by a "surfactant-type effect" which causes residual contamination from saturated soil to be released into the dissolved-phase where it can be readily oxidized. Any dissolved-phase contamination that was not oxidized can be collected by the extraction well network and treated aboveground. SSC was not familiar with the technology so to increase their confidence, TEERM identified a contractor who was willing to demonstrate their product and process at a significantly reduced price. An initial, small-scale demonstration of ISCO began at sse in March 2012 and completed in August 2012. This successful demonstration was followed by three larger-scale ISCO demonstrations between August and December 2012. The contractor's innovative Continuous Injection System (CIS) incorporated "green" and sustainable technologies and practices. A slow

  19. Modelling the impacts of challenging 2020 non-ETS GHG emissions reduction targets on Ireland′s energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Deane, J.P.; Lavigne, Denis; Rout, Ullash K.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on Ireland's ambitious target for 2020 to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% below 2005 levels for sectors not covered by ETS (Non-ETS). Ireland is an interesting case study due to the role of agriculture (a particularly challenging sector with regard to GHG emissions reduction), that represents 29% of Ireland's GHG emissions compared with less than 10% for the EU. The analysis is carried out with the Irish TIMES model, a bottom-up energy systems modelling tool with detailed characterization of Ireland's energy system. The paper uses scenario analysis to provide pathways that demonstrate how Ireland can meet the non-ETS target at least cost. The paper considers the impacts (in terms of different technology choices and higher marginal abatement costs) arising from higher targets for the energy system to compensate for growth in agriculture activity and low mitigation potential in that sector. The results point to a need to reconsider Ireland's renewable energy focus, with a need for increased effort in renewable transport and renewable heat in particular. The results also point to significant electrification of residential heating. The results also point to a high marginal abatement cost (€213/tCO 2 ), which challenges the analysis carried out at EU level to establish Ireland's non-ETS target. - Highlights: • Techno-economic energy model to deliver EU GHG mitigation target by 2020 in Ireland. • Agriculture represents nearly half of Non-ETS emissions in Ireland. • The target set for Non-ETS GHG for Ireland is far from a cost optimal target. • The results point to a need to reconsider Ireland's renewable energy focus. • Key pathways: electrification of heating in buildings and biofuels in transport

  20. Assessing the health benefits of urban air pollution reductions associated with climate change mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, São Paulo, México City, and New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, L; Borja-Aburto, V H; Gouveia, N; Thurston, G; Davis, D L

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the potential local health benefits of adopting greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, we develop scenarios of GHG mitigation for México City, México; Santiago, Chile; São Paulo, Brazil; and New York, New York, USA using air pollution health impact factors appropriate to each city. We estimate that the adoption of readily available technologies to lessen fossil fuel emissions over the next two decades in these four cities alone will reduce particulate matter and ozone and avoid approximately 64,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 18,000-116,000) premature deaths (including infant deaths), 65,000 (95% CI 22,000-108,000) chronic bronchitis cases, and 46 million (95% CI 35-58 million) person-days of work loss or other restricted activity. These findings illustrate that GHG mitigation can provide considerable local air pollution-related public health benefits to countries that choose to abate GHG emissions by reducing fossil fuel combustion.

  1. Towards better GHG emissions savings with use of ISO GHG standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Kook Weng

    2010-01-01

    The 15th Conference of Parties (COP 15) at Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009 highlighted the need to combat climate change by facing the challenge of committing to reducing our emissions at all three levels with locally appropriate mitigation actions (LAMAs) at the local level to be linked to the nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and then contribute onwards to globally appropriate mitigation actions (GAMAs). The aim is to find solutions for both adaptation and mitigation by ensuring sufficient means are made available to support such efforts. This is because the world in entering a new phase that will be characterised by green growth in business. Thus be it agriculture that uses local knowledge of specific crop and livestock varieties to help in secure food supply, bio-energy, transport, industries, there must be policies to understand ecosystem-based to link people, biodiversity, energy, water and carbon so as to be more resilient and adaptable to the need for a low carbon economy in todays society.Climate change therefore affects organisations in many areas and they include legal compliance, carbon market, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. Promoting sustainability requires making efficient use of energy, water and natural resources, decrease in waste load through recycling and streamlining the processes leading to everything that decreases their CO 2 and water footprints. Currently there are many GHG schemes and programmes and the issues centres around compatibility, costs and most importantly credibility. Achieving real GHG emissions reduction requires controlled and verified emissions reductions and quantification that are sound and verifiable. Thanks to the development of the ISO suite of standards on GHG and related matters, the use of these harmonised standards has given the assurance that a tonne of carbon is a tonne of carbon be it in Malaysia, Mali or Mongolia.The use of these standards like ISO 14064 Part 1

  2. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed....

  3. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany); Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2011. The official submission of 2011 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2013. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2011 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2012 submissions to UNFCCC (which relate to emissions in 2010). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2011. Finally, the EEA has also used the early estimates of 2011 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2011 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (LN)

  4. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A.; Busche, J.; Hermann, H.; Joerss, W.; Scheffler, M. (OEko-Institut, Freiburg (Germany))

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2010. The official submission of 2010 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2012. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2010 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2011 submissions to UNFCCC (which re-late to emissions in 2009). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2010. Finally, EEA has also used the early estimates of 2010 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2010 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (Author)

  5. The role of technological availability for the distributive impacts of climate change mitigation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueken, Michael; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Knopf, Brigitte; Leimbach, Marian; Luderer, Gunnar; Bauer, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of the availability of low-carbon technologies on the regional distribution of mitigation costs are analyzed in a global multi-regional integrated assessment model. Three effects on regional consumption losses are distinguished: domestic measures, trade of fossil energy carriers and trade of emission permits. Key results are: (i) GDP losses and a redirection of investments in the energy system towards capital-intensive technologies are major contributions to regional consumption losses. (ii) A devaluation of tradable fossil energy endowments contributes largely to the mitigation costs of fossil fuel exporters. (iii) In case of reduced availability of low-carbon technologies, the permit market volume and associated monetary redistributions increase. The results suggest that the availability of a broad portfolio of low-carbon technologies could facilitate negotiations on the permit allocation scheme in a global cap-and-trade system. - Highlights: → We analyze the distribution of climate change mitigation costs among world regions. → We quantify contributions from various effects on regional costs. → The interference of world trade and low-carbon technologies is essential. → A broad portfolio of technologies helps international negotiations.

  6. Enteric methane mitigation technologies for ruminant livestock: a synthesis of current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Enteric methane (CH(4)) emission in ruminants, which is produced via fermentation of feeds in the rumen and lower digestive tract by methanogenic archaea, represents a loss of 2% to 12% of gross energy of feeds and contributes to global greenhouse effects. Globally, about 80 million tonnes of CH(4) is produced annually from enteric fermentation mainly from ruminants. Therefore, CH(4) mitigation strategies in ruminants have focused to obtain economic as well as environmental benefits. Some mitigation options such as chemical inhibitors, defaunation, and ionophores inhibit methanogenesis directly or indirectly in the rumen, but they have not confirmed consistent effects for practical use. A variety of nutritional amendments such as increasing the amount of grains, inclusion of some leguminous forages containing condensed tannins and ionophore compounds in diets, supplementation of low-quality roughages with protein and readily fermentable carbohydrates, and addition of fats show promise for CH(4) mitigation. These nutritional amendments also increase the efficiency of feed utilization and, therefore, are most likely to be adopted by farmers. Several new potential technologies such as use of plant secondary metabolites, probiotics and propionate enhancers, stimulation of acetogens, immunization, CH(4) oxidation by methylotrophs, and genetic selection of low CH(4)-producing animals have emerged to decrease CH(4) production, but these require extensive research before they can be recommended to livestock producers. The use of bacteriocins, bacteriophages, and development of recombinant vaccines targeting archaeal-specific genes and cell surface proteins may be areas worthy of investigation for CH(4) mitigation as well. A combination of different CH(4) mitigation strategies should be adopted in farm levels to substantially decrease methane emission from ruminants. Evidently, comprehensive research is needed to explore proven and reliable CH(4) mitigation technologies

  7. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona

    in drainage. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2016) (www.supreme-tech.dk) aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies for P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of implementing filter technologies including drainage well....... Targeting high risk areas of P loss and applying site-specific measures promises to be a cost-efficient approach. The Danish Commission for Nature and Agriculture has, therefore, now called for a paradigm shift towards targeted, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses...... environmental threshold values (

  8. Developing an optimal energy supply strategy for Syria in view of GHG reduction with least-cost climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Omar, H.; Almoustafa, A.; Seif Al-din, M.Kh.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the outcomes of a two years CRP project entitled (Developing an optimal energy supply strategy for Syria in view of GHG reduction with least-cost climate protection). The main activity deals with a case study concerning the assessment of optimal Syrian energy supply strategy taking into account the impact of environmental constraints related to GHG reduction on the cost and prospects of energy sources and technologies with special emphasis on renewable and nuclear options. In a previous activity the future long-term development of Syrian energy and electricity demand has been analyzed according to various scenarios of socio-economic and technological development of the country. The results indicate that energy demand will grow rapidly in the next decades as consequent of many socio-economic and technological factors given by Syria's high population growth, its current economic transition, and its expected economic and technological development, particularly in the industry sector. To meet the projected future energy demand up to 2030, an optimal reference energy supply strategy with minimal supply cost has been developed taking into account, in particular, the availability of national energy resources and diversity of supply options. The analysis has been performed using the IAEA's optimization tool MESSAGE. MESSAGE is suitable to formulate and evaluate alternative energy supply strategies consistent with pre-defined constraints including limits on new investment, fuel availability and trade, environmental regulations, and market penetration rates for new technologies. To evaluate the potential of GHG reduction in the Syrian power sector an alternative energy supply scenario - Mitigation Scenario (Ren S ce) has been introduced reflecting the most probable adaptation measures of this sector to mitigate GHG emission by more dependency on renewable options. Compatible with the Kyoto agreement for developing countries, the CDM is being considered

  9. CO{sub 2} mitigation costs of large-scale bioenergy technologies in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L [Mid-Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden). Dept. of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Ecotechnology; Madlener, R [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). CEPE

    2003-11-01

    In this study, we compare and contrast the impact of recent technological developments in large biomass-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration and condensing plants in terms of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs and under the conditions of a competitive electricity market. The CO{sub 2} mitigation cost indicates the minimum economic incentive required (e.g. in the form of a carbon tax) to equal the cost of a less carbon extensive system with the cost of a reference system. The results show that CO{sub 2} mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems than for natural gas systems with decarbonization. However, in liberalized energy markets and given the sociopolitical will to implement carbon extensive energy systems, market-based policy measures are still required to make biomass and decarbonization options competitive and thus help them to penetrate the market. This cost of cogeneration plants, however, depends on the evaluation method used. If we account for the limitation of heat sinks by expanding the reference entity to include both heat and power, as is typically recommended in life-cycle analysis, then the biomass-based gasification combined cycle (BIG/CC) technology turns out to be less expensive and to exhibit lower CO{sub 2} mitigation costs than biomass-fired steam turbine plants. However, a heat credit granted to cogeneration systems that is based on avoided cost of separate heat production, puts the steam turbine technology despite its lower system efficiency at an advantage. In contrast, when a crediting method based on avoided electricity production in natural gas fired condensing plants is employed, the BIG/CC technology turns out to be more cost competitive than the steam turbine technology for carbon tax levels beyond about $150/t C. Furthermore, steam turbine plants are able to compete with natural gas fired cogeneration plants at carbon tax levels higher than about $90/tC. (author)

  10. Estimating GHG emissions of marine ports-the case of Barcelona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Gara; Gemechu, Eskinder Demisse

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, GHG inventories of cities have expanded to include extra-boundary activities that form part of the city's urban metabolism and economy. This paper centers on estimating the emissions due to seaports, in such a way that they can be included as part of the city's inventory or be used by the port itself to monitor their policy and technology improvements for mitigating climate change. We propose the indicators GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled or per passenger and emissions per value of cargo handled as practical measures for policy making and emission prevention measures to be monitored over time. Adapting existing methodologies to the Port of Barcelona, we calculated a total of 331,390 tons of GHG emissions (CO 2 equivalents) for the year of 2008, half of which were attributed to vessel movement (sea-based emissions) and the other half to port, land related activities (land-based emissions). The highest polluters were auto carriers with 6 kg of GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled. Knowing the highest emitters, the port can take action to improve the ship's activities within the port limits, such as maneuvering and hotelling. With these results, the port and the city can also find ways to reduce the land-based emissions. - Research highlights: → Adapting existing methodologies to the Port of Barcelona (PoB), we calculated a total of 331,390 tons of GHG emissions for the year of 2008, half of which were attributed to vessel movement (sea-based emissions) and the other half to port, land related activities (land-based emissions) → Emissions per ton of cargo handled is proposed as an indicator to pin point high polluting vessels-a measure independent of the city the port belongs to. For 2008, the highest polluters were auto carriers with 6 kg of GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled. → An additional measure of emissions per value of cargo handled is proposed to complement the emissions per weight indicator. For 2008, the volume of cargo

  11. Window of Opportunity: Mitigating Threats from Disruptive Technologies Before Widespread Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    diffusion.117 Taking a lesson from the issues faced by mitigating the dual-use concerns in the biotechnology field, Mandel and Gerald Epstein...technology combined with online collaboration enables users to make high quality firearm parts and high-capacity magazines by simply downloading a...adoption of EDTs, are very similar to those faced in the biotechnology field. Advances in biotechnology are plagued with dual-use concerns, and the

  12. Surface reflectance and conversion efficiency dependence of technologies for mitigating global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd., 12 Lentara St, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia); Smith, Geoff [Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    A means of assessing the relative impact of different renewable energy technologies on global warming has been developed. All power plants emit thermal energy to the atmosphere. Fossil fuel power plants also emit CO{sub 2} which accumulates in the atmosphere and provides an indirect increase in global warming via the greenhouse effect. A fossil fuel power plant may operate for some time before the global warming due to its CO{sub 2} emission exceeds the warming due to its direct heat emission. When a renewable energy power plant is deployed instead of a fossil fuel power plant there may be a significant time delay before the direct global warming effect is less than the combined direct and indirect global warming effect from an equivalent output coal fired plant - the ''business as usual'' case. Simple expressions are derived to calculate global temperature change as a function of ground reflectance and conversion efficiency for various types of fossil fuelled and renewable energy power plants. These expressions are used to assess the global warming mitigation potential of some proposed Australian renewable energy projects. The application of the expressions is extended to evaluate the deployment in Australia of current and new geo-engineering and carbon sequestration solutions to mitigate global warming. Principal findings are that warming mitigation depends strongly on the solar to electric conversion efficiency of renewable technologies, geo-engineering projects may offer more economic mitigation than renewable energy projects and the mitigation potential of reforestation projects depends strongly on the location of the projects. (author)

  13. A comparability analysis of global burden sharing GHG reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Saveyn, Bert; Soria, Antonio; Szabo, Laszlo; Van Regemorter, Denise; Van Ierland, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the mitigation burden across countries is a key issue regarding the post-2012 global climate policies. This article explores the economic implications of alternative allocation rules, an assessment made in the run-up to the COP15 in Copenhagen (December 2009). We analyse the comparability of the allocations across countries based on four single indicators: GDP per capita, GHG emissions per GDP, GHG emission trends in the recent past, and population growth. The multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of the global economy, GEM-E3, is used for that purpose. Further, the article also compares a perfect carbon market without transaction costs with the case of a gradually developing carbon market, i.e. a carbon market with (gradually diminishing) transaction costs. - Highlights: ► Burden sharing of global mitigation efforts should consider equity and efficiency. ► The comparability of allocations across countries is based on four indicators. ► The four indicators are GDP/capita, GHG/GDP, population growth, and GHG trend. ► Any possible agreement on effort comparability needs a combination of indicators. ► We analyse the role played by the degree of flexibility in global carbon trading

  14. GHG emission estimates for road transport in national GHG inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The annual reporting procedures of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have now produced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories from 40 so-called Annex I countries for 18 years. This article analyses a subset of these data: emissions from road transport. The article

  15. Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Chang, Yuan; Pang, Mingyue

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the options of biomass power generation in China, this study presented an integrated energy, environmental, and economic evaluation for Salix in China, and a typical Salix direct-fired power generation system (SDPGS) in Inner Mongolia was selected for case study. A tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to calculate the “planting-to-wire” (PTW) energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic cost and profit of the SDPGS, including feedstock cultivation, power plant construction and operation, and on-grid price with/without government subsidies. The results show that the PTW energy consumption and GHG emissions of Salix are 0.8 MJ/kWh and 114 g CO 2 -eq/kWh, respectively, indicating an energy payback time (EPBT) of 3.2 years. The SDPGS is not economically feasible without government subsidies. The PTW costs are dominated by feedstock cultivation. The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits are still robust, even when the power plant runs at only 60% design capacity. For future development of biomass power in China, scientific planning is necessary to guarantee a sufficient feedstock supply. In addition, technology progress, mature industrial chains, and reasonable price setting policy are required to enable potential energy and environmental advantages of biomass power moving forward. -- Highlights: •A hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate overall performance of the SDPGS. •On-site processes dominate the “planting-to-wire” footprints. •The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits of the SDPGS are robust. •The economic profit of the SDPGS is feeble without government subsidies. •Generating efficiency promotion has a comprehensive positive effect on the system

  16. Use of cost-effective construction technologies in India to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, N. [Forum of Scientists, Engineers and Technologists, Kolkata (India)

    2008-01-10

    Concentration of greenhouse gases plays a major role in raising the earth's temperature. Carbon dioxide, produced from burning of fossil fuels, is the principle greenhouse gas and efforts are being made at international level to reduce its emission through adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The UN Conference on Environment and Development, 1992 made a significant development in this field by initiating the discussion on sustainable development under the Agenda 21. Cost-effective construction technologies can bring down the embodied energy level associated with production of building materials by lowering use of energy-consuming materials. This embodied energy is a crucial factor for sustainable construction practices and effective reduction of the same would contribute in mitigating global warming. The cost-effective construction technologies would emerge as the most acceptable case of sustainable technologies in India both in terms of cost and environment.

  17. Modelling the impacts of challenging 2050 European climate mitigation targets on Ireland’s energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Rogan, Fionn; Deane, J.P.; Lavigne, Denis; Rout, Ullash K.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    The Copenhagen Accord established political consensus on the 2 °C limit (in global temperature increase) and for deep cuts in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels to achieve this goal. The European Union has set ambitious GHG targets for the year 2050 (80–95% below 1990 levels), with each Member State developing strategies to contribute to these targets. This paper focuses on mitigation targets for one Member State, Ireland, an interesting case study due to the growth in GHG emissions (24% increase between 1990 and 2005) and the high share of emissions from agriculture (30% of total GHG emissions). We use the Irish TIMES energy systems modelling tool to build a number of scenarios delivering an 80% emissions reduction target by 2050, including accounting for the limited options for agriculture GHG abatement by increasing the emissions reduction target for the energy system. We then compare the scenario results in terms of changes in energy technology, the role of energy efficiency and renewable energy. We also quantify the economic impacts of the mitigation scenarios in terms of marginal CO 2 abatement costs and energy system costs. The paper also sheds light on the impacts of short term targets and policies on long term mitigation pathways. - Highlights: ► We developed a techno-economic energy model of Ireland to the year 2050. ► Reductions between 80% and 95% of GHG emissions can be technically achieved. ► A 50% emissions cut in agriculture requires a 95% reductions from the energy system. ► Extending current policies implies greater electrification and efficiency measures. ► The additional cost to achieve mitigation remain less than 2% of GDP levels in 2050.

  18. A methodology for the sustainability assessment of arsenic mitigation technology for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etmannski, T R; Darton, R C

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we show how the process analysis method (PAM) can be applied to assess the sustainability of options to mitigate arsenic in drinking water in rural India. Stakeholder perspectives, gathered from a fieldwork survey of 933 households in West Bengal in 2012 played a significant role in this assessment. This research found that the 'most important' issues as specified by the technology users are cost, trust, distance from their home to the clean water source (an indicator of convenience), and understanding the health effects of arsenic. We show that utilisation of a technology is related to levels of trust and confidence in a community, making use of a composite trust-confidence indicator. Measures to improve trust between community and organisers of mitigation projects, and to raise confidence in technology and also in fair costing, would help to promote successful deployment of appropriate technology. Attitudes to cost revealed in the surveys are related to the low value placed on arsenic-free water, as also found by other investigators, consistent with a lack of public awareness about the arsenic problem. It is suggested that increased awareness might change attitudes to arsenic-rich waste and its disposal protocols. This waste is often currently discarded in an uncontrolled manner in the local environment, giving rise to the possibility of point-source recontamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Dust Management Project: Characterizing Lunar Environments and Dust, Developing Regolith Mitigation Technology and Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    A return to the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth?s economic sphere, will require investment in developing new technologies and capabilities to achieve affordable and sustainable human exploration. From the operational experience gained and lessons learned during the Apollo missions, conducting long-term operations in the lunar environment will be a particular challenge, given the difficulties presented by the unique physical properties and other characteristics of lunar regolith, including dust. The Apollo missions and other lunar explorations have identified significant lunar dust-related problems that will challenge future mission success. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it?s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems and human explorers. The Dust Management Project (DMP) is tasked with the evaluation of lunar dust effects, assessment of the resulting risks, and development of mitigation and management strategies and technologies related to Exploration Systems architectures. To this end, the DMP supports the overall goal of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) of addressing the relevant high priority technology needs of multiple elements within the Constellation Program (CxP) and sister ETDP projects. Project scope, plans, and accomplishments will be presented.

  20. The role of technology and policy in mitigating regional nitrogen pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Baojing; Zhu Yimei; Chang Jie; Liu Dong; Min Yong; Ge Ying; Peng Changhui; Luo Weidong; Howarth, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Human activity greatly influences nitrogen (N) pollution in urbanized and adjacent areas. We comprehensively studied the N cycling in an urban-rural complex system, the Greater Hangzhou Area (GHA) in southeastern China. Our results indicated that subsurface N accumulation doubled, riverine N export tripled and atmospheric N pollutants increased 2.5 times within the GHA from 1980-2004. Agriculture was the largest N pollution source to air and water before 2000, whereas industry and human living gradually became the primary N pollution sources with the socioeconomic development. Based on the sensitivity analysis, we developed a scenario analysis to quantify the effects of technology and policy on environmental N dynamics. The fertilization reduction scenario suggested that the groundwater N pollution could decrease by 17% with less than a 5% reduction in crop production; the N effluent standard revision scenario led to a surface water N pollution reduction of 45%; the constructed wetlands implementation scenario could reduce surface water pollution by 43%-64%. Lastly, the technological improvement scenario mitigated atmospheric N pollution by 65%. Technologies play a key role in atmospheric N pollution control, policies mainly contribute to groundwater N pollution control, while technology and policy both work on surface water N mitigation within an urban-rural complex.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation by alternative household wastewater management technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Hawkins, Troy; Xue, Xiaobo; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Garland, Jay

    2015-03-01

    Household wastewater, especially from conventional septic systems, is a major contributor to nitrogen pollution. Alternative household wastewater management technologies provide similar sewerage management services but their life cycle costs and nitrogen flow implications remain uncertain. This paper addresses two key questions: (1) what are the total costs, nitrogen mitigation potential, and cost-effectiveness of a range of conventional and alternative municipal wastewater treatment technologies, and (2) what uncertainties influence these outcomes and how can we improve our understanding of these technologies? We estimate a household nitrogen mass balance for various household wastewater treatment systems and combine this mass balance with life cycle cost assessment to calculate the cost-effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation, which we define as nitrogen removed from the local watershed. We apply our methods to Falmouth, MA, where failing septic systems have caused heightened eutrophication in local receiving water bodies. We find that flushing and dry (composting) urine-diversion toilets paired with conventional septic systems for greywater management demonstrate the lowest life cycle cost and highest cost-effectiveness (dollars per kilogram of nitrogen removed from the watershed). Composting toilets are also attractive options in some cases, particularly best-case nitrogen mitigation. Innovative/advanced septic systems designed for high-level nitrogen removal are cost-competitive options for newly constructed homes, except at their most expensive. A centralized wastewater treatment plant is the most expensive and least cost-effective option in all cases. Using a greywater recycling system with any treatment technology increases the cost without adding any nitrogen removal benefits. Sensitivity analysis shows that these results are robust considering a range of cases and uncertainties. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Climate change, insurance, and the buildings sector: Technological synergisms between adaptation and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2002-11-01

    Examining the intersection of risk analysis and sustainable energy strategies reveals numerous examples of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer insurance loss-prevention benefits. The growing threat of climate change provides an added motivation for the risk community to better understand this area of opportunity. While analyses of climate change mitigation typically focus on the emissions-reduction characteristics of sustainable energy technologies, less often recognized are a host of synergistic ways in which these technologies also offer adaptation benefits, e.g. making buildings more resilient to natural disasters. While there is already some relevant activity, there remain various barriers to significantly expanding these efforts. Achieving successful integration of sustainable energy considerations with risk-management objectives requires a more proactive orientation, and coordination among diverse actors and industry groups.

  3. Climate change, insurance and the building sector: technological synergisms between adaptation and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, E.

    2003-01-01

    Examining the intersection of risk analysis and sustainable energy strategies reveals numerous examples of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer insurance loss-prevention benefits. The growing threat of climate change provides an added motivation for the risk community to understand better this area of opportunity. While analyses of climate change mitigation typically focus on the emissions-reduction characteristics of sustainable energy technologies, less often recognised are a host of synergistic ways in which these technologies also offer adaptation benefits, e.g. making buildings more resilient to natural disasters. While there is already some relevant activity, there remain various barriers to expanding these efforts significantly. Achieving successful integration of sustainable energy considerations with risk-management objectives requires a more proactive orientation, and coordination among diverse actors and industry groups. (author)

  4. Nuclear power for greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.

    2000-11-01

    The possibility of global climate change resulting from an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere is a major global concern. At the Third Conference of the Parties (CoP 3) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held at Kyoto, in December 1997, industrialized countries agreed to accept binding commitments that would reduce their collective GHG emissions, in the 2008-2012 commitment period, by at least 5% below 1990 levels. These countries also agreed to make demonstrable progress towards reducing GHG emissions by 2005. Because climate change is a global problem, i.e. it does not matter where on the globe GHGs are emitted - they all end up in the same atmosphere, many market economists maintain that mitigation should first occur wherever it is cheapest. Thus Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol makes provisions by which whose signatories who are required to limit emissions can gain credit for financing cost-effective mitigation projects in developing countries, while at the same time promoting sustainable development through the provision of financial and technical assistance. This option is known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM could be of particular interest to developing countries, which are not subject to emission limitations in the Kyoto Protocol. For example, the use of capital-intensive nuclear power instead of less costly coal-fired electricity generation would result in a significant reduction in GHG emissions. Because many developing countries may not be able to afford the higher investments associated with a nuclear power project, or because nuclear may simply not be the least-cost generation option for a given country, CDM offers an opportunity for (incremental) capital and technology transfer sponsored by countries of the CoP 3 in exchange for GHG emission credits. The benefit to the sponsor would be compliance with the emission limits set out in the Protocol, at a lower cost than if

  5. Asia's role in mitigating climate change: A technology and sector specific analysis with ReMIND-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luderer, Gunnar; Pietzcker, Robert C.; Kriegler, Elmar; Haller, Markus; Bauer, Nico

    2012-01-01

    We use the ReMIND-R model to analyze the role of Asia in the context of a global effort to mitigate climate change. We introduce a novel method of secondary energy based mitigation shares, which allows us to quantify the economic mitigation potential of technologies in different regions and final energy carriers. The 2005 share of Asia in global CO 2 emissions amounts to 38%, and is projected to grow to 53% under business-as-usual until the end of the century. Asia also holds a large fraction of the global mitigation potential. A broad portfolio of technologies is deployed in the climate policy scenarios. We find that biomass in combination with CCS, other renewables, and end-use efficiency each make up a large fraction of the global mitigation potential, followed by nuclear and fossil CCS. We find considerable differences in decarbonization patterns across the final energy types electricity, heat and transport fuels. Regional differences in technology use are a function of differences in resource endowments, and structural differences in energy end use. Under climate policy, a substantial mitigation potential of non-biomass renewables emerges for China and other developing countries of Asia (OAS). Asia also accounts for the dominant share of the global mitigation potential of nuclear energy. In view of the substantial near term investments into new energy infrastructure in China and India, early adoption of climate policy prevents lock-in into carbon intensive infrastructure and thus leads to a much higher long-term mitigation potential. - Highlights: ► We develop a novel methodology for the attribution of emission reductions to technologies. ► Asia accounts for a substantial and increasing share of global CO 2 emissions. ► A broad portfolio of technologies contributes to emission reductions. ► Early action increases the long term mitigation potential of China and India.

  6. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    Since 1995, a state-approved land disposal site (SALDS) has received tritium contaminated effluents from the Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Tritium in this effluent is mitigated by storage in slow moving groundwater to allow extended time for decay before the water reaches the site boundary. By this method, tritium in the SALDS is isolated from the general environment and human contact until it has decayed to acceptable levels. This report contains the 2009 update evaluation of alternative tritium mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed and updated information is provided on state-of-the-art technologies for control of tritium in wastewaters. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-026-07B (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 2007). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated periodically to determine their feasibility for implementation to control Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwaters to meet the Us. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 20,000 pOll and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Since the 2004 evaluation, there have been a number of developments related to tritium separation and control with potential application in mitigating tritium contaminated wastewater. These are primarily focused in the areas of: (1) tritium recycling at a commercial facility in Cardiff, UK using integrated tritium separation technologies (water distillation, palladium membrane reactor, liquid phase catalytic exchange, thermal diffusion), (2) development and demonstration of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) using hydrogen/water exchange to separate tritium from water, (3) evaporation of tritium contaminated water for dispersion in the

  7. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  8. Cradle to grave GHG emissions analysis of shale gas hydraulic fracking in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia has globally significant onshore gas resources, with over 280 trillion cubic feet of economically recoverable gas located in five shale basins. The Western Australian Government and gas industry have promoted the development of these resources as a “clean energy source” that would “help to reduce global carbon emissions” and provide a “transition fuel” to a low carbon economy. This research examines those claims by reviewing existing literature and published data to estimate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG pollution that would result from the development of Western Australia’s onshore gas basins using hydraulic fracking. Estimates of carbon pollution from each stage in gas development, processing, transport and end-use are considered in order to establish total life-cycle emissions in tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e. The emissions estimates draw from published research on emissions from shale gas development in other jurisdictions as well as industry or government reported emissions from current technology for gas processing and end-use as applicable. The current policy and regulatory environment for carbon pollution and likely resulting GHG mitigation measures has also been considered, as well as the potential for the gas to displace or substitute for other energy sources. In areas where there is uncertainty, conservative emissions estimates have been used. Modelling of GHG emissions has been undertaken for two comparison resource development and utilisation scenarios; Australian domestic and 100% export i.e. no domestic use. Each scenario corresponds to a different proportionate allocation of emissions accounted for domestic emissions in Australia and emissions accounted for in other jurisdictions. Emissions estimates for the two scenarios are 245–502 MTCO2e/year respectively over a resource development timeframe of 20 years. This is roughly the same as Australia’s total GHG emissions in 2014

  9. Applications of Advanced Technology for Monitoring Forest Carbon to Support Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Vargas, R.; Nehrkorn, T.; Domke, G. M.; Houghton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) is a broad concept guiding the application of monitoring technology to the needs of countries or entities for reporting and verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions or increases in greenhouse gas sinks. Credibility, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility are important features of global MRV efforts that can support implementation of climate change mitigation programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Sustainable Forest Management (REDD+). Applications of MRV technology may be tailored to individual country circumstances following guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; hence, there is no single approach that is uniquely viable but rather a range of ways to integrate new MRV methods. MRV technology is advancing rapidly with new remote sensing and advanced measurement of atmospheric CO2, and in situ terrestrial and ocean measurements, coupled with improvements in data analysis, modeling, and assessing uncertainty. Here we briefly summarize some of the most application-ready MRV technologies being developed under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program, and illustrate how these technologies may be applied for monitoring forests using several case studies that span a range of scales, country circumstances, and stakeholder reporting requirements. We also include remarks about the potential role of advanced monitoring technology in the context of the global climate accord that is expected to result from the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is expected to take place in December 2015, in Paris, France.

  10. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  11. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-10

    On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, “standard” and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a

  12. Disaster Coverage Predication for the Emerging Tethered Balloon Technology: Capability for Preparedness, Detection, Mitigation, and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsamhi, Saeed H; Samar Ansari, Mohd; Rajput, Navin S

    2018-04-01

    A disaster is a consequence of natural hazards and terrorist acts, which have significant potential to disrupt the entire wireless communication infrastructure. Therefore, the essential rescue squads and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. To provide efficient communication services, and to reduce casualty mortality and morbidity during the catastrophic events, we proposed the Tethered Balloon technology for disaster preparedness, detection, mitigation, and recovery assessment. The proposed Tethered Balloon is applicable to any type of disaster except for storms. The Tethered Balloon is being actively researched and developed as a simple solution to improve the performance of rescues, facilities, and services of emergency medical communication in the disaster area. The most important requirement for rescue and relief teams during or after the disaster is a high quality of service of delivery communication services to save people's lives. Using our proposed technology, we report that the Tethered Balloon has a large disaster coverage area. Therefore, the rescue and research teams are given higher priority, and their performance significantly improved in the particular coverage area. Tethered Balloon features made it suitable for disaster preparedness, mitigation, and recovery. The performance of rescue and relief teams was effective and efficient before and after the disaster as well as can be continued to coordinate the relief teams until disaster recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:222-231).

  13. Analysis of carbon mitigation technology to 2050 in Japan through integrated energy economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kengo; Nagatomi, Yu; Matsuo, Yuji; Suehiro, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the outline of integrated energy economic model and calculated result concerning the outlook of energy and carbon dioxide emissions in Japan to 2050. The energy model developed in this paper is integrated one which consistently combines econometric model endogenously generating socio-economic outlook and bottom-up type technology model, MARKAL, identifying cost-minimizing optimal mix of various energy technologies. In reference scenario which imposes no carbon emissions constraint, CO 2 emission in 2050 will decrease by approximately 40% from the level of emissions in 2005. In carbon-constraints scenario, imposing emissions cap of 60% reduction by 2050 from the emissions in 2005, natural gas-fired power plant equipped with CCS and renewable energy are expected to expand its portion in power generation mix. In transportation sector on this scenario, clean energy vehicles such as electric vehicle (EV) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) will be deployed and contribute to mitigate CO 2 emissions. (author)

  14. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  15. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  16. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings...

  17. Climate-smart technologies. Integrating renewable energy and energy efficiency in mitigation and adaptation responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Mannke, Franziska; Schulte, Veronika [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Faculty of Life Sciences; Mohee, Romeela; Surroop, Dinesh (eds.) [Mauritius Univ., Reduit (Mauritius). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    2013-11-01

    Explores the links between climate change and technologies. Relates to the links between renewable energy and climate change. Documents and promotes a collection of experiences from island nations. Has a strong international focus and value to developing countries. The book addresses the perceived need for a publication with looks at both, climate smart technologies and the integration of renewable energy and energy efficiency in mitigation and adaptation responses. Based on a set of papers submitted as part of the fifth on-line climate conference (CLIMATE 2012) and a major conference on renewable energy on island States held in Mauritius in 2012, the book provides a wealth of information on climate change strategies and the role of smart technologies. The book has been produced in the context of the project ''Small Developing Island Renewable Energy Knowledge and Technology Transfer Network'' (DIREKT), funded by the ACP Science and Technology Programme, an EU programme for cooperation between the European Union and the ACP region.

  18. Acceptance and Utilization of Technology (UTAUT) as a Method of Technology Acceptance Model of Mitigation Disaster Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, T.; Shofiati, R.; Hartini, H.

    2018-01-01

    www.mitigasi-bencana.com as a knowledge management website created based on survey results in April-July 2014 in East Java and Central Java provinces, indicates a gap between the expectations and reality that exist in the services provided by the regional disaster management agency. Based on condition analysis, the gaps that occur can be reduced if the community has the understanding and knowledge of adequate disaster mitigation. The problem that arises later is whether the chosen technology solution is appropriate and acceptable to the public? The methodology used in this study using the Technology Acceptance Model development is the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Utilization of Technology (UTAUT). Feedback obtained from respondents KarangTaruna youth SelogedongBantul, www.mitigasi-bencana.com can be accepted by the respondents, but from processed data is obtained only UTAUT hypotheses on the relationship dimension eligible for Social Expectancy on the Attitude toward technology, which means the higher the perception of the Social Expectancy, the higher the perception of the Attitude toward technology. Because www.mitigasi-bencana.com is new socialized so that society still need time to explore content information and knowledge contained therein. To be accepted by user, a knowledge management application must prepare various aspects of Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Factors, Facilitating Conditions and Attitude.

  19. Energy Technology Roll-Out for Climate Change Mitigation: A Multi-Model Study for Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaan, B.; Kober, T.; Calderon, S.; Clarke, L.; Daenzer, K.; Kitous, A.; Labriet, M.; Lucena, A.F.P.; Octaviano, C.; Di Sbroiavacca, N.

    In this paper we investigate opportunities for energy technology deployment under climate change mitigation efforts in Latin America. Through several carbon tax and CO2 abatement scenarios until 2050 we analyze what resources and technologies, notably for electricity generation, could be

  20. Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  1. Alstom's development of advanced CFB based technologies for CO{sub 2} mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; David G. Turek; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Herbert E. Andrus; John H. Chiu; Jean-Xavier Morin [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2005-07-01

    ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) is actively working to develop advanced circulating fluidized bed (CFB) based technologies for the purpose of CO{sub 2} mitigation. Two of the more promising ideas currently being investigated at ALSTOM are the oxygen-fired CFB and chemical looping technologies. The oxygen-fired CFB is a near-term CO{sub 2} capture technology, which uses pure oxygen tempered with recirculated flue gas to combust the fuel. The oxygen for combustion may be supplied by a cryogenic air separation unit, or in the future by more efficient processes such as oxygen transport membrane. This produces a flue gas stream comprising mostly CO{sub 2} and water vapor. Simple condensation of most of the water vapor leaves a CO{sub 2}-rich product stream which can be simply compressed for sequestration or purified for use in enhanced oil recovery or enhanced coal bed methane. Chemical looping is a longer-term development path towards CO{sub 2} mitigation. In ALSTOM's processes, a regenerable solid carrier extracts oxygen from air and transports it for combustion or gasification of the fuel. The chemical looping combustion process produces a high CO{sub 2} flue gas stream (similar to the O{sub 2} fired CFB flue gas stream) and steam for a Rankine cycle. The chemical looping gasification process captures CO{sub 2} in a separate chemical loop and produces hydrogen-rich synthesis gas for use in IGCCs, fuel cells, or for other industrial uses. This paper discusses ALSTOM's latest test work in these areas and the technical, economic and environmental implications of these advanced CFB-based systems. These advanced power generation units can be built from proven fluid bed design features and systems. 6 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gaitán

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1, compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1. We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1 and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced. Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  3. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  4. Technology learning for renewable energy: Implications for South Africa's long-term mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Harald, E-mail: Harald.Winkler@uct.ac.z [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Hughes, Alison [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Haw, Mary [PJ Carew Consulting, 103 Hout Street, Cape Town 8001 (South Africa)

    2009-11-15

    Technology learning can make a significant difference to renewable energy as a mitigation option in South Africa's electricity sector. This article considers scenarios implemented in a Markal energy model used for mitigation analysis. It outlines the empirical evidence that unit costs of renewable energy technologies decline, considers the theoretical background and how this can be implemented in modeling. Two scenarios are modelled, assuming 27% and 50% of renewable electricity by 2050, respectively. The results show a dramatic shift in the mitigation costs. In the less ambitious scenario, instead of imposing a cost of Rand 52/t CO{sub 2}-eq (at 10% discount rate), reduced costs due to technology learning turn renewables into negative cost option. Our results show that technology learning flips the costs, saving R143. At higher penetration rate, the incremental costs added beyond the base case decline from R92 per ton to R3. Including assumptions about technology learning turns renewable from a higher-cost mitigation option to one close to zero. We conclude that a future world in which global investment in renewables drives down unit costs makes it a much more cost-effective and sustainable mitigation option in South Africa.

  5. Technology learning for renewable energy. Implications for South Africa's long-term mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Harald; Hughes, Alison [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Haw, Mary [PJ Carew Consulting, 103 Hout Street, Cape Town 8001 (South Africa)

    2009-11-15

    Technology learning can make a significant difference to renewable energy as a mitigation option in South Africa's electricity sector. This article considers scenarios implemented in a Markal energy model used for mitigation analysis. It outlines the empirical evidence that unit costs of renewable energy technologies decline, considers the theoretical background and how this can be implemented in modeling. Two scenarios are modelled, assuming 27% and 50% of renewable electricity by 2050, respectively. The results show a dramatic shift in the mitigation costs. In the less ambitious scenario, instead of imposing a cost of Rand 52/t CO{sub 2}-eq (at 10% discount rate), reduced costs due to technology learning turn renewables into negative cost option. Our results show that technology learning flips the costs, saving R143. At higher penetration rate, the incremental costs added beyond the base case decline from R92 per ton to R3. Including assumptions about technology learning turns renewable from a higher-cost mitigation option to one close to zero. We conclude that a future world in which global investment in renewables drives down unit costs makes it a much more cost-effective and sustainable mitigation option in South Africa. (author)

  6. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO 2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO 2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO 2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO 2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO 2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  7. US/Japan workshop on mitigation and adaptation technologies related to global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernthal, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is a great pleasure for me to have the honor of delivering the keynote address for this important gathering, an honor enhanced further because of the many activities and historic relationships represented by this workshop. First of all, it represents the spirit of continuing cooperation and good relations between the United States and Japan. With the aid of the framework provided by the U.S./Japan Science and Technology Agreement, our two nations can come together to address a problem that has no national boundaries {hor_ellipsis} and we can think about solutions of potential benefit to all citizens of the global community. This workshop also symbolizes the spirit of cooperation so characteristic of the conduct of research in science and technology -- cooperation between us as individual scientists and engineers, between the various institutions we represent, and across our diverse disciplines. This workshop is only the second of its kind. The first US/Japan Workshop on global climate change was held last year in Japan. That workshop focused on cooperative scientific research in the United States and Japan. Out of it came a general agreement to continue collaborative work and to extend cooperation into the area of global change-related technologies, in particular those technologies that hold promise for mitigation and adaptation.

  8. Report of the Project Research on Disaster Reduction using Disaster Mitigating Information Sharing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeyasu

    For the purpose of reducing disaster damage by applying information sharing technologies, "the research on disaster reduction using crisis-adaptive information sharing technologies" was carried out from July, 2004 through March 2007, as a three year joint project composed of a government office and agency, national research institutes, universities, lifeline corporations, a NPO and a private company. In this project, the disaster mitigating information sharing platform which is effective to disaster response activities mainly for local governments was developed, as a framework which enables information sharing in disasters. A prototype of the platform was built by integrating an individual system and tool. Then, it was applied to actual local governments and proved to be effective to disaster responses. This paper summarizes the research project. It defines the platform as a framework of both information contents and information systems first and describes information sharing technologies developed for utilization of the platform. It also introduces fields tests in which a prototype of the platform was applied to local governments.

  9. Nuclear power for greenhouse gas mitigation under the Kyoto protocol: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.

    2000-01-01

    At the 43rd regular session of the IAEA General Conference, Member States requested the IAEA to help countries in assessing nuclear power's role in light of global environmental challenges and energy needs. Such assistance should include support for implementing national case studies, and facilitating access to relevant information about nuclear power's role in achieving sustainable development in developing countries and in mitigating GHG emissions. The dissemination of information on CDM is of particular importance to developing countries, so as to enable Member States interested in the mechanism to take an active and informed role in the debate regarding the Kyoto Protocol and eligible CDM technologies. Therefore, the Secretariat organized a series of information seminars, workshops and training courses for Member States on the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and Emissions Trading with particular emphasis on the potential role of nuclear power for GHG mitigation. On request, the Secretariat also provided training and assistance to several Member States in the preparation of national case studies that explore the potential role of nuclear power as a CDM technology. These case studies will be presented by the respective national study teams during this side event at the 44th IAEA General Conference. Within the general criteria included in the Kyoto Protocol, the decision on which technologies are eligible for GHG mitigation under the flexibility mechanisms is a sovereign decision of each country

  10. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: A case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongwei, E-mail: luhw@ncepu.edu.cn; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information. • The model can minimize net system cost and mitigate GHG emissions. • The model is particularly developed for the city of Beijing, China. • It reduces system cost by [45, 61]% and mitigates GHG emissions by [141, 179]%. • It could provide implications to megacities regarding GHG emissions control. - Abstract: This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH{sub 4} emission from the landfills.

  11. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvesen, Anders, E-mail: anders.arvesen@ntnu.no [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway); Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: > We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. > Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. > Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  12. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvesen, Anders; Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: → We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. → Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. → Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  13. What can we learn from field experiments about the development of SOC and GHG emissions under different management practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Heide; Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Haslmayr, Hans-Peter; Baumgarten, Andreas; ten Berge, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Successful agricultural management practices are required to maintain or enhance soil quality; at the same time climate change mitigation is becoming increasingly important. Within the EU project CATCH-C we analysed the effects of different agricultural practices not only on crop productivity, but also on soil quality indicators (e.g. soil organic carbon (SOC)) and climate change (CC) mitigation indicators (e.g. CO2, CH4, N2O emissions). European data sets and associated literature, mainly from long-term experiments were evaluated. This evaluation of agricultural management practices was carried out comparing a set of improved ("best") and often applied ("current") management practices. Positive and negative effects occurred when best management practices are adopted. As expected, none of the investigated practices could comply with all objectives simultaneously, i.e. maintaining high yields, mitigating climate change and improving chemical, physical and biological soil quality. The studied soil management practices "non-inversion tillage", "organic fertilisation" (application of farm yard manure, slurry, compost) and "incorporation of crop residues" represent important management practices for farmers to increase SOC, thus improving soil quality. However, CO2 and, especially, N2O emissions may rise as well. The evaluation of CC mitigation is often limited by the lack of data from - preferably - continuous GHG emission measurements. Thus, more long-term field studies are needed to better assess the CO2, CH4 and, especially, N2O emissions following the above mentioned favorably rated MPs. Only if SOC and GHG emissions are measured in the same field experiments, it will be possible to compute overall balances of necessary CO2-C equivalent emissions. CATCH-C is funded within the 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Theme 2 - Biotechnologies, Agriculture & Food. (Grant Agreement N° 289782).

  14. New Technology for Corrosion Mitigation of Steam Generator Tubesheet in Secondary Side Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Do Haeng; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Han, Jung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Denting has been mitigated by a modification of the design and material of the tube support structures, it has been an inevitable problem in the crevice region of the top of the tubesheet(TTS). Denting at the TTS has been a significant concern regardless of the tube materials. This is because it is a mechanical process resulted from a volume expansion of corrosion products of the tubesheet materials. It should be noted that the corrosion rate of low alloy tubesheet materials is accelerated due to the presence of corrosion products accumulated at the top of the tubesheet. Therefore a reduction of the corrosion rate of the tubesheet material should be a key strategy to prevent tube denting at the TTS as well as an improvement of the secondary water chemistry. This paper provides a new technology to prevent denting by cladding the secondary side surface of the tubesheet with a corrosion resistant material. In this study, Alloy 690 material on the surface of the SA508 tubesheet was cladded to a thickness of about 9mm. The corrosion rates of the SA508 original tubesheet and Alloy 690 clad material were measured in acidic and caustic simulated environments. Denting has been a precursor of stress corrosion cracking in nuclear steam generator tubing, although it may be mitigated by a design and material modification of the tube support structures and secondary water chemistry control. Corrosion resistant Alloy 690 tubing is not an exception because denting at the TTS is due to corrosion of the tubesheet material. In this paper, a new technology was suggested to prevent denting at the TTS by cladding the secondary side surface of the tubesheet with a corrosion resistant material. It was verified that the corrosion rates of a tubesheet with an Alloy 690 clad layer drastically decreased in both acidic and alkaline environments, even inside the magnetite sludge pile. Because the cladding processes of Alloy 690 have already been applied to the primary side surface of a

  15. China - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Deshun; Zhao Xiusheng; Zheng Jiantao

    2000-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants are the major source of electricity in China, accounting in 1998 for 73% of total installed capacity. However coal-fired plants create serious air pollution problems, and their fuel transport requirements place a heavy burden on the transportation system. Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are therefore a potentially attractive option for China, particularly in the coastal regions, which are both more economically developed and far from the main coal mines in northern and western China. Currently, China has no capability to build large-scale nuclear power plants. Nor would nuclear power plants in China be financially competitive with coal-fired plants under fair market conditions. China does have three NPPs currently in operation, built partly with French and British expertise and assistance, and eight more under construction. These have all benefited from a number of favourable government policies - i.e. exemptions from taxes on imported equipment and from value-added taxes, and an electricity purchase agreement at an artificially high price

  16. Urban-Dome GHG Monitoring: Challenges and Perspectives from the INFLUX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, J.; Shepson, P. B.; Davis, K. J.; Sweeney, C.; Gurney, K. R.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Razlivanov, I.; Zhou, Y.; Song, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Karion, A.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Callahan, W.; Novakovskaia, E.; Crosson, E.; Rella, C.; Possolo, A.

    2012-04-01

    Quantification of carbon dynamics in urban areas using advanced and diverse observing systems enables the development of measurable, reportable, and verifiable (MRV) mitigation strategies as suggested in the Bali Action Plan, agreed upon at the 13th Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC (COP 13, 2007). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), supports the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX). INFLUX is focused on demonstrating the utility of dense, surface-based observing networks coupled with aircraft-based measurements, advanced atmospheric boundary layer observation and modeling to determine GHG emission source location and strength in urban areas. The ability to correctly model transport and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), responsible for carrying GHGs from their source to the point of measurement, is essential. The observing system design, using multiple instruments and observing methods, is intended to provide multi-scale measurements as a basis for mimicking the complex and evolving dynamics of a city. To better understand such a dynamic system, and incorporate this into models, reliable representations of horizontal and vertical transport, as well as ABL height, GHG mixing ratio measurements are planned for 11 tower locations, 2 are currently in operation with the remaining 9 planned for operational status in early to mid-2012. These observations are complimented by aircraft flights that measure mixing ratio as well as ABL parameters. Although measurements of ABL mixing heights and dynamics are presently only available intermittently, limiting efforts to evaluate ABL model performance and the uncertainties of GHG flux estimates, expansion of them is planned for the near future. INFLUX will significantly benefit from continuous, high resolution measurements of mixing depth, wind speed and direction, turbulence profiles in the boundary layer, as well as measurements of surface energy balance, momentum flux, and short and

  17. GHG emissions due to deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croezen, H.; Van Valkengoed, M.

    2009-05-01

    An assessment was made for the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests in Malaysia and Indonesia related to Dutch economic activities. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated in relation to (1) the emissions related to vegetation removal sec; and (2) the emissions related to removal and more long term effects related to assimilation of CO2 in forest regrowth and changes in organic material in soils. Emissions related to vegetation removal and aggregated emissions for both vegetation removal and long term effects are reported separately. Soil organic carbon stock changes are considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emissions. Changes in carbon stocks and N2O emissions and actually also changes in vegetation all are events that occur gradually, rather than immediately. Only removal of existing vegetation and possible burning of this vegetation and associated emissions related to both activities are immediate by nature. Carbon stocks and N2O emissions change to a new level within several decades after deforestation or forest degradation. Removed vegetation can grow back or be replaced eventually by other vegetation, thereby changing the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation or forest degradation. Vegetation extracted for commercial purposes such as timber or pulp will also take years or decades to become waste and be converted into CO2. In IPCC and LCA's all these emissions are taken into account - or at least all emissions occurring within a period of 20 years, as required by IPCC. Soil organic carbon stock changes are also considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emmissions.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of GHG emissions from biofuels in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report identified key factors influencing the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ethanol and biodiesel production pathways in Canada. The report was prepared for use by policy makers in order to facilitate decision making that positively impacts the lifecycle GHG performance of renewable fuels. Four ethanol production pathways were considered: (1) ethanol production from corn; (2) ethanol production from wheat in conventional starch ethanol facilities; (3) ethanol produced from wheat straw using lignocellulosic technology; and (4) ethanol from sugar cane imported into Canada. For the pathway analysis, ethanols were blended at low levels with sulphur gasoline or used as E85 with low levels of gasoline. All ethanol scenarios were modelled for light duty vehicles. Results of the study demonstrated that all 4 pathways showed significant reductions in GHG emissions when compared to low sulphur gasoline. Differences in vehicle operation emissions between gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline were related to a combination of the difference in the carbon content per unit of energy and the energy efficiency improvement. The study examined land use changes and feedstock production as well as all other lifecycle processes for diesel, canola, soy, palm, tallow, tallow grease, and yellow grease. A variety of transportation distances were considered. It was concluded that the alternative uses of co-products such as combustion to provide thermal energy resulted in improved GHG results. 17 refs., 117 tabs., 13 figs

  19. Pathways to Mexico’s climate change mitigation targets: A multi-model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veysey, Jason; Octaviano, Claudia; Calvin, Katherine; Martinez, Sara Herreras; Kitous, Alban; McFarland, James; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2016-01-01

    Mexico’s climate policy sets ambitious national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets—30% versus a business-as-usual baseline by 2020, 50% versus 2000 by 2050. However, these goals are at odds with recent energy and emission trends in the country. Both energy use and GHG emissions in Mexico have grown substantially over the last two decades. We investigate how Mexico might reverse current trends and reach its mitigation targets by exploring results from energy system and economic models involved in the CLIMACAP-LAMP project. To meet Mexico’s emission reduction targets, all modeling groups agree that decarbonization of electricity is needed, along with changes in the transport sector, either to more efficient vehicles or a combination of more efficient vehicles and lower carbon fuels. These measures reduce GHG emissions as well as emissions of other air pollutants. The models find different energy supply pathways, with some solutions based on renewable energy and others relying on biomass or fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage. The economy-wide costs of deep mitigation could range from 2% to 4% of GDP in 2030, and from 7% to 15% of GDP in 2050. Our results suggest that Mexico has some flexibility in designing deep mitigation strategies, and that technological options could allow Mexico to achieve its emission reduction targets, albeit at a cost to the country. - Highlights: • We explore paths to deep mitigation for Mexico (50% cut in GHG emissions by 2050). • We present results from six models and compare them with Mexican climate policy. • We find a range of potential paths and costs, implying options for policy makers. • An important commonality between the paths is a decarbonized electricity supply. • Estimated mitigation costs vary but are higher than official published estimates.

  20. Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-12-07

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ≥ 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated

  1. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun

    2011-01-01

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  2. GHG policies and the role of innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, Georg

    1999-01-01

    The recent debate about the use of economic instruments aiming at achieving the GHG goals led to a number of important insights and conclusions. However, the implementation of these instruments is still rather weak. One reason is that the proposed GHG solutions (particularly CO 2 -taxes) are faced with some ambiguities and shortcomings, which require further analysis and discussion. Another reason is that any democratic government has problems to solve problems being identified through scientific analyses but not through daily experience. Any progress in implementing GHG policies requires to convince the larger public about the necessity of an active GHG policy and the unavoidability of costs associated to this policy. In this dilemma situation the change to implement GHG strategies can be improved by a sophisticated combination of voluntary agreements and monetary as well as non-monetary incentives to environmental innovations. According to the game theoretical view, voluntary agreements can't perform better than CO 2 -taxes that will be implemented in case of non-compliance. The paper argues that voluntary agreements can improve the credibility of governmental threats to implement hard measures at a later time. Still voluntary agreement s alone are negligible with respect to GHG emission reductions beyond business as usual. But they may be useful for focusing private business plans on ecological innovations. As far as such innovations become feasible they contribute to the low cost GHG reduction potential as well as the public support for a more active GHG policy. (Author)

  3. Trade study of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies to support Hanford single-shell waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System to safely manage and dispose of low-level, high-level, and transuranic wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Eastern Washington. This report supports the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone No. M-45-08-T01 and addresses additional issues regarding single-shell tank leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies and provide an indication of the scope of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation activities necessary to support the Tank Waste Remedial System Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project

  4. [Preliminary assessment of the potential of biochar technology in mitigating the greenhouse effect in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The production of biochar by pyrolysis and its application to soil can sequester the CO2 which was absorbed by plants from atmosphere into soil, in addition it can also bring multiple benefits for agriculture production. On the basis of the available potential survey of the biomass residues from agriculture and forestry section, life cycle assessment was employed to quantify the potential of biochar technology in mitigation of greenhouse gases in our country. The results showed: In China, the amount of available biomass resource was 6.04 x 10(8) t every year and its net greenhouse effect potential was 5.32 x 10(8) t CO(2e) (CO(2e): CO2 equivalent), which was equivalent to 0.88 t CO(2e) for every ton biomass. The greatest of contributor to the total potential was plant carbon sequestration in soil as the form of biochar which accounts for 73.94%, followed by production of renewable energy and its percentage was 23.85%. In summary, production of biochar from agriculture and forestry biomass residues had a significant potential for our country to struggle with the pressure of greenhouse gas emission.

  5. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  6. Mitigating climate change: Decomposing the relative roles of energy conservation, technological change, and structural shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Zakerinia, Saleh; Yeh, Sonia; Teter, Jacob; Morrison, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO 2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals over 2005–2100 for various climate policy scenarios. This study contributes to the decomposition literature in three ways. First, it disaggregates drivers of energy demand into technological progress and demand for energy services, represented in terms of useful energy, allowing us to estimate their contributions independently — an improvement over other economy-wide decomposition studies. Secondly, this approach reduces the ambiguity present in many previous measures of structural change. We delineate structural shifts into two separate measures: changes in fuel mix within a given resource or service pathway; and changes in mix among distinct energy resources or end-use services. Finally, this study applies decomposition methods to energy and emission trajectories from two mutually informing perspectives: (i) primary energy resources — crude oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and renewables; and (ii) end-uses of energy services — residential and commercial buildings, industry, and transportation. Our results show that technological improvements and energy conservation are important in meeting climate goals in the first half of the coming century; and that nuclear and renewable energy and CCS technology are crucial in meeting more stringent goals in the second half of the century. We examine the relative roles of the drivers in reducing CO 2 emissions separately for developed and developing regions. Although the majority of energy and emission growth – and by extension the greatest opportunities for mitigation – will occur in developing countries, the decomposition shows that the relative roles of the five drivers are broadly consistent between these two regions. - Highlights: • We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals • We analyze differences

  7. Integrating uncertainties for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; McCollum, David; Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Riahi, Keywan

    2013-04-01

    The target of keeping global average temperature increase to below 2°C has emerged in the international climate debate more than a decade ago. In response, the scientific community has tried to estimate the costs of reaching such a target through modelling and scenario analysis. Producing such estimates remains a challenge, particularly because of relatively well-known, but ill-quantified uncertainties, and owing to limited integration of scientific knowledge across disciplines. The integrated assessment community, on one side, has extensively assessed the influence of technological and socio-economic uncertainties on low-carbon scenarios and associated costs. The climate modelling community, on the other side, has worked on achieving an increasingly better understanding of the geophysical response of the Earth system to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). This geophysical response remains a key uncertainty for the cost of mitigation scenarios but has only been integrated with assessments of other uncertainties in a rudimentary manner, i.e., for equilibrium conditions. To bridge this gap between the two research communities, we generate distributions of the costs associated with limiting transient global temperature increase to below specific temperature limits, taking into account uncertainties in multiple dimensions: geophysical, technological, social and political. In other words, uncertainties resulting from our incomplete knowledge about how the climate system precisely reacts to GHG emissions (geophysical uncertainties), about how society will develop (social uncertainties and choices), which technologies will be available (technological uncertainty and choices), when we choose to start acting globally on climate change (political choices), and how much money we are or are not willing to spend to achieve climate change mitigation. We find that political choices that delay mitigation have the largest effect on the cost-risk distribution, followed by

  8. Uncertainty of forest carbon stock changes. Implications to the total uncertainty of GHG inventory of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monni, S.; Savolainen, I.; Peltoniemi, M.; Lehtonen, A.; Makipaa, R.; Palosuo, T.

    2007-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis facilitates identification of the most important categories affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory uncertainty and helps in prioritisation of the efforts needed for development of the inventory. This paper presents an uncertainty analysis of GHG emissions of all Kyoto sectors and gases for Finland consolidated with estimates of emissions/removals from LULUCF categories. In Finland, net GHG emissions in 2003 were around 69 Tg (±15 Tg) CO2 equivalents. The uncertainties in forest carbon sink estimates in 2003 were larger than in most other emission categories, but of the same order of magnitude as in carbon stock change estimates in other land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) categories, and in N2O emissions from agricultural soils. Uncertainties in sink estimates of 1990 were lower, due to better availability of data. Results of this study indicate that inclusion of the forest carbon sink to GHG inventories reported to the UNFCCC increases uncertainties in net emissions notably. However, the decrease in precision is accompanied by an increase in the accuracy of the overall net GHG emissions due to improved completeness of the inventory. The results of this study can be utilised when planning future GHG mitigation protocols and emission trading schemes and when analysing environmental benefits of climate conventions

  9. Assessment of GHG emissions of biomethane from energy cereal crops in Umbria, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions of biomethane from energy crops cultivated in a central Italian farm were investigated. • Electricity consumption of the biogas plant was monitored. • Current scenario does not allow to achieve a GHG saving according to Renewable Energy Directive. • GHG emissions could be reduced by covering the storage tanks of digestate and installing a CHP plant. - Abstract: Biomethane from energy crops is a renewable energy carrier and therefore it potentially contributes to climate change mitigation. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from cultivation and processing must be considered. Among those, the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers, the resulting nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, the methane emissions from digestate storage and the energy consumption of the biogas plant are crucial factors. In the present paper an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of GHG emissions from biomethane production is carried out, taking into account own measurements and experience data from a modern biogas plant located in Umbria, Italy. The study is also focused on the electricity consumption of the biogas plant, assessing the specific absorption power of each machinery. The analysis is based on the methodology defined by the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). The main result is that the biomethane chain exceeds the minimum value of GHG saving (35%) mainly due to the open storage of digestate. However by varying the system, using heat and electricity from a biogas CHP plant and covering digestate storage tank, a reduction of 68.9% could be obtained

  10. Life-cycle analysis on energy consumption and GHG emission intensities of alternative vehicle fuels in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Yan, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed the life cycle energy intensity and GHG emissions of about 40 pathways of alternative vehicle fuels in China. ► Coal-based liquid fuel has higher life cycle energy intensities and first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower intensity. ► By 2020 electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity and second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero intensities. -- Abstract: Fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of major alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) in China are calculated and compared with conventional fuels by means of full life-cycle analysis. Currently most of the AVFs have not relatively obvious GHG emission reduction when compared to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF has higher intensities in terms of both the FEC and GHG emissions; (2) electricity from the average Chinese grid has the GHG emission intensity similar to that of gasoline pathway although relatively lower FEC intensity; and (3) first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower GHG emission intensity and substantially lower FEC intensity. It is forecasted that by 2020 when still comparing to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF will still have FEC and GHG emission intensities that are 1.5–1.8 and 1.8–2.5 time those of gasoline pathway, and the application of carbon capture and storage technology can reduce the GHG emission intensity of coal-based AVF; (2) electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity; and (3) second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero FEC and GHG intensities.

  11. Scenarios of technology adoption towards low-carbon cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohareb, Eugene A.; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Technological change has often been presented as a readily accepted means by which long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions can be achieved. Cities are the future centers of economic growth, with the global population becoming predominantly urban; hence, increases or reductions of GHG emissions are tied to their energy strategies. This research examines the likelihood of a developed world city (the Greater Toronto Area) achieving an 80% reduction in GHG emissions through policy-enabled technological change. Emissions are examined from 3 major sources: light duty passenger vehicles, residential buildings and commercial/institutional buildings. Logistic diffusion curves are applied for the adoption of alternative vehicle technologies, building retrofits and high performance new building construction. This research devises high, low and business-as-usual estimates of future technological adoption and finds that even aggressive scenarios are not sufficient to achieve an 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. This further highlights the challenges faced in maintaining a relatively stable climate. Urban policy makers must consider that the longer the lag before this transition occurs, the greater the share of GHG emissions mitigation that must addressed through behavioural change in order to meet the 2050 target, which likely poses greater political challenges. - Highlights: • Explores policy options in a city targeting an 80% GHG emission reduction target by 2050. • Aggressive building code changes will have minimal impact on GHG mitigation. • Support of low-carbon electricity for the majority of generation necessary by 2050. • Internal combustion engine use must be mostly eliminated from the vehicle stock. • Policies supporting elimination of physical exchange space should be promoted

  12. Accelerating the development and diffusion of new energy technologies: Beyond the 'valley of death'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyant, John P.

    2011-01-01

    There are at least three motivations for government intervention in GHG mitigation: (1) inducing the private sector to reduce GHG emissions directly by setting a price on emissions, (2) increasing the amount of innovative activity in GHG mitigation technology development, and (3) educating the public regarding GHG-reducing investment opportunities, allowing consumers to make better private decisions. This paper discusses the pros and cons of policy instruments that might be used to respond to these motivations and makes recommendations for an appropriate mix of policy instruments over time given both economic and policital/instituional considerations. - Research Highlights: → Increases in pre-competitive energy R and D and energy efficiency technology diffusion policies in the US are highly desirable. → The cost of well designed programs in these areas can be low and the pay off very high. → Such policies make sense even if the GHG externality is internalized through a GHG tax or equivalent, but are even more desirable if they are not.

  13. Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droesler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

  14. Recent advances in measurement and dietary mitigation of enteric methane emissions in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emission, which is mainly produced during normal fermentation of feeds by the rumen microorganisms, represents a major contributor to the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Several enteric CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored recently. A number of new techniques have also been developed and existing techniques have been improved in order to evaluate CH4 mitigation technologies and prepare an inventory of GHG emissions precisely. The aim of this review is to discuss different CH4 measuring and mitigation technologies, which have been recently developed. Respiration chamber technique is still considered as a gold standard technique due to its greater precision and reproducibility in CH4 measurements. With the adoption of recent recommendations for improving the technique, the SF6 method can be used with a high level of precision similar to the chamber technique. Short-term measurement techniques of CH4 measurements generally invite considerable within- and between animal variations. Among the short-term measuring techniques, Greenfeed and methane hood systems are likely more suitable for evaluation of CH4 mitigation studies, if measurements could be obtained at different times of the day relative to the diurnal cycle of the CH4 production. Carbon dioxide and CH4 ratio, sniffer and other short-term breath analysis techniques are more suitable for on farm screening of large number of animals to generate the data of low CH4 producing animals for genetic selection purposes. Different indirect measuring techniques are also investigated in recent years. Several new dietary CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored, but only a few of them are practical and cost-effective. Future research should be directed towards both the medium- and long-term mitigation strategies, which could be utilized on farms to accomplish substantial reductions of CH4 emissions and to profitably reduce carbon footprint of livestock production systems. This

  15. Recent Advances in Measurement and Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Emissions in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K

    2016-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emission, which is mainly produced during normal fermentation of feeds by the rumen microorganisms, represents a major contributor to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several enteric CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored recently. A number of new techniques have also been developed and existing techniques have been improved in order to evaluate CH4 mitigation technologies and prepare an inventory of GHG emissions precisely. The aim of this review is to discuss different CH4 measuring and mitigation technologies, which have been recently developed. Respiration chamber technique is still considered as a gold standard technique due to its greater precision and reproducibility in CH4 measurements. With the adoption of recent recommendations for improving the technique, the SF6 method can be used with a high level of precision similar to the chamber technique. Short-term measurement techniques of CH4 measurements generally invite considerable within- and between-animal variations. Among the short-term measuring techniques, Greenfeed and methane hood systems are likely more suitable for evaluation of CH4 mitigation studies, if measurements could be obtained at different times of the day relative to the diurnal cycle of the CH4 production. Carbon dioxide and CH4 ratio, sniffer, and other short-term breath analysis techniques are more suitable for on farm screening of large number of animals to generate the data of low CH4-producing animals for genetic selection purposes. Different indirect measuring techniques are also investigated in recent years. Several new dietary CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored, but only a few of them are practical and cost-effective. Future research should be directed toward both the medium- and long-term mitigation strategies, which could be utilized on farms to accomplish substantial reductions of CH4 emissions and to profitably reduce carbon footprint of livestock production systems. This review presents

  16. Policy and tecnological constraints to implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation options in agriculture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent assessment of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has demonstrated significant potential for mitigation, but suggests that the full mitigation will not be realized due to significant barriers to implementation. In this paper, we...

  17. Incorporation of electricity GHG emissions intensity variability into building environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubi, Eduard; Doluweera, Ganesh; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Current building assessment does not account for variability in the electric grid. • A new method incorporates hourly grid variability into building assessment. • The method is complementary with peak-shaving policies. • The assessment method can affect building design decisions. - Abstract: Current building energy and GHG emissions assessments do not account for the variable performance of the electric grid. Incorporating hourly grid variability into building assessment methods can help to better prioritize energy efficiency measures that result in the largest environmental benefits. This article proposes a method to incorporate GHG emissions intensity changes due to grid variability into building environmental assessment. The proposed method encourages building systems that reduce electricity use during peak periods while accounting for differences in grid GHG emissions intensity (i.e., peak shaving is more strongly encouraged in grids that have GHG intense peak generation). A set of energy saving building technologies are evaluated in a set of building variants (office, residential) and grid types (hydro/nuclear dominated, coal/gas dominated) to demonstrate the proposed method. Differences between total GHG emissions calculated with the new method compared with the standard (which assumes a constant GHG emissions intensity throughout the year) are in the 5–15% range when the contribution of electricity to total GHG emissions is more significant. The influence of the method on the assessment of the relative performance of some energy efficiency measures is much higher. For example, the estimated GHG emissions savings with heat pumps and photovoltaics can change by −40% and +20%, respectively, using the new assessment method instead of the standard. These differences in GHG emissions estimates can influence building design decisions. The new method could be implemented easily, and would lead to better decision making and more accurate

  18. Public Perception of Climate Change and Mitigation Technologies; Percepcion Publica del Cambio Climatico y las Tecnologias de Mitigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R; Sala, R; Oltra, C

    2007-09-27

    Public perception and understanding of climate change and mitigation policies may have a significant influence on the development of political programs as well as on individual behavioral intentions to address climate change. The study of public attitudes and beliefs about climate change and energy policy may be useful in the design of suitable communication strategies and in the efficient implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Based on a survey to the Spanish population, we analyze different issues such as the level of concern towards climate change, the existing knowledge about the contribution of different energy technologies to global warming, the attitudes toward energy technologies and the beliefs about potential adaptation strategies. Comparisons with other countries based on similar public opinion surveys are established to obtain a broader view of policy preferences and attitudes regarding climate change. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valin, H; Havlík, P; Mosnier, A; Obersteiner, M; Herrero, M; Schmid, E

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits. (letter)

  20. Results of mitigation studies from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    At the international level, Pakistan's contractual obligations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) include the preparation of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions abatement program, a national communication on climate change, and the formulation of a least-cost GHG abatement action plan and strategy. Pakistan ratified the UNFCCC in June 1994. The ratification of the Convention has lead to the undertaking of activities such as the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy (ALGAS) Project, which aims to build capacity in Asian countries in the preparation of GHG inventories and mitigation programs. (au)

  1. Management of GHG, a successful business approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnier, D.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of Alcan, an aluminium producer with operations in Quebec and in several other markets and countries. Alcan's strategy regarding climate change involves both short term and long term objectives and a public commitment to reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Alcan has implemented a company-wide GHG management program called TARGET, which involves measuring, monitoring and better management of emissions inventory. The TARGET program includes: measurement of data, quality assurance and reports; communications and public relations; improved processes; risk management systems; development of emissions trading systems; and support of functional groups. Alcan has also implemented voluntary GHG emissions reductions measures, encourages broad participation of GHG emissions reduction initiatives, and promotes economic growth and long term durability. figs

  2. Electricity trade and GHG emissions: Assessment of Quebec's hydropower in the Northeastern American market (2006-2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Amor, Mourad; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier; Gaudreault, Caroline; Samson, Rejean

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electricity sector reforms open up electricity markets and increase trades. This has environmental consequences as exports and imports either increase or decrease local production and consequently greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper's objective is to illustrate the importance of electricity trade's impact on GHG emissions by providing an estimate of the net GHG emissions resulting from these trades. To achieve this objective, Quebec hourly electricity exchanges with adjacent jurisdictions were examined over the 2006-2008 period. In order to associate a specific GHG emission quantity to electricity trades, hourly marginal electricity production technologies were identified and validated using the Ontario hourly output per power plant and information released in the Quebec adjacent system operator reports. It is estimated that over three years, imports into Quebec were responsible for 7.7 Mt of GHG, while Quebec hydropower exports avoided 28.3 Mt of GHG emissions. Hence, the net result is 20.6 Mt of avoided emissions over 2006-2008, or about 7 Mt per year, which corresponds to more than 8% of the Quebec yearly GHG emissions. When GHG emissions from all life cycle stages (resource extraction to end-of-life) are accounted for, the net avoided GHG emissions increase by 35%, to 27.9 Mt. - Research highlights: → Environmental benefits of hydropower exports are considerable. → Detailed GHG assessment of such electricity trade is missing from the literature. → Net GHG emissions estimate resulting from such trade is provided. → GHG gains are significant in the Northeast American electricity market due to such electricity trade.

  3. The Moving Target of Climate Mitigation: Examples from the Energy Sector in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Forrest, K.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2016-12-01

    In response to the concerns of climate change-induced impacts on human health, environmental integrity, and the secure operation of resource supply infrastructures, strategies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of major societal sectors have been in development. In the energy sector, these strategies are based in low carbon primary energy deployment, increased energy efficiency, and implementing complementary technologies for operational resilience. While these strategies are aimed at climate mitigation, a degree of climate change-induced impacts will occur by the time of their deployment, and many of these impacts can compromise the effectiveness of these climate mitigation strategies. In order to develop climate mitigation strategies that will achieve their GHG reduction and other goals, the impact that climate change-induced conditions can have on different components of climate mitigation strategies must be understood. This presentation will highlight three examples of how climate change-induced conditions affect components of climate mitigation strategies in California: through impacts on 1) hydropower generation, 2) renewable potential for geothermal and solar thermal resources to form part of the renewable resource portfolio, and 3) the magnitudes and shapes of the electric load demand that must be met sustainably. These studies are part of a larger, overarching project to understand how climate change impacts the energy system and how to develop a sustainable energy infrastructure that is resilient against these impacts.

  4. Comprehensive development of industrial symbiosis for the response of greenhouse gases emission mitigation: Challenges and opportunities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Adams, Michelle; Cote, Raymond P.; Geng, Yong; Chen, Qinghua; Liu, Weili; Sun, Lu; Yu, Xiaoman

    2017-01-01

    Although not yet a global consensus, there is widespread agreement that climate change is the result of anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In order to respond to this issue, society has applied such strategies as clean energy development, improving industrial resource efficiency etc. Despite this, GHG emissions are still pursuing an upward trend. As the largest global GHG emitter, China faces a considerable challenge in responding to its agreed target of 40–45% GHG emission mitigation per unit gross domestic production (GDP) by 2020 as compared to 2005 levels. How to practically achieve this is still largely undecided. Comprehensive development of industrial symbiosis around nationwide is considered part of the solution. However, few researchers have studied how to actually implement a comprehensive development of industrial symbiosis for the purpose of GHG emission mitigation. This work intends to address this gap through highlighting the opportunities to develop such an approach for particular application to GHG emissions reduction in China. In addition, this study will also address the challenges ahead associated with the implementation of such a strategy, and outlines the where future research could be focused. Policy implications like establishing industrial symbiosis indicators associated with GHG emission mitigation are proposed. - Highlights: • Urgent issue of GHG mitigation and background of industrial symbiosis are introduced. • The challenges like lack of indicator, investigating methodologies and regional disparity are analyzed. • Opportunities for GHG mitigation through comprehensive development of industrial symbiosis are detailed. • Policy implications for responding GHG mitigation through industrial symbiosis are proposed.

  5. Climate change mitigation in developing countries through interregional collaboration by local governments: Japanese citizens' preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidenori; Kato, Takaaki

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the motivation of domestic and international interregional collaboration on climate change mitigation through carbon crediting by Japanese local governments, using a social survey. The study finds balanced collaboration with domestic partner regions and developing countries is preferred in the case of collaboration, given that the unit cost of collaboration is assumed lower than that of no collaboration. Appreciation of benefits such as technology transfer and local environmental improvement in developing countries increases the preference of collaboration with developing countries. Two factors hinder Japanese local governments' collaboration with developing countries from the perspective of citizens: a sense of environmental responsibility to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the city and a preference for domestic orientation even if the collaboration with developing countries is less costly and has benefits of technology transfer and local environmental improvement. The preference for a lower total cost of GHG emissions reductions is confirmed except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. The study also finds that provision of information on mitigation projects and co-benefits would increase the preference for interregional collaboration with developing countries depending on the types of collaborative project, except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. - Highlights: → We surveyed views of Japanese citizens on interregional/international cooperation of their cities for GHG reduction. → Sense of environmental responsibility is negatively correlated with the needs for cooperation. → Information on co-benefits of collaboration would strengthen preference for cooperation.

  6. Microalgae for third generation biofuel production, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and wastewater treatment: Present and future perspectives – A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Chien-Yen; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2014-01-01

    The extensive use of fossil fuels is increasingly recognized as unsustainable as a consequence of depletion of supplies and the contribution of these fuels to climate change by GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions into the atmosphere. Microalgae indicate alternative renewable sustainable energy sources as they have a high potential for producing large amounts of biomass which in turn can be used for production of different third-generation biofuels at large scale. Microalgae transform the solar energy into the carbon storage products, leads to lipid accumulation, including TAG (triacylglycerols), which then can be transformed into biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethanol. This paper reviews the selection, production and accumulation of target bioenergy carrier's strains and their advantages as well as the technological development for oil, biodiesel, ethanol, methanol, biogas production and GHG mitigation. The feedstock of promising algal strain exhibits the suitable biofuel production. The current progress of hybrid-technologies (biomass production, wastewater treatment, GHG mitigation) for production of prime-products as biofuels offer atmospheric pollution control such as the reduction of GHG (CO 2 fixation) coupling wastewater treatment with microalgae growth. The selection of efficient strain, microbial metabolism, cultivation systems, biomass production are key parameters of viable technology for microalgae-based biodiesel-production. - Highlights: • Microalgae are promising feedstock for biofuel production within lower farming area. • Production rate (L/ha) of oil from microalgae is much higher than other feedstock. • Lipid of Chlorella emersonii, Botryococcus braunii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, are high (>60% of dw biomass). • Remove pollutant from wastewater during feedstock production by selective strains. • Ecofriendly route to mitigate GHG (greenhouse gas) and water pollution during microalgae production

  7. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO 2 e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  8. Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan Thi; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, in order to enhance ethanol's cost competitiveness with gasoline, the Thai government has approved the exemption of excise tax imposed on ethanol, controlling the retail price of gasohol (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a ratio of 1:9) to be less than that of octane 95 gasoline, within a range not exceeding 1.5 baht a litre. The policy to promote ethanol for transport is being supported by its positive effects on energy security and climate change mitigation. An analysis of energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and GHG abatement cost was done to evaluate fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand. Positive energy balance of 22.4 MJ/L and net avoided GHG emission of 1.6 kg CO 2 eq./L found for cassava-based ethanol (CE) proved that it would be a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy saving and GHG reduction. With a GHG abatement cost of US$99 per tonne of CO 2 , CE is rather less cost effective than the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand in the short term. Opportunities for improvements are discussed to make CE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  9. Global climate targets and future consumption level: an evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef Peter; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of the strictest IPCC representative concentration pathway for key consumption categories (food, travel, shelter, goods, services). We use IPAT style identities to account for possible growth in global consumption levels and indicate the required change in GHG emission intensity for each category (i.e. GHG emission per calorie, person kilometer, square meter, kilogram, US dollar). The proposed concept provides guidance for product developers, consumers and policymakers. To reach the 2 °C climate target (2.1 tCO 2 -eq. per capita in 2050), the GHG emission intensity of consumption has to be reduced by a factor of 5 in 2050. The climate targets on consumption level allow discussion of the feasibility of this climate target at product and consumption level. In most consumption categories products in line with this climate target are available. For animal food and air travel, reaching the GHG intensity targets with product modifications alone will be challenging and therefore structural changes in consumption patterns might be needed. The concept opens up possibilities for further research on potential solutions on the consumption and product level to global climate mitigation. (letter)

  10. A report from the second US/Japan workshop on global change research: Environmental response technologies (mitigation and adaptation). United States-Japan Science and Technology Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgerton, S. [comp.] [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States). Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences; Mizuno, Tateki [comp.] [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, MITI (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The Second US - Japan Workshop on Global Change: Environmental Response Technologies for Global Change was hosted by the Program on Resources at the East-West Center, in Honolulu, Hawaii on February 1--3, 1993, on behalf of the United States Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). This workshop brought together over fifty leading scientists from the two countries to review existing technologies and to identify needed research on the development of new technologies for mitigation and adaptation of global change. The Workshop was organized around three areas of research: (1) capture, fixation/utilization, and disposal of CO{sub 2} (e.g. CO{sub 2}, separation and capture technologies, ocean and land disposal of CO{sub 2}; (2) energy production and conservation technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. combustion efficiency, non-carbon based energy technologies, energy conservation technologies); and (3) adaptation technologies and practices related to global climate change (e.g., adaptation responses of crops to climate change, adapting urban infrastructure for climate change). Priorities for joint research in each of these areas were discussed. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Beibei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wei, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: Zhangb@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bi, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%.

  12. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%

  13. State of the art of mitigation and relation mitigation/adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenstra, W.J.; Van Doorn, J.; Verheggen, B.; Sahan, E.; Boersma, A.R. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    This study has the main purpose to make useful information available for the programming of the Knowledge for Climate (KfC) program. The emphasis has been laid on a broad overview of mitigation options and relations, complemented with more detailed information on new or less known options and insights. The mitigation option biomass gets special attention in this study. The production of biomass has many (positive and negative) relations with other elements of the KfC program like space use and adaptation. Recently a global discussion on biomass usage for biofuels has started (food or fuel). Therefore a separate chapter will be dedicated to the sustainability aspects of biomass. An overview of technical mitigation measures with emphasis on the energy supply side is presented. This overview shows the large number of available and innovative options and the vast potential for reduction of the emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) of these mitigation measures. The effectiveness of many mitigation options is strongly dependent on local conditions and implementation issues. A number of innovative mitigation measures such as aquatic biomass and biomass in combination with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are described in more detail. Biomass for energy has many different forms and applications. It is one of the mitigation options with a high potential, but at the same time it can have negative environmental impacts and might compete with other forms of land use including food production. This makes bio-energy a promising but complex option, which makes careful evaluation necessary. Several examples of multifunctional land use show that by combining functions, synergy can be achieved. This could lead to a reduction of potentially negative impacts and thus easier implementation. Furthermore, novel technologies for reducing or offsetting climate change such as air capture and artificial cooling might have a high potential as mitigation option, but need to be examined before

  14. SLICEIT and TAHMO Partnerships: Students Local and International Collaboration for Climate and Environmental Monitoring, Technology Development, Education, Adaptation and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishlin, P. S.; Selker, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change understanding and impacts vary by community, yet the global nature of climate change requires international collaboration to address education, monitoring, adaptation and mitigation needs. We propose that effective climate change monitoring and education can be accomplished via student-led local and international community partnerships. By empowering students as community leaders in climate-environmental monitoring and education, as well as exploration of adaptation/mitigation needs, well-informed communities and young leadership are developed to support climate change science moving forward. Piloted 2013-2015, the SLICEIT1 program partnered with TAHMO2 to connect student leaders in North America, Europe and Africa. At the international level, schools in the U.S.A and Netherlands were partnered with schools in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda for science and cultural exchange. Each school was equipped with a climate or other environmental sensing system, real-time data publication and curricula for both formal and informal science, technology, engineering and math education and skill development. African counterparts in TAHMO's School-2-School program collect critically important data for enhanced on-the-ground monitoring of weather conditions in data-scarce regions of Africa. In Idaho, student designed, constructed and installed weather stations provide real time data for classroom and community use. Student-designed formal educational activities are disseminated to project partners, increasing hands-on technology education and peer-based learning. At the local level, schools are partnered with a local agency, research institute, nonprofit organization, industry and/or community partner that supplies a climate science expert mentor to SLICEIT program leaders and teachers. Mentor engagement is facilitated and secured by program components that directly benefit the mentor's organization and local community via climate/environment monitoring, student workforce

  15. Unintended possible consequences of fuel input taxes for individual investments in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and the resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz E. Klingelhöfer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is planning to introduce a carbon tax as a Pigouvian measure for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, one of the tax bases designed as a fuel input tax. In this form, it is supposed to incentivise users to reduce and/or substitute fossil fuels, leading to a reduction of CO2 emissions. Aim: This article examines how such a carbon tax regime may affect the individual willingness to invest in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies. Setting: Mathematical derivation, using methods of linear programming, duality theory and sensitivity analysis. Methods: By employing a two-step evaluation approach, it allows to identify the factors determining the maximum price an individual investor would pay for such an investment, given the conditions of imperfect markets. Results: This price ceiling depends on the (corrected net present values of the payments and on the interdependencies arising from changes in the optimal investment and production programmes. Although the well-established results of environmental economics usually can be confirmed for a single investment, increasing carbon taxes may entail sometimes contradictory and unexpected consequences for individual investments in greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and the resulting emissions. Under certain circumstances, they may discourage such investments and, when still undertaken, even lead to higher emissions. However, these results can be interpreted in an economically comprehensible manner. Conclusion: Under the usually given conditions of imperfect markets, the impact of a carbon tax regime on individual investment decisions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is not as straight forward as under the usually assumed, but unrealistically simplifying perfect market conditions. To avoid undesired and discouraging effects, policy makers cannot make solitary decisions, but have to take interdependencies on the addressee´s side into account. The individual investor

  16. Technology and demand forecasting for carbon capture and storage technology in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jungwoo; Lee, Chul-Yong; Kim, Hongbum

    2016-01-01

    Among the various alternatives available to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered to be a prospective technology that could both improve economic growth and meet GHG emission reduction targets. Despite the importance of CCS, however, studies of technology and demand forecasting for CCS are scarce. This study bridges this gap in the body of knowledge on this topic by forecasting CCS technology and demand based on an integrated model. For technology forecasting, a logistic model and patent network analysis are used to compare the competitiveness of CCS technology for selected countries. For demand forecasting, a competition diffusion model is adopted to consider competition among renewable energies and forecast demand. The results show that the number of patent applications for CCS technology will increase to 16,156 worldwide and to 4,790 in Korea by 2025. We also find that the United States has the most competitive CCS technology followed by Korea and France. Moreover, about 5 million tCO_2e of GHG will be reduced by 2040 if CCS technology is adopted in Korea after 2020. - Highlights: • Carbon capture and storage (CCS) can help mitigate climate change globally. • It can both improve economic growth and meet GHG emission reduction targets. • We forecast CCS technology and demand based on an integrated model. • The US has the most competitive CCS technology followed by Korea and France. • 5 million tCO_2e of GHG will be reduced by 2040 if CCS is adopted in Korea.

  17. The influence of urban form on GHG emissions in the U.S. household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungwon; Lee, Bumsoo

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of sustainable urban development in greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, this study examines the paths by which urban form influences an individual household's carbon dioxide emissions in the 125 largest urbanized areas in the U.S. Our multilevel SEM analyses show that doubling population-weighted density is associated with a reduction in CO 2 emissions from household travel and residential energy consumption by 48% and 35%, respectively. Centralized population and polycentric structures have only a moderate impact in our analyses. Given that household travel and residential energy use account for 42% of total U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, these findings highlight the importance of smart growth policies to build more compact and transit friendly cities as a crucial part of any strategic efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and to stabilize climate. - Highlights: • We examine how urban form influences household CO 2 emissions using a multilevel SEM. • Doubling population-weighted density is associated with a 48% reduction in CO 2 emissions from household travel. • Doubling population-weighted density is associated with a 35% reduction in CO 2 emissions from residential energy use. • Doubling per capita transit subsidy is associated with a 46% lower VMT and 18% reduction in transportation CO 2 emissions. • Smart growth policies should be a crucial part of any strategic efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize climate

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from Thailand’s transport sector: Trends and mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong; Sorapipatana, Chumnong

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth of population and economy during the past two decades has resulted in continuing growth of transport’s oil demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objectives of this study are to examine pattern and growth in energy demand as well as related GHG emissions from the transport sector and to analyze potential pathways of energy demand and GHG emissions reduction from this sector of the measures being set by the Thai Government. A set of econometric models has been developed to estimate the historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in the transport sector during 1989–2007 and to forecast future trends to 2030. Two mitigation option scenarios of fuel switching and energy efficiency options have been designed to analyze pathways of energy consumption and GHG emissions reduction potential in Thailand’s transport sector compared with the baseline business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, which assumed to do nothing influences the long-term trends of transport energy demand. It has been found that these two mitigation options can reduce the GHG emissions differently. The fuel-switching option could significantly reduce the amount of GHG emissions in a relatively short time frame, albeit it will be limited by its supply resources, whereas the energy efficiency option is more effective for GHG emissions mitigation in the long term. Therefore, both measures should be implemented simultaneously for both short and long term mitigation effects in order to more effectively achieve GHG emissions reduction target.

  19. GHG trading awaits early action credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The challenges facing the Canadian government in implementing a green house gas (GHG) emissions trading program were discussed. The government of Canada is proposing to establish a program offering credit for early action on GHG reduction. However, the program is proving to be difficult to design because Canada's national implementation strategy for climate change has not yet been defined. The program is intended to reveal how emitters can invest in GHG reduction now, and use them against future regulations limiting emissions. The intention is to design the program on the principle that any company which decreases GHG emissions below its 'business-as-usual' level will receive a credit which can later be sold to another source which wants to offset its emissions. Nevertheless, the government is looking for real reductions in the sense that it is trying to bend the 'business-as-usual' forecast down towards the Kyoto targets, and is trying to ensure that the system is a rigorous one before any credits are issued

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from Spanish motorway transport: Key aspects and mitigation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-López, Paula; Gasol, Carles M.; Oliver-Solà, Jordi; Huelin, Sagrario; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2013-01-01

    The current increasing importance of road transport in the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has led to the adoption of diverse policies for the mitigation of global warming. These policies focus in two directions, depending on whether they involve the reduction of emissions or the mitigation through carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration. In this paper, the Tier 3 methodology from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme and the Environment Agency (EMEP/EEA) was applied to determine the evolution of Spanish motorway GHG emissions in the period 2005–2010. According to the results, though the average daily traffic (ADT) is the major parameter, the average fleet age and vehicle size also affect the level of emissions. Data analysis also revealed a clear connection between the decrease in European trade volume during the financial crisis and the GHG release, despite its temporary character. Among the three improvement scenarios evaluated, reduced speed limit seems the most direct measure while the consequences of afforestation strongly depend on the traffic density of the stretch of the motorway considered. Finally, technological improvement requires a drastic change in the fleet to obtain substantial decrease. The combination of different policies would allow a more robust strategy with lower GHG emissions. - Highlights: • Three model stretches, representative of Spanish motorway conditions, were evaluated. • Three environmental improvement scenarios were proposed. • Speed limit seemed the easiest measure to implement in a near future. • Afforestation showed limited effectiveness per unit of land surface. • A drastic technological improvement is required to obtain significant reductions

  1. Whole farm quantification of GHG emissions within smallholder farms in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebauer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The IPCC has compiled the best available scientific methods into published guidelines for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission removals from the land-use sector. In order to evaluate existing GHG quantification tools to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions and removals in smallholder conditions, farm scale quantification was tested with farm data from Western Kenya. After conducting a cluster analysis to identify different farm typologies GHG quantification was exercised using the VCS SALM methodology complemented with IPCC livestock emission factors and the cool farm tool. The emission profiles of four farm clusters representing the baseline conditions in the year 2009 are compared with 2011 where farmers adopted sustainable land management practices (SALM). The results demonstrate the variation in both the magnitude of the estimated GHG emissions per ha between different smallholder farm typologies and the emissions estimated by applying two different accounting tools. The farm scale quantification further shows that the adoption of SALM has a significant impact on emission reduction and removals and the mitigation benefits range between 4 and 6.5 tCO 2  ha −1  yr −1 with significantly different mitigation benefits depending on typologies of the crop–livestock systems, their different agricultural practices, as well as adoption rates of improved practices. However, the inherent uncertainty related to the emission factors applied by accounting tools has substantial implications for reported agricultural emissions. With regard to uncertainty related to activity data, the assessment confirms the high variability within different farm types as well as between different parameters surveyed to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions within smallholder farms. (paper)

  2. Introducing renewable energy and industrial restructuring to reduce GHG emission: Application of a dynamic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy development is expanded and introduced into socioeconomic activities. • A dynamic optimization simulation model is developed based on input–output approach. • Regional economic, energy and environmental impacts are assessed dynamically. • Industrial and energy structure is adjusted optimally for GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Specifying the renewable energy development as new energy industries to be newly introduced into current socioeconomic activities, this study develops a dynamic simulation model with input–output approach to make comprehensive assessment of the impacts on economic development, energy consumption and GHG emission under distinct levels of GHG emission constraints involving targeted GHG emission reduction policies (ERPs) and industrial restructuring. The model is applied to Jilin City to conduct 16 terms of dynamic simulation work with GRP as objective function subject to mass, value and energy balances aided by the extended input–output table with renewable energy industries introduced. Simulation results indicate that achievement of GHG emission reduction target is contributed by renewable energy industries, ERPs and industrial restructuring collectively, which reshape the terminal energy consumption structure with a larger proportion of renewable energy. Wind power, hydropower and biomass combustion power industries account for more in the power generation structure implying better industrial prospects. Mining, chemical, petroleum processing, non-metal, metal and thermal power industries are major targets for industrial restructuring. This method is crucial for understanding the role of renewable energy development in GHG mitigation efforts and other energy-related planning settings, allowing to explore the optimal level for relationships among all socioeconomic activities and facilitate to simultaneous pursuit of economic development, energy utilization and environmental preservation

  3. Mitigation and Adaptation: Critical Perspectives toward Digital Technologies in Place-Conscious Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, David A.; Hougham, R. Justin

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the tension for educators between the proliferation of mobile, digital technologies, and the widely held belief that environmental learning is best nurtured through place-based approaches that emphasize direct experience. We begin by offering a general critique of technology in culture and education, emphasizing what is at…

  4. Analysis of low-carbon industrial symbiosis technology for carbon mitigation in a Chinese iron/steel industrial park: A case study with carbon flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hui; Dong, Liang; Li, Huiquan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Satoshi; Tang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 mitigation strategies in industrial parks are a significant component of the Chinese climate change mitigation policy, and industrial symbiosis can provide specific CO 2 mitigation opportunity. Technology is important to support symbiosis, but few studies in China have focused on this topic at the industrial park level. This research presented a case study in a national iron and steel industrial park in China. Focus was given onto carbon mitigation through industrial symbiosis technology using substance flow analysis (SFA). Three typical iron and steel industry technologies, including coke dry quenching (CDQ), combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and CO 2 capture by slag carbonization (CCSC) were evaluated with SFA. Technology assessment was further conducted in terms of carbon mitigation potential and unit reduction cost. Compared with the Business as usual (BAU) scenario, application with CDQ, CCPP, and CCSC reduced the net carbon emissions by 56.18, 134.43, and 222.89 kg CO 2 per ton crude steel inside the industrial parks, respectively, including both direct and indirect emissions. Economic assessment revealed that the unit costs for the three technologies were also high, thereby necessitating national financial support. Finally, relevant policy suggestions and future concerns were proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • A typical carbon mitigation case study on China iron/steel industrial park. • Using carbon SFA to investigate mitigation effects of industrial symbiosis technology. • CCPP greatly reduced the indirect carbon emission embodied in power purchase. • CCSC reduced the carbon emission by distributing fixed carbon into by-product. • Specific low carbon-tech promotion policies fit to China was discussed and proposed

  5. Linking climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management through biogas technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Bjarke Stoltze; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2016-01-01

    concept for anaerobic co-digestion of food industry residues, manure and beach-cast seaweed has been developed and tested in order to quantify the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and coastal eutrophication management in the Køge Bay catchment. The biogas plant, currently under...... and phosphorous loads to Køge Bay are estimated to be reduced by approx. 63tyr.-1 and 9tyr.-1, respectively, contributing to the achievement of more than 70% of the nutrient reduction target set for Køge Bay in the first WFD river basin management plan. This study shows that anaerobic co-digestion of the specific...... environment are integrated into the design and decision processes can support the development of this kind of holistic bioenergy solutions....

  6. Climate mitigation under an uncertain technology future: A TIAM-World analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labriet, Maryse; Kanudia, Amit; Loulou, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of long-term technology and climate uncertainties on the optimal evolution of the World energy system. Stochastic programming with the TIAM-World model is used for a parametric analysis of hedging strategies, varying the probabilities associated to each of two contrasted technology outlooks. The parametric analysis constitutes an original supplement to the computation of hedging strategies by identifying technologies that are robust under a broad range of probabilities of the two technology outlooks. Natural gas appears to be one of the most appealing robust options in an uncertain technological context, especially in China, given its relatively low emissions and the low capital cost of associated technologies. Natural gas and some other options are in fact considered as “super-hedging” actions, penetrating more in the hedging solution than in any of the deterministic scenarios. Nuclear power and CCS use are less robust: they depend much more on either the level of the climate target or the probabilities of the technology outlooks. The analysis also shows that technological uncertainty has a greater impact under milder climate targets than under more severe ones. Future research might consider a larger set of possible technology outlooks, as well as specific analyses focused on key characteristics of low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: ► The hedging strategy is not an average of deterministic strategies. ► The hedging offers a mix of abatement actions that cannot easily be found otherwise. ► Natural gas is an appealing choice in an uncertain context, especially in China. ► China reduces its emissions only when options in other countries are exhausted.

  7. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  8. Incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long range transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be an important focus area for state, local, and federal : agencies. The transportation sector is the second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in the U.S., and : Texas contributes the highest emissions am...

  9. Methodology for Examining Potential Technology Breakthroughs for Mitigating CO2 and Application to Centralized Solar Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggressive reductions in US greenhouse gas emissions will require radical changes in how society generates and uses energy. Technological breakthroughs will be necessary if we are to make this transition cost effectively. With limited resources, understanding the breakthrough pot...

  10. Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.; de Klein, C. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Models are widely used to simulate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). They help to identify knowledge gaps, estimate total emissions for inventories, develop mitigation options and policies, raise awareness and encourage adoption. These models vary in scale, scope and methodological approach...

  11. Greenhouse gas mitigation with scarce land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Prochnow, A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural lands have been identified to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions primarily by production of energy crops and substituting fossil energy resources and through carbon sequestration in soils. Increased fertilizer input resulting in increased yields may reduce the area needed for crop...

  12. A core framework and scenario for deep GHG reductions at the city scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, Michael; Chandler, Chelsea; Erickson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Trends in increasing urbanization, paired with a lack of ambitious action on larger scales, uniquely position cities to resume leadership roles in climate mitigation. While many cities have adopted ambitious long-term emission reduction goals, few have articulated how to reach them. This paper presents one of the first long-term scenarios of deep greenhouse gas abatement for a major U.S. city. Using a detailed, bottom-up scenario analysis, we investigate how Seattle might achieve its recently stated goal of carbon neutrality by the year 2050. The analysis demonstrates that a series of ambitious strategies could achieve per capita GHG reductions of 34% in 2020, and 91% in 2050 in Seattle's “core” emissions from the buildings, transportation, and waste sectors. We examine the pros and cons of options to get to, or beyond, net zero emissions in these sectors. We also discuss methodological innovations for community-scale emissions accounting frameworks, including a “core” emissions focus that excludes industrial activity and a consumption perspective that expands the emissions footprint and scope of policy solutions. As in Seattle, other communities may find the mitigation strategies and analytical approaches presented here are useful for crafting policies to achieve deep GHG-reduction goals. - Highlights: ► Cities can play a pivotal role in mitigating climate change. ► Strategies modeled achieve per-capita GHG reductions of 91% by 2050 in Seattle. ► We discuss methodological innovations in community-scale accounting frameworks. ► We weigh options for getting to, or beyond, zero GHG emissions. ► Other cities may adapt these measures and analytical approaches to curb emissions

  13. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  14. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO 2 e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO 2 e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO 2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard

  15. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  16. A Study on Portfolio of Domestic Policies and Measures for GHG emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    After the climate change negotiation reaches an agreement in COP7, the next main issue to be addressed is the way of involvement of developing countries in emission abatement commitments and the development of domestic policies and measures to achieve GHG emission reduction target. Many Annex I countries have developed and implemented policies and measures to achieve its quantified GHG emission reduction target. The purpose of this paper is to propose a portfolio of policies and measures, that is, which policies and measures Korea will have to take in preparing future commitment for GHG emission reduction as well as in strengthening mitigation of climate change. Various policies and measures can be used, such as regulations, economic instruments, and covenants, etc., but it is desirable to implement them in some portfolio, taking advantage of their characteristics. Among the possible policies and measures, this study found that economic instruments such as carbon tax and domestic emissions trading have attracted considerable interest recently due to their cost effectiveness. This study also found that, in practice, many developed countries have used these policy instruments in achieving their quantified GHG emission reduction target. In order to develop a portfolio of policies and measures, the comprehension of the features of each policy and measure and the synergetic reconciliation with other objectives than climate change is important. (author). 82 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Assessing GHG emissions, ecological footprint, and water linkage for different fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F; Nebra, Silvia A

    2010-12-15

    Currently, transport is highly dependent on fossil fuels and responsible for about 23% of world energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. Ethanol from sugar cane and corn emerges as an alternative for gasoline in order to mitigate GHG emissions. Additionally, deeper offshore drilling projects such as in the Brazilian Pre-Salt reservoirs and mining projects of nonconventional sources like Tar Sands in Canada could be a solution for supplying demand of fossil fuels in the short and midterm. Based on updated literature, this paper presents an assessment of GHG emissions for four different fuels: ethanol from sugar cane and from corn and gasoline from conventional crude oil and from tar sands. An Ecological Footprint analysis is also presented, which shows that ethanol from sugar cane has the lowest GHG emissions and requires the lowest biocapacity per unit of energy produced among these fuels. Finally, an analysis using the Embodied Water concept is made with the introduction of a new concept, the "CO(2)-Water", to illustrate the impacts of releasing carbon from underground to atmosphere and of the water needed to sequestrate it over the life cycle of the assessed fuels. Using this method resulted that gasoline from fossil fuels would indirectly "require" on average as much water as ethanol from sugar cane per unit of fuel energy produced.

  18. Using Vetiver grass technology for mitigating sediment loads in the Talakhaya Watershed areas in Rota, CNMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Golabi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Talakhaya watershed in Rota is identified as a Coral Reef Management Priority site for CNMI (Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands. In 2010 federal and jurisdictional partners developed a Conservation Action Plan (CAP for the Talakhaya Watershed. The goal of this initial Watershed Soil Loss Assessment therefore, was to assist in evaluating the re-vegetation objectives of ‘Mitigating Sediment Load’ in the Talakhaya watershed by making a thorough characterization of its main river systems. The objectives of this project were to reach those goals by measuring the hydrological parameters following the installation and the use of water meters, barometric level loggers, turbidity meters and rain gauges. The water flow as well as the turbidity level of each stream leading to the ocean from the Talakhaya Watershed was measured and sedimentation level was assessed accordingly. The results from the monitoring of the watershed conducted during the project timeline reported here show that all four rivers under study have statistically different stage-discharge curves. The river's relationship between time and turbidity also vary especially in the summer months of the first-year observations. Linear and convex polynomial relationships were sometimes observed in the different rainfall groupings for the four river systems, however relationships were often not significant. This-being-said, Quantile Regressions suggest that when data from all four river systems are combined for cases where there is some detectable rainfall, a maximum possible turbidity level can be defined. Keywords: Watershed Management, Vetiver grass system, Coral, Badlands, Micronesia, Rota, CNMI

  19. Challenge of mitigating bank frauds by judicious mix of technology: Experience of a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Lal Bhasin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the engines that drive the operations in the financial sector, money markets and growth of an economy. With the rapidly growing banking industry in India, frauds in banks are also increasing fast, and fraudsters have started using innovative methods. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 2013-14 among 345 bank employees to know their perception towards bank frauds, degree of their compliance level, and integration of technology to detect, control and prevent frauds. This study provides discussion of the attitudes, strategies, and the technology that bank specialists will need to combat frauds. Banks that can leverage advances in technology and analytics to improve fraud prevention will reduce their fraud losses. In 2015, the RBI introduced new mechanisms for banks to check loan frauds by taking pro-active steps by setting up a Central Fraud Registry, introduced the concept of Red Flagged Account, and Indian investigative agencies will soon start sharing their databases with banks.

  20. Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechezlepretre, A.; Glachant, M.; Hascic, I.; Johnstone, N.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the EPO/OECD World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) to provide a quantitative description of the geographic distribution of inventions in thirteen climate mitigation technologies since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. Statistics suggest that innovation has mostly been driven by energy prices until 1990. Since then, environmental policies, and climate policies more recently, have accelerated the pace of innovation. Innovation is highly concentrated in three countries - Japan, Germany and the USA - which account for 60% of total innovations. Surprisingly, the innovation performance of emerging economies is far from being negligible as China and South Korea together represent about 15% of total inventions. However, they export much less inventions than industrialized countries, suggesting their inventions have less value. More generally, international transfers mostly occur between developed countries (73% of exported inventions). Exports from developed countries to emerging economies are still limited (22%) but are growing rapidly, especially to China. (authors)

  1. Development of a laser multi-layer cladding technology for damage mitigation of fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Suh, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    A laser multi-layer cladding technology was developed to mitigate the fretting wear damages occurred at fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor. The detailed experimental results are as follows. 1) Analyses of fretting wear damages and fabrication process of fuel spacers 2) Development and analysis of spherical Al 6061 T-6 alloy powders for the laser cladding 3) Analysis of parameter effects on laser cladding process for clad bids, and optimization of laser cladding process 4) Analysis on the changes of cladding layers due to overlapping factor change 5) Microstructural observation and phase analysis 6) Characterization of materials properties (hardness and wear tests) 7) Manufacture of prototype fuel spacers 8) Development of a vision system and revision of its related softwares

  2. Energy and GHG abatement cost curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Rafael [BHP Billiton Base Metals (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Global warming due to various reasons but especially to emission of green house gases (GHGs) has become a cause for serious concern. This paper discusses the steps taken by BHP Billiton to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions using cost curves. According to forecasts, global warming is expected to impact Chile badly and the rise in temperature could be between 1 and more than 5 degrees Celsius. Mining in Chile consumes a lot of energy, particularly electricity. Total energy and electricity consumption in 2007 was 13 and 36 % respectively. BHP base metals developed a set of abatement cost curves for energy and GHG in Chile and these are shown in figures. The methodology for the curves consisted of consultant visits to each mine operation. The study also includes mass energy balance and feasibility maps. The paper concludes that it is important to evaluate the potential for reducing emissions and energy and their associated costs.

  3. What Drives the International Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies? Empirical Evidence from Patent Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechezleprete, A.; Glachant, M.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Using patent data from 66 countries for the period 1990-2003, we characterize the factors which promote or hinder the international diffusion of climate-friendly technologies on a global scale. Regression results show that technology-specific capabilities of the recipient countries are determinant factors. In contrast, the general level of education is less important. We also show that restrictions to international trade - e.g., high tariff rates - and to a lesser extent lax intellectual property regimes negatively influence the international diffusion of patented knowledge. A counter-intuitive result is that barriers to foreign direct investments can promote transfers. We discuss different possible interpretations. (authors)

  4. 1997 evaluation of tritium removal and mitigation technologies for Hanford Site wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K.; Duncan, J.B.; Flyckt, D.L.; Mohondro, P.C.; Sinton, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains results of a biennial assessment of tritium separation technology and tritium nitration techniques for control of tritium bearing wastewaters at the Hanford Site. Tritium in wastewaters at Hanford have resulted from plutonium production, fuel reprocessing, and waste handling operations since 1944. this assessment was conducted in response to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  5. Cost Comparative Analysis of Blast Mitigation Technologies with Regard to Explosive Remnants of War (ERW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    practical and using methods and technology such as multiple metal detector arrays to locate ferrous and nonferrous objects underneath the ground may be...quantities of Blastwrap and secure it to the inside of a metal cylinder such as old-style trashcans or empty 55-gallon drums. However, the benefit of the

  6. A novel technology for fouling mitigation and dose reduction in BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Varela, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In a boiling water reactor (BWR), a jet pump provides an internal circulation path for the core coolant flow and consists of four main sections: the nozzle section, inlet mixer section (throat barrel), flare and diffuser. A high velocity coolant flow moves through the nozzles and discharges into the inlet mixer, and over time, oxide particulates (cruds) build up on the inside 304 stainless steel (SS) surfaces of the nozzles and the inlet mixer forming a layer of crud fouling. Cruds are typically removed from the surfaces of BWR components during regularly scheduled shutdowns of the reactor that is highly costly. Thus, a cost-effective is being developed to mitigate the crud fouling and the accumulation of radioactive species by using a colloid-based process. A colloid-based process can be applied to components in service, and does not require extensive equipment and extreme processing parameters as compared to other deposition processes and is not limited by geometric constraints as is the CVD process. Several parameters, such as concentration of TiO 2 nanoparticle, deposition/post-annealing temperature, and hydrodynamic flow condition, etc., for developing the optimum TiO 2 coating process have been examined to identify the most critical condition that can be applicable at plants. Preliminary results showed that the post-annealing treatment of coating is essential for improving the adherence and coherence of colloidal TiO 2 nanoparticles to the substrate. In addition, the presence of oxide on the coating surface is detrimental to the coating durability and thus pre-existing oxide surfaces require to be cleaned before coating. (author)

  7. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Weiming; Lee, Grace W.M.; Wu Chihcheng

    2008-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced

  8. A dynamic modelling approach to evaluate GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2012-01-01

    The widened scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to consider not only water quality and cost, but also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change calls for new tools to evaluate operational strategies/treatment technologies. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been ...

  9. GHG-emissions for cars with different power trains over the whole life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The method of life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to cars with different power trains. As an example, the results for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are presented. They show possibilities and limits for the reduction of these emissions in the transportation sector by means of advanced technology. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  10. The Padanian LiMeS. Spatial Interpretation of Local GHG Emission Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Pezzagno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevant role of spatial planning in the enforcement of climate change mitigation, managing the development of new low-carbon infrastructures and increasing system-wide efficiencies across sectors, has been addressed at global level (IPCC, 2014 WGIII. In this context, local GHG inventories appear a relevant tool toward the definition of a coherent, inter-sectorial background for local planning, mitigation, and adaptation policies.Taking advantage of consistent GHG emissions data availability in the Lombard context, local maps of direct GHG emissions have been linked with geographic data, including municipal boundaries, population data, and land-use information, produced and organized within the research PRIN 2007 From metropolitan city to metropolitan corridor: the case of the Po Valley Corridor.The results of this mapping exercise have been evaluated on the background of consolidated knowledge about northern Italy urban patterns, including the Linear Metropolitan System – LiMeS – and preliminary observations about characteristics, potential, and limits of the tool are proposed.

  11. Improved oilfield GHG accounting using a global oilfield database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Brandt, A. R.; Masnadi, M.

    2016-12-01

    The definition of oil is shifting in considerable ways. Conventional oil resources are declining as oil sands, heavy oils, and others emerge. Technological advances mean that these unconventional hydrocarbons are now viable resources. Meanwhile, scientific evidence is mounting that climate change is occurring. The oil sector is responsible for 35% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but the climate impacts of these new unconventional oils are not well understood. As such, the Oil Climate Index (OCI) project has been an international effort to evaluate the total life-cycle environmental GHG emissions of different oil fields globally. Over the course of the first and second phases of the project, 30 and 75 global oil fields have been investigated, respectively. The 75 fields account for about 25% of global oil production. For the third phase of the project, it is aimed to expand the OCI to contain closing to 100% of global oil production; leading to the analysis of 8000 fields. To accomplish this, a robust database system is required to handle and manipulate the data. Therefore, the integration of the data into the computer science language SQL (Structured Query Language) was performed. The implementation of SQL allows users to process the data more efficiently than would be possible by using the previously established program (Microsoft Excel). Next, a graphic user interface (gui) was implemented, in the computer science language of C#, in order to make the data interactive; enabling people to update the database without prior knowledge of SQL being necessary.

  12. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production: towards an integrated life cycle sustainability assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.; Cederberg, C.; Eady, S.; Gollnow, S.; Kristensen, T.; Macleod, M.; Meul, M.; Nemecek, T.; Phong, L.T.; Thoma, G.; Werf, H.M.G.; Williams, A.G.; Zonderland-Thomassen, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG. They

  13. Energy technologies for climate change mitigation - What is appropriate for SA?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matekenya, W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available sector is the largest contributor of carbon dioxide (Figure 2). 2.1 CLEANER FOSSIL FUEL TECHNOLOGY Despite the environmental impacts of fossil fuel use, South Africa will continue depending on fossil fuel power utilisation. Coal in particular... Use of Energy Conference 2006 2.3 NUCLEAR Nuclear energy, hydroelectricity, plus “renewables” like solar and wind, emit no carbon.. Table 1. Energy production comparison Source Output 1 kg coal 3 kWh 1 kg oil 4 kWh 1 kg uranium 50 000 k...

  14. A socio-economic study along with impact assessment for laterite based technology demonstration for arsenic mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sourav; Roy, Anirban; Mukherjee, Raka; Mondal, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Sankha; Chatterjee, Somak; Mukherjee, Munmun; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; De, Sirshendu

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic contamination mitigation technologies have been adsorption-based, but the most widely-used and traditionally available adsorbents suffered inherent limitations, including cost infeasibility and problems associated with regeneration and disposal of the spent adsorbent. The present technology is based on indigenously developed activated laterite prepared from the naturally and abundantly available material, and can hence easily be scaled up for community usage and large scale implementation. The total arsenic removal capacity is 32.5mg/g, which is the highest among all naturally occurring arsenic adsorbents. A major issue in earlier adsorbents was that during regeneration, the adsorbed arsenic would be released back into the environment (leaching), and would eventually contaminate the groundwater again. But the adsorbent in this filter does not require regeneration during its five-year lifespan and does not leach upon disposal. An attempt is made to test and demonstrate the practical implementation of the technology - its effectiveness and viability in three community (primary schools - one in Malda and two in north 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India) and 20 household filters, catering to over 5000 people in different areas of West Bengal exposed to high arsenic contamination of groundwater (ranging from 0.05 to 0.5mg/l). The work also focuses on the social impact of the real life technological solution on the lives on the affected people in the worst hit arsenic affected communities, perhaps the greatest public health risk emergency of the decade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy technology roll-out for climate change mitigation: A multi-model study for Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Kober, Tom; Calderon, Silvia; Clarke, Leon; Daenzer, Katie; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Lucena, André F. P.; Octaviano, Claudia; Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we investigate opportunities for energy technology deployment under climate change mitigation efforts in Latin America. Through several carbon tax and CO2 abatement scenarios until 2050 we analyze what resources and technologies, notably for electricity generation, could be cost-optimal in the energy sector to significantly reduce CO2 emissions in the region. By way of sensitivity test we perform a cross-model comparison study and inspect whether robust conclusions can be drawn across results from different models as well as different types of models (general versus partial equilibrium). Given the abundance of biomass resources in Latin America, they play a large role in energy supply in all scenarios we inspect. This is especially true for stringent climate policy scenarios, for instance because the use of biomass in power plants in combination with CCS can yield negative CO2 emissions. We find that hydropower, which today contributes about 800 TWh to overall power production in Latin America, could be significantly expanded to meet the climate policies we investigate, typically by about 50%, but potentially by as much as 75%. According to all models, electricity generation increases exponentially with a two- to three-fold expansion between 2010 and 2050.Wefind that in our climate policy scenarios renewable energy overall expands typically at double-digit growth rates annually, but there is substantial spread in model results for specific options such as wind and solar power: the climate policies that we simulate raise wind power in 2050 on average to half the production level that hydropower provides today, while they raise solar power to either a substantially higher or a much lower level than hydropower supplies at present, depending on which model is used. Also for CCS we observe large diversity in model outcomes, which reflects the uncertainties with regard to its future implementation potential as a result of

  16. Evaluation of pre-treatment technologies for phosphorous removal from drinking water to mitigate membrane biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, M.; Tihomirova, K.; Mežule, L.; Rubulis, J.; Gruškeviča, K.; Juhna, T.

    2017-10-01

    Membranes are widely used for the treatment of various solutions. However, membrane fouling remains the limiting factor for their usage, setting biofouling as the most severe type of it. Therefore, the production of biologically stable water prior to membranes is important. Since lack of phosphorus may hinder the growth of microorganisms, the aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of microbially available phosphorus (MAP) removal via affordable water pre-treatment methods (adsorption, biofiltration, electrocoagulation) on bacterial growth. Four cylindrical reactors were installed at an artificially recharged groundwater station. Further temperature influence and carbon limitation were tested for biofiltration technology. The amount of MAP and total cell count was measured by flow cytometry. The results showed that at lower temperatures electrocoagulation performed the best, resulting in complete MAP removal (detection limit 6.27x10-3μg P l-1). Sorbent demonstrated MAP removal of 70-90%. Biomass did not have any noteworthy results at +8°C, however, at +19°C MAP removal of around 80% was achieved. Main conclusions obtained within this study are: (i) tested technologies effectively eliminate MAP levels; (ii) temperature has a significant effect on MAP removal in a bioreactor, (iii) multi-barrier approach might be necessary for better P limitation that might prolong operating time of a membrane.

  17. Impact of feedstock, land use change, and soil organic carbon on energy and greenhouse gas performance of biomass cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njakou Djomo, S.; Witters, N.; Van Dael, M.; Gabrielle, B.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel based CHP system. • Not all energy efficient pathways led to lower GHG emissions. • iLUC through intensification increased the total energy input and GHG emissions. • Fluidized bed technologies maximize the energy and GHG benefits of all pathways. • Perennial crops are in some cases better than residues on GHG emissions criteria. - Abstract: Bioenergy (i.e., bioheat and bioelectricity) could simultaneously address energy insecurity and climate change. However, bioenergy’s impact on climate change remains incomplete when land use changes (LUC), soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, and the auxiliary energy consumption are not accounted for in the life cycle. Using data collected from Belgian farmers, combined heat and power (CHP) operators, and a life cycle approach, we compared 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel CHP system. Bioenergy required between 0.024 and 0.204 MJ (0.86 MJ th + 0.14 MJ el ) −1 , and the estimated energy ratio (energy output-to-input ratio) ranged from 5 to 42. SOC loss increased the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residue based bioenergy. On average, the iLUC represented ∼67% of the total GHG emissions of bioenergy from perennial energy crops. However, the net LUC (i.e., dLUC + iLUC) effects substantially reduced the GHG emissions incurred during all phases of bioenergy production from perennial crops, turning most pathways based on energy crops to GHG sinks. Relative to fossil-fuel based CHP all bioenergy pathways reduced GHG emissions by 8–114%. Fluidized bed technologies maximize the energy and the GHG benefits of all pathways. The size and the power-to-heat ratio for a given CHP influenced the energy and GHG performance of these bioenergy pathways. Even with the inclusion of LUC, perennial crops had better GHG performance than agricultural and forest residues. Perennial crops have a high potential in the multidimensional approach to increase energy

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from aviation and marine transportation : mitigation potential and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions : from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to reduce these emissions. Reducing global emissions by 50 to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050reduct...

  19. Role of technologies in energy-related CO2 mitigation in China within a climate-protection world: A scenarios analysis using REMIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Bauer, Nico; Luderer, Gunnar; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The augmented REMIND model is used to study the role of energy technologies under a carbon tax. • The scale and timing of fossil fuels with CCS, nuclear, and renewables are examined. • CCS is important but the window of opportunity for its deployment is limited. • The effectiveness of nuclear is strongly linked to its cost performance. • Renewable energy is a long-term mitigation option. - Abstract: In a world with the need of climate protection through emission reduction, China’s domestic mitigation will be put on the national agenda. The large-scale deployment of innovative technologies induced by climate policies is a key determinant for reducing emissions in an effective and efficient manner. A distinguishing feature of the Chinese energy sector (especially electricity generation), is that investment costs are significantly lower than in other world regions. Represented in the methodological framework of the augmented REMIND model, three promising mitigation technologies (also known as technology clusters) in the electricity sector: CCS with advanced coal-generation technologies, nuclear, and renewables are the focus of this study. The scenarios are designed to analyze the roles of these technologies and their associated economic impacts under a climate policy (i.e., a carbon tax). Our results indicate that: (1)Technology policies improving the techno-economic features of low-carbon technologies are insufficient to restrain China’s increasing emissions. (2)Carbon-pricing policies can effectively reduce emissions by making low-carbon options more competitive than conventional fossil fuel alternatives. In the global carbon tax regime framed in this paper, China’s mitigation potential is larger than that of any of other region and the peak of emissions occurs earlier (by 2020) and is 50% lower than in the BASE scenario. (3)CCS is important, but the window of opportunity for its deployment is limited to the near- to mid-term future. It

  20. Climate Change Mitigation Technologies: the Siemens Roadmap to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voges, K.

    2007-07-01

    A full range of technology options will have to be deployed until 2025 to get the global CO{sub 2} emissions on a 550 ppm stabilization track. The focus of the paper will be on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) as an indispensable part of a carbon constrained energy infrastructure. In CCS our main long term focus is clearly on coal based processes. For Greenfield applications Siemens is prioritizing IGCC based pre-combustion capture. Post-combustion capture is pursued for steam power plant retrofit. (a) IGCC with pre-combustion capture: A first F-class based demonstration plant could be available until 2014. The roadmap addresses gasifier scale up, hydrogen burner and turbine development and integration issues. Beyond that a bundle of further efficiency improvement measures will further enhance efficiency and economic competitiveness. (b) Post-combustion capture: The development aims at optimizing existing solvents or developing new ones and integrating the complete unit with its mass and heat interchange system into the power plant. (c) CO{sub 2} Compressors: For efficiency and operating flexibility reasons Siemens Power Generation prefers gear-type compressors instead of single shaft compressors. The improvement of maintainability and the reduced number of stages or corrosion protection are issues addressed in current R and D activities. (auth)

  1. Address to the international workshop on greenhouse gas mitigation, technologies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Netherlands has a long history in combatting natural forces for it`s mere survival and even creation. Around half of the country was not Yet existent around 2000 years ago: it was still below sea level that time. Building dikes and the discovery of eolic energy applied in windmills, allowing to pump water from one side of the dike to the other, are technologies that gradually shaped the country into its current form, a process that continues to materialize till the present day. Water has not always been an enemy of the country. In the Hundred Year War with Spain, during which the country was occupied territory for most of the time, the water was used to drive the Spanish armies from the country. As large parts are well below sea level breaking the dikes resulted in flooding the country which made the armoury of the Spanish army useless. In this way they had to give up the siege of several major Dutch cities that time. These events marked the gradual liberation of the Dutch territory. Consequently, in the discussion on adaption and prevention of the greenhouse effect the Netherlands has a clear stand. The greenhouse effect will occur anyway, even if countries deploy all possible counter measures at once. So their aim is to prevent the occurrence of the greenhouse effect to the highest extent possible, and to protect the most vulnerable areas meanwhile, especially the coastal zones. In order to reach these goals the Dutch government has established a Joint Implementation Experimental Programme in accordance with the provisions made by the Conference of Parties in Berlin (1995).

  2. GHG emissions inventory for on-road transportation in the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) accounts an increase of the total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 that directly came from the transport sector. In 2010, 14% of GHG emissions were released by transport and fossil-fuel-related CO2 emissions reached about 32 GtCO2 per year. The report also considers adaptation and mitigation as complementary strategies for reducing the risks of climate change for sustainable development of urban areas. This paper describes the on-road traffic emission estimated in the framework of a Sardinian regional project [1] for the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), one of the Sardinian areas where the fuel consumption for on-road transportation purposes is higher [2]. The GHG emissions have been accounted (a) by a calculation-based methodology founded on a linear relationship between source activity and emission, and (b) by the COPERT IV methodology through the EMITRA (EMIssions from road TRAnsport) software tool [3]. Inventory data for annual fossil fuel consumption associated with on-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, gas) have been collected through the Dogane service, the ATP and ARST public transport services and vehicle fleet data are available from the Public Vehicle Database (PRA), using 2010 as baseline year. During this period, the estimated CO2 emissions accounts for more than 180,000 tCO2. The calculation of emissions due to on-road transport quantitatively estimates CO2 and other GHG emissions and represents a useful baseline to identify possible adaptation and mitigation strategies to face the climate change risks at municipal level. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Sardinian Regional Project "Development, functional checking and setup of an integrated system for the quantification of CO2 net exchange and for the evaluation of mitigation strategies at urban and territorial scale", (Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, No. 7). References [1] Sanna L., Ferrara R., Zara P. & Duce P. (2014

  3. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  4. BC Hydro shops for GHG offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    BC Hydro is reported to have offered to purchase one million tonnes of carbon dioxide reductions in Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Trading program (GERT). The program uses a baseline and credit system, where emitters purchase measurable quantities of site-specific GHG reductions. Since mid-1998, the program registered five bilateral trades and seven offers to sell. BC Hydro's recent offer is the first offer to buy. BC Hydro has made the offer to buy in expectation of the introduction of the start of the Kyoto Protocol reductions, and expects to be in the game for some time to come if it is to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol. Preference will be given to projects located in Canada, but BC Hydro will consider reductions created anywhere in the world. The financial range of a single trade is between $50,000 and $1 million. (GHG offsets are currently trading in North America for between $.50 and $3.00 Cdn per metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent.) At present, offsets are selling at a heavily discounted price because of the uncertainty that investments made now will be credited against future regulations curbing emitters. Consequently, buying now while prices are low, may lead to sizable benefits later, depending on the actual regulations when they are promulgated. Trading now will also give BC Hydro greater credibility and assurance to have its voice heard when discussions about emissions trading and the implementation of emission trading rules reaches the serious stage

  5. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-07-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO{sub 2} emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project.

  6. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, M.; Hill, D.; Cornland, D.W.; Heaps, C.; Hippel, D. von; Williams, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO 2 emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project

  7. Development forecast of renewable energy power generation in China and its influence on the GHG control strategy of the country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong; Xu, Gang; Tian, Longhu; Huang, Qili [National Power Generation Engineering Research Center, National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Cai, Peng [Yantai Longyuan Power Technology Co., LTD, Beijing 100070 (China)

    2011-04-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions of the electricity supply sector in China account for about half of the total volume in the country. Thus, reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in China's electricity supply sector will contribute significantly to the efforts of greenhouse gas (GHG) control in the country and the rest of the world. This paper introduces the development status of renewable energy and other main CO{sub 2} mitigation options in power generation in China and makes a preliminary prediction of the development of renewable energy in the country for future decades. Besides, based on the situation in China, the paper undertakes a comprehensive analysis of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs, mitigation potential, and fossil energy conversation capacity of renewable energy and other mitigation options, through which the influence of renewable energy on the mitigation strategy of China is analyzed. (author)

  8. Long-run implications for developing countries of joint implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.; Bulte, E.; Folmer, H.

    1999-01-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) calls for cooperation between industrialized and developing countries in the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, a major concern of potential host countries is that if they utilize their low-cost options for JI now, they will be left with only high cost options in the future, thereby penalizing them at a time when they may be obligated to mitigate GHGs themselves. This paper formalizes this hypothesis by utilizing an optimal control framework analogous to the Hotelling model of non-renewable resource extraction. The results are that cumulative abatement effects can impose costs on the future, but that they can be offset by technological change, market power, or compensation. 11 refs

  9. New power expansion strategy and a low GHG emitting economy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    According to mounting environmental concerns and an increased number of environmental restrictions, a new power expansion strategy is being suggested in Korea. Low carbon emitting technologies are a cost- and environment-effective renewable energy technology for producing electricity (except large hydropower) and the fastest growing market after the launch of the 'The 3. Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand' in 2006 in Korea. Even though some renewable power plants don't use any fuel or materials during their operation, they still contribute to climate change. This is due to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from the fossil fuels combusted for their components manufacturing, construction, and dismantling. So the aim of this analysis is to assess the Global Warming Potential (GWP) during the whole life cycle for each candidate technology and to estimate how much they contribute to GHG emissions by introducing low-carbon energy sources up to 2020 in Korea. (authors)

  10. Policy progress in mitigation of climate change in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang; Chang, Wei Ru

    2011-01-01

    To make an active contribution to the global effort in mitigation of climate change, Taiwan government has implemented the 'Frameworks for Sustainable Energy Policy-An Energy-Saving and Carbon-Reduction Action Plan' in June 2008. It has made a commitment of a stepwise reduction of nationwide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which returns the nationwide GHG emission to 2008 levels by 2020, then reduces to 2000 levels by 2025, and finally cuts 50% of 2000 levels by 2050. The fundamental strategy is to reduce the GHG emission under acceptable economic development and energy security to achieve generation-spanning triple-win in energy, environment and economy. The major policy instruments such as 'Statute for Renewable Energy Development', 'GHG Reduction Law (draft),' 'Regulation for Energy Tax (draft),' and 'Energy Management Act' have been either implemented or scheduled for legislative reviewing. The purpose of this paper is to present an updated review of the outcomes of GHG emission reduction in Taiwan. In addition, the progress and priority of policy instruments in GHG emission reduction are analyzed as well. - Research highlights: →Taiwan has made a commitment of stepwise targets of GHG emission reduction to contribute to the global efforts in combating climate change in 2008. →The near-term target returns the nationwide GHG emissions back to 2008 levels during years of 2016-2020. Then, emission levels are cut to 2000 levels by 2025, and finally 50% of 2000 levels by 2050. →In addition to finish legislative review of the 'GHG Reduction Act', Taiwan has prepared a comprehensive action plan to reduce the national GHG emissions, involving improvement of the efficiency in energy use, development of the sustainable energy, and taxation of carbon on fossils.

  11. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Taconic Energy, Inc. TEA Fuel Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Greenhouse Gas Technology Center (GHG Center) is one of six verification organizations operating under EPA’s ETV program. One sector of significant interest to GHG Center stakeholders is transportation - particularly technologies that result in fuel economy improvements. Taco...

  12. CO2 mitigation scenarios in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Can; Cai, Wenjia; Lu, Xuedu; Chen, Jining

    2007-01-01

    China is the world's second largest greenhouse gas emitter, and emissions from the road transport sector represent one of the fastest growing GHG sources in China. Taking previous research on China's projected future vehicle ownership and future CO 2 emissions in the transport sector as a starting point, this paper reviews all recent environmental policies relating to the automobile industry and employs a scenario analysis to estimate different emissions inventories for different development strategies. The new policy scenario considers all possible mitigation options available to the road transport sector from a bottom up perspective and examines the effects for fuel efficiency improvement and the cost of these mitigation options - vehicle technology improvement, bus rapid transit system and fuel switching, through which the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential is estimated. Not only does this paper indicate that a large emissions reduction potential exists in China's road transport sector, but it implies that vehicle technology improvement, especially engine technology is likely to be the most effective means to meet emissions reduction targets. This paper concludes by identifying key barriers to implementing those options in China and deduces the technical, financial and institutional aspects of the demand in China for national capacity building and international aid in order to achieve the emissions reduction goals

  13. Towards the development of a GHG emissions baseline for the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne B. Stevens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and as such is required to report on Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the Energy, Transport, Waste and the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sectors every two years in national inventories. The AFOLU sector is unique in that it comprises both sources and sinks for GHGs. Emissions from the AFOLU sector are estimated to contribute a quarter of the total global greenhouse gas emissions. GHG emissions sources from agriculture include enteric fermentation; manure management; manure deposits on pastures, and soil fertilization. Emissions sources from Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU include anthropogenic land use activities such as: management of croplands, forests and grasslands and changes in land use cover (the conversion of one land use to another. South Africa has improved the quantification of AFOLU emissions and the understanding of the dynamic relationship between sinks and sources over the past decade through projects such as the 2010 GHG Inventory, the Mitigation Potential Analysis (MPA, and the National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA. These projects highlight key mitigation opportunities in South Africa and discuss their potentials. The problem remains that South Africa does not have an emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector against which the mitigation potentials can be measured. The AFOLU sector as a result is often excluded from future emission projections, giving an incomplete picture of South Africa’s mitigation potential. The purpose of this project was to develop a robust GHG emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector which will enable South Africa to project emissions into the future and demonstrate its contribution towards the global goal of reducing emissions.

  14. The diet-related GHG index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Watson, David; Smed, Sinne

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to construct and validate a cost-efficient index to measure GHG emissions (GHGe) caused by Danish consumers’ diets to be employed in questionnaire-based surveys. The index was modelled on the basis of actual food purchase data from a panel of ordinary Danish households...... and a questionnaire consisting of food frequency questions issued to the same panel. Based on the purchase data, diet-related GHGe were calculated for 2012. The data was then split into a learning sample and a validation sample. The index was constructed using the learning sample where a scoring procedure...... was calculated from responses to the questionnaire-based food frequency questions that predicted diet-related GHGe. Subsequently, the index scoring procedure was employed on the validation sample and the empirical relevance of the index was examined. In the learning sample, a scoring procedure to construct...

  15. Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jane M.-F.; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Weyers, Sharon Lachnicht; Reicosky, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O. It can also be a sink for CO 2 through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH 4 consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N 2 O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH 4 and N 2 O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint. - Management options can be used to reduce agriculture's environmental impacts

  16. Climate Change Mitigation in a Sustainable World - Findings of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, R. E. H.

    2007-01-01

    The 4th Assessment Report on climate change of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) has recently been completed. The fi rst report in the IPCC 4th Assessment series by Working Group I outlined the latest knowledge on Climate Science. The second by Working Group 2 covered the possibilities for Adaptation of ecosystems, glaciers preceding, sea level rising, droughts etc in various regions. This paper is based on the findings of Working Group III as presented in the recently published report Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. The 27 paragraph Summary for Policy Makers was approved sentence by sentence over 4 days in May 2007 by 120 government delegations in Bangkok, Thailand. The three short Summaries for Policy Makers (SPM), Synthesis report, and the three full reports can be found at www.ipcc.ch. In addition the short Synthesis Report across all three working groups is soon to be released. The report on Mitigation attempted to compile the latest scientific knowledge relating to low-carbon emitting technologies; assessed their costs and potentials for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission avoidance; evaluated their long term prospects out to 2100 for stabilising atmospheric GHGs; provided a detailed list of policy options; and discussed the opportunities for sustainable development and equity linked with GHG abatement. Over the 3 year writing and review process, the author of this paper was the co-ordinating lead author of the writing team for the Working Group III chapter on Energy Supply. Of the 13 chapters, this one received the greatest attention with over 5000 review comments that were each responded to, and with the sections on nuclear and renewable energy receiving a major share of them. Since the 3rd Assessment Report (TAR) was published in 2001, the over-arching message now being delivered by Working Group III is a stronger but positive one: Action is required. The situation is urgent - but not beyond repair. Many energy

  17. Relevance of Clean Coal Technology for India’s Energy Security: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Tiwari, Vineet; Vishwanathan, Saritha

    2017-07-01

    Climate change mitigation regimes are expected to impose constraints on the future use of fossil fuels in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2015, 41% of total final energy consumption and 64% of power generation in India came from coal. Although almost a sixth of the total coal based thermal power generation is now super critical pulverized coal technology, the average CO2 emissions from the Indian power sector are 0.82 kg-CO2/kWh, mainly driven by coal. India has large domestic coal reserves which give it adequate energy security. There is a need to find options that allow the continued use of coal while considering the need for GHG mitigation. This paper explores options of linking GHG emission mitigation and energy security from 2000 to 2050 using the AIM/Enduse model under Business-as-Usual scenario. Our simulation analysis suggests that advanced clean coal technologies options could provide promising solutions for reducing CO2 emissions by improving energy efficiencies. This paper concludes that integrating climate change security and energy security for India is possible with a large scale deployment of advanced coal combustion technologies in Indian energy systems along with other measures.

  18. Project Mechanisms and Technology Diffusion in Climate Policy - Kyoto project mechanisms and technology diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, M.; Meniere, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the diffusion of GHG mitigation technologies in developing countries. We develop a model where an abatement technology is progressively adopted by firms and we use it to compare the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) with a standard Cap and Trade scheme (C and T). In the presence of learning spillovers, we show that the CDM yields a higher social welfare than C and T if the first adopter receives CDM credits whereas the followers do not. This result lends support to the policy proposal of relaxing the CDM additionality constraint for projects which generate significant learning externalities. (authors)

  19. Mechanism of floating body effect mitigation via cutting off source injection in a fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Pengcheng; Chen Shuming; Chen Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of floating body effect (FBE) on a single event transient generation mechanism in fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is investigated using three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (3D-TCAD) numerical simulation. The results indicate that the main SET generation mechanism is not carrier drift/diffusion but floating body effect (FBE) whether for positive or negative channel metal oxide semiconductor (PMOS or NMOS). Two stacking layout designs mitigating FBE are investigated as well, and the results indicate that the in-line stacking (IS) layout can mitigate FBE completely and is area penalty saving compared with the conventional stacking layout. (paper)

  20. Synergies between mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    There is a very significant, cost effective greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential in agriculture. The annual mitigation potential in agriculture is estimated to be 4200, 2600 and 1600 Mt CO2 equiv/yr at C prices of 100, 50 and 20 US$/t CO2 equiv, respectively. The value of GHG mitigated each...... year is equivalent to 420 000, 130 000 and 32 000 million US$/yr for C prices of 100, 50 and 20 US$/t CO2 equiv, respectively. From both the mitigation and economic perspectives, we cannot afford to miss out on this mitigation potential. The challenge of agriculture within the climate change context...... of the agroecosystem in some way. This often not only affects the GHG emissions but also the soil properties and nutrient cycling. Adaptation to increased variability of temperature and rainfall involves increasing the resilience of the production systems. This may be done by improving soil water holding capacities...

  1. The relative magnitude of the impacts and effects of GHG-related emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Urquizo, N.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the current knowledge related to the co-benefits associated with climate change mitigation was provided in this document. One of the benefits of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the reduction of other pollutants like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ground-level ozone, heavy metals and other toxic pollutants. Since these pollutants have an effect on acid deposition, ozone depletion and air quality, the environment, social welfare and human health, this paper provided an initial outline of the complex processes, interactions and uncertainties associated with this issue. Fossil fuels represent the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. The reduction of emissions of GHG could have an impact on the Long Range Transport of air toxic substances, would help increase oxygen concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, and lead to less carbon monoxide being released in the atmosphere, among others effects. Reductions of GHG emissions would also have an impact on ecosystems by reducing ground-level ozone concentrations. There would be less acid deposition and more dissolved organic carbon, allowing less ultraviolet-B penetration in aquatic ecosystems. In the case of human health, improved air quality impacts on the avoidance of premature mortality and reduced morbidity. Numerous other co-benefits were listed and discussed in this document. The first section stated the purpose and objectives. In section 2, that authors described the science and policy context and discussed building an analytical framework in section 3. The impact of GHG emission reductions on atmospheric pollution and ecosystems was dealt with in section 4 and section 5 was devoted to providing an assessment of the relative magnitude of effects. In section 6, the significance of scope was reviewed, and the authors concluded with section 7 in which they discussed the next steps: phase II

  2. Mitigation of global warming and the role of identification of greenhouse gas sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST) is an organization supporting R and D of frontier science and technologies under the full sponsorship of the government of Japan. Under the umbrella of JST the author is in charge of a program called 'Environment friendly social systems' which includes more than 20 research projects for better environment (with as an average of 1 million US dollars per project per year). One of the projects in this program is on development of isotopomer technology and its use in identifying greenhouse gas (GHG) sources headed by Prof. N.Yoshida. JST earnestly hopes that it can contribute as much as possible to mitigation of global warming through the support of important research projects such as Yoshida's. (author)

  3. Potential and cost of clean development mechanism options in the energy sector. Inventory of options in non-Annex I countries to reduce GHG-emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van der Linden, N.H.; Martens, J.W.; Ormel, F.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Heaps, C.; Kartha, S.; Lazarus, M.; Ruth, M. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, Boston (United States); Lee, R.; Mendis, M. [Alternative Energy Development, Inc., Silver Spring (United States)

    1999-12-01

    An assessment is presented of the potential and cost of the Clean Development Mechanism as an instrument to partially meet the Greenhouse Gases emission limitation commitments of the Netherlands for the first budget period, 2008-2012. Information about the cost and emission reduction potential in the energy sector has been collected from national mitigation studies. In total, some 300 GHG emission reduction options in 24 non-Annex I countries have been collected Together, these countries account for two-thirds of current non-Annex I GHG emissions. The mitigation potential in non-Annex I countries is significant when compared with Annex I reduction requirements. The inventory of mitigation options suggests that an annual mitigation potential in the first budget period at costs up to 1990 USD 10/ton CO2 is approximately 1.7 Gt CO2 equivalents. However, this estimate should be viewed with caution, as the mitigation studies on which this estimate is based have been carried out as capacity-building exercises and they should not be viewed as definitive, technically rigorous, exhaustive, analysis of national GHG mitigation potential. 15 refs.

  4. International Experiences with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Grace [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Improving the efficiency of energy production and consumption and switching to lower carbon energy sources can significantly decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reduce climate change impacts. A growing body of research has found that these measures can also directly mitigate many non-climate change related human health hazards and environmental damage. Positive impacts of policies and programs that occur in addition to the intended primary policy goal are called co-benefits. Policy analysis relies on forecasting and comparing the costs of policy and program implementation and the benefits that accrue to society from implementation. GHG reduction and energy efficiency policies and programs face political resistance in part because of the difficulty of quantifying their benefits. On the one hand, climate change mitigation policy benefits are often global, long-term, and subject to large uncertainties, and subsidized energy pricing can reduce the direct monetary benefits of energy efficiency policies to below their cost. On the other hand, the co-benefits that accrue from these efforts’ resultant reductions in conventional air pollution (such as improved health, agricultural productivity, reduced damage to infrastructure, and local ecosystem improvements) are generally near term, local, and more certain than climate change mitigation benefits and larger than the monetary value of energy savings. The incorporation of co-benefits into energy efficiency and climate mitigation policy and program analysis therefore might significantly increase the uptake of these policies. Faster policy uptake is especially important in developing countries because ongoing development efforts that do not consider co-benefits may lock in suboptimal technologies and infrastructure and result in high costs in future years. Over the past two decades, studies have repeatedly documented that non-climate change related benefits of energy efficiency and fuel conversion efforts, as a part

  5. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei Ming; Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106 (China); Wu, Chih Cheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced. (author)

  6. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Weiming [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gracelee@ntu.edu.tw; Wu Chihcheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced.

  7. Co-benefits of global, domestic, and sectoral greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality and human health in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuqiang; Smith, Steven J.; Bowden, Jared H.; Adelman, Zachariah; West, J. Jason

    2017-11-01

    Policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can bring ancillary benefits of improved air quality and reduced premature mortality, in addition to slowing climate change. Here we study the co-benefits of global and domestic GHG mitigation on US air quality and human health in 2050 at fine resolution using dynamical downscaling, and quantify for the first time the co-benefits from foreign GHG mitigation. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG reductions in RCP4.5 avoid 16000 PM2.5-related all-cause deaths yr-1 (90% confidence interval, 11700-20300), and 8000 (3600-12400) O3-related respiratory deaths yr-1 in the US in 2050. Foreign GHG mitigation avoids 15% and 62% of PM2.5- and O3-related total avoided deaths, highlighting the importance of foreign GHG mitigation on US human health benefits. GHG mitigation in the US residential sector brings the largest co-benefits for PM2.5-related deaths (21% of total domestic co-benefits), and industry for O3 (17%). Monetized benefits, for avoided deaths from ozone, PM2.5, and heat stress from a related study, are $148 ($96-201) per ton CO2 at high valuation and $49 ($32-67) at low valuation, of which 36% are from foreign GHG reductions. These benefits likely exceed the marginal cost of GHG reductions in 2050. The US gains significantly greater co-benefits when coordinating GHG reductions with foreign countries. Similarly, previous studies estimating co-benefits locally or regionally may greatly underestimate the full co-benefits of coordinated global actions.

  8. How to trigger low carbon technologies by EU targets for 2030? An assessment of technology needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Janeiro, L.; Winkel, T.

    2013-04-15

    The current EU framework for energy and climate policies up to 2020 consists of three headline targets: 20% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 2005, a 20% share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and 20% primary energy savings compared to baseline developments. While progress on these 2020 targets is mixed, discussions in the EU about climate and energy policies and targets for the period after 2020 have started. Given the long cycles associated to energy and climate investments, agreement on a clear longer-term policy framework is critical to improve visibility for investors and avoid lock-in effects in inefficient or polluting technologies. Therefore, the European Commission published a Communication on 6 June 2012 on the need for a long term policy framework for renewable energy, and a Green Paper on the 2030 climate and energy policy framework on 27 March 2013. Against this background, the Dutch Ministries of Infrastructure and Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PBL to create input for the European debate on climate targets and policies until and beyond 2030. Ecofys supported PBL by addressing the following two questions: (1) What steps are needed for selected key technology groups to achieve long term GHG emission reductions and what climate and energy policies are likely to trigger these steps?; and (2) What are the pros and cons of a 2030 policy framework with (a) a GHG reduction target only, and (b) targets for GHG reduction, renewable energy, and energy efficiency? The focus of the first question was on four technology groups, namely (1) energy efficiency in the built environment, notably for heat; (2) solar PV and wind energy; (3) advanced biofuels; (4) CO2 carbon capture and storage (CCS). An analysis of the steps needed for the deployment of the full GHG mitigation potential of the discussed technology groups shows that this will largely depend on the adoption of a wide range of policy instruments by EU Member

  9. State of the art of NOx mitigation technologies and their effect on the performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel-fueled Compression Ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palash, S.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Masum, B.M.; Sanjid, A.; Abedin, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Different NO x reduction technologies are discussed along with their implementation. • EGR rate up to 25% is feasible considering engine performance and other emissions. • ITR technology reduces NO x fairly but increases other emissions, it also reduces performance. • LTC reduces NO x and PM emissions simultaneously but increases HC and CO emissions. • Water injection and emulsion reduce NO x (up to 38%) and PM but increases HC and CO emissions. - Abstract: Biodiesel fuels have the potential to become a reliable substitute for diesel which is used moderately to meet the current energy demands. This fuel can be produced from new or used vegetable oils, non-edible sources and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable. In spite of the many advantages of using biodiesel, most of the researchers have reported that they produce higher NO x emissions compared to diesel, which is a deterrent to the market expansion of these fuels. In this study, the different paths to reduce NO x emissions from diesel engines by applying several technologies, such as using additives into fuel, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), water injection (WI), emulsion technology (ET), injection timing retardation (ITR), simultaneous technology (ST) and low temperature combustion (LTC) mode are reviewed briefly. The impacts of different NO x mitigation technologies on biodiesel-fueled diesel engine performance and emissions are also analyzed critically and different methods of their implementation are shown. This paper also provides a comparison of different NO x mitigation technologies based on previous articles related to this topic. From this comparative study, it was found that the average reduction of NO x emissions by using additives, EGR, WI and ET, ITR, ST and LTC are in the ranges 4–45%, 26–84%, 10–38%, 9.77–37%, 22–95% and 66–93% respectively, compared to biodiesel combustion without applying technologies. However, the average reduction

  10. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  11. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  12. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 2. Cooperation in Agriculture. R and D on High-Yielding Crop Varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [Global and Structural Policies Division, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Mitigating climate change and achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas atmospheric concentrations will require deep reductions in global emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Developing and disseminating new, low-carbon energy technology will thus be needed. Two previous AIXG papers have focused on possible drivers for such a profound technological change: Technology Innovation, Development and Diffusion, released in June 2003, and International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, released in June 2004. The first of these papers assesses a broad range of technical options for reducing energy-related CO2 emissions. It examines how technologies evolve and the role of research and development efforts, alternative policies, and short-term investment decisions in making long-term options available. It considers various policy tools that may induce technological change, some very specific, and others with broader expected effects. Its overall conclusion is that policies specifically designed to promote technical change, or 'technology push', could play a critical role in making available and affordable new energy technologies. However, such policies would not be sufficient to achieve the Convention's objective in the absence of broader policies. First, because there is a large potential for cuts that could be achieved in the short run with existing technologies; and second, the development of new technologies requires a market pull as much as a technology push. The second paper considers the potential advantages and disadvantages of international energy technology collaboration and transfer for promoting technological change. Advantages of collaboration may consist of lowering R and D costs and stimulating other countries to invest in R and D; disadvantage may include free-riding and the inefficiency of reaching agreement between many actors. This paper sets the context for further discussion on the role of

  13. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Balance and saving of GHG emissions in thermochemical biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, Pedro; Aracil, Cristina; Vidal-Barrero, Fernando; Ollero, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified methodology for the balance and saving of GHG emissions is provided. • The GHG balance has a physical meaning and does not depend on the fossil reference. • The GHG saving depends on regulation of energy carriers. • The impact of Bio-CCS incorporation and multiproduction is analyzed. • The co-production of chemicals needs to be included in future regulation. - Abstract: In this study, a simplified methodology for the calculation of the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corresponding saving compared with the fossil reference is presented. The proposed methodology allows the estimation of the anthropogenic GHG emissions of thermochemical biorefineries (net emitted to the atmosphere). In the calculation of the GHG balance, all relevant factors have been identified and analyzed including multiproduction, emissions from biogenic carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS), co-feeding of fossil fuels (secondary feedstock) and possible carbon storage in biomass-derived products (chemicals). Therefore, it is possible to calculate the balance of GHG emissions of a hypothetical thermochemical biorefinery considering different alternatives of land-use, biomass feedstock, co-feeding of fossil fuels, Bio-CCS incorporation and final use of the products. The comparison of the estimated GHG balance with the corresponding fossil reference for each product is of special relevance in the methodology since it is the parameter used in European regulation for the fulfillment of sustainability criteria in biomass-derived fuels and liquids. The proposed methodology is tested using a previously assessed set of different process concepts of thermochemical biorefineries (techno-economic analysis). The resulting GHG balance and saving are analyzed to identify uncertainties and provide recommendations for future regulation. In all process concepts, the GHG savings are above the minimum requirement of GHG emissions for 2018. In the case of incorporating

  15. The role of China in mitigating climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltsev, Sergey; Morris, Jennifer; Cai, Yongxia; Karplus, Valerie; Jacoby, Henry

    2012-01-01

    We explore short- and long-term implications of several energy scenarios of China's role in efforts to mitigate global climate risk. The focus is on the impacts on China's energy system and GDP growth, and on global climate indicators such as greenhouse gas concentrations, radiative forcing, and global temperature change. We employ the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework and its economic component, the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model. We demonstrate that China's commitments for 2020, made during the UN climate meetings in Copenhagen and Cancun, are reachable at very modest cost. Alternative actions by China in the next 10 years do not yield any substantial changes in GHG concentrations or temperature due to inertia in the climate system. Consideration of the longer-term climate implications of the Copenhagen-type of commitments requires an assumption about policies after 2020, and the effects differ drastically depending on the case. Meeting a 2 °C target is problematic unless radical GHG emission reductions are assumed in the short-term. Participation or non-participation of China in global climate architecture can lead by 2100 to a 200–280 ppm difference in atmospheric GHG concentration, which can result in a 1.1 °C to 1.3 °C change by the end of the century. We conclude that it is essential to engage China in GHG emissions mitigation policies, and alternative actions lead to substantial differences in climate, energy, and economic outcomes. Potential channels for engaging China can be air pollution control and involvement in sectoral trading with established emissions trading systems in developed countries. - Highlights: ► It is essential to engage China in GHG emissions mitigation policies. ► China's mitigation actions proposed for 2015 and 2020 are reachable at modest costs. ► Meeting 2 °C target is problematic without radical GHG emissions reductions.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in different economic sectors: Mitigation measures, health co-benefits, knowledge gaps, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Hou, Hongli; Zhai, Yunkai; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; Li, Liping; Song, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lei; Meng, Bohan; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Qiyong

    2018-05-15

    To date, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mitigation strategies and the accompanying health co-benefits in different economic sectors have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this paper is to review comprehensively the evidence on GHG mitigation measures and the related health co-benefits, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to promote further development and implementation of climate change response policies. Evidence on GHG emissions, abatement measures and related health co-benefits has been observed at regional, national and global levels, involving both low- and high-income societies. GHG mitigation actions have mainly been taken in five sectors: energy generation, transport, food and agriculture, household and industry, consistent with the main sources of GHG emissions. GHGs and air pollutants to a large extent stem from the same sources and are inseparable in terms of their atmospheric evolution and effects on ecosystem; thus, GHG reductions are usually, although not always, estimated to have cost effective co-benefits for public health. Some integrated mitigation strategies involving multiple sectors, which tend to create greater health benefits. The pros and cons of different mitigation measures, issues with existing knowledge, priorities for research, and potential policy implications were also discussed. Findings from this study can play a role not only in motivating large GHG emitters to make decisive changes in GHG emissions, but also in facilitating cooperation at international, national and regional levels, to promote GHG mitigation policies that protect public health from climate change and air pollution simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scenarios for the use of GHG-reduction instruments - how can policy-instruments as carbon emission trading and tradable green certificates be used simultaneously to reach a common GHG-reduction target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    According to the agreed burden sharing in the EU, a number of member states have to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases substantially. To achieve these reductions various policy-instruments - national as well as international - are on hand. Two international instruments are emphasized in this paper: tradable quotas for limiting carbon emissions and tradable green certificates for promoting the deployment of renewable energy technologies. In the analyses of these two instruments two main questions are considered: (1) Will there be any international trade in green certificates, if no GHG-credits are attached to them? (2) Will it make any difference if the EU sets the targets to be achieved by the two instruments or alternatively the individual member countries do? An incentive-analysis in which four scenarios are set up and discussed is performed for the EU member states. The main conclusion is that if no GHG-credits are attached to the green certificates there seems to be limited of no incentives for a permanent international trade in certificates. On the other hand, if GHG-credits are attached to the certificates an efficient international trade will take place regardless of whether the EU or the member countries fix the quotas. Thus, the use of international instruments as tradable green certificates and tradable emissions permits will not lead to an optimal GHG-reduction strategy unless GHG-credits are attached to the certificates. (author)

  18. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  19. Multiple-pollutant cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas mitigation measures in the UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eory, Vera; Topp, Cairistiona F.E.; Moran, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curves can inform integrated environmental policy. ► We incorporated the co-effects on NH 3 , NO 3 − , P and sediment, as monetary values, into the UK GHG MACC. ► Adding co-effects modifies the GHG MACC, though with little impact unless using high damage values. ► Further research is needed on the co-effects of GHG mitigation measures and on damage values. ► Analysis should focus on the co-effects of measures that are slightly above or below the threshold. -- Abstract: This paper develops multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curve analysis to identify an optimal set of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measures considering the trade-offs and synergies with other environmental pollutants. The analysis is applied to UK agriculture, a sector expected to make a contribution to the national GHG mitigation effort. Previous analyses using marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) have determined the sector's GHG abatement potential based on the cost-effectiveness of a variety of technically feasible mitigation measures. Most of these measures have external effects on other pollution loads arising from agricultural activities. Here the monetary values of four of the most important impacts to water and air (specifically ammonia, nitrate, phosphorous and sediment) are included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. The resulting multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curve (MP MACC) informs the design of sustainable climate change policies by showing how the MP MACC for the UK agriculture can differ from the GHG MACC. The analysis also highlights research gaps, and suggests a need to understand the wider environmental effects of GHG mitigation options and to reduce the uncertainty in pollutant damage cost estimates

  20. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh, Naser A.; Cockerill, Timothy T.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO 2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO 2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO 2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO 2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NO x and NH 3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

  1. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO 2 -eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO 2 -eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management

  2. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascarosa, Esther [Thermochemical Processes Group, Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Boldrin, Alessio, E-mail: aleb@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  3. 75 FR 62739 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent AGENCIES: Environmental... fuel economy (CAFE) standards in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as... FR 49454, 49460 (September 28, 2009). The NHTSA CAFE standards are only based on technologies that...

  4. Does consideration of GHG reductions change local decision making? A Case Study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, L. A.; Blumel, G.

    2003-12-01

    While local air pollution has been a public concern in developing countries for some time, climate change is looked upon as a non-urgent, developed world problem. In this work we present a case study of the interaction of measures to abate air pollution and measures to mitigate GHG emissions in Santiago, Chile, with the purpose of determining if the consideration of reductions in GHG affects the decisions taken to mitigate local air pollution. The emissions reductions of both GHG and local air pollutants were estimated from emission factors (some derived locally) and changes in activity levels. Health benefits due to air pollution abatement were computed using figures derived previously for the cost benefit analysis of Santiago's Decontamination Plan, transferred to the different cities taking into consideration local demographic and income data. The Santiago estimates were obtained using the damage function approach, based on some local epidemiological studies, and on local health and demographic data. Unit social values for the effects were estimated locally (for cost of treatment and lost productivity values) or extrapolated from US values (mainly for WTP values) using the ratio of per-capita income and an income elasticity of 1. The average benefits of emission abatement (in 1997 US\\ per ton) are 1,800 (1,200-2300) for NOx, 3,000 (2,100-3900) for SO2, 31,900 (21,900 - 41,900) for PM, and 630 (430 - 830) for resuspended dust. Economic benefits due to carbon reduction were considered at 3.5, 10 and 20 UStCO2. Marginal abatement cost curves were constructed considering private and net costs (private less the potential sales of carbon credits) Due to the bottom-up approach to constructing the marginal cost curve, many abatement measures (like congestion tolls and CNG instead of diesel buses) amounting to 8% reduction of PM2.5 concentration, exhibit a negative private cost. If the health benefits are considered for the decision, a maximum reduction of 22% in PM2

  5. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  6. ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM CONVENTIONAL SOURCES AND MEASURES TO MITIGATE THE PRODUCED IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL CALANTER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electricity sector represents the sector with the greatest impact in terms of producing climate change, mainly due to the greenhouse gas emissions generated through the burning of fossil fuels. It is not however the only negative aspect associated to the classic technologies of electricity production. This paper aims to assess the economic and environmental aspects associated to the technologies for the electricity production from conventional sources and as a conclusion of the research it will also propose certain specific measures designed to mitigate their impacts. Therefore, the analysis will focus on economic issues, such as limited resources of fuels and the significant fluctuation in fuel prices, low energy efficiency, environmental protection expenditures and health issues as a result of the pollution generated by the electricity production and environmental aspects related primarily to the burning of fossil fuels, but also to extraction, transport and storage, aspects concerning the management of waste generated by the energy sector or to the risks associated with the process of producing electricity. In the final part of the paper a few measures will be proposed to mitigate the impact on the environment and economic development of such technologies, as well as increasing energy efficiency, promoting renewable sources of energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, limiting deforestation, afforestation or the prevention of accidents in the energy sector.

  7. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas Jan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct a brief review of different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by the problem statement, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating no-regrets options.

  8. Use of comparative assessment framework for comparison of geological nuclear waste and CO2 disposal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2010-09-15

    Comparative assessment of few future energy and climate change mitigation options for Lithuania in 2020 performed indicated that nuclear and combined cycle gas turbine technologies are very similar energy options in terms of costs taking into account GHG emission reduction costs. Comparative assessment of these energy options requires evaluation of the potentials and costs for geological CO2 and nuclear waste storage as the main uncertainties in comparative assessment of electricity generation technologies are related with these back-end technologies. The paper analyses the main characteristics of possible geological storage of CO2 and NW options in Lithuania.

  9. Bridging gaps in bioenergy: Deploying system analysis to investigate potential biomass supply, demand and greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios from a national, European and global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998

    2014-01-01

    In transition towards a sustainable energy system with deep reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced consumption of fossil fuels, substitution of fossil energy carriers with biomass is considered one of the most important options. In the last decade, fossil energy and GHG mitigation

  10. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G.

    2004-01-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs

  11. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs.

  12. Mitigation incentives with climate finance and treaty options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Future greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation action of current non-climate-policy (NP) countries is considered to take two alternative forms: 1) “climate finance” payments received in return for future reductions in its GHG emissions below a defined “baseline”; and 2) join a “climate treaty” whereby the required emissions reductions are formally binding. It is assumed that baselines defining climate finance payments, and required emissions reductions under a treaty, depend positively on current emissions. It is then shown that making such future options available reduces current GHG mitigation in NP countries, leading to higher emissions in the short run. This effect is stronger when future climate finance payments are higher; the required relative emissions reductions under a treaty are greater; when commitments under a treaty are longer-lasting; and mitigation targets depend more on current emissions. Such short-run increases in emissions can (sometimes, more than) fully eliminate the effect of the subsequent policy. When climate finance and treaties are both future alternatives, more generous climate finance can make it harder and more expensive to induce the country to join a climate treaty. - Highlights: • A good future climate finance arrangement can increase GHG emissions today. • The same can be the case with a future and restrictive climate treaty. • These can be problems when costs under such solutions are reduced by higher emissions today. • Better climate finance also tends to make joining a climate treaty less attractive.

  13. The potential of pyrolysis technology in climate change mitigation – influence of process design and –parameters, simulated in SuperPro Designer Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Bruun, Esben

    This report investigates whether or not it would be possible to produce carbon-negative energy from pyrolysis of wheat straw in a series of Danish agricultural scenarios. A combination of process simulation in SuperPro Designer software, correlations derived from literature studies and experimental...... on scenario settings. The final results of the study have been compared to another study with convincing results. Results concluded that the primary force of the pyrolysis technology is the recalcitrant char product and not the pyrolysis oil. Based on this, the study suggests that despite the trend...... in commercial pyrolysis technology that focuses on fast pyrolysis processes with maximized bio-oil production, the twin challenge of climate mitigation and sustainable energy production is most efficiently addressed with a combination of slow pyrolysis and complete biomass conversion through combustion...

  14. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-09-30

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the working of energy programs and policies on carbon regulation, how to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions become extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions (e.g., carbon emission) for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct brief overview on different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by problem statements, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating non-regrets options. A non-regrets option is defined as a GHG reduction option that is cost effective, without considering their additional benefits related to reducing GHG emissions. Based upon these, we develop information on costs of mitigation measures and technological change. These serve as the basis for collating the data on energy savings and costs for their future use in integrated assessment models. In addition to descriptions of the iron and steel making processes, and the mitigation measures identified in this study, the report includes tabulated databases on costs of measure implementation, energy savings, carbon-emission reduction, and lifetimes. The cost curve data on mitigation

  15. Activities of four bus terminals of Semarang City gateway and the related GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Wardhana, I. W.; Sutrisno, E.; Wangi, L. S.; Lina, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    The activities of the bus terminal, including loading-unloading passengers, bus idling, and bus movements at the terminal, will emit GHG’s emission. This research analyzes GHG emission from four terminals, i.e., Mangkang, Terboyo, Penggaron, and Sukun in Semarang City. The emission was estimated by observing detail activities of public transport means, especially for moving and idling time. The emission was calculated by Tier 2 method based on the vehicle type as well as fuel consumption. The highest CO2e during vehicle movements at Sukun area was contributed by large bus about 2.08 tons/year, while at Terboyo terminal was contributed by medium bus about 347.97 tons/year. At Mangkang terminals, the highest emission for vehicle movements was attributed by medium bus as well of about 53.18 tons/year. At last, Penggaron terminal’s highest GHG emission was attributed by BRT about 26.47 tons/year. During idling time, the highest contributor to CO2e was the large bus at the three terminals, i.e., Sukun of 43.53 tons/year, Terboyo of 196.56 tons/year, and Mangkang of 84.26 tons/year, while at Penggaron, BRT dominated with CO2e of 26.47 tons/year. The management of public transport in terminals is crucial to mitigate the emission related to bus terminals activities.

  16. CAP payments and agricultural GHG emissions in Italy. A farm-level assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderoni, Silvia; Esposti, Roberto

    2018-06-15

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is an important external driver of European agricultural production. Nowadays and in its envisioned future structure post-2020, the CAP has among its major objectives tackling climate change, for what concerns both adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, little is known about the link between past CAP reforms and agricultural greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. This paper investigates the possible role played by the Fischler Reform (FR) on the agricultural GHG emissions at the farm level. The FR represents a major CAP reform for which data availability allows an ex-post analysis about its actual impacts. The empirical analysis concerns a balanced panel of 6542 Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network observed over years the 2003-2007. Multinomial Logit models are estimated in sequence to express how the farm-level production choices, and the respective emissions, vary over time also in response to CAP expenditure. Results suggest that CAP expenditure had a role in the evolution of the farm-level emissions, though the direction of this effect may differ across farms and deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable energy policy for Asia: Mitigating systemic hurdles in a highly dense city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Artie W.; Nathwani, Jatin

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission (GHG) has been increasingly a sensitive issue that is across border and impacting global public interests. While the use of renewable energy technology is perceived as a means to enable delivery of emission-free solutions, its penetration into the energy market has not been timely and significant enough as projected in prior studies. This article aims to illustrate some of the critical hurdles as the policy makers start formulating environmentally friendly energy consumption means for the public in Asian economies. In particular, through analyzing the characteristics in the case of Hong Kong, the authors unveil the challenges for this highly dense city to reach a landscape of alternative energy resources for its transition into a sustainable economy. Education and engagement with the public about a sustainable future, alignment of stakeholders' economic interests and absorption capacity of emerging technologies are argued as the three main challenges and initiatives in mitigating the underlying systemic hurdles that remain to be overcome. Observing the current responses to the externalities by the policy makers in Hong Kong, this study articulates the critical challenges to mitigate these specific systemic hurdles embedded in the existing infrastructure of a highly dense city. Possible mitigating measures to enable deployment of integrative sustainable energy solutions in dealing with climate change are discussed. (author)

  18. Alternative policy impacts on US GHG emissions and energy security: A hybrid modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarica, Kemal; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the possible impacts of energy and climate policies, namely corporate average fleet efficiency (CAFE) standard, renewable fuel standard (RFS) and clean energy standard (CES), and an economy wide equivalent carbon tax on GHG emissions in the US to the year 2045. Bottom–up and top–down modeling approaches find widespread use in energy economic modeling and policy analysis, in which they differ mainly with respect to the emphasis placed on technology of the energy system and/or the comprehensiveness of endogenous market adjustments. For this study, we use a hybrid energy modeling approach, MARKAL–Macro, that combines the characteristics of two divergent approaches, in order to investigate and quantify the cost of climate policies for the US and an equivalent carbon tax. The approach incorporates Macro-economic feedbacks through a single sector neoclassical growth model while maintaining sectoral and technological detail of the bottom–up optimization framework with endogenous aggregated energy demand. Our analysis is done for two important objectives of the US energy policy: GHG reduction and increased energy security. Our results suggest that the emission tax achieves results quite similar to the CES policy but very different results in the transportation sector. The CAFE standard and RFS are more expensive than a carbon tax for emission reductions. However, the CAFE standard and RFS are much more efficient at achieving crude oil import reductions. The GDP losses are 2.0% and 1.2% relative to the base case for the policy case and carbon tax. That difference may be perceived as being small given the increased energy security gained from the CAFE and RFS policy measures and the uncertainty inherent in this type of analysis. - Highlights: • Evaluates US impacts of three energy/climate policies and a carbon tax (CT) • Analysis done with bottom–up MARKAL model coupled with a macro model • Electricity clean energy standard very close to

  19. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO 2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  20. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: a case study of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Huppes, Gjalt; van der Voet, Ester

    2011-06-01

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gas Mitigation in Paper Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, AS; Bittencourt, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian paper industry has competitive advantages offered by the favorable climate, which favors an increase in the yield of forest restoration, and consequently, in the productive process. On the other hand, following the greenhouse gases (GHG), we can see our constantly changing sun, causing the solar storms, allowing their prevention or mitigating measures. The objective of this work is to contribute to the construction of the understanding necessary for the reduction of GHG emission from a preliminary analysis of the pulp and paper sector. As a secondary objective, the text preliminarily analyzes a company’s behavior against the backdrop of the Paris Accord, which strengthens the global response to the threat of climate change and strengthens the capacity of countries to deal with the impacts of such changes. The identification of best practices in the pulp and paper industry is understood, focusing on environmental sustainability, such as the adoption of reforestation, obtaining significant results. In the case of the paper industry, the management of public forests for sustainable production, within the structure of the Ministry of the Environment, establishes the promotion of public awareness about the importance of conservation, recovery and sustainable management of forest resources.

  2. Mitigation technologies for damage induced by pressure waves in high-power mercury spallation neutron sources (1). Material surface improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Shoubu, Takahisa; Takeuchi, Hirotsugu; Kawai, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Liquid-mercury target systems for MW-class spallation neutron sources are being developed in the world. Proton beams will be used to induce the spallation reaction. At the moment the proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in the mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall. Localized impacts by microjets and/or shock waves that are caused by cavitation bubble collapse impose pitting damage on the vessel wall. Bubble collapse behavior was observed by using a high-speed video camera, as well as simulated numerically. Localized impact due to cavitation bubble collapse was quantitatively estimated through comparison between numerical simulation and experiment. A novel surface treatment technique that consists of carburizing and nitriding processes was developed and the treatment condition was optimized to mitigate the pitting damage due to localized impacts. (author)

  3. South Africa's greenhouse gas emissions under business-as-usual: The technical basis of 'Growth without Constraints' in the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Hughes, Alison; Marquard, Andrew; Haw, Mary; Merven, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology for projecting business-as-usual GHG trajectory developed in technical work for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios (LTMSs), in particular the 'Growth without Constraints' (GWCs) scenario. Technically rigorous projections are important as developing countries define their commitment to act on mitigation relative to business-as-usual (BAU). The key drivers for the GWC scenario include GDP (both growth rate and composition), population, discount rate and technological change. GDP emerged as an important driver in the research for LTMS and further analysis. If South Africa's economy grows without constraints over the next few decades, GHG emissions will continue to escalate, multiplying more than four-fold by mid-century. There is little gain in energy efficiency, and emissions continue to be dominated by energy use and supply, the latter remaining coal-based in GWC. We analyse the projections (not predictions) in relation to various measures. The LTMS GWC scenario is compared to other projections, nationally and internationally. A broadly comparable projection is being used at national level, for electricity planning. When compared to projections from international models, we find that the assumptions about GDP growth rates are a key factor, and suggest that comparisons of global data-sets against national analyses is important. - Highlights: → Specifies business-as-usual GHG trajectory for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios. → Provides details on methodology, drivers of emissions and key parameters. → In a scenario of Growth without Constraints, emissions would quadruple by 2050. → Analysis of resulting emission projection, not a prediction. → Compares projections from other national and international models.

  4. Mitigation of release of volatile iodine species during severe reactor accidents - a novel reliable process of safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentay, S.; Bruchertseifer, H.

    2010-01-01

    In severe accidents, a significant risk for public health may be generated as a result of release of the gaseous iodine species into the environment through the containment leaks or containment venting filter systems with low retention efficiency. The elemental iodine and volatile organic iodides are the main gaseous iodine species in the containment. Potential release of large quantities of gaseous elemental iodine from the reactor coolant system or its radiolytic generation in the containment sump constitute the key source of gaseous elemental iodine in containment atmosphere. Iodine paint reactions as well as the reaction of iodine with organic residuals in sump water are the main mechanisms for the generation of high volatile organic iodides in the containment. Although very much desired, significant research activities conducted in 70's unfortunately did not create any technically feasible solution to mitigate iodine release into the environment under prevailing conditions. Development of a process leading to a fast, comprehensive and reliable retention of volatile iodine species in aqueous solution with an aim to implement for the severe accident management applications has been subject of a research project in the recent years at Paul Scherrer Institut. The process developed utilizes simultaneous use of two customary technical chemical additives in an aqueous solution. The results of the experimental program have demonstrated a fast and reliable destruction of high volatile organic iodine species and fast reduction of elemental iodine into iodide ions in aqueous solutions and an efficient mitigation of the re-formation of gaseous iodine from iodide ions. Investigations covered a broad range of anticipated severe accident conditions in the containment. The project additionally focused on possible application of the process to existing containment venting filter systems, specifically as a passive add-on for back-fitting. This paper describes the process

  5. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  6. Silk industry and carbon footprint mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, A. M.; Garcia, J. B., Jr.; Zonatti, W. F.; Silva-Santos, M. C.; Laktim, M. C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    Currently there is a concern with issues related to sustainability and more conscious consumption habits. The carbon footprint measures the total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced directly and indirectly by human activities and is usually expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents. The present study takes into account data collected in scientific literature regarding the carbon footprint, garments produced with silk fiber and the role of mulberry as a CO2 mitigation tool. There is an indication of a positive correlation between silk garments and carbon footprint mitigation when computed the cultivation of mulberry trees in this calculation. A field of them mitigates CO2 equivalents in a proportion of 735 times the weight of the produced silk fiber by the mulberry cultivated area. At the same time, additional researches are needed in order to identify and evaluate methods to advertise this positive correlation in order to contribute to a more sustainable fashion industry.

  7. Boosting the adoption and the reliability of renewable energy sources: Mitigating the large-scale wind power intermittency through vehicle to grid technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The integration of wind energy in the electricity sector and the adoption of electric vehicles in the transportation sector both have the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions individually as well as in tandem with Vehicle-to-Grid technology. This study aims to evaluate the greenhouse gas emission savings of mitigating intermittency resulting from the introduction of wind power through Vehicle-to-Grid technologies, as well as the extent to which the marginal electricity consumption from charging an electric vehicle fleet may weaken this overall environmental benefit. To this end, the comparisons are conducted in seven independent system operator regions. The results indicate that, in most cases, the emission savings of a combination of wind power and Vehicle-to-Grid technology outweighs the additional emissions from marginal electricity generation for electric vehicles. In addition, the fluctuations in newly-integrated wind power could be balanced in the future using EVs and V2G technology, provided that a moderate portion of EV owners is willing to provide V2G services. On the other hand, such a combination is not favorable if the Vehicle-to-Grid service participation rate is less than 5% of all electric vehicle owners within a particular region. - Highlights: • The environmental benefit of vehicle to grid systems as grid stabilizer is analyzed. • Emission savings of vehicle to grid and impacts of electric vehicles are compared. • Seven independent system operator regions are studied. • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are performed through a Monte Carlo Simulation.

  8. Health assessment and risk mitigation of railroad networks exposed to natural hazards using commercial remote sensing and spatial information technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    The overarching goal of this project was to integrate data from commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) technologies to create a novel data-driven decision making framework that empowers the railroad industry to monitor, assess, an...

  9. Use of PSA for design of emergency mitigation systems in a hydrogen production plant using General Atomics SI cycle technology. Section 2: Sulphuric acid decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, A.; Nelson, P.F.; Francois, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the past decades, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has prompted the development of technologies for the production of clean fuels through the use of zero emissions primary energy resources, such as heat from high temperature nuclear reactors. One of the most promising of these technologies is the generation of hydrogen by the sulphur-iodine cycle coupled to a high temperature nuclear reactor, initially proposed by General Atomics. By its nature and because these will have to be large-scale plants, development of these technologies from its current phase to its procurement and construction phase, will have to incorporate emergency mitigation systems in all its sections and nuclear-chemical 'tie-in points' to prevent unwanted events that can compromise the integrity of the plant and the nearby population centres. For the particular case of the SI thermochemical cycle, a large number of safety studies have been developed; however, most of these studies have focused on hydrogen explosions and failures in the primary cooling system. While these are the most catastrophic events, it is also true that there are many other events that without having a direct impact on the nuclear-chemical coupling, could jeopardise plant operations, safety of people in nearby communities and bring economic consequences. This study examined one of these events, which is the formation of a toxic cloud driven by an uncontrolled leakage of concentrated sulphuric acid in the second section of the General Atomics SI cycle. In this section, the concentration of sulphuric acid is close to 90% in conditions of high temperature and positive pressure. Under these conditions, sulphuric acid and sulphur oxides from the reactor would immediately form a toxic cloud, that in contact with operators could cause fatalities, or could produce choking, respiratory problems and eye irritation to people in neighbouring towns. The methodology used for this analysis is the design based on

  10. GHG emissions and other environmental impacts of indirect land use change mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah J.; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of measures to increase productivity and resource efficiency in food and bioenergy chains as well as to more sustainably manage land use can significantly increase the biofuel production potential while limiting the risk of causing indirect land use change (ILUC). However, the

  11. GHG emissions and other environmental impacts of indirect land use change mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen - Gondelach, Sarah; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre P C

    The implementation of measures to increase productivity and resource efficiency in food and bioenergy chains as well as to more sustainably manage land use can significantly increase the biofuel production potential while limiting the risk of causing indirect land use change (ILUC). However, the

  12. Development Impact Assessment Highlights Co-benefits of GHG Mitigation Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    This EC-LEDS document describes the Development Impact Assessment (DIA) process that explores interactions between development goals and the low emission development strategies. DIA aims to support informed decision-making by considering how policies and programs intended to meet one goal may impact other development priorities. Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries in developing and implementing LEDS. The program enhances partner country efforts by providing targeting technical assistance and building a shared global knowledge base on LEDS. is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries in developing and implementing LEDS. The program enhances partner country efforts by providing targeting technical assistance and building a shared global knowledge base on LEDS.

  13. Reducing GHG Emissions from Traditional Livestock Systems to Mitigate Changing Climate and Biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mushi, D.E.; Eik, L.O.; Bernués, A.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Sundstol, F.; Mo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change (CC) directly impacts the economy, ecosystems, water resources, weather events, health issues, desertification, sea level rise, and even political and social stability. The effects of CC affect different groups of societies differently. In Tanzania, the effects of CC have even

  14. Early drainage mitigates methane and nitrous oxide emissions from organically amended paddy soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tariq, Azeem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; de Tourdonnet, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly of methane (CH4) from flooded rice production systems contribute to global warming. Different crop management strategies, such as drainage of paddy soils and climate-smart residue management, are essential in order to mitigate GHG emissions from...... flooded rice systems, but they often conflict with practical management preferences.The aim of this study was to assess the potential of early-season drainage for mitigating CH4 and N2O emissions from soils with and without added organic amendments in relation to native soil organic carbon (SOC). Rice...

  15. 40 CFR 98.173 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.173 Calculating GHG emissions... for the process as specified in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. The... the gaseous fuel (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard...

  16. 40 CFR 98.413 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating GHG emissions. 98.413 Section 98.413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.413 Calculating...

  17. 40 CFR 98.73 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). MW = Molecular weight of the gaseous feedstock (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor... stream (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard conditions... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.73 Calculating GHG emissions. You...

  18. 40 CFR 98.163 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = Molecular weight of the gaseous fuel and feedstock (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.163 Calculating GHG emissions. You... = Volume of the gaseous fuel and feedstock used in month n (scf (at standard conditions of 68 °F and...

  19. 40 CFR 98.243 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feedstock). (MWf)i = Molecular weight of gaseous feedstock i (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.243 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) If you route all process vent emissions and emissions from combustion of process off-gas to one...

  20. FORECASTING MODEL OF GHG EMISSION IN MANUFACTURING SECTORS OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the modeling and forecasting the GHG emission of energy consumption in manufacturing sectors. The scope of the study is to analysis energy consumption and forecasting GHG emission of energy consumption for the next 10 years (2016-2025 and 25 years (2016-2040 by using ARIMAX model from the Input-output table of Thailand. The result shows that iron and steel has the highest value of energy consumption and followed by cement, fluorite, air transport, road freight transport, hotels and places of loading, coal and lignite, petrochemical products, other manufacturing, road passenger transport, respectively. The prediction results show that these models are effective in forecasting by measured by using RMSE, MAE, and MAPE. The results forecast of each model is as follows: 1 Model 1(2,1,1 shows that GHG emission will be increasing steadily and increasing at 25.17% by the year 2025 in comparison to 2016. 2 Model 2 (2,1,2 shows that GHG emission will be rising steadily and increasing at 41.51% by the year 2040 in comparison to 2016.

  1. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture.

  2. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  3. A survey and description of candidate technologies to support single shell tank waste retrieval, leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.E.; Teel, S.S.; Wegener, W.H.; Iwatate, D.F.

    1995-09-01

    This report was initially designed to provide a comprehensive review of potential leak detection technologies (LDTs). To this end, the report would contain several sections outlining the selection process. The purpose was twofold:(l) the reader would have a clear understanding of why specific technologies were recommended or not recommended, and (2) the reader could apply the same process in the future as new LDTs become available. Curtailment of project scope has prevented the development of the requisite judging criteria. The report has been modified accordingly. Section 2 of this report presents the baseline and guiding assumptions that were used to judge the LDTs. These assumptions include the environment where the technologies would be employed, the potential leak detection targets, and anticipated leak mechanisms. Section 3 presents a brief review of the methods used to arrive at the recommended LDTs. It also includes a description of the different technology families considered. Section 4 presents the recommended LDTs along with detailed descriptions of each that include sensitivities, operating parameters, and costs

  4. Study on engineering technologies in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. FY 2014. Development of recovery and mitigation technology on excavation damage (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, Masaaki; Hata, Koji; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Sato, Shin; Takeda, Nobufumi; Miura, Norihiko; Uyama, Masao; Kanata, Tsutomu; Ueda, Tadashi; Hara, Akira; Torisu, Seda; Ishida, Tomoko; Sato, Toshinori; Mikake, Shinichiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    The researches on engineering technology in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project consist of (1) development of design and construction planning technologies, (2) development of construction technology, (3) development of countermeasure technology, (4) development of technology for security and (5) development of technologies for restoration and/or reduction of the excavation damage. As a part of the second phase of the MIU project, research has been focused on the evaluation of engineering technologies including the initial design based on the data obtained during construction. In this research, examination of the plug applied to the future reflood test was conducted as a part of (5) development of technologies for restoration and/or reduction of the excavation damage relating to the engineering technology in the MIU (2014), specifically focused on (1) plug examination (e.g. functions, structure and material) and the quality control methods and (2) analytical evaluation of rock mass behavior around the plug through the reflood test. As a result, specifications of the plug were determined. These specifications should be able to meet requirements for the safety structure and surrounding rock mass against predicted maximum water pressure, temperature stress and seismic force, and for controlling the groundwater inflow, ensuring the access into the reflood gallery and the penetration performance of measurement cable. Also preliminary knowledge regarding the rock mass behavior around the plug after flooding the reflood gallery by installed plug was obtained. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  5. Short-term global warming mitigation costs of fischer-tropsch diesel production and policy scenarios in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Stroemman, Anders Hammer

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Increasing the supply of advanced biofuels like synthetic diesel produced from woody biomass require attractive investment environments so that novel technologies are deployed and technological learning can lead to reduced production costs and accelerated market diffusion. Technology-specific biofuel policy designed to minimize perceived risk may encourage shortterm investment into those biofuels offering superior environmental benefits - particularly climate mitigation benefits - thereby leading to steeper learning curves and deeper greenhouse gas (GHG) emission cuts over the medium- and long-term horizon. We perform both a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and an economic analysis of Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) produced from Norwegian forest biomass at an 'nth' commercial plant (a plant with the same technologies that have been employed in previous commercial plants). This is followed with a cost growth analysis in order to derive production costs likely to be borne by pioneer commercial plants in Norway in the short-term (2016). LCA results are used to calculate shortterm GHG mitigation costs. We then assess, through scenarios, how various policy measures and financial support mechanisms would reduce production costs for incentivizing short-term investment and expediting commercial deployment in Norway. Because 'top-down' or 'market pull' biofuel support policy like excise tax exemptions or carbon taxes do not directly encourage investment into specific biofuel technologies like wood-FTD in the short term, we choose to analyze three 'bottom-up' or 'market push' policy scenarios to assess their effects on reducing levelized unit production costs. These include a Capital Grant, a low-interest Loan Guarantee, a Corporate Tax Credit, and a Feedstock Credit scenario. Under the Capital Grant scenario, we assess the change in levelized production and thus GHG abatement costs when a 50% capital grant (TCI) is

  6. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  7. Digital forensic technologies as e-fraud risk mitigation tools in the banking industry: Evidence from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewangu Dzomira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates digital analytical tools and technologies used in electronic fraud prevention and detection, used in the banking industry. The paper is based on a descriptive study which studied digital forensics and cyber fraud phenomenon using content analysis. To obtain the data questionnaires and interviews were administered to the selected informants from 22 banks. Convenience and judgemental sampling techniques were used. It was found out that fraud detection and prevention tools and technologies would be most effective way of combating e-fraud if they can be utilized. It is concluded that banking institutions should reshape their anti-fraud strategies to be effective by considering fraud detection efforts using advanced analytics and related tools, software and application to get more efficient oversight

  8. Gender involvement in manual material handling (mmh) tasks in agriculture and technology intervention to mitigate the resulting musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Sinwal, Neelima; Rathore, Hemu

    2012-01-01

    The lifting and carrying of loads in agriculture on small landholdings are unavoidable. Rural communities often lack access to appropriate technologies which may result in various health hazards. The objective was to study gender participation in agricultural activities involving manual material handling tasks, to assess MSDs experienced in various MMH tasks and to evaluate traditional method and designed technology. The study was conducted on 100 agricultural workers. Data on gender participation in MMH tasks in household, animal husbandry and agriculture and resulting MSDs was gathered. Pre and post assessment of technology intervention was done for NIOSH Lifting Index, QEC, and RPE. The results revealed greater susceptibility of females to musculoskeletal problems in most of the household and animal husbandry tasks. The hand trucks designed were pushing type with power grasp handle. The respondents were advised to carry 5 kg of weight per lift instead of lifting more weight in one lift/minute while filling the hand truck. By decreasing the weight and increasing the number of lifts per minute the respondents were seen falling in green zone indicating significant reduction in NIOSH lifting index. QEC scores concluded that for filling the hand truck 5 kg of weight should be carried to keep the exposure level low.

  9. 0-6696 : incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long-range transportation planning : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be : an important focus area for state, local, and : federal agencies. The transportation sector is the : second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in : the United States, and Texas contributes the : highe...

  10. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  11. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Peninsular Malaysia was modeled to minimize cost or GHG emissions. It is found that Malaysia can meet the 330 MW biomass electricity target via co-firing with a cost reduction of about 24 million compared to 100% coal. Optimal GHG reduction for co-firing was found to be 17 Mt lower than 100% coal at a cost of carbon mitigation (COM) of about 22.50/t CO2-eq mitigated. This COM is lower than an implied COM under the newly introduced levy on heavy electricity users in Malaysia. Gasoline consumed roughly 370 PJ of energy in Malaysia's transportation sector in 2009. Ethanol can be blended with gasoline up to 10% by volume in most vehicles. Peninsular Malaysia's 12.2 Mt/yr of agro-forestry residues can be used for potentially producing 3.8 billion liters ethanol annually. Using a large scale mixed-integer linear optimization, it is found that if Malaysia introduces a 10% ethanol-gasoline blend (E10), approximately 2.9 Mt (24%) of the residues would be used at 5.4 million more cost compared to 100% gasoline (reference case) estimated at 5.2 billion/yr. In the E10 scenario, all cities receive 10% ethanol altogether producing 900 million liters of ethanol. The GHG emissions for 100% gasoline is estimated at 26.4 Mt/yr. The minimum GHG emissions if E10 is implemented in Peninsular Malaysia was found to be 24.5 Mt, 2.0 Mt lower than 100% gasoline, which implies a 4.70/t CO2-eq cost of carbon mitigation (COM). Since only 24% of the available residues are used to produce the E10, the possibility of producing the E10 and electricity via co-firing with coal simultaneously was investigated. This is done by combining the fuel (gasoline/E10) model with the electricity (coal-only/co-firing) model. The costs of the reference case combined scenario (100% gasoline and 100% coal) is estimated at 6.3 billion/yr and emits 63 Mt/yr of GHG emissions. The minimum cost for producing the E10 and co-firing is found to be 30 million lower than the combined reference case. This is achieved by using 5.9 Mt

  12. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Clayton, Mary E; Webber, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m 3 -enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  13. Analysis of motorcycle fleet in Hanoi for estimation of air pollution emission and climate mitigation co-benefit of technology implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Thuy Phuong, Mai Thi; Permadi, Didin Agustian

    2012-11-01

    A fleet of over two million motorcycles (MC) in Hanoi is believed to contribute a substantial emission of air pollutants and climate forcers but has not been thoroughly characterized. This study conducted a survey of the MC technologies and activities in Hanoi using questionnaires, GPS monitoring, and video camera in 2008. The data were collected for three typical road types (highways, arterials, residential streets) in 3 zones of the city. Majority of MC in Hanoi were relatively new (3.6 years), had 4-stroke engine, but only 6% was equipped with catalyst exhaust control devices. About 35% of the fleet did not comply with any EURO standards. The MC daily driving was 20 km, mostly done on arterial streets. The main driving features in Hanoi arterials and residential streets were of low speeds with frequent starts/stops and idling. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model produced adjusted emission factors (EFs) that were compared with the limited available measurement data. The fleet emission was estimated for 2008 as a base case and for two “what-if” faster technology implementation scenarios: scenario 1 assumed that the entire fleet in 2008 conformed at least EURO2 and scenario 2 assumed 100% MC met the EURO3 standard. Total emissions from the fleet in 2008 of CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CH4 were 158, 51.5, 9.5, 0.17, 2.4 and 9.5 kt, respectively. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehydes, formaldehydes and benzene were 0.26, 1.2, 4.9 and 2.1 kt, respectively. Faster EURO3 technology intrusion in scenario 2 would significantly reduce the emission of pollutants (by 53-94%) and climate forcers in CO2-equivalent (53% for 20-year and 38% for 100-year horizon), which tripled the reductions obtained under scenario 1. Substantial co-benefits for air quality and climate forcer mitigation could be achieved by the faster technology implementation.

  14. Use of probabilistic safety analysis for design of emergency mitigation systems in hydrogen producer plant with sulfur-iodine technology, Section II: sulfuric acid decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, A.; Nelson E, P. F.; Francois L, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    Over the last decades, the need to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases has prompted the development of technologies for the production of clean fuels through the use of primary energy resources of zero emissions, as the heat of nuclear reactors of high temperature. Within these technologies, one of the most promising is the hydrogen production by sulfur-iodine cycle coupled to a high temperature reactor initially proposed by General Atomics. By their nature and because it will be large-scale plants, the development of these technologies from its present phase to its procurement and construction, will have to incorporate emergency mitigation systems in all its parts and interconnections to prevent undesired events that could put threaten the plant integrity and the nearby area. For the particular case of sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle, most analysis have focused on hydrogen explosions and failures in the primary cooling systems. While these events are the most catastrophic, is that there are also many other events that even taking less direct consequences, could jeopardize the plant operation, the people safety of nearby communities and carry the same economic consequences. In this study we analyzed one of these events, which is the formation of a toxic cloud prompted by uncontrolled leakage of concentrated sulfuric acid in the second section of sulfur-iodine process of General Atomics. In this section, the sulfuric acid concentration is near to 90% in conditions of high temperature and positive pressure. Under these conditions the sulfuric acid and sulfur oxides from the reactor will form a toxic cloud that the have contact with the plant personnel could cause fatalities, or to reach a town would cause suffocation, respiratory problems and eye irritation. The methodology used for this study is the supported design in probabilistic safety analysis. Mitigation systems were postulated based on the isolation of a possible leak, the neutralization of a pond of

  15. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  16. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, P.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is the outcome of a policy...... that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market....

  17. Measuring reporting verifying. A primer on MRV for nationally appropriate mitigation actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, M. (ed.); Luetken, S.; Holm Olsen, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aalders, E.; Pretlove, B.; Peters, N. (Det Norske Veritas, Hellerup (Denmark))

    2012-03-15

    The requirements for measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are one of the crucial topics on the agenda of international negotiations to address climate change mitigation. According to agreements so far, the general guidelines for domestic MRV are to be developed by Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)1. Further, the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) will be conducting international consultations and analysis (ICA) of biennial update reports (BUR) to improve transparency of mitigation actions, which should be measured, reported and verified. 2. What is clear from undergoing discussions both at SBSTA and at SBI is that MRV for NAMAs should not be a burden for controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions connected to economic activities. Instead, the MRV process should facilitate mitigation actions; encourage the redirection of investments and address concerns regarding carbon content of emission intensive operations of private and public companies and enterprises worldwide. While MRV requirements are being shaped within the Convention, there are a number of initiatives supporting developing countries moving forward with NAMA development and demonstration activities. How these actions shall be measured, reported and verified, however, remain unanswered. MRV is not new. It is present in most existing policies and frameworks related to climate change mitigation. With an aim to contribute to international debate and capacity building on this crucial issue, the UNEP Risoe Centre in cooperation with UNDP, are pleased to present this publication that through the direct collaboration with Det Norske Veritas (DNV) builds on existing MRV practices in current carbon markets; provides insights on how MRV for NAMAs can be performed and identifies elements and drivers to be considered when designing adequate MRV systems for NAMAs in developing countries. This primer is the second

  18. Effects of Low-Carbon Technologies and End-Use Electrification on Energy-Related Greenhouse Gases Mitigation in China by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions in China have been increasing in line with its energy consumption and economic growth. Major means for energy-related greenhouse gases mitigation in the foreseeable future are transition to less carbon intensive energy supplies and structural changes in energy consumption. In this paper, a bottom-up model is built to examine typical projected scenarios for energy supply and demand, with which trends of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 can be analyzed. Results show that low-carbon technologies remain essential contributors to reducing emissions and altering emissions trends up to 2050. By pushing the limit of current practicality, emissions reduction can reach 20 to 28 percent and the advent of carbon peaking could shift from 2040 to 2030. In addition, the effect of electrification at end-use sectors is studied. Results show that electrifying transport could reduce emissions and bring the advent of carbon peaking forward, but the effect is less significant compared with low-carbon technologies. Moreover, it implies the importance of decarbonizing power supply before electrifying end-use sectors.

  19. The roles of weather modification technology in mitigation of the peat fires during a period of dry season in Bengkalis, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhyavitri, A.; Perdana, M. A.; Sutikno, S.; Widodo, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    The annual peat fire disasters have suffered human life, deteriorated peat land ecosystems, and caused severe economic losses in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore during a period of 2014-2016. The objective of this study is to investigate to what extent the weather modification technology (WMT) may play its roles in increasing the precipitation rates in order to mitigate the peat fires disaster in Bengkalis, Riau Province, Indonesia. The study obtained the precipitation rates data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) satellite during the period of 2014, 2015 and 2016. The data then statistically analyzed using the Grads software package. While the process of WMT at the designated research location was evaluated together between the Artificial Rain Unit of BPPT (Agency for the Assessment and Application Technology), and the Engineering Faculty, University of Riau, 2016. The research showed that the WMT increased the rainfall rates during the dry season within the study area by 8% (520.7 mm to 557 mm) in the 3 months period (July 14 -October 6, 2016), and reducing significantly hotspots by 88.6% from 6.725 in 2014 to 770 in 2016. Hence, it confirmed that the application of technical WMT procedures may increase precipitation rates and reduce the number of hot spots in Bengkalis.

  20. Cities' Role in Mitigating United States Food System Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareb, Eugene A; Heller, Martin C; Guthrie, Peter M

    2018-05-15

    Current trends of urbanization, population growth, and economic development have made cities a focal point for mitigating global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The substantial contribution of food consumption to climate change necessitates urban action to reduce the carbon intensity of the food system. While food system GHG mitigation strategies often focus on production, we argue that urban influence dominates this sector's emissions and that consumers in cities must be the primary drivers of mitigation. We quantify life cycle GHG emissions of the United States food system through data collected from literature and government sources producing an estimated total of 3800 kg CO 2 e/capita in 2010, with cities directly influencing approximately two-thirds of food sector GHG emissions. We then assess the potential for cities to reduce emissions through selected measures; examples include up-scaling urban agriculture and home delivery of grocery options, which each may achieve emissions reductions on the order of 0.4 and ∼1% of this total, respectively. Meanwhile, changes in waste management practices and reduction of postdistribution food waste by 50% reduce total food sector emissions by 5 and 11%, respectively. Consideration of the scale of benefits achievable through policy goals can enable cities to formulate strategies that will assist in achieving deep long-term GHG emissions targets.

  1. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH 4 generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application

  2. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrotas, George, E-mail: mavrotas@chemeng.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Zografou, Athens, 15780 (Greece); Skoulaxinou, Sotiria [EPEM SA, 141 B Acharnon Str., Athens, 10446 (Greece); Gakis, Nikos [FACETS SA, Agiou Isidorou Str., Athens, 11471 (Greece); Katsouros, Vassilis [Athena Research and Innovation Center, Artemidos 6 and Epidavrou Str., Maroussi, 15125 (Greece); Georgopoulou, Elena [National Observatory of Athens, Thisio, Athens, 11810 (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the

  3. The role of technology, product lifetime, and energy efficiency in climate mitigation: A case study of air conditioners in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact on the life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from a specific durable good (i.e., household air conditioners in this study) of industrial technology changes, product lifetime changes, and energy efficiency improvements. I proposed a comprehensive structural decomposition analysis including two factors of average lifetime and energy efficiency trend of household air conditioners and applied the decomposition method to the Japanese environmental input-output tables of 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. The empirical results show that “Household air-conditioner sector” itself contributed to reducing life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from household air conditioners, while other sectors such as “On-site power generation sector” and “Retail trade sector” contributed to increasing life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from household air conditioners. I also conducted combined scenario analysis about reduction potential of product lifetime and energy efficiency of air conditioners and the results showed the reduction rate of energy efficiency necessary for maintain CO_2 emissions in 2005 at 1990 level on each average lifetime scenario. (e.g. if average lifetime of air conditioners is shortened by 1 year, energy efficiency of air conditioners have to be further improved by 20.6% from current level. - Highlights: • This study provides a decomposition framework for air conditioner’s CO_2 emissions. • Technology, product lifetime and energy efficiency are considered in the framework. • “Household air conditioner” sector contributed to reducing CO_2 emissions largely. • “On-site power generation” indirectly contributed to increasing CO_2 emissions. • I showed the improvement rates of energy efficiency to achieve a reduction target.

  4. The indirect costs and benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect costs of GHG projects are very important in the evaluation of such projects. In many cases they are more important than the direct costs. This paper has shown what such costs consist of and how they may be estimated. As countries prepare their mitigation strategies, it is very important that they develop tools for the assessment of these indirect costs and use these tools in the appropriate manner. Hopefully, this paper will point them in the right direction. (au) 11 refs

  5. Accessing international financing for climate change mitigation - A guidebook for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limaye, D.R.; Zhu, X.

    2012-08-15

    This guidebook has been prepared by the UNEP Risoe Centre (URC) as part of its Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project. The TNA project assists developing countries to identify national mitigation and adaptation technology priorities and to develop Technology Action Plans (TAPs) for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change adaptation. This guidebook provides information to help TNA countries better identify and access financial resources for the mitigation activities included in their national TAPs. This guidebook covers both mitigation 'projects' (such as a wind farm or a solar PV generation facility) and 'programmes' (such as a credit line for financing energy efficiency projects in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), or bulk procurement and distribution of compact fluorescent lamps to households). The primary emphasis is on multilateral and bilateral sources of financing but the guidebook also includes an overview of private funding sources and public-private partnerships (PPPs). This guidebook only covers international financing for mitigation actions in developing countries. For example, EU funding for EU member countries and Chinese funding for mitigation in China are not covered in this guidebook. However, the EU funding for mitigation in developing countries and Chinese funding supporting mitigation in other developing countries are included. Special funds established in some developing countries by pooling financing support from developed countries are also covered in this guidebook. Information on the financing sources was compiled in a standard format and reviewed and analysed to categorise the financing sources. For the multilateral and bilateral financing sources, the available information was used to define their major characteristics (such as geographic coverage, technology/sector focus, funding sources, financing objectives, financing mechanisms, and management and governance). In addition, the

  6. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

    2009-01-01

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program

  7. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijven, Bas J. van; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vliet, Jasper van; Mendoza Beltran, Angelica; Deetman, Sebastiaan; Elzen, Michel G.J. den

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE modelling framework. Energy use in regions and economic sectors is affected differently by ambitious climate policies. We find that the potential for emission reduction varies widely between regions. With respect to technology choices in the power sector, we find major application of CO 2 storage in Indonesia and India, whereas Korea and India apply more solar and wind. Projections for Japan include a (debatable) large share of nuclear power. China and, India, and South-East Asia, show a diverse technology choice in the power sector. For the industry sector, we find that the recent rapid growth in China limits the potential for emission reduction in the next decades, assuming that recently built coal-based industry facilities are in use for the next decades. For the residential sector, the model results show that fewer households switch from traditional fuels to modern fuels in GHG mitigation scenarios. With respect to co-benefits, we find lower imports of fossil energy in mitigation scenarios and a clear reduction of air pollutant emissions. - Highlights: ► The potential for emission reduction varies widely between regions. ► Some regions have attractive CO 2 storage capacity; others have low-cost solar/wind potential. ► The recent rapid growth of Chinese industry may limit emission reduction potential for decades. ► Fewer households switch from traditional fuels to modern fuels in mitigation scenarios. ► Mitigation scenarios show less fossil energy import and reduction of air pollutant emission.

  8. Hydroelectric dams in Amazon as source of GHG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Schaeffer, R.; Santos, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    A recent paper by Fearnside points out that hydroelectric development in Amazonia is a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. This conclusion is in contrast to the common belief that hydroelectric dams are better than fossil fuel use in electric power generation, from the view point of GHG emissions. The authors have considered both CH 4 and CO 2 emissions taking into account the instantaneous radiative forcing due to a unit increase in the concentration of gases, the decay times of gases in the atmosphere and the emissions patterns of emissions vary depending on biomass density and type of the forest area flooded, as well as on depth of flooding. As the Fearnside paper is more concerned with CO 2 emissions from the above water biomass, the authors' focus will be restricted to the formulae for calculating the cumulative effect of CO 2

  9. Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Generotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc, along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range.

  10. Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generotti, Silvia; Cirlini, Martina; Malachova, Alexandra; Sulyok, Michael; Berthiller, Franz; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Suman, Michele

    2015-07-24

    In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc), along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE) schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range.

  11. Deoxynivalenol & Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Mitigation through Bakery Production Strategies: Effective Experimental Design within Industrial Rusk-Making Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generotti, Silvia; Cirlini, Martina; Malachova, Alexandra; Sulyok, Michael; Berthiller, Franz; Dall’Asta, Chiara; Suman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific field, there is a progressive awareness about the potential implications of food processing on mycotoxins especially concerning thermal treatments. High temperatures may cause, in fact, transformation or degradation of these compounds. This work is aimed to study the fate of mycotoxins during bakery processing, focusing on deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3Glc), along the chain of industrial rusk production. Starting from naturally contaminated bran, we studied how concentrations of DON and DON3Glc are influenced by modifying ingredients and operative conditions. The experiments were performed using statistical Design of Experiment (DoE) schemes to synergistically explore the relationship between mycotoxin reduction and the indicated processing transformation parameters. All samples collected during pilot plant experiments were analyzed with an LC-MS/MS multimycotoxin method. The obtained model shows a good fitting, giving back relevant information in terms of optimization of the industrial production process, in particular suggesting that time and temperature in baking and toasting steps are highly relevant for minimizing mycotoxin level in rusks. A reduction up to 30% for DON and DON3Glc content in the finished product was observed within an acceptable technological range. PMID:26213969

  12. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  14. Short-Term Power Plant GHG Emissions Forecasting Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power generation in the total emissions at the global level was about 25 percent. From January 1st, 2013 Croatian facilities have been involved in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). The share of the ETS sector in total GHG emissions in Croatia in 2012 was about 30 percent, where power plants and heat generation facilities contributed to almost 50 percent. Since 2013 power plants are obliged to purchase all emission allowances. The paper describes the short-term climate forecasting model of greenhouse gas emissions from power plants while covering the daily load diagram of the system. Forecasting is done on an hourly domain typically for one day, it is possible and more days ahead. Forecasting GHG emissions in this way would enable power plant operators to purchase additional or sell surplus allowances on the market at the time. Example that describes the operation of the above mentioned forecasting model is given at the end of the paper.(author).

  15. Co-benefits, trade-offs, barriers and policies for greenhouse gas mitigation in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mercedes; Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Harper, Richard; Mbow, Cheikh; Ravindranat, Nijavalli H; Sperling, Frank; Haberl, Helmut; Pinto, Alexandre de Siqueira; Smith, Pete

    2014-10-01

    The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector is responsible for approximately 25% of anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation and agricultural emissions from livestock, soil and nutrient management. Mitigation from the sector is thus extremely important in meeting emission reduction targets. The sector offers a variety of cost-competitive mitigation options with most analyses indicating a decline in emissions largely due to decreasing deforestation rates. Sustainability criteria are needed to guide development and implementation of AFOLU mitigation measures with particular focus on multifunctional systems that allow the delivery of multiple services from land. It is striking that almost all of the positive and negative impacts, opportunities and barriers are context specific, precluding generic statements about which AFOLU mitigation measures have the greatest promise at a global scale. This finding underlines the importance of considering each mitigation strategy on a case-by-case basis, systemic effects when implementing mitigation options on the national scale, and suggests that policies need to be flexible enough to allow such assessments. National and international agricultural and forest (climate) policies have the potential to alter the opportunity costs of specific land uses in ways that increase opportunities or barriers for attaining climate change mitigation goals. Policies governing practices in agriculture and in forest conservation and management need to account for both effective mitigation and adaptation and can help to orient practices in agriculture and in forestry towards global sharing of innovative technologies for the efficient use of land resources. Different policy instruments, especially economic incentives and regulatory approaches, are currently being applied however, for its successful implementation it is critical to understand how land-use decisions are made and how new social, political and economic forces

  16. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  17. South Africa's greenhouse gas emissions under business-as-usual: The technical basis of 'Growth without Constraints' in the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Harald, E-mail: Harald.WInkler@uct.ac.za [University of Cape Town, Energy Research Centre, Upper Campus, Rondebosch, W Cape 7701 (South Africa); Hughes, Alison; Marquard, Andrew [University of Cape Town, Energy Research Centre, Upper Campus, Rondebosch, W Cape 7701 (South Africa); Haw, Mary [PJCarew Consulting, 103 Hout Street, Cape Town 8001 (South Africa); Merven, Bruno [University of Cape Town, Energy Research Centre, Upper Campus, Rondebosch, W Cape 7701 (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    This article describes the methodology for projecting business-as-usual GHG trajectory developed in technical work for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios (LTMSs), in particular the 'Growth without Constraints' (GWCs) scenario. Technically rigorous projections are important as developing countries define their commitment to act on mitigation relative to business-as-usual (BAU). The key drivers for the GWC scenario include GDP (both growth rate and composition), population, discount rate and technological change. GDP emerged as an important driver in the research for LTMS and further analysis. If South Africa's economy grows without constraints over the next few decades, GHG emissions will continue to escalate, multiplying more than four-fold by mid-century. There is little gain in energy efficiency, and emissions continue to be dominated by energy use and supply, the latter remaining coal-based in GWC. We analyse the projections (not predictions) in relation to various measures. The LTMS GWC scenario is compared to other projections, nationally and internationally. A broadly comparable projection is being used at national level, for electricity planning. When compared to projections from international models, we find that the assumptions about GDP growth rates are a key factor, and suggest that comparisons of global data-sets against national analyses is important. - Highlights: > Specifies business-as-usual GHG trajectory for South Africa's Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios. > Provides details on methodology, drivers of emissions and key parameters. > In a scenario of Growth without Constraints, emissions would quadruple by 2050. > Analysis of resulting emission projection, not a prediction. > Compares projections from other national and international models.

  18. Changes of energy-related GHG emissions in China: An empirical analysis from sectoral perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xianshuo; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Nan; Kang, Jidong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors impacting China’s emissions from a sectoral perspective. • Sector-specific policies and measures for emissions mitigation were evaluated. • Economic growth dominantly increased the emissions in the economic sectors. • Energy intensity decrease primarily reduced the emissions in the economic sectors. • Residential emissions growth was mainly driven by increase in per-capita energy use. - Abstract: In order to better understand sectoral greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, this study utilized a logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to study emission changes from a sectoral perspective. Based on the decomposition results, recently implemented policies and measures for emissions mitigation in China were evaluated. The results show that for the economic sectors, economic growth was the dominant factor in increasing emissions from 1996 to 2011, whereas the decline in energy intensity was primarily responsible for the emission decrease. As a result of the expansion of industrial development, economic structure change also contributed to growth in emissions. For the residential sector, increased emissions were primarily driven by an increase in per-capita energy use, which is partially confirmed by population migration. For all sectors, the shift in energy mix and variation in emission coefficient only contributed marginally to the emissions changes. The decomposition results imply that energy efficiency policy in China has been successful during the past decade, i.e., Top 1000 Priorities, Ten-Key Projects programs, the establishment of fuel consumption limits and vehicle emission standards, and encouragement of efficient appliances. Moreover, the results also indicate that readjusting economic structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is urgently required in order to further mitigate emissions in China

  19. Measuring the Regional Availability of Forest Biomass for Biofuels and the Potential of GHG Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is an important resource for producing bioenergy and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The State of Michigan in the United States (U.S. is one region recognized for its high potential of supplying forest biomass; however, the long-term availability of timber harvests and the associated harvest residues from this area has not been fully explored. In this study time trend analyses was employed for long term timber assessment and developed mathematical models for harvest residue estimation, as well as the implications of use for ethanol. The GHG savings potential of ethanol over gasoline was also modeled. The methods were applied in Michigan under scenarios of different harvest solutions, harvest types, transportation distances, conversion technologies, and higher heating values over a 50-year period. Our results indicate that the study region has the potential to supply 0.75–1.4 Megatonnes (Mt dry timber annually and less than 0.05 Mt of dry residue produced from these harvests. This amount of forest biomass could generate 0.15–1.01 Mt of ethanol, which contains 0.68–17.32 GJ of energy. The substitution of ethanol for gasoline as transportation fuel has potential to reduce emissions by 0.043–1.09 Mt CO2eq annually. The developed method is generalizable in other similar regions of different countries for bioenergy related analyses.

  20. Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Due to High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in Electric Grid Systems Using Three-Phase APF/STATCOM Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajahat Ullah Khan Tareen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes an analytical review on the comparison of three-phase static compensator (STATCOM and active power filter (APF inverter topologies and their control schemes using industrial standards and advanced high-power configurations. Transformerless and reduced switch count topologies are the leading technologies in power electronics that aim to reduce system cost and offer the additional benefits of small volumetric size, lightweight and compact structure, and high reliability. A detailed comparison of the topologies, control strategies and implementation structures of grid-connected high-power converters is presented. However, reducing the number of power semiconductor devices, sensors, and control circuits requires complex control strategies. This study focuses on different topological devices, namely, passive filters, shunt and hybrid filters, and STATCOMs, which are typically used for power quality improvement. Additionally, appropriate control schemes, such as sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM and space vector PWM techniques, are selected. According to recent developments in shunt APF/STATCOM inverters, simulation and experimental results prove the effectiveness of APF/STATCOM systems for harmonic mitigation based on the defined limit in IEEE-519.

  1. The Effect of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on Drought Impacts in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we present a methodology for analyzing the economic benefits in the U.S. of changes in drought frequency and severity due to global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. We construct reduced-form models of the effect of drought on agriculture and reservoir recreation i...

  2. Exploring policy strategies for mitigating HFC emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, M.; Uiterkamp, Anton J. M. Schoot

    The growing demand for cooling throughout the world, possibly increased by global climate change, requires the implementation of policies to mitigate the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy and refrigerant use in the refrigeration and air conditioning (RAC) sector. This article aims

  3. Fundamental cooperation project in fiscal 2000 for improving international energy consumption efficiency. Investigations in relation with prevention of global warming (analytical comparison centering around cost effectiveness related to greenhouse effect gas (GHG) reduction in overseas countries); 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsu ka chosa nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo - chikyu ondanka boshi kanren chosa hokokusho. Kaigai deno GHG sakugen ni kansuru hiyo tai koka wo chushin to shita bunseki hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to provide discussion materials for measures to achieve the GHG emission reduction target, investigations and discussions have been made on the following subjects: cost effectiveness of reducing GHG emission by target countries and target technologies, use of maps and databases on the possible reduction quantity of GHG emission, the targeted countries and business categories. Regarding the target countries, investigations were made on the general situation of the energy consumption efficiency, difference between their energy consumption efficiency by industries and that in Japan, and the GHG emission quantities by sectors. As a result, 31 counties hopeful in reducing CO2 emission were selected. With regard to technologies to reduce CO2 emission, technologies having been practically used and proliferated in Japan were used as the base, whereas 43 technologies were systematized for such departments as industries, business operations, households, and transportation. According to a trial calculation on the effect of CO2 emission reduction, if the 43 technologies are applied to the 31 target countries, CO2 emission reduction of 698 million tons as a whole would be possible, for which the required expense was calculated as 114.4 trillion yen. In evaluating the CO2 emission reducing technologies, the cost effectiveness of each technology was evaluated by cost per GHG emission reduction of 1t-CO2. (NEDO)

  4. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    Industrial bio-energy systems provide diverse opportunities for abating anthropogenic greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and for advancing other important policy objectives. The confluence of potential contributions to important social, economic, and environmental policy objectives with very real challenges to deployment creates rich opportunities for study. In particular, the analyses developed in this thesis aim to increase understanding of how industrial bio-energy may be applied to abate GHG emissions in prospective energy markets, the relative merits of alternate bio-energy systems, the extent to which public support for developing such systems is justified, and the public policy instruments that may be capable of providing such support. This objective is advanced through analysis of specific industrial bio-energy technologies, in the form of bottom-up engineering-economic analyses, to determine their economic performance relative to other mitigation options. These bottom-up analyses are used to inform parameter definitions in two higher-level stochastic models that explicitly account for uncertainty in key model parameters, including capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs. One of these models is used to develop supply curves for electricity generation and carbon mitigation from biomass-coal cofire in the U.S. The other is used to characterize the performance of multiple bio-energy systems in the context of a competitive market for low-carbon energy products. The results indicate that industrial bio-energy systems are capable of making a variety of potentially important contributions under scenarios that value anthropogenic GHG emissions. In the near term, cofire of available biomass in existing coal fired power plants has the potential to provide substantial emissions reductions at reasonable costs. Carbon prices between 30 and 70 per ton carbon could induce reductions in U.S. carbon emissions by 100 to 225 megatons carbon ("Mt

  5. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Analysis of materials related to IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Program (IEA/GHG); 1999 nendo EIA/GHG kanren shiryo bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Materials related to IEA Greenhouse Gas Rand D Program (IEA/GHG) were analyzed. The Sleipner carbon dioxide underground storage workshop is acting to narrow themes for understanding the technologies, observation methods, and research activities. The IEA/GHG has verified the known facts about ocean storage of carbon dioxide, and discussed the important development targets. Researches were made on improving methane recovery efficiency and the possibility of sealing carbon dioxide by injecting carbon dioxide in order to improve recovery of carbon bed methane. The IEA/GHG has developed a methodology for complete fuel cycles of LNG, and evaluated cost and benefit of reducing greenhouse effect gas emission. A process combining electric power generation, carbon dioxide absorption and hot heat energy utilization can reduce emission of carbon dioxide into atmosphere at relatively low cost and low energy loss. The paper also describes reduction of greenhouse effect gas emitted from cement factories, petroleum refining and petro-chemical industries, and offshore petroleum and gas facilities. It also describes influence of forestry on carbon absorption and timber markets. Case studies have discussed effects of modifying power generation plants. (NEDO)

  6. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  7. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  8. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T; Bashmakov, I; Bernstein, L; Bogner, J; Bosch, P; Dave, R; Davidson, O; Fisher, B; Grubb, M; Gupta, S; Halsnaes, K; Heij, B; Kahn Ribeiro, S; Kobayashi, S; Levine, M; Martino, D; Masera Cerutti, O; Metz, B; Meyer, L; Nabuurs, G J; Najam, A; Nakicenovic, N; Holger Rogner, H; Roy, J; Sathaye, J; Schock, R; Shukla, P; Sims, R; Smith, P; Swart, R; Tirpak, D; Urge-Vorsatz, D; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  9. Tooling up urban planning for climate change mitigation in Malaysian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, L W; Yap, Z C; Ho, C S

    2014-01-01

    The city's 2-dimensional spatial structure and 3-dimensional form significantly influence its energy and GHG emission intensity. In rapidly developing urban-regions, the ability of the local planning authorities to quantify the spatial structure and form of existing urban areas, new developments and the emergent urban-region in terms of GHG emission is vital to any effective local, national and global climate change mitigation effort. While a wide array of tools has been developed for assessing built environment sustainability at various spatial scales, these are predominantly eco-efficiency rating tools that do not model the 'spatial structure-GHG' relationship and do not illustrate the GHG implications of urban structure and form, which crucially inform local planning decisions with respect to climate change mitigation. This paper takes the first steps in analysing three spatial-based planning models (Envision Tomorrow, GHGProof, URBEMIS) that estimate GHG emissions towards assessing their adaptability for application in Malaysian cities. It looks into the models' i nner working , unpacking the variables and their relationships; assumptions and conversion rates used; and their data requirement and structure. The models' characteristics and features are critically compared to evaluate their capabilities, limitations and relevance to the Malaysian urban planning context, particularly in terms of data availability

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 rice, 45.54 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  11. Evaluation of additional biogeochemical impacts on mitigation pathways in an energy sytem integrated assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessens, O.

    2017-12-01

    Within the last IPCC AR5 a large and systematic sensitivity study around available technologies and timing of policies applied in IAMs to achieve the 2°C target has been conducted. However the simple climate representations included in IAMs are generally tuned to the results of ensemble means. This may result in hiding within the ensemble mean results possible challenging mitigation pathways for the economy or the technology future scenarios. This work provides new insights on the sensitivity of the socio-economic response to different climate factors under a 2°C climate change target in order to help guide future efforts to reduce uncertainty in the climate mitigation decisions. The main objective is to understand and bring new insights on how future global warming will affect the natural biochemical feedbacks on the climate system and what could be the consequences of these feedbacks on the anthropogenic emission pathways with a specific focus on the energy-economy system. It specifically focuses on three issues of the climate representation affecting the energy system transformation and GHG emissions pathways: 1- Impacts of the climate sensitivity (or TCR); 2- Impacts of warming on the radiative forcing (cloudiness,...); 3- Impacts of warming on the carbon cycle (carbon cycle feedback). We use the integrated assessment model TIAM-UCL to examine the mitigation pathways compatible with the 2C target depending on assumptions regarding the 3 issues of the climate representation introduced above. The following key conclusions drawn from this study are that mitigation to 2°C is still possible under strong climate sensitivity (TCR), strong carbon cycle amplification or positive radiative forcing feedback. However, this level of climate mitigation will require a significant transformation in the way we produce and consume energy. Carbon capture and sequestration on electricity generation, industry and biomass is part of the technology pool needed to achieve this

  12. GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using

  13. The potential role for management of U.S. public lands in greenhouse gas mitigation and climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia P; Cooley, David M; Galik, Christopher S

    2012-03-01

    Management of forests, rangelands, and wetlands on public lands, including the restoration of degraded lands, has the potential to increase carbon sequestration or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions beyond what is occurring today. In this paper we discuss several policy options for increasing GHG mitigation on public lands. These range from an extension of current policy by generating supplemental mitigation on public lands in an effort to meet national emissions reduction goals, to full participation in an offsets market by allowing GHG mitigation on public lands to be sold as offsets either by the overseeing agency or by private contractors. To help place these policy options in context, we briefly review the literature on GHG mitigation and public lands to examine the potential for enhanced mitigation on federal and state public lands in the United States. This potential will be tempered by consideration of the tradeoffs with other uses of public lands, the needs for climate change adaptation, and the effects on other ecosystem services.

  14. The complexity and challenges of determining GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from grid electricity consumption and conservation in LCA (life cycle assessment) – A methodological review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Kiviluoma, Juha; Saikku, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The way in which GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions associated with grid electricity consumption is handled in different LCA (life cycle assessment) studies, varies significantly. Apart from differences in actual research questions, methodological choices and data set selection have a significant impact on the outcomes. These inconsistencies result in difficulties to compare the findings of various LCA studies. This review paper explores the issue from a methodological point of view. The perspectives of ALCA (attributional life cycle assessment) and CLCA (consequential life cycle assessment) are reflected. Finally, the paper summarizes the key issues and provides suggestions on the way forward. The major challenge related to both of the LCA categories is to determine the GHG emissions of the power production technologies under consideration. Furthermore, the specific challenge in ALCA is to determine the appropriate electricity production mix, and in CLCA, to identify the marginal technologies affected and related consequences. Significant uncertainties are involved, particularly in future-related LCAs, and these should not be ignored. Harmonization of the methods and data sets for various purposes is suggested, acknowledging that selections might be subjective. -- Highlights: ► Methods to assess GHG emissions from grid electricity consumption in LCA vary. ► We explored the major challenges related to various methods. ► Significant uncertainties are involved particularly in future-related GHG emissions. ► The most appropriate method depends on the equity viewpoints.

  15. Trends and Projected Estimates of GHG Emissions from Indian Livestock in Comparisons with GHG Emissions from World and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents trends and projected estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock of India vis-à-vis world and developing countries over the period 1961 to 2010 estimated based on IPCC guidelines. World enteric methane emission (EME increased by 54.3% (61.5 to 94.9 ×109 kg annually from the year 1961 to 2010, and the highest annual growth rate (AGR was noted for goat (2.0%, followed by buffalo (1.57% and swine (1.53%. Global EME is projected to increase to 120×109 kg by 2050. The percentage increase in EME by Indian livestock was greater than world livestock (70.6% vs 54.3% between the years 1961 to 2010, and AGR was highest for goat (1.91%, followed by buffalo (1.55%, swine (1.28%, sheep (1.25% and cattle (0.70%. In India, total EME was projected to grow by 18.8×109 kg in 2050. Global methane emission from manure (MEM increased from 6.81 ×109 kg in 1961 to 11.4×109 kg in 2010 (an increase of 67.6%, and is projected to grow to 15×109 kg by 2050. In India, the annual MEM increased from 0.52×109 kg to 1.1×109 kg (with an AGR of 1.57% in this period, which could increase to 1.54×109 kg in 2050. Nitrous oxide emission from manure in India could be 21.4×106 kg in 2050 from 15.3×106 kg in 2010. The AGR of global GHG emissions changed a small extent (only 0.11% from developed countries, but increased drastically (1.23% for developing countries between the periods of 1961 to 2010. Major contributions to world GHG came from cattle (79.3%, swine (9.57% and sheep (7.40%, and for developing countries from cattle (68.3%, buffalo (13.7% and goat (5.4%. The increase of GHG emissions by Indian livestock was less (74% vs 82% over the period of 1961 to 2010 than the developing countries. With this trend, world GHG emissions could reach 3,520×109 kg CO2-eq by 2050 due to animal population growth driven by increased demands for meat and dairy products in the world.

  16. What rules GHG-(greenhouse gas)-fluxes in a prealpine bog - management or watertable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Christoph; Drösler, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Being an important sink of carbon, the small stripe of bogs in the foreland of the Alps plays an important role for the carbon balance of Germany. A big part was drained for peat-use and to get agricultural land in the last centuries. Restoration of these degraded bogs can help to rebuild this function, whereas the watertable is an important co-factor for the amount of mitigation of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). To estimate GHG-balances gas-flux measurements, using the chamber method developed by Drösler (2005) were done in 2007 and 2008 on a degraded bog-meadow, which was partly rewetted in 1993 and which is still managed in large areas. This mosaic of restored, drained and managed areas showed big differences in their carbon-balances from a high source (~ 500 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) to a moderate sink (~ -200 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). Where the management was stopped in 1993, some Sphagnum-communities developed which helped to turn these areas from moderate sources (47 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) or sinks (-58 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) to permanent sinks with uptakes between (-150 and -250 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). Key words: bog, carbon-balance, greenhouse gases, restoration, watertable

  17. BP Canada Energy Company energy efficiency and GHG reduction opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, B. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented an outline of the BP Canada Energy Company's energy efficiency program, which uses an innovative approach that relies on front line operations staff to generate, evaluate and implement ideas for energy reduction projects. An outline of the organization team was presented, with details of the small central Calgary group responsible for coordination, technical support and tracking of data. Key objectives of the team were identified as: the promotion of energy efficiency; sharing of best practices; and coordination of efforts at operations at both the development and corporate level. An outline of BP upstream operations and emissions reduction strategies was provided along with a timeline of BP Canada greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sustainable reductions projects. A chart representing energy savings through conversion to natural gas was also presented, sorted by project type. Results included over 400 GHG or energy reduction projects completed, with an average pay out of 30 months as well as 300,000 tonnes equivalent of GHGs reduced at an estimated value of of $13,000,000. Areas of focus for future projects include: compression; fired equipment; flaring; venting; and fugitive emissions. Strategies to reduce emissions in all areas of future research were also provided. tabs, figs.

  18. The potential of pyrolysis technology in climate change mitigation - influence of process design and - parameters, simulated in SuperPro Designer software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, T.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Bruun, E.W.; Ahrenfeldt, J.

    2011-01-15

    This report investigates whether or not it would be possible to produce carbon-negative energy from pyrolysis of wheat straw in a series of Danish agricultural scenarios. A combination of process simulation in SuperPro Designer software, correlations derived from literature studies and experimental work, and overall balance calculations has been applied in the process. The study deviates from other studies of pyrolysis and biochar production by the inclusion of substitution energy impact on the overall carbon-balance. Substitution energy is integrated to account for the gap between the energy production from the pyrolysis and the full energy potential of the biomass, quantified by complete conversion in either combustion or gasification systems. It was concluded that it is feasible to produce carbon-negative energy under a variation of different settings, but also that the negative carbon-balance is only robust for the slow pyrolysis scenario. The CO{sub 2} benefit of the most carbon-negative slow pyrolysis process is estimated to be around 10 % of the atmospheric carbon stored in the original biomass when natural gas is applied for energy substitution. This process avoids the emission of around 150-200 kg CO{sub 2}/ton wheat straw with substitution energy with a Denmark 2007 average carbon-intensity. This result is weighted against the net emissions of the carbon-'neutral' process of conventional combustion. This emission is in this report estimated to be around 50 - 150 kg CO{sub 2}/ton straw depending on scenario settings. The final results of the study have been compared to another study with convincing results. Results concluded that the primary force of the pyrolysis technology is the recalcitrant char product and not the pyrolysis oil. Based on this, the study suggests that despite the trend in commercial pyrolysis technology that focuses on fast pyrolysis processes with maximized bio-oil production, the twin challenge of climate mitigation and

  19. U.S. climate mitigation pathways post-2012: Transition scenarios in ADAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Martin T.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Clapp, Christa S.

    2009-01-01

    The transition from the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels currently allowed under the Kyoto Protocol climate agreement to more ambitious, and internationally comprehensive, GHG reduction goals will have important implications for the global economic system. Given the major role that the United States plays in the global economy, and also as a major GHG emitter, this paper examines a range of climate policy pathways for the country in the context of international actions. The ADAGE model is used to examine policy impacts for climate scenarios, focusing on key factors such as emissions, technology deployment, macroeconomic indicators and international trade. In general, the simulations indicate that reductions in GHG emissions can be accomplished with limited economic adjustments, although impacts depend on the future availability of new low-carbon technologies.

  20. GHG REDUCTION POTENTIAL OF BIOGAS RESOURCE UTILZATION IN HOLBÆK’S HEATING AND ELECTRICITY SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    DAO, THI THU HUONG DIU

    2013-01-01

    This project is set out to identify the GHG reduction potentials of the 3 identified biogas plants in the Holbæk municipality. The GHG reduction of the 3 plants will be calculated in association with 2 biogas applications, which are CHP and upgrading biogas for individual heating purposes. The GHG reduction potentials of the 3 plants will be reflected to Holbæk’s specific GHG reduction target to see how these potentials contribute to the set goal. Departure from that, future version of biogas...

  1. Fuel carbon intensity standards may not mitigate climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plevin, Richard J.; Delucchi, Mark A.; O’Hare, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate the climate change effects of transportation, the US states of California and Oregon, the Canadian province of British Columbia, and the European Union have implemented regulations to reduce the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of transport fuel, commonly referred to as 'carbon intensity', or CI. In this article, we unpack the theory and practice of fuel CI standards, examining claims regarding climate-change mitigation. We show that these standards do not reliably mitigate climate change because estimates of GHG reductions rely primarily on models that are not designed to estimate changes in emissions and climate impacts. Some regulations incorporate models that estimate a subset of changes in emissions, but the models must project changes in global markets over decades, and there is little agreement about the best model structure or parameter values. Since multiple models and projections may be equally plausible, fuel CI is inevitably subjective and unverifiable. We conclude that regulating or taxing observable emissions would more reliably achieve emission reduction. - Highlights: • Use of fuel carbon intensity (CI) standards has been expanding recently. • Fuel CI ratings are subjective, scenario- and model-dependent. • Uncertainty in fuel CI ratings creates uncertainty in policy outcomes. • There is no reliable test of whether fuel CI standards mitigate climate change. • Regulating or taxing observable emissions would be a more reliable approach.

  2. Climate change and livestock: Impacts, adaptation, and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melissa Rojas-Downing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for livestock products is expected to double by 2050, mainly due to improvement in the worldwide standard of living. Meanwhile, climate change is a threat to livestock production because of the impact on quality of feed crop and forage, water availability, animal and milk production, livestock diseases, animal reproduction, and biodiversity. This study reviews the global impacts of climate change on livestock production, the contribution of livestock production to climate change, and specific climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in the livestock sector. Livestock production will be limited by climate variability as animal water consumption is expected to increase by a factor of three, demand for agricultural lands increase due to need for 70% growth in production, and food security concern since about one-third of the global cereal harvest is used for livestock feed. Meanwhile, the livestock sector contributes 14.5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, driving further climate change. Consequently, the livestock sector will be a key player in the mitigation of GHG emissions and improving global food security. Therefore, in the transition to sustainable livestock production, there is a need for: a assessments related to the use of adaptation and mitigation measures tailored to the location and livestock production system in use, and b policies that support and facilitate the implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

  3. An interval fixed-mix stochastic programming method for greenhouse gas mitigation in energy systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.L.; Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.; Li, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an interval fixed-mix stochastic programming (IFSP) model is developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction management under uncertainties. In the IFSP model, methods of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and fixed-mix stochastic programming (FSP) are introduced into an integer programming framework, such that the developed model can tackle uncertainties described in terms of interval values and probability distributions over a multi-stage context. Moreover, it can reflect dynamic decisions for facility-capacity expansion during the planning horizon. The developed model is applied to a case of planning GHG-emission mitigation, demonstrating that IFSP is applicable to reflecting complexities of multi-uncertainty, dynamic and interactive energy management systems, and capable of addressing the problem of GHG-emission reduction. A number of scenarios corresponding to different GHG-emission mitigation levels are examined; the results suggest that reasonable solutions have been generated. They can be used for generating plans for energy resource/electricity allocation and capacity expansion and help decision makers identify desired GHG mitigation policies under various economic costs and environmental requirements.

  4. Greenhouse gas emission and mitigation potential of changes in water management for two rice sites in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Khadiza; Kuhnert, Matthias; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Smith, Pete; Ogle, Stephen; Parton, William; Kader, Abdul; Sleutel, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Bangladesh and rice production is one of the largest sources of GHG emissions. This study considers measurements from two test sites, situated in Mymensingh (Bangladesh), to calibrate and validate the biogeochemical model DailyDayCent and estimate the mitigation potential of alternative management practices at the sites. There are two different N application treatments on the two test sites, which are on the first site a control with no N application and a mineral fertilizer application (120 kg N ha-1) and on the second site only a mineral fertilizer application (110 kg N ha-1). For mitigation, the water management is modified in a modelling approach to estimate the mitigation potential for reducing GHG emissions. The model shows partial agreement with the observations. The modifications to the water management, by changing from permanent wetting to alternate wetting, shows a decrease in GHG emissions of up to 46 % and 37 % for the two test sites, respectively. These tests enable an optimization of the management options to reduce the GHG emissions while maintaining yields.

  5. Energy efficiency and CO_2 mitigation potential of the Turkish iron and steel industry using the LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Seyithan A.

    2015-01-01

    With the assistance of the LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning) energy modeling tool, this study explores the energy efficiency and CO_2 emission reduction potential of the iron and steel industry in Turkey. With a share of 35%, the steel and iron industry is considered as the most energy-consuming sector in Turkey. The study explores that the energy intensity rate can be lowered by 13%, 38% and 51% in SEI (slow-speed energy efficiency improvement), AEI (accelerating energy efficiency improvement) and CPT (cleaner production and technology scenario) scenarios, respectively. Particularly the projected aggregated energy savings of the scenarios CPT and AES are very promising with saving rates of 33.7% and 23% respectively. Compared to baseline scenarios, energy efficiency improvements correspond to economic potential of 0.1 billion dollars for SEI, 1.25 dollars for AEI and 1.8 billion dollars for CPT scenarios annually. Concerning GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, in 2030 the iron and steel industry in Turkey is estimated to produce 34.9 MtCO_2 in BAU (business-as-usual scenario), 32.5 MtCO_2 in SEI, 24.6 MtCO_2 in AEI and 14.5 MtCO_2 in CPT a scenario which corresponds to savings of 9%–39%. The study reveals that energy consumption and GHG emissions of the iron and steel industry can be lowered significantly if the necessary measures are implemented. It is expected that this study will fill knowledge gaps pertaining to energy efficiency potential in Turkish energy intensive industries and help stakeholders in energy intensive industries to realize the potential for energy efficiency and GHG mitigation. - Highlights: • This paper explores energy efficiency potential of iron and Steel industry in Turkey. • We applied the LEAP modeling to forecast future developments. • Four different scenarios have been developed for the LEAP modeling. • There is a huge potential for energy efficiency and mitigation of GHG emissions.

  6. Climate change mitigation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bo

    2012-07-01

    China has been experiencing great economic development and fast urbanisation since its reforms and opening-up policy in 1978. However, these changes are reliant on consumption of primary energy, especially coal, characterised by high pollution and low efficiency. China's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) being the most significant contributor, have also been increasing rapidly in the past three decades. Responding to both domestic challenges and international pressure regarding energy, climate change and environment, the Chinese government has made a point of addressing climate change since the early 2000s. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of China's CO{sub 2} emissions and policy instruments for mitigating climate change. In the analysis, China's CO{sub 2} emissions in recent decades were reviewed and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis examined. Using the mostly frequently studied macroeconomic factors and time-series data for the period of 1980-2008, the existence of an EKC relationship between CO{sub 2} per capita and GDP per capita was verified. However, China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow over coming decades and the turning point in overall CO{sub 2} emissions will appear in 2078 according to a crude projection. More importantly, CO{sub 2} emissions will not spontaneously decrease if China continues to develop its economy without mitigating climate change. On the other hand, CO{sub 2} emissions could start to decrease if substantial efforts are made. China's present mitigation target, i.e. to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 compared with the 2005 level, was then evaluated. Three business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios were developed and compared with the level of emissions according to the mitigation target. The calculations indicated that decreasing the CO{sub 2} intensity of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 is a challenging but hopeful target. To

  7. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  8. Challenges and opportunities for improving eco-efficiency of tropical forage-based systems to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Peters

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage-based livestock production plays a key role in national and regional economies, for food security and poverty alleviation, but is considered a major contributor to agricultural GHG emissions. While demand for livestock products is predicted to increase, there is political and societal pressure both to reduce environmental impacts and to convert some of the pasture area to alternative uses, such as crop production and environmental conservation. Thus, it is essential to develop approaches for sustainable intensification of livestock systems to mitigate GHG emissions, addressing biophysical, socio-economic and policy challenges. This paper highlights the potential of improved tropical forages, linked with policy incentives, to enhance livestock production, while reducing its environmental footprint. Emphasis is on crop-livestock systems. We give examples for sustainable intensification to mitigate GHG emissions, based on improved forages in Brazil and Colombia, and suggest future perspectives.

  9. Economic efficiency assessment of greenhouse gases mitigation for agriculture; Analyse af omkostningseffektiviteten ved drivhusgasreducerende tiltag i relation til landbruget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubgaard, A.; Moeller Laugesen, F.; Staehl, E.E.; Bang, J.R.; Schou, E.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Oerum, J.E.; Dejgaerd Jensen, J.

    2013-08-15

    utilization requirement for certain types of slurry in nitrogen quota system (5 % mink, 10 % poultry, and 20 % liquid manure) 13. Reduction of nitrogen quota (10 % of total nitrogen quota) 14. Energy willow (100,000 ha) 15. Straw for combustion (100,000 ha) 16. Catch crops ( 240,000ha, whereof 110,000 ha on clay soil and 130,000 ha on sandy soil) 17. Short term catch crops (240,000 ha, whereof 110,000 ha on clay soil and 130,000 ha on sandy soil) 18. Conversion of arable land (not naturally wet) to permanent grass (100,000 ha) 19. Afforestation of arable land (50,000 ha, whereof 31,000 ha on clay soil and 19,000 ha on sandy soil ha) 20. Conversion of arable, organogenic land to permanent grass with continued drainage (35,000 ha) 21. Conversion of arable, organogenic land to permanent grass with termination of drainage (35,000 ha). The mitigation measures and their assumed implementation potentials have been chosen in cooperation with the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus University. Marginal abatement cost functions have been constructed. The levels of the implementation potential for the individual measures have been stipulated at a scale assumed to allow implementation at approximately constant marginal costs when using existing technologies. For some measures the specified implementation potential is limited by the assumptions of the overall Government appraisal of GHG reduction measures for the non-ETS area. The focus of the Government appraisal is on the identification of cost-effective GHG reduction potentials which are not already covered by existing policy programs - such as the Danish Government's Green Growth program. For example, when the present study was initiated the Green Growth program stipulated that up to 50 per cent of the animal manure produced in Denmark should be used in biogas production by 2020. The 10 per cent specified here is in addition to this target. (LN)

  10. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  11. The liability rules under international GHG emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xiang Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. In designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability rules has been considered to be one of the most challenging issues. In general, a seller-beware liability works well in a strong enforcement environment. In the Kyoto Protocol, however, it may not always work. By contrast, a buyer-beware liability could be an effective deterrent to non-compliance, but the costs of imposing it are expected to be very high. To strike a middle ground, we suggest a combination of preventive measures with strong but feasible end-of-period punishments to ensure compliance with the Kyoto emissions commitments. Such measures aim to maximize efficiency gains from emissions trading and at the same time, to minimize over-selling risks. (author)

  12. Using the Lashof Accounting Methodology to Assess Carbon Mitigation Projects Using LCA: Ethanol Biofuel as a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courchesne, Alexandre; Becaert, Valerie; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2010-01-01

    and comparison of different carbon mitigation projects (e.g. biofuel use, sequestering plant, afforestation project, etc.). The Lashof accounting methodology is chosen amid other methods of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission characterization for its relative simplicity and capability of characterizing all types...... of carbon mitigation projects. It calculates the cumulative radiative forcing caused by GHG emission within a predetermined time frame. Basically, the developed framework uses the Mg-year as a functional unit and isolates impacts related to the climate mitigation function with system expansion. The proposed...... framework is demonstrated with a case study of tree ethanol pathways (maize, sugarcane and willow). Study shows that carbon mitigation assessment through LCA is possible and that it could be a useful tool for decision makers as it can compare different projects regardless of their original context. Case...

  13. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quant......The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services....

  14. Broadening GHG accounting with LCA: application to a waste management business unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaha, Sophie; Martineau, Geneviève; Bécaert, Valérie; Margni, Manuele; Deschênes, Louise; Samson, Réjean; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    In an effort to obtain the most accurate climate change impact assessment, greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting is evolving to include life-cycle thinking. This study (1) identifies similarities and key differences between GHG accounting and life-cycle assessment (LCA), (2) compares them on a consistent basis through a case study on a waste management business unit. First, GHG accounting is performed. According to the GHG Protocol, annual emissions are categorized into three scopes: direct GHG emissions (scope 1), indirect emissions related to electricity, heat and steam production (scope 2) and other indirect emissions (scope 3). The LCA is then structured into a comparable framework: each LCA process is disaggregated into these three scopes, the annual operating activities are assessed, and the environmental impacts are determined using the IMPACT2002+ method. By comparing these two approaches it is concluded that both LCA and GHG accounting provide similar climate change impact results as the same major GHG contributors are determined for scope 1 emissions. The emissions from scope 2 appear negligible whereas emissions from scope 3 cannot be neglected since they contribute to around 10% of the climate change impact of the waste management business unit. This statement is strengthened by the fact that scope 3 generates 75% of the resource use damage and 30% of the ecosystem quality damage categories. The study also shows that LCA can help in setting up the framework for a annual GHG accounting by determining the major climate change contributors.

  15. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  16. Technology and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.; Layzell, D.; McLean, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a context for assessing the needs for technologies to reduce the concentration of GHG in the atmosphere. It looks at sources, sinks and trends for GHG, in the world at large and in Canada, and at efforts to develop new technologies to achieve the goals of climate change policy. Technology development is one of many approaches to reducing emissions and absorbing GHG from the atmosphere. New technologies will be more successful if they can also achieve non-climate goals, such as better air quality or reduced soil erosion. This paper examines sectors where new technology may be most needed. In general these will be areas where emissions are large, or growing rapidly, or both. It focuses on transport, electricity and biomass as sectors of interest, both because of their potential for contributing to climate change policy goals within Canada, and also because of the author's own research interests. (author)

  17. Technology and knowledge transfer from Annex 1 countries to non Annex 2 countries under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). An empirical case study of CDM projects implemented in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2008-10-15

    The CDM constitutes a central element in political discussions on climate change concerning means to facilitate transfer of technology and knowledge, regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technologies, from Annex 1 countries to Non Annex 1 countries. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to answer the question of what role the CDM plays in relation to transfer of technology and knowledge. The thesis relies on multiple sources of qualitative data and is conducted as a multiple case study of thirteen CDM projects implemented in Malaysia. It focuses on the companies involved in implementation of specific technologies in these projects and the channels that can facilitate the transfer process. The aim of the thesis is therefore to provide insights into the dynamics of technology transfer at the micro-level. An analytical framework is put forward on which it can be concluded that the CDM only plays a role in one out of the thirteen projects examined. The thesis may contribute to provide a background on which future provisions concerning technology transfer in the CDM, and/or other mechanisms that involve GHG mitigation activities in Non Annex 1 countries. (au)

  18. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  19. Mitigating climate change: The Philippine case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.L.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Government of the Philippines signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate change on June 12, 1992 and the Philippine Congress ratified it in 1994. The Philippine Government has also subsequently created the Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC). The GOP is currently preparing the Philippine Country Study to address climate change. The first phase of the work was financed by a grant from the US Country Studies Program which is led by the US Department of Energy. The Study includes the following elements: a) development of a National Inventory of GHG emission and Sinks; b) vulnerability assessment and evaluation of adaptations of coastal resources; c) identification of alternative programs and measures to promote mitigation and/or adaptation to climate change; d) public information and education campaign; and e) development of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. (au)

  20. Mitigation - how to buy time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekera, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: There is growing consensus in the global scientific community that human induced greenhouse gas emissions have increased the atmospheric concentration of these gases which has led, and will continue to lead to changes in regional and global climate. Climate change is projected to impact on Australian and global economic, biophysical, social and environmental systems. The impacts of climate change can be reduced by implementing a range of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The optimal policy response will depend on the relative costs and benefits of climate change impacts, and mitigation and adaptation responses. The focus in this presentation is to identify the key determinants that can reduce the cost of international mitigation responses. It is important to recognise that since cumulative emissions are the primary driver of atmospheric concentrations, mitigation policies should be assessed against their capacity to reduce cumulative emissions overtime, rather than at given time points only. If global greenhouse gas abatement costs are to be minimised, it is desirable that the coverage of countries, emission sources and technologies that are a part of any multilateral effort be as wide as possible. In this context the development and diffusion of clean technologies globally can play a key role in the future reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, according to scenarios analysed by ABARE. Furthermore, technology 'push' (for example, research and development policies) and 'pull' (for example, emission trading) policies will be required to achieve such an outcome

  1. The Future of Tourism: Can Tourism Growth and Climate Policy be Reconciled? A Climate Change Mitigation Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössling, S.; Hall, C.M.; Peeters, P.M.; Scott, D.

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is an increasingly significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions growth in the sector is in substantial conflict with global climate policy goals that seek to mitigate climate change through deep emission reductions. This article discusses the role of various tourism

  2. Renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. The objective of this paper is to review the use of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and peroxides as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odor...

  3. Mitigation of Hexavalent Chromium in Storm Water Resulting from Demolition of Large Concrete Structure at the East Tennessee Technology Park - 12286

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, Ronnie; Brown, Bridget; Hale, Timothy B.; Hensley, Janice L.; Johnson, Robert T.; Patel, Madhu [Tetra Tech, Inc. (United States); Emery, Jerry A. [Energy Solutions, Inc. (United States); Gaston, Clyde [LATA-SHARP Remediation Services - LSRS (United States); Queen, David C. [U.S. DOE-ORO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding was provided to supplement the environmental management program at several DOE sites, including the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Demolition of the ETTP K-33 Building, the largest building to be demolished to date in Oak Ridge, was awarded to LSRS in FY-2010 under the ARRA program. The K-33 building was an 82 foot tall 2-story structure covering approximately 32 acres. Once this massive building was brought down to the ground, the debris was segregated and consolidated into piles of concrete rubble and steel across the remaining pad. The process of demolishing the building, tracking across concrete debris with heavy equipment, and stockpiling the concrete rubble caused it to become pulverized. During and after storm events, hexavalent chromium leached from the residual cement present in the large quantities of concrete. Storm water control measures were present to preclude migration of contaminants off-site, but these control measures were not designed to control hexavalent chromium dissolved in storm water from reaching nearby receiving water. The following was implemented to mitigate hexavalent chromium in storm water: - Steel wool was distributed around K-33 site catch basins and in water pools as an initial step in addressing hexavalent chromium. - Since the piles of concrete were too massive and unsafe to tarp, they were placed into windrows in an effort to reduce total surface area. - A Hach colorimetric field meter was acquired by the K-33 project to provide realtime results of hexavalent chromium in site surface water. - Three hexavalent chromium treatment systems were installed at three separate catch basins that receive integrated storm water flow from the K-33 site. Sodium bisulfite is being used as a reducing agent for the immobilization of hexavalent chromium while also assisting in lowering pH. Concentrations initially were 310 - 474 ppb of hexavalent chromium in

  4. Interest mediation and policy formulation in the European Union. Influence of transnational technology-oriented agreements on European policy in the field of carbon capture and storage. Advances in systems analysis 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) laid down the cornerstone in the international cooperation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuels combustion. The UNFCCC provided a general framework for global cooperation to mitigate climate change. The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC which formulated binding GHG emissions reduction targets did not result in universal participation. The United States- the major CO 2 emitting country at the time of the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 - signed but did not ratify the Protocol. China - the current top CO 2 emitter - does not belong to the list of countries which are committed to the CO 2 reductions in the framework of the Protocol. Whereas the approach pursued within the UNFCCC is based on a goal-setting in the framework of the legally binding international treaties, an alternative approach to GHG mitigation presents a voluntary international cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The technology-oriented approach to climate change mitigation led to the development of the specific forms of cooperation between the public authorities and the stakeholders. Previous research referred to the organizations aimed at the transnational cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies to mitigate GHG emissions as the technology-oriented agreements (TOA). The literature on TOA focused on the scope of the contribution of the technology-oriented approach to the climate change mitigation targets. This PhD research project analyzes the influence of those specific forms of cooperation on policies in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The principal research question of the research project is formulated as follows - What is the influence of the technology-oriented agreements on policies aimed at supporting innovative technologies for mitigation of GHG emissions? The research project

  5. Interest mediation and policy formulation in the European Union. Influence of transnational technology-oriented agreements on European policy in the field of carbon capture and storage. Advances in systems analysis 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Olga

    2013-10-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) laid down the cornerstone in the international cooperation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuels combustion. The UNFCCC provided a general framework for global cooperation to mitigate climate change. The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC which formulated binding GHG emissions reduction targets did not result in universal participation. The United States- the major CO{sub 2} emitting country at the time of the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 - signed but did not ratify the Protocol. China - the current top CO{sub 2} emitter - does not belong to the list of countries which are committed to the CO{sub 2} reductions in the framework of the Protocol. Whereas the approach pursued within the UNFCCC is based on a goal-setting in the framework of the legally binding international treaties, an alternative approach to GHG mitigation presents a voluntary international cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The technology-oriented approach to climate change mitigation led to the development of the specific forms of cooperation between the public authorities and the stakeholders. Previous research referred to the organizations aimed at the transnational cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies to mitigate GHG emissions as the technology-oriented agreements (TOA). The literature on TOA focused on the scope of the contribution of the technology-oriented approach to the climate change mitigation targets. This PhD research project analyzes the influence of those specific forms of cooperation on policies in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The principal research question of the research project is formulated as follows - What is the influence of the technology-oriented agreements on policies aimed at supporting innovative technologies for mitigation of GHG emissions? The

  6. Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; Calvin, Katherine; Kyle, Page

    2014-01-01

    Our paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy and electricity generation technology performance for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on near term to century time scales. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be needed in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 15 to 29 trillion US$ (48–94%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions as well as increased electrification of the global economy. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 18 to 24 trillion US$ (compared to default technology climate policy assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario. We also highlight the implications of different technology evolution scenarios for different regions. Under default technology set, the heaviest investments across scenarios in power generation were observed in China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century. - Highlights: • We present electricity generation investment requirement under different scenarios. • A climate policy will lead to substantial increase in investment requirement. • Stringency of climate policy has significant implications for investments. • Technology evolution and performance alter investment requirements significantly. • China, India, Southeast Asia and Africa dominate as investment destinations

  7. Environmental Assessment of Bus Transport in the Trondheim Region - Evaluation of Relevant Bus and Fuel Technologies and their Potential for Mitigating Emissions from Passenger Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Buø, Tonje

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to assess the carbon footprint of transport by bus in the Trondheim region. Bus transportation is promoted as a strategy both to combat local pollution problems in urban areas and to mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions from passenger transport. Still, the environmental impacts of bus transport have received fairly limited attention in research. The environmental impacts of bus transport are calculated through life cycle assessment. A model is develo...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas mitigation in transport: A review of methodological approaches and their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Robert; Annema, Jan Anne; Wee, Bert van

    2011-01-01

    A review is given of methodological practices for ex ante cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measures, e.g. fuel economy and CO 2 standards for road vehicles in the US and EU. Besides the fundamental differences between different types of policies and abatement options which inherently result in different CEA outcomes, differences in methodological choices and assumptions are another important source of variation in CEA outcomes. Fourteen methodological issues clustered into six groups are identified on which thirty-three selected studies are systematically reviewed. The potential variation between lower and upper cost-effectiveness estimates for GHG mitigation measures in transport, resulting from different methodological choices and assumptions, lies in the order of $400 per tonne CO 2 -eq. The practise of using CEA for policy-making could improve considerably by clearly indicating the specific purpose of the CEA and its strengths and limitations for policy decisions. Another improvement is related to the dominant approach in transport GHG mitigation studies: the bottom-up financial technical approach which assesses isolated effects, implying considerable limitations for policy-making. A shift to welfare-economic approaches using a hybrid model has the potential to establish an improved assessment of transport GHG mitigation measures based on realistic market responses and behavioural change. - Highlights: ► We identify fourteen important methodological issues clustered into six groups. ► We systematically review thirty-three selected transport GHG mitigation studies. ► Methodological choices can lead to a difference by up to $400 per tonne CO 2 -eq. ► The dominant bottom-up approach has limitations for policy-making. ► Welfare-economic approaches could improve cost-effectiveness analysis.

  9. Cost effectiveness comparison of certain transportation measures to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in San Diego County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Send, Nilmini; Anders, Scott; Narwold, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    California's overarching mandate to achieve 1990 levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in 2020 (AB 32, 2005), and the ensuing recent regulations (SB 375, CEQA updates) require local and regional governments to assess GHG mitigation policies, including on-road transportation. The regulations do not make cost-effectiveness a primary criteria for choosing measures but cost remains important to a variety of stakeholders. This communication summarizes results from GHG and cost analysis for seven actual San Diego County road transportation policies: telecommute, vanpools, a bicycle strategy, an increase in mass transit use, parking policies (parking pricing, preferred parking for electric vehicles), an increased local fuel tax and speed harmonization (signal re-timing, roundabouts). Net costs are calculated as the sum of direct costs and benefits to the administering agency, the employer and the individual. Net costs per metric ton GHG abated vary greatly across measures, from negative to high positive (more than US $1000). We find that local GHG cost cannot be sensibly compared to other carbon or GHG policy costs outside the local context for a variety of reasons, but especially because measures have not been adopted primarily for carbon or GHG abatement potential or on the basis of cost effectiveness

  10. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the French winter oilseed rape in order to produce sustainable biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flénet Francis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were (1 to evaluate the possibility for the French winter oilseed rape to achieve the 50% greenhouse gas (GHG saving criteria of the European Directive on the promotion of renewable energy (2009/28/EC, and (2 to investigate mitigation options. The agricultural GHG emissions were calculated with the actual seed yields and cultural operations of more than 5000 winter oilseed rape fields producing seeds collected by 27 grain storage companies (GSC, while the same values of GHG emissions for transport and biodiesel processing were used for all GSC. The study clearly showed that the 50% GHG saving criteria could not be achieved each year, by each of the grain storage company, without improvements of crop management. The possibility to reduce the GHG emissions by improving the efficiency of mineral N fertilization was demonstrated. Improving seed yields without increasing the amount of N application on the fields would also decrease GHG emissions. On the contrary, the application of organic matter appeared to be largely ineffective because of the way N2O emissions were calculated in the study (tier 1 method of International Panel on Climate Change.

  11. Planning regional energy system in association with greenhouse gas mitigation under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H. [Research Academy of Energy and Environmental Studies, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Chen, X. [Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology and Desert Environment, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are expected to continue to rise due to the ever-increasing use of fossil fuels and ever-boosting demand for energy. This leads to inevitable conflict between satisfying increasing energy demand and reducing GHG emissions. In this study, an integrated fuzzy-stochastic optimization model (IFOM) is developed for planning energy systems in association with GHG mitigation. Multiple uncertainties presented as probability distributions, fuzzy-intervals and their combinations are allowed to be incorporated within the framework of IFOM. The developed method is then applied to a case study of long-term planning of a regional energy system, where integer programming (IP) technique is introduced into the IFOM to facilitate dynamic analysis for capacity-expansion planning of energy-production facilities within a multistage context to satisfy increasing energy demand. Solutions related fuzzy and probability information are obtained and can be used for generating decision alternatives. The results can not only provide optimal energy resource/service allocation and capacity-expansion plans, but also help decision-makers identify desired policies for GHG mitigation with a cost-effective manner. (author)

  12. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from China's cities: Case study of Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunxia; Wang, Haikun; Liu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhang, Rongrong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the factors driving greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities is crucial to mitigating China's anthropogenic emissions. In this paper, the main drivers increasing GHG emissions from the Chinese city of Suzhou between 2005 and 2010 were identified and quantitatively analyzed using the Kaya identity and the log-mean Divisia index method. We found that economy and population were the major drivers of GHG emissions in Suzhou, having contributed 162.20% and 109.04%, respectively, to the increase in emissions. A decline in carbon intensity, which was caused by the declining energy intensity and an adjustment to the mixture of power and industrial structures, was the major determinant and accounted for a reduction of 171.24% in GHG emissions. Slowing and maintaining healthy growth rates of economy and population could be the primary and most effective means if Suzhou tries to curb the total emissions over the short term. It may be more realistic for Suzhou to control emissions by optimizing the economic structure for low-carbon industrial development because of the city's relative high energy requirements and low potential to mitigate GHGs by adjusting the energy mixture. - Highlights: • Per capita carbon emissions in Suzhou kept stable at 15 tons/year during period 2005–2010. • Slowing down growth rates of GDP and population could effectively control Suzhou's emissions. • Low carbon development policies were also recommended for other Chinese cities

  13. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, Peggy M; Nutter, Darin W

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change, driven by the buildup of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere, is challenging the dairy industries in the United States and throughout the world to develop sustainable initiatives to reduce their environmental impact. The U.S. dairy industry has committed to lowering the GHG emissions, primarily CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2), in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain which extends from the farm, to the processing plant, and to distribution of the packaged product, where it is refrigerated by the retailer and then the consumer. This chapter provides an overview of the life cycle analysis (LCA) technique and its use in identifying the GHG emissions in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain, from cradle to grave, and the best practices and research that is currently being conducted to reduce or mitigate GHG emissions in each sector. We also discuss the use of on-farm and off-farm process simulation as tools for evaluating on-farm mitigation techniques, off-farm alternative processing scenarios, and use of alternative energy management practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. GHG emissions from primary aluminum production in China: Regional disparity and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Geng, Yong; Hang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions from primary aluminum production in China were accounted. • The impact of regional disparity of power generation was considered for this study. • GHG emissions factor of China’s primary aluminum production was 16.5 t CO_2e/t Al ingot in 2013. • Total GHG emissions from China’s primary aluminum production were 421 mt CO_2e in 2013. - Abstract: China is the world-leading primary aluminum production country, which contributed to over half of global production in 2014. Primary aluminum production is power-intensive, for which power generation has substantial impact on overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we explore the impact of regional disparity of China’s power generation system on GHG emissions for the sector of primary aluminum production. Our analysis reveals that the national GHG emissions factor (GEF) of China’s primary aluminum production was 16.5 t CO_2e/t Al ingot in 2013, with province-level GEFs ranging from 8.2 to 21.7 t CO_2e/t Al ingot. There is a high coincidence of provinces with high aluminum productions and high GEFs. Total GHG emissions from China’s primary aluminum production were 421 mt CO_2e in 2013, approximately accounting for 4% of China’s total GHG emissions. Under the 2020 scenario, GEF shows a 13.2% reduction compared to the 2013 level, but total GHG emissions will increase to 551 mt CO_2e. Based on our analysis, we recommend that the government should further promote energy efficiency improvement, facilitate aluminum industry redistribution with low-carbon consideration, promote secondary aluminum production, and improve aluminum industry data reporting and disclosure.

  15. The differential impact of low-carbon technologies on climate change mitigation cost under a range of socioeconomic and climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, Robert; McJeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of several key parameters of low carbon energy technologies on the cost of abatement. A methodology for determining the minimum level of performance required for a parameter to have a statistically significant impact on CO 2 abatement cost is developed and used to evaluate the impact of eight key parameters of low carbon energy supply technologies on the cost of CO 2 abatement. The capital cost of nuclear technology is found to have the greatest impact of the parameters studied. The cost of biomass and CCS technologies also have impacts, while their efficiencies have little, if any. Sensitivity analysis of the results with respect to population, GDP, and CO 2 emission constraint show that the minimum performance level and impact of nuclear technologies is consistent across the socioeconomic scenarios studied, while the other technology parameters show different performance under higher population, lower GDP scenarios. Solar technology was found to have a small impact, and then only at very low costs. These results indicate that the cost of nuclear is the single most important driver of abatement cost, and that trading efficiency for cost may make biomass and CCS technologies more competitive. - Highlights: • The impact of low carbon energy technology on abatement cost is considered. • Nuclear has the largest impact among technologies considered. • Cost has higher impact than efficiency for biomass technologies. • Biomass technologies generally have larger impacts than carbon capture. • Biomass technologies are more valuable in low GDP, high population scenarios

  16. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  17. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  18. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman, E-mail: mohdnorh@andrew.cmu.ed [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Jaramillo, Paulina [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Griffin, W. Michael [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. {yields} Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. {yields} Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. {yields} Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. {yields} At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  19. Issues to Consider before Licensing Technology to a Start-Up: Mitigating Risk with Early Planning for the Entire Business Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarge, Jeffrey H.

    2005-01-01

    If done correctly, licensing technology to a start-up company provides a great opportunity for a university to commercialize its technology and generate good will. If done incorrectly, however, the venture may jeopardize the technology's value and adversely affect the university's reputation within the business and academic communities. Before…

  20. The potential contribution to climate change mitigation from temporary carbon storage in biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2015-01-01

    of biomaterials.The recently developed approach for quantifying the climate tipping potential (CTP) of emissions is used, with some adaption, to account for the value of temporary carbon storage. CTP values for short-, medium- and long-term carbon storage in chosen biomaterials are calculated for two possible...... future atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration development scenarios. The potential magnitude of the temporary carbon storage in biomaterials is estimated by considering the global polymer production being biobased in the future.Both sets of CTP values show the same trend; storage which releases...... contributes with negative CTP values, which means mitigation. The longer the duration of the storage, the larger the mitigation potential.Temporary carbon storage in biomaterials has a potential for contributing to avoid or postpone the crossing of a climatic target level of 450 ppm CO2e, depending on GHG...

  1. Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.K.; McKane, A.T.; Ploutakhina, M.; Monga, P.; Gielen, D.; Bazilian, M.; Nussbaumer, P.; Howells, M.; Rogner, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The industrial sector is responsible for a significant share of global energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Energy efficiency is commonly seen as the most cost-effective, least-polluting, and most readily-accessible industrial energy saving option available in the industrial sector worldwide. Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 parts per million stabilisation scenario, over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector by 2050, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated by IEA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent, depending upon the sector. There is significant potential to reduce, at low or no cost, the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities. Many policies and programmes - at a national level - have already demonstrated significant improvements in industrial energy efficiency. The associate reduction in energy needs often also improves economic competitiveness as well as mitigates GHG emissions. However, at an international level, approaches such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are not yet delivering the expected energy efficiency improvements. Existing and effective industrial energy efficiency policies and measures could be replicated at a global level. Key elements of those policies and measures include increasing facility management attention to the issue of energy efficiency; promoting the dissemination of information, practice, and tools; increasing the auditing and implementation capacity; and developing the market for industrial energy efficiency

  2. India’s GHG Emission Reduction and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.; Dhar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    India has made voluntary commitment for reducing the emission intensity of GDP in the year 2020 by 20–25 % below that in the year 2005. The Indian approach is based on delineating and implementing cost-effective mitigation actions which can contribute to national sustainable development goals while...... an optimal roadmap of actions in India which can maximize net total benefits of carbon emissions mitigation and national sustainable development. A key contribution of the paper is the estimation of the net social value of carbon in India which is an important input for provisioning carbon finance...... model ANSWER-MARKAL, which is embedded within a soft-linked integrated model system (SLIMS). The central themes of the three scenario storylines and assumptions are as follows: first, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario that assumes the socioeconomic development to happen along the conventional path...

  3. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  4. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Setting Certificate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  5. General guidance and procedures for estimating and reporting national GHG emissions for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, K.

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture account for a large share of total GHG emissions in most countries. Methane from ruminants, animal manure and rice fields, and nitrous oxide from agricultural soils are among the most important sources. In general, these emission estimates also are more uncertain than most other parts of the GHG emission inventory. IPCC has developed guidelines for estimating and reporting emissions of GHG. These guidelines shall be followed to secure complete, consistent, accurate and transparent reporting of emissions. However, the recommended methodologies are tiered, and choice of methods shall preferably reflect national circumstances, the national importance of a source, and different resources to prepare inventories. A country may also apply a national methodology given that it is well documented and not in conflict with good practice. Emission data reported under the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change are subject to external control, and the methodologies are reviewed by experts on agricultural inventories. (au)

  6. An assessment of urban form and pedestrian and transit improvements as an integrated GHG reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the last several years, Washington State has adopted a series of policy goals intended to : reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Because transportation is one of the states largest sources of : GHG emissions, the Washington State Department of Trans...

  7. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in China's agriculture: from farm production to food consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qian; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing

    2016-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture could be mitigated from both supple side and demand side. Assessing carbon footprint (CF) of agricultural production and food consumption could provide insights into the contribution of agriculture to climate change and help to identify possible GHG mitigation options. In the present study, CF of China's agricultural production was firstly assessed from site scale to national scale, and from crop production to livestock production. Data for the crop and livestock production were collected from field survey and national statistical archive, and both life cycle assessment and input-output method were employed in the estimations. In general, CF of crop production was lower than that of livestock production on average. Rice production ranked the highest CF in crop production, and the highest CFs of livestock production were observed in mutton and beef production. Methane emissions from rice paddy, emissions from fertilizer application and water irrigation exerted the largest contribution of more than 50% for CF of crop production; however, emissions from forage feeding, enteric fermentation and manure treatment made the most proportion of more than 90 % for CF of livestock production. In China, carbon efficiency was shown in a decreasing trend in recent years. According to the present study, overuse of nitrogen fertilizer caused no yield effect but significant emissions in some sites and regions of China, and aggregated farms lowered the CFs of crop production and livestock production by 3% to 25% and 6% to 60% respectively compared to household farms. Given these, improving farming management efficiency and farm intensive development is the key strategy to mitigate climate change from supply side. However, changes in food consumption may reduce GHG emissions in the production chain through a switch to the consumption of food with higher GHG emissions in the production process to food with lower GHG emissions. Thus, CFs

  8. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Resources Management; Mohn, W.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and consumption of methane (CH{sub 4}) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N{sub 2}O production and CH{sub 4} oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N{sub 2}O emission and CH{sub 4} oxidation in forest soils. The actual N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity.

  9. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F.; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S.; Mohn, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N 2 O) and consumption of methane (CH 4 ) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N 2 O production and CH 4 oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N 2 O emission and CH 4 oxidation in forest soils. The actual N 2 O, CO 2 , and CH 4 fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity

  10. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  11. From insulation contracting to radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    As the definition of house doctor has evolved over the past ten years and the field of energy services has grown more sophisticated, many contractors have expanded the services they offer their clients. This paper presents the story of one insulation contractor who has found a niche in radon testing and mitigation. The EPA now has a national program for the radon mitigator called the Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. The requirements include attending the Radon Technology for Mitigators course, passing an exam, and taking continuing education. In the Midwest, the most popular mitigation technique is the subslab depressurization system. To draw suction from under the slab, the system can take advantage of an existing sump crock or can penetrate the slab. Interior drain tiles collect water to empty into the crock, providing an excellent pathway to draw from. This mitigation process is explained

  12. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  13. Effect of aeration interval on oxygen consumption and GHG emission during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianfei; Yin, Hongjie; Shen, Xiuli; Liu, Ning; Ge, Jinyi; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2018-02-01

    To verify the optimal aeration interval for oxygen supply and consumption and investigate the effect of aeration interval on GHG emission, reactor-scale composting was conducted with different aeration intervals (0, 10, 30 and 50 min). Although O 2 was sufficiently supplied during aeration period, it could be consumed to  0.902), suggesting that lengthening the duration of aeration interval to some extent could effectively reduce GHG emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term optimal energy mix planning towards high energy security and low GHG emi