WorldWideScience

Sample records for ghg emission abatement

  1. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  2. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  3. Emission Abatement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  4. Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan Thi; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, in order to enhance ethanol's cost competitiveness with gasoline, the Thai government has approved the exemption of excise tax imposed on ethanol, controlling the retail price of gasohol (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a ratio of 1:9) to be less than that of octane 95 gasoline, within a range not exceeding 1.5 baht a litre. The policy to promote ethanol for transport is being supported by its positive effects on energy security and climate change mitigation. An analysis of energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and GHG abatement cost was done to evaluate fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand. Positive energy balance of 22.4 MJ/L and net avoided GHG emission of 1.6 kg CO 2 eq./L found for cassava-based ethanol (CE) proved that it would be a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy saving and GHG reduction. With a GHG abatement cost of US$99 per tonne of CO 2 , CE is rather less cost effective than the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand in the short term. Opportunities for improvements are discussed to make CE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  5. Macro economic linkages and impacts. Technical and fiscal options in GHG abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, G.; Barker, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the main macro economic linkages and feedbacks associated with policies for GHG abatement. The linkages in a global model are described when OECD carbon taxes or alternatively OECD/OPEC joint action raises world oil prices with a smaller OECD carbon tax. The results give a world perspective on the GHG abatement problem. The paper continues with a discussion of the linkages and feedbacks associated with three options: demand-side management (DSM), mainly to improve end-use energy efficiency, reductions in subsidies of fossil fuel production and use, and investment in renewable energy supplies, specifically in energy forestry and associated infrastructure. It concludes that DSM and investment in renewables are unlikely on their own to bring about reduction in GHG emissions, and that new supplies may even lead to increased emissions by driving down the price of energy. However, reductions in emissions may be compatible with increased efficiency and development, as well as with improvements in the quality of the local environment and in rural living, with the new supplies replacing fossil fuel supplies, provided that real fossil fuel prices are increased via removal of subsidies and if required carbon taxes. (au) 15 refs

  6. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  7. GHG emissions due to deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croezen, H.; Van Valkengoed, M.

    2009-05-01

    An assessment was made for the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests in Malaysia and Indonesia related to Dutch economic activities. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated in relation to (1) the emissions related to vegetation removal sec; and (2) the emissions related to removal and more long term effects related to assimilation of CO2 in forest regrowth and changes in organic material in soils. Emissions related to vegetation removal and aggregated emissions for both vegetation removal and long term effects are reported separately. Soil organic carbon stock changes are considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emissions. Changes in carbon stocks and N2O emissions and actually also changes in vegetation all are events that occur gradually, rather than immediately. Only removal of existing vegetation and possible burning of this vegetation and associated emissions related to both activities are immediate by nature. Carbon stocks and N2O emissions change to a new level within several decades after deforestation or forest degradation. Removed vegetation can grow back or be replaced eventually by other vegetation, thereby changing the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation or forest degradation. Vegetation extracted for commercial purposes such as timber or pulp will also take years or decades to become waste and be converted into CO2. In IPCC and LCA's all these emissions are taken into account - or at least all emissions occurring within a period of 20 years, as required by IPCC. Soil organic carbon stock changes are also considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emmissions.

  8. GHG emission estimates for road transport in national GHG inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The annual reporting procedures of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have now produced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories from 40 so-called Annex I countries for 18 years. This article analyses a subset of these data: emissions from road transport. The article

  9. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  10. Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droesler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

  11. Incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long range transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be an important focus area for state, local, and federal : agencies. The transportation sector is the second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in the U.S., and : Texas contributes the highest emissions am...

  12. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  13. FUTURE FOSSIL FUEL PRICE IMPACTS ON NDC ACHIEVEMENT; ESTIMATION OF GHG EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Arino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Shale Revolution in the US, a supply-side innovation in oil and gas production, has been dramatically changing the world’s fossil fuel energy markets – leading to a decrease in oil, gas and coal prices. Some projections suggest that low fossil fuel prices might continue at least over the next few decades. Uncertainty in fossil fuel prices might affect the levels of emission reductions expected from submitted nationally determined contributions (NDCs and/or influence the difficulty of achieving the NDCs. This paper evaluated the impact of different (high, medium, and low fossil fuel prices, sustained through to 2050, on worldwide GHG emissions reductions and associated costs (mainly marginal abatement costs (MACs. Total global GHG emissions were estimated to be 57.5-61.5 GtCO2eq by 2030, with the range shown reflecting uncertainties about fossil fuel prices and the target levels of several NDCs (i.e., whether their upper or lower targets were adopted. It was found that lower fuel prices not only diminished the environmental effectiveness of global NDCs but also widened regional differences of marginal and total abatement costs, thereby generating more room for carbon leakage. One possible policy direction in terms of abatement efficiency, fairness and environmental effectiveness would be to require countries with low marginal and total abatement costs but having a major influence on global GHG emissions (such as China and India to increase their mitigation efforts, especially in a low-fuelprice world.

  14. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  15. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  16. CHANGES IN GHG EMISSIONS AND EURO STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljko Kokić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An enormous price increase of crude oil, limited fossil resources and the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions on global warming have strengthened the efforts to develop alternatives- renewable to the classical-oil fuel. The world leading manufacturers of the motor vehicles have relatively easily satisfied increasingly more stringent EURO standards, ECE Regulations or EEC Directives. The vehicle manufacturers of Serbia may satisfy EURO standards primarily by purchasing the appropriate foreign made engines. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, it is concluded that Florida model with diesel engine, is very environmentally friendly vehicle for our conditions.

  17. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  18. Balance and saving of GHG emissions in thermochemical biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, Pedro; Aracil, Cristina; Vidal-Barrero, Fernando; Ollero, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified methodology for the balance and saving of GHG emissions is provided. • The GHG balance has a physical meaning and does not depend on the fossil reference. • The GHG saving depends on regulation of energy carriers. • The impact of Bio-CCS incorporation and multiproduction is analyzed. • The co-production of chemicals needs to be included in future regulation. - Abstract: In this study, a simplified methodology for the calculation of the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corresponding saving compared with the fossil reference is presented. The proposed methodology allows the estimation of the anthropogenic GHG emissions of thermochemical biorefineries (net emitted to the atmosphere). In the calculation of the GHG balance, all relevant factors have been identified and analyzed including multiproduction, emissions from biogenic carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS), co-feeding of fossil fuels (secondary feedstock) and possible carbon storage in biomass-derived products (chemicals). Therefore, it is possible to calculate the balance of GHG emissions of a hypothetical thermochemical biorefinery considering different alternatives of land-use, biomass feedstock, co-feeding of fossil fuels, Bio-CCS incorporation and final use of the products. The comparison of the estimated GHG balance with the corresponding fossil reference for each product is of special relevance in the methodology since it is the parameter used in European regulation for the fulfillment of sustainability criteria in biomass-derived fuels and liquids. The proposed methodology is tested using a previously assessed set of different process concepts of thermochemical biorefineries (techno-economic analysis). The resulting GHG balance and saving are analyzed to identify uncertainties and provide recommendations for future regulation. In all process concepts, the GHG savings are above the minimum requirement of GHG emissions for 2018. In the case of incorporating

  19. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  20. Optimal investment and uncertainty on China's carbon emission abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingxi; Wang Mingrong; Wang Shouyang

    2012-01-01

    To realize environmentally sustainable development of the economy, China has decided to cut carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40 to 45 percent by 2020, compared with the level in 2005. Based on China's emission abatement target, this paper first analyzes enterprises' emission reduction pathways in practical production processes, and then develops a framework to derive the magnitude of investment required in each pathway in order to achieve the designated target at the minimal cost. Under the framework, it is found that in the absence of policy guidance, individual enterprises' emission reduction investments deviate from the optimal level. To correct the distortion, an alternative option is provided. Meanwhile, to ensure achievement of the emission reduction target, a stochastic model is introduced to measure the uncertainty arising from emission abatement investment. The results show that an appropriate emission abatement ratio can reduce ‘the systemic risk’ of emission abatement. Finally, a simulation is given to demonstrate the results derived from the stochastic model. - Highlights: ► We formulate enterprises' emission–reduction pathways. ► We examine the cost-minimization problem with emission budget. ► A random model is established to measure the uncertainty of emission abatement. ► Several policy recommendations are proposed.

  1. The role of abatement costs in GHG permit allocations : a global reduction scenario with the World-MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Kanudia, A.

    2004-01-01

    The World-MARKAL model was used to examine a permit trading system to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The model considered the participation of all countries, including developing countries. Allocation schemes aimed at fair distribution of net abatement costs among world regions were proposed. The net abatement costs for each region are good indicators of where more abatement measures are needed. Equity issues relative to permit allocations and burden sharing were also presented along with the allocation methodology. The gross abatement costs before permit trading were calculated for each region. The main advantages and disadvantages of this approach were listed. It was concluded that permit allocation schemes based on cost distribution make it possible to obtain solutions with equalized net costs per gross domestic product for all regions. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  3. 40 CFR 98.163 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.163 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each hydrogen production process unit... requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources). (b) Fuel and...

  4. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in Indian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Feliciano, Diana; Sapkota, Tek; Hillier, Jon; Smith, Pete; Stirling, Clare

    2016-04-01

    India is one of the world's largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, accounting for about 5% of global emissions with further increases expected in the future. The Government of India aims to reduce emission intensities by 20-25% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level. In a recent departure from past practice the reconvened Council on Climate Change stated that climate change in agriculture would include a component that would focus on reducing emissions in agriculture, particularly methane and nitrous oxide emissions. To develop recommendations for mitigation in agriculture in India, a baseline study is presented to analyse the GHG emissions from agriculture for current management (Directorate of Economics and Statistics of the government of India). This analysis is done for the two states Bihar and Haryana, which differ in their management and practises based on different climate and policies. This first analysis shows were the highest GHG emissions in agriculture is produced and were the highest mitigation potential might be. The GHG emissions and mitigation potential are calculated using the CCAFS Mitigation Option Tool (CCAFS-MOT) (https://ccafs.cgiar.org/mitigation-option-tool-agriculture#.VpTnWL826d4) with modifications for the special modelling. In a second step, stakeholder meetings provided a wide range of possible and definite scenarios (management, policy, technology, costs, etc.) for the future to mitigate emissions in agriculture as well as how to increase productivity. These information were used to create scenarios to give estimates for the mitigation potential in agriculture for India in 2020.

  5. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  6. Towards better GHG emissions savings with use of ISO GHG standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Kook Weng

    2010-01-01

    The 15th Conference of Parties (COP 15) at Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009 highlighted the need to combat climate change by facing the challenge of committing to reducing our emissions at all three levels with locally appropriate mitigation actions (LAMAs) at the local level to be linked to the nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and then contribute onwards to globally appropriate mitigation actions (GAMAs). The aim is to find solutions for both adaptation and mitigation by ensuring sufficient means are made available to support such efforts. This is because the world in entering a new phase that will be characterised by green growth in business. Thus be it agriculture that uses local knowledge of specific crop and livestock varieties to help in secure food supply, bio-energy, transport, industries, there must be policies to understand ecosystem-based to link people, biodiversity, energy, water and carbon so as to be more resilient and adaptable to the need for a low carbon economy in todays society.Climate change therefore affects organisations in many areas and they include legal compliance, carbon market, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. Promoting sustainability requires making efficient use of energy, water and natural resources, decrease in waste load through recycling and streamlining the processes leading to everything that decreases their CO 2 and water footprints. Currently there are many GHG schemes and programmes and the issues centres around compatibility, costs and most importantly credibility. Achieving real GHG emissions reduction requires controlled and verified emissions reductions and quantification that are sound and verifiable. Thanks to the development of the ISO suite of standards on GHG and related matters, the use of these harmonised standards has given the assurance that a tonne of carbon is a tonne of carbon be it in Malaysia, Mali or Mongolia.The use of these standards like ISO 14064 Part 1

  7. An assessment of GHG emissions from small ruminants in comparison with GHG emissions from large ruminants and monogastric livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, G.; Tsiplakou, E.

    2012-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are expected to cause global warming which results in extreme weather changes that could affect crop yields and productivity, food supplies and food prices. It is also expected that climate change will have an impact on animal metabolism and health, reproduction and productivity. On the other hand, the expected increased demand of animal origin products in the coming years will increase the reared animal numbers and consequently GHG emissions. This paper outlines the main GHGs emitted from livestock which are CO2, CH4 and N2O, coming from respiration, enteric fermentation and manure management respectively, with CH4 and N2O having the highest global warming potential. Ruminant livestock has the highest contribution to these GHG emissions with small ruminants share being 12.25% of the total GHG emissions from livestock's enteric and manure CH4, and manure N2O in CO2 equivalent, producing 9.45 kg CO2 equivalent per kg body weight with the respective values for cattle, pigs and poultry being 5.45, 3.97 and 3.25. Since the production systems significantly affect the GHG emissions, the grazing, livestock crop complex, and intensive ones account for 30.5%, 67.29% and 5.51% for total CH4 emission (from enteric fermentation and manure management) and 24.32%, 68.11% and 7.57% for N2O respectively. Taking into account the positive and negative impacts of small ruminant livestock production systems to the environmental aspects in general, it is recommended that a number of potentially effective measures should be taken and the appropriate mitigation technologies should be applied in order to reduce effectively and essentially the GHG emissions to the atmosphere, with no adverse effects on intensification and increased productivity of small ruminants production systems.

  8. Assessment of mitigation pathways of GHG emissions from the Korean waste sector through 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Chung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The waste sector may play a significant role in national mitigation policies with further greenhouse gas (GHG reduction opportunities mainly because of its linkage to other sectors. However, the waste sector has not drawn much attention from research community mainly because the amount of GHG emissions from the waste sector is notably smaller than other sectors. This study presents emissions estimation and mitigation potentials of the waste sector in Korea. Emission estimates and business-as-usual emissions through 2050 are estimated based on four different treatment methods, including landfill, incineration, wastewater, and biological treatment by considering country-specific emission parameters of wastes, where available. Different types of wastes for each treatment method are investigated to obtain accurate emission estimates. It is expected that GHG emissions in 2050 are about 12.0 Tg CO2eq, which is 17% less than those in 2010. Mitigation potentials and economic impacts of five different measures are also investigated, and it is revealed that the production of refuse drive fuel from combustible municipal solid wastes may render the greatest benefit with the most mitigation potential of 649 kt CO2eq. An interdependent nature among mitigation measures is further discussed and it is shown that, if implemented together, the accumulated mitigation potentials are far less than the simple sum of individual potentials. It is implied that an aggregate potential of individual measures needs to be examined when implementing several mitigation measures simultaneously. This study outlines how to investigate emissions estimation and mitigation pathways for the waste sector in a national level. Keywords: Greenhouse gas, Emissions estimation, Waste treatment, Mitigation potential, Marginal abatement cost

  9. 40 CFR 98.273 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Pulp and Paper Manufacturing § 98.273 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) For each chemical recovery furnace located at a kraft or soda facility, you must determine... solids fired and the carbon content of the spent liquor solids, according to Equation AA-2 of this...

  10. 40 CFR 98.363 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating GHG emissions. 98.363 Section 98.363 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... (meat animals such as beef and veal cattle, market swine, broilers, and turkeys) must be estimated each...

  11. F‐GHG Emissions Reduction Efforts: FY2015 Supplier Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Supplier Profiles outlined in this document detail the efforts of large‐area flat panel suppliers to reduce their F‐GHG emissions in manufacturing facilities that make today’s large‐area panels used for products such as TVs and computer monitors.

  12. 40 CFR 98.73 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). MW = Molecular weight of the gaseous feedstock (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor... stream (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard conditions... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.73 Calculating GHG emissions. You...

  13. Pollution Emissions, Environmental Policy, and Marginal Abatement Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Ou, Jia-Jia

    2017-12-05

    Pollution emissions impose serious social negative externalities, especially in terms of public health. To reduce pollution emissions cost-effectively, the marginal abatement costs (MACs) of pollution emissions must be determined. Since the industrial sectors are the essential pillars of China's economic growth, as well as leading energy consumers and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emitters, estimating MACs of SO₂ emissions at the industrial level can provide valuable information for all abatement efforts. This paper tries to address the critical and essential issue in pollution abatement: How do we determine the MACs of pollution emissions in China? This paper first quantifies the SO₂ emission contribution of different industrial sectors in the Chinese economy by an Input-Output method and then estimates MACs of SO₂ for industrial sectors at the national level, provincial level, and sectoral level by the shadow price theory. Our results show that six sectors (e.g., the Mining and Washing of Coal sector) should be covered in the Chinese pollution emission trading system. We have also found that the lowest SO₂ shadow price is 2000 Yuan/ton at the national level, and that shadow prices should be set differently at the provincial level. Our empirical study has several important policy implications, e.g., the estimated MACs may be used as a pricing benchmark through emission allowance allocation. In this paper, the MACs of industrial sectors are calculated from the national, provincial and sectoral levels; therefore, we provide an efficient framework to track the complex relationship between sectors and provinces.

  14. Life cycle of meats: an opportunity to abate the greenhouse gas emission from meat industry in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Thammawong, Manasikan; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Xu, Qingyi; Shiina, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The food industry is one of the world's largest industrial sectors, hence a large contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) which cause global warming. This study evaluates the life cycle of various types of meat to determine if the GHG emission from the meat industry in Japan could be reduced if the population makes different dietary choices. It was confirmed that the GHG emission of beef was greater than that of pork or chicken. The GHG emission from meat in general also depends on the per capita caloric intake (if meat supplies the recommended animal protein or contributes to it at the present rate). In a healthy and balanced diet (9.2 MJ i.e., 2200 kcal in total, where either mixed meat or chicken or pork or beef contributes 2.2%), the GHG emission is estimated to be 0.28 or 0.17 or 0.15 or 0.77 kg CO₂ eq/person/day, respectively. A change in consumption patterns (from beef to chicken or pork) and the adoption of a healthy and balanced diet would help to abate about 2.5-54.0 million tons (CO₂ eq) produced by the meat industry each year in Japan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How effective is greening policy in reducing GHG emissions from agriculture? Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, Roberto; Donati, Michele; Tomasi, Licia; Arfini, Filippo

    2016-12-15

    Agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for more than 10% of total CO 2 emissions in the EU-28 area. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) plays an important role in promoting environmentally and climate friendly practices and needs to respond to the new environmental challenges by better integrating its objectives with other EU policies. In this respect, the recent CAP reform 2014-2020 made a further step, making a large part of direct payments conditional on new agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment, i.e. "greening". In this study we estimate the potential environmental benefits from greening in terms of GHG emissions in four regions of Northern Italy, one of the major European agricultural areas in terms of emissions. The emissions were quantified and broken down into the three main GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) per production process. This information was subsequently used in a Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) farm-based model on more than 3,000 farms, to estimate the effects of greening on regional land use and its contribution in reducing the total emissions. The new agri-environmental constraints produce a modest abatement of total emissions of greenhouse gases (-1.5%) in the analyzed area. The model estimates a reduction in CO 2 emissions of about 2%. Emissions from nitrous oxide show a decrease of 2.1% and the reduction in the methane is about 0.4% compared to the observed scenario. The process of "lightening" that affected the greening during the CAP negotiation has inevitably resulted in missing an opportunity to introduce a significant positive change of behaviour into agriculture, in line with the expectations and needs of society for EU agriculture as a provider of public goods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of uncertainties on predicted GHG emissions of dairy cow production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehetmeier, M.; Gandorfer, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Muller, U.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy farms produce significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and are therefore a focal point for GHG-mitigation practices. To develop viable mitigation options, we need robust (insensitive to changes in model parameters and assumptions) predictions of GHG emissions. To this end, we developed a

  17. The liability rules under international GHG emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xiang Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. In designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability rules has been considered to be one of the most challenging issues. In general, a seller-beware liability works well in a strong enforcement environment. In the Kyoto Protocol, however, it may not always work. By contrast, a buyer-beware liability could be an effective deterrent to non-compliance, but the costs of imposing it are expected to be very high. To strike a middle ground, we suggest a combination of preventive measures with strong but feasible end-of-period punishments to ensure compliance with the Kyoto emissions commitments. Such measures aim to maximize efficiency gains from emissions trading and at the same time, to minimize over-selling risks. (author)

  18. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  19. Trends and Projected Estimates of GHG Emissions from Indian Livestock in Comparisons with GHG Emissions from World and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents trends and projected estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock of India vis-à-vis world and developing countries over the period 1961 to 2010 estimated based on IPCC guidelines. World enteric methane emission (EME increased by 54.3% (61.5 to 94.9 ×109 kg annually from the year 1961 to 2010, and the highest annual growth rate (AGR was noted for goat (2.0%, followed by buffalo (1.57% and swine (1.53%. Global EME is projected to increase to 120×109 kg by 2050. The percentage increase in EME by Indian livestock was greater than world livestock (70.6% vs 54.3% between the years 1961 to 2010, and AGR was highest for goat (1.91%, followed by buffalo (1.55%, swine (1.28%, sheep (1.25% and cattle (0.70%. In India, total EME was projected to grow by 18.8×109 kg in 2050. Global methane emission from manure (MEM increased from 6.81 ×109 kg in 1961 to 11.4×109 kg in 2010 (an increase of 67.6%, and is projected to grow to 15×109 kg by 2050. In India, the annual MEM increased from 0.52×109 kg to 1.1×109 kg (with an AGR of 1.57% in this period, which could increase to 1.54×109 kg in 2050. Nitrous oxide emission from manure in India could be 21.4×106 kg in 2050 from 15.3×106 kg in 2010. The AGR of global GHG emissions changed a small extent (only 0.11% from developed countries, but increased drastically (1.23% for developing countries between the periods of 1961 to 2010. Major contributions to world GHG came from cattle (79.3%, swine (9.57% and sheep (7.40%, and for developing countries from cattle (68.3%, buffalo (13.7% and goat (5.4%. The increase of GHG emissions by Indian livestock was less (74% vs 82% over the period of 1961 to 2010 than the developing countries. With this trend, world GHG emissions could reach 3,520×109 kg CO2-eq by 2050 due to animal population growth driven by increased demands for meat and dairy products in the world.

  20. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  1. Abatement of CO2 emissions: IFP's solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In a context of increasing energy consumption and world economic growth, the fight against greenhouse gases has become a major technological challenge for the coming years. The capture and sequestration of CO 2 in the underground is a promising solution in terms of environmental impact, especially in places and sectors characterized by a strong concentration of CO 2 emissions (power generation plants, big industries). However, such a solution requires important R and D efforts to reduce the costs and warrant the long-term reliability of the storage. The French institute of petroleum (IFP) will play an important role in the implementation of the geological sequestration. This press kit comprises 7 documents: a press release from November 4, 2003; a press conference with a series of slides presenting the stakes, solutions and actions proposed by the IFP in collaboration with several foreign partners (CO 2 capture, storage in depleted hydrocarbon deposits, saline aquifers or abandoned coal seams, storage potential, reduction of costs); a summary of the stakes and solutions for CO 2 sequestration in deep underground; a similar document presented at the Panorama 2003 colloquium; the CO 2 constraint in France and in Europe (international consensus on climatic change, Kyoto protocol, European directive about tradable carbon permits, voluntary commitment of companies in the fight against greenhouse effects (AERES)); the European project Castor (CO 2 from capture to storage); and the IFP brochure 'innovating for a sustainable development in the energy domain'. (J.S.)

  2. An evaluation of the effect of greenhouse gas accounting methods on a marginal abatement cost curve for Irish agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, Donal; Shalloo, Laurence; Crosson, Paul; Donnellan, Trevor; Farrelly, Niall; Finnan, John; Hanrahan, Kevin; Lalor, Stan; Lanigan, Gary; Thorne, Fiona; Schulte, Rogier

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving productivity was the most effective strategy to reduce emissions and costs. • The accounting methods disagreed on the total abatement potential of mitigation measures. • Thus, it may be difficult to convince farmers to adopt certain abatement measures. • Domestic offsetting and consumption based accounting are options to overcome current methodological issues. - Abstract: Marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) analysis allows the evaluation of strategies to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to some reference scenario and encompasses their costs or benefits. A popular approach to quantify the potential to abate national agricultural emissions is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines for national GHG inventories (IPCC-NI method). This methodology is the standard for assessing compliance with binding national GHG reduction targets and uses a sector based framework to attribute emissions. There is however an alternative to the IPCC-NI method, known as life cycle assessment (LCA), which is the preferred method to assess the GHG intensity of food production (kg of GHG/unit of food). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of using the IPCC-NI and LCA methodologies when completing a MACC analysis of national agricultural GHG emissions. The MACC was applied to the Irish agricultural sector and mitigation measures were only constrained by the biophysical environment. The reference scenario chosen assumed that the 2020 growth targets set by the Irish agricultural industry would be achieved. The comparison of methodologies showed that only 1.1 Mt of the annual GHG abatement potential that can be achieved at zero or negative cost could be attributed to agricultural sector using the IPCC-NI method, which was only 44% of the zero or negative cost abatement potential attributed to the sector using the LCA method. The difference between methodologies was because the IPCC-NI method attributes the

  3. Effects of Local Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategies on Air Pollutant Emissions and on Health in Kuopio, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Asikainen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of greenhouse gas (GHG abatement strategies often ends up as the responsibility of municipal action rather than national policies. Impacts of local GHG reduction measures were investigated in the EU FP7 funded project Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe (URGENCHE. Kuopio in Finland was one of the case study cities. The assessed reduction measures were (1 increased use of biomass in local heat and power cogeneration plant, (2 energy efficiency improvements of residences, (3 increased biofuel use in traffic, and (4 increased small scale combustion of wood for residential heating. Impact assessment compared the 2010 baseline with a 2020 BAU (business as usual scenario and a 2020 CO2 interventions scenario. Changes in emissions were assessed for CO2, particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10, NOx, and SO2, and respective impacts were assessed for PM2.5 ambient concentrations and health effects. The assessed measures would reduce the local CO2 emissions in the Kuopio urban area by over 50% and local emissions of PM2.5 would clearly decrease. However, the annual average ambient PM2.5 concentration would decrease by just 4%. Thus, only marginal population level health benefits would be achieved with these assumed local CO2 abatement actions.

  4. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  5. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyssenaars, P.; Sliggers, J. [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  6. Simulation of the GHG Abatement Potentials in the U.S. Building Sector by 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris; Bonnet, Florence; Lai, Judy; Phan, Trucy

    2010-10-01

    Given the substantial contribution of the U.S. building sector to national carbon emissions, it is clear that to address properly the issue of climate change, one must first consider innovative approaches to understanding and encouraging the introduction of new, low-carbon technologies to both the commercial and residential building markets. This is the motivation behind the development of the Stochastic Lite Building Module (SLBM), a long range, open source model to forecast the impact of policy decisions and consumer behavior on the market penetration of both existing and emerging building technologies and the resulting carbon savings. The SLBM, developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), is part of the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS) project, a multi-laboratory effort undertaken in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and private companies. The primary purpose of SEDS is to track the performance of different U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Research and Development (R&D) activities on technology adoption, overall energy efficiency, and CO{sub 2} reductions throughout the whole of the U.S. economy. The tool is fundamentally an engineering-economic model with a number of characteristics to distinguish it from existing energy forecasting models. SEDS has been written explicitly to incorporate uncertainty in its inputs leading to uncertainty bounds on the subsequent forecasts. It considers also passive building systems and their interactions with other building service enduses, including the cost savings for heating, cooling, and lighting due to different building shell/window options. Such savings can be compared with investments costs in order to model real-world consumer behavior and forecast adoption rates. The core objective of this paper is to report on the new window and shell features of SLBM and to show the implications of

  7. Can Extreme Hydrological Events Rejuvenate Reservoir GHG Emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, B. S.; Ford, P.

    2013-12-01

    Cotter Dam (Canberra, Australia), built in 1912 and enlarged to its current size (4 GL) in 1951, is a water supply reservoir that has recently been enlarged again (to 80 GL) to increase water security. Vegetation consists mainly of regrowth Pinus radiata and scrubby bushland as the catchment recovers from a devastating fire in 2003. Periodic floating chamber measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes using a Picarro 1301 CRDS have been undertaken to provide baseline flux measurements against which future GHG emissions can be compared as the dam fills and new soil and vegetation are inundated. After the first survey, drought-breaking rains led to heavy flooding for the first time in more than ten years with more than 80 GL passing through the reservoir during a two-month period. Areal mean CH4 emissions from the reservoir prior to the flooding were low (0.26 × 0.14 mmol m-2 d-1), relatively uniform across the 8 measurement sites, and therefore typical of 'mature' reservoirs. Following the flood, the mean reservoir CH4 emission increased to 6.2 × 1.4 mmol m-2 d-1 with emissions at the upstream end of the reservoir (the deposition zone) approximately 100 times greater (31 × 7.6 mmol m-2 d-1) than emissions near the dam wall (0.28 × 0.019 mmol m-2 d-1), a pattern we consistently observed in two other reservoirs in much wetter and more densely vegetated (subtropical and temperate rainforest) southeast Queensland. Over the following year, there has been a return to more normal runoff conditions, mean emissions have fallen to 2.0 × 0.75 mmol m-2 d-1 and the spatial gradient in emissions has weakened. These results raise important questions regarding the temporal and spatial sampling requirements necessary to provide representative estimates of reservoir methane emissions.

  8. Energy demand modelling and GHG emission reduction: case study Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Novosel, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    and develop new energy policy towards energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, in order to comply with all of the presented tasks. Planning future energy demand, considering various policy options like regulation, fiscal and financial measures, becomes one of the crucial issues of future national...... energy strategy. This paper analyses Croatian long term energy demand and its effect on the future national GHG emissions. For that purpose the national energy demand model was constructed (NeD model). The model is comprised out of six modules each representing one sector, following Croatian national...... energy balance; industry, transport, households, services, agriculture and construction. For three of the modules (industry, transport and households) previously developed long term energy demand models were used, while for the remaining three new models were constructed. As an additional feature, new...

  9. GHG Emissions from the Production of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the mass market penetration of electric vehicles, the Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions associated with lithium-ion battery production has become a major concern. In this study, by establishing a life cycle assessment framework, GHG emissions from the production of lithium-ion batteries in China are estimated. The results show that for the three types of most commonly used lithium-ion batteries, the (LFP battery, the (NMC battery and the (LMO battery, the GHG emissions from the production of a 28 kWh battery are 3061 kgCO2-eq, 2912 kgCO2-eq and 2705 kgCO2-eq, respectively. This implies around a 30% increase in GHG emissions from vehicle production compared with conventional vehicles. The productions of cathode materials and wrought aluminum are the dominating contributors of GHG emissions, together accounting for around three quarters of total emissions. From the perspective of process energy use, around 40% of total emissions are associated with electricity use, for which the GHG emissions in China are over two times higher than the level in the United States. According to our analysis, it is recommended that great efforts are needed to reduce the GHG emissions from battery production in China, with improving the production of cathodes as the essential measure.

  10. National Framework for GHG Emission Trading in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.; Nikitina, E.

    2003-01-01

    If Russia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), domestic implementation of its international commitments under this international regime will require special national responses, i.e. institutional capacity building for application of its mechanisms. The Kyoto Protocol and its mechanisms, particularly, international emission trading (IET) and joint implementation (JI), mark a turning point, with opportunities for Russia to benefit from an economic and environmental standpoint from international cooperation. Russia might wish to sell to other parties a surplus in its assigned amount for the first commitment period in 2008-2012, as according to existing estimates its GHG emissions are expected to be below their 1990 base level. In order to participate in international emission trading, Russia has to meet several international requirements, including providing national inventory and reporting and establishing national registry compatible with the standard international format. It is to establish a domestic institutional regime defining laws and rules of behaviour for its participants, the administrative frameworks, and designing major schemes for domestic emission trading programme. Russia's emission trading system is not formed yet. This is a challenging innovation for Russia, as in its previous environmental management practices it did not have any experience in domestic emission trading with other air pollutants. The paper examines the key elements suggested in a number of existing proposals, assessments, and approaches of the government, parliamentarians and non-governmental experts for its institutional design which is at the core of ongoing climate policy debates in the country. These approaches and practical suggestions define the current state-of-the-art in domestic emission trading regime formation and channel the paths of its institutional development in the future. This paper analyses peculiarities

  11. General guidance and procedures for estimating and reporting national GHG emissions for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, K.

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture account for a large share of total GHG emissions in most countries. Methane from ruminants, animal manure and rice fields, and nitrous oxide from agricultural soils are among the most important sources. In general, these emission estimates also are more uncertain than most other parts of the GHG emission inventory. IPCC has developed guidelines for estimating and reporting emissions of GHG. These guidelines shall be followed to secure complete, consistent, accurate and transparent reporting of emissions. However, the recommended methodologies are tiered, and choice of methods shall preferably reflect national circumstances, the national importance of a source, and different resources to prepare inventories. A country may also apply a national methodology given that it is well documented and not in conflict with good practice. Emission data reported under the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change are subject to external control, and the methodologies are reviewed by experts on agricultural inventories. (au)

  12. Estimating Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in 2050 from New Buildings in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, K.; Thorne, J. H.; Quinn, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    A major contributor to global warming is Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with carbon dioxide (CO2) as the lead constituent. While the United States has failed to take a leadership role in worldwide efforts to reduce global warming, California has implemented some of the strictest reduction goals in the country. Recent legislation in California requires significant GHG emission reductions in the coming decades to meet state-mandated targets. To better understand the relative contribution of urban growth to these emissions, we applied an Energy and GHG Impacts Calculator (referred to as “GHG Calculator”) to estimate GHG contributions for two statewide population growth scenarios for the year 2050. Implemented as part of the UPlan urban growth model, the GHG Calculator allows users to predict and compare GHG output from new development. In this paper, two scenarios, differing only in the spatial allocation of housing among zoning categories, are developed and tested for the year 2050 in California. The difference in total GHG emissions between these scenarios was less than 1%. Thus, while “smart growth” may be desirable for a variety of other reasons, the policy impact of the sprawl footprint per se on fixed-source GHG emissions is likely to be far less than effects from other factors, such as insulation and household energy efficiency. The GHG Calculator allows alternative emission-reducing measures to be tested, including modified energy mixes (e.g. a greater percent of renewable sources and lower carbon-based fuels) and conservation measures. The goal is to approximate 2050 emissions and determine what measures are needed to achieve the 2050 goal set by the Governor of California to help decrease the State’s overall contribution to global warming.

  13. CO2 emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO 2 emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO 2 capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO 2 emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO 2 emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO 2 sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  14. Incorporation of electricity GHG emissions intensity variability into building environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubi, Eduard; Doluweera, Ganesh; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Current building assessment does not account for variability in the electric grid. • A new method incorporates hourly grid variability into building assessment. • The method is complementary with peak-shaving policies. • The assessment method can affect building design decisions. - Abstract: Current building energy and GHG emissions assessments do not account for the variable performance of the electric grid. Incorporating hourly grid variability into building assessment methods can help to better prioritize energy efficiency measures that result in the largest environmental benefits. This article proposes a method to incorporate GHG emissions intensity changes due to grid variability into building environmental assessment. The proposed method encourages building systems that reduce electricity use during peak periods while accounting for differences in grid GHG emissions intensity (i.e., peak shaving is more strongly encouraged in grids that have GHG intense peak generation). A set of energy saving building technologies are evaluated in a set of building variants (office, residential) and grid types (hydro/nuclear dominated, coal/gas dominated) to demonstrate the proposed method. Differences between total GHG emissions calculated with the new method compared with the standard (which assumes a constant GHG emissions intensity throughout the year) are in the 5–15% range when the contribution of electricity to total GHG emissions is more significant. The influence of the method on the assessment of the relative performance of some energy efficiency measures is much higher. For example, the estimated GHG emissions savings with heat pumps and photovoltaics can change by −40% and +20%, respectively, using the new assessment method instead of the standard. These differences in GHG emissions estimates can influence building design decisions. The new method could be implemented easily, and would lead to better decision making and more accurate

  15. Managing Risk Aversion for Low-Carbon Supply Chains with Emission Abatement Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinpeng; He, Longfei

    2018-01-01

    Reducing carbon emissions, including emission abatement outsourcing at the supply-chain level, is becoming a significant but challenging problem in practice. Confronting this challenge, we therefore break down the practice to focus on a low-carbon supply chain consisting of one supplier, one manufacturer and one third-party emission-reducing contractor. The contractor offers a carbon reduction service to the manufacturer. In view of the increasing proportion of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and absence of carbon reduction policies in developing countries, we adopt the prospect of consumers’ low-carbon preferences to capture the demand sensitivity on carbon emission. By exploiting the Mean-Variance (MV) model, we develop a supply chain game model considering risk aversion. Comparing the supply chain performances of the cases under risk neutrality and risk aversion, we investigate the impact of the risk aversion of the supplier and the manufacturer on the low-carbon supply chain performances, respectively. We show that the risk aversion of chain members will not influence the relationship underlain by the profit-sharing contract between the manufacturer and contractor, whereas they may extend the supplier’s concerning range. Although the manufacturer’s risk aversion has a positive impact on the wholesale price, interestingly, the supplier’s impact on the wholesale price is negative. Furthermore, we propose a contract to coordinate the risk-averse low-carbon supply chain by tuning the aversion levels of the supplier and the manufacturer, respectively. Through numerical study, we draw on managerial insights for industrial practitioners to adopt a low carbon strategy potentially by managing the risk attitudes along the supply chain channel. PMID:29466281

  16. Managing Risk Aversion for Low-Carbon Supply Chains with Emission Abatement Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinpeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon emissions, including emission abatement outsourcing at the supply-chain level, is becoming a significant but challenging problem in practice. Confronting this challenge, we therefore break down the practice to focus on a low-carbon supply chain consisting of one supplier, one manufacturer and one third-party emission-reducing contractor. The contractor offers a carbon reduction service to the manufacturer. In view of the increasing proportion of Greenhouse Gases (GHG emissions and absence of carbon reduction policies in developing countries, we adopt the prospect of consumers’ low-carbon preferences to capture the demand sensitivity on carbon emission. By exploiting the Mean-Variance (MV model, we develop a supply chain game model considering risk aversion. Comparing the supply chain performances of the cases under risk neutrality and risk aversion, we investigate the impact of the risk aversion of the supplier and the manufacturer on the low-carbon supply chain performances, respectively. We show that the risk aversion of chain members will not influence the relationship underlain by the profit-sharing contract between the manufacturer and contractor, whereas they may extend the supplier’s concerning range. Although the manufacturer’s risk aversion has a positive impact on the wholesale price, interestingly, the supplier’s impact on the wholesale price is negative. Furthermore, we propose a contract to coordinate the risk-averse low-carbon supply chain by tuning the aversion levels of the supplier and the manufacturer, respectively. Through numerical study, we draw on managerial insights for industrial practitioners to adopt a low carbon strategy potentially by managing the risk attitudes along the supply chain channel.

  17. Managing Risk Aversion for Low-Carbon Supply Chains with Emission Abatement Outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinpeng; He, Longfei

    2018-02-21

    Reducing carbon emissions, including emission abatement outsourcing at the supply-chain level, is becoming a significant but challenging problem in practice. Confronting this challenge, we therefore break down the practice to focus on a low-carbon supply chain consisting of one supplier, one manufacturer and one third-party emission-reducing contractor. The contractor offers a carbon reduction service to the manufacturer. In view of the increasing proportion of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and absence of carbon reduction policies in developing countries, we adopt the prospect of consumers' low-carbon preferences to capture the demand sensitivity on carbon emission. By exploiting the Mean-Variance (MV) model, we develop a supply chain game model considering risk aversion. Comparing the supply chain performances of the cases under risk neutrality and risk aversion, we investigate the impact of the risk aversion of the supplier and the manufacturer on the low-carbon supply chain performances, respectively. We show that the risk aversion of chain members will not influence the relationship underlain by the profit-sharing contract between the manufacturer and contractor, whereas they may extend the supplier's concerning range. Although the manufacturer's risk aversion has a positive impact on the wholesale price, interestingly, the supplier's impact on the wholesale price is negative. Furthermore, we propose a contract to coordinate the risk-averse low-carbon supply chain by tuning the aversion levels of the supplier and the manufacturer, respectively. Through numerical study, we draw on managerial insights for industrial practitioners to adopt a low carbon strategy potentially by managing the risk attitudes along the supply chain channel.

  18. GHG emission factors for bioelectricity, biomethane, and bioethanol quantified for 24 biomass substrates with consequential life-cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings from biofuels dramatically depend upon the source of energy displaced and the effects induced outside the energy sector, for instance land-use changes (LUC). Using consequential life-cycle assessment and including LUC effects, this study provides GHG emission...... in the feed sector should be discouraged, as LUC GHG emissions exceeded any GHG savings from displacing conventional energy sources. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Solar energy and the abatement of atmospheric emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Diakoulaki, D.; Assimacopoulos, D.

    1996-01-01

    In spite of the fact that solar energy is a ''clean'' energy form, gaseous pollutants are emitted during the manufacturing of the systems necessary for its utilisation. An attempt is made in this paper to estimate the level of atmospheric pollutants emitted during the successive stages which make up the manufacture process for solar water heating (SWH) systems, and to evaluate these results in comparison with the respective pollutant emission levels attributed to the generation of electricity in Greece's conventional power plants. As energy consumption is recognised as the main source of atmospheric pollution, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) method was applied, focusing on the most energy-consuming stages of the SWH system production process. The conclusions of the analysis indicate that the emissions of gaseous pollutants associated with the utilisation of solar energy are considerably lower than those caused by the production of electricity in conventional systems, thereby substantiating that solar energy utilisation can make a notable contribution to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. (author)

  20. Future needs for ship emission abatement and technical measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa ANTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has revised air pollution regulations in MARPOL Annex VI. In 2012 Emission Control Areas (ECA will limit fuel sulphur content to 1% and from 2015 to 0.1%. NOx emissions based on ships engine speed are also reduced for new vessels (2012 & 2016. Facing this legislation, ship owners have the alternative either to operate ships with costly low-sulphur fuels, or to keep using HFO but together with a gas cleaning equipment at the ship stack in order to reduce the rejected amount of SO2 gas in the atmosphere. To achieve this requirement, research and development organizations came out with proposing a solution that uses a device for cleaning exhaust gas of marine diesel engines. The paper presents a short communication about the DEECON project, which aim is to create a novel on-board after-treatment unit more advanced than any currently available. Each sub-unit of the system will be optimized to remove a specific primary pollutant. In particular, the technology within the DEECON system is based on novel or improved abatement techniques for reducing SOx, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM, CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC. Some of these technologies are completely new for the maritime sector and they will represent a breakthrough in the reduction of the atmospheric emissions of ships, moving forward the performance of exhaust gas cleaning systems and fostering and anticipating the adoption of future and tighter regulatory requirements. In addition, an after-treatment strategy enables the possible adoption of alternative fuels, which often have their own emissions characteristics.

  1. 76 FR 9534 - Development of Technical Guidelines and Scientific Methods for Quantifying GHG Emissions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Development of Technical Guidelines and Scientific Methods for... technical guidelines and scientific methods for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and carbon...-based methods to measure the carbon benefits from conservation and land management activities. In...

  2. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  3. Assessment of GHG emissions of biomethane from energy cereal crops in Umbria, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions of biomethane from energy crops cultivated in a central Italian farm were investigated. • Electricity consumption of the biogas plant was monitored. • Current scenario does not allow to achieve a GHG saving according to Renewable Energy Directive. • GHG emissions could be reduced by covering the storage tanks of digestate and installing a CHP plant. - Abstract: Biomethane from energy crops is a renewable energy carrier and therefore it potentially contributes to climate change mitigation. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from cultivation and processing must be considered. Among those, the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers, the resulting nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, the methane emissions from digestate storage and the energy consumption of the biogas plant are crucial factors. In the present paper an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of GHG emissions from biomethane production is carried out, taking into account own measurements and experience data from a modern biogas plant located in Umbria, Italy. The study is also focused on the electricity consumption of the biogas plant, assessing the specific absorption power of each machinery. The analysis is based on the methodology defined by the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). The main result is that the biomethane chain exceeds the minimum value of GHG saving (35%) mainly due to the open storage of digestate. However by varying the system, using heat and electricity from a biogas CHP plant and covering digestate storage tank, a reduction of 68.9% could be obtained

  4. ON THE STUDY OF GHG (GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN DARGAZ, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali RASSAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue which has attracted the attention of many scientists is the climate change and global warming due to greenhouse gas emission which has caused the world faced with a great human and environmental disaster. In this study, the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions was estimated in the semi-traditional and semi-mechanized rice production systems in Dargaz region, Iran. All the agricultural and consuming inputs procedures responsible for greenhouse gas emissions were collected and recorded in both systems. The amount of GHG emission in semi-traditional and semi-mechanized was 813.17 and 968.31 kg CO2-eq ha-1, respectively. The fuel consumption with the share of 38.22% in semi-traditional method and 43.32% in semi-mechanized system had the largest share in GHG emission and using Nitrogen fertilizer on farms with the share of 31.97% in semi-traditional method and 26.91% in semi-mechanized system is in the second place of GHG emission. The semi-traditional system had greater GHG emissions in the unit of tone of harvested grain and unit of energy output. The use of alternative methods such as conservation tillage and organic fertilizers can be effective in improving the environmental status of the production area.

  5. How to estimate green house gas (GHG) emissions from an excavator by using CAT's performance chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajji, Apif M.; Lewis, Michael P.

    2017-09-01

    Construction equipment activities are a major part of many infrastructure projects. This type of equipment typically releases large quantities of green house gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions may come from fuel consumption. Furthermore, equipment productivity affects the fuel consumption. Thus, an estimating tool based on the construction equipment productivity rate is able to accurately assess the GHG emissions resulted from the equipment activities. This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the environmental impact for a common construction activity. This paper delivers sensitivity analysis and a case study for an excavator based on trench excavation activity. The methodology delivered in this study can be applied to a stand-alone model, or a module that is integrated with other emissions estimators. The GHG emissions are highly correlated to diesel fuel use, which is approximately 10.15 kilograms (kg) of CO2 per gallon of diesel fuel. The results showed that the productivity rate model as the result from multiple regression analysis can be used as the basis for estimating GHG emissions, and also as the framework for developing emissions footprint and understanding the environmental impact from construction equipment activities introduction.

  6. Spatio-temporal patterns of energy consumption-related GHG emissions in China's crop production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Wei; Qin, Quande; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to reveal the spatio-temporal patterns of energy consumption-related greenhouse gas (ECR-GHG) emissions in China's crop production systems (CPSs). The relevant crop production data from 31 provinces during 1997–2014 are utilized. In order to fully reflect the energy consumption and ECR-GHG emissions in CPSs, energy balance techniques are adopted from a consumption perspective. The driving factors behind ECR-GHG emissions are identified by means of a Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index analysis at both national and provincial levels. The results are as follows: (1) The yield of China's CPS is not positively correlated with energy consumption, and China's CPS has the relatively high potential to conserve energy and reduce ECR-GHG emissions; (2) Most of China's provinces have experienced enormous growth in ECR-GHG emissions; however there are relatively significant regional disparities; (3) ECR-GHG emissions from CPSs were mostly derived directly from the consumption of chemical fertilizers and diesel oil; (4) Areal productivity is the determining factor in the growth of ECR-GHG emissions, whereas the emission coefficient and energy mix are the main inhibiting factors; (5) Energy intensity has not achieved its full potential to decrease ECR-GHG emissions. This study provides insights into the potential for sustainable crop production in China. - Highlights: • We analyzed the spacial and temporal features of ECR-GHG emissions from CPSs. • We quantified the driving forces of ECR-GHG emissions from CPSs. • ECR-GHG emissions from CPSs are estimated from a consumption perspective. • Regional disparities exist in the level of ECR-GHG emissions from China's CPSs. • Optimizing chemical fertilizer consumption structure is urgent to reduce ECR-GHG.

  7. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.

    , but environmental impacts, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, during storage and after field application should take into account. Mainly, methane (CH4) is produced during storage and nitrous oxide (N2O) after field application. Currently, direct (CH4, N2O) and indirect (NH3) GHG emissions during storage...... nitrogen (N), and soil water potential (). Short-term N2O emissions, expressed as percentage of total N applied, ranged from 0.24 to 1.4%. Overall, first results indicate that co-digestion of pig slurry and sugar beet pulp may reduce GHG emissions during storage and after field application. The extent...... are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...

  8. Emission abatement: Untangling the impacts of the EU ETS and the economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Germà; Joseph, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use historical emission data from installations under the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to evaluate the impact of this policy on greenhouse gas emissions during the first two trading phases (2005–2012). As such the analysis seeks to disentangle two causes of emission abatement: that attributable to the EU ETS and that attributable to the economic crisis that hit the EU in 2008/09. To do so, we use a dynamic panel data approach. Our results suggest that, by far, the biggest share of abatement was attributable to the effects of the economic crisis. This finding has serious implications for future policy adjustments affecting core elements of the EU ETS, including the distribution of EU emission allowances. - Highlights: • We untangle the effects of the EU ETS from those of the economic crisis on industrial emission abatement. • The empirical analysis uses verified emission data instead of estimated emission data. • Abatement of emissions in EU in the last years has been mainly due to the impact of the economic crisis. • Low level of abatement attributable to the EU ETS suggests that important changes must be made in environmental policy

  9. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO 2 e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO 2 e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO 2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard

  10. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  11. Optimizing production with energy and GHG emission constraints in Greece: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristu-Varsakelis, D.; Karagianni, S.; Pempetzoglou, M.; Sfetsos, A.

    2010-01-01

    Under its Kyoto and EU obligations, Greece has committed to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increase of at most 25% compared to 1990 levels, to be achieved during the period 2008-2012. Although this restriction was initially regarded as being realistic, information derived from GHG emissions inventories shows that an increase of approximately 28% has already taken place between 1990 and 2005, highlighting the need for immediate action. This paper explores the reallocation of production in Greece, on a sector-by-sector basis, in order to meet overall demand constraints and GHG emissions targets. We pose a constrained optimization problem, taking into account the Greek environmental input-output matrix for 2005, the amount of utilized energy and pollution reduction options. We examine two scenarios, limiting fluctuations in sectoral production to at most 10% and 15%, respectively, compared to baseline (2005) values. Our results indicate that (i) GHG emissions can be reduced significantly with relatively limited effects on GVP growth rates, and that (ii) greater cutbacks in GHG emissions can be achieved as more flexible production scenarios are allowed.

  12. Developing a historical energy and GHG emission inventory for the New York City Metro area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, P. J.; Sarznski, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the vital importance of 21st Century urbanization, energy use and GHG emissions trends our understanding of the relationship between these variables is poor. Addressing these research lacunae is crucial for the success of policies, inter alia, to limit GHG emissions, as per the Paris Agreement (2015). Two reasons for the limited understanding of the relationships between urbanization, energy use and GHG emissions is the lack of longitudinal studies (longer than 10 years) and the limited spatial treatment of cities. Most research on urban GHGs is at a specific point in time and covers urban areas as single units. There are a number of studies performed at the individual city or metropolitan level at specific points in time. Exceptions to the first limitation include the Gurney, et al (2009) team that have developed the high resolution Vulcan dataset (now Hestia) that identifies emissions at high resolution (10 km) and has examined GHG emissions at the country level and studies from California, such as those in Los Angeles that examined GHG emissions at the census block level (Pincetl et al, 2015) and the Bay area (Jones and Kammen, 2014). All of these research teams, however, examined emissions at a single point in time or have not provided historical trends. To address these challenges we present a preliminary framework to develop a historical spatially disaggregated inventory of energy use and GHG emissions for selected sources at the county or finer scale for the New York City Metropolitan (31 county) region. The high-resolution and historical inventory could be provided as far back as 30 years. We describe the data and methods used and both the potential and limitations of these inventories.

  13. GHG-emissions for cars with different power trains over the whole life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The method of life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to cars with different power trains. As an example, the results for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are presented. They show possibilities and limits for the reduction of these emissions in the transportation sector by means of advanced technology. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO 2 e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  15. Whole farm quantification of GHG emissions within smallholder farms in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebauer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The IPCC has compiled the best available scientific methods into published guidelines for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission removals from the land-use sector. In order to evaluate existing GHG quantification tools to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions and removals in smallholder conditions, farm scale quantification was tested with farm data from Western Kenya. After conducting a cluster analysis to identify different farm typologies GHG quantification was exercised using the VCS SALM methodology complemented with IPCC livestock emission factors and the cool farm tool. The emission profiles of four farm clusters representing the baseline conditions in the year 2009 are compared with 2011 where farmers adopted sustainable land management practices (SALM). The results demonstrate the variation in both the magnitude of the estimated GHG emissions per ha between different smallholder farm typologies and the emissions estimated by applying two different accounting tools. The farm scale quantification further shows that the adoption of SALM has a significant impact on emission reduction and removals and the mitigation benefits range between 4 and 6.5 tCO 2  ha −1  yr −1 with significantly different mitigation benefits depending on typologies of the crop–livestock systems, their different agricultural practices, as well as adoption rates of improved practices. However, the inherent uncertainty related to the emission factors applied by accounting tools has substantial implications for reported agricultural emissions. With regard to uncertainty related to activity data, the assessment confirms the high variability within different farm types as well as between different parameters surveyed to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions within smallholder farms. (paper)

  16. Energy conservation and CO2-emission abatement potential in the Greek residential services sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy for CO 2 -emission abatement will have to allow for the sectoral energy-conservation potential. The present paper outlines the energy-analysis method applied to the Greek residential and services sectors. The trends in energy requirements for 1990-2000 are forecast and energy-conservation and CO 2 -abatement measures are proposed. A Maximum Action Scenario (MAS) and a Realistic Scenario (RS) are compared with a No-Action Scenario (NAS). (Author)

  17. GHG emission quantification for pavement construction projects using a process-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charinee Limsawasd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions have attracted much attention for their impacts upon the global environment. Initiating of new legislation and regulations for control of GHG emissions from the industrial sectors has been applied to address this problem. The transportation industries, which include operation of road pavement and pavement construction equipment, are the highest GHG-emitting sectors. This study presents a novel quantification model of GHG emissions of pavement construction using process-based analysis. The model is composed of five modules that evaluate GHG emissions. These are: material production and acquisition, (2 material transport to a project site, (3 heavy equipment use, (4 on-site machinery use, and, (5 on-site electricity use. The model was applied to a hypothetical pavement project to compare the environmental impacts of flexible and rigid pavement types during construction. The resulting model can be used for evaluation of environmental impacts, as well as for designing and planning highway pavement construction.

  18. DairyGHG: a tool for evaluating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment have become important national and international concerns. Dairy production, along with all other animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farm...

  19. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  20. Electricity trade and GHG emissions: Assessment of Quebec's hydropower in the Northeastern American market (2006-2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Amor, Mourad; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier; Gaudreault, Caroline; Samson, Rejean

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electricity sector reforms open up electricity markets and increase trades. This has environmental consequences as exports and imports either increase or decrease local production and consequently greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper's objective is to illustrate the importance of electricity trade's impact on GHG emissions by providing an estimate of the net GHG emissions resulting from these trades. To achieve this objective, Quebec hourly electricity exchanges with adjacent jurisdictions were examined over the 2006-2008 period. In order to associate a specific GHG emission quantity to electricity trades, hourly marginal electricity production technologies were identified and validated using the Ontario hourly output per power plant and information released in the Quebec adjacent system operator reports. It is estimated that over three years, imports into Quebec were responsible for 7.7 Mt of GHG, while Quebec hydropower exports avoided 28.3 Mt of GHG emissions. Hence, the net result is 20.6 Mt of avoided emissions over 2006-2008, or about 7 Mt per year, which corresponds to more than 8% of the Quebec yearly GHG emissions. When GHG emissions from all life cycle stages (resource extraction to end-of-life) are accounted for, the net avoided GHG emissions increase by 35%, to 27.9 Mt. - Research highlights: → Environmental benefits of hydropower exports are considerable. → Detailed GHG assessment of such electricity trade is missing from the literature. → Net GHG emissions estimate resulting from such trade is provided. → GHG gains are significant in the Northeast American electricity market due to such electricity trade.

  1. A feasibility study of microgrids for reducing energy use and GHG emissions in an industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengyu; Zhang, Xiongwen; Li, Guojun; Jiang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment is conducted on the microgrids for an industry application. • The effect of renewable energy on the LCA performances of microgrids is illustrated. • The minimal life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of microgrids are evaluated. • The LCA of different pathways for electricity, heat and hydrogen are presented. - Abstract: Microgrids provide a new energy paradigm with the benefits of higher energy supply reliability, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a higher penetration of renewable sources, higher energy efficiencies through the use of local waste heat and the avoidance of losses in transmission and distribution. This study reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microgrids for an industry application of an ammonia plant in central Inner Mongolia, China. The life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of the microgrids are evaluated and compared to the existing fossil fuel-based energy system. The electricity, heat and hydrogen fuel loads of the ammonia plant are all modelled in the study. An optimization model is developed to estimate the minimum life cycle energy use and GHG emissions with the microgrids under three scenarios (natural gas (NG)-based, optimized, and maximum renewable energy microgrids). The results indicate that the use of wind and solar in the NG-based microgrid can only slightly reduce the energy use and GHG emissions. If there are no land area limitations on the deployment of solar and wind power, the maximum renewable energy microgrid offers significant reductions of fossil fuel energy of up to 56.9% and GHG emissions reductions of up to 66.3% compared to the existing energy system.

  2. Regional disparity of urban passenger transport associated GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-01-01

    With China’s urbanization and motorization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from urban passenger transport increased rapidly over recent years. As we estimated, China’s urban passenger transport associated motorized travel, energy consumption and lifecycle GHG emissions reached 2815 billion passenger kilometers (pkm), 77 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) and 335 million ton CO 2 equivalent in 2010, over half of which were located in eastern provinces. Over national level, GHG emissions by private passenger vehicles, business passenger vehicles, taxis, motorcycles, E-bikes, transit buses and urban rails accounted for 57.7%, 13.0%, 7.7%, 8.6%, 1.8%, 10.5% and 0.7% of the total. Significant regional disparity was observed. The province-level per capita GHG emissions ranged from 285 kg/capita in Guizhou to 1273 kg/capita in Beijing, with national average of 486 kg/capita. Depending on province context and local policy orientation, the motorization pathways of China’s several highest motorized provinces are quite diverse. We concluded that motorization rate and transport structure were the substantial factors determining urban passenger transport associated GHG emissions. Considering the great potential of urban passenger transport growth in China, policies guiding the optimization of transport structure should be in place with priority in eastern provinces. - Highlights: • Province-leveled motorized travel, energy consumption and GHG emissions in China were studied. • Significant regional disparities on urban passenger transport were observed. • Region-specific sustainable transport energy policies were discussed

  3. Introducing renewable energy and industrial restructuring to reduce GHG emission: Application of a dynamic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy development is expanded and introduced into socioeconomic activities. • A dynamic optimization simulation model is developed based on input–output approach. • Regional economic, energy and environmental impacts are assessed dynamically. • Industrial and energy structure is adjusted optimally for GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Specifying the renewable energy development as new energy industries to be newly introduced into current socioeconomic activities, this study develops a dynamic simulation model with input–output approach to make comprehensive assessment of the impacts on economic development, energy consumption and GHG emission under distinct levels of GHG emission constraints involving targeted GHG emission reduction policies (ERPs) and industrial restructuring. The model is applied to Jilin City to conduct 16 terms of dynamic simulation work with GRP as objective function subject to mass, value and energy balances aided by the extended input–output table with renewable energy industries introduced. Simulation results indicate that achievement of GHG emission reduction target is contributed by renewable energy industries, ERPs and industrial restructuring collectively, which reshape the terminal energy consumption structure with a larger proportion of renewable energy. Wind power, hydropower and biomass combustion power industries account for more in the power generation structure implying better industrial prospects. Mining, chemical, petroleum processing, non-metal, metal and thermal power industries are major targets for industrial restructuring. This method is crucial for understanding the role of renewable energy development in GHG mitigation efforts and other energy-related planning settings, allowing to explore the optimal level for relationships among all socioeconomic activities and facilitate to simultaneous pursuit of economic development, energy utilization and environmental preservation

  4. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun

    2011-01-01

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  5. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  6. The influence of urban form on GHG emissions in the U.S. household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungwon; Lee, Bumsoo

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of sustainable urban development in greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, this study examines the paths by which urban form influences an individual household's carbon dioxide emissions in the 125 largest urbanized areas in the U.S. Our multilevel SEM analyses show that doubling population-weighted density is associated with a reduction in CO 2 emissions from household travel and residential energy consumption by 48% and 35%, respectively. Centralized population and polycentric structures have only a moderate impact in our analyses. Given that household travel and residential energy use account for 42% of total U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, these findings highlight the importance of smart growth policies to build more compact and transit friendly cities as a crucial part of any strategic efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and to stabilize climate. - Highlights: • We examine how urban form influences household CO 2 emissions using a multilevel SEM. • Doubling population-weighted density is associated with a 48% reduction in CO 2 emissions from household travel. • Doubling population-weighted density is associated with a 35% reduction in CO 2 emissions from residential energy use. • Doubling per capita transit subsidy is associated with a 46% lower VMT and 18% reduction in transportation CO 2 emissions. • Smart growth policies should be a crucial part of any strategic efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize climate

  7. METHODOLOGY FOR REDUCTION OF GHG EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Boskovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Collection and transport of municipal solid waste (MSW, as a part of solid waste management, have a great environmental impact due to exhaust emissions from fuel combustion. Distance traveled appears as one of the most influencing parameter in total fuel consumed. This paper presents a general methodology for route optimization using Geographic Information System (GIS. The necessary databases were created and established methodology was applied to waste collection and transport system in the city of Kragujevac. Using GIS software one typical route was optimized. Furthermore, fuel consumption and associated exhaust emissions vary in different waste collection and transport stages. Waste collection and transport circuit was divided into four different stages. The estimation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions for optimized route was made and compared to estimated emissions of current route. Calculations, which also include vehicle speed as very important parameter, indicated great savings in GHG emissions.

  8. Lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel: Unintended market effects negate direct benefits of the Malaysian Economic Transformation Plan (ETP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel expansion can lead to unintended effects that offset the direct GHG benefits of biofuels. Two documented unintended effects are the indirect land use change (ILUC) and indirect energy use change (IEUC). ILUC has been included in many lifecycle GHG studies of biofuels, but IEUC has remained relatively elusive. This paper presents an updated assessment of the lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel from Malaysia and, for the first time, incorporating the two estimated indirect effects simultaneously. Future GHG emissions of palm biodiesel are projected by taking into account of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) that aims to reform the oil palm industry in order to achieve a high-income nation. Uncertainties associated with lifecycle GHG models were dealt with using Monte Carlo simulation in order to identify the breadth and likelihood of GHG reductions relative to petroleum-based fuels in the context of the European directives. This study has shown that the ETP, if successfully implemented, can significantly improve the direct GHG emissions of palm biodiesel, but the benefits are offset by the rise in global emissions due to ILUC and IEUC. Biofuel policies should also include IEUC, in addition to ILUC, to avoid GHG emissions leakages. - Highlights: • Estimate current and future lifecycle GHG emissions of Malaysian palm biodiesel. • Evaluate the GHG effects of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Plan (ETP). • Direct GHG benefits of biodiesel offset by indirect market effects. • Palm biodiesel unlikely to enable global GHG emissions reductions. • Global biofuel policy must account for indirect effects.

  9. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  10. GHG Emissions, Economic Growth and Urbanization: A Spatial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To gain a greater understanding of the spatial spillover effect of greenhouse gas emissions and their influencing factors, this paper provides a spatial analysis of four gas pollutants (CO2 emissions, SO2 emissions, NOx emissions, and dust emissions. Focusing on China, the paper also explores whether the four gas pollutants are influenced by the emissions of neighboring regions and other possible sources. The paper uses a global spatial autocorrelation analysis, local spatial association analysis and spatial lag model for empirical work. The results suggest that CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions show significant positive results for both the spatial correlation and space cluster effect in provincial space distribution.CO2 and NOx emissions have a significant positive spillover effect, while the SO2 emissions’ spatial spillover effect is positive but not significant. Economic growth and urbanization are the key determinants of CO2, dust, and NOx emissions, while energy efficiency and industrialization do not appear to play a role. This raises questions about the method of examining the spatial relationship between gas pollution, economic growth and urbanization in the future.

  11. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Weiming [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gracelee@ntu.edu.tw; Wu Chihcheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced.

  12. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei Ming; Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106 (China); Wu, Chih Cheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced. (author)

  13. Reduction potentials of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu; Crookes, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid growth of road vehicles, private vehicles in particular, has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand and imports, which has been widely accepted as a major factor effecting future oil availability and prices, and a major contributor to China's GHG emission increase. This paper is intended to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector and to assess the effectiveness of possible reduction measures. A detailed model has been developed to derive a reliable historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector between 2000 and 2005 and to project future trends. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of China's road transport sector. The 'Business as Usual' scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of road transport energy demand. The 'Best Case' scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as private vehicle control, fuel economy regulation, promoting diesel and gas vehicles, fuel tax and biofuel promotion, are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector up to 2030 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the 'Best Case' scenario and the relative reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated

  14. Assessing GHG emissions, ecological footprint, and water linkage for different fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F; Nebra, Silvia A

    2010-12-15

    Currently, transport is highly dependent on fossil fuels and responsible for about 23% of world energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. Ethanol from sugar cane and corn emerges as an alternative for gasoline in order to mitigate GHG emissions. Additionally, deeper offshore drilling projects such as in the Brazilian Pre-Salt reservoirs and mining projects of nonconventional sources like Tar Sands in Canada could be a solution for supplying demand of fossil fuels in the short and midterm. Based on updated literature, this paper presents an assessment of GHG emissions for four different fuels: ethanol from sugar cane and from corn and gasoline from conventional crude oil and from tar sands. An Ecological Footprint analysis is also presented, which shows that ethanol from sugar cane has the lowest GHG emissions and requires the lowest biocapacity per unit of energy produced among these fuels. Finally, an analysis using the Embodied Water concept is made with the introduction of a new concept, the "CO(2)-Water", to illustrate the impacts of releasing carbon from underground to atmosphere and of the water needed to sequestrate it over the life cycle of the assessed fuels. Using this method resulted that gasoline from fossil fuels would indirectly "require" on average as much water as ethanol from sugar cane per unit of fuel energy produced.

  15. Estimating GHG Emissions from the Manufacturing of Field-Applied Biochar Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Hanwen Zhang; Karl Englund; Keith Windell; Hongmei Gu

    2016-01-01

    Biochar application to forest soils can provide direct and indirect benefits, including carbon sequestration. Biochar, the result of thermochemical conversion of biomass, can have positive environmental climate benefits and can be more stable when field-applied to forest soils than wood itself. Categorizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and carbon sequestration...

  16. 40 CFR 98.63 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Sources). (e) Use the following procedures to calculate CO2 emissions from anode consumption... = Hydrogen content of pitch (percent weight). Sc = Sulfur content in calcined coke (percent weight). Ashc... section to calculate emissions from pitch volatiles combustion. ER30OC09.031 Where: ECO2PV = Annual CO2...

  17. Energy consumption and GHG emissions of six biofuel pathways by LCA in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan; Guo, Qingfang [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents life-cycle-analysis (LCA) energy consumption (EC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of China's current six biofuel pathways, which are: corn-derived ethanol (CE); cassava-derived ethanol (KE); sweet sorghum-derived ethanol (SE); soybean-derived bio-diesel (SB); jatropha fruit-derived bio-diesel (JB); and used cooking oil (UCO)-derived bio-diesel (UB). The tool utilized here is the WTW (Well-to-Wheels) module of Tsinghua-CA3EM model covering the entire lifecycle including: raw materials cultivation (or feedstock collection); fuel production; transportation and distribution; and application in automobile engines, compared with Conventional Petroleum-based gasoline and diesel Pathways (CPP). The results indicate: (1) the fossil energy inputs are about 1.0-1.5 times the energy contained in the fuel for the CE, SE and SB pathways, but 0.5-0.9 times for the KE, UB and JB pathways; (2) compared with CPP, the JB, KE and UB pathways can reduce both fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions; the CE and SB pathways can only reduce fossil fuel consumption, but increase GHG emission; the SE pathway increases not only fossil fuel consumption but also GHG emission; and (3) the main factors inducing high EC and GHG emission levels include: high EC levels during the fuel production stage and high fertilizer application rates during the planting of raw feedstocks. Conclusions are that of the aforementioned biofuel pathways in China: (1) only the JB, KE and UB pathways have energy-saving merits as indicated by the LCA energy inputs and outputs; (2) compared with CPP, all but the SE pathway reduces fossil fuel consumption. However, the SB and CE pathway increase GHG emission; (3) all six displace petroleum by utilizing more coal; and (4) feedstock productivity levels must be increased, and there must be a reduction in fertilizer utilization and EC consumption during the cultivation and transportation stages in order to achieve the goals of energy balance and

  18. Energy consumption and GHG emissions of six biofuel pathways by LCA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan; Guo Qingfang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents life-cycle-analysis (LCA) energy consumption (EC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of China's current six biofuel pathways, which are: corn-derived ethanol (CE); cassava-derived ethanol (KE); sweet sorghum-derived ethanol (SE); soybean-derived bio-diesel (SB); jatropha fruit-derived bio-diesel (JB); and used cooking oil (UCO)-derived bio-diesel (UB). The tool utilized here is the WTW (Well-to-Wheels) module of Tsinghua-CA3EM model covering the entire lifecycle including: raw materials cultivation (or feedstock collection); fuel production; transportation and distribution; and application in automobile engines, compared with Conventional Petroleum-based gasoline and diesel Pathways (CPP). The results indicate: (1) the fossil energy inputs are about 1.0-1.5 times the energy contained in the fuel for the CE, SE and SB pathways, but 0.5-0.9 times for the KE, UB and JB pathways; (2) compared with CPP, the JB, KE and UB pathways can reduce both fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions; the CE and SB pathways can only reduce fossil fuel consumption, but increase GHG emission; the SE pathway increases not only fossil fuel consumption but also GHG emission; and (3) the main factors inducing high EC and GHG emission levels include: high EC levels during the fuel production stage and high fertilizer application rates during the planting of raw feedstocks. Conclusions are that of the aforementioned biofuel pathways in China: (1) only the JB, KE and UB pathways have energy-saving merits as indicated by the LCA energy inputs and outputs; (2) compared with CPP, all but the SE pathway reduces fossil fuel consumption. However, the SB and CE pathway increase GHG emission; (3) all six displace petroleum by utilizing more coal; and (4) feedstock productivity levels must be increased, and there must be a reduction in fertilizer utilization and EC consumption during the cultivation and transportation stages in order to achieve the goals of energy balance and GHG

  19. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions outside the national borders in FENCH-GHG energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at providing guidance to the workshop discussion on the accountability of full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy sources if emissions did not take place inside the national borders of a country. Examples of such emissions are those from the generation of imported electricity or from mining and transportation of coal and natural gas. The FENCH-GHG approach, if used in energy planning, would automatically take such greenhouse gas emissions, which are inherent to energy systems, into account. The paper raises the basics, practicality and the feasibility of dealing with extra-boundary emissions in energy planning. (author). 3 refs

  20. The effect of carbon tax on carbon emission abatement and GDP: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Leung, Yee; Xu, Yuan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2017-10-01

    Carbon tax has been advocated as an effective economic instrument for the abatement of CO2 emission by various countries, including China, the world's biggest carbon emission country. However, carbon emission abatement cannot be done while ignoring the impact on economic growth. A delicate balance needs to be achieved between the two to find an appropriate pathway for sustainable development. This paper applies a multi-objective optimization approach to analyze the impact of levying carbon tax on the energy-intensive sectors of Guangdong province in China under the constraint of emission reduction target. This approach allows us to evaluate carbon emission minimization while maximizing GDP. For policy analysis, we construct five scenarios for evaluation and optimal choice. The results of the analysis show that a lower initial carbon tax rate is not necessarily better, and that a carbon tax is an effective means to reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining a certain level of GDP growth.

  1. Time series GHG emission estimates for residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Riya Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are the major cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main GHG emitted through human activities, at the household level, by burning fuels for cooking and lighting. As per the 2006 methodology of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the energy sector is divided into various sectors like electricity generation, transport, fugitive, 'other' sectors, etc. The 'other' sectors under energy include residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries. Time series GHG emission estimates were prepared for the residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors in India, for the time period 2005 to 2014, to understand the historical emission changes in 'other' sector. Sectoral activity data, with respect to fuel consumption, were collected from various ministry reports like Indian Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics, Energy Statistics, etc. The default emission factor(s) from IPCC 2006 were used to calculate the emissions for each activity and sector-wise CO2, CH4, N2O and CO2e emissions were compiled. It was observed that the residential sector generates the highest GHG emissions, followed by the agriculture/fisheries and commercial sector. In the residential sector, LPG, kerosene, and fuelwood are the major contributors of emissions, whereas diesel is the main contributor to the commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors. CO2e emissions have been observed to rise at a cumulative annual growth rate of 0.6%, 9.11%, 7.94% and 5.26% for the residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors, respectively. In addition to the above, a comparative study of the sectoral inventories from the national inventories, published by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, for 2007 and 2010 was also performed.

  2. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G.

    2004-01-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs

  3. Urban GHG emissions and resource flows: Methods for understanding the complex functioning of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetano Roche, María

    2015-01-01

    This paper sums up the recent developments in concepts and methods being used to measure the impacts of cities on environmental sustainability. It differentiates between a dominant trend in research literature that concentrates on the accounting and allocation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use to cities, and a re-emergence of studies focusing on the direct and indirect urban material and resource flows. The availability of reliable data and standard protocols is greater in the GHG accounting field and continues to grow rapidly

  4. Reducing Supply Chain GHG Emissions from LCD Panel Manufacturing Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-GHGs) are among the most potent and persistent greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Learn about the manufacturing processes which release F-GHGs, and how LCD suppliers are working to reduce emissions.

  5. Cradle to grave GHG emissions analysis of shale gas hydraulic fracking in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia has globally significant onshore gas resources, with over 280 trillion cubic feet of economically recoverable gas located in five shale basins. The Western Australian Government and gas industry have promoted the development of these resources as a “clean energy source” that would “help to reduce global carbon emissions” and provide a “transition fuel” to a low carbon economy. This research examines those claims by reviewing existing literature and published data to estimate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG pollution that would result from the development of Western Australia’s onshore gas basins using hydraulic fracking. Estimates of carbon pollution from each stage in gas development, processing, transport and end-use are considered in order to establish total life-cycle emissions in tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e. The emissions estimates draw from published research on emissions from shale gas development in other jurisdictions as well as industry or government reported emissions from current technology for gas processing and end-use as applicable. The current policy and regulatory environment for carbon pollution and likely resulting GHG mitigation measures has also been considered, as well as the potential for the gas to displace or substitute for other energy sources. In areas where there is uncertainty, conservative emissions estimates have been used. Modelling of GHG emissions has been undertaken for two comparison resource development and utilisation scenarios; Australian domestic and 100% export i.e. no domestic use. Each scenario corresponds to a different proportionate allocation of emissions accounted for domestic emissions in Australia and emissions accounted for in other jurisdictions. Emissions estimates for the two scenarios are 245–502 MTCO2e/year respectively over a resource development timeframe of 20 years. This is roughly the same as Australia’s total GHG emissions in 2014

  6. GHG emissions inventory for on-road transportation in the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) accounts an increase of the total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 that directly came from the transport sector. In 2010, 14% of GHG emissions were released by transport and fossil-fuel-related CO2 emissions reached about 32 GtCO2 per year. The report also considers adaptation and mitigation as complementary strategies for reducing the risks of climate change for sustainable development of urban areas. This paper describes the on-road traffic emission estimated in the framework of a Sardinian regional project [1] for the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), one of the Sardinian areas where the fuel consumption for on-road transportation purposes is higher [2]. The GHG emissions have been accounted (a) by a calculation-based methodology founded on a linear relationship between source activity and emission, and (b) by the COPERT IV methodology through the EMITRA (EMIssions from road TRAnsport) software tool [3]. Inventory data for annual fossil fuel consumption associated with on-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, gas) have been collected through the Dogane service, the ATP and ARST public transport services and vehicle fleet data are available from the Public Vehicle Database (PRA), using 2010 as baseline year. During this period, the estimated CO2 emissions accounts for more than 180,000 tCO2. The calculation of emissions due to on-road transport quantitatively estimates CO2 and other GHG emissions and represents a useful baseline to identify possible adaptation and mitigation strategies to face the climate change risks at municipal level. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Sardinian Regional Project "Development, functional checking and setup of an integrated system for the quantification of CO2 net exchange and for the evaluation of mitigation strategies at urban and territorial scale", (Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, No. 7). References [1] Sanna L., Ferrara R., Zara P. & Duce P. (2014

  7. Electricity Consumption and GHG Emissions in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Redha Qader

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2, N2O, and CH4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs. Electricity consumption and the related CO2-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Qatar; also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption.

  8. India’s GHG Emission Reduction and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.; Dhar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    that includes implementation of current and announced policies and their continuation dynamically into the future; second, a conventional low carbon scenario (CLCS) which assumes imposition, over the BAU scenario, of CO2 emission price trajectory that is equivalent to achieving the global 2 C target; and third...... same cumulative emissions from India, over the period 2010–2050, as the CLCS scenario using carbon price as well as a mix of sustainability-oriented policies and measures. The scenario analysis provides important information and insights for crafting future policies and actions that constitute...

  9. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand.

  10. 40 CFR 98.253 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) For catalytic reforming units, calculate the CO2 emissions using the applicable methods described in... this section. Other catalytic reforming units must either install a CEMS that complies with the Tier 4... necessary) CO concentrations in the exhaust stack from the catalytic reforming unit catalyst regenerator...

  11. 40 CFR 98.33 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel, and volume in gallons for liquid fuel). n = Number of months in the year that fuel is burned in... combustion. Calculate CO2 emissions by using one of the four calculation methodologies in this paragraph (a... separately using the methods in paragraph (e) of this section. (1) Tier 1 Calculation Methodology. Calculate...

  12. 40 CFR 98.293 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fuel Combustion Sources). (2) Use either Equation CC-1 or Equation CC-2 of this section to calculate... tons). (ICT)n = Inorganic carbon content (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction) in trona...-specific emission factor method. Use Equations CC-3, CC-4, and CC-5 of this section to determine annual CO2...

  13. Data supporting the assessment of biomass based electricity and reduced GHG emissions in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume Gutiérrez, Alexis; Cabello Eras, Juan J; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Hens, Luc

    2018-04-01

    Assessing the biomass based electricity potential of developing nations like Cuba can help to reduce the fossil fuels dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions. The data included in this study present the evolution of electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions in Cuba. Additionally, the potentialities to produce biomass based electricity by using the most significant biomass sources in Cuba are estimated. Furthermore, estimations of the potential reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from implementing the biomass based electricity potential of the different sources discussed in the study, are included. Results point to the most promising biomass sources for electricity generation and their potential to reduce GHG emissions.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of time-series GHG emissions by sector and region using consumption-based accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Takashi; Akimoto, Keigo; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates global time-series consumption-based GHG emissions by region from 1990 to 2005, including both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions. Estimations are conducted for the whole economy and for two specific sectors: manufacturing and agriculture. Especially in the agricultural sector, it is important to include non-CO 2 GHG emissions because these are the major emissions present. In most of the regions examined, the improvements in GHG intensities achieved in the manufacturing sector are larger than those in the agricultural sector. Compared with developing regions, most developed regions have consistently larger per-capita consumption-based GHG emissions over the whole economy, as well as higher production-based emissions. In the manufacturing sector, differences calculated by subtracting production-based emissions from consumption-based GHG emissions are determined by the regional economic level while, in the agricultural sector, they are dependent on regional production structures that are determined by international trade competitiveness. In the manufacturing sector, these differences are consistently and increasingly positive for the U.S., EU15 and Japan but negative for developing regions. In the agricultural sector, the differences calculated for the major agricultural importers like Japan and the EU15 are consistently positive while those of exporters like the U.S., Australia and New Zealand are consistently negative. - Highlights: ► We evaluate global time-series production-based and consumption-based GHG emissions. ► We focus on both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions, broken down by region and by sector. ► Including non-CO 2 GHG emissions is important in agricultural sector. ► In agriculture, differences in accountings are dependent on production structures. ► In manufacturing sector, differences in accountings are determined by economic level.

  15. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1 reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2 increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing vehicles and (3 reduced CO2e due to fewer vehicles. This study examines the impacts of this modal shift on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using three types of models: a mixed logit model to analyze car sharing service preferences; a binary logit model to analyze whether individuals are willing to forgo vehicle ownership or planned purchases to use car sharing services; and a linear regression to determine how much private vehicle or public transportation use would be replaced by car sharing and the resulting effects on mobility. Total emissions from the current car sharing market equal 1,025,589.36 t CO2e/year. However, an increase in electric vehicle (EV charging stations to 50% of the number of gasoline-fuel stations would increase the probability of electric car sharing vehicle use, thereby reducing emissions by 655,773 t CO2e. This study shows that forgoing vehicle purchases does not offset the increased GHG emissions caused by the shift from public transportation or private vehicle use to car sharing.

  16. Data Availability for Carbon Calculators in Measuring GHG Emissions Produced by the Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Amani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  The continuing increase in burning fossil fuels over recent decades along with the changing land use have resulted in a considerable increase in the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs which can potentially lead to climate change. Adaptation processes will become necessary in order to cope with these challenges in the future. Despite individuals’ and institutions’ willingness to reduce the amount of GHG emissions caused by their actions or their "carbon footprints", they may lack the knowledge to make effective choices. Carbon calculators have been developed to address these knowledge gaps by measuring and communicating the overall magnitude of the impacts and also the extent to which different behavior patterns contribute to GHG emissions. LCA databases, as providers of inventory data for carbon calculators, have an important role in helping to develop more complete and accurate tools to measure and report produced GHG emissions. For emissions-intensive behavior patterns, the food life cycle is a significant contributor to emissions resulting from activities including agriculture, processing, transport, storage, retail, consumption, and waste handling. This research seeks to classify and characterize these calculators and the agricultural activities or practices they cover, to provide the reader with an idea on the differences between these calculators, and why some of them could be more applicable to the food sector. The intent is to bring clarity to the discussion which could be a step forward in paving the way for the development of more reliable and comprehensive carbon calculators for measuring the GHG emissions of the food sector

  17. Kyoto, the oil sands and the GHG emissions market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews uncertainties in the oil sands industry in relation to climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and the Kyoto Protocol. Other issues contributing to uncertainties in the industry were also discussed, including water and natural gas issues, refinery capacity and markets, price and exchange rates as well as capital availability and project cost overruns. The potential economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol on oil sands was outlined with prices per barrel. Government regulations were examined in the context of the evolving expectations of the Canadian public. U.S. actions on climate change were examined at the federal and state level. Emissions trading systems were reviewed with reference to a post 2012 regime. The 2005 budget was discussed, along with the Canadian legislative agenda and domestic offsets program, as well as the regulatory agenda in June of 2005. Post 2012 issues were examined, including discussions on the next commitment period, with reference to the fact that there was no support for new commitments among developing countries but that domestic pressures was building in the U.S. for air and climate regulations. Pressures from shareholders and the scientific community were discussed. Emissions trading in the European Union was reviewed. Stabilization goals will mean significant cuts to emissions in order to accommodate growth. Scenario planning and climate change uncertainties were also reviewed. The benefits of scenario planning in complex situations were outlined and were seen to encourage the development of strategic options. Issues concerning environmental stewardship and possible responses by the Unites States were discussed. Three scenarios were outlined: that climate change is not man-made and all the problems will go away; that technology will evolve to accommodate changes; and that policy will be insensitive to the economy, technology will lag and the energy sector will be faced with much higher costs. Various risk management

  18. Effect of tillage and water management on GHG emissions from Mediterranean rice growing ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Becerra, Daniel; Albarrán, Ángel; Peña, David; Sanchez-Llerena, Javier; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; López-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Paddy rice fields are an important source of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane. In the present work, we assessed the impact on GHG emissions of two main parameters of rice production: aerobic rice production was compared with traditional flooded rice production and conventional tillage (CT) was compared with short-term and long-term no-tillage (NT) management. A field experiment was performed over three years and the GHG emissions were measured during each year. Five treatments (3 replicates) were considered: NTS7: no-tillage over seven years and sprinkler irrigation; NTS: no-tillage and sprinkler irrigation; CTS: conventional tillage and sprinkler irrigation; NTF: no-tillage and flooding; CTF: conventional tillage and flooding. The use of sprinkler irrigation rather than flooding led to decreases in nitrous oxide and methane emissions of ∼40% and more than 99%, respectively, over the 3-year experiment. The use of sprinkler irrigation compared with flooded irrigation reduced the global warming potential (GWP) about 40% and 36% in no-tillage and conventional tillage treatments, respectively. Treatment NTF decreased CH4 emissions, relative to CTF, by ∼60% over three years but the effect of NT on N2O emissions was not clear: a decrease or no effect was mostly observed in the NT treatments, relative to CT. A decrease of ∼40% in the total GHG emissions was observed in the NT treatments, relative to CT. No or small differences between NTS and NTS7 in terms of gaseous emissions were found. The short-term no-tillage and sprinkler irrigated treatment (NTS) gave lower yields than CTF in 2011 and 2012, but reached similar yields in the third year (NTS 8229 kg ha-1;CTF 8926 kg ha-1), with average savings of 75% of the total amount of water applied in CTF. The NTS7 data showed that high yields (reaching 9805 kg ha-1 in 2012) and water savings are sustainable in the long term. Considering the yield-scaled GWP of the emissions, NT gave a decrease of up to 42

  19. Control of GHG emission at the microbial community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, H; Wett, B

    2008-01-01

    All organic material eventually is decomposed by microorganisms, and considerable amounts of C and N end up as gaseous metabolites. The emissions of greenhouse relevant gases like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides largely depend on physico-chemical conditions like substrate quality or the redox potential of the habitat. Manipulating these conditions has a great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such options are known from farm and waste management, as well as from wastewater treatment. In this paper examples are given how greenhouse gas production might be reduced by regulating microbial processes. Biogas production from manure, organic wastes, and landfills are given as examples how methanisation may be used to save fossil fuel. Methane oxidation, on the other hand, might alleviate the problem of methane already produced, or the conversion of aerobic wastewater treatment to anaerobic nitrogen elimination through the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process might reduce N2O release to the atmosphere. Changing the diet of ruminants, altering soil water potentials or a change of waste collection systems are other measures that affect microbial activities and that might contribute to a reduction of carbon dioxide equivalents being emitted to the atmosphere.

  20. The relative magnitude of the impacts and effects of GHG-related emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Urquizo, N.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the current knowledge related to the co-benefits associated with climate change mitigation was provided in this document. One of the benefits of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the reduction of other pollutants like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ground-level ozone, heavy metals and other toxic pollutants. Since these pollutants have an effect on acid deposition, ozone depletion and air quality, the environment, social welfare and human health, this paper provided an initial outline of the complex processes, interactions and uncertainties associated with this issue. Fossil fuels represent the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. The reduction of emissions of GHG could have an impact on the Long Range Transport of air toxic substances, would help increase oxygen concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, and lead to less carbon monoxide being released in the atmosphere, among others effects. Reductions of GHG emissions would also have an impact on ecosystems by reducing ground-level ozone concentrations. There would be less acid deposition and more dissolved organic carbon, allowing less ultraviolet-B penetration in aquatic ecosystems. In the case of human health, improved air quality impacts on the avoidance of premature mortality and reduced morbidity. Numerous other co-benefits were listed and discussed in this document. The first section stated the purpose and objectives. In section 2, that authors described the science and policy context and discussed building an analytical framework in section 3. The impact of GHG emission reductions on atmospheric pollution and ecosystems was dealt with in section 4 and section 5 was devoted to providing an assessment of the relative magnitude of effects. In section 6, the significance of scope was reviewed, and the authors concluded with section 7 in which they discussed the next steps: phase II

  1. Intensification pathways for beef and dairy cattle production systems : Impacts on GHG emissions, land occupation and land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah J.; Lauwerijssen, Rachel B.G.; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Valin, Hugo; Faaij, Andre P.C.; Wicke, Birka

    2017-01-01

    Cattle production is characterized by high land requirements, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the resulting land use change (LUC) and cradle to farm gate processes. Intensification of cattle production systems is considered an important strategy for mitigating anthropogenic GHG

  2. A dynamic modelling approach to evaluate GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2012-01-01

    The widened scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to consider not only water quality and cost, but also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change calls for new tools to evaluate operational strategies/treatment technologies. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been...... widely used within the scientific community for the unbiased comparison of control strategies in wastewater treatment facilities. In this paper, the default set of BSM models is extended with a set of comprehensive dynamic approaches that estimate the most significant on-site (secondary treatment, sludge...... processing) and off-site (net energy use, embedded chemicals, sludge disposal) sources of GHG emissions. The case study presented here calculates and discusses the changes in the effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices and the formation of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous...

  3. Characterizing the GHG emission impacts of carsharing: a case of Vancouver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazu, Michiko; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2015-12-01

    Carsharing exemplifies a growing trend towards service provision displacing ownership of capital goods. We developed a model to quantify the impact of carsharing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The study took into account different types of households and their trip characteristics. The analysis considers five factors by which carsharing can impact GHG emissions: transportation mode change, fleet vintage, vehicle optimization, more efficient drive trains within each vehicle type, and trip aggregation. Access to carsharing has already been shown to lead some users to relinquish ownership of their personal vehicle. We find that even without a reduction in vehicle-kilometers traveled the change in characteristics of the vehicles used in carsharing fleets can reduce GHGs by more than 30%. Shifting some trips to public transit provides a further 10%-20% reduction in GHGs.

  4. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyeon Jung; Yoonmo Koo

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1) reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent) from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2) increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing...

  5. Modeling GHG emission and energy consumption in selected greenhouses in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, M.; Omid, M.; Rafiee, SH.; Khoshnevisan, B. [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    It is crucial to determine energy efficiency and environmental effects of greenhouse productions. Such study can be a viable solution in probing challenges and existing defects. The aims of this study were to analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for pepper production using biological method inside greenhouses which used natural gas (NG) heating system in Esfahan province. Data were collected from 22 greenhouse holders using a face to face questionnaire method, in 2010-2011. Also, functional area was selected 1000 m2. Total energy input, total energy output, energy ratio, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy gain and total GHG emissions were calculated as 297799.9 MJ area-1, 3851.84 MJ area-1, 0.013, 0.016 kg MJ-1, 61.85 MJ kg-1, -293948 MJ area-1 and 14390.85 kg CO2 equivalent area-1, respectively. Result revealed that replacing diesel fuel with NG will not be an effective way of reducing energy consumption for greenhouse production. However, it is crucial to focus on energy management in order to enhance the energy and environmental indices. One way to supply adequate input energy and a reduction in GHG emissions is the utilization of renewable and clean energy sources instead of NG and diesel fuel. Also, it is suggested to adopt solar greenhouses in the region and to supply electricity from non-fossil sources seriously.

  6. Activities of four bus terminals of Semarang City gateway and the related GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Wardhana, I. W.; Sutrisno, E.; Wangi, L. S.; Lina, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    The activities of the bus terminal, including loading-unloading passengers, bus idling, and bus movements at the terminal, will emit GHG’s emission. This research analyzes GHG emission from four terminals, i.e., Mangkang, Terboyo, Penggaron, and Sukun in Semarang City. The emission was estimated by observing detail activities of public transport means, especially for moving and idling time. The emission was calculated by Tier 2 method based on the vehicle type as well as fuel consumption. The highest CO2e during vehicle movements at Sukun area was contributed by large bus about 2.08 tons/year, while at Terboyo terminal was contributed by medium bus about 347.97 tons/year. At Mangkang terminals, the highest emission for vehicle movements was attributed by medium bus as well of about 53.18 tons/year. At last, Penggaron terminal’s highest GHG emission was attributed by BRT about 26.47 tons/year. During idling time, the highest contributor to CO2e was the large bus at the three terminals, i.e., Sukun of 43.53 tons/year, Terboyo of 196.56 tons/year, and Mangkang of 84.26 tons/year, while at Penggaron, BRT dominated with CO2e of 26.47 tons/year. The management of public transport in terminals is crucial to mitigate the emission related to bus terminals activities.

  7. Marginal abatement cost curves for policy recommendation – A method for energy system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to rank possible measures marginal abatement cost curves have become a tool to graphically represent the relationship between abatement costs and emission reduction. This paper demonstrates how to derive marginal abatement cost curves for well-to-wheel GHG emissions of the transport sector considering the full energy provision chain and the interlinkages and interdependencies within the energy system. Presented marginal abatement cost curves visualize substitution effects between measures for different marginal mitigation costs. The analysis makes use of an application of the energy system model generator TIMES for South Africa (TIMES-GEECO). For the example of Gauteng province, this study exemplary shows that the transport sector is not the first sector to address for cost-efficient reduction of GHG emissions. However, the analysis also demonstrates that several options are available to mitigate transport related GHG emissions at comparable low marginal abatement costs. This methodology can be transferred to other economic sectors as well as to other regions in the world to derive cost-efficient GHG reduction strategies

  8. Freer markets and the abatement of carbon emissions. The electricity-generating sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Madhu; Zilberman, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a framework to explore the implications of trade and domestic policy distortions for the magnitude of carbon emissions and for the welfare costs of abating these emissions. An application to the electricity-generating sector in India shows that economic policy reforms can also be effective environmental policy instruments and reduce carbon emissions even in the absence of an emissions tax. This reduction in emissions is accompanied by an increase in domestic welfare, an increase in electricity output, and conservation of coal. Coordinating trade and domestic policy reform with an emissions tax policy reduces emissions further, while leading to gains in welfare that are greater than those under an emissions tax policy alone

  9. Abatement of CO2 emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, J.H.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Smeers, Yves; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Trochet, Jean-Michel; Dassa, Francois; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO 2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO 2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  10. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  11. Opportunities to integrate solar technologies into the Chilean lithium mining industry - reducing process related GHG emissions of a strategic storage resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsnig, Thomas; Potz, Christian; Haas, Jannik; Eltrop, Ludger; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The arid northern regions of Chile are characterized by an intensive mineral mining industry and high solar irradiance levels. Besides Chile's main mining products, copper, molybdenum and iron, the production of lithium carbonate from lithium containing brines has become strategically important due to the rising demand for battery technologies worldwide. Its energy-intensive production may affect the ecological footprint of the product and the country's climate targets. Thus, the use of solar technologies for electricity and heat production might constitute an interesting option for CO2 mitigation. This study aims to quantify the impacts of the lithium carbonate production processes in Chile on climate change, and to identify site-specific integration options of solar energy technologies to reduce GHG life-cycle emissions. The considered solar integration options include a parabolic trough power plant with a molten salt storage, a solar tower power plant with molten salt receiver and molten salt storage, a one-axis tracking photovoltaic energy system for electricity, and two solar thermal power plants with Ruths storage (steam accumulator) for thermal heat production. CSP plants were identified as measures with the highest GHG mitigation potential reducing the CO2 emissions for the entire production chain and the lithium production between 16% and 33%. In a scenario that combines solar technologies for electricity and thermal energy generation, up to 59% of the CO2 emissions at the lithium production sites in Chile can be avoided. A comparison of the GHG abatement costs of the proposed solar integration options indicates that the photovoltaic system, the solar thermal plant with limited storage and the solar tower power plant are the most cost effective options.

  12. Uncertainty and differences in GHG emissions between electric and conventional gasoline vehicles with implications for transport policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.

    2015-01-01

    There is a huge uncertainty in the GHG emissions reduction potential with transport electrification. The typical Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) practice of modeling a pathway by reducing what is known about a model parameter to a single value to produce a single-point GHG emissions estimate has led to reports in literature on the GHG emissions differences between Electric Vehicles (EV) and conventional Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to range significantly from below 10% to above 60%. In this study we performed a LCA, combined with a Monte Carlo stochastic simulation, to determine the uncertainty in GHG emission differences between EVs and gasoline ICEs, by taking into account of all the possible variations that may affect the lifecycle GHG emissions estimates for EVs and ICEs based on the technologies already available in the market today. This study provides insights into the relative importance of the factors driving the lifecycle GHG emissions difference between the EVs and ICEs, and a measure of the probability for EVs providing benefits over ICEs globally today and projected to 2040. This paper offers critical perspective to inform the global debates on the role of transport electrification as means to a low carbon mobility future, and the implications for policy makers. - Highlights: • Lifecycle GHG emissions difference between EVs and gasoline ICEs highly uncertain. • Mean 40% GHG emissions benefit for BEVs globally with large variations by country. • On average HEVs emit 15% lower lifecycle GHGs than BEVs. • Transport policies must not promote adoption of BEVs at the expense of HEVs. • Country-specific rather than a globally harmonized transport policy.

  13. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesova, Katerina; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. We examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO2, NOx, mercury, and CO2. We focus on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO2. We estimate the private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO2 emissions. We find that society paid about 5.7 cent/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cent/kWh in reduced SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO2 emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS.

  14. Abatement and mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, P.; Audus, H.

    1998-01-01

    Current understanding of the world's climate indicates that human-induced changes are occurring and may be sufficient in magnitude to require preventative action, such as limiting atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide and its largest source is combustion of fossil fuels for power generation. Many different technologies can be used for reducing emissions, as well as increasing the removal of CO 2 from the atmosphere through enhancement of natural sinks, such as by forestry. Some of these options are available today and could be implemented at relatively little overall cost. For example, improving energy efficiency and switching from high carbon fuels to low carbon fuels, if suitable supplies are available. These can achieve significant reductions in CO 2 emissions. Introduction of renewable sources of energy or nuclear power to displace fossil fuels would achieve deep reductions in emissions if applied widely. However, to avoid disruptive changes, it will also be necessary to find ways of continuing to use fossil fuels but with much less emissions. Capture and storage of CO 2 is a technology which could deliver deep reductions in emissions from fossil fuels. In this paper, methods of removing CO 2 from the flue gas streams of coal and gas-fired power plants are examined, considering both plant as built today as well as possible future variants. Methods of CO 2 storage are also discussed. The results on capture and storage of CO 2 are put into perspective by comparison with studies of the large-scale application of forestry for sequestering atmospheric CO 2 , and also large-scale use of renewable energy sources, in this case growth and harvesting of woody biomass for power generation. Each of these options has different characteristics, providing a range of choices of ways of tackling climate change

  15. Model and algorithm for bi-fuel vehicle routing problem to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Behroz; MirHassani, Seyed Ali; Hooshmand, Farnaz

    2017-09-01

    Because of the harmful effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted by petroleum-based fuels, the adoption of alternative green fuels such as biodiesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) is an inevitable trend in the transportation sector. However, the transition to alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) fleets is not easy and, particularly at the beginning of the transition period, drivers may be forced to travel long distances to reach alternative fueling stations (AFSs). In this paper, the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles is proposed as an operational approach. We present a mathematical model to address vehicle routing problem (VRP) with bi-fuel vehicles and show that the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles can lead to a significant reduction in GHG emissions. Moreover, a simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to solve large instances of this problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on some random instances.

  16. Advanced biofuels - GHG emissions and energy balances. A report to IEA bioenergy task 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Don [S and T 2 Consultants Inc., Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    2013-05-25

    In this work, a number of advanced biofuel pathways were examined with respect to their energy balances and GHG emission performance. Some of these pathways have relatively detailed public techno-economic modelling studies available on which the energy and GHG lifecycle modelling has been based. However there is a continuum in the quality of publicly available data and, for some of the pathways a significant number of assumptions had to be made in order to generate results. Some caution is therefore warranted when the results of different systems are compared. Furthermore, none of the modelling data is based on actual operating systems, as the processes being assessed are not yet in commercial operation; rather, they are each in different stages of research, development and demonstration.

  17. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  18. A national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG), criteria air contaminants (CAC) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry : volume 1, overview of the GHG emissions inventory : technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    A detailed inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada was presented along with explanations of the methodologies and data sources used. This report is based on previous work done on methane and volatile organic compound emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector for the period of 1990 to 1995, but it includes key improvements in identifying primary types of emissions sources such as emissions from fuel combustion, flaring, venting, fugitive equipment leaks and accidental releases. It also includes criteria air contaminants and hydrogen sulfide emissions, an analysis of GHG emission intensities and a change in the definition of volatile organic compounds from comprising all non-methane hydrocarbons to comprising all non-methane and non-ethane hydrocarbons. The report covers portions of the upstream oil and gas industry in Canada plus the natural gas transmission and natural gas distribution industries with reference to well drilling, oil production, and natural gas production, processing, transmission and distribution. Accidents and equipment failures are also included. The report reveals the total GHG emissions by source type, sub-sector, facility type and sub-type for the year 2000 at the national level. In 2000, the total carbon dioxide equivalent GHG emissions from the entire oil and gas sector were 101,211 kilo tonnes. For the upstream oil and gas sector alone, total GHG emissions were 84,355 kilo tonnes, representing 12 per cent of Canada's total national emissions of GHGs in 2000. This is an increase of about 25 per cent from 1995 levels. The biggest primary source of these emissions is fuel combustion, which accounts for 40.8 per cent of the total. This report also includes a provincial breakdown of GHG emissions for the natural gas transmission, storage and distribution sub-sectors in Canada for the year 2000. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Alternative policy impacts on US GHG emissions and energy security: A hybrid modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarica, Kemal; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the possible impacts of energy and climate policies, namely corporate average fleet efficiency (CAFE) standard, renewable fuel standard (RFS) and clean energy standard (CES), and an economy wide equivalent carbon tax on GHG emissions in the US to the year 2045. Bottom–up and top–down modeling approaches find widespread use in energy economic modeling and policy analysis, in which they differ mainly with respect to the emphasis placed on technology of the energy system and/or the comprehensiveness of endogenous market adjustments. For this study, we use a hybrid energy modeling approach, MARKAL–Macro, that combines the characteristics of two divergent approaches, in order to investigate and quantify the cost of climate policies for the US and an equivalent carbon tax. The approach incorporates Macro-economic feedbacks through a single sector neoclassical growth model while maintaining sectoral and technological detail of the bottom–up optimization framework with endogenous aggregated energy demand. Our analysis is done for two important objectives of the US energy policy: GHG reduction and increased energy security. Our results suggest that the emission tax achieves results quite similar to the CES policy but very different results in the transportation sector. The CAFE standard and RFS are more expensive than a carbon tax for emission reductions. However, the CAFE standard and RFS are much more efficient at achieving crude oil import reductions. The GDP losses are 2.0% and 1.2% relative to the base case for the policy case and carbon tax. That difference may be perceived as being small given the increased energy security gained from the CAFE and RFS policy measures and the uncertainty inherent in this type of analysis. - Highlights: • Evaluates US impacts of three energy/climate policies and a carbon tax (CT) • Analysis done with bottom–up MARKAL model coupled with a macro model • Electricity clean energy standard very close to

  20. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH 4 generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application

  1. Effect of urban symbiosis development in China on GHG emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes current urban symbiosis development and application in China, and then conducts a statistical analysis of the emissions reduction of CO2 and CH4 in relation to recovery of iron and steel scraps, waste paper, and waste plastics from 2011 to 2014 using the greenhouse gas (GHG emission inventory calculation method provided by the IPCC. Results indicate that the cumulative recovery of renewable resources during China's main urban symbiosis development in 2011–2014 was 803.275 Mt, and the amount of iron and steel scraps, waste paper, and waste plastic recovery was the largest, respectively accounting for 62.2%, 18.0%, and 8.2% of total recovery in 2014. In addition, the cumulative emissions reduction of GHGs in relation to recovery of iron and steel scraps, waste paper, and waste plastics in 2011–2014 was 27.962 Mt CO2-eq, 954.695 Mt CO2-eq, and 22.502 Mt CO2-eq, respectively, thereby totaling 1005.159 Mt CO2-eq. Results show a remarkable GHG emissions reduction during 2011–2014.

  2. High-tech and climate change : promoting the application of enabling and high-tech solutions to reduce GHG emissions : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report identifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) reducing potential of the high-tech sector with particular reference to the following 5 key technology convergence groups: biotechnology and bio-products; intelligent systems; information and communications technology; advanced materials; and, nanotechnology. It was noted that Canada's efforts to reduce GHG emissions in the abatement of climate change can drive innovation, stimulate economic growth and attain international leadership in technology solutions. Although Canada's strong economic growth has resulted in the creation of more highly skilled jobs, expansion in innovation and new infrastructure, there is a challenge of preserving the environmental and social quality within communities, and ensuring that productivity within companies does not lapse. In response, the government is shaping policy responses that drive innovation, productivity and prosperity and which help Canadian companies capitalize on emerging global opportunities while minimizing environmental and social impacts. This report includes information on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's Climate Change Action Plan and the emerging carbon marketplace. It also describes the role of technology innovation and the opportunity of convergence in spurring innovation. Several actions have been proposed to Industry Canada by different technology sectors to help climate change providers generate innovative solutions, commercialize products and expand market presence. This report includes those initiatives which further promote the convergence, growth and development of different enabling and high-tech sectors to develop climate change solutions; promote the opportunities that are emerging to apply innovative high-tech and enabling technologies to reduce GHG emissions; and help Canada meet its Kyoto commitments. 50 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Changes of energy-related GHG emissions in China: An empirical analysis from sectoral perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xianshuo; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Nan; Kang, Jidong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors impacting China’s emissions from a sectoral perspective. • Sector-specific policies and measures for emissions mitigation were evaluated. • Economic growth dominantly increased the emissions in the economic sectors. • Energy intensity decrease primarily reduced the emissions in the economic sectors. • Residential emissions growth was mainly driven by increase in per-capita energy use. - Abstract: In order to better understand sectoral greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, this study utilized a logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to study emission changes from a sectoral perspective. Based on the decomposition results, recently implemented policies and measures for emissions mitigation in China were evaluated. The results show that for the economic sectors, economic growth was the dominant factor in increasing emissions from 1996 to 2011, whereas the decline in energy intensity was primarily responsible for the emission decrease. As a result of the expansion of industrial development, economic structure change also contributed to growth in emissions. For the residential sector, increased emissions were primarily driven by an increase in per-capita energy use, which is partially confirmed by population migration. For all sectors, the shift in energy mix and variation in emission coefficient only contributed marginally to the emissions changes. The decomposition results imply that energy efficiency policy in China has been successful during the past decade, i.e., Top 1000 Priorities, Ten-Key Projects programs, the establishment of fuel consumption limits and vehicle emission standards, and encouragement of efficient appliances. Moreover, the results also indicate that readjusting economic structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is urgently required in order to further mitigate emissions in China

  4. Analysis of CO2 Emission Performance and Abatement Potential for Municipal Industrial Sectors in Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the main source of CO2 emissions in China, the industrial sector has faced pressure for reducing emissions. To achieve the target of 50% reduction of industrial carbon intensity by 2020 based on the 2005 level, it is urgent to formulate specific CO2 emission mitigation strategies in the provincial industrial sector. In order to provide decision-making support for the development and implementation of mitigation policy, our undesirable slack based measure (SBM model is firstly applied to evaluate the industrial CO2 emission efficiency under total-factor frame (TFICEE in 13 prefecture-level cities of Jiangsu Province, the largest CO2 emitter in China. Then, we analyze space-time distribution and distributional evolution tendency of TFICEE by using the GIS visualization method and kernel density estimation, respectively. Finally, we utilize the industrial abatement model to estimate the CO2 abatement potential of Jiangsu’s industrial sector. The empirical results show that there exists a significant spatial inequality of TFICEE across various regions in Jiangsu, but the regional disparity has been narrowing during our study period. Additionally, average annual industrial CO2 emission reductions in Jiangsu Province can attain 15,654.00 (ten thousand tons, accounting for 28.2% of its average annual actual emissions, which can be achieved by improving production technology, adjusting industrial structure and raising the level of industry concentration.

  5. Implications of a consumer-based perspective for the estimation of GHG emissions. The illustrative case of Luxembourg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, Dario, E-mail: caro2@unisi.it [Ecodynamics Group/DEEPS, Department of Environment, Earth and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 2, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rugani, Benedetto [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor (CRPHT), Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies (CRTE), 6A, avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Pulselli, Federico Maria [Ecodynamics Group/DEEPS, Department of Environment, Earth and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 2, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Benetto, Enrico [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor (CRPHT), Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies (CRTE), 6A, avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2015-03-01

    The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO{sub 2}e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared.

  6. Implications of a consumer-based perspective for the estimation of GHG emissions. The illustrative case of Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, Dario; Rugani, Benedetto; Pulselli, Federico Maria; Benetto, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO 2 e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared

  7. Relative Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Competitiveness of Biofuels in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Millinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper, the analysis and modeling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany are carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet-based ethanol for the short- to medium-term least-cost option and substitute natural gas (SNG for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize-based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations, as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid out in policy.

  8. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M.M.; Otazo-Sánchez, E.M.; Romo-Gómez, C.; Gordillo-Martínez, A.J.; Galindo-Castillo, E.

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO{sub 2} emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO{sub 2} sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO{sub 2} gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO{sub 2} (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. - Highlights: • First GHG & black carbon inventory for Mezquital Valley: Mexico City energy supplier • Energy industries caused the largest CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions from residual fuel oil. • Diesel

  9. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gaitán

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1, compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1. We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1 and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced. Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  10. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  11. Payback Period for Emissions Abatement Alternatives: Role of Regulation and Fuel Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Angeloudis, Panagiotis; Bell, Michael G. H.

    2016-01-01

    period of a potential scrubber investment. The results show that lower prices would significantly delay the payback period of such investments, up to two times in some cases. The case studies present the emissions generation through each option for representative short sea shipping routes....... The repercussions of low-sulfur policies on large emission reduction investments including cold ironing are examined, along with implications of slow steaming for their respective payback periods. Recommendations are made for research in anticipation of future regulations and technological improvements....... of the fuel used. This paper presents a literature review of emissions abatement options and relevant research in the field. A cost–benefit methodology to assess emission reduction investments from ship owners is also presented. A study examined the effects of recent drops in bunker fuel price to the payback...

  12. Role of Nuclear Energy in Japan Post–Fukushima : Alternatives and their Impact on Japan’s GHG Emission Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Niazi, Zarrar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper, “Role of Nuclear Energy in Japan Post – Fukushima: Alternatives and their Impact onJapan’s GHG Emission Targets”, is to emphasize that Japan’s expected new energy policy must be in accordancewith its existing environmental targets with regards to GHG emissions. The main research question is how Japan cancontinue to meet its emissions targets in the aftermath of the Fukushima crisis, where public opinion—gaugedthrough newspaper articles—in Japan has now become outrig...

  13. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  14. Understanding the issues around quantifying GHG emissions in the financial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacono, Caline; Poivet, Romain; Havette, Didier; Maille, Catherine; Jaubert, Nathalie; Grandjean, Alain; Cottenceau, Jean-Baptiste; Finidori, Esther; Le Teno, Helene; Cochard, Eric; Sanchez, Thomas; Michaux, Elisabeth; Courcier, Jerome; Marie Lapalle; Guez, Herve; Mia, Ladislas; Agnes Guiral; Martinez, Emmanuel; Rose, Antoine; Breton, Herve; Meyssonier, Guillaume; Arndt, Matthew; Saichs, Nancy; Desfosses, Philippe; Bonnet, Olivier; Rouchon, Jean-Philippe; Smart, Lauren; Lenoel, Benjamin; Dupre, Stanislas; Chenet, Hugues; Lavaud, Patricia; Laviale, Michel; Lucas-Leclin, Valery; Bernasconi, Maxime; Merlin, Alexis; Delettang, Catherine; Gerardi, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the face of climate change, the financial sector shows a need to have access to methods and tools for quantifying GHG emissions. This guide proposes to address multiple needs of financial institutions (Investment banks, insurers, retail bank, commercial bank, asset managers...) in terms of financed emissions quantification. It meets two objectives: Make formal methodological recommendations for financial institutions about their operating related emissions, and propose methodological recommendations to quantify financed emissions (Scop3 - Poste 15 'Investments'). The guide is divided in three parts. Volume 1 gives background, identifies sectorial challenges related to climate change and offers an overview of the main existing quantification methods and tools. Volume 2 offers practical and operational guidance for estimating emissions from organisation's back-office functions into the financial sector. Volume 3 (through case studies) offers methodological information to quantify the financed emissions through a 'top-down' approach, with an 'excel' tool to calculate emission factors related to this method

  15. Can China’s Industrial SO2 Emissions Trading Pilot Scheme Reduce Pollution Abatement Costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengge Tu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effects of China’s industrial SO2 emissions trading pilot scheme (SETPS on the pollution abatement costs (PAC from the past and future perspective. We apply the kernel-based propensity score difference-in-difference method to examine the effects of SETPS on the average pollution abatement costs (APAC and the marginal pollution abatement costs (MPAC based on the environment data from the industrial sector of 29 provinces in China over the period of 1998 to 2011. Our findings are that SETPS failed to reduce PAC as a whole. During 2002 to 2011, SETPS increased APAC by 1310 RMB per ton on average and had an insignificant negative effect on MPAC. Nevertheless, the conclusions would be markedly different if we separately investigated the effects of SETPS each year of the pilot period. The positive effects of SETPS on PAC started to appear since 2009, and SETPS significantly reduced both APAC and MPAC, especially in 2009 and 2011.

  16. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions reduction in a power system predominantly based on lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taseska, V.; Markovska, N.; Causevski, A.; Bosevski, T.; Pop-Jordanov, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the GHG mitigation potential of a power system with prevailing use of lignite is assessed through the example of the Macedonian power system. The analysis is conducted using the WASP model in order to develop three different scenarios (business as usual - BAU and two mitigation scenarios) for the power system expansion over the period 2008-2025. In the first mitigation scenario two gas power plants with combined cycle are planned to replace some of the lignite-based capacities. The second mitigation scenario, besides the gas power plants, assumes electricity consumption reduction related to the large industrial consumers and an increased share of new renewable energy sources. Detailed calculations of the GHG emissions are made for all scenarios. The comparison of emissions in 2025 and in 2008 shows that the increase of 78% in the case of predominantly lignite BAU scenario is reduced to 41% by the first mitigation scenario, and to 14% by the second mitigation scenario. The mitigation costs appeared to be less then 10 $/t CO 2 -eq for the first mitigation scenario, and even negative for the second one.

  18. Genetic mitigation strategies to tackle agricultural GHG emissions: The case for biological nitrification inhibition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Arango, J; Masahiro, K; Hooper, A M; Yoshihashi, T; Ando, Y; Nakahara, K; Deshpande, S; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Ishitani, M; Peters, M; Chirinda, N; Wollenberg, L; Lata, J C; Gerard, B; Tobita, S; Rao, I M; Braun, H J; Kommerell, V; Tohme, J; Iwanaga, M

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment. This will reinforce the adaptation or mitigation impact of other climate-smart agriculture technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO 2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO 2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  20. Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production from alternative resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yang, Siyu; Li, Xiuxi; Qian, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conduct a life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of olefins production processes. • Analyse effects of carbon capture and efficiency on alternative olefins production. • Analyse life cycle performance of Chinese olefins industry in three key periods. • Present the advantages and challenges of alternative olefins routes. - Abstract: Olefins are important platform chemicals widely used in industry. In terms of the short supply of oil resources, natural gas and coal are two significant alternative feedstocks. In this paper, energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production are analysed with life cycle assessment methods. Results showed the energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas-to-olefins are roughly equivalent to those of oil-to-olefins, while coal-to-olefins suffers from higher energy consumption and serious GHG emissions, including 5793 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of direct emissions and 5714 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of indirect emissions. To address the problem, the effect of carbon capture on coal-to-olefins is investigated. In comprehensive consideration of energy utilization, environmental impact, and economic benefit, the coal-to-olefins with 80% CO 2 capture of the direct emissions is found to be an appropriate choice. With this carbon capture configuration, the direct emissions of the coal-to-olefins are reduced to 1161 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins. However, the indirect emissions are still not captured, which should be strictly monitored and significantly reduced. Finally, a scenario analysis is conducted to estimate resource utilization and GHG emissions of olefins production of China in 2020. Several suggestions are also proposed for policy making on the sustainable development of olefins industry

  1. Comparative life cycle GHG emissions from local electricity generation using heavy oil, natural gas, and MSW incineration in Macau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    (MSW) incineration, and coal-dominated mode which is directly imported from China mainland. On the basis of first-hand data from two power plants and one MSW incineration facility, this study performed a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process for three kinds of local electricity generation (heavy oil......The electricity generation processes represent a large contribution to the potential greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Macau, a Special Administrative Region of China, is not of exception. Macau has multiple electricity generation modes, including heavy oil, natural gas, and municipal solid waste......, natural gas, and MSW incineration) to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the operating practices used from 2010 to 2014. Results indicate that the mean GHG emissions of electricity production from heavy oil, natural gas, and MSW incineration were 0.71, 0.42, 0.95kg CO2 eq per k...

  2. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  3. Urban Fluxes Monitoring and Development of Planning Strategies to Reduce Ghg Emissions in AN European City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Bellucco, V.; Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.; Duce, P.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Cities and human settlements in general are a primary source of emissions that contribute to human-induced climate change. To investigate the impact of an urbanized area on urban metabolism components, an eddy covariance (EC) tower will be set up in a city (Sassari) located in the center of the Mediterranean basin (Sardinia, Italy). The EC tower, as well as a meteorological station and radiometers, will be set up to monitor energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the city center. A GHG emissions inventory will be also compiled to identify the main emission sources. In addition, a modeling framework will be used to study the impact of different urban planning strategies on carbon emission rates. The modeling framework consists of four models to analyze fluxes both at local and municipality scale: (i) a land surface model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, ACASA) to simulate the urban metabolism components at local scale; (ii) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics in the near future (20-30 years); (iii) a transportation model to estimate the variation of the transportation network load, and (iv) the coupled model WRF-ACASA will be finally used to simulate the urban metabolism components at municipality scale. The participation of local stakeholders will allow the definition of future planning strategies with the aim to identify low carbon emissions strategies. The projects activities, methodologies applied, as well as the preliminary results will be reported here.

  4. Abatement of xenon and iodine emissions from medical isotope production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Charles G; Sorensen, Christina M; Bowyer, Theodore W; Friese, Judah I; Hayes, James C; Hoffmann, Emmy; Kephart, Rosara

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Incentives to reduce GHG emissions from deforestation. Lessons learned from Costa Rica and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karousakis, K. [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2007-04-15

    Global deforestation occurs today at a fast rate, around 13 million ha/yr, with South America and Africa experiencing the largest losses. Deforestation has serious adverse consequences for the global environment and is responsible for habitat destruction, irreversible losses of biodiversity, has negative impacts on agricultural productivity and affects the livelihoods of millions of rural people. Deforestation is also responsible for one-fifth of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with emissions in the 1990s estimated at 5.8Gt/CO2/yr, and is thus a major contributor to climate change. A market-based instrument to capture the carbon values of forests, and thus to reduce emissions from deforestation in developing countries (RED), could serve to: (1) address a large fraction of global anthropogenic GHG emissions (20%), (2) provide strong incentives for developing countries to take actions to reduce emissions from deforestation, (3) ensure long-term and sustainable funding and (4) minimise the global economic costs of achieving emissions reductions of countries with targets. This paper aims to develop some lessons learned and good practices for an incentive instrument to capture and market the carbon values of forests. This is based primarily on two case studies of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programmes that have been implemented to capture the forest values in developing countries (namely in Costa Rica and Mexico), as well as other experiences from the existing climate change framework under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. The focus of the case studies is on PES schemes because such incentive mechanisms aim to internalize the external values of environmental services. PES schemes operationalise this by compensating landowners directly for the non-market benefits they provide via financial payments. As such, a carbon crediting instrument to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation in developing countries could be

  6. Sensitivity of Technical Choices on the GHG Emissions and Expended Energy of Hydrotreated Renewable Jet Fuel from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patouillard Laure

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the environmental impacts of biofuel production is essential to develop new and innovative low-emission processes. The assessment of life cycle GreenHouse Gas (GHG emissions of biofuel is mandatory for the countries of the European Union. New biomass resources that hardly compete with food crops are been developed increasingly. Microalgae are an interesting alternative to terrestrial biomass thanks to their high photosynthetic efficiency and their ability to accumulate lipids. This article provides an analysis of potential environmental impacts of the production of algal biofuel for aviation using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Evaluated impacts are GHG emissions and the primary energy consumption, from extraction of raw materials to final waste treatment. This study compared two management choices for oilcakes generated after oil extraction from microalgae. In the first system, these cakes are treated by energetic allocation and in the second by anaerobic digestion. In both cases, the steps of cultivation and harvesting have the highest impact on the results. Sensitivity analyzes are performed on technical choices of operating systems (choice of the type of nutrients, mode of harvesting, drying and oil extraction as well as a Monte-Carlo analysis on key parameter values for GHG emissions (concentration of microalgae in ponds, productivity and oil content. The results highlight the impact of the use of chemical fertilizers and the importance of the concentration of algae on GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  7. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic and game-theoretical analysis of CO{sub 2} emission abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvonen, O. [Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Current decisions on greenhouse gas emissions may have effects on human well being for centuries. This project has aimed to extend the economic models designed for analyzing this particular issue. A closely related topic follows from the fact that emitting CO{sub 2} can be interpreted as a utilization of a free access resource, i.e., when countries gain from utilizing cheap fossil fuels (relative to noncarbon energy sources), the possible loss any country suffers from climate change is only a negligible fraction of the total loss of all countries. Thus, from a global point of view, the incentives for an individual country to abate emissions is low. Economic understanding of these problems calls for dynamic game-theoretical models

  9. Abatement of atmospheric emissions in North America: Progress to date and promise for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, E.C.; Erbes, R.E.; Grott, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Much progress has been made in acidic rain abatement in North America. This progress is examined with a focus on man-made emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that contribute to acidic deposition. A review of US historical trends of SO 2 and nitrogen oxides emissions since 1900 and projections of future emissions through the end of this century shoe emissions of SO 2 decreasing from a peak in 1970 of 29 Tg/yr to about 26 Tg/yr, but nitrogen oxides emissions continuing an upward trend to about 25 Tg/yr. In Canada, SO 2 , NO and NO 2 emissions are less than 20% of those in the US, and the trends are similar, with SO 2 showing future decreases and NO and NO 2 continuing to increase. Future industry in North America is expected to emit much lower levels of SO 2 , NO, and NO 2 . Technology is also available to limit nitrogen oxides emissions from future motor vehicles. Recent acidic deposition legislation in the US Congress to reduce electric utility and industrial emissions of SO 2 by 9 to 13 Tg/yr is reviewed. The estimates of the cost to implement the proposals range from $2 billion to $23 billion over a 5-year period. Retrofitting existing utility and industrial boilers for maximum SO 2 , NO, and NO 2 reduction carries the highest price tag. Several environmental policy options are explored for preventing emission increases and also promoting decreases in future emissions of SO 2 , NO, and NO 2 in North America. Focus on nitrogen oxides emissions may be critical because population growth could cause significant increases in NO and NO 2 from motor vehicle use

  10. The relevance of supply chain characteristics in GHG emissions: The carbon footprint of Maltese juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roibás, L; Rodríguez-García, S; Valdramidis, V P; Hospido, A

    2018-05-01

    Foods and drinks are major contributors (17%) to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by private consumption in Europe. The carbon footprint (CF) of a certain product expresses the total GHG emissions over its whole life cycle, and its calculation for foodstuff is a necessary first step to reduce their contribution to global warming. The calculation of the CF of Maltese food products is especially relevant for two reasons: the economic characteristics of the island, whose food sector is highly dependent on imports, implying longer transport distances; and the Maltese electricity production mix, based almost exclusively on oil combustion. The CF of ten multi-fruit juices marketed in Malta has been determined, covering all the processes from the agricultural stage to the distribution of the final products. As a functional unit (FU), a 250 ml bottle of packaged product arriving at the retailer has been considered. The Maltese orange juice, the only final product in which only local ingredients are used, presents the lowest CF (0.50 kgCO 2 /FU), while the remaining ones range from 0.67 kgCO 2 /FU to 0.80 kgCO 2 /FU. The major contributor to all the CFs is juice processing at the Maltese plant (0.42 kgCO 2 /FU), mainly due to the use of electricity (78%). The influence of both the electricity mix and the Maltese supply chain in the CF of the final products has been demonstrated. Alternatives to reduce the impacts of the final products have been proposed and evaluated that could lower the average CF of the juices by 32%. The calculation of the CF of Maltese juices represents an innovative case study due to the characteristics of the island, and it is expected to act as a first step to lower their environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of the economic crisis and policy actions on GHG emissions from road transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrino, Natalia; Monzon, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic is the greatest contributor to the carbon footprint of the transport sector and reducing it has become one of the main targets of sustainable transport policies. An analysis of the main factors influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is essential for designing new energy- and environmentally efficient strategies for the road transport. This paper addresses this need by (i) identifying factors which influence the carbon footprint, including traffic activity, fuel economy and socioeconomic development; and (ii) proposing a methodological framework which uses Modified Laspeyres Index decomposition to analyze the effect of important drivers on the changes in emissions of road transport in Spain during the period from 1990 to 2010. The results demonstrate that the country's economic growth has been closely linked to the rise in GHG emissions. The innovative contribution of this paper is the special analysis of the changes in mobility patterns and GHG emissions during the economic crisis, when, for the first time, Spanish road traffic emissions decreased. The reduction of road transport and improved energy efficiency has been powerful contributors to this decrease, demonstrating the effectiveness of energy-saving measures. On the basis of this analysis, several tailored policy recommendations have been suggested for future implementation. - Highlights: • Drivers contributing to GHG emissions of road transport are identified and analyzed. • Decomposition analysis based on Modified Laspeyres Index (MLI) is applied to the Spanish case. • Economic crisis and changes in mobility patterns and GHG emissions are analyzed. • Policies for the decarbonization of road transport are recommended

  12. Towards the development of a GHG emissions baseline for the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne B. Stevens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and as such is required to report on Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the Energy, Transport, Waste and the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sectors every two years in national inventories. The AFOLU sector is unique in that it comprises both sources and sinks for GHGs. Emissions from the AFOLU sector are estimated to contribute a quarter of the total global greenhouse gas emissions. GHG emissions sources from agriculture include enteric fermentation; manure management; manure deposits on pastures, and soil fertilization. Emissions sources from Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU include anthropogenic land use activities such as: management of croplands, forests and grasslands and changes in land use cover (the conversion of one land use to another. South Africa has improved the quantification of AFOLU emissions and the understanding of the dynamic relationship between sinks and sources over the past decade through projects such as the 2010 GHG Inventory, the Mitigation Potential Analysis (MPA, and the National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA. These projects highlight key mitigation opportunities in South Africa and discuss their potentials. The problem remains that South Africa does not have an emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector against which the mitigation potentials can be measured. The AFOLU sector as a result is often excluded from future emission projections, giving an incomplete picture of South Africa’s mitigation potential. The purpose of this project was to develop a robust GHG emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector which will enable South Africa to project emissions into the future and demonstrate its contribution towards the global goal of reducing emissions.

  13. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M M; Otazo-Sánchez, E M; Romo-Gómez, C; Gordillo-Martínez, A J; Galindo-Castillo, E

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO2 emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO2 sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO2 gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO2 (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-01-01

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet

  15. Modelling methane emissions from natural wetlands by development and application of the TRIPLEX-GHG model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Liu, Jinxun; Peng, C.; Chen, H.; Fang, X.; Jiang, H.; Yang, G.; Zhu, D.; Wang, W.; Zhou, X.

    2014-01-01

    A new process-based model TRIPLEX-GHG was developed based on the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), coupled with a new methane (CH4) biogeochemistry module (incorporating CH4 production, oxidation, and transportation processes) and a water table module to investigate CH4 emission processes and dynamics that occur in natural wetlands. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most sensitive parameters to evaluate CH4 emission processes from wetlands are r (defined as the CH4 to CO2 release ratio) and Q10 in the CH4 production process. These two parameters were subsequently calibrated to data obtained from 19 sites collected from approximately 35 studies across different wetlands globally. Being heterogeneously spatially distributed, r ranged from 0.1 to 0.7 with a mean value of 0.23, and the Q10 for CH4 production ranged from 1.6 to 4.5 with a mean value of 2.48. The model performed well when simulating magnitude and capturing temporal patterns in CH4 emissions from natural wetlands. Results suggest that the model is able to be applied to different wetlands under varying conditions and is also applicable for global-scale simulations.

  16. Electricity generation and GHG emission reduction potentials through different municipal solid waste management technologies : A comparative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaeifar, Mohammad Ali; Ghanavati, Hossein; Dashti, Behrouz B.; Heijungs, Reinout; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2017-01-01

    The increasing trend in the consumption of various materials has also led to a huge increase in the final waste streams especially in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the consequent environmental pollutions in particular greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These have made MSW management a

  17. Long-term optimal energy mix planning towards high energy security and low GHG emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, Sundar Raj; Khambadkone, Ashwin M.; Karimi, Iftekhar A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop long-term energy planning considering the future uncertain inputs. • We analyze the effect of uncertain inputs on the energy cost and energy security. • Conventional energy mix prone to cause high energy cost and energy security issues. • Stochastic and optimal energy mix show benefits over conventional energy planning. • Nuclear option consideration reduces the energy cost and carbon emissions. - Abstract: Conventional energy planning focused on energy cost, GHG emission and renewable contribution based on future energy demand, fuel price, etc. Uncertainty in the projected variables such as energy demand, volatile fuel price and evolution of renewable technologies will influence the cost of energy when projected over a period of 15–30 years. Inaccurate projected variables could affect energy security and lead to the risk of high energy cost, high emission and low energy security. The energy security is an ability of generation capacity to meet the future energy demand. In order to minimize the risks, a generic methodology is presented to determine an optimal energy mix for a period of around 15 years. The proposed optimal energy mix is a right combination of energy sources that minimize the risk caused due to future uncertainties related to the energy sources. The proposed methodology uses stochastic optimization to address future uncertainties over a planning horizon and minimize the variations in the desired performance criteria such as energy security and costs. The developed methodology is validated using a case study for a South East Asian region with diverse fuel sources consists of wind, solar, geothermal, coal, biomass and natural gas, etc. The derived optimal energy mix decision outperformed the conventional energy planning by remaining stable and feasible against 79% of future energy demand scenarios at the expense of 0–10% increase in the energy cost. Including the nuclear option in the energy mix resulted 26

  18. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucedo-Lucero, J.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Quijano, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Arriaga, S. [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Muñoz, R., E-mail: mutora@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A fungal biofilter/photoreactor was evaluated in terms of hexane and spore removal. • Biofilter supported elimination capacities of ≈35 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and CO{sub 2} yields of ≈75%. • The photocatalytic process slightly boosted the hexane abatement performance. • Biofilter emitted fungal spores at concentrations of 2.4 × 10{sup 3}–9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. • Photo-assisted post-treatments resulted in spore deactivation efficiencies of 98%. - Abstract: The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14 min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115 ± 5 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30–40 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60–90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48 h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4 × 10{sup 3} to 9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of

  19. A comparison of power generation and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse from the perspective of mitigating GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiao-Zheng; Fujimoto, Shinji; Minowa, Tomoaki

    2013-01-01

    The mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power generation and two ethanol production options from sugarcane bagasse were compared at grid emission factors ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 kg of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent per kWh. The first ethanol production method (EP 1) directly purchased electricity and steam from the grid and the factory, and the second ethanol production method (EP 2) derived the required electricity and steam from the cogeneration system using the sugarcane bagasse as boiler fuel. Data pertaining to GHG emissions from power generation were collected from published studies. A process for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse was designed, and a simulator was developed to generate the process data using Microsoft Excel. Results show that power generation is the preferential option when the grid emission factors are higher than 0.45 kg CO 2 eq/kWh. The EP 1 was advantageous in mitigating the GHG emissions when the grid emission factors were lower than 0.19 kg CO 2 eq/kWh, and the EP 2 might be the most environmentally beneficial when the grid emission factors were between 0.19 and 0.45 kg CO 2 eq/kWh. It is hoped that these results could be helpful in determining how to best utilize sugarcane bagasse

  20. Exploring the limits for CO2 emission abatement in the EU power and industry sectors—Awaiting a breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootzén, Johan; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the prospects for presently available abatement technologies to achieve significant reductions in CO 2 emissions from large stationary sources of CO 2 in the EU up to year 2050. The study covers power generation, petroleum refining, iron and steel, and cement production. By simulating capital stock turnover, scenarios that assume future developments in the technology stock, energy intensities, fuel and production mixes, and the resulting CO 2 emissions were generated for each sector. The results confirm that the EU goal for reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emission in the sectors covered by the EU Emission Trading System, i.e., 21% reduction by 2020 as compared to the levels in 2005, is attainable with the abatement measures that are already available. However, despite the optimism regarding the potential for, and implementation of, available abatement strategies within current production processes, our results indicate that the power and industrial sectors will fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in both the medium term (2030) and long term (2050). Deliberate exclusion from the analysis of mitigation technologies that are still in the early phases of development (e.g., CO 2 capture and storage) provides an indirect measure of the requirements for novel low-carbon technologies and production processes. - Highlights: • Explore the limits for CO 2 emission abatement within current production processes. • Analysis of scenarios for CO 2 emissions from EU power and industrial sectors 2010–2050. • Short-term (2020) emission targets are attainable with available abatement measures. • Fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in the long term (2050). • Efforts to develop new low-carbon production processes need to be accelerated

  1. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, S.C., E-mail: stefania@macs.udl.cat [Environment and Soil Science Department, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Bosch-Serra, A.D. [Environment and Soil Science Department, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Moreno-García, B. [Soils and Irrigation Department, Agrifood Research and Technology Centre of Aragon (CITA), Av. Montañana 930, E-50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Català, M.M. [Ebre Field Station, Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA), Ctra. de Balada, km 1, E-43870 Amposta (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    } {sup 1}; high C/N) increases GHG emissions. • Mineral N had no effect on N{sub 2}O, while chicken manure increased CH{sub 4} emission. • The postharvest period was a sink of CH{sub 4} without N{sub 2}O emissions. • During seedling chicken manure increased GHG; mineral N and pig slurry did not.

  2. Energy Innovations-GHG Emissions Nexus: Fresh Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Herránz, Agustín; Balsalobre, Daniel; Cantos, José María; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of improvements in energy research development (ERD) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for 28 OECD countries over the period of 1990–2014. In doing so, we have employed a panel data where public budget in energy research development and demonstration (ERD&D) has transformed into a finite inverted V-lag distribution model developed by De Leeuw (1962). This model considers that energy innovation accumulates in time and presents empirical evidence, how energy innovation contributes in reducing energy intensity and environmental pollution as well. Our results indicate that energy innovation measures require lapses of time to reach their full effect i.e. innovation applied to measures for environmental correction does not reach its whole effect immediately, requiring instead a certain amount of time to pass. Innovation policies have recommended for improving environmental quality. - Highlights: • This study analyses the impact of public budget in energy RD&D for 28 OECD countries on environmental quality. • Energy innovation contributes positively to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • Advances in energy technology seem to be the key of improved environmental quality.

  3. Sulfur deposition simulations over China, Japan, and Korea: a model intercomparison study for abating sulfur emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Hee; Chang, Lim-Seok; Meng, Fan; Kajino, Mizuo; Ueda, Hiromasa; Zhang, Yuanhang; Son, Hye-Young; Lee, Jong-Jae; He, Youjiang; Xu, Jun; Sato, Keiichi; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Han, Zhiwei; Duan, Lei; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Song, Chang-Keun; Ban, Soo-Jin; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Sunwoo, Young; Lee, Tae-Young

    2012-11-01

    In response to increasing trends in sulfur deposition in Northeast Asia, three countries in the region (China, Japan, and Korea) agreed to devise abatement strategies. The concepts of critical loads and source-receptor (S-R) relationships provide guidance for formulating such strategies. Based on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollutants in Northeast Asia (LTP) project, this study analyzes sulfur deposition data in order to optimize acidic loads over the three countries. The three groups involved in this study carried out a full year (2002) of sulfur deposition modeling over the geographic region spanning the three countries, using three air quality models: MM5-CMAQ, MM5-RAQM, and RAMS-CADM, employed by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean modeling groups, respectively. Each model employed its own meteorological numerical model and model parameters. Only the emission rates for SO(2) and NO(x) obtained from the LTP project were the common parameter used in the three models. Three models revealed some bias from dry to wet deposition, particularly the latter because of the bias in annual precipitation. This finding points to the need for further sensitivity tests of the wet removal rates in association with underlying cloud-precipitation physics and parameterizations. Despite this bias, the annual total (dry plus wet) sulfur deposition predicted by the models were surprisingly very similar. The ensemble average annual total deposition was 7,203.6 ± 370 kt S with a minimal mean fractional error (MFE) of 8.95 ± 5.24 % and a pattern correlation (PC) of 0.89-0.93 between the models. This exercise revealed that despite rather poor error scores in comparison with observations, these consistent total deposition values across the three models, based on LTP group's input data assumptions, suggest a plausible S-R relationship that can be applied to the next task of designing cost-effective emission abatement strategies.

  4. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of greenhouse gas emission abatement. The case of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1999-11-01

    In Finland greenhouse gas emissions are expected to increase during the next decades due to economic growth, particularly in the energy intensive industrial sectors. The role of these industries is very central in the national economy. The emission control according to the Kyoto Protocol will therefore be quite difficult and costly. The study analyses the cost-effectiveness of different technical options for reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in Finland. The analysis is performed with the help of a comprehensive energy system model for Finland, which has been extended to cover all major sources of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in the energy sector, industry, waste management and agriculture. The focus being on technical options, no consideration is given to possible policy measures, emission trading or joint implementation in the study. Under the boundary conditions given for the development of the Finnish energy economy, cost-effective technical measures in the energy system include increases in the use of wood biomass, natural gas and wind energy, increases in the contribution of CHP to the power supply, and intensified energy conservation in all end-use sectors. Additional cost-effective measures are landfill gas recovery, utilisation of the combustible fraction of waste and catalytic conversion of N{sub 2}O in nitric acid production. With baseline assumptions, the direct annual costs of emission abatement are calculated to be about 2000 MFIM (330 M{epsilon}) in 2010. The marginal costs are estimated to be about 230 FIM (40 {epsilon}) per tonne of CO{sub 2}-equivalent in 2010. The cost curie derived from the analysis could be used in further analyses concerning emissions trading. (orig.) 109 refs. SIHTI Research Programme

  5. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-20

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO 2 -equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO 2 -equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from - 15% to - 34%) and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the population not meeting energy or iron requirements as a

  6. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Methods Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19–69 years (n = 2102. GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1 reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2 replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water by tap water, 3 replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4 two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. Results The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO2-equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO2-equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from − 15% to − 34% and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Conclusions Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the

  7. Energy-saving and emission-abatement potential of Chinese coal-fired power enterprise: A non-parametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chu; Löschel, Andreas; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    In the context of soaring demand for electricity, mitigating and controlling greenhouse gas emissions is a great challenge for China's power sector. Increasing attention has been placed on the evaluation of energy efficiency and CO 2 abatement potential in the power sector. However, studies at the micro-level are relatively rare due to serious data limitations. This study uses the 2004 and 2008 Census data of Zhejiang province to construct a non-parametric frontier in order to assess the abatement space of energy and associated CO 2 emission from China's coal-fired power enterprises. A Weighted Russell Directional Distance Function (WRDDF) is applied to construct an energy-saving potential index and a CO 2 emission-abatement potential index. Both indicators depict the inefficiency level in terms of energy utilization and CO 2 emissions of electric power plants. Our results show a substantial variation of energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement potential among enterprises. We find that large power enterprises are less efficient in 2004, but become more efficient than smaller enterprises in 2008. State-owned enterprises (SOE) are not significantly different in 2008 from 2004, but perform better than their non-SOE counterparts in 2008. This change in performance for large enterprises and SOE might be driven by the “top-1000 Enterprise Energy Conservation Action” that was implemented in 2006. - Highlights: • Energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement-potential for Chinese power enterprise are evaluated. • The potential to curb energy and emission shows great variation and dynamic changes. • Large enterprise is less efficient than small enterprise in 2004, but more efficient in 2008. • The state-owned enterprise performs better than non-state-owned enterprise in 2008

  8. Modeling of policies for reduction of GHG emissions in energy sector using ANN: case study-Croatia (EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanča, Tomislav; Strahovnik, Tomislav; Ukić, Šime; Stankov, Mirjana Novak; Rogošić, Marko

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the development of tool for testing different policies for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy sector using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The case study of Croatia was elaborated. Two different energy consumption scenarios were used as a base for calculations and predictions of GHG emissions: the business as usual (BAU) scenario and sustainable scenario. Both of them are based on predicted energy consumption using different growth rates; the growth rates within the second scenario resulted from the implementation of corresponding energy efficiency measures in final energy consumption and increasing share of renewable energy sources. Both ANN architecture and training methodology were optimized to produce network that was able to successfully describe the existing data and to achieve reliable prediction of emissions in a forward time sense. The BAU scenario was found to produce continuously increasing emissions of all GHGs. The sustainable scenario was found to decrease the GHG emission levels of all gases with respect to BAU. The observed decrease was attributed to the group of measures termed the reduction of final energy consumption through energy efficiency measures.

  9. Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA): Application of Pinch Analysis for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction in municipal solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Wai Shin; Hashim, Haslenda; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Lee, Chew Tin; Sam, Kah Chiin; Tan, Sie Ting

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method known as Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA) is presented. • WAMPA aims to identify waste management strategies based on specific target. • WAMPA is capable to examine the capacity of waste management strategies through graphical representation. - Abstract: Improper waste management happened in most of the developing country where inadequate disposal of waste in landfill is commonly practiced. Apart from disposal, MSW can turn into valuable product through recycling, energy recovery, and biological recovery action as suggested in the hierarchy of waste management. This study presents a method known as Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA) to examine the implication of a dual-objective – landfill and GHG emission reduction target in sustainable waste management. WAMPA is capable to identify the capacity of each waste processing strategy through graphical representation. A general methodology of WAMPA is presented through a demonstration of a SWM case followed by a detailed representation of WAMPA for five waste types. Application of the WAMPA is then applied on a case study for sustainable waste management planning from year 2015 to 2035. Three waste management strategies are incorporated into the case study – landfill, Waste-to-Energy (WtE), and reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R). The results show a 13.5% of total GHG emission reduction and 54.6% of total reduction of landfill are achieved. The major contributor of GHG emission which are from food waste (landfill emission) and plastic (WtE emission) is reduced.

  10. Household Solar Photovoltaics: Supplier of Marginal Abatement, or Primary Source of Low-Emission Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Palmer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With declining system costs and assuming a short energy payback period, photovoltaics (PV should, at face value, be able to make a meaningful contribution to reducing the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system. However, solar is an intermittent power source and households remain completely dependent on a “less than green” electricity grid for reliable electricity. Further, much of the energy impact of PV occurs outside of the conventional boundaries of PV life-cycle analyses (LCA. This paper examines these competing observations and explores the broader impacts of a high penetration of household PV using Melbourne, Victoria as a reference. It concludes that in a grid dominated by unsequestered coal and gas, PV provides a legitimate source of emission abatement at high, but declining costs, with the potential for network and peak demand support. It may be technically possible to integrate a high penetration of PV, but the economic and energy cost of accommodating high-penetration PV erodes much of the benefits. Future developments in PV, storage, and integration technologies may allow PV to take on a greater long term role, but in the time horizon usually discussed in climate policy, a large-scale expansion of household PV may hinder rather than assist deep cuts to the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system.

  11. Life cycle energy use and GHG emission assessment of coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for SNG and power cogeneration. • A model based on a Chinese domestic database is developed for evaluation. • Cogeneration shows lower GHG emissions than coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration has lower life cycle energy use than supercritical coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies. - Abstract: Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) and power cogeneration/polygenereation (PG) technology and its competitive alternatives. Four main SNG applications are considered, including electricity generation, steam production, SNG vehicle and battery electric vehicle (BEV). Analyses show that if SNG is produced from a single product plant, the lower limits of its life cycle energy use and GHG emissions can be comparable to the average levels of coal-power and coal-BEV pathways, but are still higher than supercritical and ultra supercritical (USC) coal-power and coal-BEV pathways. If SNG is coproduced from a PG plant, when it is used for power generation, steam production, and driving BEV car, the life cycle energy uses for PG based pathways are typically lower than supercritical coal-power pathways, but are still 1.6–2.4% higher than USC coal-power pathways, and the average life cycle GHG emissions are lower than those of all coal-power pathways including USC units. If SNG is used to drive vehicle car, the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of PG-SNGV-power pathway are both much higher than all combined coal-BEV and coal-power pathways, due to much higher energy consumption in a SNG driven car than in a BEV car. The coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology shows comparable or better energy and environmental performances when compared to other coal-based alternatives, and is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies.

  12. Meat consumption reduction in Italian regions: Health co-benefits and decreases in GHG emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farchi

    Full Text Available Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid.We used demographic and food consumption patterns from national surveys and risk relationships between meat intake and cardiovascular and colorectal cancer mortality from IARC and other meta-analyses. From the baseline data (year 2005-2006, average 406 gr/week beef and 245 gr/week processed meat, we considered hypothetical meat reduction scenarios according to international dietary guidelines such as the Mediterranean pyramid targets. For each geographical area (Northwest, Northeast, Centre, and South and gender, we calculated the number of avoidable deaths from colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular disease among the adult population. Moreover, years of life gained by the adult population from 2012 to 2030 and changes in life expectancy of the 2012 birth cohort were quantified using gender-specific life tables. GHG emission reductions under Mediterranean scenario were estimated only for beef by applying the Global Warming Potential (GWP coefficient to total consumption and to a low carbon food substitution in adult diet.The deaths avoidable (as percentage change compared to baseline according to the three reduction scenarios for beef consumption were between 2.3% and 4.5% for colorectal cancer, and between 2.1% and 4.0% for

  13. Assessment of soil GHG emission in different functional zones of Moscow urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizirskaya, Maria; Epikhina, Anna; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo; Mazirov, Il'ya

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations are increasing rapidly, causing global climate changes. Growing concentrations of CO2, CH4 and N2O are occurring not only as a result of industry activity, but also from changes in land use and type of land management due to urbanization. Up to now there were not so many studies in Russia that dealt with urbanization effects (functional zoning, land-use type, soil contamination etc.) on GHG emission from the soil in spatial-temporal variability at the local and regional scale. The aim of our study is to provide the analysis of soil CO2, N2O and CH4 efflux's response to different biotic and abiotic factors, as well as to management activities and anthropogenic impact in different functional zones of the city. The principal objects of our study are representative urban landscapes with different land-use practices, typical for urbanized area. The varieties of urban ecosystems are represented by urban forest, green lawns with different functional subzoning and agro landscapes (16 sites in total). Forest sites have been studied during 7 years and they are differing in mezorelief (small hill summit and two slopes). Green lawns vary in level of human impact (normal, medium and high) and are represented by managed and non-managed lawns. Agro landscapes are represented by two crop types: barley and grass mixture (oats and vetch) with till and no-till cultivation. In each plot we measured: soil respiration in field conditions using system based on IR-gas analyzer Li- COR 820, CH4 and N2O emission using the method of exposition chamber. Samples were taken from soil exposition chamber by syringe, and then analyzed on gas chromatograph. The measurements with Li-COR have been done on 10 days base since June till October 2013, and till September by exposition chamber in 5 replicas per plot. The conducted research have shown high spatial and temporal variability of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes due to functional zoning, slope, vegetation type

  14. Biochar for reducing GHG emissions in Norway: opportunities and barriers to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasse, Daniel; O'Toole, Adam; Joner, Erik; Borgen, Signe

    2017-04-01

    Norway has ratified the Paris Agreement with a target nationally determined contribution (NDC) of 40% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, with the land sector (AFOLU) expected to contribute to this effort. Increased C sequestration in soil, as argued by the 4 per 1000 initiative, can provide C negative solutions towards reaching this goal. However, Norway has only 3% of its land surface that is cultivated, and management options are fairly limited because the major part is already under managed grasslands, which are assumed to be close to C saturation. By contrast, the country has ample forest resources, allowing Norway to report 25 Mt CO2-eq per year of net CO2 uptake by forest. In addition, the forest industry generates large amounts of unused residues, both at the processing plants but also left decaying on the forest floor. Because of the unique characteristics of the Norwegian land sector, the Norwegian Environment Agency reported as early as 2010 that biochar production for soil C storage had the largest potential for reducing GHG emissions through land-use measures. Although straw is a potential feedstock, the larger quantities of forest residues are a prime candidate for this purpose, as exemplified by our first experimental facility at a production farm, which is using wood chips as feedstock for biochar production. The highly controlled and subsidised Norwegian agriculture might offer a unique test case for implementing incentives that would support farmers for biochar-based C sequestration. However, multiple barriers remain, which mostly revolve around the complexity of finding the right implementation scheme (including price setting) in a changing landscape of competition for biomass (with e.g. bioethanol and direct combustion), methods of verification and variable co-benefits to the farmer. Here we will present some of these schemes, from on-farm biochar production to factories for biochar-compound fertilizers, and discuss barriers and

  15. Towards a measurement-based national verification system for GHG emissions: UK emission estimates of CO2 from the GAUGE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzi, Siegfried; Palmer, Paul; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Stanley, Kieran; Stavert, Ann; Grant, Aoife; Helfter, Carole; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Bösch, Hartmut; Sembhi, Harjinder; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Parker, Robert; Bauguitte, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    Robust quantification of emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) is central to the success of ongoing international efforts to slow current emissions and mitigate future climate change. The Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project aims to quantify the magnitude and uncertainty of country-scale emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) using concentration measurements from a network of tall towers and mobile platforms (aircraft and ferry) distributed across the UK. The GAUGE measurement programme includes: (a) GHG measurements on a regular ferry route down the North Sea aimed at sampling UK outflow; (b) campaign deployment of the UK BAe-146 research aircraft to provide vertical profile measurements of GHG over and around the UK; (c) a high-density GHG measurement network over East Anglia that is primarily focused on the agricultural sector; and (d) regular measurements of CO2 and CH4 isotopologues used for GHG source attribution. We also use satellite observations from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to provide continental-scale constraints on GHG flux estimates. We present CO2 flux estimates for the UK inferred from GAUGE measurements using a nested, high-resolution (25 km) version of the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemistry and transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter. We will present our current best estimate for CO2 fluxes and a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of individual GAUGE data sources to spatially resolve CO2 flux estimates over the UK. We will also discuss how flux estimates inferred from the different models used within GAUGE can help to assess the role of transport model error and to determine an ensemble CO2 flux estimate for the UK.

  16. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......Organic farming (OF) principles include the idea of reducing dependence of fossil fuels, but little has been achieved on this objective so far in Danish OF. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an average 39 ha cash crop farm were calculated and alternative crop rotations for bio......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  17. Research and Development of a DNDC Online Model for Farmland Carbon Sequestration and GHG Emissions Mitigation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidi Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate agricultural practices for carbon sequestration and emission mitigation have a significant influence on global climate change. However, various agricultural practices on farmland carbon sequestration usually have a major impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. It is very important to accurately quantify the effect of agricultural practices. This study developed a platform—the Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC online model—for simulating and evaluating the agricultural carbon sequestration and emission mitigation based on the scientific process of the DNDC model, which is widely used in the simulation of soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. After testing the adaptability of the platform on two sampling fields, it turned out that the simulated values matched the measured values well for crop yields and GHG emissions. We used the platform to estimate the effect of three carbon sequestration practices in a sampling field: nitrogen fertilization reduction, straw residue and midseason drainage. The results indicated the following: (1 moderate decrement of the nitrogen fertilization in the sampling field was able to decrease the N2O emission while maintaining the paddy rice yield; (2 ground straw residue had almost no influence on paddy rice yield, but the CH4 emission and the surface SOC concentration increased along with the quantity of the straw residue; (3 compared to continuous flooding, midseason drainage would not decrease the paddy rice yield and could lead to a drop in CH4 emission. Thus, this study established the DNDC online model, which is able to serve as a reference and support for the study and evaluation of the effects of agricultural practices on agricultural carbon sequestration and GHG emissions mitigation in China.

  18. Research and Development of a DNDC Online Model for Farmland Carbon Sequestration and GHG Emissions Mitigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zaidi; Yin, Shan; Zhang, Xianxian; Li, Changsheng; Shen, Guangrong; Zhou, Pei; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-12-01

    Appropriate agricultural practices for carbon sequestration and emission mitigation have a significant influence on global climate change. However, various agricultural practices on farmland carbon sequestration usually have a major impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is very important to accurately quantify the effect of agricultural practices. This study developed a platform-the Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) online model-for simulating and evaluating the agricultural carbon sequestration and emission mitigation based on the scientific process of the DNDC model, which is widely used in the simulation of soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. After testing the adaptability of the platform on two sampling fields, it turned out that the simulated values matched the measured values well for crop yields and GHG emissions. We used the platform to estimate the effect of three carbon sequestration practices in a sampling field: nitrogen fertilization reduction, straw residue and midseason drainage. The results indicated the following: (1) moderate decrement of the nitrogen fertilization in the sampling field was able to decrease the N₂O emission while maintaining the paddy rice yield; (2) ground straw residue had almost no influence on paddy rice yield, but the CH₄ emission and the surface SOC concentration increased along with the quantity of the straw residue; (3) compared to continuous flooding, midseason drainage would not decrease the paddy rice yield and could lead to a drop in CH₄ emission. Thus, this study established the DNDC online model, which is able to serve as a reference and support for the study and evaluation of the effects of agricultural practices on agricultural carbon sequestration and GHG emissions mitigation in China.

  19. Contributing to local policy making on GHG emission reduction through inventorying and attribution: A case study of Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Chen Xudong; Zhang Yunsong; Wang Xinbei; Xue Bing; Dong Huijuan; Liu Zhu; Ren Wanxia; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Zhu Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Cities consumed 84% of commercial energy in China, which indicates cities should be the main areas for GHG emissions reduction. Our case study of Shenyang in this paper shows how a clear inventory analysis on GHG emissions at city level can help to identify the major industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts so as to facilitate low-carbon policy-making. The results showed total carbon emission in 2007 was 57 Mt CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 e), of which 41 Mt CO 2 e was in-boundary emissions and 16 Mt CO 2 e was out-of-boundary emissions. The energy sector was dominant in the emission inventory, accounting for 93.1% of total emissions. Within energy sector, emissions from energy production industry, manufacturing and construction industry accounted for 88.4% of this sector. Our analysis showed that comparing with geographical boundary, setting system boundary based on single process standard could provide better information to decision makers for carbon emission reduction. After attributing electricity and heating consumption to final users, the resident and commercial sector became the largest emitter, accounting for 28.5% of total emissions. Spatial analysis of emissions showed that industrial districts such as Shenbei and Tiexi had the large potential to reduce their carbon emissions. Implications of results are finally discussed. - Highlights: → An inventory analysis can help identify key industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts. → Setting system boundary can provide better information for carbon emission reduction. → Urban districts with heavy industrial plants have potential to reduce their carbon emissions. → Policies that support urban energy structure optimization can accelerate low-carbon development.

  20. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  1. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  2. Reassessing the Links between GHG Emissions, Economic Growth, and the UNFCCC: A Difference-in-Differences Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cifci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International climate agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 and, more recently, the Paris Climate Agreement are fragile because, at a national level, political constituencies’ value systems may conflict with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to sustainable levels. Proponents cite climate change as the most pressing challenge of our time, contending that international cooperation will play an essential role in addressing this challenge. Political opponents argue that the disproportionate requirements on developed nations to shoulder the financial burden will inhibit their economic growth. We find empirical evidence that both arguments are likely to be correct. We use standard regression techniques to analyze a multi-country dataset of GHG emissions, GDP per capita growth, and other factors. We estimate that after the Kyoto Protocol (KP entered into force ‘Annex I’ countries reduced GHG emissions on average by roughly 1 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MTCO2e, relative to non-Annex I countries. However, our estimates reveal that these countries also experienced an average reduction in GDP per capita growth rates of around 1–2 percentage points relative to non-Annex I countries.

  3. Electricity production from anaerobic digestion of household organic waste in Ontario: techno-economic and GHG emission analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanscartier, David; Maclean, Heather L; Saville, Bradley

    2012-01-17

    The first Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) program in North America was recently implemented in Ontario, Canada to stimulate the generation of electricity from renewable sources. The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and economics of electricity generation through anaerobic digestion (AD) of household source-separated organic waste (HSSOW) are investigated within the FiT program. AD can potentially provide considerable GHG emission reductions (up to 1 t CO(2)eq/t HSSOW) at relatively low to moderate cost (-$35 to 160/t CO(2)eq) by displacing fossil electricity and preventing the emission of landfill gas. It is a cost-effective GHG mitigation option compared to some other FiT technologies (e.g., wind, solar photovoltaic) and provides unique additional benefits (waste diversion, nutrient recycling). The combination of electricity sales at a premium rate, savings in waste management costs, and economies of scale allow AD facilities processing >30,000 t/yr to be cost-competitive against landfilling. However, the FiT does not sufficiently support smaller-scale facilities that are needed as a transition to larger, more economically viable facilities. Refocusing of the FiT program and waste policies are needed to support the adoption of AD of HSSOW, which has not yet been developed in the Province, while more costly technologies (e.g., photovoltaic) have been deployed.

  4. Scenarios for the use of GHG-reduction instruments - how can policy-instruments as carbon emission trading and tradable green certificates be used simultaneously to reach a common GHG-reduction target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    According to the agreed burden sharing in the EU, a number of member states have to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases substantially. To achieve these reductions various policy-instruments - national as well as international - are on hand. Two international instruments are emphasized in this paper: tradable quotas for limiting carbon emissions and tradable green certificates for promoting the deployment of renewable energy technologies. In the analyses of these two instruments two main questions are considered: (1) Will there be any international trade in green certificates, if no GHG-credits are attached to them? (2) Will it make any difference if the EU sets the targets to be achieved by the two instruments or alternatively the individual member countries do? An incentive-analysis in which four scenarios are set up and discussed is performed for the EU member states. The main conclusion is that if no GHG-credits are attached to the green certificates there seems to be limited of no incentives for a permanent international trade in certificates. On the other hand, if GHG-credits are attached to the certificates an efficient international trade will take place regardless of whether the EU or the member countries fix the quotas. Thus, the use of international instruments as tradable green certificates and tradable emissions permits will not lead to an optimal GHG-reduction strategy unless GHG-credits are attached to the certificates. (author)

  5. Alternative U.S. biofuel mandates and global GHG emissions: The role of land use change, crop management and yield growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Havlík, P.; Valin, H.; Baker, J.; Murray, B.; Feng, S.; Obersteiner, M.; McCarl, B.A.; Rose, S.K.; Schneider, U.A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2) and several alternative biofuel policy designs on global GHG emissions from land use change and agriculture over the 2010–2030 horizon. Analysis of the scenarios relies on GLOBIOM, a global, multi-sectoral economic model based on a detailed representation of land use. Our results reveal that RFS2 would substantially increase the portion of agricultural land needed for biofuel feedstock production. U.S. exports of most agricultural products would decrease as long as the biofuel target would increase leading to higher land conversion and nitrogen use globally. In fact, higher levels of the mandate mean lower net emissions within the U.S. but when the emissions from the rest of the world are considered, the US biofuel policy results in almost no change on GHG emissions for the RFS2 level and higher global GHG emissions for higher levels of the mandate or higher share of conventional corn-ethanol in the mandate. Finally, we show that if the projected crop productivity would be lower globally, the imbalance between domestic U.S. GHG savings and additional GHG emissions in the rest of the world would increase, thus deteriorating the net global impact of U.S. biofuel policies. - Highlights: ► We model the impact of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2). ► RFS2 would require more agricultural land and nitrogen globally. ► Increasing the mandates reduce GHG emissions within the U.S. ► Increasing the mandates increase GHG emissions in the rest of the world. ► Total GHG emissions increase with higher levels of mandate; higher share of corn-ethanol; lower productivity growth

  6. Cost Effective Options for Greenhouse Gas (GHG Emission Reduction in the Power Sector for Developing Economies — A Case Study in Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Morris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With their increasing shares of global emissions developing economies are increasingly being pressured to assume a greater role in global greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction. Developed countries have invested tremendously in and proclaimed renewable energy (RE and associated smart power technologies as solutions to meet their energy demands and reduce their GHG emissions at the same time. However, in the developing economies, these technologies may not deliver the desired results because they have their unique characteristics and priorities, which are different from those of the developed world. Many GHG emission reduction technologies are still very expensive and not fully developed. For the developing economies, the adoption threshold may become very high. Therefore, the cost effectiveness and practicality of each technology in reducing GHG emission in the developing economies may be very different from that of the developed economies. In this paper, available RE and other GHG emission reduction technologies are individually considered in a case study on Sabah, one of the 13 states in Malaysia, in order to assess the effects of the individual technologies on GHG emission and electricity cost reductions.

  7. Simulating N2O emissions from global forests and grasslands using process-based TRIPLEX-GHG model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C.; Zhu, Q.; Zhang, K.

    2017-12-01

    This study has described the successful integration of nitrification and denitrification submodules by incorporating N2O production, consumption, and diffusion processes into a DGVM model. Results from our sensitivity analysis indicated that the nitrification rate coefficient (COENR) is the main N2O emission modeling parameter. TRIPLEX-GHG was calibrated according to data obtained from 29 sites across different forests and grasslands around the world, which represents a more extensive sampling size compared to previous models. The average COENR value gradually increased from tropical forest to grassland to temperate forest to boreal forest, with means of 0.009, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.09, respectively. Validation was further confirmed using mean COENR values from 52 global sites from different biomes around the world. Although our model proved less robust in modeling N2O uptake and peaks during periods of snowmelt, the seasonal variations and magnitudes of simulations were good overall, and annual observed and simulated data were highly correlated (R2=0.75), which indicated that TRIPLEX-GHG can be applied to N2O emission modeling across different ecosystems and latitudes. Lastly, TRIPLEX-GHG is intended to contribute to the scientific modeling community by accounting for greenhouse gas exchanges and budgets at both regional and global scales.

  8. Assessment of GHG Emission Reduction Potential from Source-separated Organic Waste (SOW) Management: Case Study in a Higher Educational Institution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.G.; Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions reduction via composting of source-separated organic waste (SOW) in municipal solid waste (MSW) has not been assessed. Assessment of GHG emissions reduction via composting of SOW is important as environmental impacts from waste management are waste-specific and local-specific. The study presents the case study for potential carbon reduction via composting of SOW in University of Malaya (UM). In this study, a series of calculations were used to evaluate the GHG emission of different SOW management scenarios. The calculations based on IPCC calculation methods (AM0025) include GHGs emissions from land filling, fuel consumption in transportation and SOW composting activity. The methods were applied to assess the GHG emissions from five alternative SOW management scenarios in UM. From the baseline scenario (S0), a total of 1,636.18 tCO2e was generated. In conjunction with target of 22 % recycling rate, as shown in S1, 14 % reduction in potential GHG emission can be achieved. The carbon reduction can be further enhanced by increasing the SOW composting capacity. The net GHG emission for S1, S2, S3 and S4 were 1,399.52, 1,161.29, 857.70 and 1,060.48 tCO2e, respectively. In general, waste diversion for composting proved a significant net GHG emission reduction as shown in S3 (47 %), S4 (35 %) and S2 (29 %). Despite the emission due to direct on-site activity, the significant reduction in methane generation at landfill has reduced the net GHG emission. The emission source of each scenario was studied and analysed. (author)

  9. Accounting of GHG emissions and removals from forest management: a long road from Kyoto to Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Joachim H A

    2018-01-03

    GHG emission reductions. This also concerns forests as a resource for the bio-based economy and wood products, and for increasing carbon reservoirs. By discussing the existing elements of forest accounting rules and conditions for establishing an accounting system post 2030, it is concluded that core requirements like factoring out direct human-induced from indirect human-induced and natural impacts on managed lands, a facilitation of incentives for management changes and providing safeguards for the integrity of the accounting system are not sufficiently secured by currently discussed accounting rules. A responsibility to fulfil these basic requirements is transferred to Nationally Determined Contributions. Increased incentives for additional human induced investments are not stipulated by the accounting approach but rather by the political decision to make use of the substitution effect and potential net removals from LULUCF to contribute to self-set targets.

  10. Performance, costs, and GHG emissions of PV-hybrid systems : current status and avenues for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M.M.D. [RER Renewable Energy Research, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The performance of a baseline 300 W photovoltaic (PV) hybrid system was investigated and compared with a prime power system, a genset battery system, and a PV-battery system. The analysis considered initial and annual costs, energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An economic analysis of the overall life-cycle cost of the systems was provided. Simulations were used to determine system performance in both residential areas and in a remote off-grid industrial scenario. Hourly monitored weather data for a 5 year period in various Canadian cities were used to simulate 6 different PV-hybrid system configurations, namely 14 genset-battery configurations, 2 prime power configurations, and a stand-alone PV-battery system. A battery with 2 days of autonomy was used for both the genset battery and the PV hybrid system. The prime power system consisted of a 5 kW diesel genset and a rectifier with a 92.5 per cent efficiency at 50 W. The PV array was designed to achieve an annual solar fraction of 65 per cent. Data collected from a GNB Absolyte IIP absorbent glass mat batter was used to characterize the current-voltage behaviour of the battery model. The study considered battery capacity deterioration, fractions of solar energy wasted, as well as the fraction of wasted energy that could be avoided through the use of non-seasonal storage. The overall cost of generating electricity was calculated by considering equivalent annual costs divided by the electrical energy required annually. Results of the analysis indicated that prime power systems were not suitable for remote, industrial applications. Results of the residential analysis indicated that the PV-battery system was less economically viable than either the genset-battery or the PV hybrid system. The higher fuel consumption of the genset-battery system resulted in greenhouse gas emissions that were 3 times as high as those observed with the hybrid system, which generated 0.9 tonnes of carbon dioxide

  11. Forest biomass supply chains in Ireland: A life cycle assessment of GHG emissions and primary energy balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Fionnuala; Devlin, Ger; McDonnell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wood energy supply chains are analysed for energy requirements and GHG emissions. • Use of residues and stumps for energy is evaluated for Irish conditions. • Results highlight transportation as the most energy and GHG emission intensive step. • Wood energy compares favourably with other biomass sources and fossil fuels. - Abstract: The demand for wood for energy production in Ireland is predicted to double from 1.5 million m 3 over bark (OB) in 2011 to 3 million m 3 OB by 2020. There is a large potential for additional biomass recovery for energetic purposes from both thinning forest stands and by harvesting of tops and branches, and stumps. This study builds on research within the wood-for-energy concept in Ireland by analysing the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions associated with thinning, residue bundling and stump removal for energy purposes. To date there have been no studies on harvesting of residues and stumps in terms of energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions across the life cycle in Ireland. The results of the analysis on wood energy supply chains highlights transport as the most energy and greenhouse gas emissions intensive step in the life cycle. This finding illustrates importance of localised production and use of forest biomass. Production of wood chip, and shredded bundles and stumps, compares favourably with both other sources of biomass in Ireland and fossil fuels

  12. Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Chang, Yuan; Pang, Mingyue

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the options of biomass power generation in China, this study presented an integrated energy, environmental, and economic evaluation for Salix in China, and a typical Salix direct-fired power generation system (SDPGS) in Inner Mongolia was selected for case study. A tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to calculate the “planting-to-wire” (PTW) energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic cost and profit of the SDPGS, including feedstock cultivation, power plant construction and operation, and on-grid price with/without government subsidies. The results show that the PTW energy consumption and GHG emissions of Salix are 0.8 MJ/kWh and 114 g CO 2 -eq/kWh, respectively, indicating an energy payback time (EPBT) of 3.2 years. The SDPGS is not economically feasible without government subsidies. The PTW costs are dominated by feedstock cultivation. The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits are still robust, even when the power plant runs at only 60% design capacity. For future development of biomass power in China, scientific planning is necessary to guarantee a sufficient feedstock supply. In addition, technology progress, mature industrial chains, and reasonable price setting policy are required to enable potential energy and environmental advantages of biomass power moving forward. -- Highlights: •A hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate overall performance of the SDPGS. •On-site processes dominate the “planting-to-wire” footprints. •The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits of the SDPGS are robust. •The economic profit of the SDPGS is feeble without government subsidies. •Generating efficiency promotion has a comprehensive positive effect on the system

  13. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives

  14. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  15. System-wide and Superemitter Policy Options for the Abatement of Methane Emissions from the U.S. Natural Gas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, E. N.; Robinson, A. L.; Cohon, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    This work assesses trade-offs between system-wide and superemitter policy options for reducing methane emissions from compressor stations in the U.S. transmission and storage system. Leveraging recently collected national emissions and activity data sets, we developed a new process-based emissions model implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to estimate emissions for each component and facility in the system. We find that approximately 83% of emissions, given the existing suite of technologies, have the potential to be abated, with only a few emission categories comprising a majority of emissions. We then formulate optimization models to determine optimal abatement strategies. Most emissions across the system (approximately 80%) are efficient to abate, resulting in net benefits ranging from 160M to 1.2B annually across the system. The private cost burden is minimal under standard and tax instruments, and if firms market the abated natural gas, private net benefits may be generated. Superemitter policies, namely, those that target the highest emitting facilities, may reduce the private cost burden and achieve high emission reductions, especially if emissions across facilities are highly skewed. However, detection across all facilities is necessary regardless of the policy option and there are nontrivial net benefits resulting from abatement of relatively low-emitting sources.

  16. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  17. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  18. Availability of Biomass Residues for Co-Firing in Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for Cost and GHG Emissions in the Electricity Sector

    OpenAIRE

    W. Michael Griffin; Jeremy Michalek; H. Scott Matthews; Mohd Nor Azman Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels comprise 93% of Malaysia’s electricity generation and account for 36% of the country’s 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has targeted the installation of 330 MW of biomass electricity generation capacity by 2015 to avoid 1.3 Mt of CO 2 emissions annually and offset some emissions due to increased coal use. One biomass option is to co-fire with coal, which can result in reduced GHG emissions, coal use, and costs of electricity. A linear optimization cost model wa...

  19. Greenhouse gas abatement in Senegal. A case study of least-cost options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amous, S.; Revet, D.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The first stage of the study was to make a preliminary inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the base year 1988. Following this seven no regret technical options for emission reduction were investigated and the costs calculated, allowing the identification of three least-cost options. The three least-cost options must be implemented first because of their negative costs. The economic benefits of both abatement scenarios are characterized by a negative global cost whatever the discount rate is. (author)

  20. Sugarcane field renovation: influence of tillage and no-tillage in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Ana Paula; Degaspari, Iracema A. M.; Ramos, Nilza Patricia; Vilela, Viviane A. A.; do Carmo, Janaina B.; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Rossi, Paulo; de Andrade, Cristiano A.

    2015-04-01

    The management of agricultural soils can play an important role in the greenhouse gases (GHG) balance, depending on the adopted practices. In the agricultural system, current GHG emissions generated by anthropogenic activities include land use, land use change and management practices, which have contributed to disrupt the C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. The GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions from agricultural soils depend on the biophysical processes, and the incorporation/decomposition of organic residues. Agricultural soils preparation requires a combination of several implements, which can produce great soil disturbance as is the case of conventional tillage or minimum soil mobilization in the reduced tillage or no-tillage. Tillage breaks soil aggregates leading to enhanced organic matter decomposition and reduced C and N concentrations and no-tillage increases the stability of soil macroaggregates, reducing the emissions of CO2. In this study, we evaluated the CO2 emissions from different management practices widely used in the renewal of sugarcane fields previously planted with soybean, in an Acric Oxisol plantation in the southeast region of Brazil. The conventional tillage (CT) operation consisted of an offset disk harrowing using a tool with 36 disks x 26" and a subsoiling with an implement reaching nearly 50 cm depth. The reduced tillage (RT) was carried out with subsoiling operation in the row planting and in the no-tillage (NT), the soybean trash from the last harvest was left on the soil. The soil preparation and the establishment of four experimental plots (30 m x 30 m each) occurred within two days. During the studied period, two CO2 and N2O emission peaks were observed after the soil preparation, the first one on day 4 and the second on day 35 after a 55 mm rain. The cumulative emissions were measured during 40 days after soil preparation. We observed higher emissions in the conventional tillage (CT), and lower values in the reduced tillage

  1. Scenarios for use of biogas for heavy-duty vehicles in Denmark and related GHG emissions impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Winther, Morten; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    Biogas may be a promising alternative fuel, mainly for heavy-duty vehicles, that can reduce CO2 emissions via substitution of fossil fuels and further reduce methane emissions from agricultural manure handling. However, as methane is a potent climate gas loss of methane from production to use...... of biogas is of concern. This study has analysed the potential biomass and biogas production from all Danish organic waste sources under different scenario assumptions for future scenario years. The analysis includes energy demand of the road transportation sector by means of transport and fuel types......, and potential use of the limited biogas resource taking into account alternative fuel options available for transportation (electricity, hydrogen, biofuels). Further, the total differences in fuel consumption and GHG emissions due to the replacement of diesel-powered heavy-duty vehicles by gas-powered heavy...

  2. Biofuels that cause land-use change may have much larger non-GHG air quality emissions than fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C-C; Campbell, J E; Mena-Carrasco, M; Spak, S N; Carmichael, G R; Chen, Y

    2012-10-02

    Although biofuels present an opportunity for renewable energy production, significant land-use change resulting from biofuels may contribute to negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we examined non-GHG air pollution impacts from both indirect and direct land-use change caused by the anticipated expansion of Brazilian biofuels production. We synthesized information on fuel loading, combustion completeness, and emission factors, and developed a spatially explicit approach with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to estimate air pollution emissions. The land-use change emissions, ranging from 6.7 to 26.4 Tg PM(2.5), were dominated by deforestation burning practices associated with indirect land-use change. We also found Brazilian sugar cane ethanol and soybean biodiesel including direct and indirect land-use change effects have much larger life-cycle emissions than conventional fossil fuels for six regulated air pollutants. The emissions magnitude and uncertainty decrease with longer life-cycle integration periods. Results are conditional to the single LUC scenario employed here. After LUC uncertainty, the largest source of uncertainty in LUC emissions stems from the combustion completeness during deforestation. While current biofuels cropland burning policies in Brazil seek to reduce life-cycle emissions, these policies do not address the large emissions caused by indirect land-use change.

  3. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  4. Fossil energy savings and GHG mitigation potentials of ethanol as a gasoline substitute in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    One of the Thai government's measures to promote ethanol use is excise tax exemption, making gasohol cheaper than gasoline. The policy in favour of biofuels is being supported by their contribution to fossil energy savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. An analysis of energy balance (EnB), GHG balance and GHG abatement cost has been done to evaluate molasses-based ethanol (MoE) in Thailand. A positive EnB of 19.2 MJ/L implies that MoE is a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy savings. GHG balance assessment based on the baseline scenario shows that emissions are most likely to increase with the substitution. Scenarios using biogas captured from spent wash treatment and rice husk to substitute coal used in ethanol conversion give encouraging results in improving the GHG balance. However, the higher price of MoE over gasoline currently has resulted in high GHG abatement costs, even under the best-case scenario. Compared to the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand, MoE is much less cost effective. Governed by the rule of supply and demand, a strong fluctuation in molasses price is considered the main cause of volatile MoE price. Once supplies are stable, the trend of price drops would make MoE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  5. Review of the Fuel Saving, Life Cycle GHG Emission, and Ownership Cost Impacts of Lightweighting Vehicles with Different Powertrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Kim, Hyung Chul; De Kleine, Robert; Wallington, Timothy J; MacLean, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    The literature analyzing the fuel saving, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and ownership cost impacts of lightweighting vehicles with different powertrains is reviewed. Vehicles with lower powertrain efficiencies have higher fuel consumption. Thus, fuel savings from lightweighting internal combustion engine vehicles can be higher than those of hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. However, the impact of fuel savings on life cycle costs and GHG emissions depends on fuel prices, fuel carbon intensities and fuel storage requirements. Battery electric vehicle fuel savings enable reduction of battery size without sacrificing driving range. This reduces the battery production cost and mass, the latter results in further fuel savings. The carbon intensity of electricity varies widely and is a major source of uncertainty when evaluating the benefits of fuel savings. Hybrid electric vehicles use gasoline more efficiently than internal combustion engine vehicles and do not require large plug-in batteries. Therefore, the benefits of lightweighting depend on the vehicle powertrain. We discuss the value proposition of the use of lightweight materials and alternative powertrains. Future assessments of the benefits of vehicle lightweighting should capture the unique characteristics of emerging vehicle powertrains.

  6. Use of calcium sulfate to accelerate densification while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave, S.; Ramos, E.; Lin, S.; Voordouw, G.; Gieg, L. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Petroleum Microbiology Research Group; Guo, C.; Wells, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands tailings ponds contain high volumes of fine tailings. Accelerated densification of the tailings can be achieved by adding calcium sulfate, and microbial activity has also been known to increase the tailings densification process. The presence of calcium sulfate can divert microbial activity from the production of methane. This study characterized the microbial processes in a tailings pond in order to estimate their contribution to tailings densification and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. Sulfate and sulfide concentrations were measured. Rates of microbial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were measured as a function of depth in a pond treated with calcium sulfate. Samples were collected at various depths from a tailings pond in northern Alberta. The study showed that the highest rates of methanogenesis occurred in areas where sulfate reduction rates were low. Fluctuating rates of sulfate reduction demonstrated that different microbial activities occurred at discrete levels in the pond. The study suggested that sulfide formed by the reduction of sulfate at depth is carried upwards in gas bubbles and then oxidized back into sulfate in the upper oxygenated layers of the pond. It was concluded that when used as a consolidation agent, calcium sulfate reduces GHG emissions from tailings ponds. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants using a ground-based remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    The direct release of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is important because it contributes to the global greenhouse gases (GHGs) release and strongly effects the WWTP carbon footprint. Biological nitrogen removal technologies could increase the direct emission of N2O (IPCC, 2006), while CH4 losses are of environmental, economic and safety concern. Currently, reporting of N2O and CH4 emissions from WWTPs are performed mainly using methods suggested by IPCC which are not site specific (IPCC, 2006). The dynamic tracer dispersion method (TDM), a ground based remote sensing approach implemented at DTU Environment, was demonstrated to be a novel and successful tool for full-scale CH4 and N2O quantification from WWTPs. The method combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the facility with concentration measurements downwind of the plant (Mønster et al., 2014; Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM in general is based on the assumption that a tracer gas released at an emission source, in this case a WWTP, disperses into the atmosphere in the same way as the GHG emitted from process units. Since the ratio of their concentrations remains constant along their atmospheric dispersion, the GHG emission rate can be calculated using the following expression when the tracer gas release rate is known: EGHG=Qtr*(CGHG/Ctr)*(MWGHG/MWtr) EGHG is the GHG emission in mass per time, Qtr is the tracer release in mass per time, CGHG and Ctr are the concentrations measured downwind in parts per billion subtracted of their background values and integrated over the whole plume, and MWGHG and MWtr are the molar weights of GHG and tracer gas respectively (Mønster et al. 2014). In this study, acetylene (C2H2) was used as tracer. Downwind plume concentrations were measured driving along transects with two cavity ring down spectrometers (Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM was successfully applied in different seasons at several Scandinavian WWTPs characterized by

  8. Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol: a review of key factors and methods affecting calculated GHG emissions and energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbrandt, Kelsey; Chu, Pei Lin; Simmonds, Allison; Mullins, Kimberley A; MacLean, Heather L; Griffin, W Michael; Saville, Bradley A

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has potential for lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to gasoline and conventional grain-based ethanol. Ethanol production 'pathways' need to meet economic and environmental goals. Numerous life cycle assessments of lignocellulosic ethanol have been published over the last 15 years, but gaps remain in understanding life cycle performance due to insufficient data, and model and methodological issues. We highlight key aspects of these issues, drawing on literature and a case study of corn stover ethanol. Challenges include the complexity of feedstock/ecosystems and market-mediated aspects and the short history of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol facilities, which collectively have led to uncertainty in GHG emissions estimates, and to debates on LCA methods and the role of uncertainty in decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Essays on the U.S. biofuel policies: Welfare impacts and the potential for reduction of GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossiso, Kassu Wamisho

    This dissertation study investigates the impact of the US biofuel policies related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulation, tax credit and renewable fuel standard (RFS2) mandate over production and consumption of ethanol as well as technical and environmental performance of corn ethanol plants. The study develops analytical models and provides quantitative estimation of the impact of various biofuel policies in each of the three chapters. Chapter 1 of this dissertation examines the tradeoff between achieving the environmental goal of minimizing life cycle GHG emissions and minimizing production costs in recently built dry-grind corn ethanol plants. The results indicate that the average ethanol plant is able to reduce GHG emissions by 36 % relative to the level under cost minimization, but production costs are 22 % higher. To move from least cost to least emissions allocations, ethanol plants would on average produce 25 % more of wet byproduct and 47% less of dry byproduct. Using a multi-output, multi-input partial equilibrium model, Chapter 2 explores the impact of the tax credit and RFS2 mandate policy on market price of ethanol, byproducts, corn, and other factor inputs employed in the production of corn ethanol. In the short-run, without tax credit ethanol plants will not have the incentive to produce the minimum level of ethanol required by RFS2. In the long-run, if ethanol plants to have the incentive to produce the minimum RFS2 mandate without tax credit policy, gasoline price will need to increase by order of 50% or more relative to the 2011 price. Chapter 3 develop meta-regression model to investigate the extent to which statistical heterogeneity among results of multiple studies on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates can be related to one or more characteristics of the studies in response to conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT). Regarding the difference in the rate of SOC sequestration between NT and CT, our results shows that the

  10. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions. Incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, D.

    2000-05-01

    Among the various existing incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, like the pollution regulations and the financial help for energy mastery, this document analyzes the conditions of efficiency of the negotiated voluntary agreements and of the tradable emission quotas and their articulation with the fiscality. (J.S.)

  11. Lack of Energy Efficiency Legislation in the Malaysian Building Sector Contributes to Malaysia’s Growing GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Suzaini M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s carbon emissions grew by +235.6% from 1990 to 2005, largely due to an increase in national energy demand of 210.7% from 1990 to 2004. This unparalleled carbon emission growth, along with business-as-usual (BAU practices will put Malaysia at high risk for carbon lock-in and a very unsustainable path of development. Malaysia clearly needs to make significant and urgent changes in its policy, economy, industries and lifestyle in order to reduce its climate change impacts. In 2010 Malaysia announced a voluntary commitment to reduce 40% of its greenhouse gases (GHG emissions by 2020 (from 1990 levels. Without emissions mitigation and conservation policies, Malaysia is unlikely to meet its emissions reduction targets. Presently, Malaysia has no energy efficiency legislation in its growing building sector. This paper reviews existing building policies and energy efficiency measures in Malaysia and highlights the need to implement mandatory energy efficiency building codes in reducing the sector’s impact on climate change.

  12. On-Grid Solar PV versus Diesel Electricity Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Economics and GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Baurzhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many power utilities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have inadequate generation capacity, unreliable services, and high costs. They also face capital constraints that restrict them from making the investments necessary for capacity expansion. Capacity shortages have compelled power utilities to use leased emergency power-generating units, mainly oil-fired diesel generators, as a short-term solution. An economic analysis is carried out to compare the economic net present value (ENPV of fuel savings, as well as the greenhouse gas (GHG savings, from investing capital in a solar PV power-generation plant with those from investing the same amount of funds into a diesel power plant. The results show that ENPV is negative for the solar PV plant, whereas it has a large positive value for the diesel plant. In addition, the diesel plant would be almost three times as effective in reducing GHG emissions as the same value of investment in the solar PV plant. Even with solar investment costs falling, it will take 12 to 24 years of continuous decline before solar PV becomes cost-effective for SSA. The capital cost of solar PV would need to drop to US$1058.4 per kW to yield the same level of ENPV as the diesel plant.

  13. An Evaluation of the Potential for Shifting of Freight from Truck to Rail and Its Impacts on Energy Use and GHG Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guo, Zhaomiao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes our evaluation of the potential energy-use and GHG-emissions reduction achieved by shifting freight from truck to rail under a most-likely scenario. A sensitivity analysis is also included. The sensitivity analysis shows changes in energy use and GHG emissions when key parameters are varied. The major contribution and distinction from previous studies is that this study considers the rail level of service (LOS) and commodity movements at the origin-destination (O-D) level. In addition, this study considers the fragility and time sensitivity of each commodity type.

  14. Biogenic CH4 and N2O emissions overwhelm land CO2 sink in Asia: Toward a full GHG budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The recent global assessment indicates the terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (Tian et al Nature 2016). The fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHG) vary by region. Both TD and BU approaches indicate that human-caused biogenic fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the biosphere of Southern Asia led to a large net climate warming effect, because the 100-year cumulative effects of CH4 and N2O emissions together exceed that of the terrestrial CO2 sink. Southern Asia has about 90% of the global rice fields and represents more than 60% of the world's nitrogen fertilizer consumption, with 64%-81% of CH4 emissions and 36%-52% of N2O emissions derived from the agriculture and waste sectors. Given the large footprint of agriculture in Southern Asia, improved fertilizer use efficiency, rice management and animal diets could substantially reduce global agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions. This study highlights the importance of including all three major GHGs in regional climate impact assessments, mitigation option and climate policy development.

  15. An Assessment Of The Life Cycle Costs And GHG Emissions For Alternative Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, C. Richard; Carias, Anibal; Ali, Mohammad; Wood, Nicholas; Morgenroth, Michael; Bridgeman, Andrew

    2010-09-15

    The best choices for supplying energy in a manner that can reduce emissions at a reasonable cost while still ensuring grid stability and reliability of supply is a matter of some debate. In this paper, a first principles analysis is performed to look at life-cycle costs and emissions as well as the amount of energy that is provided to the system from various low-emission alternatives, including wind, water, solar and nuclear power. These low-emission sources are then benchmarked against coal-fired energy production to establish a normalized assessment of the clean energy alternatives currently available.

  16. Initial scoping of GHG emissions trading potential in Alberta : CABREE discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.

    2002-03-01

    The past five years have seen the emergence of the concept of emissions trading for greenhouse gases, which would make possible a reduction of the costs required to meet emissions targets agreed upon under the Kyoto Protocol. Emissions trading potential and initial scoping in Alberta is examined in this document, with a special emphasis placed on greenhouse gases. The design of a system, encompassing the theory underlying the mechanism, the current developments, issues of importance in this context, as well as the potential for inclusion of other sectors in Alberta were also discussed. For the purpose of this document, emissions trading was defined as one party reducing its emissions levels then transferring the ownership of that reduction to another party who can then purchase this reduction to assist in meeting its own emissions target. Emission trading can be divided into two basic types called Cap and Trade, and Baseline and Credit. Market creation and behaviour, and regulatory behaviour are factors that can render a trading system more feasible. It is important to analyze the goals before designing the specifics of the system. The incorporation of the various sectors of the economy of Alberta would be affected by their unique features. The greatest promise for emissions trading in Alberta is shown by the energy sector. The percentage of emissions covered, the number of participants, the economic effectiveness are all criteria that affect the performance of any system. figs

  17. Land use changes and GHG emissions from tropical forest conversion by oil palm plantations in Riau Province, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Ramdani

    Full Text Available Increasing prices and demand for biofuel and cooking oil from importer countries have caused a remarkable expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia. In this paper, we attempt to monitor the expansion of oil palm plantations on peat land and in tropical forests. We measure the GHG emissions from the land conversion activities at provincial scale. Using Landsat images from three different periods (1990s, 2000s and 2012, we classified LULC of the Riau Province, which is the largest oil palm producing region in Indonesia. A hybrid method of integration, generated by combining automatic processing and manual analysis, yields the best results. We found that the tropical rainforest cover decreased from ∼63% in the 1990s to ∼37% in the 2000s. By 2012, the remaining tropical rainforest cover was only ∼22%. From the 1990s to the 2000s, conversion of forests and peat lands was the primary source of emissions, total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼26.6 million tCO2.y(-1, with 40.62% and 59.38% of the emissions from conversion of peat lands and forests, respectively. Between 2000 and 2012, the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼5.2 million tCO2. y(-1, with 69.94% and 27.62% of the emissions from converted peat lands and converted forests, respectively. The results show that in the Riau Province, the oil palm industry boomed in the period from 1990 to 2000, with transformation of tropical forest and peat land as the primary source of emissions. The decrease of CO2 emissions in the period from 2000 to 2012 is possibly due to the enforcement of a moratorium on deforestation.

  18. Land use changes and GHG emissions from tropical forest conversion by oil palm plantations in Riau Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Fatwa; Hino, Masateru

    2013-01-01

    Increasing prices and demand for biofuel and cooking oil from importer countries have caused a remarkable expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia. In this paper, we attempt to monitor the expansion of oil palm plantations on peat land and in tropical forests. We measure the GHG emissions from the land conversion activities at provincial scale. Using Landsat images from three different periods (1990s, 2000s and 2012), we classified LULC of the Riau Province, which is the largest oil palm producing region in Indonesia. A hybrid method of integration, generated by combining automatic processing and manual analysis, yields the best results. We found that the tropical rainforest cover decreased from ∼63% in the 1990s to ∼37% in the 2000s. By 2012, the remaining tropical rainforest cover was only ∼22%. From the 1990s to the 2000s, conversion of forests and peat lands was the primary source of emissions, total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼26.6 million tCO2.y(-1), with 40.62% and 59.38% of the emissions from conversion of peat lands and forests, respectively. Between 2000 and 2012, the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼5.2 million tCO2. y(-1), with 69.94% and 27.62% of the emissions from converted peat lands and converted forests, respectively. The results show that in the Riau Province, the oil palm industry boomed in the period from 1990 to 2000, with transformation of tropical forest and peat land as the primary source of emissions. The decrease of CO2 emissions in the period from 2000 to 2012 is possibly due to the enforcement of a moratorium on deforestation.

  19. Russia at GHG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the first Kyoto commitment period Russia could be the major supplier for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions market. Potential Russian supply depends on the ability of Russia to keep GHG emissions lower than the Kyoto target. In the literature there is no common understanding of the total trading potential of Russia at the international carbon market. In this paper we focus on CO2 emission, which constituted nearly 80% of Russian GHG emission. We compare different projections of Russian CO2 emission and analyze the most important factors, which predetermine the CO2 emission growth. In a transition economy these factors are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dynamic, changes of GDP structure, innovation activity, transformation of export-import flows and response to the market signals. The input-output macroeconomic model with the two different input-output tables representing old and new production technologies has been applied for the analysis to simulate technological innovations and structural changes in the Russian economy during transition period. The Russian supply at the international GHG market without forest sector may be up to 3 billion metric ton of CO2 equivalent. Earlier actions to reduce CO2 emission are critical to insure the Russian supply at the international carbon market. With regard to the current status of the Russian capital market, the forward trading with OECD countries is only the possibility to raise initial investments to roll no-regret and low-cost GHG reduction. This paper discusses uncertainties of Russian CO2 emission dynamics and analyzes the different incentives to lower the emission pathway

  20. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions of Forest Biomass Harvest and Transport for Biofuel Production in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  1. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions for New and Recovered Softwood Framing Lumber and Hardwood Flooring Considering End-of-Life Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Robert H. Falk; Hongmei Gu; Thomas R. Napier; Jamie Meil

    2013-01-01

    Within the green building fields is a growing movement to recover and reuse building materials in lieu of demolition and land fill disposal. However, they lack life-cycle data to help quantify environmental impacts. This study quantifies the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions released from the production of wood recovered from an old house and from new...

  2. Precision agriculture technologies positively contributing to ghg emissions mitigation, farm productivity and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balafoutis, Athanasios; Beck, Bert; Fountas, Spyros; Vangeyte, Jurgen; Wal, Van Der Tamme; Soto, Iria; Gómez-Barbero, Manuel; Barnes, Andrew; Eory, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics

  3. The use of Meta-Regression Analysis to harmonize LCA literature: an application to GHG emissions of 2. and 3. generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, Fabio; Cheze, Benoit; Patouillard, Laure; Bouvart, Frederique

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a literature review performs with a meta-regression analysis (MRA) that focuses on the estimates of advanced biofuel Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions assessed with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The mean GHG emissions of both second (G2) and third generation (G3) biofuels and the effects of factors influencing these estimates are identified and quantified by means of specific statistical methods. 47 LCA studies are included in the database, providing 593 estimates. Each study estimate of the database is characterized by i) technical data/characteristics, ii) author's methodological choices and iii) typology of the study under consideration. The database is composed of both the vector of these estimates - expressed in grams of CO 2 equivalent per MJ of biofuel (g CO 2 eq/MJ) - and a matrix containing vectors of predictor variables which can be continuous or dummy variables. The former is the dependent variable while the latter corresponds to the explanatory variables of the meta-regression model. Parameters are estimated by mean of econometrics methods. Our results clearly highlight a hierarchy between G3 and G2 biofuels: life cycle GHG emissions of G3 biofuels are statistically higher than those of Ethanol which, in turn, are superior to those of BtL. Moreover, this article finds empirical support for many of the hypotheses formulated in narrative literature surveys concerning potential factors which may explain estimates variations. Finally, the MRA results are used to address the harmonization issue in the field of advanced biofuels GHG emissions thanks to the technique of benefits transfer using meta-regression models. The range of values hence obtained appears to be lower than the fossil fuel reference (about 83.8 in g CO 2 eq/ MJ). However, only Ethanol and BtL do comply with the GHG emission reduction thresholds for biofuels defined in both the American and European directives. (authors)

  4. Analysis of standard and innovative methods for allocating upstream and refinery GHG emissions to oil products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, Christian; Moro, Alberto; Edwards, Robert A; Rocco, Matteo Vincenzo; Colombo, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fuel policies need accurate and transparent methods to find the embedded carbon intensity of individual refinery products. This study investigates different ways of allocating greenhouse gases emissions deriving from refining and upstream crude oil supply. Allocation methods based on

  5. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalos@upm.es [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Groenigen, Jan Willem van [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Vallejo, Antonio [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P < 0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P < 0.005) but increased CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N{sub 2}O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO{sub 3}{sup −}-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • The effect of fertigation management techniques on GHG and NO emissions was studied. • Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O by a factor of 2.4. • Daily irrigation reduced NO (42%) but increased CO

  6. Recyclables Valorisation as the Best Strategy for Achieving Landfill CO2e Emissions Abatement from Domestic Waste: Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Taboada-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various nations in the world have developed technologies and strategies for appropriate waste disposal, and to abate waste generation and greenhouse gasses. Alternatives like recovering materials can help, but they require reliable information to improve planning and management. This study quantifies the Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions produced by the lack of valorisation of materials in a Mexican city. Two waste characterisations in a lower-class neighbourhood were carried out. For the CO2 emission estimation, two scenarios were considered. DEFRA emission factors for waste treatment processes were used. Waste generation was 0.64 kg/capita/day in the first study, and 0.50 kg/capita/day in the second. The CO2eq emissions of collected waste in the neighbourhood were estimated at 1824 kg for 2013 (0.20 kg/capita/day and 1636 kg for 2015 (0.19 kg/capita/day. The behaviour of solid waste management in the city can be explained by the “prisoner’s dilemma” model, studied in game theory, which is ideally suited to analysing situations affected by multiple agents, but requires an accurate understanding of solid waste actors and social implications.

  7. Availability of Biomass Residues for Co-Firing in Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for Cost and GHG Emissions in the Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Michael Griffin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels comprise 93% of Malaysia’s electricity generation and account for 36% of the country’s 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. The government has targeted the installation of 330 MW of biomass electricity generation capacity by 2015 to avoid 1.3 Mt of CO2 emissions annually and offset some emissions due to increased coal use. One biomass option is to co-fire with coal, which can result in reduced GHG emissions, coal use, and costs of electricity. A linear optimization cost model was developed using seven types of biomass residues for Peninsular Malaysia. Results suggest that about 12 Mt/year of residues are available annually, of which oil-palm residues contribute 77%, and rice and logging residues comprise 17%. While minimizing the cost of biomass and biomass residue transport, co-firing at four existing coal plants in Peninsular Malaysia could meet the 330 MW biomass electricity target and reduce costs by about $24 million per year compared to coal use alone and reduces GHG emissions by 1.9 Mt of CO2. Maximizing emissions reduction for biomass co-firing results in 17 Mt of CO2 reductions at a cost of $23/t of CO2 reduced.

  8. Abatement Costs vs. Compliance Costs in Multi-Period Emissions Trading - The Firms' Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission trading has become more and more important in the context of climate change. Recently, a discussion on trading on entity (i.e. company) level has started. Emitters likely to be obliged to participate have argued for an initial allocation of the emission rights free of charge. I analyse the implication of such an allocation based on historical emissions and on benchmarks in multi-period emission trading. Different allocation rules for successive periods are applied, nam...

  9. Bunker Levy Schemes for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Reduction in International Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosmas, Vasileios; Acciaro, Michele

    2017-01-01

    A fuel levy is one of the market-based measures (MBMs) currently under consideration at the International Maritime Organization. MBMs have been proposed to improve the energy efficiency of the shipping sector and reduce its emissions. This paper analyses the economic and environmental implications...

  10. Precision Agriculture Technologies Positively Contributing to GHG Emissions Mitigation, Farm Productivity and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Balafoutis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a short description of the technology and the impacts that have been reported in literature on greenhouse gases reduction and the associated impacts on farm productivity and economics. The technologies presented span all agricultural practices, including variable rate sowing/planting, fertilizing, spraying, weeding and irrigation.

  11. Worldwide Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from Petroleum Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The main objective of this project was to calculate greenhouse gas emissions estimates for petroleum jet fuels for the recent past and for future scenarios in the coming decades. Results were reported globally and broken out by world regions, and the...

  12. Mapping the international flows of GHG emissions within a more feasible consumption-based framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario; Pulselli, Federico; Borghesi, Simone

    2017-01-01

    and consumed outside its boundaries. A relevant example is the export from China to consumers located in the USA, Japan, and Germany. A focus on the Mediterranean area, that resulted as a net importer of CO2 embodied in traded goods, identifies the export of emissions from Italy and Spain to France and from...

  13. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  14. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  15. Australia's Greenhouse Challenge is a positive step towards abatement of gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Australian industry has responded favourably to the Federal Government's Greenhouse Clallenge Program (GCP) which has focused on curbing greenhouse gas emission from the manufacturing, mining and energy sector. It is a carefully shaped program which prompts companies and groups to thoroughly review their individual operations and identify areas where credible new or addition emission control can be employed. There are now 42 companies and associations that have signed agreements in GCP. Together they account for some 15 % of Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions. It is expected that by 2000 the emission increase will be cut to 7 % and the total emissions cut by 16 million tonnes for the 42 companies concerned

  16. Joint Optimal Production Planning for Complex Supply Chains Constrained by Carbon Emission Abatement Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the joint production planning of complex supply chains facing stochastic demands and being constrained by carbon emission reduction policies. We pick two typical carbon emission reduction policies to research how emission regulation influences the profit and carbon footprint of a typical supply chain. We use the input-output model to capture the interrelated demand link between an arbitrary pair of two nodes in scenarios without or with carbon emission constraints. We design optimization algorithm to obtain joint optimal production quantities combination for maximizing overall profit under regulatory policies, respectively. Furthermore, numerical studies by featuring exponentially distributed demand compare systemwide performances in various scenarios. We build the “carbon emission elasticity of profit (CEEP” index as a metric to evaluate the impact of regulatory policies on both chainwide emissions and profit. Our results manifest that by facilitating the mandatory emission cap in proper installation within the network one can balance well effective emission reduction and associated acceptable profit loss. The outcome that CEEP index when implementing Carbon emission tax is elastic implies that the scale of profit loss is greater than that of emission reduction, which shows that this policy is less effective than mandatory cap from industry standpoint at least.

  17. CO2 emissions abatement in the Nordic carbon-intensive industry – An end-game in sight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootzén, Johan; Johnsson, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Analysing different future trajectories of technological developments we assess the prospects for Nordic carbon-intensive industries to significantly reduce direct CO 2 emissions in the period 2010–2050. This analysis covers petroleum refining, integrated iron and steel production, and cement manufacturing in the four largest Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Our results show that the implementation of currently available abatement measures will not be enough to meet the ambitious emissions reduction targets envisaged for the Year 2050. We show how an extensive deployment of CCS (carbon capture and storage) could result in emissions reductions that are in line with such targets. However, large-scale introduction of CCS would come at a significant price in terms of energy use and the associated flows of captured CO 2 would place high requirements on timely planning of infrastructure for the transportation and storage of CO 2 . Further the assessment highlights the importance of, especially in the absence of successful deployment of CO 2 capture, encouraging increased use of biomass in the cement and integrated iron and steel industries, and of promoting the utilisation of alternative raw materials in cement manufacturing to complement efforts to improve energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Scenarios exploring the potential for reducing CO 2 emissions in Nordic industry. • Current measures not sufficient to comply with stringent emission reduction targets. • CCS enables carbon-intensive industries to comply with stringent reduction targets. • CCS would come at a high price in terms of energy use. • Without CO 2 capture increased use of biomass and alternative raw materials vital

  18. Evaluating Uncertainty in GHG Emission Scenarios: Mapping IAM Outlooks With an Energy System Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, W. J.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change modeling relies on projections of future greenhouse gas emissions and other phenomena leading to changes in planetary radiative forcing (RF). Pathways for long-run fossil energy use that map to total forcing outcomes are commonly depicted with integrated assessment models (IAMs). IAMs structure outlooks for 21st-century emissions with various theories for developments in demographics, economics, land-use, energy markets and energy service demands. These concepts are applied to understand global changes in two key factors relevant for scenarios of carbon emissions: total energy use (E) this century and the carbon intensity of that energy (F/E). A simple analytical and graphical approach can also illustrate the full range of outcomes for these variables to determine if IAMs provide sufficient coverage of the uncertainty space for future energy use. In this talk, we present a method for understanding uncertainties relevant to RF scenario components in a phase space. The phase space of a dynamic system represents significant factors as axes to capture the full range of physically possible states. A two-dimensional phase space of E and F/E presents the possible system states that can lead to various levels of total 21st-century carbon emissions. Once defined in this way, a phase space of these energy system coordinates allows for rapid characterization of large IAM scenario sets with machine learning techniques. This phase space method is applied to the levels of RF described by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The resulting RCP phase space identifies characteristics of the baseline energy system outlooks provided by IAMs for IPCC Working Group III. We conduct a k-means cluster analysis to distinguish the major features of IAM scenarios for each RCP range. Cluster analysis finds the IAM scenarios in AR5 illustrate RCPs with consistent combinations of energy resources. This suggests IAM scenarios understate uncertainty ranges for future

  19. Assessing GHG emissions, and energy and economic analysis of cotton production in the Golestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Taheri-Rad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Golestan province is one of Northern provinces in Iran. The area under cultivation of agricultural products in this province is 724.697 hectares, of which about 694.618 hectares are used for farm products (AJMDC, 2011. Cotton as one of oilseed is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production (Ahmad et al., 2011. In the study of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for cotton production in Alborz province, results showed that the total energy input was 31.237 MJ ha-1. Energy efficiency and energy productivity were 1.85 and 0.11, respectively, and greenhouse gas emissions of cotton production in Alborz province were 1195.25 kg CO2eq ha-1 (Pishgar-Komleh et al., 2012. Another study on energy analysis, greenhouse gas emissions and economic analysis of agricultural production was performed in Northern Iran (AghaAlikhani et al., 2013; Royan et al., 2012; Pishgar-Komleh et al., 2011; Mohammadi et al., 2010; Taheri-Garavand et al., 2010. The aims of this study were to determine the energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and economic analysis of cotton production in the Golestan province and also to determine the effect of energy inputs on cotton yield. Materials and methods: This research was conducted during 2011-2012 in three areas including Gorgan, Aq’qala and Gonbad in the Golestan province. The primary data were collected from the rice producers through a field survey with the help of a structured questionnaire. The number of subjects were studied by the Cochran formula (Snedecor and Cochran, 1980. Accordingly, 43 cotton producers were determined. In this study, eight energy inputs including seed, labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers, chemicals, water for irrigation and farmyard manure for cotton production system were considered as independent variables. The outputs of the system including lint and seed were considered as dependent variable. Energy indices including energy efficiency, energy productivity

  20. Measuring the potential of GHG emissions reductions on the food and beverage processing sector in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, M.; Ciccone, A.D. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Seven per cent of the greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial sector in Ontario relate to the food and beverage processing sector. This report provides the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs with the ability to identify the effects of reducing greenhouse gas emissions on Ontario's food and beverage processing sector. The study was undertaken in response to Ontario's efforts to address the challenges set by the Kyoto Protocol and the proposed release of Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change. The objective of the report is to help Ontario decide if it should support a national strategy and/or ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Potential ways to meet the Kyoto commitments were also identified in the report. The study was based on an analysis of large amounts of data and information regarding the economic and technological aspects that affect the food and beverage processing industry in Ontario, including the seven major sub-sectors, located mostly in southern Ontario. The types of plants and their associated processes and fuel use were assessed to determine the size and nature of fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions for each sub-sector. The study examined end uses and base technologies for each sub-sector and compared them with energy efficient technologies and opportunities within the industry. Barriers, and how to overcome them, were also described. Ontario's results were then compared with results from Canada's Foundation Paper and Options Analysis prepared for the Agriculture and Agri-Food Table on Climate Change. It was determined that the primary source of greenhouse gases for the industry comes from the use of energy directly from the combustion of fossil fuels and indirectly from the use of electricity. The contributions to greenhouse gases through chlorofluorocarbons or through waste stream is small and shrinking. It was concluded that mitigation strategies should concentrate on energy

  1. Measuring the potential of GHG emissions reductions on the food and beverage processing sector in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, M.; Ciccone, A.D.

    2000-07-01

    Seven per cent of the greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial sector in Ontario relate to the food and beverage processing sector. This report provides the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs with the ability to identify the effects of reducing greenhouse gas emissions on Ontario's food and beverage processing sector. The study was undertaken in response to Ontario's efforts to address the challenges set by the Kyoto Protocol and the proposed release of Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change. The objective of the report is to help Ontario decide if it should support a national strategy and/or ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Potential ways to meet the Kyoto commitments were also identified in the report. The study was based on an analysis of large amounts of data and information regarding the economic and technological aspects that affect the food and beverage processing industry in Ontario, including the seven major sub-sectors, located mostly in southern Ontario. The types of plants and their associated processes and fuel use were assessed to determine the size and nature of fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions for each sub-sector. The study examined end uses and base technologies for each sub-sector and compared them with energy efficient technologies and opportunities within the industry. Barriers, and how to overcome them, were also described. Ontario's results were then compared with results from Canada's Foundation Paper and Options Analysis prepared for the Agriculture and Agri-Food Table on Climate Change. It was determined that the primary source of greenhouse gases for the industry comes from the use of energy directly from the combustion of fossil fuels and indirectly from the use of electricity. The contributions to greenhouse gases through chlorofluorocarbons or through waste stream is small and shrinking. It was concluded that mitigation strategies should concentrate on energy conservation through energy

  2. Analysis of GHG Emission Reduction in South Korea Using a CO2 Transportation Network Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Ho Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Korea’s national carbon capture and storage (CCS master plan aims to commercialize CCS projects by 2030. Furthermore, the Korean government is forced to reduce emissions from various sectors, including industries and power generation, by 219 million tons by 2030. This study analyzes a few scenarios of Korean CCS projects with a CO2 pipeline transportation network optimization model for minimizing the total facility cost and pipeline cost. Our scenarios are based on the “2030 asic roadmap for reducing greenhouse gases” established by the government. The results for each scenario demonstrate that the effective design and implementation of CO2 pipeline network enables the lowering of CO2 units cost. These suggest that CO2 transportation networks, which connect the capture and sequestration parts, will be more important in the future and can be used to substitute and supplement the emission reduction target in case the execution of other reduction options faces uncertainty. Our mathematical model and scenario designs will be helpful for various countries which plan to introduce CCS technology.

  3. Model of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (Ghg's in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarildo da Cruz Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The warming of Earth's atmosphere is a natural phenomenon and necessary to sustain life on the planet, being caused by the balance between the electromagnetic radiation received by the Earth from the Sun and the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth back into space. Since the mid-eighteenth century, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the consequent increase in burning fossil fuels, changes in land use and agriculture, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O has increased significantly. By the year 2010, the concentrations of these three gases showed increments respectively in the order of 39%, 158% and 20% (WMO 2009, 2010 and 2011. Such increases in the concentrations of these gases are changing the Earth's radioactive balance, intensifying the natural greenhouse effect, which over millions of years has been essential to support life on the planet. The main objective of this paper is to present the development of a model based on the language of System Dynamics (SD, of how the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs is in complex installations Exploration and Production (E & P of oil and gas. To illustrate one of the results of this modeling process a computer simulation was performed involving emissions from production estimate for the Pilot Production System and Drainage Area Tupi - Tupi Pilot (ICF, 2008.

  4. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries; Van Vliet, Jasper; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC's decision to replace the values

  5. Abatement of ammonia emissions from digested manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new strategy to avoid ammonia emissions from anaerobically digested swine manure was tested using the gas-permeable membrane process. Evaluation of the efficiency of ammonia recovery from digestate as well as mitigation of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere were carried out. Digestate was colle...

  6. U.S. Coast Guard pollution abatement program - Two-stroke cycle outboard engine emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    This report documents the results of emissions tests performed on three old and two new outboard engines. Tests of the emissions were made before and after water contact. Older engines were tested in as-received condition, tuned to factory specificat...

  7. Cofiring versus biomass-fired power plants: GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions savings comparison by means of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, F.; Royo, J.; Gomez, M.

    2011-01-01

    One way of producing nearly CO 2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO 2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO 2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out.

  8. Sustainable extensification as an alternative model for reducing GHG emissions from agriculture. The case of an extensively managed organic farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Braun, Martin; Henriksen, Christian Bugge

    2015-01-01

    GHG emissions of an extensively managed Danish organic farm were estimated upstream and on-farm. The results were compared to Danish national levels based on land area and output. Overall, the farm emitted 2.12 t CO2eq ha−1 yr−1. Excluding land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF) related...... emissions, the combined GHG emissions from energy- and agriculture-based activities at the case farm were 47% lower (per unit area) and 12% higher (per unit output), than GHG emissions from Danish agriculture. With current livestock density (0.64 LU ha−1) and crop production area, the case study farm would...... supply at average 1,466 kcal per inhabitant per day in Denmark, if the farm was scaled up to Danish national level. With a reduction of livestock density to 0.36 LU ha−1 and proportional cropland area expansion for food production (ceteris paribus), the case study farm could supply around 4,940 kcal...

  9. GHG emission assessment of full energy chain for solar power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng

    1997-01-01

    Solar PV technologies have been made a very important role for meeting the energy demand in the remote area and some commercial case in China. The annual PV production is about 1 MW and the total installation of solar PV is about 3 MW in China. However, from the full energy chain point view, during the manufacturing of solar PV, some energy should be used. This paper will focus on the analysis of full energy chain for the solar PV production and utilization. This paper consists two parts: current status of solar PV production and utilization in China and analysis of greenhouse gas emission from the full energy chain of solar PV production. (author)

  10. CO{sub 2} emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress; Reduction des emissions et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2} - innovation et enjeux industriels - le point des recherches en cours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO{sub 2} emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO{sub 2} emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO{sub 2} abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO{sub 2} abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO{sub 2} sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  11. Accounting for time-dependent changes in GHG emissions in the Ribeiro appellation (NW Spain): Are land use changes an important driver?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Otero, Marta; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental profile of a wine appellation was assessed for a 20 year period. • LUCs and LCA methods were linked to assess the GHG emissions in the appellation. • Winegrowing operations and land use were monitored up to the gate of the winery. • Different trends were found depending on the period assessed. • Demographic and social changes triggered changes in the carbon stocks. - Abstract: Land use changes (LUCs) constitute a crucial source of environmental impact in production systems, which are mostly associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This circumstance is especially important for the agricultural sector, since these imply an important proportion of the total GHG emissions occurring worldwide. Wine and grape production is a key sector in Spain, representing the largest surface area at European level. In the past decades, important wine related LUCs have been observed due to changes in farming methods/type, number of Denominations of Origin, and the establishment of larger wineries that have enhanced exports. The current study presents a temporally based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of the Ribeiro appellation in NW Spain, in which the gradual changes in the land use, as well as the technological improvements are analyzed in detail in order to understand how the environmental profile of this specific wine producing area has shifted in the past two decades (i.e., from 1990 to 2009). On the one hand, phenomena such as afforestation and agricultural intensification are analyzed throughout the appellation to estimate the impact due to GHG emissions linked to LUCs, based on IPCC standards. On the other hand, trends linked to technological improvements, operational changes, such as changes in the use and management of plant protection agents or fertilizers or the change in the energy sources for machinery on the vineyards, were assessed in detail

  12. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  13. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport. Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology. (author)

  14. Abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, J.H.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Smeers, Yves; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Trochet, Jean-Michel; Dassa, Francois; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2008-07-01

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO{sub 2} emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO{sub 2} Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO{sub 2} Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO{sub 2} Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  15. Reducing GHG emissions in agricultural production process for production of biofuels by growing legumes and production-technical measures; Senkung der THG-Emissionen in landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsverfahren zur Erzeugung von Biokraftstoffen durch Leguminosenanbau und produktionstechnische Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, Andreas [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Sachgebiet Nachwachsende Rohstoffe; Schiemenz, Katja

    2017-08-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the supply chain for biofuels is a big challenge especially for the German and European cultivation of energy crops. The production of nitrogen fertilizers and field emissions are the main factors of GHG emissions. The amount of field emissions depends very strongly on the nitrogen effort and the intensity of tillage. The main objective is to reduce GHG emissions in field cropping systems within the biofuel production chains. An inclusion of legumes into crop rotations is particularly important because their cultivation does not require nitrogen fertilizer. Data base for the project is a complex field experiment with the biofuel crops winter rape and winter wheat. Previous crops are winter wheat, peas and lupins. ln each case tilling systems are compared with non-tilling. The first results of the field experiments are nitrogen functions depending on previous crops, sites and tilling system. Calculation models for GHG reduction models were developed on the bases of these results. By growing legumes as previous crops before wheat and rape it is possible to reduce GHG emissions from 2 to 10 g CO{sub 2eq} per MJ. The best reduction of GHG emissions is possible by combining legumes as previous crops with a reduced nitrogen effort.

  16. A two-period model of emission abatement and allowance banking under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO 2 emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide about twice as many SO 2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase I (1995--1999) than in Phase II. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase I, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase II. Allowance prices may increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments with allowances being banked only by risk averse electric utilities. Speculators are likely to be willing to set allowances in forward markets, which will lower current market prices of allowances relative to a situation with only risk averse utilities in the market. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO 2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions

  17. Deleterious Emission Abatement through Structured Energy Use Pattern: A North Central Nigeria Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi-Banji Ademola

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holistic view of household energy consumption based on greenhouse gas emissions in the North Central cities of Nigeria was examined in this study. Scenarios considered were based on income level of energy users (low and high and energy metering system (i.e. pre-paid and post-paid energy billing systems. Strong direct nexus was observed between energy use and emissions pattern. Energy utilization by post-paid category had higher weekly average value of 35.09 and 41.70 kWh as against 23.18 and 33.38 kWh for low and high income pre-paid consumers respectively. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from both classification followed similar trend. Data obtained and analysed in the study show that global warming and acidification potentials could be reduced by 33.94 and 19.95 % for low and high income category consumers when pre-paid meters are in place. Conclusively, energy system users with pre-paid metering system displayed reasonable level of management decisions that reduce energy wastage and consequently environmental negative impacts.

  18. Evaluation of the potentialities to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions resulting from various treatments of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in moist tropical climates: application to Yaounde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngnikam, Emmanuel; Tanawa, Emile; Rousseaux, Patrick; Riedacker, Arthur; Gourdon, Rémy

    2002-12-01

    The authors here analyse the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting from the various treatment of municipal solid waste found in the town of Yaounde. Four management systems have been taken as the basis for analyses. System 1 is the traditional collection and landfill disposal, while in system 2 the hiogas produced in the landfill is recuperated to produce electricity. In systems 3 and 4, in addition to the collection, we have introduced a centralised composting or biogas plant before the landfilling disposal of refuse. A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of the four systems was made; this enable us to quantify the flux of matter and of energy, consumed or produced by the systems. Following this, only the greenhouse effect was taken into account to evaluate the ecological consequences of the MSW management systems. The method used to evaluate this impact takes into consideration on the one hand, GHG emissions or avoided emission following the substitution of fuel with methane recovered from landfills or produced in the digesters, and on the other hand, sequestrated carbon in the soil following the regular deposit of compost. Landfilling without recuperation of methane is the most emitting solution for greenhouse gas: it leads to the emission of 1.7 ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2E) per ton of household waste. Composting and methanisation allow one to have a comparable level of emission reduction, either respectively 1.8 and 2 tCO2E/t of MSW. In order to reduce the emission of GHG in the waste management systems, it is advisable to avoid first of all the emissions of methane coming from the landfills. System 2 seems to be a solution that would reduce the emissions of GHG at low cost (2.2 to 4 $/tCO2E). System 2 is calculated as the most effective at the environmental and economic level in the context of Yaounde. Therefore traditional collection, landfill disposal and biogas recuperation to produce electricity is preferable in moist tropical climates.

  19. The source and abatement of nitrous oxide emissions produced from the aerobic treatment of pig slurry to remove surplus nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, O; Burton, C H; Dunn, W; Biddlestone, A J

    2001-08-01

    The removal of surplus nitrogen from pig slurry can be necessary in order to avoid pollution such as nitrate leaching. However, the treatment itself can create significant pollution; up to 20% of the removed slurry nitrogen has been shown to be released as nitrous oxide (N2O), which contributes to global warming and the breakdown of the ozone in the stratosphere. Avoiding such emission requires conditions that encourage the complete conversion of the nitrogen to the environmentally safe di-nitrogen gas (N2), and a clear understanding of the underlying biochemistry; for example, whether the nitrous oxide is the bi-product of incomplete nitrification (chemical oxidation) or denitrification (chemical reduction). The stable isotope of nitrogen ( N) was used in this investigation as a label. Results indicated a new route for substantial release of N2O: via nitrification (rather than denitrification), caused by a combination of high aeration levels and the presence of nitrification products. Sequential aeration, which leads to a cycling between nitrification and complete denitrification, was proposed as an abatement in view of this new mechanism. This process achieved 89% removal of ammoniacal nitrogen in laboratory scale treatment, with 94% of the nitrogen removed in the form of N2. These findings suggest that the possibility of N2O emissions from nitrification be considered in the design of treatment schemes. Increased aeration would be the intuitive response to incomplete nitrification. However, the results of this study suggested that although this response can increase nitrogen removal, this may be as N2O rather than N2.

  20. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronn, Nicholas T., E-mail: ntbronn@us.ibm.com; Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.

  1. Employing a CGE model in analysing the environmental and economy-wide impacts of CO2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahoo, Masoud; Othman, Jamal

    2017-04-15

    The impact of global warming has received much international attention in recent decades. To meet climate-change mitigation targets, environmental policy instruments have been designed to transform the way goods and services are produced as well as alter consumption patterns. The government of Malaysia is strongly committed to reducing CO 2 gas emissions as a proportion of GDP by 40% from 2005 levels by the year 2020. This study evaluates the economy-wide impacts of implementing two different types of CO 2 emission abatement policies in Malaysia using market-based (imposing a carbon tax) and command-and-control mechanism (sectoral emission standards). The policy simulations conducted involve the removal of the subsidy on petroleum products by the government. A carbon emission tax in conjunction with the revenue neutrality assumption is seen to be more effective than a command-and-control policy as it provides a double dividend. This is apparent as changes in consumption patterns lead to welfare enhancements while contributing to reductions in CO 2 emissions. The simulation results show that the production of renewable energies is stepped up when the imposition of carbon tax and removal of the subsidy is augmented by revenue recycling. This study provides an economy-wide assessment that compares two important tools for assisting environment policy makers evaluate carbon emission abatement initiatives in Malaysia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of soil GHG emissions shaped by hydration state, aggregate size distribution and carbon placement: Column experiments using artificial soil aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Or, Dani

    2017-04-01

    Dynamics of soil hydration affect microbial community dynamics and various biogeochemical processes (soil respiration, denitrification, methane production). Evidence suggests that anoxic conditions may persist in soil aggregates (long after bulk soil is aerated) thereby providing niches for anaerobic microbial communities (hot spots). Despite their recognized role in mediating soil biogeochemical fluxes, systematic studies of the impact of different environmental conditions on CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions from soil aggregates remain rare. We constructed artificial aggregates using a silt loam soil of different sizes and different carbon configurations (mixed, core, no addition) to study effects of hydration, aggregate size and carbon source configuration on GHG emissions. An assembly of aggregates of three sizes (18, 12, and 6 mm aggregates) was embedded in sand columns at four distinct layers (3 replicates for each aggregate-carbon source, 9 columns) and the water level was varied periodically to quantify effects of wetting/drying and submersion on GHG fluxes. Several gas samples were taken from the headspaces of each column (after closure) and analyzed using GC with the proper detectors to resolve fluxes. Results illustrate the critical role of hydration states on GHG emission, for example, lowering the water table (unsaturated conditions) decreases CH4 emissions while increasing N2O flux. We observe links between aerobic processes (e.g., nitrification) and anaerobic denitrification presumably by promoting alternative pathways (e.g., ammonia and nitrite oxidation). Methane production was activated under highly anoxic conditions (prolonged inundation). N2O production was highest form aggregates with carbon placed in the (anoxic) core whereas CO2 production rates were comparable from mixed and centered carbon sources (at rates that fluctuated with hydration conditions). Experimental results of artificial soil aggregates are of interest for improvement of physically

  3. Electricity price, energy production and emissions impact : evaluating proposed GHG emission reduction frameworks for the Alberta electricity industry : updated reference case and sensitivity results prepared for CASA EPT Greenhouse Gas Allocation Subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the results of a study which quantified the potential impact of various greenhouse gas (GHG) policy scenarios on Alberta generators' energy production, airborne emissions and electricity wholesale market price. The study examined proactive policy frameworks compared to business as usual scenarios. A reference case scenario was included to represent the status quo environment where electricity demand continues on its current path. Five additional sensitivity cases were examined, of which 3 evaluated the impact of many key assumptions regarding progressive GHG reduction levels and costs related to meeting GHG requirements. The other two evaluated an all-coal future electricity supply both with and without GHG emission reduction costs. Environmental costs were also evaluated in terms of emissions of nitrous oxides, sulphurous oxides, mercury and particulate matter. The impact of generation retirement and renewable energy source development was also analyzed. Demand and supply forecasts for oil, natural gas, electric energy and energy sales were presented along with generation supply forecasts for the reference case scenario, coal generation and natural gas fired retirements. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Summary report on GHG emission markets. Experiences and projects. Version from December 18, 2000, completed with the update from January 27, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document provides a brief and succinct overview of all the initiatives taken by governments, parliaments and industry in a number of countries to examine or establish systems for trading greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is intended chiefly for non-specialists (details of the precise mechanisms at work in each system have been purposely omitted in order to emphasize only the fundamental principles adopted in each case). We note a remarkable trend (especially in the English speaking world) in preparing such systems, which are felt to be an effective way of reducing companies' GHG emissions. France will need to adopt a much more proactive approach in this area if it wants to play any role in defining the future international system and if its industry and authorities are to be ready to take part in it. This document is based in part on a much more detailed report by the NHO (Federation of Norwegian Companies) and on the MIES/Industry document entitled 'Implementing an emission credits trading system in France to optimise industry's contribution to reducing greenhouse gases'. Having proven its ability to meet an environmental objective at a low cost, the system consisting of setting targets and trading emissions is now widely recognized as being the most effective tool for tackling the problem of how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacturing sector. The last three years have witnessed an intense process of research, preparation, simulation and real life experimentation, chiefly in the UK, North America, Europe, the Nordic countries, Australia,... Simulations has shown just how easy it is to implement such a system, the speed with which those involved can learn to master the tool, and the market's effectiveness in encouraging actors to make the necessary investment once has been established a long-term vision of the objectives to be achieved in a system of unchanging rules. Real life experience has shown that by setting a

  6. Comparative study of Fischer–Tropsch production and post-combustion CO2 capture at an oil refinery: Economic evaluation and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Daniella; Franck, Per-Åke; Pettersson, Karin; Berntsson, Thore

    2013-01-01

    The impact on CO 2 emissions of integrating new technologies (a biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel plant and a post-combustion CO 2 capture plant) with a complex refinery has previously been investigated separately by the authors. In the present study these designs are integrated with a refinery and evaluated from the point-of-view of economics and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) emissions and are compared to a reference refinery. Stand-alone Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is included for comparison. To account for uncertainties in the future energy market, the assessment has been conducted for different future energy market conditions. For the post-combustion CO 2 capture process to be profitable, the present study stresses the importance of a high charge for CO 2 emission. A policy support for biofuels is essential for the biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel production to be profitable. The level of the support, however, differs depending on scenario. In general, a high charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production, while a low charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production. Integrated Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is most profitable in scenarios with a low wood fuel price. The stand-alone alternative shows no profitability in any of the studied scenarios. Moreover, the high investment costs make all the studied cases sensitive to variations in capital costs. - Highlights: • Comparison of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel production and CO 2 capture at a refinery. • Subsidies for renewable fuels are essential for FT fuel production to be profitable. • A high charge for CO 2 is essential for post-combustion CO 2 capture to be profitable. • A low charge for CO 2 economically favours FT fuel production. • Of the studied cases, CO 2 capture shows the greatest reduction in GHG emissions

  7. Noise Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  8. A core framework and scenario for deep GHG reductions at the city scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, Michael; Chandler, Chelsea; Erickson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Trends in increasing urbanization, paired with a lack of ambitious action on larger scales, uniquely position cities to resume leadership roles in climate mitigation. While many cities have adopted ambitious long-term emission reduction goals, few have articulated how to reach them. This paper presents one of the first long-term scenarios of deep greenhouse gas abatement for a major U.S. city. Using a detailed, bottom-up scenario analysis, we investigate how Seattle might achieve its recently stated goal of carbon neutrality by the year 2050. The analysis demonstrates that a series of ambitious strategies could achieve per capita GHG reductions of 34% in 2020, and 91% in 2050 in Seattle's “core” emissions from the buildings, transportation, and waste sectors. We examine the pros and cons of options to get to, or beyond, net zero emissions in these sectors. We also discuss methodological innovations for community-scale emissions accounting frameworks, including a “core” emissions focus that excludes industrial activity and a consumption perspective that expands the emissions footprint and scope of policy solutions. As in Seattle, other communities may find the mitigation strategies and analytical approaches presented here are useful for crafting policies to achieve deep GHG-reduction goals. - Highlights: ► Cities can play a pivotal role in mitigating climate change. ► Strategies modeled achieve per-capita GHG reductions of 91% by 2050 in Seattle. ► We discuss methodological innovations in community-scale accounting frameworks. ► We weigh options for getting to, or beyond, zero GHG emissions. ► Other cities may adapt these measures and analytical approaches to curb emissions

  9. HFC-23 (CHF3 emission trend response to HCFC-22 (CHClF2 production and recent HFC-23 emission abatement measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Prinn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available HFC-23 (also known as CHF3, fluoroform or trifluoromethane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG, with a global warming potential (GWP of 14 800 for a 100-year time horizon. It is an unavoidable by-product of HCFC-22 (CHClF2, chlorodifluoromethane production. HCFC-22, an ozone depleting substance (ODS, is used extensively in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning, in the extruded polystyrene (XPS foam industries (dispersive applications and also as a feedstock in fluoropolymer manufacture (a non-dispersive use. Aside from small markets in specialty uses, HFC-23 has historically been considered a waste gas that was, and often still is, simply vented to the atmosphere. Efforts have been made in the past two decades to reduce HFC-23 emissions, including destruction (incineration in facilities in developing countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's (UNFCCC Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, and by process optimization and/or voluntary incineration by most producers in developed countries. We present observations of lower-tropospheric mole fractions of HFC-23 measured by "Medusa" GC/MSD instruments from ambient air sampled in situ at the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE network of five remote sites (2007–2009 and in Cape Grim air archive (CGAA samples (1978–2009 from Tasmania, Australia. These observations are used with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and an inverse method to produce model mole fractions and a "top-down" HFC-23 emission history. The model 2009 annual mean global lower-tropospheric background abundance is 22.6 (±0.2 pmol mol−1. The derived HFC-23 emissions show a "plateau" during 1997–2003, followed by a rapid ~50% increase to a peak of 15.0 (+1.3/−1.2 Gg/yr in 2006. Following this peak, emissions of HFC-23 declined rapidly to 8.6 (+0.9/−1.0 Gg/yr in 2009, the lowest annual emission of the past 15 years. We derive a 1990–2008 "bottom-up" HFC-23 emission history

  10. Methane emissions abatement by multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both commercial-grade zeolite and coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2008-10-01

    The performance of multimetal-(Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both a commercial-grade sample and one produced from coal fly ash in methane emissions abatement was evaluated in this study. The ion-exchange process was used to load the metal ions in zeolite A samples. The methane conversion efficiency by the samples was studied under various parameters including the amount of metal loading (7.3-19.4 wt%), reaction temperature (25-500 degrees C), space velocity (8400-41 900 h(-1)), and methane concentration (0.5-3.2 vol %). At 500 degrees C, the original commercial-grade zeolite A catalyzed 3% of the methane only, whereas the addition of different percentages of metals in the sample enhanced the methane conversion efficiency by 40-85%. Greater methane conversion was observed by increasing the percentage of metals added to the zeolite even though the BET surface area of the zeolite consequently decreased. Higher percentage methane conversion over the multi-ion-exchanged samples was observed at lower space velocities indicating the importance of the mass diffusion of reactants and products in the zeolite. Compared to the multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from the commercial-grade zeolite, the one produced from coal fly ash demonstrated similar performances in methane emissions abatement, showing the potential use of this low cost recycled material in gaseous pollutant treatment.

  11. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  13. Simulating Everglades Carbon Fluxes and GHG Emission of Different Landscapes Under Present and Future Climate Conditions by Applying Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Gerber, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon flux in wetland distinguishes from that in other types of ecosystems due to special soil and hydrological processes. Understanding the dynamic of soil hydrology is necessary to explore the responses of the plants, the fate of massive carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions under different climate conditions. However, contrary findings were published regarding the relationship between CO2 emission and water level variations. Both positive and negative conclusions were reached regarding the warming mitigation ability of wetland. By parameterizing the Community Land Model (CLM), our research focuses on simulating the CO2/CH4 fluxes of different landscapes in Everglades, a subtropical wetland in Florida, to explore the following questions: 1) Is it a sink or source for CO2? 2) How may the CO2/CH4 dynamics be altered with water table and soil water content? 3) What environmental factors mainly control CO2/CH4 process? 4) Does this ecosystem contribute or mitigate cliamte warming? 5) What is the difference between landscapes regarding the CO2/CH4 dynamic? We performed several simulations with CLM that address the variation of water table in soil layers and the elevated temperature to compare the impact on the carbon fluxes and GHG emission in the study area. Our results suggest the variation on water table depth has significant influence on the carbon cycle in Everglades. Deeper water table results in a higher CO2 but lower CH4 emission, partly due to the CH4 oxidization and the rapid decomposition of organic carbon. In the wet season, more CH4 is produced when the water table is shallower. Slightly elevated temperature causes a water loss through evapotranspiration which deepens the water table. However, the induced carbon loss is partly offset by the enhanced productivity of vegetation. Both long and short hydroperiod marshes are small carbon sinks in most of years but cannot mitigate the climate warming if considering CH4 emissions. Cypress swamp shows high

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures: The case of Xiamen city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianyi; Cao Bin; Cui Shenghui; Wang Wei; Bai Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures, a detailed Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model is developed and applied to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen city. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future energy strategies in relation to the development of Xiamen city. The 'Business as Usual' scenario assumes that the government will do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. An 'Integrated' scenario, on the other hand, is generated to assess the cumulative impact of a series of available reduction measures: clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control, and new and renewable energy development and utilization. The reduction potentials in energy consumption and GHG emissions are estimated for a time span of 2007-2020 under these different scenarios. The calculation results in Xiamen show that the clean energy substitution measure is the most effective in terms of energy saving and GHG emissions mitigation, while the industrial sector has the largest abatement potential.

  15. Assessing the impact of energy saving measures on the future energy demand and related GHG (greenhouse gas) emission reduction of Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Novosel, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    In the light of European energy-climate package and its measures for increasing security of supply, decreasing the impact on environment and stimulating sustainability, Croatia as a new EU (European Union) member state needs to reconsider and develop new energy policy towards energy efficiency...... and renewable energy sources. Croatian long-term energy demand and its effect on the future national GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are analysed in this paper. For that purpose the NeD model was constructed (National energy demand model). The model is comprised out of six modules, each representing one sector......: industry, transport, households, services, agriculture and construction. The model is based on bottom up approach. The analysis has shown that energy policy measures, identified through this paper, can potentially achieve energy savings up to 157PJ in the year 2050, which presents a 40% decrease...

  16. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-20

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection.

  17. Abatement cost of SF6 emissions from medium voltage switchgear. Validation of recent studies for the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-05-15

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is a gas with applications including use as an insulator and switching medium in medium voltage (MV) switchgear. While having certain unique properties, it is also a greenhouse gas, with a 22,800 times greater impact than CO2 and an atmospheric lifetime of over 3,000 years. Although the use of SF6 in MV switchgear can be avoided, according to recent studies for the European Commission, the abatement costs are high. This study validates the calculated cost levels as well as the general feasibility of determining a fixed cost figure for this purpose. This analysis yields a result which differs from the earlier studies, particularly with respect to the cost aspect, but also in other areas. CE Delft concludes that for the majority of applications cost-effective SF6-free options are available, leading to abatement costs for the use of SF6 in MV switchgear that range from - 40 to 0 euro/tCO2 eq., for all types of switchgear, with voltage levels below 25 kV and situated on relatively dry locations.

  18. Does climate policy lead to relocation with adverse effects for GHG emissions or not? A first assessment of the spillovers of climate policy for energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.; Worrell, E.

    2004-12-01

    Energy-intensive industries play a special role in climate policy. World-wide, industry is responsible for about 50% of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission intensity makes these industries an important target for climate policy. At the same time these industries are particularly vulnerable if climate policy would lead to higher energy costs, and if they would be unable to offset these increased costs. The side effects of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries are typically referred to as 'spillovers'. Negative spillovers reduce the effectiveness of a climate policy, while positive spillovers increase its effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the literature on the spillover effects of climate policy for carbon intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased share of non-Annex 1 countries. However, this trend is primarily driven by demand growth, and there is no empirical evidence for a role of environmental policy in these development patterns. In contrast, climate models do show a strong carbon leakage of emissions from these industries. Even though that climate policy may have a more profound impact than previous environmental policies, the results of the modelling are ambiguous. The energy and carbon intensity of energy-intensive industries is rapidly declining in most developing countries, and reducing the 'gap' between industrialized and developing countries. Still, considerable potential for emission reduction exists, both in developing and industrialized countries. Technology development is likely to deliver further reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions. Despite the potential for positive spillovers in the energy-intensive industries, none of the models used in the analysis of spillovers of climate policies has an endogenous representation of technological change for the energy-intensive industries. This underlines the need for a better understanding of

  19. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  20. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  1. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  2. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 1: Problem formulation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, M.; Brear, M.J.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Dargaville, R.; Alpcan, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first of a two part study that considers long term, least cost, GHG (greenhouse gas) abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 formulates a planning model to optimise these pathways and presents results for a single reference scenario. Part 2 applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. The planning model formulated has several constraints which are important when considering GHG abatement and widespread uptake of intermittent renewable generation. These constraints do not appear to have been integrated into a single planning model previously, and include constraints on annual GHG emissions, unit commitment, storage, plant dynamics and intermittent renewable generation. The model prioritises overall abatement, and therefore does not include a price on carbon or support for any particular technology. The model is applied to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) as an example. All model inputs – for technologies, demand, and meteorological data – are from the most current and authoritative public sources. As such, the results are transparently derived and both policy and technology neutral. For the reference scenario presented here, key technologies are wind from 2015, gas generation from 2030, and solar generation from 2040. - Highlights: • An electricity system planning model for least-cost long term abatement is presented. • The model has inter-temporal constraints (linearised commitment and utility storage). • The model is applied to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) as a case study. • Key technologies: wind from 2015, CCGT from 2030, and solar (PV & thermal) from 2040.

  3. Entropy and the City. GHG Emissions Inventory: a Common Baseline for the Design of Urban and Industrial Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pezzagno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From a thermodynamic point of view, the attribution of the adjective sustainable to an open system like the city is, at least, very problematic. The biosphere is a closed system, kept far from the thermodynamic equilibrium by the flow of energy coming from the sun. The biosphere maintains and increases its internal order dispersing entropy, generated by all the internal processes, as thermal infrared radiation. But then, the elegant picture of sustainability given by thermodynamics can not be applied to open systems, and notably to the city, without raising both theoretical and practical problems. The city is almost by definition a place of consumption and of degradation of potentials, kept in local equilibrium by external flows of matter and energy, but at the same time plays a key role in shaping and maintaining the global flows of matter, energy, and information, and this role must be taken into account when interpreting thermodynamic-based descriptions. The urban capital probably represents the greatest investment made by mankind. Materials have been harvested from the earth crust and from the natural systems, and have been concentrated and ordered in the city. But the "city" is not the infrastructure: it's concept of a different logical type. The city is a further level of organization that produces services of higher level. The urban infrastructure is necessary, but not sufficient to produce the city services. The city is the most important social and health "device". A proper accounting must consider the city-performance of the urban infrastructure, beyond the mere, local energy and carbon efficiency. In this context, local GHG accounting is proposed as a rather simple and useful basis to ground process-wise studies and projects, including the creation of effective local industrial ecologies, in a continuous city-making effort toward higher sustainability.

  4. The role of population density on the impact of urbaniza-tion on GHG emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghong; Gao, Chaochao; Lu, Yingying

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization directly drives rural to urban population migration and indirectly causes west to east migration in China, two phenomena that may significantly impact China's greenhouse gas emissions given its huge population and vast difference between the western rural and eastern urban areas. These two phenomena were analyzed by using emissions as a per capita term, and extending the impact from the traditional urbanization rate effect to include population density effect. The results show that population density has actually been the dominant demographic player in changing per capita emissions for the past two decades in China, and its elasticity changed from positive in economically less-developed provinces to negative for the developed provinces. This study provides a new perspective in the study of the relationship between urbanization and greenhouse gas emissions, and the results indicate that population density change should be taken into account to accurately assess the impact of urbanization.

  5. Calibration of Daycent biogeochemical model for rice paddies in three agro-ecological zones in Peninsular India to optimize cropping practices and predict GHG emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S.; Kritee, K.; Keough, C.; Parton, W. J.; Ogle, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple for nearly half of the world population with irrigated and rainfed lowland rice accounting for about 80% of the worldwide harvested rice area. Increased atmospheric CO2 and rising temperatures are expected to adversely affect rice yields by the end of the 21st century. In addition, different crop management practices affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies antagonistically warranting a review of crop management practices such that farmers can adapt to the changing climate and also help mitigate climate change. The Daily DayCent is a biogeochemical model that operates on a daily time step, driven by four ecological drivers, i.e. climate, soil, vegetation, and management practices. The model is widely used to simulate daily fluxes of various gases, plant productivity, nutrient availability, and other ecosystem parameters in response to changes in land management and climate. We employed the DayCent model as a tool to optimize rice cropping practices in Peninsular India so as to develop a set of farming recommendations to ensure a triple win (i.e. higher yield, higher profit and lower GHG emissions). We applied the model to simulate both N2O and CH4 emissions, and crop yields from four rice paddies in three different agro-ecological zones under different management practices, and compared them with measured GHG and yield data from these plots. We found that, like all process based models, the biggest constraint in using the model was input data acquisition. Lack of accurate documentation of historic land use and management practices, missing historical daily weather data, and difficulty in obtaining digital records of soil and crop/vegetation parameters related to our experimental plots came in the way of our execution of this model. We will discuss utilization of estimates based on available literature, or knowledge-based values in lieu of missing measured parameters in our simulations with DayCent which could prove to be a

  6. Optimal strategies for VOC emission abatement produced by solvent evaporation. The Italian case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di composti organici volatili da uso di solventi: il caso italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrella, G.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This work analyses technologies and costs of VOC (volatile organic compounds) abatement in the activities which belong to the solvent evaporation sector, and then it singles out the most successful strategies from the costs point of view to reduce the sector emissions on the base of fixed abatement objectives. The Italian case is discussed. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza tecnologie e costi di abbattimento dei COV (composti organici volatili) nel settore evaporazione solventi, e individua la strategia piu' efficace dal punto di vista dei costi per ridurre le emissioni del settore sulla base di prefissati obiettivi di abbattimento. Analizza la situazione italiana.

  7. Monitoring Oilfield Operations and GHG Emissions Sources Using Object-based Image Analysis of High Resolution Spatial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, J. G.; Brodrick, P. G.; Brandt, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction have become a greater concern with the recent increases in development of shale hydrocarbon resources. There are significant gaps in the tools and research used to estimate fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction. Two approaches exist for quantifying these emissions: atmospheric (or 'top down') studies, which measure methane fluxes remotely, or inventory-based ('bottom up') studies, which aggregate leakage rates on an equipment-specific basis. Bottom-up studies require counting or estimating how many devices might be leaking (called an 'activity count'), as well as how much each device might leak on average (an 'emissions factor'). In a real-world inventory, there is uncertainty in both activity counts and emissions factors. Even at the well level there are significant disagreements in data reporting. For example, some prior studies noted a ~5x difference in the number of reported well completions in the United States between EPA and private data sources. The purpose of this work is to address activity count uncertainty by using machine learning algorithms to classify oilfield surface facilities using high-resolution spatial imagery. This method can help estimate venting and fugitive emissions sources from regions where reporting of oilfield equipment is incomplete or non-existent. This work will utilize high resolution satellite imagery to count well pads in the Bakken oil field of North Dakota. This initial study examines an area of ~2,000 km2 with ~1000 well pads. We compare different machine learning classification techniques, and explore the impact of training set size, input variables, and image segmentation settings to develop efficient and robust techniques identifying well pads. We discuss the tradeoffs inherent to different classification algorithms, and determine the optimal algorithms for oilfield feature detection. In the future, the results of this work will be leveraged to be provide activity

  8. Lack of Energy Efficiency Legislation in the Malaysian Building Sector Contributes to Malaysia’s Growing GHG Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Zaid Suzaini M.; Myeda Nik Elyna; Mahyuddin Norhayati; Sulaiman Raha

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia’s carbon emissions grew by +235.6% from 1990 to 2005, largely due to an increase in national energy demand of 210.7% from 1990 to 2004. This unparalleled carbon emission growth, along with business-as-usual (BAU) practices will put Malaysia at high risk for carbon lock-in and a very unsustainable path of development. Malaysia clearly needs to make significant and urgent changes in its policy, economy, industries and lifestyle in order to reduce its climate change impacts. In 2010 Mal...

  9. Abatement Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds in Emissions from Biofuel Driers; Reningsteknik foer organiska aemnen i utslaepp till luft vid biobraensletorkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Karin; Ehrstedt, Thomas [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    This report is a part of a program at Vaermeforsk called Drying of Biofuels and deals with abatement technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOC) in biofuel drier emissions. The report gives an account of the amount of organic matter in wood and in drying gases and also of different abatement technologies for VOC. Processes from about 20 contractors are briefly described. The conclusions from this work are that thermal or catalytic oxidizing technologies in connection with regenerative heat recovery seems to be the most suitable technique for this application. Both technologies should give a degree of purification above 95 %. The purification cost for a typical case has been estimated to about 22 SEK per kg removed organic matter in both cases. The investment cost is higher for the catalytic oxidizer (6-20 MSEK for a 60.000 Nm{sup 3} /h catalytic plant compared to 4-6,5 MSEK for a thermal plant) but the fuel cost is lower. Condensation is a usable technique but it suffers from bad degree of purification. By using a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) the degree of purification can be enhanced but it will still be lower than for the oxidizers. Adsorption and absorption are not suitable for gases at high temperatures containing several different organic compounds at low concentrations, which is the case in biofuel drying. This means high purification costs and low degree of purification. Other technologies that have been found less suitable are biological purification and membrane technology. World-wide there are a few reference plants based on thermal oxidizing in connection with biofuel drying. Otherwise the experiences are very limited. According to this, tests in pilot plant scale are recommended before investment in a full-scale plant for biofuel driers.

  10. Energy Saving and GHG Emission Reduction in a Micro-CCHP System by Use of Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Ion, I; Ciocea, G; Popescu, F

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and the energy saving by integrating solar collectors and photovoltaic panels in a Stirling engine based microcombined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) system are studied. The mCCHP system consists of a natural gas Stirling CHP and an adsorber chiller. When the thermal outputs of the Stirling CHP and solar collectors are not sufficient to cover the heat demand for domestic hot water (DHW), heating/cooling, an au...

  11. Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Arnaldo; Dolzan, Paulo; Quilodran, Oscar; Oliveira, Janaina G. de; Silva, Cinthia da; Piacente, Fabricio; Segerstedt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

  12. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Diego; Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Vallejo, Antonio

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH4(+) and NO3(-)) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N2O, CO2 and CH4) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N2O, NO, CH4 and CO2 were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N2O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (Pfertigation with a NO3(-)-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond B Brennan

    Full Text Available Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  14. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  15. Climate policy, interconnection and carbon leakage: the effect of unilateral UK policy on electricity and GHG emissions in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    DI COSMO, VALERIA; CURTIS, JOHN; DEANE, PAUL

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper examines the effect on Ireland?s Single Electricity Market (SEM) of the UK?s unilateral policy to implement a carbon price floor for electricity generation based on fossil-fuel. We simulate electricity markets and find that, subject to efficient use of the interconnectors between the two markets, a carbon price floor will lead to carbon leakage, with associated emissions in the Republic of Ireland increasing by 8% and SEM?s electricity prices increasing by 2.4%. As the...

  16. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries

  17. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  18. Game Theoretic Analysis of Carbon Emission Abatement in Fashion Supply Chains Considering Vertical Incentives and Channel Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study an emission-dependent dyadic fashion supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their own component/product emissions to serve the carbon-footprint sensitive consumers. With Carbon Tax regulation, we consider four scenarios resulting from two ways in form of adopting transfer price contract and/or introducing third-party emission-reduction service (TPERS to enhance the efficiency of systematic emission reductions. We refine four models from these corresponding scenarios, which in turn constitute a decision-making framework composed of determining vertical incentives and choosing supply chain structures. By exploiting Stackelberg games in all models, we compare their emission reduction efficiencies and profitability for each pair of settings. Theoretic analysis and numerical studies show that adopting vertical transfer payment schemes can definitely benefit channel carbon footprint reduction and Pareto improvement of supply chain profitability, regardless of whether the emission-reduction service exists or not. However, whether introducing TPERS or not is heavily depending on systematic parameters when the transfer payment incentive is adopted there. We also provide insights on the sensitivity of carbon tax parameters with respect to the supply chain performance, overall carbon emission reduction, vertical incentive and TPERS adopting decision-makings.

  19. Effect of current emission abatement strategies on air quality improvement in China: A case study of Baotou, a typical industrial city in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xionghui; Duan, Lei; Cai, Siyi; Yu, Qian; Wang, Shuxiao; Chai, Fahe; Gao, Jian; Li, Yanping; Xu, Zhaoming

    2017-07-01

    The national Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan required significant decreases in PM 2.5 levels over China. To explore more effective emission abatement strategies in industrial cities, a case study was conducted in Baotou to evaluate the current national control measures. The total emissions of SO 2, NO X , PM 2.5 and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in Baotou were 211.2Gg, 156.1Gg, 28.8Gg, and 48.5Gg, respectively in 2013, and they would experience a reduction of 30.4%, 26.6%, 15.1%, and 8.7%, respectively in 2017 and 39.0%, 32.0%, 24.4%, and 12.9%, respectively in 2020. The SO 2 , NO X and PM 2.5 emissions from the industrial sector would experience a greater decrease, with reductions of 37%, 32.7 and 24.3%, respectively. From 2013 to 2020, the concentrations of SO 2 , NO 2 , and PM 2.5 are expected to decline by approximately 30%, 10% and 14.5%, respectively. The reduction rate of SNA (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) concentrations was significantly higher than that of PM 2.5 in 2017, implying that the current key strategy toward controlling air pollutants from the industrial sector is more powerful for SNA. Although air pollution control measures implemented in the industrial sector could greatly reduce total emissions, constraining the emissions from lower sources such as residential coal combustion would be more effective in decreasing the concentration of PM 2.5 from 2017 to 2020. These results suggest that even for a typical industrial city, the reduction of PM 2.5 concentrations not only requires decreases in emissions from the industrial sector, but also from the low emission sources. The seasonal variation in sulfate concentration also showed that emission from coal-burning is the key factor to control during the heating season. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Developing a savanna burning emissions abatement methodology for tussock grasslands in high rainfall regions of northern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Russell-Smith; Cameron Yates; Jay Evans; Mark Desailly

    2014-01-01

    Fire-prone tropical savanna and grassland systems are a significant source of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases.  In recent years, substantial research has been directed towards developing accounting methodologies for savanna burning emissions to be applied in Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, as well as for commercial carbon trading purposes.  That work has focused on woody savanna systems.  Here, we extend the methodological approach to include tussock grasslands and as...

  1. A Portable, Low-Power Analyzer and Automated Soil Flux Chamber System for Measuring Wetland GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Kim-Hak, David; McArthur, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    Preservation and restoration of wetlands has the potential to help sequester large amounts of carbon due to the naturally high primary productivity and slow turnover of stored soil carbon. However, the anoxic environmental conditions present in wetland soils are also the largest natural contributor to global methane emissions. While it is well known that wetlands are net carbon sinks over long time scales, given the high global warming potential of methane, the short-term balances between C uptake and storage and loss as CO2 and CH4 need to be carefully considered when evaluating the climate effects of land-use change. It is relatively difficult to measure methane emissions from wetlands with currently available techniques given the temporally and spatially sporadic nature of the processes involved (methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ebullition, etc.). For example, using manual soil flux chambers can often only capture a portion of either the spatial or temporal variability, and often have other disadvantages associated with soil atmosphere disturbance during deployment in these relatively compressible wetland soils. Automated chamber systems offer the advantage of collecting high-resolution time series of gaseous fluxes while reducing some human and method induced biases. Additionally, new laser-based analyzers that can be used in situ alongside automated chambers offer a greater minimum detectable flux than can be achieved using alternative methods such as Gas Chromatography. Until recently these types of automated measurements were limited to areas that had good power coverage, as laser based systems were power intensive and could not easily be supplemented with power from field-available sources such as solar. Recent advances in laser technology has reduced the power needed and made these systems less power intensive and more field portable in the process. Here we present data using an automated chamber system coupled to a portable laser based greenhouse gas

  2. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  3. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  4. Comparison greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global warming potential (GWP) effect of energy use in different wheat agroecosystems in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine energy requirement and global warming potential (GWP) in low and high input wheat production systems in western of Iran. For this purpose, data were collected from 120 wheat farms applying questionnaires via face-to-face interviews. Results showed that total energy input and output were 60,000 and 180,000 MJ ha(-1) in high input systems and 14,000 and 56,000 MJ ha(-1) in low input wheat production systems, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in high input systems recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 36, 18, and 13 %, respectively, while the highest share of input energy in low input systems observed for N fertilizer, diesel fuel, and seed with 32, 31, and 27 %. Energy use efficiency in high input systems (3.03) was lower than of low input systems (3.94). Total CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions in high input systems were 1981.25, 31.18, and 1.87 kg ha(-1), respectively. These amounts were 699.88, 0.02, and 0.96 kg ha(-1) in low input systems. In high input wheat production systems, total GWP was 11686.63 kg CO2eq ha(-1) wheat. This amount was 725.89 kg CO2eq ha(-1) in low input systems. The results show that 1 ha of high input system will produce greenhouse effect 17 times of low input systems. So, high input production systems need to have an efficient and sustainable management for reducing environmental crises such as change climate.

  5. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions. Incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions; Examen des conditions d'un elargissement de la TGAP aux consommations intermediaires d'energie. Mecanismes incitatifs a la reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, D

    2000-05-15

    Among the various existing incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, like the pollution regulations and the financial help for energy mastery, this document analyzes the conditions of efficiency of the negotiated voluntary agreements and of the tradable emission quotas and their articulation with the fiscality. (J.S.)

  6. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China 2012: Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yaowen; Zhao, Xueli; Meng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Reliable inventory information is critical in informing emission mitigation efforts. Using the latest officially released emission data, which is production based, we take a consumption perspective to estimate the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for China in 2012. The non-CO2 GHG emissions, which cover CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6, amounted to 2003.0 Mt. CO2-eq (including 1871.9 Mt. CO2-eq from economic activities), much larger than the total CO2 emissions in some developed countries. Urban consumption (30.1%), capital formation (28.2%), and exports (20.6%) derived approximately four fifths of the total embodied emissions in final demand. Furthermore, the results from structural path analysis help identify critical embodied emission paths and key economic sectors in supply chains for mitigating non-CO2 GHG emissions in Chinese economic systems. The top 20 paths were responsible for half of the national total embodied emissions. Several industrial sectors such as Construction, Production and Supply of Electricity and Steam, Manufacture of Food and Tobacco and Manufacture of Chemicals, and Chemical Products played as the important transmission channels. Examining both production- and consumption-based non-CO2 GHG emissions will enrich our understanding of the influences of industrial positions, final consumption demands, and trades on national non-CO2 GHG emissions by considering the comprehensive abatement potentials in the supply chains.

  7. Reporting and Recording Post 2012 GHG Mitigation Commitments, Actions and Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This study assesses the long-term economic and environmental effects of introducing price caps and price floors in hypothetical climate change mitigation architecture, which aims to reduce global energy-related CO2 emissions by 50% by 2050. Based on abatement costs in IPCC and IEA reports, this quantitative analysis confirms what qualitative analyses have already suggested: introducing price caps could significantly reduce economic uncertainty. This uncertainty stems primarily from unpredictable economic growth and energy prices, and ultimately unabated emission trends. In addition, the development of abatement technologies is uncertain. With price caps, the expected costs could be reduced by about 50% and the uncertainty on economic costs could be one order of magnitude lower. Reducing economic uncertainties may spur the adoption of more ambitious policies by helping to alleviate policy makers' concerns of economic risks. Meanwhile, price floors would reduce the level of emissions beyond the objective if the abatement costs ended up lower than forecasted. If caps and floors are commensurate with the ambition of the policy pursued and combined with slightly tightened emission objectives, climatic results could be on average similar to those achieved with 'straight' objectives (i.e. with no cost-containment mechanism). This papers reviews current proposals in the UNFCCC negotiations for future mechanisms to report and record Parties' GHG mitigation actions and commitments, as well as support provided for such actions. It explores the possible purposes, coverage and form of a reporting/recording mechanism post-2012 and highlights the decision points that are needed in order to establish such a mechanism. It examines what information such a mechanism could include in terms of actions, commitments and support, as well as the institutional implications of different design options.

  8. U.S. Coast Guard Pollution Abatement Program : A Preliminary Report on the Emissions Testing of Boat Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    The exhaust emission concentrations from three GM6-71's and a Cummins VT-350 diesel engines were measured on a dynamometer as a function of engine load. The GM6-71 engines were newly rebuilt by the Coast Guard; the Cummins Engine was in used conditio...

  9. Whole Farm Net Greenhouse Gas Abatement from Establishing Kikuyu-Based Perennial Pastures in South-Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Masters

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On-farm activities that reduce GHG emissions or sequester carbon from the atmosphere to compensate for anthropogenic emissions are currently being evaluated by the Australian Government as carbon offset opportunities. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of establishing and grazing Kikuyu pastures, integrated as part of a mixed Merino sheep and cropping system, as a carbon offset mechanism. For the assessment of changes in net greenhouse gas emissions, results from a combination of whole farm economic and livestock models were used (MIDAS and GrassGro. Net GHG emissions were determined by deducting increased emissions from introducing this practice change (increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to higher stocking rates from the soil carbon sequestered from growing the Kikuyu pasture. Our results indicate that livestock systems using perennial pastures may have substantially lower net GHG emissions, and reduced GHG intensity of production, compared with annual plant-based production systems. Soil carbon accumulation by converting 45% of arable land within a farm enterprise to Kikuyu-based pasture was determined to be 0.80 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1 and increased GHG emissions (leakage was 0.19 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1. The net benefit of this practice change was 0.61 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1 while the rate of soil carbon accumulation remains constant. The use of perennial pastures improved the efficiency of animal production almost eight fold when expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per unit of animal product. The strategy of using perennial pasture to improve production levels and store additional carbon in the soil demonstrates how livestock should be considered in farming systems as both sources and sinks for GHG abatement.

  10. Greenhouse-Gas Emissions and Abatement Costs of Nuclear, Fossil and Alternative Energy Options from a Life-Circle Perspective. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, U.R.

    2007-03-01

    As the issue of nuclear risks in its various forms - from radiation released during uranium mining to severe reactor accidents, and leakage from fuel reprocessing and repositories for spent fuel - is beyond the scope of this paper, we concentrate the following analysis on the more recent issues for which a scientifically reasonable range of data is available. In that respect, two arguments favouring nuclear electricity can be identified: It is allegedly free of CO2, and it is allegedly low cost. In this paper, we address both, presenting results of life-cycle cost and emission analyses of energy systems with respect to current technologies. We discuss the results with respect to other findings in the literature, and also indicate the cost-effectiveness of CO2 abatement in the electricity sector. The scientific work from which this paper draws was sponsored by a variety of sources, including the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Protection, and Nuclear Safety (BMU), German Federal Ministry for Research and Education (BMBF), The Federal Environment Agency of Germany (UBA). (orig./GL)

  11. Developing a savanna burning emissions abatement methodology for tussock grasslands in high rainfall regions of northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Russell-Smith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fire-prone tropical savanna and grassland systems are a significant source of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases.  In recent years, substantial research has been directed towards developing accounting methodologies for savanna burning emissions to be applied in Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, as well as for commercial carbon trading purposes.  That work has focused on woody savanna systems.  Here, we extend the methodological approach to include tussock grasslands and associated Melaleuca-dominated open woodlands (<10% foliage cover in higher rainfall (>1,000 mm/annum regions of northern Australia.  Field assessments under dry season conditions focused on deriving fuel accumulation, fire patchiness and combustion relationships for key fuel types: fine fuels − grass and litter; coarse woody fuels − twigs <6 mm diameter; heavy woody fuels − >6 mm diameter; and shrubs.  In contrast with previous savanna burning assessments, fire treatments undertaken under early dry season burning conditions resulted in negligible patchiness and very substantial consumption of fine fuels.  In effect, burning in the early dry season provides no benefits in greenhouse gas emissions and emissions reductions in tussock grasslands can be achieved only through reducing the extent of burning.  The practical implications of reduced burning in higher rainfall northern Australian grassland systems are discussed, indicating that there are significant constraints, including infrastructural, cultural and woody thickening issues.  Similar opportunities and constraints are observed in other international contexts, but especially project implementation challenges associated with legislative, political and governance issues.

  12. Comparison of Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas, biodiesel and diesel buses of the Madrid transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López Martínez, José María; Lumbreras Martín, Julio; Flores Holgado, Maria Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on the use of three after-treatment technologies: i) EGR + DPF, ii) SCR + Urea and iii) 3-way catalyst when implemented in urban buses, to determinate the energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), direct Land Use Change (dLUC), abiotic depletion of fossil energy by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The process of production, conditioning and transporting of the fuels used by the buses (diesel, biodiesel (B100), a blended biodiesel at 20% (B20) and natural gas) were also analyzed (Well-to-Tank analysis) along with the environmental impact due to its combustion in the bus (Tank-to-Wheel analysis). The environmental impact of the manufacturing, maintenance and recycling process of the urban buses and exhaust after-treatment systems has also been evaluated. Main results shows that Life Cycle of SCR + Urea technology reduces environmental impact to a greater extent than its global Life Cycle increases it when gasoil is used resulting in a final balance more efficient than the other options, the same behavior is observed with the use of B20 and B100 but only when 0%dLUC is assumed since if the percentage of dLUC increases the effectiveness of the SCR + Urea technology in the reduction of environmental impact tend to decrease. -- Highlights: ► We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each technology, fossil fuel, biofuel and vehicle. ► Biodiesel environmental impact depends largely on land transformed for grow crops. ► Using SCR + Urea technology and gasoil as a fuel in the bus further reduces the environmental impact.

  13. The greenhouse gas abatement potential of productivity improving measures applied to cattle systems in a developing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, G R; Marshall, K; Tebug, S F; Missohou, A; Robinson, T P; MacLeod, M

    2017-09-27

    Developing countries are experiencing an increase in total demand for livestock commodities, as populations and per capita demands increase. Increased production is therefore required to meet this demand and maintain food security. Production increases will lead to proportionate increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unless offset by reductions in the emissions intensity (Ei) (i.e. the amount of GHG emitted per kg of commodity produced) of livestock production. It is therefore important to identify measures that can increase production whilst reducing Ei cost-effectively. This paper seeks to do this for smallholder agro-pastoral cattle systems in Senegal; ranging from low input to semi-intensified, they are representative of a large proportion of the national cattle production. Specifically, it identifies a shortlist of mitigation measures with potential for application to the various herd systems and estimates their GHG emissions abatement potential (using the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model) and cost-effectiveness. Limitations and future requirements are identified and discussed. This paper demonstrates that the Ei of meat and milk from livestock systems in a developing region can be reduced through measures that would also benefit food security, many of which are likely to be cost-beneficial. The ability to make such quantification can assist future sustainable development efforts.

  14. Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman

    2002-08-15

    The global carbon cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and management of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and management to alter the magnitude of forest-carbon stocks and the direction of forest-carbon fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as carbon 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing carbon offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including carbon sinks in efforts to address global warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of carbon sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. Carbon sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals.

  15. How can French agriculture contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions? Abatement potential and cost of ten technical measures. Summary of the study report conducted by INRA on behalf of ADEME, MAAF and MEDDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, Sylvain; Bamiere, Laure; Savini, Isabelle; Pardon, Lenaic; Chemineau, Philippe; Schmitt, Bertrand; Angers, D.; Beline, F.; Benoit, M.; Butault, J.P.; Chenu, C.; Colnenne-David, C.; De Cara, S.; Delame, N.; Doreau, M.; Dupraz, P.; Faverdin, P.; Garcia-Launay, F.; Hassouna, M.; Henault, C.; Jeuffroy, M.H.; Klumpp, K.; Metay, A.; Moran, D.; Recous, S.; Samson, E.

    2013-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces nearly one-fifth of France's greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). But it also has a strong potential for carbon sequestration. ADEME and the French Ministries for Agriculture and the Environment asked INRA to carry out a study on French agriculture to develop and analyse various measures on farming practices that could boost carbon sequestration and minimise GHGs. There are four key ways agriculture can be a part of the solution of reducing GHG emissions: Lower emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O, a powerful GHG released during fertiliser processing or manure spreading) and methane (CH 4 , a GHG that comes mostly from livestock); Increase carbon sequestration in soil and biomass; Reduce energy use and produce energy from biomass (agro-fuels or biogas, which lower emissions as substitutes for fossil fuels); Produce materials from biomass. The study specified that eligible measures be based on farming practices that farmers have a say in changing, lead to reductions affecting commercial farms at least in part, do not require major changes to the production system and do not reduce yields by more than 10%. For each of the chosen measures, the study analysed the potential emissions reductions and gains versus tradeoffs for farmers if implemented. The ten measures are centered around nitrogen management (nitrogen fertilizer, pulses), practices that help increase carbon sequestration in soil and biomass (fallow land, agro-forestry, intermediate crops and inter-cropping, pasture management), animal feed (rations that minimise nitrogen excretion or methane production) and the production and consumption of energy by farming (methanation, fossil fuel economies). The study highlights a strong potential for the agricultural sector to reduce emissions through these measures. According to the experts' calculations, if all ten were adopted, France could achieve a cumulative annual reduction of 32 million tons of CO 2 equivalent by 2030. However, only

  16. Custo marginal de abatimento de emissões de gases de efeito estufa na recuperação da pastagem = Marginal abatement cost of greenhouse gases emissions in pasture recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Jun Kimura

    2016-10-01

    financing with the Low Carbon Agriculture Program credit line, using the marginal abatement cost tool. To achieve the proposed goals, financial data from the Center for Advanced Studies in Applied Economics and the Brazilian Confederation of Agriculture and Livestock was used, as well as emissions data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Low Carbon Agriculture Plan in order to simulate an annual net costs and net emissions of current and abatement technologies, represented respectively by a low-tech livestock and a livestock in recovered pasture. The financial and emissions figures of a livestock in a recovered pasture were more favorable in comparison to low-tech livestock. Taking into consideration these two factors, the marginal abatement cost is - R$ 24.72 per tCO2 equivalent. In other words, for each ton of equivalent carbon dioxide mitigated by pasture recovery, the farmer has a financial gain of R$ 24.72 than keeping low-tech livestock. Thus, from a financial and environmental perspective, pasture recovery has shown to be a practice which allows a sustainable increase in food production.

  17. Thoughts on abatement and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelle, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    A number of questions having to do with the themes of abatement and adaptation are discussed. Under the first rubric are questions of future concentrations of radiatively active trace gases, the linkage of these gases with greenhouse warming, and other environmental problems. Also examined in the abatement context are opportunities to reduce fossil fuel use and therefore the emission of greenhouse gases, and the likelihood that natural forest expansion may provide an opportunity to control the rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in the atmosphere. Also discussed are the possible effects of greenhouse warming on agriculture in the United States and in the developing world. Finally, some suggestions are given on capturing and retaining interest in greenhouse warming on the part of the decision making public

  18. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database and Tool - Data repository of GHG mitigation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry and electricity production facilities generate over 50 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the primary cause of climate change is anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing GHG emi...

  19. A Methodology for Constructing Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for Climate Action in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As drivers of climate action, cities are taking measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which if left unabated pose a challenge to meeting long-term climate targets. The economics of climate action needs to be at the forefront of climate dialogue to prioritize investments among competing mitigation measures. A marginal abatement cost (MAC curve is an effective visualization of climate action that initiates a technical and economic discussion of the cost-effectiveness and abatement potential of such actions among local leaders, policy makers, and climate experts. More commonly demonstrated for countries, MAC curves need to be developed for cities because of their heterogeneity, which vary in their urban activities, energy supply, infrastructure stock, and commuting patterns. The methodology for constructing bottom-up MAC curves for cities is presented for technologies that offer fuel switching and/or energy efficiencies, while considering technology lifetimes, city-specific electricity and fuel prices, and emission intensities. Resulting MAC curves are unique to every city, and chart the pathway towards low-carbon growth by prioritizing measures based on cost-effectiveness. A case study of Toronto’s climate targets demonstrates the prioritization of select technologies. Leveraging MAC curves to support climate programs enables cities to strategically invest in financing climate action and designing incentives.

  20. Impact of Spanish electricity mix, over the period 2008–2030, on the Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of Electric, Hybrid Diesel-Electric, Fuel Cell Hybrid and Diesel Bus of the Madrid Transportation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López Martínez, José María; Lumbreras Martín, Julio; Flores Holgado, María Nuria; Aguilar Morales, Hansel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the performance of 4 buses that run on different alternative fuel types and technologies. • The buses assessed are Fuel Cell-Hybrid Bus, Hybrid Diesel-Electric Bus, Battery Electric Bus, and a Diesel Bus. • We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each vehicle technology, fossil fuel and energy carrier. • Life Cycle of Battery Electric Bus shows that it has a big potential of improvement in terms of environmental impact. - Abstract: In spite of the advanced research in automotive technology, and the improvement of fuels, the road transport sector continues to be an environmental concern, since the increase in transport demand is offsetting the effects of these technological improvements. Therefore, this poses the following question: what combination of technology and fuel is more efficient in terms of energy consumption and green house gas (GHG) emissions? To fully address this question it is necessary to carry out a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper presents a global LCA of 4 buses that run on the following fuel types and technologies: (1) Fuel Cell- Hybrid Bus, (2) Hybrid Diesel-Electric Bus (series configuration), (3) Battery Electric Bus and (4) Combustion Ignition Engine Bus. The impact categories assessed are: primary energy consumption, fossil energy and GHG emissions. Among the principal results, we can conclude that the Global LCA of buses (3) and (1) (which are the more sensitive pathways to the electricity mix variation) have for the 2008–2030 period a room for improvement of 25.62% and 28.16% in terms of efficiency of fossil energy consumption and a potential GHG emission reduction of 28.70% and 30.88% respectively

  1. GHG trading awaits early action credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The challenges facing the Canadian government in implementing a green house gas (GHG) emissions trading program were discussed. The government of Canada is proposing to establish a program offering credit for early action on GHG reduction. However, the program is proving to be difficult to design because Canada's national implementation strategy for climate change has not yet been defined. The program is intended to reveal how emitters can invest in GHG reduction now, and use them against future regulations limiting emissions. The intention is to design the program on the principle that any company which decreases GHG emissions below its 'business-as-usual' level will receive a credit which can later be sold to another source which wants to offset its emissions. Nevertheless, the government is looking for real reductions in the sense that it is trying to bend the 'business-as-usual' forecast down towards the Kyoto targets, and is trying to ensure that the system is a rigorous one before any credits are issued

  2. Carbon dioxide abatement as a differential game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvonen, O.

    1993-01-01

    The report combines predictions on greenhouse warming, CO 2 abatement costs and adaptation costs in a differential game framework. The specified model makes it possible to solve the payoffs of the subgame perfect solution of a two state variable nonautonomous problem with N unequal countries. Abatement cost parameters are calibrated with a global energy sector model and climate parameters are based on empirical time series. Simulation suggests that the backstop technology assumption in the abatement cost model may imply drastic cuts in optimal emission levels. Compared to the Nash noncooperative equilibrium a pareto optimal agreement is found to be beneficial for developing countries but more costly for the industrial world. Given the present damage estimates, the losses due to an emission stabilizing agreement may be 400 times higher than maximum potential gains from cooperation

  3. Electric-power systems planning and greenhouse-gas emission management under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ►A multistage stochastic integer programming model is developed for planning electric-power systems. ►Uncertain and dynamic information can be incorporated within a multilayer scenario tree. ►This can help minimize system cost under random energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement goal. ►Results can support decisions of facility expansion, electricity supply and GHG mitigation. - Abstract: In this study, a multistage interval-stochastic integer programming model is formulated for managing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and planning electric-power systems under uncertainty. The developed model can reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of energy systems. Besides, the model can be used for answering questions related to types, times, demands and mitigations of energy systems planning practices, with the objective of minimizing system cost over a long-time planning horizon. The solutions can help generate electricity-generation schemes and capacity-expansion plans under different GHG-mitigation options and electricity-demand levels. Tradeoffs among system cost, energy security, and emission management can also be tackled. A high system cost will increase renewable energy supply and reduce GHG emission, while a desire for a low cost will run into risks of a high energy deficiency and a high GHG emission.

  4. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    A system dynamics model is developed for estimating agricultural GHG emissions. • Effect of decisions and measures on agricultural GHG emissions is assessed. • Feedback links of an agricultural system are demonstrated. • A limited number of options exist for limiting agricultural GHG emissions. • Reaching GHG abatement targets will be challenging for Latvia

  5. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  6. The life cycle greenhouse gas emissions implications of power and hydrogen production for oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, J.M.; Bergerson, J.A.; MacLean, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' The Alberta Oil Sands represent a major economic opportunity for Canada, but the industry is also a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the sources of these emissions is the use of natural gas for the production of electricity, steam and hydrogen. Due to concerns around resource availability and price volatility, there has been considerable discussion regarding the potential replacement of natural gas with an alternative fuel. While some of the options are non-fossil and could potentially reduce GHG emissions (e.g., nuclear, geothermal, biomass), others have the potential to increase emissions. A comparative life cycle assessment was completed to investigate the relative GHG emissions, energy consumption and financial implications of replacing natural gas with coal, coke, asphaltenes or bitumen for the supply of electricity, steam and hydrogen to oil sands operations. The potential use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) was also investigated as a means of reducing GHG emissions. Preliminary results indicate that, without CCS, the natural gas systems currently in use have lower life cycle GHG emissions than gasification systems using any of the alternative fuels analysed. However, when CCS is implemented in both the coke gasification and natural gas systems, the coke systems have lower GHG emissions and financial costs than the natural gas systems (assuming a 30-year project life and a natural gas price of 6.5 USD/gigajoule). The use of CCS does impose a financial penalty though, indicating that it is unlikely to be implemented without some financial incentive. While this study has limitations and uncertainties, the preliminary results indicate that although the GHG emissions of oil sands development pose a challenge to Canada, there are opportunities available for their abatement. (author)

  7. Quantification and comparison of the economic and GHG performance of biomass supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.G.G.

    2017-01-01

    There is a widespread scientific consensus that global climate change is caused by the increased levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHG). Biomass use is seen as an important GHG mitigation option. However, the use of biomass will not by default generate a significant and timely GHG emission

  8. CO{sub 2} capture - technologies for greenhouse gas emissions abatement; Le captage du CO{sub 2} - des technologies pour reduire les emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, F.; Broutin, P.; Lebas, E

    2009-07-01

    CO{sub 2} capture and geologic sequestration is now recognized as one of the technologies to implement for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and to fight against global warming. Where, how and at what price CO{sub 2} can be captured? This book tries to answer these questions by taking stock of the state-of-the-art of the technologies needed. It presents the three main ways involving CO{sub 2} capture technologies that have been considered: the post-combustion way which aims at extracting the CO{sub 2} content of industrial smokes; the oxi-combustion way which consists in using oxygen combustion to obtain CO{sub 2}-enriched smokes; and the pre-combustion way which is used to extract carbon from the source fuel for the production of hydrogen. For each of these ways, the technologies available today or under development are described with precision and with their respective costs. (J.S.)

  9. An Analisis of the CO2 Emission Abatement in Plastic Recycling System Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Methodology: a Case Study of Bandung City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrawan; Dowaki, Kiyosho; Putro, Utomo Sarjono

    2010-01-01

    Global warming issue becomes a main issue in sustainable development planning for every country in the world. Indonesia as developing country has commitment to contribute in CO2 abatement with proper development policies. Since May 2008 Indonesia has introduced new law of Solid Waste Management (UU No. 18/2008), the basis of waste management under this law is waste reduction to a landfill as the first priority. The highest waste material compositions in general are organic (50%) and plastic (...

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

    2014-03-01

    On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO2-e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using /metric-ton CO2-e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment.

  11. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO 2 -e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using $/metric-ton CO 2 -e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment. (paper)

  12. Modeling the Heterogeneous Effects of GHG Mitigation Policies on Global Agriculture and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, A.; Henderson, B.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.; Sohngen, B.

    2010-12-01

    agriculture and timber products. We analyze regional changes in land use, output, competitiveness, and food consumption under climate change mitigation policy regimes which differ by participation/exclusion of agricultural sectors and non-Annex I countries, as well as policy instruments. While responsible for only a third of global GHG emissions, under the global carbon tax the land using sectors could contribute half of all economically efficient mitigation in the near term, at modest carbon prices. The imposition of a carbon tax in agriculture, however, has adverse effects on food consumption, especially in developing countries. These effects are much smaller if an agricultural producer subsidy is introduced to compensate for carbon tax the producers pay. The global forest carbon sequestration subsidy effectively controls emission leakage when the carbon tax is imposed only in Annex I regions, since the sequestration subsidy bids land away from agriculture in non-Annex I regions. Though the sequestration subsidy yields GHG abatement benefit, the policy may adversely affect food security and agricultural development in developing countries.

  13. Abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions: IFP's solutions; Reduction des emissions de CO{sub 2}: les solutions IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In a context of increasing energy consumption and world economic growth, the fight against greenhouse gases has become a major technological challenge for the coming years. The capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the underground is a promising solution in terms of environmental impact, especially in places and sectors characterized by a strong concentration of CO{sub 2} emissions (power generation plants, big industries). However, such a solution requires important R and D efforts to reduce the costs and warrant the long-term reliability of the storage. The French institute of petroleum (IFP) will play an important role in the implementation of the geological sequestration. This press kit comprises 7 documents: a press release from November 4, 2003; a press conference with a series of slides presenting the stakes, solutions and actions proposed by the IFP in collaboration with several foreign partners (CO{sub 2} capture, storage in depleted hydrocarbon deposits, saline aquifers or abandoned coal seams, storage potential, reduction of costs); a summary of the stakes and solutions for CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep underground; a similar document presented at the Panorama 2003 colloquium; the CO{sub 2} constraint in France and in Europe (international consensus on climatic change, Kyoto protocol, European directive about tradable carbon permits, voluntary commitment of companies in the fight against greenhouse effects (AERES)); the European project Castor (CO{sub 2} from capture to storage); and the IFP brochure 'innovating for a sustainable development in the energy domain'. (J.S.)

  14. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A.; Busche, J.; Hermann, H.; Joerss, W.; Scheffler, M. (OEko-Institut, Freiburg (Germany))

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2010. The official submission of 2010 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2012. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2010 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2011 submissions to UNFCCC (which re-late to emissions in 2009). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2010. Finally, EEA has also used the early estimates of 2010 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2010 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (Author)

  15. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany); Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2011. The official submission of 2011 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2013. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2011 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2012 submissions to UNFCCC (which relate to emissions in 2010). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2011. Finally, the EEA has also used the early estimates of 2011 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2011 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (LN)

  16. Assessment of Air Pollution and GHG Mitigation Strategies in Malaysia using the GAINS Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Planning for future energy development, taking into account the national obligations to mitigate climate change and air quality pressures is a major challenge faced by Malaysia. This research facilitates the impact assessment of simultaneous control of air pollution and GHG abatement through a set of emission scenarios while considering current and future Malaysian policies. The IIASAs GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model is used for the estimation of emissions and costs, and the outputs of the MESSAGE and MAED energy models provide the underlying energy projections by 2050. Results show that current air-quality policies are efficient in keeping emissions growth at moderate rate, however, significant reduction potential exists if best available control technologies are introduced. Malaysian climate policies - modeled here for power sector - aiming at the -40 % decrease in carbon-intensity, result in important reductions of air pollutants, while the overall co-benefits can be substantial if other sectors are tackled by climate strategies. Initial results indicate the reduction of air pollutant control cost due to climate measures is comparable to the invoked cost-increase in power sector by 2030. Thereby, these co-benefits help to moderate total expenditures for meeting national climate policy targets. (author)

  17. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  18. The Welfare Costs of GHG Reduction with Renewable Energy Policies in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Madhu; Oliver, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A range of policies have been implemented in the agricultural, transportation, and electric power sectors, which comprise the majority of GHG emissions in the US. Two prominent policy sets are the national RFS and state-level RPSs. The purpose of this research is to examine the GHG implications of the state RPSs and their welfare costs of mitigating GHG emissions. We also analyze the interactions between the RFS and state RPS policies and the extent to which these policies create competition ...

  19. Noise Abatement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  20. FUEL/CARBON PRICE VS. ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY IN FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Ferdinand Spangenberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current situation is the exponential increase in greenhouse gases (GHG, which is mainly caused by industrial and transport activities. The recent Paris agreement in 2015 (Framework Convention on Climate Change COP21, UNFCCC made it clear to everyone that CO2 emissions are to be limited in all areas of life. Alternative fuels with a lower environmental impact than carbon (CO2 emissions are hard to find if the overall footprint is to be taken into account. Nevertheless, there are some fuels that have less impact on climate change. One the other hand, the production of biofuels is a controversial matter, although it is a viable alternative to emissions reduction. CNG or LNG-powered vehicles are also better in terms of environmental pollution, but are hardly better with regard to CO2 impact when a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is carried out. LNG (liquid natural gas, for example, is the future fuel in the maritime sector because of the stricter environmental regulations (SOx,NOx in the shipping industry. The battery-powered vehicle is another example of an environmentally friendly solution. The afore-mentioned measures can be considered as “abatement“ necessary in order to limit CO2 impact. The study shows that there are significant differences in the environmental impact between transport systems and the corresponding drive-system or associated energy base. The polluter should pay, which is a common basic principle in economic research. The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS has been introduced in order to ensure a reduction in CO2 output – emissions come with a price tag. An overall view is necessary, both en-vironmental and economic impact must be reconciled (cf. Spangenberg - TQI. The future viability of the transport system as we know it may change significantly over time if new environmental requirements or e.g. CO2 taxes or ETS are introduced in the freight sector. The abatement of CO2 should be effected primarily through technological

  1. Evolution of the household vehicle fleet : anticipating fleet composition, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Automobile ownership plays an important role in determining vehicle use, emissions, fuel : consumption, congestion and traffic safety. This work provides new data on ownership decisions : and owner preferences under various scenarios, coupled with ca...

  2. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karplus, Valerie J.; Paltsev, Sergey; Babiker, Mustafa; Reilly, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use and (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the cost and effectiveness of fuel economy standards, alone and in combination with economy-wide policies that constrain GHG emissions, is essential to inform coordinated design of future climate and energy policy. We use a computable general equilibrium model, the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, to investigate the effect of combining a fuel economy standard with an economy-wide GHG emissions constraint in the United States. First, a fuel economy standard is shown to be at least six to fourteen times less cost effective than a price instrument (fuel tax) when targeting an identical reduction in cumulative gasoline use. Second, when combined with a cap-and-trade (CAT) policy, a binding fuel economy standard increases the cost of meeting the GHG emissions constraint by forcing expensive reductions in passenger vehicle gasoline use, displacing more cost-effective abatement opportunities. Third, the impact of adding a fuel economy standard to the CAT policy depends on the availability and cost of abatement opportunities in transport—if advanced biofuels provide a cost-competitive, low carbon alternative to gasoline, the fuel economy standard does not bind and the use of low carbon fuels in passenger vehicles makes a significantly larger contribution to GHG emissions abatement relative to the case when biofuels are not available. This analysis underscores the potentially large costs of a fuel economy standard relative to alternative policies aimed at reducing petroleum use and GHG emissions. It further emphasizes the need to consider sensitivity to vehicle technology and alternative fuel availability and costs as well as economy-wide responses when forecasting the energy, environmental, and economic outcomes of

  3. Broadening GHG accounting with LCA: application to a waste management business unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaha, Sophie; Martineau, Geneviève; Bécaert, Valérie; Margni, Manuele; Deschênes, Louise; Samson, Réjean; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    In an effort to obtain the most accurate climate change impact assessment, greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting is evolving to include life-cycle thinking. This study (1) identifies similarities and key differences between GHG accounting and life-cycle assessment (LCA), (2) compares them on a consistent basis through a case study on a waste management business unit. First, GHG accounting is performed. According to the GHG Protocol, annual emissions are categorized into three scopes: direct GHG emissions (scope 1), indirect emissions related to electricity, heat and steam production (scope 2) and other indirect emissions (scope 3). The LCA is then structured into a comparable framework: each LCA process is disaggregated into these three scopes, the annual operating activities are assessed, and the environmental impacts are determined using the IMPACT2002+ method. By comparing these two approaches it is concluded that both LCA and GHG accounting provide similar climate change impact results as the same major GHG contributors are determined for scope 1 emissions. The emissions from scope 2 appear negligible whereas emissions from scope 3 cannot be neglected since they contribute to around 10% of the climate change impact of the waste management business unit. This statement is strengthened by the fact that scope 3 generates 75% of the resource use damage and 30% of the ecosystem quality damage categories. The study also shows that LCA can help in setting up the framework for a annual GHG accounting by determining the major climate change contributors.

  4. Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Harriëtte L.; Meesters, Koen P.H.; Conijn, Sjaak G.; Corré, Wim J.; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams,

  5. Efficient air pollution abatement for regions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.L. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. for Business & Management

    2006-08-15

    This paper computes the efficient air pollution abatement ratios of 30 regions in China during the period 1996-2002. Three air emissions (SO{sub 2}, soot and dust) are considered. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with a single output (real GDP) and five inputs (labour, real capital stock, SO{sub 2}, dust and soot emissions) is used to compute the target emissions of each region for each year. The efficient abatement ratios of each region in each year are then obtained by dividing the target emission by the actual emission of an air pollutant. Our major findings are: 1. The eastern area is the most efficient region with respect to SO{sub 2}, soot and dust emissions in every year during the research period. 2. The eastern, central and western areas have the lowest, medium and highest 1996-2002 average target abatement ratios of SO, (22.09%, 42.23% and 57.58%), soot (26.19%, 56.34% and 66.37%) and dust (15.20%, 29.09% and 40.59%), respectively. 3. These results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory, whereby a more developed area will use environmental goods more efficiently than a less developed area. 4. Compared to dust emission, the average target abatement ratios for SO{sub 2} and soot emissions (as direct outcomes of burning coal) are relatively much higher for all three areas.

  6. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  7. Economic, energy and GHG emissions performance evaluation of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit in a domestic dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, G.; Duffy, A.; Ayompe, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of a Stirling engine MK IV micro-CHP unit was evaluated in a domestic dwelling in Ireland. • The performance of the micro-CHP was compare to that of a condensing gas boiler. • The micro-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 compared to the condensing gas boiler. • Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO 2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. • The micro-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler during one year of operation. - Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the energy, economic and greenhouse gas emissions performances of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit for use in a conventional house in the Republic of Ireland. The energy performance data used in this study was obtained from a field trial carried out in Belfast, Northern Ireland during the period June 2004–July 2005 by Northern Ireland Electricity and Phoenix Gas working in collaboration with Whispertech UK. A comparative performance analysis between the μ-CHP unit and a condensing gas boiler revealed that the μ-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 with an incremental simple payback period of 13.8 years when compared to a condensing gas boiler. Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO 2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. The μ-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler

  8. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  9. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in organic farming. Approximate quantification of its generation at the organic garden of the School of Agricultural, Food and Biosystems Engineering (ETSIAAB) in the Technical University of Madrid (UPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jorge; Barbado, Elena; Maldonado, Mariano; Andreu, Gemma; López de Fuentes, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    As it well-known, agricultural soil fertilization increases the rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission production such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Participation share of this activity on the climate change is currently under study, as well as the mitigation possibilities. In this context, we considered that it would be interesting to know how this share is in the case of organic farming. In relation to this, a field experiment was carried out at the organic garden of the School of Agricultural, Food and Biosystems Engineering (ETSIAAB) in the Technical University of Madrid (UPM). The orchard included different management growing areas, corresponding to different schools of organic farming. Soil and gas samples were taken from these different sites. Gas samples were collected throughout the growing season from an accumulated atmosphere inside static chambers inserted into the soil. Then, these samples were carried to the laboratory and there analyzed. The results obtained allow knowing approximately how ecological fertilization contributes to air pollution due to greenhouse gases.

  10. The other GHG : steps taken to reduce CO2 emissions may contribute to increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Canadian oil and gas industry and government are now in the midst of a massive overhaul of hydrocarbon energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) management. However, human-enhanced water evaporation (HEWE) may also be a significant contributor to global climate warming. Human-caused distortions of the hydrological cycle can cause multiple localized weather disturbances. There is currently a thousand times more water vapor being emitted than CO 2 , and this is contributing to increased rainfall levels around the world. Expansion of the agriculture and growth of industry has caused significant diversions and redistributions of water. Most of the water used is evaporated in the northern hemisphere. Climate modellers are needed to analyze the impacts of human-enhanced water evaporation local climates and weather. The main sources of water emissions are government-controlled energy projects and subsidized irrigation projects. Current levels of water vapour emissions are between 10 and 100 times the value of warming per tonne as CO 2 . Details of various research projects to use salt water as a fuel for vehicles was provided, as well as methods of improving the water-gas shift reaction method of hydrogen production. 2 figs

  11. Marginal Abatement Cost of CO2 in China Based on Directional Distance Function: An Industry Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial sectors account for around 70% of the total energy-related CO2 emissions in China. It is of great importance to measure the potential for CO2 emissions reduction and calculate the carbon price in industrial sectors covered in the Emissions Trading Scheme and carbon tax. This paper employs the directional distance function to calculate the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions during 2005–2011 and makes a comparative analysis between our study and the relevant literature. Our empirical results show that the marginal abatement costs vary greatly from industry to industry: high marginal abatement costs occur in industries with low carbon intensity, and vice versa. In the application of the marginal abatement cost, the abatement distribution scheme with minimum cost is established under different abatement targets. The conclusions of abatement distribution scheme indicate that those heavy industries with low MACs and high carbon intensity should take more responsibility for emissions reduction and vice versa. Finally, the policy implications for marginal abatement cost are provided.

  12. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  13. Effects-based integrated assessment modelling for the support of European air pollution abatement policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettelingh, J.P.; Posch, M.; Slootweg, J.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.; Gall, Le A.; Maas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Critical load and exceedance based indicators for effects of air pollution are used to define and compare air pollution abatement scenarios, thus assisting in the framing of policies and strategies, of emission abatement options. In this chapter the effects-based support of European air pollution

  14. Market reaction to economic climate change policy : The merit order effect and the limits of marginal abatement cost curves

    OpenAIRE

    Levihn, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Governments around the world have introduced economic policies to combat global warming. In the form of taxes, emissions trading schemes and subsidies, these polices seek to influence market actors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One tool used to understand market reactions to such policy is marginal abatement cost curves. These curves optimise the two dimensions of cost per abatement and abatement. However; in reality corporations instead optimize for cost reductions, not the combined co...

  15. Biaya Pengurangan (Marginal Abatement Cost Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca(GRK Sektor PErtanian di Kabupaten Grobogan dan Tanjung Jabung Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranti Ariani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Komitmen Pemerintah Indonesia untuk penurunan emisi GRK sebesar 26% sampai 2020, melibatkan keikutsertaan daerah secara aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis opsi-opsi mitigasi pada pengelolaan lahan sawah yang mungkin dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan Marginal Abatement Cost atau biaya pengurangan emisi yang berprinsip pada pemilihan aksi mitigasi dengan biaya rendah dan potensi penurunan yang besar. Lokasi penelitian dipilih secara purposive yaitu di Kabupaten Grobogan Propinsi Jawa Tengah dan Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Timur Propinsi Jambi pada tahun 2013 untuk analisis tahun 2011. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan teknologi mitigasi yang berpotensi besar menurunkan emisi GRK dengan biaya rendah di Kabupaten Grobogan adalah penerapan teknik budidaya padi dengan penerapan Pengelolaan Tanaman Terpadu (PTT dan penggantian varietas padi dengan varietas padi yang rendah emisi GRK. Sementara di Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Timur, teknologi ameliorasi dengan kompos, pupuk kandang dan penerapan teknologi tanpa olah tanah+tanam benih langsung merupakan teknologi mitigasi yang memiliki potensi besar menurunkan emisi dengan biaya yang rendah. Kata kunci: pertanian, gas rumah kaca, biaya pengurangan emisi, mitigasi ABSTRACT The Indonesian government's commitment to decrease GHG emissions by 26 % until 2020, actively involve local government’s participation. This study aims to analyze mitigation options inpaddy fields management that may be performed by using the approach of Marginal Abatement Cost with the principle of selecting mitigation actions with low cost and high potential emission decrease. Locations were selected purposively in Grobogan Central Java Province and East Tanjung Jabung Jambi in 2013 for 2011 data analysis. The results show mitigation activity such as low methane rice varieties and Integrated Crop Management could be applied at Grobogan with low cost, while using amelioration such as compost or manure and non tillage

  16. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise abatement. 772.11 Section 772.11 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will...

  17. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Hermansen, John Erik

    2010-01-01

    ) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular......, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions...

  18. EO 13514 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventories and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    emissions estimates remains for some sources • Business travel • Renewable energy • Municipal solid waste/onsite landfills • Fluorinated gases • Data gaps...to  Third party-owned energy generation on federal lands  Employee business travel and commuting  Updates to baseline and GHG targets  Process for

  19. GHG Mitigation Potential of Different Grazing Strategies in the United States Southern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by ruminants using improved grazing is investigated by estimating GHG emissions for cow-calf farms under light continuous (LC, heavy continuous (HC and rotational grazing, also known as multi-paddock (MP, management strategies in Southern Great Plain (SGP using life cycle assessment (LCA. Our results indicated a GHG emission with these grazing treatments of 8034.90 kg·CO2e·calf−1·year−1 for cow-calf farms in SGP region, which is high, compared to that for other regions, due to the high percentage (79.6% of enteric CH4 emissions caused by relatively lower feed quality on the unfertilized rangeland. Sensitivity analyses on MP grazing strategy showed that an increase in grass quality and digestibility could potentially reduce GHG emission by 30%. Despite higher GHG emissions on a per calf basis, net GHG emissions in SGP region are potentially negative when carbon (C sequestration is taken into account. With net C emission rates of −2002.8, −1731.6 and −89.5 kg C ha−1·year−1 after converting from HC to MP, HC to LC and from LC to MP, our analysis indicated cow-calf farms converting from continuous to MP grazing in SGP region are likely net carbon sinks for decades.

  20. Trading biomass or GHG emission credits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurijssen, J; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Global biomass potentials are considerable but unequally distributed over the world. Countries with Kyoto targets could import biomass to substitute for fossil fuels or invest in bio-energy projects in the country of biomass origin and buy the credits (Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint

  1. EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model provides companies with a transparent and publicly available benchmarking resource to help evaluate and establish new or existing GHG goals that go beyond business as usual for their individual sectors.

  2. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  3. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Setting Certificate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  4. An assessment of urban form and pedestrian and transit improvements as an integrated GHG reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the last several years, Washington State has adopted a series of policy goals intended to : reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Because transportation is one of the states largest sources of : GHG emissions, the Washington State Department of Trans...

  5. Mitigation options for methane emissions from rice fields in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantin, R.S.; Buendia, L.V.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The contribution of Philippine rice production to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies conducted in the country are presented in this paper. A significant impact in the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture can be achieved if methane emissions from ricefields can be abated. This study presents the contribution of Philippine rice cultivation to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies in the country which address the issue of mitigation. Using the derived emission factors from local measurements, rice cultivation contributes 566.6 Gg of methane emission in the Philippines. This value is 62% of the total methane emitted from the agriculture sector. The emission factors employed which are 78% of the IPCC value for irrigated rice and 95% for rainfed rice were derived from measurements with an automatic system taken during the growth duration in the respective ecosystems. Plots drained for 2 weeks at midtillering and before harvest gave a significant reduction in methane emission as opposed to continuously flooded plots and plots drained before harvest. The cultivar Magat reduced methane emission by 50% as compared to the check variety IR72. The application of ammonium sulfate instead of urea reduced methane emission by 10% to 34%. Addition of 6 t ha{sup {minus}1} phosphogypsum in combination with urea reduced emission by 74% as opposed to plots applied with urea alone. It is also from the results of such measurements that abatement strategies are based as regards to modifying treatments such as water management, fertilization, and choice of rice variety. It is not easy to identify and recommend mitigation strategies that will fit a particular cropping system. However, the identified mitigation options provide focus for the abatement of methane emission from ricefields.

  6. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  7. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  8. Catalysis in VOC Abatement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ojala, S.; Pitkäaho, S.; Laitinen, T.; Koivikko, N.N.; Brahmi, R.; Gaálová, Jana; Matějová, Lenka; Kucherov, A.; Päivärinta, S.; Hirschmann, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, 16-18 (2011), s. 1224-1256 ISSN 1022-5528. [Nordic Symposium on Catalysis /14./. Marienlyst, Helsingør, 29.08.2010-31.08.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : voc emissions * voc regulation * effects of VOC's Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.624, year: 2011

  9. Noise Abatement Tradeoff Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    The intent of this study is to obtain information on small high-speed engines so that their effect on the urban environment may be assessed, and if necessary, programs devised to reduce the noise and other emissions from vehicles using these "highly ...

  10. New school radon abatement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.F.; Maniscalco, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to develop a state-of-the-art Radon Abatement system: all aspects of design and implementation from proper sizing radon ventilation ductwork (RVD) in relationship to the amount of free air available in sub-slab aggregate, review of electrical systems with their monitoring devices from the very basic to the more sophisticated type of installation, review abatement designs for their durability and application as well as methods and techniques. Building codes will also be reviewed for commercial construction applications, spot-lighting the usage of specific materials and techniques and their impact on the industry

  11. A comparability analysis of global burden sharing GHG reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Saveyn, Bert; Soria, Antonio; Szabo, Laszlo; Van Regemorter, Denise; Van Ierland, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the mitigation burden across countries is a key issue regarding the post-2012 global climate policies. This article explores the economic implications of alternative allocation rules, an assessment made in the run-up to the COP15 in Copenhagen (December 2009). We analyse the comparability of the allocations across countries based on four single indicators: GDP per capita, GHG emissions per GDP, GHG emission trends in the recent past, and population growth. The multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of the global economy, GEM-E3, is used for that purpose. Further, the article also compares a perfect carbon market without transaction costs with the case of a gradually developing carbon market, i.e. a carbon market with (gradually diminishing) transaction costs. - Highlights: ► Burden sharing of global mitigation efforts should consider equity and efficiency. ► The comparability of allocations across countries is based on four indicators. ► The four indicators are GDP/capita, GHG/GDP, population growth, and GHG trend. ► Any possible agreement on effort comparability needs a combination of indicators. ► We analyse the role played by the degree of flexibility in global carbon trading

  12. The diet-related GHG index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Watson, David; Smed, Sinne

    2017-01-01

    and a questionnaire consisting of food frequency questions issued to the same panel. Based on the purchase data, diet-related GHGe were calculated for 2012. The data was then split into a learning sample and a validation sample. The index was constructed using the learning sample where a scoring procedure...... was calculated from responses to the questionnaire-based food frequency questions that predicted diet-related GHGe. Subsequently, the index scoring procedure was employed on the validation sample and the empirical relevance of the index was examined. In the learning sample, a scoring procedure to construct......The aim was to construct and validate a cost-efficient index to measure GHG emissions (GHGe) caused by Danish consumers’ diets to be employed in questionnaire-based surveys. The index was modelled on the basis of actual food purchase data from a panel of ordinary Danish households...

  13. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  14. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare Maya, R.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  15. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  16. Integrating the nitrogen cycle in carbon and GHG observation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Brummer, C.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen is an important factor for the regulation of carbon and GHG fluxes within ecosystems and between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Nitrogen fertilization is important for high agricultural yields but also increases N2O emissions. In Germany, e.g., N2O emissions from agriculture comprise about 6 % of the total GHG inventory. Nitrogen deposition may enhance productivity of ecosystems (e.g. forests, natural grasslands or wetlands) but may also change community structure - in particular in ecosystems that are adapted to low nitrogen availability. It also can lead to increased N2O emissions. Global nitrogen fluxes due to the trade of agricultural products may concentrate nitrogen in specific areas (e.g. in areas with high animal stock). In these areas increased N2O emissions are to be expected. The Thünen Institute of Climate-Smart Agriculture drives parts of the German ICOS consortium with a special focus on agricultural sites or indirect effects of agriculture on GHG emissions. We propose a concept to integrate nitrogen into research infrastructures for GHG monitoring. A conceptual frame will identify the most important parameters of the N cycle. Data from the CarboEurope and NitroEurope core site Gebesee (crop) will be presented to show first integrative results.Finally, first experiences with new technologies will be presented, comprising quantum cascade laser measurements of N2O and ammonia used with eddy covariance (EC) and chambers and EC measurements of total reactive nitrogen with the TRANC methodology (Marx et al. 2012).

  17. Regional differences in China's CO2 abatement cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Under a framework of output distance function with multiple outputs, the study discusses the carbon abatement cost at provincial and regional levels in China, using the shadow price analysis. The findings show that the abatement cost, reflecting the marginal opportunity cost of carbon reduction, varies greatly among the provinces. On average, the abatement cost of the eastern region was much higher than that of the mid-western region during the observed period. The findings provide evidence that the carbon prices in the current ETS pilots have been much lower than desired levels, implying inefficiency of the markets. The wide range of the abatement cost estimates supports that the equi-marginal principle does not hold for the regulations on carbon pollution at regional levels. The regional cost differences indicate the huge potential for China to minimize the total abatement cost with policy instruments that may motive the emissions moving from areas of low abatement cost to where the abatement cost is higher. For a few undeveloped provinces that are environmentally fragile and have high abatement cost, supplementary measures will be needed to reduce the negative impact of carbon cutbacks on the poor to the minimum. - Highlights: • The marginal abatement cost of CO 2 is defined by the shadow price measure. • A linear programming model based on distance function is established. • Marginal abatement costs at provincial level are empirical investigated. • The abatement cost varies across provinces and regions in China. • The findings provide evidence that the current ETS pilots are inefficient

  18. A consumption-based GHG inventory for the U.S. state of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Allaway, David; Lazarus, Michael; Stanton, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-03

    Many U.S. states conduct greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories to inform their climate change planning efforts. These inventories usually follow a production-based method adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. States could also take a consumption-based perspective, however, and estimate all emissions released to support consumption in their state, regardless of where the emissions occur. In what may be the first such comprehensive inventory conducted for a U.S. state, we find that consumption-based emissions for Oregon are 47% higher than those released in-state. This finding implies that Oregon's contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint) is considerably higher than traditional production-based methods would suggest. Furthermore, the consumption-based inventory helps highlight the role of goods and services (and associated purchasing behaviors) more so than do production-based methods. Accordingly, a consumption-based perspective opens new opportunities for many states and their local government partners to reduce GHG emissions, such as initiatives to advance lower-carbon public sector or household consumption, that are well within their sphere of influence. State and local governments should consider conducting consumption-based GHG inventories and adopting consumption-based emission reductions targets in order to broaden the reach and effectiveness of state and local actions in reducing global GHG emissions. Consumption-based frameworks should be viewed as a complement to, but not a substitute for, production-based (in-state) GHG emissions inventories and targets.

  19. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  20. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, S.R. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States); Surowka, J. [Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-11-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered top priorities in Poland. The magnitude of environmental problems and public awareness of it has forced the Polish government to implement more aggressive regulatory controls. The extent of this condition has in fact prompted the government to designate pollution control a a top priority for foreign investment. During the past five years, Poland has also made significant progress in reorienting its central-planned economy to one based on open market principals. Efforts to decentralize has led to the privatization of many government-owned businesses with a concomitant shift in buying decisions to privately-owned enterprises. This movement toward privatizing the economy along with cleaning and protecting the environment has created numerous business opportunities for both Polish and foreign companies. As a result, there has been a drastic downsizing of large formerly state-owned companies. And, new startups and small businesses have become the main hope in reviving the Polish economy.

  1. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysk, S.R.; Surowka, J.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered top priorities in Poland. The magnitude of environmental problems and public awareness of it has forced the Polish government to implement more aggressive regulatory controls. The extent of this condition has in fact prompted the government to designate pollution control a a top priority for foreign investment. During the past five years, Poland has also made significant progress in reorienting its central-planned economy to one based on open market principals. Efforts to decentralize has led to the privatization of many government-owned businesses with a concomitant shift in buying decisions to privately-owned enterprises. This movement toward privatizing the economy along with cleaning and protecting the environment has created numerous business opportunities for both Polish and foreign companies. As a result, there has been a drastic downsizing of large formerly state-owned companies. And, new startups and small businesses have become the main hope in reviving the Polish economy

  2. GHG mitigation of agricultural peatlands requires coherent policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regina, Kristina; Budiman, Arif; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    available in agriculture. Although the facts are well known, the policies leading to diminished emissions are often difficult to implement. We have analysed the reasons why the mitigation potential is not fully utilized and what could be done better in national implementation of climate policies. Four cases...... and international climate policies have increased the public interest in GHG emissions from peat soils and increased the pressure for mitigation. Basically the same factors restrict the implementation of mitigation measures in all countries with significant peat soil areas. The most important of these is lack...... of policy coherence, e.g. ignoring climate policies when planning land use or agricultural policies. We conclude that GHG mitigation is achieved only if other policies, especially national regulations and strategies, are in line with climate policies....

  3. Optimal strategies for the abatement of gaseous air pollutant emissions produced by human mobility. The Rome case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di inquinanti gassosi prodotte dalla mobilita' urbana. Un'applicazione al caso di Roma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santostefano, S.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness of gaseous vehicular emission reduction has been carried out for human mobility, over the transport network in Rome: in other words, once a reduction target of total emissions has been fixed for each pollutant, the most efficient abatement measures from a technical-economic point of view are selected. The optimization problem has been formalized considering linear functions both for the objective function and for constrains, i.e. within the classic linear programming framework, the objective being that of finding the diversion of present vehicular traffic to alternative technologies with lower emissions at minimum costs. A set of transport alternative measures has been considered and emission abatement cost minimization has been assumed as an objective function; specified abatements for CO (Carbon monoxide), NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides) and VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions have been introduced as constraints to the problem, expressed as reduction rates of estimated present emissions in the considered area. Model results show the distribution of present transportation capacity among possible alternatives for different hypothesis of emission reduction rates (reduction of 25%, 50%, 75%, 85% of present emissions and maximum feasible reduction within the specified constraints), and related costs. [Italian] In questo rapporto e' stata condotta un'analisi costi-efficacia relativa alla riduzione delle emissioni gassose veicolari dovute alla mobilita' urbana sulla rete di trasporto di Roma: in altre parole, fissata una quota di abbattimento delle emissioni complessive per ogni inquinante, sono state individuate le misure piu' efficienti dal punto di vista tecnico-economico che permettono di perseguire la riduzione prefissata. Il problema di ottimizzazione e' stato formalizzato definendo sia la funzione obiettivo che i relativi vincoli come funzioni lineari, e quindi nell'ambito della programmazione

  4. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  5. Impact of electric range and fossil fuel price level on the economics of plug-in hybrid vehicles and greenhouse gas abatement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özdemir, Enver Doruk; Hartmann, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the energy consumption shares of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) for electricity from the grid and conventional fuel depending on electric driving range are estimated. The resulting mobility costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement costs per vehicle kilometer for the year 2030 are calculated and optimal electric driving range (which indicates the size of the battery) is found for different oil price levels with the help of a MATLAB based model for a typical compact passenger car (e.g. VW Golf). The results show that the optimum electric driving range for minimum mobility costs of a PHEV is between 12 and 32 km. Furthermore, optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with an electric driving range between 16 and 23 km. These results are considerable lower than most market ready PHEVs (electric driving range of 50 to 100 km), which shows that the automobile industry should concentrate on shorter electric driving range for PHEVs in the near future to offer cost optimum mobility and low GHG abatement costs. However, the oil price level and the consumer driving habits impact heavily on the cost performance as well as the optimum electric driving range of plug-in hybrid vehicles. - Highlights: ► We analyze the energy consumption (and share of grid electricity) of plug-in hybrid vehicles. ► We analyzed the mobility costs and GHG abatement costs depending on electric driving range. ► Mobility costs of plug-in hybrid vehicles can be lower than those of conventional diesel vehicles in 2030. ► The optimum mobility costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 12 and 32 km. ► The optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 16 and 23 km.

  6. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their respective cost effectiveness. Alternative measures, such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS), are not considered as it is difficult to quantify their abatement potential. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an energy system model to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both end-of-pipe controls and these alternative measures. We decompose the MACC by sector, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS relative to end-of-pipe controls. RE/EE/FS are shown to produce considerable emission reductions after end-of-pipe controls have been exhausted. Furthermore, some RE/EE/FS are shown to be cost-competitive with end-of-pipe controls. Demonstrate how the MARKAL energy system model can be used to evaluate the potential role of renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) in achieving NOx reductions. For this particular analysis, we show that RE/EE/FSs are able to increase the quantity of NOx reductions available for a particular marginal cost (ranging from $5k per ton to $40k per ton) by approximately 50%.

  7. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.; Nziramasanga, N.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.

    1993-10-01

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  8. Plug-in hybrid vehicle GHG impacts in California: Integrating consumer-informed recharge profiles with an electricity-dispatch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.; McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) may reduce source-to-wheel Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from passenger vehicles. The two primary advances are the incorporation of (1) explicit measures of consumer interest in and potential use of different types of PHEVs and (2) a model of the California electricity grid capable of differentiating hourly and seasonal GHG emissions by generation source. We construct PHEV emissions scenarios to address inherent relationships between vehicle design, driving and recharging behaviors, seasonal and time-of-day variation in GHG-intensity of electricity, and total GHG emissions. A sample of 877 California new vehicle buyers provide data on driving, time of day recharge access, and PHEV design interests. The elicited data differ substantially from the assumptions used in previous analyses. We construct electricity demand profiles scaled to one million PHEVs and input them into an hourly California electricity supply model to simulate GHG emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles, consumer-designed PHEVs cut marginal (incremental) GHG emissions by more than one-third in current California energy scenarios and by one-quarter in future energy scenarios-reductions similar to those simulated for all-electric PHEV designs. Across the emissions scenarios, long-term GHG reductions depends on reducing the carbon intensity of the grid. - Research highlights: → We estimate California Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV) GHGs using consumer data and an electricity supply model. → Consumer-designed (mostly 'blended') PHEVs can reduce GHG emissions compared to conventional vehicles. → These PHEVs can also reduce GHG emissions relative to 'all-electric' PHEV designs. → 'All-electric' designs may further reduce GHG emissions as electricity carbon intensity falls. → Ranking of GHG savings from off-peak versus daytime charging scenarios depends on electricity carbon intensity.

  9. Prospective life cycle carbon abatement for pyrolysis biochar systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Jim; Shackley, Simon; Sohi, Saran; Brownsort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of slow pyrolysis biochar systems (PBS) in the UK for small, medium and large scale process chains and ten feedstocks was performed, assessing carbon abatement and electricity production. Pyrolysis biochar systems appear to offer greater carbon abatement than other bioenergy systems. Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.3 t CO 2 equivalent per oven dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. In terms of delivered energy, medium to large scale PBS abates 1.4-1.9 t CO 2 e/MWh, which compares to average carbon emissions of 0.05-0.30 t CO 2 e/MWh for other bioenergy systems. The largest contribution to PBS carbon abatement is from the feedstock carbon stabilised in biochar (40-50%), followed by the less certain indirect effects of biochar in the soil (25-40%)-mainly due to increase in soil organic carbon levels. Change in soil organic carbon levels was found to be a key sensitivity. Electricity production off-setting emissions from fossil fuels accounted for 10-25% of carbon abatement. The LCA suggests that provided 43% of the carbon in the biochar remains stable, PBS will out-perform direct combustion of biomass at 33% efficiency in terms of carbon abatement, even if there is no beneficial effect upon soil organic carbon levels from biochar application. - Research highlights: → Biochar systems offer greater carbon abatement than combustion or gasification. → Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.4t CO 2 e/dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. → Change in soil organic carbon stocks induced by biochar is the key sensitivity. → Biochar systems produce less electricity then combustion or gasification.

  10. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (2) manure management; and (3) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork. (author)

  11. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data- Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric O’Shaughnessy, Jenny Heeter, David Keyser, Pieter Gagnon, and Alexandra Aznar

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy’s City Energy Profile tool. The analysis estimates the national carbon abatement potential of the most commonly implemented actions in six specific policy areas. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a "moderate abatement scenario" by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a "high abatement scenario" by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city’s control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. City carbon abatement potential is sensitive to national and state policies that affect the carbon intensity of electricity and transportation. Specifically, the U.S. Clean Power Plan and further renewable energy cost reductions could reduce city carbon emissions overall, helping cities achieve their carbon reduction goals.

  12. Marginal abatement cost curve for nitrogen oxides incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Macpherson, Alexander J; Kaufman, Katherine R; Keaveny, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential. In this paper, a U.S. energy system model is used to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) that incorporates both traditional controls and these additional measures. The MACC is decomposed by sector, and the relative cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS and traditional controls are compared. RE/EE/FS are shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone. Furthermore, a portion of RE/EE/FS appear to be cost-competitive with traditional controls. Renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching can be cost-competitive with traditional air pollutant controls for abating air pollutant emissions. The application of renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching is also shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone.

  13. The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

  14. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Grohnheit, P.E.

    1992-04-01

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO 2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO 2 . The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO 2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  15. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  16. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Supplier GHG Emissions Inventory pilot, and whether it will have practical utility; whether our estimate of...

  17. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  18. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  19. Toward a Multi-City Framework for Urban GHG Estimation in the United States: Methods, Uncertainties, and Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K. L.; Callahan, W.; Davis, K. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Duren, R. M.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Keeling, R. F.; Kim, J.; Lauvaux, T.; Miller, C. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Turnbull, J. C.; Weiss, R. F.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    City and State governments are increasingly interested in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to improve sustainability within their jurisdictions. Estimation of urban GHG emissions remains an active research area with many sources of uncertainty. To support the effort of improving measurement of trace gas emissions in city environments, several federal agencies along with academic, research, and private entities have been working within a handful of domestic metropolitan areas to improve both (1) the assessment of GHG emissions accuracy using a variety of measurement technologies, and (2) the tools that can better assess GHG inventory data at urban mitigation scales based upon these measurements. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) activities have focused on three areas, or testbeds: Indianapolis (INFLUX experiment), Los Angeles (the LA Megacities project), and the Northeastern Corridor areas encompassing Washington and Baltimore (the NEC/BW GHG Measurements project). These cities represent diverse meteorological, terrain, demographic, and emissions characteristics having a broad range of complexities. To date this research has involved multiple measurement systems and integrated observing approaches, all aimed at advancing development of a robust, science-base upon which higher accuracy quantification approaches can rest. Progress toward such scientifically robust, widely-accepted emissions quantification methods will rely upon continuous performance assessment. Such assessment is challenged by the complexities of cities themselves (e.g., population, urban form) along with the many variables impacting a city's technological ability to estimate its GHG emissions (e.g., meteorology, density of observations). We present the different NIST testbeds and a proposal to initiate conceptual development of a reference framework supporting the comparison of multi-city GHG emissions estimates. Such a reference framework has potential to provide

  20. Global Climate targets and future consumption level: An evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Hertwich, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of

  1. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-02

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.

  2. Technical efficiency and CO2 abatement policies in the Dutch glasshouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a short-run microeconomic simulation model of the Dutch glasshouse industry in order to investigate the relation between technical efficiency and marginal abatement costs of CO2 emission. The model is also used to determine the effects of an emission tax and systems of tradable

  3. Can we trust corporates GHG inventories? An investigation among Canada's large final emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, David; Boiral, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In the public sphere and the literature on climate strategies, the measurability of corporate GHG emissions tends to be taken for granted, and few empirical studies have examined the reliability of such data. The present case study, which was conducted among 10 Canadian companies considered as large final emitters and three auditing firms, focuses on the factors which could affect the perceived credibility of GHG inventories and the strategic implications of these. The qualitative, inductive study allows identifying three main factors which affect trust in business inventories: technical issues and complexity of GHG measurements, lack of transparency on the part of the companies and unreliability of verification mechanisms. The study also makes it possible to evaluate the implications of uncertainties concerning GHG inventories which are of strategic importance for companies and policy makers. While the reliability of GHG measurement is taken for granted at the political level, uncertainties in this area can in fact have a huge impact on the establishment of the cap and trade system. The study also contributes to the literature on carbon accounting by shedding light on underexplored ethical issues, including the lack of independence of auditors and its implications. - Highlights: • The complexity of GHG emission measurement is underestimated in the public sphère. • The data disclosed by companies to the different stakeholders lack transparency. • The auditors' lack of competence and independence undermine the credibility of audit reports

  4. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellarby, J.; Tirado, R.; Leip, A.; Weiss, F.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also

  5. Automated Vehicle Regulation: An Energy and Emissions Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron

    2016-05-18

    This presentation provides a summary of the current automated vehicles polices in the United States and how they related to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The presentation then looks at future automated vehicle trends that will increase and reduce GHG emissions and what current policies utilized in other areas of law could be adapted for automated vehicle GHG emissions.

  6. Perceptions of Health Co-Benefits in Relation to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: A Survey among Urban Residents in Three Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghong Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the perceptions of stakeholders concerning the health co-benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG emission reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of urban residents on the health co-benefits involving GHG abatement and related influencing factors in three cities in China. Beijing, Ningbo and Guangzhou were selected for this survey. Participants were recruited from randomly chosen committees, following quotas for gender and age in proportion to the respective population shares. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were employed to examine the associations between socio-demographic variables and individuals’ perceptions of the health co-benefits related to GHG mitigation. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the influencing factors of respondents’ awareness about the health co-benefits. A total of 1159 participants were included in the final analysis, of which 15.9% reported that they were familiar with the health co-benefits of GHG emission reductions. Those who were younger, more educated, with higher family income, and with registered urban residence, were more likely to be aware of health co-benefits. Age, attitudes toward air pollution and governmental efforts to improve air quality, suffering from respiratory diseases, and following low carbon lifestyles are significant predictors of respondents’ perceptions on the health co-benefits. These findings may not only provide information to policy-makers to develop and implement public welcome policies of GHG mitigation, but also help to bridge the gap between GHG mitigation measures and public engagement as well as willingness to change health-related behaviors.

  7. Perceptions of Health Co-Benefits in Relation to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: A Survey among Urban Residents in Three Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Xu, Guozhang; Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yong; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; He, Tianfeng; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Gu, Shaohua; Wang, Jun; Li, Jing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiaobo; Li, Jing; Wu, Haixia; Liu, Qiyong

    2017-01-01

    Limited information is available on the perceptions of stakeholders concerning the health co-benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of urban residents on the health co-benefits involving GHG abatement and related influencing factors in three cities in China. Beijing, Ningbo and Guangzhou were selected for this survey. Participants were recruited from randomly chosen committees, following quotas for gender and age in proportion to the respective population shares. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were employed to examine the associations between socio-demographic variables and individuals’ perceptions of the health co-benefits related to GHG mitigation. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the influencing factors of respondents’ awareness about the health co-benefits. A total of 1159 participants were included in the final analysis, of which 15.9% reported that they were familiar with the health co-benefits of GHG emission reductions. Those who were younger, more educated, with higher family income, and with registered urban residence, were more likely to be aware of health co-benefits. Age, attitudes toward air pollution and governmental efforts to improve air quality, suffering from respiratory diseases, and following low carbon lifestyles are significant predictors of respondents’ perceptions on the health co-benefits. These findings may not only provide information to policy-makers to develop and implement public welcome policies of GHG mitigation, but also help to bridge the gap between GHG mitigation measures and public engagement as well as willingness to change health-related behaviors. PMID:28335404

  8. Progress toward an Integrated Global GHG Information System (IG3IS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCola, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and precise atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have shown the inexorable rise of global GHG concentrations due to human socioeconomic activity. Scientific observations also show a resulting rise in global temperatures and evidence of negative impacts on society. In response to this amassing evidence, nations, states, cities and private enterprises are accelerating efforts to reduce emissions of GHGs, and the UNFCCC process recently forged the Paris Agreement. Emission reduction strategies will vary by nation, region, and economic sector (e.g., INDCs), but regardless of the strategies and mechanisms applied, the ability to implement policies and manage them effectively over time will require consistent, reliable and timely information. A number of studies [e.g., Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements (2010); GEO Carbon Strategy (2010); IPCC Task Force on National GHG Inventories: Expert Meeting Report on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories (2010)] have reported on the state of carbon cycle research, observations and models and the ability of these atmospheric observations and models to independently validate and improve the accuracy of self-reported emission inventories based on fossil fuel usage and land use activities. These studies concluded that by enhancing our in situ and remote-sensing observations and atmospheric data assimilation modeling capabilities, a GHG information system could be achieved in the coming decade to serve the needs of policies and actions to reduce GHG emissions. Atmospheric measurements and models are already being used to provide emissions information on a global and continental scale through existing networks, but these efforts currently provide insufficient information at the human-dimensions where nations, states, cities, and private enterprises can take valuable, and additional action that can reduce emissions for a specific GHG

  9. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  10. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emission intensity of petroleum products at U.S. refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Forman, Grant S; DiVita, Vincent B

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of (1) a formula correlating the variation in overall refinery energy efficiency with crude quality, refinery complexity, and product slate; and (2) a methodology for calculating energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities and processing fuel shares of major U.S. refinery products. Overall refinery energy efficiency is the ratio of the energy present in all product streams divided by the energy in all input streams. Using linear programming (LP) modeling of the various refinery processing units, we analyzed 43 refineries that process 70% of total crude input to U.S. refineries and cover the largest four Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) regions (I, II, III, V). Based on the allocation of process energy among products at the process unit level, the weighted-average product-specific energy efficiencies (and ranges) are estimated to be 88.6% (86.2%-91.2%) for gasoline, 90.9% (84.8%-94.5%) for diesel, 95.3% (93.0%-97.5%) for jet fuel, 94.5% (91.6%-96.2%) for residual fuel oil (RFO), and 90.8% (88.0%-94.3%) for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The corresponding weighted-average, production GHG emission intensities (and ranges) (in grams of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) per megajoule (MJ)) are estimated to be 7.8 (6.2-9.8) for gasoline, 4.9 (2.7-9.9) for diesel, 2.3 (0.9-4.4) for jet fuel, 3.4 (1.5-6.9) for RFO, and 6.6 (4.3-9.2) for LPG. The findings of this study are key components of the life-cycle assessment of GHG emissions associated with various petroleum fuels; such assessment is the centerpiece of legislation developed and promulgated by government agencies in the United States and abroad to reduce GHG emissions and abate global warming.

  11. Developing the GHG inventory for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available will be used for the Second National Communication to the UNFCCC. Furthermore, the GHG inventory will be a critical source of information for air quality management and climate change mitigation in South Africa...

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF EU COUNTRIES IN TERMS OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE GHG INDICATOR USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases are one of the main factors that influence the Earth's global temperature variation. As the result of both the beginning of the industrial revolution (the 1750’s and the intensificication and diversification of human activities, the volume of greenhouse gasses increases significantly. The risk of an accelerated global warming can be decreased by reducing the volume of greenhouse gasses emissions resulting from human activities. The annual volume of these emissions is reflected by the Greenhouse gas (GHG indicator. This work carries out a classification of EU countries on the basis of the evolution of the GHG indicator using Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM method.

  13. Rent-seeking and grandfathering: The case of GHG trade in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    The EU Commission has recently proposed a new directive establishing a framework for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading within the European Union. The idea is to devalue the emission quotas in circulation by the year 2012 at latest, so that the EU will meet its Kyoto target level of an 8% GHG...... trading system. This is so because total costs of emission reduction and lobbyism are likely to be smaller than the total rents from having this type of regulation.......The EU Commission has recently proposed a new directive establishing a framework for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading within the European Union. The idea is to devalue the emission quotas in circulation by the year 2012 at latest, so that the EU will meet its Kyoto target level of an 8% GHG....... In other words, we want to explain and observe how rent-seeking (or lobbyism) affects the design of environmental regulation and energy policy in favour of well-organized industrial interest groups. We argue that some firms are likely to reap a net gain from being regulated by a grandfathered emission...

  14. On the fair division of greenhouse gas abatement cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics, Ammerlaender Heerstrasse 114-118, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Helm, Carsten [Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Law and Economics, Marktplatz 15, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    This paper introduces a solution for the fair division of emission reduction costs in the climate change regime. Our primary focus is on the fair division of efficiency gains that arise from exchanging the initial allocation of emission entitlements, rather than the initial allocation itself. We propose to complement the competitive Walrasian solution with welfare bounds, the ethical justification of which rests on commonality of ownership. Simulations with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model illustrate the relevance of such welfare bounds. For a wide range of initial allocations of emission entitlements - including an equal per capita allocation - we find that developing countries should be fully compensated for their emission abatement efforts, but should not receive any further transfers. (author)

  15. Target-aimed versus wishful-thinking in designing efficient GHG reduction strategies for a metropolitan city: Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-M.; Liou, M.-L.; Yeh, S.-C.; Shang, N.-C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many national and local governments claim for a specific GHG (greenhouse gas) reduction goal targeted for many years later. In 2005, the Taipei City government announced that Taipei's total GHG emission in 2015 will reach the same level as that in 2005 and then down to 75% of that level at year 2030. However, based on the estimated energy consumption and GHG emission and the proposed emission reduction plans from the local government, it is clear that these goals are not going to be accomplished. In Taipei, the residential and commercial sector contributes more than 78% of the total GHG emission. Thus, in a business as usual scenario, the total GHG emission in 2030 would be 79% more than that in 2005, far more than the target value proclaimed. As many key factors are uncontrollable by the local government, a target-aimed strategy designing process by looking into changes in Taipei and identifying major targets is proposed in this study. It is demonstrated that such a universally applicable approach will give more confidence to the public on working toward the expected GHG reduction goal

  16. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Jacqueline; Babbitt, Callie; Winer, Martin; Hilton, Brian; Williamson, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO 2 e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  17. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO 2 and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  18. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Meirong [Dongguan University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan, Guangdong Province (China); Beijing Normal University, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing (China); Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany); Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao [Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO{sub 2} and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  19. Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.; Chen, G.Q.; Lai, T.M.; Ahmad, B.; Chen, Z.M.; Shao, L.; Ji, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive inventory of cities' greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is the basis for cities to make appropriate mitigation plans. However, previous studies on cities' GHG emissions consider emissions occurring within the city boundary (Scope 1) and out of boundary electricity emissions (Scope 2), but neglect indirect emissions associated with commodities consumed by cities (Scope 3), resulting in emission leakage. To cope with this problem, a systematic accounting covering all 3 scopes is presented in a case study of Macao for the years 2005–2009, based on the latest embodied emission intensity databases for China and for the world. The results show that total emissions are dominated by indirect emissions mainly embodied in imports, which is 3–4 times direct emissions during the period concerned. It is verified that accounting under Scopes 1 and 2 cannot capture the full picture of cities' emissions, especially cities like Macao which are dominated by service industry and inevitably sustained by massive materials and services from other regions. Our study suggests that Macao should adjust its current GHG mitigation policies which consider only its emissions occurring within its border, as Macao is a net GHG emissions importer. This work is the first assessment of Macao's embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: • A systematic accounting procedure is presented to inventory a city's GHG emissions. • A comprehensive review of GHG emissions is performed for Macao. • Indirect GHG emissions dominate Macao's embodied GHG emissions. • Macao induced large amount of GHG emissions in other regions through trade. • The variation in GHG emission structure against socio-economic changes is revealed

  20. Climate and air quality-driven scenarios of ozone and aerosol precursor abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Berntsen, Terje; Fagerli, Hilde; Klimont, Zbigniew; Mideksa, Torben K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to causing domestic and regional environmental effects, many air pollutants contribute to radiative forcing (RF) of the climate system. However, climate effects are not considered when cost-effective abatement targets for these pollutants are established, nor are they included in current international climate agreements. We construct air pollution abatement scenarios in 2030 which target cost-effective reductions in RF in the EU, USA, and China and compare these to abatement scenarios which instead target regional ozone effects and particulate matter concentrations. Our analysis covers emissions of PM (fine, black carbon and organic carbon), SO 2 , NO x , CH 4 , VOCs, and CO. We find that the effect synergies are strong for PM/BC, VOC, CO and CH 4 . While an air quality strategy targeted at reducing ozone will also reduce RF, this will not be the case for a strategy targeting particulate matter. Abatement in China dominates RF reduction, but there are cheap abatement options also available in the EU and USA. The justification for international cooperation on air quality issues is underlined when the co-benefits of reduced RF are considered. Some species, most importantly SO 2 , contribute a negative forcing on climate. We suggest that given current knowledge, NO x and SO 2 should be ignored in RF-targeted abatement policies.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Li, Yunju; Su, Yufang; Tennigkeit, Timm; Wilkes, Andreas; Xu, Jianchu

    2010-01-01

    The use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers is an important driver of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China. This paper develops a GHG emission factor for synthetic N fertilizer application in China. Using this emission factor, we estimate the scale of GHG emissions from synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use in Chinese agriculture and explore the potential for GHG emission reductions from efficiency improvements in N fertilizer production and use. The paper concludes with a discussion on costs and financing for a large-scale fertilizer efficiency improvement program in China, and how a GHG mitigation framework might contribute to program design.

  2. Nitrous Oxide Formation and Destruction by Industrial No Abatement Techniques Including Scr Emissions des protoxides d'azote par des techniques industrielles d'abattement de NO y compris le SCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigations on N2O emission from full scale stationary combustion units, equipped with primary or secondary NO control techniques, are scarce or inexistent. Recent results obtained from laboratory scale studies are presented, from which it appears that fuel staging, selective non catalytic NO reduction with ammonia and selective catalytic NO reduction in the presence of ammonia, should be considered as potential sources of nitrous oxide emission enhancement. For the two mentioned gas phase NO abatement techniques (fuel staging and NCSR, this N2O emission enhancement is clearly linked with a decrease of the temperature, a result that might have been expected from the known gas phase reactions of N2O formation and destruction. Production of N2O from NCSR is more important than from fuel staging, and increases with ammonia concentration; this probably is related to the fact that ammonia yields N2O precursors (NH, NH2 readily by its decomposition. Separate injection of pure NO or NH3 suggests that N2O is a product of the interaction of those two reactants, whereas NO also is formed as a primary ammonia decomposition product in the presence of oxygen. A kinetic investigation of N2O formation from SCR has been made. It is shown that catalytic decomposition of neat ammonia yields both NO and N2O, the former as a primary product (from adsorbed ammonia and solid bound oxygen, the latter as a secondary product (from NO and adsorbed ammonia. Both NO and N2O subsequently undergo catalytic decomposition. In the presence of molecular oxygen, another NO formation (from O2 and adsorbed ammonia manifests itself at somewhat higher temperatures, creating the well known optimum temperature window . Comparative tests conducted on a number of metal oxides, tend to show that high efficiency for NO decomposition is often related to high production of N2O within the temperature window . On ne dispose actuellement pas encore de résultats d

  3. Assessment of GHG mitigation technology measures in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raptsoun, N.; Parasiouk, N.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992 the representatives of 176 countries including Ukraine met in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference to coordinate its efforts in protecting and guarding the environment. Signature of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change by around 150 countries indicates that climate change is potentially a major threat to the world`s environment and economic development. The project {open_quotes}Country Study on Climate Change in Ukraine{close_quotes} coordinated by the Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENIA-ECO) and supported by the US Country Studies Program Support for Climate Change Studies. The aim of the project is to make the information related to climate change in Ukraine available for the world community by using the potential of Ukrainian research institutes for further concerted actions to solve the problem of climate change on the global scale. The project consists of four elements: (1) the development of the GHG Inventory in Ukraine; (2) assessments of ecosystems-vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options; and (3) mitigation options analysis; (4) public education and outreach activities. This paper contains the main results of the third element for the energy and non-energy sectors. Main tasks of the third element were: (1) to select, test and describe or develop the methodology for mitigation options assessment; (2) to analyze the main sources of GHG emissions in Ukraine; (3) to give the macro economic analysis of Ukrainian development and the development of main economical sectors industry, energy, transport, residential, forestry and agriculture; (4) to forecast GHG emissions for different scenarios of the economic development; and (5) to analyze the main measures to mitigate climate change.

  4. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceschia, Eric; Bêziat, P; Dejoux, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    were estimated from the literature for the rice crop site only. At the other sites, CH4 emissions/oxidation were assumed to be negligible compared to other contributions to the net GHGB. Finally, we evaluated crop efficiencies (CE) in relation to global warming potential as the ratio of C exported from....... The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analysed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions...... caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHG budget (GHGB) for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines, and CH4 emissions...

  5. GHG budget in a young subtropical hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2 case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, C.; Guérin, F.; Serça, D.; Descloux, S.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamics of major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) has been studied in a new subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (impounded in 2009), Nam Theun 2 (NT2), in Lao PDR, Asia. The main pathways of emission were quantified, i.e., ebullition (bubbling), surface diffusion, downstream emissions (diffusion and degassing) and emissions from the drawdown area (up to 370 km2 for a 450km2 in the case of NT2). All presented results are coming from five field campaigns conducted from May 2009 to June 2011, and a monthly monitoring on 35 stations. Additional laboratory work in controlled conditions helped to assess production rates of CH4, CO2 and N2O, and aerobic CH4 oxidation rates. The ebullition of CH4 is in the same order as from other tropical reservoirs, varying with depth and atmospheric pressure. Measured diffusive fluxes of CH4 and CO2 cover the whole range of reported fluxes for other tropical reservoirs, depending on the season. Diffusive fluxes of N2O, and CH4 downstream (degassing and diffusion) emissions are in the lower range as reported before for tropical reservoirs. On the opposite, the drawdown area would represent a significant contribution to N2O emission. Our results for the year 2010 show that diffusive emission from the reservoir surface is the main contributor (46%) to total GHG emissions from the NT2 reservoir. With 25% and 19% of total GHG emissions, bubbling and drawdown area emissions also contributed significantly respectively. Downstream emissions from NT2 reservoir contributed around 10% of total GHG emissions, a percentage lower than reported for other reservoirs. With 963 Gg CO2eq yr-1 and 986 Gg CO2eq yr-1respectively, CH4 and CO2 have almost the same contributions (48 and 49%) of the total GHG budget, N2O accounting for less than 3% with 64 Gg CO2eq yr-1. With a total emissions from NT2 reservoir of 2013 Gg CO2eq yr-1, gross NT2 emission are about an order of magnitude higher than pre-impoundment emissions (276 Gg CO2eq yr-1). Net emission

  6. The importance of economies of scale for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstad, Haakon; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn E.; Strømman, Anders H.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from maritime transport represent 3.3% of the world's total CO 2 emissions and are forecast to increase by 150%–250% by 2050, due to increased freight volumes (). Fulfilling anticipated climate requirements () could require the sector to reduce emissions per freight unit by a factor of five or six. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is currently debating technical, operational and market-based measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping. This paper also investigates the effects of economies of scale on the direct emissions and costs of maritime transport. We compared emissions from the current fleet (2007), with what can be achieved by increasing average vessel size. The comparison is based on the 2007 levels of trade and predictions for 2050. The results show that emissions can be reduced by up to 30% at a negative abatement cost per ton of CO 2 by replacing the existing fleet with larger vessels. Replacing the whole fleet might take as long as 25 years, so the reduction in emissions will be achieved gradually as the current fleet is renewed. - Highlights: ► We investigate the effects of economy of scale for reduction of GHG emissions from shipping. ► Model includes both cost and emission as function of vessel size and type. ► Model is based on operational patterns as of today for the different vessel types and sizes. ► Comparison is based on actual 2007 tonnages and foreseen 2050 levels of trading. ► Results shows that emissions can be reduced by 25%–30% at a negative abatement cost.

  7. Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program : A Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the background, current activities, and future plans for the Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program. This program, sponsored by the Office of Technology Development and Deployment of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA...

  8. Abatement costs of post-Kyoto climate regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Lucas, Paul; Vuuren, Detlef van

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the abatement costs of three post-Kyoto regimes for differentiating commitments compatible with stabilising atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations at 550 ppmv CO 2 equivalent in 2100. The three regimes explored are: (1) the Multi-Stage approach assumes a gradual increase in the number of Parties involved who are adopting either emission intensity or reductions targets; (2) the Brazilian Proposal approach, i.e. the allocation or reductions based on countries' contribution to temperature increase; (3) Contraction and Convergence, with full participation in convergence of per capita emission allowances. In 2050, the global costs increase up to about 1% of the world GDP, ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, depending on baseline scenario and marginal abatement costs. Four groups of regions can be identified on the basis of similar costs (expressed as the percentage of GDP). These are: (1) OECD regions with average costs; (2) FSU, the Middle East and Latin America with high costs; (3) South-East Asia and East Asia (incl. China) with low costs; and (4) South Asia (incl. India) and Africa with net gains from emissions trading for most regimes. The Brazilian Proposal approach gives the highest costs for groups 1 and 2. The distribution of costs for the Contraction and Convergence approach highly depends on the convergence year. The Multi-Stage approach and Contraction and Convergence (convergence year 2050) seem to result in relatively the most even distribution of costs amongst all Parties

  9. Construction of abatement cost curves: The case of F-gases

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George

    2010-01-01

    Most of scientific research on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) focuses on CO2 emissions. But non-CO2 gases (mainly F-gases in the form of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) are more potent at trapping heat within the atmosphere. Currently, F-gases constitute a small proportion of GHG emissions but they are extremely high Global Warming Potential gases. At the same time, they are expected to increase massively due to the expansion of some emitting industries, while the atmospheric lifetimes of PFCs and SF6 are very ...

  10. Can fire regimes in savannas be managed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: evidence from northern Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Garry; (Mick) Meyer, C. P.; Reisen, Fabienne; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Maier, Stefan; Liedloff, Adam; Schatz, Jon; Yates, Cameron; Watt, Felicity

    2010-05-01

    Burning of savannas and grasslands consumes more than one third of the total annual biomass burning globally while in Australia, savanna burning comprises 2% to 4% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This national significance of this has led to efforts to reduce savanna burning emissions by better managing the extensive fires that burn across northern Australia each year. The approach is to use early dry season fires to create burnt fire breaks and reduce the frequency of late dry season fire and fires overall. Underpinning these mitigation programs is a requirement for robust GHG accounting. While extensive field programs have addressed some of the issues, including fuel loads and combustion properties within some of the potential project areas, other assumptions have not been rigorously analyzed. These include the seasonality in fuel dynamics and fuel moisture and their effect on emission processes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) argues that as fuel dries progressively through the dry season combustion efficiency increases and consequently methane (CH4) emission factor (EF) can decrease by 50% to 75%. If this was indeed the case, it would invalidate the approach to managing savanna burning for greenhouse gas abatement in northern Australia. Australian savanna differs substantially from the African savannas from which the IPCC advice was drawn. In Australian savanna woodlands a large fraction of the fuel is comprised of tree leaf litter and associated twigs and branches in contrast to African savannas where grasses assume a more dominant role. In this paper we analyze how variation in fuel composition across the northern Australian savanna plant communities influences combustion and GHG emission properties and conclude that fuel dynamics and composition can explain most of the observed variation in emission properties. The implications of this for greenhouse gas accounting in northern Australia is assessed.

  11. U.S. Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories: State of the Practice and Recommendations for Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This document presents highlights from five research reports on airport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories. It presents the most salient findings for policy makers and U.S. airports seeking to better understand and inventory airport GHG emiss...

  12. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data-Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy City Energy Profile tool. The analysis develops a national estimate of the carbon abatement potential of realizable city actions in six specific policy areas encompassing the most commonly implemented city actions. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a 'moderate abatement scenario' by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a 'high abatement scenario' by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city's control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. In the context of U.S. climate commitments under the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP21), the estimated national abatement potential of the city actions analyzed in this report equates to about 15%-35% of the remaining carbon abatement necessary to achieve the U.S. COP21 target. Additional city actions outside the scope of this report, such as community choice aggregation (city-level purchasing of renewable energy), zero energy districts, and multi

  13. Improved oilfield GHG accounting using a global oilfield database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Brandt, A. R.; Masnadi, M.

    2016-12-01

    The definition of oil is shifting in considerable ways. Conventional oil resources are declining as oil sands, heavy oils, and others emerge. Technological advances mean that these unconventional hydrocarbons are now viable resources. Meanwhile, scientific evidence is mounting that climate change is occurring. The oil sector is responsible for 35% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but the climate impacts of these new unconventional oils are not well understood. As such, the Oil Climate Index (OCI) project has been an international effort to evaluate the total life-cycle environmental GHG emissions of different oil fields globally. Over the course of the first and second phases of the project, 30 and 75 global oil fields have been investigated, respectively. The 75 fields account for about 25% of global oil production. For the third phase of the project, it is aimed to expand the OCI to contain closing to 100% of global oil production; leading to the analysis of 8000 fields. To accomplish this, a robust database system is required to handle and manipulate the data. Therefore, the integration of the data into the computer science language SQL (Structured Query Language) was performed. The implementation of SQL allows users to process the data more efficiently than would be possible by using the previously established program (Microsoft Excel). Next, a graphic user interface (gui) was implemented, in the computer science language of C#, in order to make the data interactive; enabling people to update the database without prior knowledge of SQL being necessary.

  14. Working Group 'Air pollution abatement' of the University of Stuttgart -ALS. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts for air pollution abatement - examples are here desulphurization and nitrogen removal in power and large combustion plants as well as catalytic converters for automobiles there are still many problems to solve. Many small and medium-size companies still have to reduce production-related pollutant emissions, traffic still is a major source of pollutants. Air pollution abatement in the new Federal states and other Eastern European countries is a particularly urgent task and reductions of CO 2 emissions from energy production processes with fossil fuels are not least a great challenge. Apart from industry, legislation and administration especially science is called upon to find solutions to these problems. The university of Stuttgart takes up the challenge. Numerous institutes - 17 of 8 faculties -united in the working group ''air pollution abatement'' of the university of Stuttgart which carries out in interdisciplinary cooperation research work in the area of air pollution abatement. In this annual report activities of individual member states institutes in the area of air pollution abatement (fields of study, current research projects, cooperations and publications in 1991) as well as joint projects are presented. (orig./KW) [de

  15. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongel, Aybike; Sezgin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  16. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongel, Aybike, E-mail: aybike.ongel@eng.bahcesehir.edu.tr [Bahcesehir University, Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul 34353 (Turkey); Sezgin, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.sezgin@ibb.gov.tr [Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Protection Agency, Istanbul 34169 (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  17. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2003-12-01

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO{sub 2} mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka. (author)

  18. Regional GHG reduction targets based on effort sharing: a comparison of studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höhne, N.; Elzen, den M.G.J.; Escalante, D.

    2014-01-01

    Over 40 studies that analyse future GHG emissions allowances or reduction targets for different regions based on a wide range of effort-sharing approaches and long-term concentration stabilization levels are compared. This updates previous work undertaken for the Fourth Assessment Report of the

  19. The effect of noise-abatement profiles on noise immissions and human annoyance underneath a subsequent climbpath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbell, Maurice A.

    1990-01-01

    En route noise emiss