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Sample records for ghana engaging children

  1. Non-communicable diseases among children in Ghana: health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the health and social concerns of parents/caregivers on in-patient care for children with NCDs in Ghana. Methods: This ..... givers influence health seeking behaviours and medical .... among older adults in China, Ghana, Mexico, India, Rus-.

  2. Understanding the health and nutritional status of children in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asenso-Okyere, W.K.; Asante, F.A.; Nube, M.

    1997-01-01

    The data set of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS, round 1, 1987/1988) was utilized to analyse the principal determinants (publicly and privately) of health and nutrition of children under five in Ghana. While in most health and nutrition studies the emphasis is either on health-related

  3. Evidence from Student-Community Engagement in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    TTFPP), where .... Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) which was developed in the 1980s. PRA gives local people the opportunity "to share, enhance and analyse their ... Then, cognitive engagement draws on the idea of ...

  4. Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Andy; Pirttilä, Jukka; Tarp, Finn

    Ghana is relatively rare among Sub-Saharan African countries in having had sustained positive growth every year since the mid-1980s. This paper analyses the nature of the growth and then presents an analysis of the evolution of both consumption poverty and non-monetary poverty outcomes over...... this period, showing improvements in almost all indicators over this period. At the same time, inequality has risen over the past 20 years and spatial inequality, in both monetary and non-monetary outcomes, remains an important concern. This increase in inequality is one reason why growth has not led...

  5. Co-production as deep engagement: Improving and sustaining access to clean water in Ghana and Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangai, M.S.; Vries, M.S. de

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE – While there is an urgent need for clean water in Ghana and Nigeria, governments lack the financial means to do much to address this need. This does not mean that improving access to clean water is impossible. On the contrary, this paper argued that engaging citizens through

  6. Incidence and characteristics of bacteremia among children in rural Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Verena Nielsen

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data.Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH, Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior.Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n = 238 were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS (53.3%; n = 129, Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n = 32, Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n = 22 and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n = 17. Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9-52.2. Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1-29.4 for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1-8.4 for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5-6.1 for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8-4.9 for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR. Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial

  7. Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The government of Ghana sees the country's population as a valuable natural resource and emphasizes national population policy as an important part of overall socioeconomic planning and development. A formal system of development planning has been in effect since 1951. Decennial censuses are conducted relatively regularly but vital registration is thought to be incomplete. The current population size is 11,679,000 and the current rate of natural increase (3.1%) is considered too high, constraining the achievement of socioeconomic development. The high rate of growth is taxing on employment and public services. High fertility rates are influenced both by regional norms, such as early and universal marriage, and demographic factors, i.e., an increasingly higher proportion of the population in the 0-14 age group. The government sponsors family planning services which can be obtained free or at subsidized rates and seeks to upgrade the health and living standards of the population. Sterilization is permitted for medical reasons only, and abortions are restricted. Crude death rates have declined steadily and are currently estimated at 21-23/1000 population. The infant mortality rate is approximately 125.7/1000 live births. These rates are considered unacceptable and budget allocations for curative and preventive services have continuously risen. Uneven regional distribution of services continues to be problematic. Efforts to curb immigration in 1969 are thought to have resulted in the current satisfactory situation. Restrictive measures to prevent the emigration of skilled personnel are in effect. 60-65% of the population are urban dwellers and the proportion is expected to increase. The current spatial distribution of the population is considered inappropriate, rapid urbanization is causing rural depopulation, overburdening urban services and accentuating rural-urban disparaties. 2 approaches to the problem have been implemented: the urban increase is accomodated by

  8. Sociodemographic Determinants of Malaria among Under-Five Children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Harrenson Nyarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria is an entrenched global health challenge particularly in the sub-Saharan African countries. However, in Ghana, little is known about the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children. As such, this study sought to examine the sociodemographic factors that determine malaria among under-five children in Ghana. Methods. This paper used secondary data drawn from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate analysis and complementary log-log regression models were used to examine the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children in Ghana for the study period. Results. The results therefore revealed that region of residence, age of child, and ownership of mosquito net were the key predictors of malaria cases among under-five children in Ghana for the five-year period preceding the survey. Conclusion. It is therefore imperative that special education on prevention of malaria should be intensified by the National Malaria Control Programme in all the regions in order to reduce malaria prevalence particularly among under-five children in Ghana.

  9. Development of Early Years Policy and Practice in Ghana: Can Outcomes Be Improved for Marginalised Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Even though several attempts have been made by the government of Ghana towards its goal of eradicating child labour, poverty, and marginalisation in educational outcomes for all children, the condition of disadvantaged children remain terribly devastating compared with those of more advantaged children. This article discusses the extent to which…

  10. Refractive error in school children in Agona Swedru, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Ovenseri-Ogbomo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncorrected refractive errors remains a public health problem among different population groups. Among schoolchildren, uncorrected refractive errors have a considerable impact on learning andacademic achievement especially in underserved and under-resourced communities. A school based cross-sectional study was carriedout to estimate the prevalence and distribution of refractive error among schoolchildren in the Agona Swedru municipality of Central Region of Ghana. 637 schoolchildren aged 11-18 years old were randomly selected for the study. Non-cycloplegic refraction was performed on each child who failed the reading test. Hyperopia was defined as spherical power of ≥ + 0.75 D, myopia as ≤ – 0.50 D and astigmatism as a cylindrical power of ≤ – 0.50 D. Of the children examined, only 13.3% had previously had an eye examination.Visual impairment (VA of 6/12 or worse in the better eye was present in 4.5% of the children examined. Of those who failed the reading test, 85.9% had refractive error. The prevalence of hyperopia, myopia and astigmatism was 5.0%, 1.7% and 6.6% respectively. The study concludes that uncorrected refractive error is a common cause of visual impairment among schoolchildren in the municipality. A low uptake of eye care is also noted in the study. The study therefore recommends that the education authority in collaboration with the District Health Directorate institute appropriate measures to ensure compulsory eye examination for schoolchildren in the Agona Swedru district. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(2 86-92

  11. Neglected populations: safeguarding the health of street-involved children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Twum, Jo-Ann; Wasan, Kishor M

    2012-10-01

    Ensuring the health of street-involved children is a growing public health challenge. These children are vulnerable, neglected, and rarely a priority for basic service providers and governments. Sizable populations of street-involved children are present in major urban areas worldwide and current trends in urbanization suggest these populations will grow in the coming years. Although migration offers employment and training opportunities, the health and wellbeing of children is negatively impacted by their interactions with the streets. However, systemic barriers may also prevent these children from achieving an adequate health status. The situation of street-involved children in Ghana, West Africa will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Firm-level perspectives on public sector engagement with private healthcare providers: survey evidence from Ghana and Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Sood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are in urgent need of improvement. The private health sector is a major provider of care in the region and it will remain a significant actor in the future. Any efforts by SSA governments to improve health systems performance therefore has to account for the private health sector. Regional and international actors increasingly recognize importance of effectively engaging with the private health sector, and initiatives to improve engagement are underway in several countries. However, there is little systematic analysis of private health providers' view and experience with engagement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we surveyed private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to understand the extent to which and how governments interact and engage with these facilities. The results suggest that government engagement with private health facilities is quite limited. The primary focus of this engagement is "command-and-control" type regulations to improve the quality of care. There is little attention paid to building the capacity of health care businesses through either technical or financial assistance. The vast majority of these facilities also receive no government assistance in meeting public health and social goals. Finally, government engagement with private pharmacies is often neglected and clinics receive a disproportionate share of government assistance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our findings suggest that there may be considerable untapped potential for greater engagement with private health facilities--particularly pharmacies. Improving engagement will likely help governments with limited resources to better take advantage of the private sector capacity to meet access and equity objectives and to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

  13. Firm-Level Perspectives on Public Sector Engagement with Private Healthcare Providers: Survey Evidence from Ghana and Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Burger, Nicholas; Yoong, Joanne; Kopf, Dan; Spreng, Connor

    2011-01-01

    Background Health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are in urgent need of improvement. The private health sector is a major provider of care in the region and it will remain a significant actor in the future. Any efforts by SSA governments to improve health systems performance therefore has to account for the private health sector. Regional and international actors increasingly recognize importance of effectively engaging with the private health sector, and initiatives to improve engagement are underway in several countries. However, there is little systematic analysis of private health providers' view and experience with engagement. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we surveyed private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to understand the extent to which and how governments interact and engage with these facilities. The results suggest that government engagement with private health facilities is quite limited. The primary focus of this engagement is “command-and-control” type regulations to improve the quality of care. There is little attention paid to building the capacity of health care businesses through either technical or financial assistance. The vast majority of these facilities also receive no government assistance in meeting public health and social goals. Finally, government engagement with private pharmacies is often neglected and clinics receive a disproportionate share of government assistance. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our findings suggest that there may be considerable untapped potential for greater engagement with private health facilities—particularly pharmacies. Improving engagement will likely help governments with limited resources to better take advantage of the private sector capacity to meet access and equity objectives and to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:22132092

  14. Re-engaging the Distribution of Rewards among Small-Scale Farmers and Traders in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Anne Lassen

    A number of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries including Ghana have experienced positive growth rates in recent years. Unfortunately, these growth rates have not transformed into sustainable inclusive development and reduced poverty in many cases (Hailu and Tsukada, 2011). Within agricultural tr...

  15. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well

  16. Effect of Community Engagement Interventions on Patient Safety and Risk Reduction Efforts in Primary Health Facilities: Evidence from Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kaba Alhassan

    Full Text Available Patient safety and quality care remain major challenges to Ghana's healthcare system. Like many health systems in Africa, this is largely because demand for healthcare is outstripping available human and material resource capacity of healthcare facilities and new investment is insufficient. In the light of these demand and supply constraints, systematic community engagement (SCE in healthcare quality assessment can be a feasible and cost effective option to augment existing quality improvement interventions. SCE entails structured use of existing community groups to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements identified and rewards provided if the quality gaps are closed.This paper evaluates whether or not SCE, through the assessment of health service quality, improves patient safety and risk reduction efforts by staff in healthcare facilities.A randomized control trail was conducted in 64 primary healthcare facilities in the Greater Accra and Western regions of Ghana. Patient risk assessments were conducted in 32 randomly assigned intervention and control facilities. Multivariate multiple regression test was used to determine effect of the SCE interventions on staff efforts towards reducing patient risk. Spearman correlation test was used to ascertain associations between types of community groups engaged and risk assessment scores of healthcare facilities.Clinic staff efforts towards increasing patient safety and reducing risk improved significantly in intervention facilities especially in the areas of leadership/accountability (Coef. = 10.4, p<0.05 and staff competencies (Coef. = 7.1, p<0.05. Improvement in service utilization and health resources could not be attributed to the interventions because these were outside the control of the study and might have been influenced by institutional or national level developments between the baseline and follow-up period

  17. Children with cerebral palsy in Ghana: malnutrition, feeding challenges, and caregiver quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Sarah; Adams, Mel; O'banion, David; Baltussen, Marjolein; Asante, Sandra; Kerac, Marko; Gladstone, Melissa; Zuurmond, Maria

    2018-05-07

    To assess feeding difficulties and nutritional status among children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Ghana, and whether severity of feeding difficulties and malnutrition are independently associated with caregiver quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional survey included 76 children with CP (18mo-12y) from four regions of Ghana. Severity of CP was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System and anthropometric measures were taken. Caregivers rated their QoL (using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Family Impact Module) and difficulties with eight aspects of child feeding. Logistic regression analysis explored factors (socio-economic characteristics, severity of CP, and feeding difficulties) associated with being underweight. Linear regression was undertaken to assess the relationship between caregiver QoL and child malnutrition and feeding difficulties. Poor nutritional status was common: 65% of children aged under 5 years were categorized as underweight, 54% as stunted, and 58% as wasted. Reported difficulties with child's feeding were common and were associated with the child being underweight (odds ratio 10.7, 95% confidence interval 2.3-49.6) and poorer caregiver QoL (pnutritional status was evident. Among rural, low resource populations in Ghana, there is a need for appropriate, accessible caregiver training and support around feeding practices of children with CP, to improve child nutritional status and caregiver well-being. What this paper adds Malnutrition is very common among children with cerebral palsy in this rural population in Ghana. Feeding difficulties in this population were strongly associated with being underweight. Feeding difficulties were associated with poorer caregiver quality of life (QoL). Child nutritional status was not associated with caregiver QoL. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ≤6–7 log10 copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal–oral modes of PARV4 transmission. PMID:23018024

  19. Why are our children wasting: Determinants of wasting among under 5s in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darteh, Eugene Kofuor Maafo; Acquah, Evelyn; Darteh, Florie

    2017-09-01

    Wasting is one of the indicators of malnutrition known to contribute to the deaths occurring from childhood malnutrition. It is the measure of body mass in relation to body length used to explain recent nutritional status. This paper examines the determinants of wasting among under 5s in Ghana. Data were drawn from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey children's records file to examine the determinants of wasting among children. A total of 2720 children under 5 years with valid anthropometric data were used. Data on wasting were collected by measuring the weight and height of all children under 5 years of age. Bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the determinants of wasting. The bi-variate analysis showed significant differences ( p 5s according to age of the child, region, and wealth status. On the other hand, the multi-variate analysis revealed that the odds of wasting were lower among children aged 24-35 months (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.37; p 5s. Also, efforts should be made by the relevant government agencies and other stakeholders to strengthen the socio-economic status of mothers to enable them to provide adequate nutrition and improve access to health insurance for their children in order to reduce the incidence of wasting among these children.

  20. Educational status and beliefs regarding non-communicable diseases among children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badasu, Delali M; Abuosi, Aaron A; Adzei, Francis A; Anarfi, John K; Yawson, Alfred E; Atobrah, Deborah A

    2018-03-05

    Increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been observed in Ghana as in other developing countries. Past research focused on NCDs among adults. Recent researches, however, provide evidence on NCDs among children in many countries, including Ghana. Beliefs about the cause of NCDs among children may be determined by the socioeconomic status of parents and care givers. This paper examines the relationship between educational status of parents and/or care givers of children with NCDs on admission and their beliefs regarding NCDs among children. A total of 225 parents and/or care givers of children with NCDS hospitalized in seven hospitals in three regions (Greater Accra, Ashanti and Volta) were selected for the study. Statistical techniques, including the chi-square and multinomial logistic regression, were used for the data analysis. Educational status is a predictor of care giver's belief about whether enemies can cause NCDs among children or not. This is the only belief with which all the educational categories have significant relationship. Also, post-secondary/polytechnic (p-value =0.029) and university (p-value = 0.009) levels of education are both predictors of care givers being undecided about the belief that NCDs among children can be caused by enemies, when background characteristics are controlled for. Significant relationship is found between only some educational categories regarding the other types of beliefs and NCDs among children. For example, those with Middle/Juniour Secondary School (JSS)/Juniour High School (JHS) education are significantly undecided about the belief that the sin of parents can cause NCDs among children. Education is more of a predictor of the belief that enemies can cause NCDs among children than the other types of beliefs. Some categories of ethnicity, residential status and age have significant relationship with the beliefs when background characteristics of the parents and/or care givers were controlled

  1. Public's Perception of the Phenomenon of Street Children: A Qualitative Study of Students and Shopkeepers in Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recorded interviews and focus group discussions with shopkeepers, and junior and senior high school children respectively in Accra Central, this study explores the public's perceptions of the phenomenon of street children in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used. Qualitative analyses of the data indicated that both shopkeepers and school children who participated in this study generally have positive and supportive perception of street children. However, the scho...

  2. Children's Task Engagement during Challenging Puzzle Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Algina, James; Snyder, Patricia; Cox, Martha

    2017-01-01

    We examined children's task engagement during a challenging puzzle task in the presence of their primary caregivers by using a representative sample of rural children from six high-poverty counties across two states. Weighted longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to identify a task engagement factor…

  3. Acute Appendicitis in Children in Kumasi, Ghana:Macroscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background A lot has been written about acute appendicitis in children in the developed countries but very little is written about this condition among children in the sub Saharan region. It used to be said that acute appendicitis is rare in Africa but this is no longer the case. We are unable to find, in the literature, any reference ...

  4. The Education of Children with Special Needs in Ghana: Policies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that some policies have been put in place in the country regarding the education of special needs children. The main facilities that exist for children with special needs are in the areas of visual impairment, hearing impairment and mental retardation. No special facilities or services exist for the gifted, the ...

  5. Chlamydiae in febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and age-matched controls, Ghana

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    H. Bühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular pathogens causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Chlamydiaceae are established agents of community- and zoonotically acquired respiratory tract infections, and emerging pathogens among the Chlamydia-related bacteria have been implicated in airway infections. The role of both in airway infections in Africa is underexplored. We performed a case -control study on the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related emerging pathogens in children with febrile respiratory tract infections in West Africa, Ghana. Using a pan-Chlamydiales broad-range real-time PCR, we detected chlamydial DNA in 11 (1.9% of 572 hospitalized febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and in 24 (4.3% of 560 asymptomatic age-matched controls (p 0.03. Chlamydiaceae were found to be common among both symptomatic and healthy Ghanaian children, with Chlamydia pneumoniae being the most prevalent species. Parachlamydiaceae were detected in two children without symptoms but not in the symptomatic group. We identified neither Chlamydia psittaci nor Simkania negevensis but a member of a new chlamydial family that shared 90.2% sequence identity with the 16S rRNA gene of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia pecorum. In addition, we found a new Chlamydia-related species that belonged to a novel family sharing 91.3% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia. The prevalence and spectrum of chlamydial species differed from previous results obtained from children of other geographic regions and our study indicates that both, Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria, are not clearly linked to clinical symptoms in Ghanaian children. Keywords: Children, Chlamydia, Chlamydia-related bacteria, febrile respiratory tract infection, Ghana

  6. Domestic violence and violence against children in Ghana 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Catherine; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Oosterhoff, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how domestic violence relates to violence against children, including severe corporal punishment. The literature suggests a link between intimate partner violence in the household and child abuse and maltreatment. Studies are, however, limited by the use of narrowly defined measures of violence against children, data availability, and a lack of characterization of domestic violence. In this paper we use original data on domestic violence and child disciplining methods ...

  7. Living with conflicts in Ghana's Prestea mining area: Is community engagement the answer?

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    Obed Adonteng-Kissi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale mines acknowledge that their continuous existence in indigenous communities is threatened without the cooperation and support of local people. In recent times, large-scale mines have attempted to secure Social License to Operate (SLO and ensure sustainable development (SD by reconciling business interests with local needs and aspirations. Accomplishing local cooperation and support without threatening business interest remains a top priority for the large-scale mines. Community engagement forms part of the broader Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR policy initiatives which are often promoted as a way of enhancing sustainable development. This paper examines the local perceptions of the design and application of Golden Star Resources' (GSR community engagement program. This paper contends that this community engagement model has a positive impact on conflict management regardless of age, sex, education, marital status and occupation of participants. However, presently the model remains symbolic and has not yet attain the status of a real functional strategy since many of local grievances that result in clashes are unresolved. Furthermore, it is believed that GSR's community engagement program is not adequately developed, systematic or moulded to achieve the exact or intended community relation. This paper further contends that the dominant sources and causes of conflict in Prestea is land use conflicts and environmental impact issues.

  8. Experiences of parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

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    Eric Badu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parents of children with intellectual disabilities could experience difficulties associated with their care. Yet, insight into individual experiences is inadequate to guide effective responses to the needs of parents and their sons and daughters with intellectual disability. This study sought to explore the experiences of parents of children with intellectual disability with the aim of making these experiences visible to guide the design and provision of support services for the parents and their children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents of children with intellectual disability between the ages of 4 and 15 years residing in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis to explore themes that describe the experiences of the parents. The study found that parents of intellectually disabled children encounter challenges looking after their children due to the negative perceptions associated with having such children. Financial costs and managing behavioral challenges of intellectually disabled children were also major sources of stressors for parents. Although informal support and assurances from professionals alleviated parental stress and gave them some hope about the future of their children, these support services seem inadequate. A more structured support programme that includes financial empowerment of the parents and recognizes the importance of early detection and intervention practices is needed.  Keywords: Intellectual disability, parents, caregivers, support services, health professionals

  9. Acceptability of rapid diagnostic test-based management of Malaria among caregivers of under-five children in rural Ghana.

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    Frank Baiden

    Full Text Available WHO now recommends test-based management of malaria (TBMM across all age-groups. This implies artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT should be restricted to rapid diagnostic test (RDT-positive cases. This is a departure from what caregivers in rural communities have been used to for many years.We conducted a survey among caregivers living close to 32 health centres in six districts in rural Ghana and used logistic regression to explore factors likely to influence caregiver acceptability of RDT based case management and concern about the denial of ACT on account of negative RDT results. Focus group discussions were conducted to explain the quantitative findings and to elicit further factors.A total of 3047 caregivers were interviewed. Nearly all (98% reported a preference for TBMM over presumptive treatment. Caregivers who preferred TBMM were less likely to be concerned about the denial of ACT to their test-negative children (O.R. 0.57, 95%C.I. 0.33-0.98. Compared with caregivers who had never secured national health insurance cover, caregivers who had valid (adjusted O.R. 1.30, 95% CI 1.07-1.61 or expired (adjusted O.R. 1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.73 insurance cover were more likely to be concerned about the denial of ACT to their RDT-negative children. Major factors that promote TBMM acceptability include the perception that a blood test at health centre level represents improvement in the quality of care, leads to improvement in treatment outcomes, and offers opportunity for better communication between health workers and caregivers. Acceptability is also enhanced by engaging caregivers in the procedures of the test. Apprehensions about negative health worker attitude could however undermine acceptance.Test (RDT-based management of malaria in under-five children is likely to be acceptable to caregivers in rural Ghana. The quality of caregiver-health worker interaction needs to be improved if acceptability is to be sustained.

  10. Severe falciparum malaria in young children of the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Abraham R; Koram, Kwadwo A; Rogers, William; Atuguba, Frank; Ansah, Patrick; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Ansah, Akosua; Anto, Francis; Mensah, Nathan; Hodgson, Abraham; Nkrumah, Francis

    2007-07-27

    Severe falciparum malaria in children was studied as part of the characterization of the Kassena-Nankana District Ghana for future malaria vaccine trials. Children aged 6-59 months with diagnosis suggestive of acute disease were characterized using the standard WHO definition for severe malaria. Of the total children screened, 45.2% (868/1921) satisfied the criteria for severe malaria. Estimated incidence of severe malaria was 3.4% (range: 0.4-8.3%) cases per year. The disease incidence was seasonal: 560 cases per year, of which 70.4% occurred during the wet season (June-October). The main manifestations were severe anaemia (36.5%); prolonged or multiple convulsions (21.6%); respiratory distress (24.4%) and cerebral malaria (5.4%). Others were hyperpyrexia (11.1%); hyperparasitaemia (18.5%); hyperlactaemia (33.4%); and hypoglycaemia (3.2%). The frequency of severe anaemia was 39.8% in children of six to 24 months of age and 25.9% in children of 25-60 months of age. More children (8.7%) in the 25-60 months age group had cerebral malaria compared with 4.4% in the 6-24 months age group. The overall case fatality ratio was 3.5%. Cerebral malaria and hyperlactataemia were the significant risk factors associated with death. Severe anaemia, though a major presentation, was not significantly associated with risk of death. Severe malaria is a frequent and seasonal childhood disease in northern Ghana and maybe an adequate endpoint for future malaria vaccine trials.

  11. Childhood Malnutrition and Its Determinants among Under-Five Children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aheto, Justice Moses K; Keegan, Thomas J; Taylor, Benjamin M; Diggle, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Childhood malnutrition adversely affects short- and long-term health and economic well-being of children. Malnutrition is a global challenge and accounts for around 40% of under-five mortality in Ghana. Limited studies are available indicating determinants of malnutrition among children. This study investigates prevalence and determinants of malnutrition among children under-five with the aim of providing advice to policymakers and other stakeholders responsible for the health and nutrition of children. The study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Analyses were conducted on 2083 children under 5 years old nested within 1641 households with eligible anthropometric measurements, using multilevel regression analysis. Results from the multilevel models were used to compute probabilities of malnutrition. This study observed that 588 (28%), 276 (13%), and 176 (8%) of the children were moderately 'stunted', moderately 'underweight', and moderately 'wasted' respectively. Older ages are associated with increased risk of stunting and underweight. Longer breast-feeding duration, multiple births, experience of diarrhoeal episodes, small size at birth, absence of toilet facilities in households, poor households, and mothers who are not covered by national health insurance are associated with increased risk of malnutrition. Increase in mother's years of education and body mass index are associated with decreased malnutrition. Strong residual household-level variations in childhood nutritional outcomes were found. Policies and intervention strategies aimed at improving childhood nutrition and health should address the risk factors identified and the need to search for additional risk factors that might account for the unexplained household-level variations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Becoming an adult; the training of children in Ghana | Ampofo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although parents believed that giving rewards is effective in ensuring that children practiced or pursued certain household chores, gender related roles and adopted family life values, it appeared ... D'après les parents, la méthode de formation communément utilisée consistait à donner des consignes verbales aux enfants.

  13. Repositioning Ghana Schools as English Language Learner Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Although English has traditionally been the only language of instruction in Ghana, most young children do not speak English at home. This paper argues that students' academic performance might be improved if their native languages were also used in school. Such an approach offers benefits in areas such as classroom participation, engagement in…

  14. Improving the Management of Coastal Natural Resources by Engaging and Empowering the Youth: A case study from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipoe, E.

    2013-12-01

    In rural communities of Africa, environmental programs aiming at creating awareness on environmental issues, such as climate change, have the potential to incorporate and support the youth by strengthening their knowledge, skills, attitudes and ability to adapt to a changing physical environment. Along the coastal region of Ghana, the perception of climate change involves both young and old generations within their communities. However, most educational programs in climate change adaptation and mitigation are often targeted at adults, leaving out the participation of the youth. In most cases, this is explained by the traditional idea that adults are regarded as the educators in the community. This work investigates the roles that young people can play in environmental educational programs at the community level, especially for coastal migrant populations. Young generations may be motivators of interest, changers of attitude, and creators of awareness towards the elder generations. Different tools aimed at engaging the youth population such as interactive programs of environmental communication and management are used in this work. Using these tools, the youth will be empowered to be more involved in the decision making process, they will educate their parents, newer generations and other stakeholders and, they will organize themselves to protect the coastal natural resources. Such roles and actions have the potential of transforming communities characterized for their environment degradation by over-exploiting their local natural resources towards a community based in the exploitation of the coastal resources within a preservation context. This work also shows the resistance of the older generations to promote educational changes related to the management of the coastal resources and how this is perceived by the younger generation, who will become the future leaders.

  15. Antibodies reactive to Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen in children with Burkitt lymphoma from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guech-Ongey, Mercy; Yagi, Masanori; Palacpac, Nirianne Marie Q; Emmanuel, Benjamin; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Bhatia, Kishor; Stefan, D Cristina; Biggar, Robert J; Nkrumah, Francis; Neequaye, Janet; Tougan, Takahiro; Horii, Toshihiro; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2012-04-15

    The role of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown. We investigated the association between BL and antibodies reactive to SE36 antigen, a recombinant protein based on P. falciparum serine repeat antigen 5 gene, targeted by protective malaria immune responses. Cases were children (0-14 years) enrolled at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, during 1965-1994 with BL confirmed by histology or cytology (92% of cases). Controls were apparently healthy children enrolled contemporaneous to the cases from the nearest neighbor house to the case house and were age,- sex-frequency-matched to the cases. Anti-SE36 IgG antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked absorbent immunoassays (ELISAs). SE36 titers were estimated by extrapolating ELISA optical density readings to a standard fitting curve. Anti-SE36 titers were log-transformed for analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. The mean log endpoint dilution titers were 0.63 logs lower in cases than in controls (8.26 [SD 1.68] vs. 8.89 [SD 1.75], Student's t-test, p = 0.019). Lower titers were observed in cases than controls aged 0-4 years (p = 0.05) and in those aged 5-14 years (p = 0.06). Low and medium tertiles of anti-SE36 IgG antibodies were associated with increased OR for BL ([OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.21-2.31] and [OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.96-1.86], respectively, p(trend) = 0.002) in analyses adjusting for age, sex, calendar period and test plate. Our findings suggest that compared to similarly aged children enrolled from the same community, children with BL in Ghana have lower antibodies to SE36 antigen. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  16. Young Children Playing Together: A Choice of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Babs

    2018-01-01

    This article highlights the findings of an empirical research project, using an ethnographic approach, taking place over one academic year. It investigates the different forms of engagement that children may present, when acting in free play situations in a nursery in NW England, without direct adult intervention. This range of engagement includes…

  17. Perceived social support disparities among children affected by HIV/AIDS in Ghana: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, Paul Narh; Dotse, John Enoch; Mensah, Kofi Akohene

    2015-06-06

    The study investigated whether perceived social support varied among children who have lost their parents to AIDS, those who have lost their parents to other causes, those who are living with HIV/AIDS-infected caregivers and children from intact families (comparison group). This study employed cross-sectional, quantitative survey that involved 291 children aged 10-18 years in the Lower Manya Krobo District of Ghana and examined their social support disparities. Multivariate linear regressions indicate that children living with HIV/AIDS-infected caregivers reported significantly lower levels of social support compared with AIDS-orphaned children, other-orphaned children and non-orphaned children independent of socio-demographic covariates. Children who have lost their parents to other causes and other-orphaned children reported similar levels of social support. In terms of sources of support, all children orphans and vulnerable children were more likely to draw support from friends and significant others rather than from the family. The findings indicate a need to develop interventions that can increase levels of social support for orphaned and vulnerable children within the context of HIV/AIDS in Ghana, particularly networks that include the family.

  18. What Works for Parents: How Parents Support Their Children with Math Homework in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Tackie-Ofosu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.

  19. Refractive error and visual impairment in private school children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumah, Ben D; Ebri, Anne; Abdul-Kabir, Mohammed; Ahmed, Abdul-Sadik; Koomson, Nana Ya; Aikins, Samual; Aikins, Amos; Amedo, Angela; Lartey, Seth; Naidoo, Kovin

    2013-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in private school children in Ghana. A random selection of geographically defined classes in clusters was used to identify a sample of school children aged 12 to 15 years in the Ashanti Region. Children in 60 clusters were enumerated and examined in classrooms. The examination included visual acuity, retinoscopy, autorefraction under cycloplegia, and examination of anterior segment, media, and fundus. For quality assurance, a random sample of children with reduced and normal vision were selected and re-examined independently. A total of 2454 children attending 53 private schools were enumerated, and of these, 2435 (99.2%) were examined. Prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 3.7, 3.5, and 0.4%, respectively. Refractive error was the cause of reduced vision in 71.7% of 152 eyes, amblyopia in 9.9%, retinal disorders in 5.9%, and corneal opacity in 4.6%. Exterior and anterior segment abnormalities occurred in 43 (1.8%) children. Myopia (at least -0.50 D) in one or both eyes was present in 3.2% of children when measured with retinoscopy and in 3.4% measured with autorefraction. Myopia was not significantly associated with gender (P = 0.82). Hyperopia (+2.00 D or more) in at least one eye was present in 0.3% of children with retinoscopy and autorefraction. The prevalence of reduced vision in Ghanaian private school children due to uncorrected refractive error was low. However, the prevalence of amblyopia, retinal disorders, and corneal opacities indicate the need for early interventions.

  20. Malnutrition in Pre-school Children across Different Geographic Areas and Socio-Demographic Groups in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewusie, J E; Beyene, J; Ahiadeke, C; Hamid, J S

    2017-04-01

    Objective Malnutrition in children pervades all aspects of their health, growth, cognitive and social development and can lead to irreversible and lifelong effects. We examine the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children under 5 in the Ghanaian population. Methods Using data from the latest available Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS), we estimated and compared prevalence of malnutrition in children among the different subgroups of the population. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with childhood malnutrition in Ghana. Results Overall, 35.6 % (95 % CI: 33.6, 37.6) of Ghanaian children under 5 years of age suffer from some form of malnutrition. Specifically, 27.5 % (95 % CI: 25.1, 28.7), 13.8 % (95 % CI: 12.5, 15.3), 8.9 % (95 % CI: 7.8, 10.2) were stunted, underweight and wasted, respectively. Results from the logistic regression indicate that gender and age of the child, educational and nutritional status of the mother, and financial status of the household are risk factors associated with childhood malnutrition in Ghana. Conclusions for Practice In view of the observed high rate of malnutrition among Ghanaian children despite the interventions that have been in place since the 1990s, there is a need for increased awareness and improved targeted interventions as well as knowledge translation tools including extensive education on infant and young child feeding practices.

  1. Scriptural Engagement, Communication with God, and Moral Behavior among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovwigho, Pamela Caudill; Cole, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    How often an individual reads or listens to scripture is one dimension of private spirituality rarely discussed in the literature. In this study, we use data from a random sample survey of 1009 American children (ages eight to 12) to explore children's engagement with the Christian Bible, their views of communicating with God, and their moral…

  2. Screen Time Engagement Is Increased in Urban Children With Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Alexandra P; Bacharier, Leonard B; Jaffee, Katy; Visness, Cynthia M; Kattan, Meyer; O'Connor, George T; Wood, Robert A; Gergen, Peter J; Gern, James E; Bloomberg, Gordon R

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity in children has been shown to play a role in its relationship to asthma, both in terms of prevalence and incidence. One measure of physical activity in children is sedentary behavior, which might be measured by the degree of engagement with media electronic screens. We found that children with asthma, as compared with children without asthma, engage in significantly more hours of screen time (median 35 vs 26 h/wk, P = .004). In this birth cohort, those who developed a diagnosis of asthma at 8 years of age were significantly more engaged in electronic screen time than their peers. No other clinical or lifestyle behaviors were significantly associated with a diagnosis of asthma. Further study will be needed to determine directionality of this finding.

  3. Ghana - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Ghana Millennium Development Authority's (MiDA) Agriculture Project within the Government of Ghana's Compact with the Millennium Challenge Corporation is design...

  4. Effect of Community Engagement Interventions on Patient Safety and Risk Reduction Efforts in Primary Health Facilities: Evidence from Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Ogink, Alice; van Ostenberg, Paul; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient safety and quality care remain major challenges to Ghana's healthcare system. Like many health systems in Africa, this is largely because demand for healthcare is outstripping available human and material resource capacity of healthcare facilities and new investment is

  5. Perspectives of frontline health workers on Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme before and after community engagement interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Barely a decade after introduction of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), significant successes have been recorded in universal access to basic healthcare services. However, sustainability of the scheme is increasingly threatened by concerns on quality of health service delivery in

  6. Equitable access to health insurance for socially excluded children? The case of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gemma A; Parmar, Divya; Dkhimi, Fahdi; Asante, Felix; Arhinful, Daniel; Mladovsky, Philipa

    2017-08-01

    To help reduce child mortality and reach universal health coverage, Ghana extended free membership of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to children (under-18s) in 2008. However, despite the introduction of premium waivers, a substantial proportion of children remain uninsured. Thus far, few studies have explored why enrolment of children in NHIS may remain low, despite the absence of significant financial barriers to membership. In this paper we therefore look beyond economic explanations of access to health insurance to explore additional wider determinants of enrolment in the NHIS. In particular, we investigate whether social exclusion, as measured through a sociocultural, political and economic lens, can explain poor enrolment rates of children. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey of 4050 representative households conducted in Ghana in 2012. Household indices were created to measure sociocultural, political and economic exclusion, and logistic regressions were conducted to study determinants of enrolment at the individual and household levels. Our results indicate that socioculturally, economically and politically excluded children are less likely to enrol in the NHIS. Furthermore, households excluded in all dimensions were more likely to be non-enrolled or partially-enrolled (i.e. not all children enrolled within the household) than fully-enrolled. These results suggest that equity in access for socially excluded children has not yet been achieved. Efforts should be taken to improve coverage by removing the remaining small, annually renewable registration fee, implementing and publicising the new clause that de-links premium waivers from parental membership, establishing additional scheme administrative offices in remote areas, holding regular registration sessions in schools and conducting outreach sessions and providing registration support to female guardians of children. Ensuring equitable access to NHIS will contribute substantially

  7. Breakfast habits among school children in selected communities in the eastern region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intiful, F D; Lartey, A

    2014-06-01

    Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, yet many people skip breakfast. Studies indicate that school age children who regularly skip breakfast are not likely to concentrate in class, thus affecting school performance. This study determined the breakfast habits and nutrient contributions of the breakfast meal to the days' nutrient intake. A cross sectional study was conducted among school children (n=359) between the ages of 6-19 years in Manya Krobo in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were used to collect information on background characteristics and breakfast consumption habits. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to obtain information on the children's food intake. T-test was used to compare differences between means of variables of breakfast consumers and skippers. About 85.5% of the children had breakfast on the day of interview. More boys (87.8%) consumed breakfast compared to the girls (83.1%). For those who skipped breakfast, lack of food at home or lack of no money (36.5%) was the main reason. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher energy and nutrient intakes than those who skipped breakfast (energy 2259 verses 1360 kcal, p-0.039; vitamin A 1534 verses 662 ug/RE, p=0.001; iron 22.9 verses 13.9 mg, p=0.017, zinc 9.9 verses 5.6 mg, p=0.034). The breakfast meal contributed between 32-41% of the day's energy intake, and between 30-47% of micronutrient intake. Encouraging breakfast consumption among school children is a way to ensure that they meet their daily nutrient and energy intakes.

  8. Ghana's community-based primary health care: Why women and children are 'disadvantaged' by its implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinga, Roger A; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Esena, Reuben K

    2018-03-01

    Policy analysis on why women and children in low- and middle-income settings are still disadvantaged by access to appropriate care despite Primary Health Care (PHC) programmes implementation is limited. Drawing on the street-level bureaucracy theory, we explored how and why frontline providers (FLP) actions on their own and in interaction with health system factors shape Ghana's community-based PHC implementation to the disadvantage of women and children accessing and using health services. This was a qualitative study conducted in 4 communities drawn from rural and urban districts of the Upper West region. Data were collected from 8 focus group discussions with community informants, 73 in-depth interviews with clients, 13 in-depth interviews with district health managers and FLP, and observations. Data were recorded, transcribed and coded deductively and inductively for themes with the aid of Nvivo 11 software. Findings showed that apart from FLP frequent lateness to, and absenteeism from work, that affected care seeking for children, their exercise of discretionary power in determining children who deserve care over others had ripple effects: families experienced financial hardships in seeking alternative care for children, and avoided that by managing symptoms with care provided in non-traditional spaces. FLP adverse behaviours were driven by weak implementation structures embedded in the district health systems. Basic obstetric facilities such as labour room, infusion stand, and beds for deliveries, detention and palpation were lacking prompting FLP to cope by conducting deliveries using a patchwork of improvised delivery methods which worked out to encourage unassisted home deliveries. Perceived poor conditions of service weakened FLP commitment to quality maternal and child care delivery. Findings suggest the need for strategies to induce behaviour change in FLP, strengthen district administrative structures, and improve on the supply chain and logistics

  9. Building social license to operate through community engagement: the WUSC-Rio Tinto Alcan partnership in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Presenting the case study of the WUSC-Rio Tinto Alcan partnership in Ghana, this article focuses on the benefits and challenges of a multi-stakeholder partnership between an NGO, a mining company, governments and local communities. Strong community empowerment, alignment of multiple stakeholders’ interests, and the contribution of an expert development NGO definitely contributed to the success of the project, while also strengthening Rio Tinto’s social license to operate.

  10. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Children in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, Daniel; Nagel, Michael; Hogan, Benedikt; Azuure, Clinton; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Gajdiss, Mike; Brunke, Melanie; Sarpong, Nimako; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; May, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Nasal swabs were obtained from children aureus isolates were characterized by their antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and further differentiated by spa-typing and multi-locus-sequence-typing. Out of 544 children 120 (22.1%) were colonized with S. aureus, with highest carriage rates during the rainy seasons (27.2%; p = 0.007), in females aged 6-8 years (43.7%) and males aged 8-10 years (35.2%). The 123 isolates belonged to 35 different spa-types and 19 sequence types (ST) with the three most prevalent spa-types being t355 (n = 25), t84 (n = 18), t939 (n = 13), corresponding to ST152, ST15 and ST45. Two (2%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), classified as t1096 (ST152) and t4454 (ST45), and 16 (13%) were resistant to three or more different antimicrobial classes. PVL and TSST-1 were detected in 71 (58%) and 17 (14%) isolates respectively. S. aureus carriage among Ghanaian children seems to depend on age, sex and seasonality. While MRSA rates are low, the high prevalence of PVL is of serious concern as these strains might serve not only as a source for severe invasive infections but may also transfer genes, leading to highly virulent MRSA clones.

  11. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Children in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eibach

    Full Text Available Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana.Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015. S. aureus isolates were characterized by their antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 and further differentiated by spa-typing and multi-locus-sequence-typing.Out of 544 children 120 (22.1% were colonized with S. aureus, with highest carriage rates during the rainy seasons (27.2%; p = 0.007, in females aged 6-8 years (43.7% and males aged 8-10 years (35.2%. The 123 isolates belonged to 35 different spa-types and 19 sequence types (ST with the three most prevalent spa-types being t355 (n = 25, t84 (n = 18, t939 (n = 13, corresponding to ST152, ST15 and ST45. Two (2% isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, classified as t1096 (ST152 and t4454 (ST45, and 16 (13% were resistant to three or more different antimicrobial classes. PVL and TSST-1 were detected in 71 (58% and 17 (14% isolates respectively.S. aureus carriage among Ghanaian children seems to depend on age, sex and seasonality. While MRSA rates are low, the high prevalence of PVL is of serious concern as these strains might serve not only as a source for severe invasive infections but may also transfer genes, leading to highly virulent MRSA clones.

  12. Automatic detection of children's engagement using non-verbal features and ordinal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jaebok; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Evers, Vanessa

    In collaborative play, young children can exhibit different types of engagement. Some children are engaged with other children in the play activity while others are just looking. In this study, we investigated methods to automatically detect the children's levels of engagement in play settings using

  13. Investigating parents/caregivers financial burden of care for children with non-communicable diseases in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuosi, Aaron A; Adzei, Francis A; Anarfi, John; Badasu, Delali M; Atobrah, Deborah; Yawson, Alfred

    2015-11-16

    The introduction of the Ghana national health insurance scheme (NHIS) has led to progressive and significant increase in utilization of health services. However, the financial burden of caring for children with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) under the dispensation of the NHIS, especially during hospitalization, is less researched. This paper therefore sought to assess the financial burden parents/caregivers face in caring for children hospitalized with NCDs in Ghana, in the era of the Ghana NHIS. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 225 parents or caregivers of children with NCDS hospitalized in three hospitals. Convenience sampling was used to select those whose children were discharged from hospital after hospitalization. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and chi-square and logistic regression were used in data analysis. The main outcome variable was financial burden of care, proxied by cost of hospitalization. The independent variable included socio-economic and other indicators such as age, sex, income levels and financial difficulties faced by parents/caregivers. The study found that over 30 % of parents/caregivers spend more than Gh¢50 (25$) as cost of treatment of children hospitalized with NCDs; and over 40 % of parents/caregivers also face financial difficulties in providing health care to their wards. It was also found that even though many children hospitalized with NCDs have been covered by the NHIS, and that the NHIS indeed, provides significant financial relief to parents in the care of children with NCDs, children who are insured still pay out-of-pocket for health care, in spite of their insurance status. It was also found that there is less support from relatives and friends in the care of children hospitalized with NCDs, thus exacerbating parents/caregivers financial burden of caring for the children. Even though health insurance has proven to be of significant relief to the financial burden of caring for children with NCDs

  14. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Theophilus B; Anane, Yaw A; Nkrumah, Bernard; Annan, Augustina; Nguah, Samuel B; Owusu, Michael

    2012-04-10

    Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  15. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  16. Prevalence of anemia among under-5 children in the Ghanaian population: estimates from the Ghana demographic and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewusie, Joycelyne E; Ahiadeke, Clement; Beyene, Joseph; Hamid, Jemila S

    2014-06-19

    Anemia in children continues to be a major public health challenge in most developing countries, particularly in Africa. Anemia in the early stages of life leads to severe negative consequences on the cognitive as well as the growth and development of children, which may persist even after treatment. We examine the prevalence of anemia in under-five children in the Ghanaian population to help inform and serve as a guide to health policies and possible interventions. Data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) was used. Data consists of health, demographic and socio-economic factors. Anemia status was determined using hemoglobin level, and prevalence of childhood anemia along with 95% confidence intervals was provided. We also examined the distribution of prevalence across different age and socio-demographic groups as well as the different regions and sub-regions in Ghana. The overall prevalence of anemia in under-five children in Ghana was 78.4% (N = 2168, 95% CI: 76.7-80.2), where 7.8% (N = 2168, 95% CI: 6.6-8.9) of the children had severe anemia, 48.0% (N = 2168, 95% CI: 45.9-50.2) moderate anemia and 22.6% (N = 2168, 95% CI: 20.8-24.4) had mild anemia. The highest prevalence regions were the Upper East, 88.9% (N = 158, 95% CI: 80.9-94.0), and Upper West 88.1% (N = 220, 95% CI: 76.4-94.6). The prevalence was also higher among children under 2 years of age, 85.1% (N = 781, 95% CI: 82.6-87.7) than children 2-5 years of age, 74.8% (N = 1387, 95% CI: 72.5-77.1). No significant difference in prevalence between boys and girls was observed. Given the high prevalence of childhood anemia observed in Ghana, particularly among those less than 2 years old, and given the negative consequences on their cognitive and behavioral development even in later years, there is an urgent need for effective and efficient public health interventions.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

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    Robert Kaba Alhassan

    Full Text Available Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps.To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients.The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38 and public (n = 26 primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72% were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation.Intrinsic (non-financial work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were

  18. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F

    2016-01-01

    Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were ranked

  19. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. Purpose To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. Methods The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Results Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while

  20. Ghana | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our funds sponsored Ghana Health Service research to improve the country's ... Major reforms extended health care to the aged, the poor, and children under 18. ... Researchers in Ghana found innovative ways to use information technology to ... enhance the quality of climate change science at the University of Ghana ...

  1. Malaria and anaemia among children in two communities of Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional survey

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    Boakye Isaac

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A survey in Kumasi, Ghana found a marked Plasmodium falciparum prevalence difference between two neighbouring communities (Moshie Zongo and Manhyia. The primary objective of this follow-up study was to determine whether this parasite rate difference was consistent over time. Secondary objectives were to compare prevalences of clinical malaria, anaemia, intestinal parasite infections, and malnutrition between these communities; and to identify potential risk factors for P. falciparum infection and anaemia. Methods A cross-sectional house-to-house survey of P. falciparum parasitaemia, clinical malaria, anaemia, anthropometric indices, and intestinal helminths was conducted in April-May 2005. Data collection included child and household demographics, mosquito avoidance practices, distance to nearest health facility, child's travel history, symptoms, and anti-malarial use. Risk factors for P. falciparum and anaemia (Hb Results In total, 296 children were tested from 184 households. Prevalences of P. falciparum, clinical malaria, anaemia, and stunting were significantly higher in Moshie Zongo (37.8%, 16.9%, 66.2% and 21.1%, respectively compared to Manhyia (12.8%, 3.4%, 34.5% and 7.4%. Of 197 children tested for helminths, four were positive for Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Population attributable risks (PAR% of anaemia were 16.5% (P. falciparum and 7.6% (malnutrition. Risk factors for P. falciparum infection were older age, rural travel, and lower socioeconomic status. Risk factors for anaemia were P. falciparum infection, Moshie Zongo residence, male sex, and younger age. Conclusion Heterogeneities in malariometric indices between neighbouring Kumasi communities are consistent over time. The low helminth prevalence, and the twofold higher PAR% of anaemia attributable to P. falciparum infection compared to malnutrition, indicate the importance of malaria as a cause of anaemia in this urban population.

  2. Children and video games: addiction, engagement, and scholastic achievement.

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    Skoric, Marko M; Teo, Linda Lay Ching; Neo, Rachel Lijie

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between video gaming habits and elementary school students' academic performance. More specifically, we seek to examine the usefulness of a distinction between addiction and high engagement and assess the predictive validity of these concepts in the context of scholastic achievement. Three hundred thirty-three children ages 8 to 12 years from two primary schools in Singapore were selected to participate in this study. A survey utilizing Danforth's Engagement-Addiction (II) scale and questions from DSM-IV was used to collect information from the schoolchildren, while their grades were obtained directly from their teachers. The findings indicate that addiction tendencies are consistently negatively related to scholastic performance, while no such relationship is found for either time spent playing games or for video game engagement. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Multimodal Detection of Engagement in Groups of Children Using Rank Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jaebok; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Charisi, Vasiliki; Zaga, Cristina; Evers, Vanessa; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In collaborative play, children exhibit different levels of engagement. Some children are engaged with other children while some play alone. In this study, we investigated multimodal detection of individual levels of engagement using a ranking method and non-verbal features: turn-taking and body

  4. Immunization dropout rate and data quality among children 12-23 months of age in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguune, Benjamin; Ndago, Joyce Aputere; Adokiya, Martin Nyaaba

    2017-01-01

    Immunization against diseases is one of the most important public health interventions with cost effective means to preventing childhood morbidity, mortality and disability. However, a proportion of children particularly in Africa are not fully immunized with the recommended vaccines. Thus, many children are still susceptible to the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) targeted diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the immunization dropout rate and data quality among children aged 12-23 months in Techiman Municipality, Ghana. A cross-sectional cluster survey was conducted among 600 children. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Before the main data collection, the tools were pre-tested in three different communities in the Municipality. The mothers/caregivers were interviewed, extracted information from the child immunization cards and observation employed to confirm the presence of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) scar on each child. Routine immunization data was also extracted from immunization registers and annual reports in the Municipality. I mmunization coverage for each of the fifteen vaccines doses is above 90.0% while full childhood immunized status is 89.5%. Immunization dropout rate was 5.6% (using BCG and Measles as proxy vaccines). This is lower than the 10.0% cutoff point by World Health Organization. However, routine administrative data was characterized by some discrepancies (e.g. > 100.0% immunization coverage for each of the vaccines) and high dropout rate (BCG - Measles = 31.5%). Binary regression was performed to determine predictors of dropout rate. The following were statistically significant: married (OR = 0.31; 95% = CI 0.15-0.62; and p  = 0.001), Christianity (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.13-0.91; and p  dropout. Childhood full immunized status (89.5%) and immunization coverages (>90%) are high while dropout rate is lower than the recommended cutoff point by WHO

  5. Seasonality affects dietary diversity of school-age children in northern Ghana.

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    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available Dietary diversity score (DDS is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality.Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010 and rainy season (May 2011 among the same school-age children (SAC in two rural schools in northern Ghana. The study population consisted of 228 school-age children. A qualitative 24-hour dietary recall was conducted in both seasons. Based on 13 food groups, a score of 1 was given if a child consumed a food item belonging to a particular food group, else 0. Individual scores were aggregated into DDS for each child. Differences in mean DDS between seasons were compared using linear mixed model analysis.The dietary pattern of the SAC was commonly plant foods with poor consumption of animal source foods. The mean DDS was significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the rainy season (6.95 ± 0.55 compared to the dry season (6.44 ± 0.55 after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, occupation (household head and mother and education of household head. The difference in mean DDS between dry and rainy seasons was mainly due to the difference in the consumption of Vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables between the seasons. While vitamin A-rich fruits (64.0% vs. 0.9%; P < 0.0001 and vitamin A rich dark green leafy vegetables (52.6% vs. 23.3%, P < .0001 were consumed more during the rainy season than the dry season, more children consumed vitamin A-rich deep yellow, orange and red vegetables during the dry season than during the rainy season (73.7% vs. 36.4%, P <0.001.Seasonality has an effect on DDS and may affect the quality of dietary intake of SAC; in such a context, it would be useful to measure DDS

  6. Seasonal malaria attack rates in infants and young children in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin; Owusu Agyei, S; Utz, Gregory C; Koram, Kwadwo; Barcus, Mazie J; Jones, Trevor R; Fryauff, David J; Binka, Fred N; Hoffman, Stephen L; Nkrumah, Francis N

    2002-03-01

    The incidence density of infection and disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum in children aged six to 24 months living in the holoendemic Sahel of northern Ghana was measured during the wet and dry seasons of 1996 and 1997. At the beginning of each season, a cohort composed of 259 and 277 randomly selected children received supervised curative therapy with quinine and Fansidar and primaquine for those with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. The 20 weeks of post-therapy follow-up consisted of three home visits weekly and examination of Giemsa-stained blood films once every two weeks. Blood films were also taken from children brought to clinic with illness. The incidence density of parasitemia after radical cure was 4.7 infections/person-year during the dry season and 7.1 during the wet season (relative risk = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25-1.81; P = 0.00001). Although the mean parasitemia count at time of reinfection in the dry season (3,310/microl) roughly equaled that in the wet season (3,056/microl; P = 0.737), the risk ratio for parasitemia > 20,000/microl during the wet season was 1.71 (95% CI = 1.2-2.4; P = 0.0025). The risk ratio for parasitemia > 20,000/microl with fever during the wet season was 2.45 (95% CI = 1.5-4.1; P = 0.0002). The risk ratio for anemia (hemoglobin < 8 g/dl) at first post-radical cure parasitemia showed no difference between seasons (1.0; 95% CI = 0.73-1.4; P = 0.9915). We did not see seasonal differences in anemia known to exist in this region, probably because the longitudinal cohort design using first parasitemia as an end point prevented the subjects from developing the repeated or chronic infections required for anemia induction. These findings bear upon the design of malaria drug and vaccine trials in holoendemic areas.

  7. Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Aborigo, Raymond A; Oduro, Abraham R; Asoala, Victor; Awine, Timothy; Amenga-Etego, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Globally, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have been identified as major threats to child survival. In Ghana, the two conditions are among the top three causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. An in-depth analysis of the factors associated with these two diseases is warranted, because of their high degree of fatality and also it provides a basis for intervention planning. To investigate socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years old in Ghana. Population-based cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised 2,790 children aged 0-59 months, drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The mothers reported whether their children under age 5 had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (ARI), or diarrhoea with the presence of blood or mucus in the stool, in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Children in the 6-11, 12-23, and 24-59 months age groups had, respectively, 3.48 (95% CI=2.23, 5.44), 4.57 (95% CI=3.03, 6.90), and 1.93 (95% CI=1.30, 2.87) increased odds of getting diarrhoea infection compared to those in the youngest age category (0-5). Similarly, children in the 6-11, 12-23, and 24-59 months age brackets were, respectively, 2.64 (95% CI=1.76, 3.97), 2.63 (95% CI=1.81, 3.83), and 1.83 (95% CI=1.29, 2.59) times more likely to have cough compared to children in 0-5 months age brackets. Children who were not breastfeeding had higher odds of childhood diarrhoea (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03, 1.73) compared to those who were breastfeeding. Compared to children who were living in households without co-wives, children who were living in households with co-wives had 1.74 increased odds of diarrhoea (95% CI=1.33, 2.27). A unit increase in maternal opinion regarding wife beating was associated with 14% reduced odds of diarrhoea (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.91), while a unit change in the women's attitude towards sex index was associated with 14

  8. Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years in Ghana

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    Dickson A. Amugsi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs have been identified as major threats to child survival. In Ghana, the two conditions are among the top three causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. An in-depth analysis of the factors associated with these two diseases is warranted, because of their high degree of fatality and also it provides a basis for intervention planning. Objectives: To investigate socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years old in Ghana. Design: Population-based cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised 2,790 children aged 0–59 months, drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The mothers reported whether their children under age 5 had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (ARI, or diarrhoea with the presence of blood or mucus in the stool, in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Results: Children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age groups had, respectively, 3.48 (95% CI=2.23, 5.44, 4.57 (95% CI=3.03, 6.90, and 1.93 (95% CI=1.30, 2.87 increased odds of getting diarrhoea infection compared to those in the youngest age category (0–5. Similarly, children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age brackets were, respectively, 2.64 (95% CI=1.76, 3.97, 2.63 (95% CI=1.81, 3.83, and 1.83 (95% CI=1.29, 2.59 times more likely to have cough compared to children in 0–5 months age brackets. Children who were not breastfeeding had higher odds of childhood diarrhoea (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03, 1.73 compared to those who were breastfeeding. Compared to children who were living in households without co-wives, children who were living in households with co-wives had 1.74 increased odds of diarrhoea (95% CI=1.33, 2.27. A unit increase in maternal opinion regarding wife beating was associated with 14% reduced odds of diarrhoea (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.91, while a unit

  9. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  10. Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions on Procedures to Identify and Assess Children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities: The Case of Tutors of Colleges of Education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyimah, Emmanuel Kofi; Amoako, R.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring the perceptions tutors in Colleges of Education have on how the Colleges of Education Curriculum adequately prepare pre-service teachers to enable them to identify and assess children with special educational needs and disabilities for effective inclusive education in Ghana. A descriptive survey design was adopted and…

  11. Engaging children and parents in service design and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford Russell, A R; Passant, M; Kitt, H

    2014-12-01

    The involvement of all user groups, including children, young people (CYP) and their parents, encourages people to take responsibility for healthier lifestyle behaviours, improves treatment compliance and leads to more appropriate use of healthcare resources. Initiatives to engage CYP in the UK are gathering momentum, but significant improvements are still needed. There is a national drive from the department of health (DH) and NHS England, strategic clinical networks, operational delivery networks (including newborn networks), charities, parent groups and a number of other bodies to embed CYP involvement in service design and delivery. User engagement and patient choice, is underpinned by the NHS outcomes framework, and a myriad of other DH and NHS England policies and practice frameworks. It is now everybody's business. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Beyond Television: Children's Engagement with Online Food and Beverage Marketing

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    Jennifer Brady

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Food and beverage marketing has been implicated in the childhood obesity “pandemic.” Prior studies have established the negative impact of television advertising on children's dietary intake, yet few have considered the role of online food and beverage marketing, particularly within the Canadian context. Objective This study explores children's engagement in online marketing and investigates the potential impact on their dietary intake. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ryerson University Summer Day Camp to participate in a single one-on-one semi-structured interview. Results A total of 83 children (age 7 to 13 years; mean 9.99 years; 56.3% boys, 43.8% girls participated in the study. Fewer children thought that there is food, drink, or candy advertising on the internet (67.7% than on television (98.8% (p > 0.001. Awareness of online marketing increased with age: 7 to 8 year olds (23.67%; 4, 9 to 10 years (63.89%; 23, 11 to 12 years (86.96%; 20; 13 years (100%; 9. Over one-third of children had visited a website after seeing the address advertised on television (n = 32; 38.55% or on product package (n = 29; 34.94%. Conclusions Branded internet sites, commonly featured on television and product packaging, offer new opportunities for marketers to reach children with messages promoting commercial food and beverage items. These websites are subsequently spread via word-of-mouth through children's peer networks. The independent impact of web-based food, drink and candy marketing, as well as the synergistic effect of multi-channel product promotion, on children's dietary intake merits further investigation.

  13. Comparing children and adolescents engaged in cyberbullying to matched peers.

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    Twyman, Kimberly; Saylor, Conway; Taylor, Lloyd Adam; Comeaux, Cadie

    2010-04-01

    Although characteristics of traditional bullying participants have been identified and studied for years, research on cyberbullying is limited. The purpose of this study is to expand the literature on cyberbullying with a particular focus on the relationships among cyberbullying characteristics, typical social activities, and more traditional forms of bullying. The typical activities and experiences with traditional bullying and cyberbullying of 52 children ages 11 to 17 were compared to those of 52 matched controls. Children exposed to cyberbullying, whether as a cyberbully, cybervictim, or both (bully/victim), spent more time on computer-based social activities. Nearly two thirds of cyberbully/victims were also traditional bully/victims. While preliminary, results suggest that efforts to prevent cyberbullying may need to focus on patterns of Internet use, amount and type of social activities, and exposure to traditional bullying as risk factors for engaging in cyberbullying.

  14. Livestock ownership is associated with higher odds of anaemia among preschool-aged children, but not women of reproductive age in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Colecraft, Esi K; Awuah, Raphael B; Boatemaa, Sandra; Lambrecht, Nathalie J; Adjorlolo, Leonard Kofi; Wilson, Mark L

    2018-04-02

    Livestock ownership may influence anaemia through complex and possibly contradictory mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to determine the association of household livestock ownership with anaemia among women aged 15-49 years and children aged 6-59 months in Ghana and to examine the contribution of animal source foods (ASFs) to consumption patterns as a potential mechanism mediating this association. We analysed data on 4,441 women and 2,735 children from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and 16,772 households from the Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6. Haemoglobin measurements were used to define anaemia (non-pregnant women: <120 g/L; children: <110 g/L). Child- and household-level ASF consumption data were collected from 24-hour food group intake and food consumption and expenditure surveys, respectively. In multiple logistic regression models, household livestock ownership was associated with anaemia among children (OR, 95% CI: 1.5 [1.1, 2.0]), but not women (1.0 [0.83, 1.2]). Household ownership of chickens was associated with higher odds of anaemia among children (1.6 [1.2, 2.2]), but ownership of other animal species was not associated with anaemia among women or children. In path analyses, we observed no evidence of mediation of the association of household livestock ownership with child anaemia by ASF consumption. Ownership of livestock likely has limited importance for consumption of ASFs among young children in Ghana and may in fact place children at an increased risk of anaemia. Further research is needed to elucidate if and how pathogen exposure associated with livestock rearing may underlie this increased risk of anaemia. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Engagement of children in sports from the city of Belgrade

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    Živković Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport is an anthropological constant of childhood and adolescence, and as such insufficiently present form of physical activity in accordance with the conditions of modern life and the needs of young people. The subject of this study is children's engagement in sport in the city of Belgrade. The aim was to determine possible differences in sport's involvement between boys and girls. Nonexperimental research-type survey was carried out on a sample of 1279 respondents of both sexes (female = 640; male =639, aged 10 to 15 years. For the purpose of this study was applied non-standardized questionnaire, open type. The calculation of statistical significance of differences between the groups was performed by the Chi - square test (c2 of independence at the conclusion of the significance level 0.01. On the basis of obtained results there were determined statistically significant differences, therefore it can be concluded that engagement of children in sports, in the city of Belgrade varies according to gender.

  16. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged With Mobile Technology

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    Eileen eWood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad™ were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21- 75.9 months. Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users. Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child’s positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents’ perceptions of their child’s technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Parent Scaffolding of Young Children When Engaged with Mobile Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad(TM) were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21-75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child's positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents' perceptions of their child's technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Knowledge and practice of malaria prevention among caregivers of children with malaria admitted to a teaching hospital in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ameyaw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice of malaria prevention among caregivers of children admitted to a teaching hospital in Ghana. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on caregivers of children who were hospitalized at the paediatric wards of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital from March 2009 to June 2009. Data were analysed using StataTM version 8.2. Results: Nearly all caregivers (97.1% had heard of malaria. Of this proportion, 89.7% knew mosquito bite as a cause of malaria. The proportion of caregivers who were able to recognise the signs and symptoms of malaria were 87.6% (for fever, 47.1% (for vomiting and 28.1% (for headache. Radio and television were the major sources of information about malaria. Conclusions: Caregivers of children have adequate knowledge about malaria and its mode of transmission. Further education on the implementation of the preventive methods is still needed to help reduce the incidence of malaria among children.

  19. Influence of childcare practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children: a regression analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Lartey, Anna; Matanda, Dennis J; Urke, Helga B

    2014-11-03

    Guided by the UNICEF framework for childcare, this study examined the association of childcare practices (CCP) with infant and young children's growth (height-for-age Z-scores, HAZ), and investigated whether care practices are more important to growth in some sociodemographic subgroups of children. Cross-sectional survey. Urban and rural Ghana. The study sample comprised 1187 dyads of mothers aged 15-49 years and their youngest child (aged 6-36 months). The results showed that CCP was a significant predictor of HAZ, after controlling for covariates/confounders at child, maternal and household levels. Children with higher CCP scores had higher HAZ. A 1-unit increase in the CCP score was associated with a 0.17-unit increase in HAZ. Child's and mother's age, number of children under 5 years, place of residence, maternal weight and wealth index were also significantly associated with HAZ. Statistical interaction analyses revealed no subgroup differences in the CCP/HAZ relationship. This study found a significant, positive association between CCP and child growth, after accounting for other important determinants of child growth at maternal and household levels. This calls for research into the effects on growth of various CCP components, with longitudinal cohort study designs that can disentangle causal relationships. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Evaluating Otto the Auto: Does Engagement in an Interactive Website Improve Young Children's Transportation Safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Johnston, Anna; Shen, Jiabin; Li, Peng

    2017-07-19

    Transportation-related injuries are a leading cause of pediatric death, and effective interventions are limited. Otto the Auto is a website offering engaging, interactive activities. We evaluated Otto among a sample of sixty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children, who participated in a randomized parallel group design study. Following baseline evaluation, children engaged with either Otto or a control website for 2 weeks and then were re-evaluated. Children who used Otto failed to show increases in transportation safety knowledge or behavior compared to the control group, although there was a dosage effect whereby children who engaged in the website more with parents gained safer behavior patterns. We conclude Otto may have some efficacy when engaged by children with their parents, but continued efforts to develop and refine engaging, effective, theory-driven strategies to teach children transportation safety, including via internet, should be pursued.

  1. Efficacy of Caregiver-Mediated Joint Engagement Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Chu, Ching-Lin; Lee, Tsung-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders was focused on improving joint engagement and joint attention skills. The purpose of this study was to develop a caregiver-mediated joint engagement intervention program combined with body movement play to investigate the effects of joint engagement/joint attention skills in…

  2. Exploring Engagement in Shared Reading Activities Between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Veronica P; Hugh, Maria L

    2018-06-05

    Reading aloud to children is a valued practice to promote emergent literacy and language skills that form the foundation for future reading success. We conducted a descriptive study of shared book reading practices between caregivers and their children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 17) and caregivers and their typically developing children (n = 20) to identify factors that can promote or inhibit children's engagement in reading. Caregivers and their children read nine books (familiar, non-fiction, fiction). Children with ASD demonstrated lower levels of passive engagement (looking at the book) and higher levels of non-engaged behavior compared to typically developing children. Caregiver reading quality and book type contributed to joint engagement during reading. Implications of these findings for intervention development are discussed.

  3. Coverage, adherence and costs of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children employing different delivery strategies in Jasikan, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Patouillard

    Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc involves the administration of a course of anti-malarial drugs at specified time intervals to children at risk of malaria regardless of whether or not they are known to be infected. IPTc provides a high level of protection against uncomplicated and severe malaria, with monthly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SP&AQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus piperaquine being the most efficacious regimens. A key challenge is the identification of a cost-effective delivery strategy.A community randomized trial was undertaken in Jasikan district, Ghana to assess IPTc effectiveness and costs using SP&AQ delivered in three different ways. Twelve villages were randomly selected to receive IPTc from village health workers (VHWs or facility-based nurses working at health centres' outpatient departments (OPD or EPI outreach clinics. Children aged 3 to 59 months-old received one IPT course (three doses in May, June, September and October. Effectiveness was measured in terms of children covered and adherent to a course and delivery costs were calculated in financial and economic terms using an ingredient approach from the provider perspective.The economic cost per child receiving at least the first dose of all 4 courses was US$4.58 when IPTc was delivered by VHWs, US$4.93 by OPD nurses and US$ 5.65 by EPI nurses. The unit economic cost of receiving all 3 doses of all 4 courses was US$7.56 and US$8.51 when IPTc was delivered by VHWs or facility-based nurses respectively. The main cost driver for the VHW delivery was supervision, reflecting resources used for travelling to more remote communities rather than more intense supervision, and for OPD and EPI delivery, it was the opportunity cost of the time spent by nurses in dispensing IPTc.VHWs achieve higher IPTc coverage and adherence at lower costs than facility-based nurses in Jasikan district, Ghana.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119132.

  4. Risk Factors In Malaria Mortality Among Children In Northern Ghana: A Case Study At The Tamale Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Abdul-Aziz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is hyper-endemic in Ghana, accounting for 44% of outpatient attendance, 13% of all hospital deaths, and 22% of mortality among children less than five years of age. The paper analyzed the risk factors of malaria mortality among children using a logistic regression model and also assessed the interaction effect between age and treatment of malaria patient. Secondary data was obtained from the inpatient morbidity and mortality returns register at Tamale Teaching Hospital, from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2010. The results showed that risk factors such as referral status, age, distance, treatment and length of stay on admission were important predictors of malaria mortality. However, it was found that the risk factors; sex and season were not good predictors of malaria mortality. Finally, the interaction effect between age and treatment was found to be significant. It was recommended, among other things, that the government should provide more assessable roads and expand ambulance services to the various Districts/communities in and around the Tamale metropolis to facilitate referral cases.

  5. Mefloquine treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young children 6-24 months of age in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryauff, David J; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Utz, Gregory; Baird, J Kevin; Koram, Kwadwo A; Binka, Fred; Nkrumah, Francis; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2007-02-01

    Mefloquine (MQ) single dose 20 mg/kg treatment of falciparum malaria was evaluated in 186 children of 6-24 months of age in northern Ghana. There were 15 RII/RIII-type parasitologic failures, all with Day 2 MQ blood levels significantly lower than children whose parasitemias cleared before Day 7 and remained clear through 28 days. Predictors of RII/RIII parasitologic response were vomiting after MQ dosing, Day 2 MQ levels < 500 ng/mL, and undetectable Day 2 levels of the carboxymefloquine metabolite. There were 50 cases of delayed RI parasitologic failure, but 71% of these cases had undetectable Day 28 blood levels of MQ and drug levels in the remaining 29% ranged below the 620 ng/mL level that suppresses MQ sensitive strains of P. falciparum. Drug levels among infants that tolerated MQ well were not associated with age, weight, hemoglobin, parasitemia, and pre-existing symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea. An observed recurrent parasitemia of 34,400 trophozoites/microL against a MQ blood concentration of 550 ng/mL was taken as indication of tolerance to suppressive levels of the drug at this location.

  6. Conceptualizing Culturally Infused Engagement and Its Measurement for Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottick, Kathleen J.; Chen, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Despite the central role culture plays in racial and ethnic disparities in mental health among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families, existing measures of engagement in mental health services have failed to integrate culturally specific factors that shape these families' engagement with mental health services. To illustrate this gap, the authors systematically review 119 existing instruments that measure the multi-dimensional and developmental process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review is anchored in a new integrated conceptualization of engagement, the culturally infused engagement model. The review assesses culturally relevant cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral mechanisms of engagement from the stages of problem recognition and help seeking to treatment participation that can help illuminate the gaps. Existing measures examined four central domains pertinent to the process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families: (a) expressions of mental distress and illness, (b) causal explanations of mental distress and illness, (c) beliefs about mental distress and illness, and (d) beliefs and experiences of seeking help. The findings highlight the variety of tools that are used to measure behavioral and attitudinal dimensions of engagement, showing the limitations of their application for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review proposes directions for promising research methodologies to help intervention scientists and clinicians improve engagement and service delivery and reduce disparities among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families at large, and recommends practical applications for training, program planning, and policymaking. PMID:28275923

  7. Children-Engaging Social and Environmental Initiatives as Determinants of Corporate Reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Smaiziene

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  The paper aims to explore children-engaging social and green initiatives as determinants of corporate reputation.  Research Design & Methods: The research data were collected by means of a consumer survey (n=354 in Lithuania. During the research, consumers’ perception and attitudes towards companies which take children-engaging social and environmental initiatives were surveyed. Findings: The research findings indicate that consumers tend to agree that companies implementing children-engaging CSR initiatives contribute to the development of children as responsible citizens. However, consumers have a different attitude towards companies which implement children-engaging environmental initiatives and companies which take children-engaging social initiatives.  Implications & Recommendations: The research results suggest that consumers form opinions about the company not only by assessing the company’s behaviour towards them, but also by assessing the corporate performance targeted at children. Therefore, companies should consider children-engaging CSR as determinants of corporate reputation. Contribution & Value Added: The paper provides some empirical evidence on how CSR practices targeted at children may affect corporate reputation.

  8. Care-'less': exploring the interface between child care and parental control in the context of child rights for workers in children's homes in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkwah, Ernest; Daniel, Marguerite; Yendork, Joana Salifu

    2018-02-20

    This study explored how employed caregivers experience the interface between child care, parental control and child rights in the context of Children's Homes in Ghana. The focus was on investigating caregiver perceptions of proper child care, their experiences with having to work with child rights principles and the implication of these for their relationships with the children and the care services they deliver. Adopting a qualitative approach with phenomenological design, data were collected from 41 caregivers in two children's homes in Ghana using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. It emerged that caregivers experienced frustrations with perceived limitations that child rights principles place on their control over the children describing it as lessening and, at the same time, complicating the care services they provide. The findings suggest a need for a review of the implementation strategies of the child rights approach in that context. A re-organization of the children's homes environment and re-orientation of caregivers and children regarding their relationship is also suggested.

  9. A very long engagement: The Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A very long engagement: The Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the 1993 Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of ... Act is a dramatic improvement on the current regime of intercountry adoptions and that it has the potential to make this institution work in the best interests of children.

  10. Examining Playground Engagement between Elementary School Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Shih, Wendy; Kretzmann, Mark; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the social behavior of children with and without autism spectrum disorder during recess. This study documented the naturally occurring recess engagement and peer interaction behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder in inclusive school settings. Participants included 51 children with autism spectrum…

  11. Understanding Factors Associated with Children's Motivation to Engage in Recess-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is linked with health and academic benefits. While recess provides the greatest opportunity for children to accumulate physical activity, most children are not motivated to engage in sufficient amounts of physical activity during recess. Research demonstrates a strong relationship between self-efficacy and children's motivation…

  12. Effects of a Peer Engagement Program on Socially Withdrawn Children with a History of Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Therese L.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Sheldon, Jan B.

    2009-01-01

    Children with a history of child maltreatment often have limited social interactions with other children and adults. This study examined the effects of a Peer Engagement Program, consisting of peer mentoring and social skills training with positive reinforcement, in three children with low levels of oral and social interaction. A multiple…

  13. Re-engaging the unequal distribution of rewards: A study of trust among actors in the Yam and Cassava value chain in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Hanan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This Ph.D. proposal is based on a Danida sponsored pilot research programme between Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Ghana (KNUST), and its chosen partners in Denmark - a consortium based partnership including Technical University of Denmark, Aalborg University, and Universit...

  14. Evaluation of field recognizable morbidity indicators of Schistosoma haematobium infection among primary school children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ato Kwamena Tetteh

    2016-09-01

    Materials and Methods — In all, 417 pupils in three primary schools (Kasseh sub-District, Dangme East District, Ghana, provided urine samples, which were examined for S. haematobium ova. The study utilized a structured questionnaire, the Urit 10V multi-stick urine reagent strips and the filtration method. Results — Overall, prevalence by microscopy was 20.9% (requires targeted treatment once every two years, and was higher (14.0% among the 10-15 years age group (χ2=22.44, p<0.001. The lowest prevalence was among the <6 (0.5%, 2/417 and ≥19 (1.4%, 6/417 years age groups. There was no significant difference in prevalence among females (7.9%, 33/417 and males (12.9%, 54/417 (χ2=2.58, p=0.108. Self-reported haematuria was 43.2% (targeted treatment once a year. There was a significant difference between female (16.1%, 67/417 and male (27.1%, 113/417 responses to self-reported haematuria (χ2=4.170, p<0.001. A lower consolidated mean prevalence of 11.7% was estimated among pupils who had ova in their urine and also exhibited three morbidity indicators (haematuria, leucocyturia and proteinuria. Combined and averaged sensitivity and specificity estimations (sensitivity = 55.4%, specificity = 67.8%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV = 53.4%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV = 64.2% of these morbidity indicators, was insufficient in equalizing the reliability of ova quantification. With the exception of leucocyturia, which was common among all pupils, 28.75% (25/87 of the infected individuals did not have any form of haematuria or proteinuria. Out of these, one pupil had heavy ova intensity (80 eggs/10ml of urine while the remaining 24 had low ova intensity infection (1-44 eggs/10ml of urine. Questionnaire correctly identified 56.3% of pupils with S. haematobium ova in their urine, also reporting bloody urine (PPV=27.2%; NPV=84.0%. It also identified 49.4% of pupils with ova, reporting painful urination (PPV=26.1%, NPV=82.5%. Conclusion — This study emphasizes the

  15. A Typology for Observing Children's Engagement with eBooks at Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskos, Kathleen; Burstein, Karen; You, Byeong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    This research reports a two-phase descriptive study of young children's engagement with ebooks conducted in Head Start classrooms. Phase 1 focused on the development of a typology as an analytic framework for observing engagement with ebooks in different formats (shared book; independent book browsing) and across devices (stationary touch screen;…

  16. Books and Toddlers in Child Care: Under What Conditions Are Children Most Engaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Holochwost, Steven J.; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Odom, Samuel L.; Bruno, Elizabeth Pungello

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although shared book reading is seen as an effective way to support children's early literacy and language development, less is known about the factors associated with toddlers' engagement with books. Objective: The goal of the current study was to examine younger and older toddlers' engagement with books during one-on-one reading with…

  17. Through the Lens of Home-Educated Children: Engagement in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Engagement and participation are important for successful outcomes in education, yet disaffection in the UK, according to some exclusion and absence statistics, shows a growing trend. The purpose of this research was to develop a starting point for a theory of children's engagement in education using grounded theory method. Evidence from…

  18. Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program-as defined by better attendance and classroom participation-developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness.

  19. Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eKraus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of disadvantaged primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA for two years as they participated in the Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, the Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program—as defined by better attendance and classroom participation—developed stronger brain encoding of speech after two years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support for community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness.

  20. Ghana Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GHANA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE is published jointly by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of Ghana and the Ghana Science Association. It is open to all ... the authors belong. The topics need not be related to West Africa.

  1. Malaria, helminths and malnutrition: a cross-sectional survey of school children in the South-Tongu district of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick Ferdinand; Addo-Osafo, Kantanka; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience Borkor; Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Awuah-Mensah, Georgina; Abbey, Harriet Naa Afia; Forson, Akua; Cham, Momodou; Asare, Listowell; Duedu, Kwabena Obeng; Asmah, Richard Harry

    2016-04-27

    As part of malaria characterization study in the South-Tongu district of Ghana, the current study was conducted to explore relationships between malaria, schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminths and malnutrition in riparian community settings that had hitherto encountered episodes of mass deworming exercises. School-age children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study from April through July 2012. Stool and urine samples were examined respectively for helminths and Schistosoma haematobium. Blood samples were analyzed for malaria parasites and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured. Relationships were determined using generalized linear models. The results show low numbers of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum (9.2%, n = 37/404) and S. haematobium (2.5%, n = 10/404) infections. The associations between significance terms in the multivariate analysis for P. falciparum infections were further assessed to test the significance of the product terms directly i.e., age in years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.6], Hb concentration (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.42-2.3), and stunted malnutrition (AOR, 8.72; 95% CI 4.8-25.1). The P. falciparum-associated decrease in mean Hb concentration was 2.82 g/dl (95% CI 1.63-4.1 g/dl; P = 0.001) in stunted children, and 0.75 g/dl (95% CI 1.59-0.085 g/dl; P = 0.076) in the non-stunted cohort. The anaemia-associated decrease in mean parasitaemia in stunted children was 3500 parasites/µl of blood (95% CI 262.46-6737.54 parasites/µl of blood; P = 0.036), and in non-stunted children 2127 parasites/µl of blood (95% CI -0.27 to 4.53; P = 0.085). Stunted malnutrition was the strongest predictor of S. haematobium infection (AOR = 11; 95% CI 3.1-33.6) but significant associations as described for P. falciparum infections were absent. The population attributable risk of anaemia due to P. falciparum was 6.3% (95% CI 2.5-9.3), 0.9% (95% CI 0.4-2.3) for S. haematobium

  2. "My Child has Cerebral Palsy": Parental Involvement and Children's School Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process), high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children's education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) has received little direct attention from researchers. These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with CP. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level of school engagement

  3. OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    porting rural livelihoods in Ghana, especially in the severe food ... moded methods of manufacturing and organization” (Beeh- .... there are certain productive activities that are jointly undertaken by .... Type of food Apatanga Adaboya Bongo-Soc Total ..... fulfilment of household needs and maintenance and the critical issue of ...

  4. Can Alternative Education Increase Children's Early School Engagement? A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Van Damme, Jan; Lamote, Carl; De Fraine, Bieke

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of alternative education on children's early school engagement in terms of school enjoyment and independent participation. A sample of 2,776 children from traditional (e.g., mainstream) and alternative (Freinet and Waldorf) Flemish schools was followed from their 3rd year of kindergarten until 3rd grade. The…

  5. The Effect of a Robot's Social Character on Children Task Engagement: Peer Versus Tutor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaga, Cristina; Lohse, M.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Evers, Vanessa; Tapus, Adriana; André, Elisabeth; Martin, Jean-Claude; Ferland, François; Ammi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of applications for social robots focuses on learning and playing with children. One of the unanswered questions is what kind of social character a robot should have in order to positively engage children in a task. In this paper, we present a study on the effect of two

  6. Engaging Preschool Children with Severe and Multiple Disabilities Using Books and iPad Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral; Stephenson, Jennifer; Cooper, Megan; Hodge, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    A single subject multiple treatment design was used to compare the engagement of 3 preschool children with severe and multiple disabilities, using 2 different stimuli: picture books and iPad apps matched for theme and content. Two of the 3 children had diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in addition to their other disabilities. Sessions for each…

  7. Joint Engagement and Early Language in Young Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J.; Brady, Nancy C.; Fleming, Kandace; Warren, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we examine joint engagement (JE) in young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its relationship to language abilities and autism spectrum disorder symptomatology at 24 to 36 months (toddler period) and 59 to 68 months (child period). Method: Participants were 28 children with FXS (24 boys, four girls) and their…

  8. Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Wilkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A sizeable body of research has investigated the impact of specific character strengths or traits on significant outcomes. Some recent research is beginning to consider the effects of groups of strengths, combined as a higher order variable and termed covitality. This study investigated the combined influence of four positive character traits, gratitude, optimism, zest and persistence, upon school engagement, within a sample of 112 Australian primary school students. The combined effect of these four traits, in defining covitality as a higher or second-order factor within a path analysis, was found to predict relatively higher levels of school engagement and pro-social behaviour.

  9. The History of Children's Engagements in Danish Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jakob Waag; Hviid, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    that make up the Danish tradition and its pedagogical methodologies and practices. Yet, due to a strong present-day educational perspective within the center-based child care, along with the application of standardized and evidence-based programs and evaluations, the pedagogical tradition is fundamentally......In this chapter we investigate the role of children’s engagements in pedagogical practices within the field of center-based child care. Based on a historical analysis, it is argued that children’s engagements have played a central and crucial part throughout the varied pedagogical approaches...

  10. Analysis of engagement behavior in children during dyadic interactions using prosodic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul; Bone, Daniel; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2016-05-01

    Child engagement is defined as the interaction of a child with his/her environment in a contextually appropriate manner. Engagement behavior in children is linked to socio-emotional and cognitive state assessment with enhanced engagement identified with improved skills. A vast majority of studies however rely solely, and often implicitly, on subjective perceptual measures of engagement. Access to automatic quantification could assist researchers/clinicians to objectively interpret engagement with respect to a target behavior or condition, and furthermore inform mechanisms for improving engagement in various settings. In this paper, we present an engagement prediction system based exclusively on vocal cues observed during structured interaction between a child and a psychologist involving several tasks. Specifically, we derive prosodic cues that capture engagement levels across the various tasks. Our experiments suggest that a child's engagement is reflected not only in the vocalizations, but also in the speech of the interacting psychologist. Moreover, we show that prosodic cues are informative of the engagement phenomena not only as characterized over the entire task (i.e., global cues), but also in short term patterns (i.e., local cues). We perform a classification experiment assigning the engagement of a child into three discrete levels achieving an unweighted average recall of 55.8% (chance is 33.3%). While the systems using global cues and local level cues are each statistically significant in predicting engagement, we obtain the best results after fusing these two components. We perform further analysis of the cues at local and global levels to achieve insights linking specific prosodic patterns to the engagement phenomenon. We observe that while the performance of our model varies with task setting and interacting psychologist, there exist universal prosodic patterns reflective of engagement.

  11. Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a multi-step…

  12. Gender and Children as the Moderators of the Relationship between Social Support and Quality of Life: An Empirical Study of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn; Okundaye, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Although gender differences persist in the receipt of social support and the report of quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, the knowledge base on this topic is scant. For those living with HIV/AIDS, women tend to participate more than men in support group activities, but their gender predisposes them to lower quality of life. Therefore, this study seeks to determine what demographic factors moderate the relationship between social support and quality of life among those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members who have experience participating in research studies and was obtained for use via cross-sectional design survey in September and October 2013. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey, and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Gender (male) F(3, 296) = 66.04, t = 2.26, p = .024) and having children (have children) (F(5, 294) = 40.34, t = 2.50, p = .013) moderated the relationship between social support and quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world were discussed.

  13. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour as relevant concepts in referred home reared children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, F Y; Abrahamse, M E; Jonkman, C S; Schuengel, C; Lindauer, R J L; de Vries, A L C; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of attachment and social engagement have mainly been studied in children, reared in institutions and foster care. There are few studies amongst home reared children living with biological parents. The aim of this study was to test the clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children, referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems, compared with young children in treatment foster care. The Disturbances of Attachment Interview, Maltreatment Classification System, the Child Behaviour Checklist and Parenting Stress Index were used in 141 referred home reared children and 59 referred foster children, aged 2.0-7.9 years (M = 4.7, SE = 1.3), 71% boys. Inhibited attachment behaviour was less prevalent in the referred home reared group (9%) than in the foster care group (27%). Disinhibited social engagement behaviour was found in 42% of the home reared group, similar to the foster care group. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour were not associated with child maltreatment. More inhibited attachment behaviour was associated with clinical levels of child internalizing and externalizing behaviour in the home reared group, not in the foster care group. In both groups, more disinhibited social engagement behaviour was associated with clinical levels of externalizing behaviour and with more parenting stress. Even without evident links to maltreatment, results of this study suggest clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Giardia lamblia infections in children in Ghana | Anim-Baidoo | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: prevalence of G. lamblia infections in diarrhea and non-diarrhea children were 5.8% and 5% respectively (P>0.5). Sequence data confirmed Giardia lamblia assemblage B as the predominant genotype in both diarrhoea and non-diarrhoea cases. There was no significant association of G. lamblia infection with any ...

  15. An early social engagement intervention for young children with autism and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ty W; Koegel, Robert L; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized that parent delivery of such strategies can invoke increases in these core social behaviors and parent engagement. This study examined the effects of teaching parents to implement a social engagement intervention with their children. The results indicated that the use of this parent-delivered social intervention led to (a) increases in their children's use of eye contact, directed positive affect, and verbal initiations, (b) increases in parent positive affect and synchronous engagement, and (c) generalized increases in parent and child behaviors.

  16. Subsidized Sachet Water to Reduce Diarrheal Disease in Young Children: A Feasibility Study in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fink, Günther; Wardrop, Nicola A; Aryeetey, Genevieve C; Adanu, Richard M; Hill, Allan G

    2016-07-06

    Use of drinking water sold in plastic bags (sachet water) is growing rapidly in west Africa. The impact on water consumption and child health remains unclear, and a debate on the taxation and regulation of sachet water is ongoing. This study assessed the feasibility of providing subsidized sachet water to low-income urban households in Accra and measured the resultant changes in water consumption. A total of 86 children, 6-36 months of age in neighborhoods lacking indoor piped water, were randomized to three study arms. The control group received education about diarrhea. The second arm received vouchers for 15 L/week/child of free water sachets (value: $0.63/week) plus education. The third arm received vouchers for the same water sachet volume at half price plus education. Water consumption was measured at baseline and followed for 4 months thereafter. At baseline, 66 of 81 children (82%) drank only sachet water. When given one voucher/child/week, households redeemed an average 0.94 vouchers/week/child in the free-sachet-voucher arm and 0.82 vouchers/week/child in the half-price arm. No change in water consumption was observed in the half-price arm, although the study was not powered to detect such differences. In the free-sachet-voucher arm, estimated sachet water consumption increased by 0.27 L/child/day (P = 0.03). The increase in sachet water consumption by children in the free-sachet-voucher arm shows that provision of fully subsidized water sachets might improve the quality of drinking water consumed by children. Further research is needed to quantify this and any related child health impacts. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Participatory Design at the Museum - inquiring into children's everyday engagement in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    We address the challenge of creating intersections between children’s everyday engagement and museum exhibitions. Specifically, we propose an approach to participatory design inquiry where children’s everyday engagement is taken as the point of departure. We base our discussion on a design workshop...... – Gaming the Museum – where a primary school class was invited to participate in creating future exhibition spaces for a museum based on their everyday use of computer games and online communities. We reflect on the results of the workshop and discuss more broadly the qualities of design inquiries that use...... the everyday engagement of children as point of departure for designing interactive museum exhibitions....

  18. An integrated microcredit, entrepreneurial training, and nutrition education intervention is associated with better growth among preschool-aged children in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Lartey, Anna; Ahunu, Ben K; Birks, Katherine A; Butler, Lorna M; Reddy, Manju B; Jensen, Helen H; Huff-Lonergan, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Poor diet quality is a determinant of the high prevalence rates of malnutrition in Ghana. There is little evidence on the effectiveness of a multisector intervention to improve children's diets and nutritional status. The project tested whether participation in an entrepreneurial and nutrition education intervention with microcredit was associated with the nutritional status of children 2-5 y of age. A quasi-experimental 16-mo intervention was conducted with microcredit loans and weekly sessions of nutrition and entrepreneurship education for 179 women with children 2-5 y of age [intervention group (IG)]. Nonparticipating women and their children from the same villages (nonparticipant, n = 142) and from similar neighboring villages (comparison, n = 287) were enrolled. Repeated measures linear regression models were used first to examine children's weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) z scores at baseline and at 4 follow-up time points ∼4 mo apart. Time, intervention status, time-by-intervention interaction terms, region of residence, household wealth rank, household head occupation, number of children microcredit and education may improve nutritional outcomes of children living in poor, rural communities. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Cultural Congruence and Unbalanced Power between Home and School in Rural Ghana and the Impact on School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masko, Amy L.; Bosiwah, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines the cultural congruence between home and school in rural Ghana, exploring the cultural norms of child-rearing practices within families and the institution of schooling. The data illustrate both the agreement between home and school in regard to discipline practices and instruction in morality, while…

  20. Engaging or Distracting: Children's Tablet Computer Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Rhonda N.; Dubé, Adam K.

    2015-01-01

    Communications studies and psychology offer analytical and methodological tools that when combined have the potential to bring novel perspectives on human interaction with technologies. In this study of children using simple and complex mathematics applications on tablet computers, cognitive load theory is used to answer the question: how…

  1. Engaging Parents to Promote Children's Nutrition and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent; Srivastava, Deepa; Murriel, Ashleigh; Arcan, Chrisa; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M

    2017-03-01

    Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Qualitative. State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included-(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included-(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health.

  2. Social implications of children's smartphone addiction: The role of support networks and social engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Jennifer

    2018-06-05

    Background and aims Most studies have regarded smartphone addiction as a condition stemming from individuals' psychological issues, so research has rarely examined it in relation to a lack of social resources and its social impacts. However, this study reinterprets smartphone addiction as a social problem stemming from a lack of offline social networks and resulting in a decline of social engagement. Methods This study drew on a survey of 2,000 children in Korea consisting of 991 males and 1,009 females with an average age of 12 years old. Using the STATA 14 structural equation modeling program, this study examined the relationships between children's lack of social networks, smartphone addiction, and social engagement. Results Social network variables, such as formal organizational membership, quality of relationship with parents, size of the peer group, and peer support, decrease smartphone addiction. Simply having good relationships and reciprocal feelings with peers do not have any influence on the smartphone addiction. The more the children become addicted to smartphones, the less they participate in social engagement. Discussion and conclusions This study provides a new understanding of smartphone addiction by focusing on its social aspects, augmenting prior studies that have addressed psychological factors. Findings suggest that children's lack of social networks may inhibit comfortable social interactions and feelings of support in the offline environment, which can heighten their desire to escape to smartphones. These children, unlike non-addicts, may not take advantage of the media to enrich their social lives and increase their level of social engagement.

  3. Modeling the relationship between precipitation and malaria incidence in children from a holoendemic area in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Krüger, Andreas; Fobil, Julius; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Climatic factors influence the incidence of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. They modify the abundance of mosquito populations, the length of the extrinsic parasite cycle in the mosquito, the malarial dynamics, and the emergence of epidemics in areas of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal associations between weekly malaria incidence in 1,993 children < 15 years of age and weekly rainfall. A time series analysis was conducted by using cross-correlation function and autoregressive modeling. The regression model showed that the level of rainfall predicted the malaria incidence after a time lag of 9 weeks (mean = 60 days) and after a time lag between one and two weeks. The analyses provide evidence that high-resolution precipitation data can directly predict malaria incidence in a highly endemic area. Such models might enable the development of early warning systems and support intervention measures.

  4. Knowledge and Skills of Mothers/Care Givers of Children Under Five Years in Communities with Home Based Management of Malaria in Tamale, Northern Region, Ghana, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaila Z. Mumuni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is still one of the major public health problems. More than 400 million cases of malaria are reported each year worldwide, Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region where about 90% of all malaria deaths in the world occur especially in children under five years of age. Home based management of Malaria showed a tremendous effect on reducing mortalities among children in Ghana. Objectives: to determine the current level of knowledge and skills of mothers in Tamale Metropolitan Area in the northern region of Ghana in terms of disease identification, management and transmission of malaria. Methodology: A cross sectional study conducted in 2013 involved 400 families and mothers/care givers with children less than five years were selected randomly and represented urban, peri-urbanand rural settings. Results: More than 90% of respondents identified malaria by presence of fever while 57.5% used fever as a cardinal sign. 91% of participants sought early treatment in urban and peri-urban settings while 85% did so in rural sites. 55% of participants administered the correct doses daily but only 17% of them knew the side effects of Antimalarial medications used. Almost all participants were aware about transmission of malaria, when to repeat the drug dose and usage of paracetamol as a medicine to reduce body temperature. Conclusion: The overall knowledge and skills demonstrated are encouraging, there is no much difference between urban and rural settings. Community based initiatives should be strengthened and promoted to provide homemade solutions to saving lives and resources.

  5. Theorising Digital Play: A Cultural-Historical Conceptualisation of Children's Engagement in Imaginary Digital Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    In the early childhood education literature, a growing number of studies have referenced "digital play." Many of these studies seek to describe how young children play with digital devices, notably, how they engage with different kinds of apps. This work collectively illustrates a range of play behaviours where a number of important…

  6. Physical Education at Preschools: Practitioners' and Children's Engagements with Physical Activity and Health Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on one aspect of a qualitative study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and children at three preschools in Scotland. We examine the ways in which the participants engaged with discourses related to physical activity and health in order to construct their…

  7. Parents' Play Beliefs and Engagement in Young Children's Play at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xunyi; Li, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Play is a fundamental concept in early childhood development and education. As partners in the child's learning, parents play a crucial role in how play is defined, valued, and practised. The present study explores the constructs of parents' beliefs about and engagement in young children's play in two coastal cities in China. A sample of 483…

  8. Engagement and guidance: The effects of maternal parenting practices on children's development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramonte, L.; Gauthier, A.H.; Willms, D.

    2015-01-01

    Problems with inattention, physical aggression, and poor cognitive skills when children enter school can have long-term negative effects on their development. In this study, we address the issues of whether and how parental engagement and guidance are related to children’s behavioral and cognitive

  9. Achieving a Global Mind-Set at Home: Student Engagement with Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinger, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Developing a global mind-set in college students is a goal of many colleges and universities. Most often this goal is met by encouraging students to study abroad. This article explains how a service learning student engagement program at home achieves this goal by pairing Introduction to Sociology students with young immigrant children in a weekly…

  10. Families' engagement with young children's science and technology learning at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robin L.; Schaverien, Lynette

    2001-07-01

    There is accumulating evidence of the worth of involving families in young children's learning in informal contexts. By exploring families' engagement with their children's science and technology learning at home over a 6-month period, the present investigation sought to illuminate both the nature and the educational significance of what families do. Initially, in order to seed scientific and technological inquiry in homes, kindergarten and year-one children investigated flashlights with family members at school. Each day, equipment was available to take home. Using established anthropological methods, one of the researchers investigated children's further inquiries beyond the classroom in diverse ways; for example, by visiting homes and conversing via telephone and facsimile. The findings showed that families engaged with children's inquiries at home in many ways - by providing resources, conversing, and investigating collaboratively with children. Moreover, when families pursued inquiries together and when children conducted their own sustained intellectual searches, children's ideas deepened. Such evidence of the educational significance of what families do suggests that early science and technology education might be made more effective if it were aligned with the ways people learn together outside formal institutions.

  11. Buffering effect of parental engagement on the relationship between corporal punishment and children's emotional/behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Anme, Tokie

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has established links between corporal punishment and children's developmental problems, but few studies have investigated the moderating effect of positive parenting between corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties in detail. This study investigated the buffering effect of parental engagement on the association between corporal punishment and children's emotional/behavioral problems. The main caregivers completed the Evaluation of Environmental Stimulation Scale (EES), which is an evaluation of daily parenting behaviors, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which evaluates children's developmental problems. Corporal punishment was associated with worse emotional and behavioral problems in children, whereas parental engagement in games or sports was associated with fewer emotional symptoms. Similarly, parental engagement in homework or housework significantly moderated the association between corporal punishment and children's behavioral problems. Parental engagement positively moderated the association between parental corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties. This association varied with child gender. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Using Teacher-Implemented Playground Interventions to Increase Engagement, Social Behaviors, and Physical Activity for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Lane, Justin D.; Shepley, Collin; Kroll, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism have deficits in social communication and may engage in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than children without disabilities. In this study, a classroom teacher implemented two interventions in the context of an alternating treatments design. Physical activity, engagement, and social behaviors were monitored…

  13. An Exploratory Analysis of American Indian Children's Cultural Engagement, Fluid Cognitive Skills, and Standardized Verbal IQ Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsethlikai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory cross-sectional study examined fluid cognitive skills and standardized verbal IQ scores in relation to cultural engagement amongst Tohono O'odham children (N = 99; ages 7 to 12 years). Guardians with higher socioeconomic status engaged their children in more cultural activities, and participation in more cultural activities…

  14. A community engagement process for families with children with disabilities: lessons in leadership and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Claudia María; Arauza, Consuelo; Folsom, Kim; Luna, María del Rosario; Gutiérrez, Lucy; Frerking, Patricia Ohliger; Shelton, Kathleen; Foreman, Carl; Waffle, David; Reynolds, Richard; Cooper, Phillip J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a community engagement process developed as part of leadership training for clinical trainees in the Oregon Leadership Education for Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) Program in a complex community with diverse families who have children with disabilities. The goal is to examine the process and lessons learned for clinical trainees and their mentors from such a process. This is a case study conducted as community-engaged action research by participant-observers involved in the Cornelius community for the past 4 years. The authors include faculty members and clinical trainees of the Oregon LEND Program at the Oregon Health & Science University, families with children with disabilities in the community, and city officials. It is a critical case study in that it studied a community engagement process in one of the poorest communities in the region, with an unusually high population of children with disabilities, and in a community that is over half Latino residents. Lessons learned here can be helpful in a variety of settings. Community engagement forum, community engagement processes, a debriefing using a seven-element feasibility framework, and trainee evaluations are key elements. A community engagement forum is a meeting to which community members and stakeholders from pertinent agencies are invited. Community engagement processes used include a steering committee made up of, and guided by community members which meets on a regular basis to prioritize and carry out responses to problems. Trainee evaluations are based on a set of questions to trigger open-ended responses. Lessons learned are based on assessments of initial and long-term outcomes of the community engagement processes in which families, community members, local officials and LEND trainees and faculty participate as well as by trainee participant-observations, end of year evaluations and trainee debriefings at the time of the initial community assessment forum

  15. Engagement in family activities: a quantitative, comparative study of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and children with typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, A K; Granlund, M; Wilder, J

    2013-07-01

    Participation is known to be of great importance for children's development and emotional well-being as well as for their families. In the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth version participation is defined as a person's 'involvement in a life situation'. Engagement is closely related to involvement and can be seen as expressions of involvement or degree of involvement within a situation. This study focuses on children's engagement in family activities; one group of families with a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and one group of families with children with typical development (TD) were compared. A descriptive study using questionnaires. Analyses were mainly performed by using Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank correlation test. Engagement in family activities differed in the two groups of children. The children with PIMD had a lower level of engagement in most family activities even though the activities that engaged the children to a higher or lesser extent were the same in both groups. Child engagement was found to correlate with family characteristics mostly in the children with TD and in the children with PIMD only negative correlations occurred. In the children with PIMD child engagement correlated with cognition in a high number of listed family activities and the children had a low engagement in routines in spite of these being frequently occurring activities. Level of engagement in family activities in the group of children with PIMD was lower compared with that in the group of children with TD. Families with a child with PIMD spend much time and effort to adapt family living patterns to the child's functioning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Why Do Children Engage in Sedentary Behavior? Child- and Parent-Perceived Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, Lisan M; Altenburg, Teatske M; van Ekris, Evi; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2017-06-22

    Todays children spend a large amount of their time sedentary. There is limited evidence on the determinants of sedentary behavior in children, and qualitative studies are especially lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of children's sedentary behavior from the child- and parent perspective. Qualitative data were collected during concept mapping sessions with four groups of 11-13 years old children ( n = 38) and two online sessions with parents ( n = 21). Children and parents generated sedentary behavior motives, sorted related motives, and rated their importance in influencing children's sedentary time. Next, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to create clusters of motives resulting in a concept map. Finally, the researchers named the clusters in the concept map. Concept maps of children yielded eight to ten perceived determinants, and concept maps of parents six to seven. Children and parents identified six similar potential determinants, and both rated as important: Sitting because… "it is the norm (I have to)", and "I can work/play better that way". In addition, children rated "there is nobody to play with" as an important potential determinant for engaging in sedentary behavior. The most important child- and parent perceived determinants were related to the social/cultural and physical environment, indicating that these are promising targets for future interventions.

  17. Dietary diversity and child malnutrition in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Boadi Frempong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The health of children in Ghana has improved in recent years. However, the current prevalence rates of malnutrition remain above internationally acceptable levels. This study, therefore, revisits the determinants of child health by using Ghana’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey to investigate the effect of infant feeding practices on child health. We used the World Health Organization’s Infant and Young Children Feeding guidelines to measure dietary quality. The econometric analyses show that dietary diversity may cause improvement in children’s health in Ghana. This suggests that educational campaigns on proper infant feeding and complementary dieting could be an effective means of improving the health of children in Ghana.

  18. Time to and Predictors of CD4+ T-Lymphocytes Recovery in HIV-Infected Children Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Renner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. CD4+ T-lymphocyte monitoring is not routinely available in most resource-limited settings. We investigated predictors of time to CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery in HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral (HAART at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Methods. Time to CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery was defined as achieving percent CD4+ T-lymphocytes of 25%. We used Cox proportional hazard models for identifying significant predictor variables. Results. Of the 233 children with complete CD4+ T-lymphocyte data, the mean age at HAART initiation was 5.5 (SD=3.1 years. The median recovery time was 60 weeks (95% CL: 55–65. Evidence at baseline of severe suppression in CD4+ T-lymphocyte count adjusted for age, age at HAART initiation, gender, and having parents alive were statistically significant in predicting time to CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery. Conclusions. A targeted approach based on predictors of CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery can be a viable and cost-effective way of monitoring HAART in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings.

  19. But how do we actually engage children in design for play?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    in their design process. Their response was ‘‘We would like to, but how do we actually engage children in design for play?”. To answer this question, Design School Kolding and Capital of Children initiated the Play User Lab in Billund, Denmark in 2016. The Play User Lab is a facilitation platform for creating...... synergies between design, play and children by educating designers and employees from play designing companies in child-centred design processes. The objective is to create play products that contain better play experiences, due to the fact that they have been developed with a child-centred mind......A 2014 study of ten Danish play designing companies identified a significant barrier within the industry. Even though all of the companies showed great interest in child-centred design for play and seemed very aware of its value, only a few of the companies actively involved children...

  20. Young Children's Perceptions of the Quality of Teacher-Child Interactions and School Engagement in Greek Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Elena; Gregoriadis, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine young children's perceptions about the quality of their interactions with their teachers and the possible association of teacher-child relationships with children's school engagement. Additionally, gender and ethnicity differences were investigated regarding both teachers' and children's perceptions. Young…

  1. "Bill Is Now Singing": Joint Engagement and the Emergence of Social Communication of Three Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiouli, Potheini; Grimmet, Kharon; Ruich, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder meet significant challenges in joint attention skills and in social communication. A child-centered, improvisational, music therapy intervention model was implemented to promote engagement in three young children with autism in a kindergarten classroom. A multiple baseline design compared the children's…

  2. Why Do Children Engage in Sedentary Behavior? Child- and Parent-Perceived Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisan M. Hidding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Todays children spend a large amount of their time sedentary. There is limited evidence on the determinants of sedentary behavior in children, and qualitative studies are especially lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of children’s sedentary behavior from the child- and parent perspective. Qualitative data were collected during concept mapping sessions with four groups of 11–13 years old children (n = 38 and two online sessions with parents (n = 21. Children and parents generated sedentary behavior motives, sorted related motives, and rated their importance in influencing children’s sedentary time. Next, multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to create clusters of motives resulting in a concept map. Finally, the researchers named the clusters in the concept map. Concept maps of children yielded eight to ten perceived determinants, and concept maps of parents six to seven. Children and parents identified six similar potential determinants, and both rated as important: Sitting because… “it is the norm (I have to”, and “I can work/play better that way”. In addition, children rated “there is nobody to play with” as an important potential determinant for engaging in sedentary behavior. The most important child- and parent perceived determinants were related to the social/cultural and physical environment, indicating that these are promising targets for future interventions.

  3. Severe anemia in young children after high and low malaria transmission seasons in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koram, K A; Owusu-Agyei, S; Utz, G; Binka, F N; Baird, J K; Hoffman, S L; Nkrumah, F K

    2000-06-01

    Malaria and anemia accounted for 41% and 18% respectively of hospital deaths in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana during 1996. We measured hemoglobin (Hb), malaria prevalence, and anthropometric indices of 6--24-month-old infants and young children randomly selected from this community at the end of the high (May-October, n = 347) and low (November-April, n = 286) malaria transmission seasons. High transmission season is characterized by rainfall (the equivalent of 800-900 mm/yr.), while the remaining months receive less than 50 mm/yr. Severe anemia, defined as Hb < 6.0 g/dL, was 22.1% at the end of the high transmission season compared to 1.4% at the end of the low transmission season (Odds Ratio [OR] = 20.1; 95% CI: 7.1-55.3). Parasitemia was 71% and 54.3% at these time points (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-2.9). Nutritional anemia appeared to have little impact upon this seasonal difference since anthropometric indices were comparable. Although the relative contributions of other causes of severe anemia were not assessed, repeated malaria infections may be a primary determinant of severe anemia among infants and young children during the high transmission season.

  4. Ambulatory EEG NeuroMonitor platform for engagement studies of children with development delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ruhi; Consul-Pacareu, Sergi; Abusaud, Mohammed; Sahadat, Md N.; Morshed, Bashir I.

    2013-05-01

    Engagement monitoring is crucial in many clinical and therapy applications such as early learning preschool classes for children with developmental delays including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or cerebral palsy; as it is challenging for the instructors to evaluate the individual responses of these children to determine the effectiveness of the teaching strategies due to the diverse and unique need of each child who might have difficulty in verbal or behavioral communication. This paper presents an ambulatory scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) NeuroMonitor platform to study brain engagement activities in natural settings. The developed platform is miniature (size: 2.2" x 0.8" x 0.36", weight: 41.8 gm with 800 mAh Li-ion battery and 3 snap leads) and low-power (active mode: 32 mA low power mode: under 5mA) with 2 channels (Fp1, Fp2) to record prefrontal cortex activities of the subject in natural settings while concealed within a headband. The signals from the electrodes are amplified with a low-power instrumentation amplifier; notch filtered (fc = 60Hz), then band-passed by a 2nd-order Chebyshev-I low-pass filter cascaded with a 2nd-order low-pass (fc = 125Hz). A PSoC ADC (16-bit, 256 sps) samples this filtered signal, and can either transmit it through a Class-2 Bluetooth transceiver to a remote station for real-time analysis or store it in a microSD card for offline processing. This platform is currently being evaluated to capture data in the classroom settings for engagement monitoring of children, aimed to study the effectiveness of various teaching strategies that will allow the development of personalized classroom curriculum for children with developmental delays.

  5. Ghana and the nuclear power option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Ennison, I.

    2000-01-01

    For every country, dependable and continuous supply of electricity is a prerequisite for ensuring sustainable development. In Ghana, Ghanaians have currently known the consequences of disrupted and inadequate supply of electricity. Globally too the call of ''Agenda 21'' of the Rio de Janeiro Conference (Earth Summit) to engage in the development and supply of electricity in a sustainable manner imposes on us certain limitations in our choice of energy option to utilise. Taking into account the high economic and population growths with the subsequent increase in demand for electricity in the 21st century, the fact that Ghana has no coal and imports oil which will be in dwindling supply in the 21st century and that the total hydro supply in Ghana will not be sufficient for our electricity demand in the next century, this paper proposes that Ghana starts now to plan for the introduction of the nuclear option so that in the long term we may have in place an environmentally friendly, dependable and reliable supply of energy. The paper also highlights the economic competitiveness of nuclear power over the other energy options in Ghana and addresses the apprehension and misunderstanding surrounding the nuclear power option. (author)

  6. Health Risks to Children and Adults Residing in Riverine Environments where Surficial Sediments Contain Metals Generated by Active Gold Mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Frederick Ato; Gyeabour, Elvis Kyere

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of metal pollution in the sediment from rivers, lakes, and streams in active gold mining districts in Ghana. Two hundred and fifty surface sediment samples from 99 locations were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were then used to assess the human health risks to resident children and adults in central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) scenarios. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were almost twice the threshold values established by the Hong Kong Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG). Hg, Cu, and Cr concentrations in sediment were 14, 20, and 26 times higher than the Canadian Freshwater Sediment Guidelines for these elements. Also, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Hg were 3, 11, 12, and 16 times more than the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment guideline values. The results of the human health risk assessment indicate that for ingestion of sediment under the central tendency exposure (CTE) scenario, the cancer risks for child and adult residents from exposure to As were 4.18 × 10(-6) and 1.84 × 10(-7), respectively. This suggests that up to 4 children out of one million equally exposed children would contract cancer if exposed continuously to As over 70 years (the assumed lifetime). The hazard index for child residents following exposure to Cr(VI) in the RME scenario was 4.2. This is greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold of 1, indicating that adverse health effects to children from exposure to Cr(VI) are possible. This study demonstrates the urgent need to control industrial emissions and the severe heavy metal pollution in gold mining environments.

  7. Characteristics of severe anemia and its association with malaria in young children of the Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Fryauff, David J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Koram, Kwadwo A; Binka, Fred N; Nkrumah, Francis K; Utz, Greg C; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2002-10-01

    Severe anemia is thought to be the principal underlying cause of malaria death in areas of intense seasonal malaria transmission such as the Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana. Factors associated with severe anemia in young children, 6-24 months old, were elucidated by analyzing results of 2 malaria-associated anemia surveys (1996, 2000), separated by 4 years, but conducted in the same community and at the same seasonal time point. Age-adjusted comparison confirmed that the proportion of severely anemic children and overall mean hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the November 2000 sample were significantly improved over those of the 1996 sample (17.5 versus 26.4%, P = 0.03; Hb 7.5 versus 6.9 g/dL, P = 0.002). Weight-for-age Z-scores also indicated a significant improvement in the 2000 sample (-1.93 versus -2.20, P or = 6.0 g/dL, those with severe anemia (Hb < 6.0 g/dL) were older, more frequently parasitemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-2.35), more often febrile (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.71-3.48), and predominantly male (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.05-2.13). An association was identified in both surveys between severe anemia and residence in the northern part of the district, but no clear link was observed in relation to irrigation. Blood transfusions, a likely surrogate index of severe anemia in young children, followed a distinct seasonal pattern. Evidence suggests that dramatic peaks and troughs of severe anemia are regular and possibly predictable events that may be used to gauge the health and survival of young children in this area.

  8. Disinhibited social engagement in postinstitutionalized children: differentiating normal from atypical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Jamie M; Hostinar, Camelia E; Mliner, Shanna B; Gunnar, Megan R

    2014-05-01

    The most commonly reported socially aberrant behavior in postinstitutionalized (PI) children is disinhibited social engagement (DSE; also known as indiscriminate friendliness). There is no gold standard for measurement of this phenomenon nor agreement on how to differentiate it from normative behavior. We adopted a developmental psychopathology approach (Cicchetti, 1984) to study this phenomenon by comparing it to normative social development and by studying its patterns over time in 50 newly adopted PI children (16-36 months at adoption) compared with 41 children adopted early from foster care overseas and 47 nonadopted (NA) controls. Using coded behavioral observations of the child's interaction with an unfamiliar adult, atypical behaviors were differentiated from normative behaviors. Principal components analysis identified two dimensions of social disinhibition. The nonphysical social dimension (e.g., initiations, proximity) showed wide variation in NA children and is therefore considered a typical form of sociability. Displays of physical contact and intimacy were rare in NA children, suggesting that they represent an atypical pattern of behavior. Both adopted groups demonstrated more physical DSE behavior than NA children. There were no group differences on the nonphysical factor, and it increased over time in all groups. Implications for understanding the etiology of DSE and future directions are discussed.

  9. Nutritional status of in-school children and its associated factors in Denkyembour District, eastern region, Ghana: comparing schools with feeding and non-school feeding policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwabla, Mavis Pearl; Gyan, Charlotte; Zotor, Francis

    2018-01-12

    Childhood malnutrition still remains a major public health problem impacting negatively on the academic aptitude of school-aged children (SAC) particularly in limited resource countries. The Government of Ghana in collaboration with the Dutch Government introduced the school feeding programme (SFP) to boost the nutritional status of SAC in the country. This study sought to compare the nutritional status of SAC enrolled in schools with the SFP and SAC enrolled in schools without the SFP in place for the purpose of identifying which group has the higher rate of malnutrition. A multi-stage sampling was used to select 359 SAC between 5 and 12 years who are enrolled in primary one to six. Twelve public schools were selected, of which 6 schools benefit from the SFP and the other six do not. Anthropometric measurements were conducted for the subjects and SPSS version 20.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Chi square test was carried out to determine the difference between the two groups of schools. Of the total of 359 subjects, 55.1% were from schools that do not implement the SFP and 44.9% were from schools that implement the SFP. The prevalence of stunting among children in schools on the SFP was 16.2% compared with 17.2% among children in schools that do not implement the SFP. The prevalence of thinness was two times higher (9.3%) among children in schools on the SFP than in children in schools that do not implement the SFP (4.6%) (p = 0.028). The prevalence of overweight among children in schools on the SFP was 1.9% and 0.0% for children in schools that do not implement the SFP. Sub district, sex, age of pupil, area of residence and community type were significantly associated with stunting (p = 0.002), (p = 0.008), (p = 0.008), (p schools on SFP than in children in schools without SFP. An evaluation of the implementation of the school feeding programme is recommended for future studies.

  10. Pilot Randomized Trial of Active Music Engagement Intervention Parent Delivery for Young Children With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E; Perkins, Susan M; Haut, Paul R; Henley, Amanda K; Knafl, Kathleen A; Tong, Yan

    2017-03-01

    To examine the feasibility/acceptability of a parent-delivered Active Music Engagement (AME + P) intervention for young children with cancer and their parents. Secondary aim to explore changes in AME + P child emotional distress (facial affect) and parent emotional distress (mood; traumatic stress symptoms) relative to controls. A pilot two-group randomized trial was conducted with parents/children (ages 3-8 years) receiving AME + P ( n  =  9) or attention control ( n  =  7). Feasibility of parent delivery was assessed using a delivery checklist and child engagement; acceptability through parent interviews; preliminary outcomes at baseline, postintervention, 30 days postintervention. Parent delivery was feasible, as they successfully delivered AME activities, but interviews indicated parent delivery was not acceptable to parents. Emotional distress was lower for AME + P children, but parents derived no benefit. Despite child benefit, findings do not support parent delivery of AME + P. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Two-year evaluation of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Children (IPTc combined with timely home treatment for malaria control in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seake-Kwawu Atsu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT has recently been accepted as an important component of the malaria control strategy. Intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc combined with timely treatment of malaria related febrile illness at home to reduce parasite prevalence and malaria morbidity in children aged between six and 60 months in a coastal community in Ghana. This paper reports persistence of reduced parasitaemia two years into the intervention. The baseline and year-one-evaluation findings were published earlier. Objective The main objective in the second year was to demonstrate whether the two interventions would further reduce parasite prevalence and malaria-related febrile illness in the study population. Methods This was an intervention study designed to compare baseline and evaluation findings without a control group. The study combined home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc aged 6 - 60 months and home treatment of suspected febrile malaria-related illness within 24 hours. All children aged 6 - 60 months received home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine + artesunate, delivered at home by community assistants every four months (6 times in 24 months. Malaria parasite prevalence surveys were conducted before the first and after the third and sixth IPTc to the children. The evaluation surveys were done four months after the third and sixth IPTc was given. Results Parasite prevalence which reduced from 25% to 3.0% at year-one evaluation had reduced further from 3% to 1% at year-two-evaluation. At baseline, 13.8% of the children were febrile (axilary temperature of ≥37.5°C compared to 2.2% at year-one-evaluation while 2.1% were febrile at year-two-evaluation. Conclusion The year-two-evaluation result indicates that IPTc given three times in a year (every four months combined with timely treatment of febrile malaria illness, is

  12. Two-year evaluation of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Children (IPTc) combined with timely home treatment for malaria control in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahorlu, Collins K; Koram, Kwadwo A; Seake-Kwawu, Atsu; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2011-05-15

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) has recently been accepted as an important component of the malaria control strategy. Intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc) combined with timely treatment of malaria related febrile illness at home to reduce parasite prevalence and malaria morbidity in children aged between six and 60 months in a coastal community in Ghana. This paper reports persistence of reduced parasitaemia two years into the intervention. The baseline and year-one-evaluation findings were published earlier. The main objective in the second year was to demonstrate whether the two interventions would further reduce parasite prevalence and malaria-related febrile illness in the study population. This was an intervention study designed to compare baseline and evaluation findings without a control group. The study combined home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc) aged 6 - 60 months and home treatment of suspected febrile malaria-related illness within 24 hours. All children aged 6-60 months received home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine + artesunate, delivered at home by community assistants every four months (6 times in 24 months). Malaria parasite prevalence surveys were conducted before the first and after the third and sixth IPTc to the children. The evaluation surveys were done four months after the third and sixth IPTc was given. Parasite prevalence which reduced from 25% to 3.0% at year-one evaluation had reduced further from 3% to 1% at year-two-evaluation. At baseline, 13.8% of the children were febrile (axilary temperature of ≥ 37.5 °C) compared to 2.2% at year-one-evaluation while 2.1% were febrile at year-two-evaluation. The year-two-evaluation result indicates that IPTc given three times in a year (every four months) combined with timely treatment of febrile malaria illness, is effective to reduce malaria parasite prevalence in children aged 6 to 60 months

  13. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungman Cha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014. A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.97 for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87–1.05 for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83–0.98 for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71–0.96 for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86–1.04 for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82–0.97 for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions.

  14. Using a Multimedia Social Skills Intervention to Increase Social Engagement of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine; Hood, Julia A.; Nicholas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display impairments in social interactions and communication that appear at early ages. Fewer social engagements of children with ASD with peers often lead to long-term negative outcomes, such as social isolation and restricted language and cognitive skills. Although there is a clear need for social…

  15. Demographic patterns and sustainable development in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, E O

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that the present demographic patterns in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, do not augur well for the achievement of sustainable development. Ghana is characterized by a youthful population, rapid population growth, uneven population distribution, high fertility, and rural-urban migration which has brought human numbers into collision with resources to sustain them. It is submitted that the issues discussed are equally applicable to the subregion as well. The estimated population in 1993 was about 16.4 million. The population of Ghana increased from 1970 to 1984 at a rate of growth of 2.6% per annum. The proliferation of small settlements has serious implications for sustainable development. Urban centers comprised about 12.9% of the total population in 1948, 23% in 1960, 28.3% in 1970, and 31.3% in 1984. The average woman in Ghana still has more than six children. The 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) indicated that the median age at first marriage for women was 16.5 years. Contraceptive use is low in sub-Sahara Africa. Currently married women (15-49) currently using any modern method ranged from 1% in Burundi (1987) and Mali (1987) to 36% in Zimbabwe (1988/89). The rapid population growth in Ghana, coupled with the concentration of infrastructural facilities and job opportunities in the urban centers, has resulted in a massive rural-urban migration. Basic social facilities like health, water, housing, and electricity have been stretched to their breakpoints. The Government of Ghana initiated a major effort to put environmental issues on the priority agenda in March 1988. This led to the preparation of an Environmental Action Plan (EAP) in 1991 to address issues relating to the protection of the environment, but the need is still urgent to adopt relevant population policies as a basic strategy in sustainable development.

  16. Mental wellbeing of children engaged in agricultural work activities and quality of family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Lachowska, Bogusława

    2007-01-01

    A considerable percentage of Polish children from agricultural families are engaged by their parents in performing work activities on farms. The performance of these tasks arouses various emotional reactions in children, from the feeling of threat, fear and anxiety, to the feeling of satisfaction, being contented and proud. The subjective feeling of happiness and life satisfaction is an extremely important factor affecting the mental health and functioning of a human being. The objective of the study was to show to what extent the quality of communication between children and parents, and the level of family cohesion and adaptability according to the Circumplex Model by D. H. Olson et al., modifies children's emotional reactions associated with the tasks performed. The study covered 192 children aged 12-13, whose parents were running a family farm. Growing up in a healthy family characterised by a balanced level of cohesion, adaptability and good communication with the father and mother, favours the occurrence in children of pleasant emotions in reaction to work which they undertake on behalf of their parents on a farm. In such families, more often than in families with bad communication and dysfunctional families (disengaged, rigid), children experience satisfaction, have a feeling of deepening bonds with their parents, and the feeling of being more adult and preparing themselves well for adult life. Family characteristics which are evidence of disorders in its functioning (lack of good communication with the father, mother, lack of bonds between family members, rigid, chaos in a family) co-occur with the child experiencing unpleasant emotional states in associated with the work performed, there occur feelings of dissatisfaction, unhappiness, unpleasantness, the feeling that it would be better to learn than to work.

  17. Empowering Children with Adaptive Technology Skills: Careful Engagement in the Digital Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftachul HUDA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological advancement occurring in the world today has a potency to create positive and negative side effects especially on children. The positive side may entail increased empathy and acceptance of diversity through modelling the prosocial behaviours, while the negative can be manifest in aggressive behaviour, risky sexual behaviour, and substance abuse. These challenges pose a need to draw a particular attention to children’s rights of protection and care in relation to the use of technology. This paper sought to critically explore the way in which children adapt technology skills and the way they respond towards media influences. The findings revealed that the adaptive technology skills are needed in providing a considerable guidance for child protection and careful engagement towards digital information as part of their rights to natural growth and development.

  18. Empowering children with adaptive technology skills: Careful engagement in the digital ınformation age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftachul Huda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological advancement occurring in the world today has a potency to create positive and negative side effects especially on children. The positive side may entail increased empathy and acceptance of diversity through modelling the prosocial behaviours, while the negative can be manifest in aggressive behaviour, risky sexual behaviour, and substance abuse. These challenges pose a need to draw a particular attention to children’s rights of protection and care in relation to the use of technology. This paper sought to critically explore the way in which children adapt technology skills and the way they respond towards media influences. The findings revealed that the adaptive technology skills are needed in providing a considerable guidance for child protection and careful engagement towards digital information as part of their rights to natural growth and development.

  19. "Bill is now singing": joint engagement and the emergence of social communication of three young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiouli, Potheini; Grimmet, Kharon; Ruich, Lawrence J

    2015-01-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder meet significant challenges in joint attention skills and in social communication. A child-centered, improvisational, music therapy intervention model was implemented to promote engagement in three young children with autism in a kindergarten classroom. A multiple baseline design compared the children's performance through three phases of intervention: focus on faces, response to joint attention, and initiation of joint attention. A complimentary qualitative analysis of teacher and parent experiences allowed for an in-depth understanding of the role of social environment in supporting emerging social communication skills among three children. As all children showed improvement in joint attention and actions of social engagement, this study bears evidence on the potential of music therapy as a promising intervention for promoting social skills of young children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Engaging Parents Who Quit Smoking in Antismoking Socialization of Children: A Novel Approach to Relapse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kim A.; Dickinson, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Data from a randomized controlled trial designed primarily to test the effect of an antismoking socialization parenting program on child initiation of smoking were used to test the subsidiary hypothesis that providing antismoking socialization to children would lower the odds of relapse within a sub-sample of parents who had recently quit smoking. Methods: Over 13 months, 11 state Quitlines provided contact information for callers who were parents of 8- to 10-year-old children. Of 1604 parents enrolled in the trial, 689 (344 treatment; 345 control) had quit smoking cigarettes for at least 24 hours after calling a Quitline. Their data were used to test for group differences in 30-day abstinence measured using telephone interviews conducted 7 and 12 months post-baseline. Analyses of parents with complete follow-up data and intent-to-treat analyses incorporating parents lost to follow-up are presented. Results: Among 465 parents with complete follow-up data, treatment group parents had twice the odds of being abstinent 12 months post-baseline (adjusted OR = 2.01; P = .001) relative to controls. Intent-to-treat analysis with all 689 parents, in which those lost to follow-up were coded as having relapsed, showed a smaller though significant treatment effect on 30-day abstinence at 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.58; P = .017). Conclusions: This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. Additional research is needed to replicate this finding and to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying the observed effect. Implications: There is a clear the need for research to develop new relapse prevention strategies. This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. PMID:26416824

  1. Ghana : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within the context of the Ghana institutional framework to ensure the quality of corporate financial reporting. The accounting and auditing practices in Ghana suffer from institutional weaknesses in regulation, compliance, and enforcement of standards and rules. Various weaknesses were identified in the laws and regula...

  2. Ghana Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ghana Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the Ghana Medical Association. It was established in 1962 It publishes quality manuscripts in in all aspects of health, health care and the medical sciences. The full text of published articles are available online at this website and at African ...

  3. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  4. Executive Functioning and Engagement in Physical and Relational Aggression among Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Julia D; Breaux, Rosanna P; Miller, Rose; Mathias, Laney

    2017-07-01

    Although evidence suggests that executive functioning (EF) impairments are implicated in physically aggressive behavior (e.g., hitting) these cognitive impairments have rarely been examined with regard to relational aggression (e.g., gossip, systematic exclusion). Studies also have not examined if EF impairments underlie the expression of aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and if child gender moderates risk. Children with and without clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms (N = 124; ages 8-12 years; 48 % male) completed a battery of EF tests. Parent and teacher report of ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and teacher report of engagement in physical and relational aggression were collected. Models tested the unique association of EF abilities with physical and relational aggression and the indirect effect through the expression of ADHD or ODD behaviors; child gender was also tested as a moderator. EF impairment was uniquely associated with physical aggression, but better EF ability was associated with relational aggression. For boys, poor EF also was indirectly associated with greater physical aggression through the expression of ADHD behaviors. However, ADHD symptoms were unrelated to relational aggression. ODD symptoms also predicted physical aggression for boys but relational aggression for girls. Results suggest that there are multiple and distinct factors associated with engagement in physical and relational aggression and that better EF may actually promote relational aggression. Established models of physical aggression should not be assumed to map on to explanations of relational aggression.

  5. Visual attentional engagement deficits in children with specific language impairment and their role in real-time language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B; Corradi, Nicola; Ruffino, Milena; Bronte, Tiziana; Facoetti, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    In order to become a proficient user of language, infants must detect temporal cues embedded within the noisy acoustic spectra of ongoing speech by efficient attentional engagement. According to the neuro-constructivist approach, a multi-sensory dysfunction of attentional engagement - hampering the temporal sampling of stimuli - might be responsible for language deficits typically shown in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). In the present study, the efficiency of visual attentional engagement was investigated in 22 children with SLI and 22 typically developing (TD) children by measuring attentional masking (AM). AM refers to impaired identification of the first of two sequentially presented masked objects (O1 and O2) in which the O1-O2 interval was manipulated. Lexical and grammatical comprehension abilities were also tested in both groups. Children with SLI showed a sluggish engagement of temporal attention, and individual differences in AM accounted for a significant percentage of unique variance in grammatical performance. Our results suggest that an attentional engagement deficit - probably linked to a dysfunction of the right fronto-parietal attentional network - might be a contributing factor in these children's language impairments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuke; Moe, Christine L; Null, Clair; Raj, Suraja J; Baker, Kelly K; Robb, Katharine A; Yakubu, Habib; Ampofo, Joseph A; Wellington, Nii; Freeman, Matthew C; Armah, George; Reese, Heather E; Peprah, Dorothy; Teunis, Peter F M

    2017-10-01

    Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple pathways for children under 5 years old in four high-density, low-income, urban neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. We collected more than 500 hours of structured observation of behaviors of 156 children, 800 household surveys, and 1,855 environmental samples. Data were analyzed using Bayesian models, estimating the environmental and behavioral factors associated with exposure to fecal contamination. These estimates were applied in exposure models simulating sequences of behaviors and transfers of fecal indicators. This approach allows us to identify the contribution of any sources of fecal contamination in the environment to child exposure and use dynamic fecal microbe transfer networks to track fecal indicators from the environment to oral ingestion. The contributions of different sources to exposure were categorized into four types (high/low by dose and frequency), as a basis for ranking pathways by the potential to reduce exposure. Although we observed variation in estimated exposure (10 8 -10 16 CFU/day for Escherichia coli ) between different age groups and neighborhoods, the greatest contribution was consistently from food (contributing > 99.9% to total exposure). Hands played a pivotal role in fecal microbe transfer, linking environmental sources to oral ingestion. The fecal microbe transfer network constructed here provides a systematic approach to study the complex interaction between contaminated environment and human behavior on exposure to fecal contamination.

  7. Challenges in linking health research to policy: a commentary on developing a multi-stakeholder response to orphans and vulnerable children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakwah Kwadwo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Research and Development Division (RDD of the Ghana Health Service (GHS has a remit to build research capacity and conduct policy relevant research. By being situated within the GHS, RDD has good access to directors and programme managers, within and beyond the Ministry of Health. This structure has been facilitating collaboration through research cycles for 20 years, from agenda setting to discussions on policy relevance. This approach has been applied to research activities within the Addressing the Balance of Burden in AIDS (ABBA Research Programme Consortium to tackle the challenges facing HIV affected orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs. The government strategy on OVCs recommends they should be encouraged to live in their home communities rather than in institutions. We present lessons here on efforts to use research to build a response across different agencies to address the problems that communities and families face in caring for these children in their communities. This approach to building consensus on research priorities points to the value of collaboration and dialogue with multiple stakeholders as a means of fostering ownership of a research process and supporting the relevance of research to different groups. Our experience has shown that if the context within which researchers, policy makers and stakeholders work were better understood, the links between them were improved and research were communicated more effectively, then better policy making which links across different sectors may follow. At the same time, collaboration among these different stakeholders to ensure that research meets social needs, must also satisfy the requirements of scientific rigour.

  8. Effectiveness of Albendazole for Hookworm Varies Widely by Community and Correlates with Nutritional Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study of School-Age Children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie; Nguyen, Sara; Kumar, Sunny; Quagraine, Josephine E; Otchere, Joseph; Harrison, Lisa M; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2017-02-08

    Mass drug administration (MDA) targeting school-age children is recommended by the World Health Organization for the global control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Although considered safe and cost-effective to deliver, benzimidazole anthelminthics are variably effective against the three most common STHs, and widespread use has raised concern about the potential for emerging resistance. To identify factors mediating response to albendazole, we conducted a cross-sectional study of hookworm infection in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana in 2011. Among 140 school-age children residing in five contiguous communities, the hookworm prevalence was 59% (82/140). The overall cure rate following administration of single-dose albendazole (400 mg) was 35% (27/76), with a community-wide fecal egg reduction rate (ERR) of 61% (95% confidence interval: 51.8-71.1). Significant disparities were observed in albendazole effectiveness by community, with a cure rate as low as 0% ( N = 24) in Jato Akuraa and ERRs ranging from 53% to 95% across the five study sites. Individual host factors associated with response to deworming treatment included time since last meal, pretreatment blood hemoglobin level, and mid-upper arm circumference. These data demonstrate significant community-level variation in the effectiveness of albendazole, even among populations living in close proximity. Identification of host factors that influence response to albendazole, most notably the timing of drug administration and nutritional factors, creates an opportunity to enhance the effectiveness of deworming through targeted interventions. These findings also demonstrate the importance of measuring anthelminthic response as part of the monitoring and evaluation of community-based deworming programs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Blood pressure patterns in rural, semi-urban and urban children in the Ashanti region of Ghana, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Redekop, William K.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    High blood pressure, once rare, is rapidly becoming a major public health burden in sub-Saharan/Africa. It is unclear whether this is reflected in children. The main purpose of this study was to assess blood pressure patterns among rural, semi-urban, and urban children and to determine the

  10. The roles of effective communication and client engagement in delivering culturally sensitive care to immigrant parents of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Desmarais, Chantal; Lindsay, Sally; Piérart, Geneviève; Tétreault, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Delivering pediatric rehabilitation services to immigrant parents of children with disabilities requires the practice of culturally sensitive care. Few studies have examined the specific nature of culturally sensitive care in pediatric rehabilitation, especially the notions of effective communication and client engagement. Interviews were held with 42 therapists (10 social workers, 16 occupational therapists and 16 speech language pathologists) from two locations in Canada (Toronto and Quebec City). Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. Study themes included the importance and nature of effective communication and client engagement in service delivery involving immigrant parents. Participants discussed using four main types of strategies to engage immigrant parents, including understanding the family situation, building a collaborative relationship, tailoring practice to the client's situation and ensuring parents' understanding of therapy procedures. The findings illuminate the importance of effective, two-way communication in providing the mutual understanding needed by therapists to engage parents in the intervention process. The findings also richly describe the engagement strategies used by therapists. Clinical implications include recommendations for strategies for therapists to employ to engage this group of parents. Furthermore, the findings are applicable to service provision in general, as engaging families in a collaborative relationship through attention to their specific situation is a general principle of good quality, family-centered care. Implications for Rehabilitation Effective communication permeates the delivery of culturally sensitive care and provides mutual understanding, which is fundamental to client engagement. The findings illuminate the nature of "partnership" by indicating the role of collaborative therapist strategies in facilitating engagement. Four main strategies facilitate effective communication and

  11. Ghana Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > About the Journal > Ghana Medical Journal: Submissions ... Works publishable under this section include original work of suitable standard. ... interest statement of all types of manuscript should be submitted as a separate file.

  12. Ghana Mining Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the Ghana mining journal: Geology and Mineral Exploration, Mining, Quarrying, Geomechanics, Groundwater Studies, Hydrocarbon Development, Mineral Processing, Metallurgy, Material Science, Mineral Management Policies, Mineral Economics, Environmental Aspects, Computer Applications and Mining Education.

  13. Ghana's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahafia, Albert K.

    1988-01-01

    The Paper gives the purpose of Ghana's Nuclear Programme and describes some specific research activities and peaceful applications of atomic energy in agriculture, medicine and industry. A discussion of some of the problem facing the programme concludes the Paper. (author)

  14. African Journals Online: Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 27 of 27 ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences .... The Ghana Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed, open access journal ... The Journal of Business Research (JBR) is an International journal published by ...

  15. IDRC in Ghana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ting up the Canada-Ghana Research and. Science Council ... major reform in the country's national health insurance ... helped spread the use of insecticide- coated mosquito nets throughout Africa. These nets are a ... effects of climate change.

  16. Entrepreneurship training in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Leila Kæmsgaard Pagh

    2017-01-01

    is that adding a focus on means, attitude and enterprising behaviour skills will increase the value of entrepreneurship training. The study is a design-based research undertaken in collaboration with the local NGO, Youth Empowerment for Life (YEfL). It builds on relevant theory and involves qualitative...... and quantitative research in Northern Ghana. The study reveals the five most crucial constraints for young entrepreneurs in Northern Ghana. Moreover, it proposes a new entrepreneurship model and training manual....

  17. Ghana's high forests

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35...

  18. Preservice Teachers' Personality Traits and Engagement in Creative Activities as Predictors of Their Support for Children's Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il Rang; Kemple, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among preservice teachers' personality traits, their own engagement in creative activities, and their beliefs about the teaching practices that have been shown to support children's creativity. A total of 302 early childhood and elementary preservice teachers participated in this study. The…

  19. The Voces Project: Investigating How Latino/a Immigrant Children Make Sense of Engaging in School and School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson-Martin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a group of Mexican immigrant children in the United States made sense of engaging in school and school mathematics. The research focused on a population of Latino/a middle school students who were a distinct minority, building a model that shows how a complex set of cognitive, sociocultural, and institutional factors…

  20. Predictors and pathways of language and motor development in four prospective cohorts of young children in Ghana, Malawi, and Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Abbeddou, Souheila; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Bendabenda, Jaden; Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Kortekangas, Emma; Lartey, Anna; Maleta, Kenneth; Oaks, Brietta M; Ocansey, Eugenia; Okronipa, Harriet; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Pulakka, Anna; Somé, Jérôme W; Stewart, Christine P; Stewart, Robert C; Vosti, Stephen A; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-11-01

    Previous reviews have identified 44 risk factors for poor early child development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries. Further understanding of their relative influence and pathways is needed to inform the design of interventions targeting ECD. We conducted path analyses of factors associated with 18-month language and motor development in four prospective cohorts of children who participated in trials conducted as part of the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS) Project in Ghana (n = 1,023), Malawi (n = 675 and 1,385), and Burkina Faso (n = 1,122). In two cohorts, women were enrolled during pregnancy. In two cohorts, infants were enrolled at 6 or 9 months. In multiple linear regression and structural equation models (SEM), we examined 22 out of 44 factors identified in previous reviews, plus 12 additional factors expected to be associated with ECD. Out of 42 indicators of the 34 factors examined, 6 were associated with 18-month language and/or motor development in 3 or 4 cohorts: child linear and ponderal growth, variety of play materials, activities with caregivers, dietary diversity, and child hemoglobin/iron status. Factors that were not associated with child development were indicators of maternal Hb/iron status, maternal illness and inflammation during pregnancy, maternal perceived stress and depression, exclusive breastfeeding during 6 months postpartum, and child diarrhea, fever, malaria, and acute respiratory infections. Associations between socioeconomic status and language development were consistently mediated to a greater extent by caregiving practices than by maternal or child biomedical conditions, while this pattern for motor development was not consistent across cohorts. Key elements of interventions to ensure quality ECD are likely to be promotion of caregiver activities with children, a variety of play materials, and a diverse diet, and prevention of faltering in linear and ponderal growth and improvement in child

  1. Bank service management in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...

  2. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne Chisholm

    Full Text Available Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation and dyadic (joint attention and warmth behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical

  3. Achieving Quality Education in Ghana: The Spotlight on Primary Education within the Kumasi Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…

  4. Influence and Challenges of the Capitation Grant on Education Delivery in Basic Schools in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajibo, Edison; Tamanja, Emmanuel M. J.

    2017-01-01

    In Ghana, some children do not attend school, because their parents are unable to afford levies and fees charged by schools. This led to the introduction of the Capitation Grant Scheme in 2005. This study investigates the influence of the Capitation Grant Scheme on education delivery in basic schools in Ghana, through a close study of the Ga West…

  5. Identifying Barriers and Facilitators at Affect Community Pharmacists' Ability to Engage Children in Medication Counseling: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S.; Schleiden, Loren J.; Carpenter, Delesha M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators that influence community pharmacists' ability to provide medication counseling to pediatric patients. METHODS Semistructured interviews (n = 16) were conducted with pharmacy staff at 3 community pharmacies in 2 Eastern states. The interview guide elicited pharmacy staff experiences interacting with children and their perceived barriers and facilitators to providing medication counseling. Transcripts were reviewed for accuracy and a codebook was developed for data analysis. NVivo 10 was used for content analysis and identifying relevant themes. RESULTS Ten pharmacists and 6 pharmacy technicians were interviewed. Most participants were female (69%), aged 30 to 49 years (56%), with ≥5 years of pharmacy practice experience. Eight themes emerged as barriers to pharmacists' engaging children in medication counseling, the most prevalent being the child's absence during medication pickup, the child appearing to be distracted or uninterested, and having an unconducive pharmacy environment. Pharmacy staff noted 7 common facilitators to engaging children, most importantly, availability of demonstrative and interactive devices/technology, pharmacist demeanor and communication approach, and having child-friendly educational materials. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that pharmacy personnel are rarely able to engage children in medication counseling because of the patient's absence during medication pickup; however, having child-friendly materials could facilitate interactions when the child is present. These findings can inform programs and interventions aimed at addressing the barriers pharmacists encounter while educating children about safe and appropriate use of medicines. PMID:29290741

  6. Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria in children from the Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jürgen

    2010-07-13

    The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA) to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children<15 years of age presented with and without malaria to an outpatient department of a rural hospital. In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich). Their influence on the malaria occurrence was analysed together with malaria risk co-factors, such as sex, parent's educational and ethnic background, number of children living in a household, applied malaria protection measures, place of residence and age of the child and the mother. The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the proportion of children with malaria decreased with increasing socioeconomic status as classified by PCA (p<0.05). Other independent factors for malaria risk were the use of malaria protection measures (p<0.05), the place of residence (p<0.05), and the age of the child (p<0.05). The socioeconomic situation is significantly associated with malaria even in holoendemic rural areas where economic differences are not much pronounced. Valid classification of the socioeconomic level is crucial to be considered as confounder in intervention trials and in the planning of malaria control measures.

  7. The Ghana National Association of Teachers under the Provisional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PNDC government on the other hand, in addition to dissolving the political hub of the education sector, the Ghana Education Service (GES) Council, engaged actively in subjecting some key personalities in the education sector, who were members of GNAT, to one form of repression or another, even as it accepted ...

  8. Interpersonal Engagement Mediates the Relation between Maternal Affect and Externalising Behaviour in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children’s capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID

  9. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: Biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eKraus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements in the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1,000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for one year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to an instrumental training class. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. These findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity during trand may inform the development of strategies for auditory

  10. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  11. Ghana Science Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, C.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the Ghana Science Abstracts combines in one publication all the country's bibliographic output in science and technology. The objective is to provide a quick reference source to facilitate the work of information professionals, research scientists, lecturers and policy makers. It is meant to give users an idea of the depth and scope and results of the studies and projects carried out. The scope and coverage comprise research outputs, conference proceedings and periodical articles published in Ghana. It does not capture those that were published outside Ghana. Abstracts reported have been grouped under the following subject areas: Agriculture, Biochemistry, Biodiversity conservation, biological sciences, biotechnology, chemistry, dentistry, engineering, environmental management, forestry, information management, mathematics, medicine, physics, nuclear science, pharmacy, renewable energy and science education

  12. Entrepreneurship training in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Leila Kæmsgaard Pagh

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Due to the very high youth unemployment in Northern Ghana, there is a huge need for enterprising skills among young people. A natural focus in recent years has therefore been entrepreneurship training, focusing on training young Ghanaians to start-up businesses. Unfortunately, the young...... is that adding a focus on the young entrepreneur’s means, attitude and enterprising behaviour skills to the existing focus on starting up businesses, will increase the value of the Entrepreneurship training and support the overcoming of constraints. The paper build on a design-based research project...... in collaboration with the local NGO YEfL. Based on relevant theory, a qualitative field research in Northern Ghana and a quantitative baseline survey a new Entrepreneurship Model has been designed. The new model was tested in autumn 2016 at three Entrepreneurship boot camps in Northern Ghana. The study has...

  13. "Ghana faces ecological disaster".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmah, G F

    1990-05-01

    The rate of deforestation in Ghana is alarming and urgent steps need to be taken to reverse the trend, Robert D. Mann, a British tropical agriculturist, has warned. He says, "There will be further disintegration of the local climate, deterioration of soil fertility and reduced food-crop production, if the present trend of denudation by felling trees and uncontrolled bush fires is not halted and reversed." Mann, who has conducted research on "deforestation, drought and famine in Africa" was in Ghana recently to speak on the "role of the Church in West Africa in stimulating action to combat desertification". Representatives of protestant churches in Ghana, Togo, Liberia, Gambia, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone attended the 3-day conference which was organized by the Overseas Department of the British Methodist Church. It was to enable participants to share perspectives on the nature, scale and seriousness of the deforestation problem. Participants also exchanged experiences on village-based projects for promoting tree planting and agro-forestry, and developed strategies for the rural development programs. Robert Mann noted that Ghana was not only affected by its proximity to the Sahel, but also by its own deforestation. The situation in Ghana, once renowned for her extensive forests and woodland, has now drastically changed. By 1980/81 the area of closed forest had been reduced to 17,000 sq km from 47,9000 sq km in 1937/38. He said in 1939 the volume of wood exported from Ghana was 42,450 cubic meters but it rose to 1,471,600 cubic meters by 1987. Such activities, Mann said, put severe strain on the environment and affected both the economy and sociocultural basis of the country. full text

  14. Dietary Diversity is a Predictor of Acute Malnutrition in Rural but Not in Urban Settings: Evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B.; Lartey, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To document the relationships between child dietary diversity and acute malnutrition (wasting) in urban and rural Ghana, controlling for maternal, child and household socio-demographic characteristics. Study Design: Cross sectional survey Place and Duration of Study: Urban and rural Ghana, between September and November 2008. Methodology: The analysis uses data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Data on children aged 6-36 months (n = 1,187) and their...

  15. Community outreach and engagement strategies from the Wisconsin Study Center of the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Susan K; Ngui, Emmanuel M; Ehlert, Carey; Miller, M Katie; Cronk, Christine A; Leuthner, Steven; Strehlow, Mary; Hewitt, Jeanne B; Durkin, Maureen S

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this methods article was to describe and evaluate outreach and engagement strategies designed to initially build county-wide awareness and support for the National Children's Study (NCS or the study) and subsequently to target the segment communities where recruitment for the study occurred. Selected principles from community outreach, social marketing, and health care system and personal referral formed the foundation for the strategies. The strategies included a celebration event, community advisory board, community needs assessment, building relationships with health care providers and systems, eliciting a network of study supporters, newsletters, appearances at local young family-oriented events (health fairs, parades), presentations to local community leaders, community forums, "branding" with assistance from a women-owned local marketing firm, and mailings including an oversized, second-touch postcard. Six months after study launch, approximately 4,600 study-eligible women were asked in a door-to-door survey if and how they became aware of the study. On average, 40% of eligible women reported being aware of the study. The most frequently cited strategy to cultivate their awareness was study-specific mailings. Awareness of the NCS increased by 7.5% among those receiving a second-touch postcard relative to controls (95% CIs [4.9, 10.7] z = 5.347, p strategies, in particular the oversized postcard as a second-touch effort, may be used effectively by researchers for participant recruitment and by public health nurses for delivery of important population-focused messages. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Willingness to pay for small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements for women and children: Evidence from Ghana and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine P; Vosti, Stephen A; Ayifah, Emmanuel; Phiri, Thokozani E; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Ulla; Arimond, Mary; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2018-04-01

    Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) are designed to enrich maternal and child diets with the objective of preventing undernutrition during the first 1,000 days. Scaling up the delivery of supplements such as SQ-LNS hinges on understanding private demand and creatively leveraging policy-relevant factors that might influence demand. We used longitudinal stated willingness-to-pay (WTP) data from contingent valuation studies that were integrated into randomized controlled nutrition trials in Ghana and Malawi to estimate private valuation of SQ-LNS during pregnancy, postpartum, and early childhood. We found that average stated WTP for a day's supply of SQ-LNS was more than twice as high in Ghana than Malawi, indicating that demand for SQ-LNS (and by extension, the options for effective delivery of SQ-LNS) may be very context specific. We also examined factors associated with WTP, including intervention group, household socioeconomic status, birth outcomes, child growth, and maternal and child morbidity. In both sites, WTP was consistently negatively associated with household food insecurity, indicating that subsidization might be needed to permit food insecure households to acquire SQ-LNS if it is made available for purchase. In Ghana, WTP was higher among heads of household than among mothers, which may be related to control over household resources. Personal experience using SQ-LNS was not associated with WTP in either site. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Ghana - Land Tenure Facilitation Impact Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC-supported Land Title Facilitation Activity (LTF) in Ghana was designed to increase investment and productivity by strengthening property rights. In Ghana,...

  18. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  19. Area Handbook for Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Irving; And Others

    The dominant social, political, and economic aspects of Ghanaian society are described in this handbook. Changes and developments in Ghana in the past 10 years, highlighted by the 1966 overthrough and widespread repudiation of Kwame Nkrumah and his policies and practices, have created a need for this revision of the 1962 edition. The purpose of…

  20. Ghana Journal of Geography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Spatial Location and Household Wealth on the Utilisation of Skilled Birth Attendants at Delivery Among Women in Rural Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Hubert Amu, Dickson Kwamena Sekyi, 58-77 ...

  1. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised

  2. Engaging children in the development of obesity interventions: Exploring outcomes that matter most among obesity positive outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Mona; Marshall, Gareth; Goldman, Roberta E; Cunningham, Courtney; Marshall, Richard; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-11-01

    To explore outcomes and measures of success that matter most to 'positive outlier' children who improved their body mass index (BMI) despite living in obesogenic neighborhoods. We collected residential address and longitudinal height/weight data from electronic health records of 22,657 children ages 6-12 years in Massachusetts. We defined obesity "hotspots" as zip codes where >15% of children had a BMI ≥95th percentile. Using linear mixed effects models, we generated a BMI z-score slope for each child with a history of obesity. We recruited 10-12 year-olds with negative slopes living in hotspots for focus groups. We analyzed group transcripts and discussed emerging themes in iterative meetings using an immersion/crystallization approach. We reached thematic saturation after 4 focus groups with 21 children. Children identified bullying and negative peer comparisons related to physical appearance, clothing size, and athletic ability as motivating them to achieve a healthier weight, and they measured success as improvement in these domains. Positive relationships with friends and family facilitated both behavior change initiation and maintenance. The perspectives of positive outlier children can provide insight into children's motivations leading to successful obesity management. Child/family engagement should guide the development of patient-centered obesity interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rights and the Role of Family Engagement in Child Welfare: An International Treaties Perspective on Families' Rights, Parents' Rights, and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzer, Gertrud; Gran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    According to international human rights treaties, what rights do family members, parents, and children have in family engagement in child welfare decision-making? A sociolegal analytical approach produces a typology of rights, then applies the typology to eight countries' approaches to family engagement to show that strong bundles of rights are…

  4. The Role of Supported Joint Engagement and Parent Utterances in Language and Social Communication Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Yoder, Paul J.; Hochman, Julia M.; Watson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between three parent-child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order…

  5. A non-randomized [corrected] controlled trial of the active music engagement (AME) intervention on children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Clair, Alicia A; Watanabe, Masayo; Monahan, Patrick O; Azzouz, Faouzi; Stouffer, Janice W; Ebberts, Allison; Darsie, Emily; Whitmer, Courtney; Walker, Joey; Nelson, Kirsten; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Lane, Deforia; Hannan, Ann

    2008-07-01

    Coping theorists argue that environmental factors affect how children perceive and respond to stressful events such as cancer. However, few studies have investigated how particular interventions can change coping behaviors. The active music engagement (AME) intervention was designed to counter stressful qualities of the in-patient hospital environment by introducing three forms of environmental support. The purpose of this multi-site randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of the AME intervention on three coping-related behaviors (i.e. positive facial affect, active engagement, and initiation). Eighty-three participants, ages 4-7, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: AME (n = 27), music listening (ML; n = 28), or audio storybooks (ASB; n = 28). Conditions were videotaped to facilitate behavioral data collection using time-sampling procedures. After adjusting for baseline differences, repeated measure analyses indicated that AME participants had a significantly higher frequency of coping-related behaviors compared with ML or ASB. Positive facial affect and active engagement were significantly higher during AME compared with ML and ASB (p<0.0001). Initiation was significantly higher during AME than ASB (p<0.05). This study supports the use of the AME intervention to encourage coping-related behaviors in hospitalized children aged 4-7 receiving cancer treatment. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Kawasaki disease in Ghana: Case reports from Korle Bu Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kawasaki disease, an acute febrile vasculitis, predominantly affects children under the age of 5 years and is thought to be a rare disease in the developing world. . It has previously never been reported in Ghana. We report 3 cases from February, 2007 to February, 2008. This potentially serious disease has no definitive ...

  7. The Nature of Family Engagement in Interventions for Children With Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafl, Kathleen A; Havill, Nancy L; Leeman, Jennifer; Fleming, Louise; Crandell, Jamie L; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2017-05-01

    Recognizing the bi-directional relationship between family functioning and child well-being in the context of childhood chronic conditions, researchers have tested family-focused interventions aimed at promoting both child and family well-being through improving the family's condition management capacity. Based on a sample of 70 interventions for families in which there was a child with a chronic physical condition, this analysis examined the nature of family engagement in the interventions. Data were extracted from the intervention reports using a standardized template; conventional content analysis was used to describe family engagement. Interventions varied in focus, structure, and level of family engagement. Investigators most often sought to improve condition control or management, with parent engagement focused on improving capacity to manage the treatment regimen. Few investigators addressed capacity building in the context of family functioning. Recommendations are made for reporting standards for family-focused interventions and for enhancing the family systems grounding of interventions.

  8. Flow Indicators in Art Therapy: Artistic Engagement of Immigrant Children with Acculturation Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored flow experiences in art therapy with three children from families that had immigrated to the United States from South Korea and were facing acculturation gaps. The children's flow experiences were examined through multiple data sources including videotaped art therapy sessions, children's post-session interviews,…

  9. "He will ask why the child gets sick so often": the gendered dynamics of intra-household bargaining over healthcare for children with fever in the Volta Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Amekudzi, Yaa Peprah; Nyonator, Frank K; Bertel Squire, S; Theobald, Sally

    2008-03-01

    This paper explores the gendered dynamics of intra-household bargaining around treatment seeking for children with fever revealed through two qualitative research studies in the Volta Region of Ghana, and discusses the influence of different gender and health discourses on the likely policy implications drawn from such findings. Methods used included focus group discussions, in-depth and critical incidence interviews, and Participatory Learning and Action methods. We found that treatment seeking behaviour for children was influenced by norms of decision-making power and 'ownership' of children, access to and control over resources to pay for treatment, norms of responsibility for payment, marital status, household living arrangements, and the quality of relationships between mothers, fathers and elders. However, the implications of these findings may be interpreted from different perspectives. Most studies that have considered gender in relation to malaria have done so within a narrow biomedical approach to health that focuses only on the outcomes of gender relations in terms of the (non-)utilisation of allopathic healthcare. However, we argue that a 'gender transformatory' approach, which aims to promote women's empowerment, needs to include but go beyond this model, to consider broader potential outcomes of intra-household bargaining for women's and men's interests, including their livelihoods and 'bargaining positions'.

  10. The perception of mothers about the volition of children with cerebral palsy for the engagement in everyday life occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyne Kalyane Câmara de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Volition, as the willingness to engage/performing daily activities, is considered a prerequisite of human doing. In children with special needs such as cerebral palsy (CP who deal with deficits of sensorimotor control and musculoskeletal, the volition can work as an influential feature to their engagement in occupations. The family is an important mediator in the child´s volitional process. However, researches about influence of the volition of children with special needs are scarce. This study aimed to identify how mothers perceive and deal with the volition of the child with CP to perform daily activities in scholar, play and self-care areas. Participated six mothers of children with CP, between 6 and 9 years old, levels I and IV of the GMFCS in a school -health unit inside Paulista, who answered a semistructured interview based on The Volitional Questionnaire. Based on the analysis of the content, three topics emerged: a mother’s perceptions about the volition of children; b mothers’ perception regarding their role in the child´s volitional process and c strategies used by mothers to encourage children to develop volition. Results showed that mothers perceive the relationship of the child volition versus involvement in activities and their importance in child´s volition for activities who judge relevant, mainly the formal school activities and self-care, with slightest consideration for the play. These mothers are looking for ways to implement the incentive, but they have revealed limited knowledge about strategies for stimulation of volition, showing the need for investments in health education for the guidance of those families.

  11. The Effects of a Social Skills Training Package on Social Engagement of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Generalized Recess Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Ford, W. Blake; Battaglia, Allison A.; McHugh, Melissa B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a preliminary evaluation of the effects of the Superheroes Social Skills program, a practice-ready, multimedia social skills program, on social engagements of elementary-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four children with ASD between the ages of 8 and 10 with current placements in inclusive public…

  12. Ghana Mining Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Mining Journal (GMJ) is a publication which focuses on the exchange of ideas, dissemination of information and promotion of knowledge arising out of research pertinent to the effective and sustainable exploitation of mineral resources in Ghana and elsewhere. Original contributions in the ...

  13. Ghana Journal of Development Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies (GJDS) is a multi-, trans- and an ... The Political Economy of Decentralisation and the Challenge of Improved Service Delivery ... Tax Collection in Northern Ghana during British Colonail Rule (1898 – 1950) ... District of South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Initiatives related to climate change in Ghana. Towards change in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuertenberger, L.; Bunzeck, I.G.; Van Tilburg, X.

    2011-04-01

    To support the development of a National Climate Change Policy Framework (NCCPF) and a further harmonization of climate change related activities in Ghana, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MoFEP) and the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MEST) expressed demand for a mapping of the most important past and current climate change related initiatives in the country, and of international climate change related funding opportunities, that Ghana might be able to access. The initiatives mapping demonstrates Ghana's longstanding engagement with climate change, dating back to more than 15 years ago. The report shows a multitude of activities including a number of large (5 mln. USD to > 100 mln. USD), GEF or World Bank financed projects, and a range of smaller projects (in the order of 100 000 - 500 000 USD). The majority of current initiatives are related to forestry and REDD. This report concludes with a discussion on observed trends, such as a broadening involvement of MDAs in adaptation initiatives and a focus on low carbon growth, and of points for attention, such as a need for coordination, for private sector involvement and supporting systems (such as institutional capacity, governance and monitoring systems)

  15. Engaging and Working in Solidarity with Local Communities in Preparing the Teachers of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Ken; Bowman, Michael; Guillen, Lorena; Napolitan, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes a programmatic effort in teacher education, "The Community Teaching Strand" (CTS), to engage local community members as mentors of teacher candidates (TCs) in two postgraduate teacher preparation programs in a large research university. Three different conceptions of the nature and purpose of…

  16. Intrinsic Motivation and Rewards: What Sustains Young Children's Engagement with Text?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, Barbara A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reward proximity and choice of reward on the reading motivation of third-grade students as measured by indicators of task persistence. The major finding from this study was that students who were given a book as a reward and students who received no reward were more motivated to engage in subsequent reading…

  17. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  18. Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism: Communication, Academic Engagement and Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kathryne Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Minimally verbal school aged children with autism (MVSACwA) receive the bulk of their behavioral and academic support in schools yet we know little about the environments to which they are exposed. This population of children has often been excluded from studies and thus, underrepresented in current data on autism. As increasing numbers of…

  19. Engaging Parents in Preventive Interventions for Young Children: Working with Cultural Diversity Within Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Brotman, Laurie M

    2017-08-01

    A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers. This paper describes the initial development of ParentCorps and ongoing improvements to realize that vision. Initial development focused on creating a parenting intervention that places culture at the center and effectively embedding it in schools. ParentCorps includes core components found in nearly all effective parenting interventions with a culturally informed approach to engaging families and supporting behavior change. As the intervention is implemented at scale in increasingly diverse communities, improvement efforts include augmenting professional development to increase racial consciousness among all staff (evaluators, coaches, and school-based facilitators) and applying an implementation science framework to study and more fully support schools' use of a package of engagement strategies.

  20. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tabitha LOUIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.

  1. Irregular and incomplete primary schooling in rural Ghana. A case-study of late enrolment and early drop-out in the eastern region

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, Beth Cathrine Fagerlid

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a closer look at the issue of late enrolment and early drop out in a rural area in Eastern Region in Ghana. Children enrolling in school later than the recommended age of six, is a persistent problem in Ghana in spite of a fee free public school. Using qualitative methodology through household interviews in two villages, interviews with teachers and staff at Ghana Educational Service, a registration scheme and diaries the study seeks to unravel some of the stor...

  2. Therapeutic and prophylactic value of corrective gymnastics in children with impaired posture engaged in asymmetric sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikhomirov A. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available the article provides the study that was conducted among young female athletes engaged in table tennis and having a violation of posture, with an assessment of metric and strength indicators. In the experimental group in parallel training a course of corrective gymnastics was conducted. The high efficiency of a combination of regular sports training and corrective gymnastics is established with a leveling of negative influence on the posture of asymmetrical sports.

  3. Childrens engagements with violence : a study in a South African school

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is an account of a qualitative study which set out to explore the meanings for children of living with violence. Using a social constructionist epistemology, I examine how, through social relationships, children (co-)construct beliefs, values and practices in relation to violence, and consider the implications for violence prevention. Set in the changing context of post-apartheid South Africa, the study was located in a primary school in a township of Cape Town, whe...

  4. Honing in on the Social Difficulties Associated With Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Children: Withdrawal, Peer Ignoring, and Low Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Garner, Annie A; Tamm, Leanne; Antonini, Tanya N; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2017-03-13

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms are associated with social difficulties in children, though findings are mixed and many studies have used global measures of social impairment. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCT would be uniquely associated with aspects of social functioning characterized by withdrawal and isolation, whereas attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms would be uniquely associated with aspects of social functioning characterized by inappropriate responding in social situations and active peer exclusion. Participants were 158 children (70% boys) between 7-12 years of age being evaluated for possible ADHD. Both parents and teachers completed measures of SCT, ADHD, ODD, and internalizing (anxiety/depression) symptoms. Parents also completed ratings of social engagement and self-control. Teachers also completed measures assessing asociality and exclusion, as well as peer ignoring and dislike. In regression analyses controlling for demographic characteristics and other psychopathology symptoms, parent-reported SCT symptoms were significantly associated with lower social engagement (e.g., starting conversations, joining activities). Teacher-reported SCT symptoms were significantly associated with greater asociality/withdrawal and ratings of more frequent ignoring by peers, as well as greater exclusion. ODD symptoms and ADHD hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were more consistently associated with other aspects of social behavior, including peer exclusion, being disliked by peers, and poorer self-control during social situations. Findings provide the clearest evidence to date that the social difficulties associated with SCT are primarily due to withdrawal, isolation, and low initiative in social situations. Social skills training interventions may be effective for children displaying elevated SCT symptomatology.

  5. Neural correlates of accelerated auditory processing in children engaged in music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Cahn, B Rael; Damasio, Antonio; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have shown that music training is associated with brain differences. It is unknown, however, whether these differences result from lengthy musical training, from pre-existing biological traits, or from social factors favoring musicality. As part of an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of a music training program on the auditory development of children, over the course of two years, beginning at age 6-7. The training was group-based and inspired by El-Sistema. We compared the children in the music group with two comparison groups of children of the same socio-economic background, one involved in sports training, another not involved in any systematic training. Prior to participating, children who began training in music did not differ from those in the comparison groups in any of the assessed measures. After two years, we now observe that children in the music group, but not in the two comparison groups, show an enhanced ability to detect changes in tonal environment and an accelerated maturity of auditory processing as measured by cortical auditory evoked potentials to musical notes. Our results suggest that music training may result in stimulus specific brain changes in school aged children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Ghana energy abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, Clement

    1994-01-01

    Ghana Energy Abstracts 1994 is the first issue of an annual publication of the Energy information Centre. The aim is to combine in one publication the country' s bibliographic output on energy so as to provide a valuable source of reference for policy makers, planners,and researchers. It covers the broad spectrum of energy including; energy conservation, energy resource management, petroleum and renewable energy resources.The documents listed comprise research reports, baseline studies,conference proceedings, periodical articles dissertations and theses. Keywords and author indexes have been provided to facilitate easy reference. (C.E.M)

  7. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  8. Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, Ghana | Ndur | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Child witch hunts in contemporary Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    The persecution of children as witches has received widespread reportage in the international mass media. In recent years, hundreds of children have been killed, maimed and abandoned across Africa based on individual and village-level accusations of witchcraft. Despite the media focus, to date, very little systematic study has investigated the phenomenon. In this case study, the persecution of child witches in Ghana is studied to explore the nature and patterns of witch hunts against children in the West African nation. There are no reliable national data on child abuse related to witchcraft accusations in Ghana. For this study, 13 cases of child witch hunts appearing in the local media during 1994-2009 were analyzed. Case summaries were constructed for each incident to help identify the socio-demographic characteristics of assailants and victims, victim-offender relationships, the methods of attacks, the spatial characteristics, as well as the motivations for the attacks. Children branded as witches ranged in age from 1-month-old to 17-years-old, were primarily from poor backgrounds, and lived in rural areas of the country. Accusations of witchcraft and witch assaults were lodged by close family members often through the encouragement of, or in concert with Christian clergymen and fetish priests. Accused witches were physically brutalized, tortured, neglected, and in two cases, murdered. For school-aged children, imputations of witchcraft contributed to stigmatization in both the community and at school, resulting in dropping out. The most frequently expressed reason for persecution of the child was suspicion that the child had used witchcraft to cause the death or illness of family relations or someone in the community. Another reason was suspicion that the child was responsible for the business failure or financial difficulties of a perceived victim. The results of this research are consistent with findings in the witchcraft literature suggesting that seemingly

  10. Perceptions of Stigma and Self-Reported School Engagement In Same-Sex Couples with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2014-09-01

    Little research has explored same-sex parents' school engagement, although there is some evidence that same-sex parents' perceptions of openness versus exclusion in the school setting -as well as other interrelated contexts - may have implications for their relationships with and perceptions of their children's schools. The current cross-sectional study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationship between same-sex parents' perceptions of stigma in various contexts and their self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, using a sample of 68 same-sex adoptive couples (132 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who perceived their communities as more homophobic reported higher levels of school-based involvement. Parents who perceived lower levels of sexual orientation-related stigma at their children's schools reported higher levels of school satisfaction. Parents who perceived lower levels of exclusion by other parents reported higher levels of school-based involvement and better relationships with teachers. However, perceived exclusion interacted with parents' level of outness with other parents, such that parents who were very out and reported high levels of exclusion reported the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Our findings have implications for scholars who study same-sex parent families at various stages of the life cycle, as well as for teachers and other professionals who work with diverse families.

  11. College Students' Engagement in E-Tutoring Children in Remote Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan; Lin, Hong-Yen; Lu, Tze-Han

    2016-01-01

    To bridge the digital divide and learning gap among children in remote areas, an online tutoring service has been initiated for after-school learning in remote schools. College students were recruited for the role of teaching and supporting remote learners through online tutoring. This research aimed to study college students' involvement in…

  12. Truancy Assessment and Service Centers (TASC): Engaging Elementary School Children and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Judith L. F.; Thomas, Johanna M.; Lemieux, Catherine M.; Cain, Daphne S.; Guin, Cecile C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews literature describing truancy and its correlates, and it analyzes the current research on truancy prevention programs. Few truancy prevention programs exist in elementary school settings. This article describes Truancy Assessment and Service Centers, a theory-driven program providing case management services to children in 85…

  13. Promoting Parent Engagement in Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with ADHD: Iterative Treatment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee; Belk, Georgia; Custer, Beth; Hatfield, Andrea; Daffner, Molly; Peek, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The most efficacious psychosocial intervention for reducing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in young children is behavioral parent training (BPT). Potential benefits are hindered by limited accessibility, low session attendance, and poor implementation of prescribed strategies. As a result, only approximately half of…

  14. Employing Popular Children's Literature to Teach Elementary School Chemistry: An Engaging Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wally, Laura M.; Levinger, Nancy E.; Grainger, David W.

    2005-01-01

    A chemistry outreach program to enthuse students of elementary school levels through employing popular children's literature Harry Potter is presented. The outreach activity performance found the students discovering new skills, learning more about science, and participating enthusiastically in the program without any added incentive from their…

  15. "Ah, I Know Why…": Children Developing Understandings through Engaging with a Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Christine; Finch, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes part of a study that explored the responses of nine- and ten-year-old children during a picture book read aloud in a small group setting in a New Zealand classroom. The read aloud was interactive, where the participants were encouraged to respond to the book and to each other throughout the session. The authors created a…

  16. Engaging, critical, entertaining: Transforming public service television for children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christa Lykke

    2013-01-01

    of children’s television can be identified, leading up to today’s competitive period. The article shows how Danish public service children’s TV has played an important role in the modernization of the view of children, serving as an experimental platform for putting the perspective of active and independent...

  17. Technology Implementation and Curriculum Engagement for Children and Youth Who Are Deafblind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Elizabeth; Weismer, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the research of education professionals concerned with children and youth with deafblindness, presenting three theoretical frameworks and models useful for integrating technology into learning environments: (a) UDL (universal design for learning; Meyer, Rose, & Gordon, 2014), (b) SETT (student, environment, task, tools;…

  18. Empowering Children with Adaptive Technology Skills: Careful Engagement in the Digital Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Miftachul; Jasmi, Kamarul Azmi; Mustari, Mohd Ismail; Basiron, Bushrah; Hehsan, Aminudin; Shahrill, Masitah; Gassama, Saikou Kawsu

    2017-01-01

    The technological advancement occurring in the world today has a potency to create positive and negative side effects especially on children. The positive side may entail increased empathy and acceptance of diversity through modelling the prosocial behaviours, while the negative can be manifest in aggressive behaviour, risky sexual behaviour, and…

  19. Engaging Children with Print: Building Early Literacy Skills through Quality Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Sofka, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool teachers and early childhood professionals know that storybook reading is important, but they may not know how to maximize its benefits for later reading achievement. This indispensable guide presents research-based techniques for using reading aloud to intentionally and systematically build children's knowledge of print. Simple yet…

  20. Peer Victimization Trajectories from Kindergarten through High School: Differential Pathways for Children's School Engagement and Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2017-01-01

    This investigation's aims were to map prevalence, normative trends, and patterns of continuity or change in school-based peer victimization throughout formal schooling (i.e., Grades K-12), and determine whether specific victimization patterns (i.e., differential trajectories) were associated with children's academic performance. A sample of 383…

  1. A Teachable Agent Game Engaging Primary School Children to Learn Arithmetic Concepts and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we will describe a learning environment designed to foster conceptual understanding and reasoning in mathematics among younger school children. The learning environment consists of 48 2-player game variants based on a graphical model of arithmetic where the mathematical content is intrinsically interwoven with the game idea. The…

  2. An Early Social Engagement Intervention for Young Children with Autism and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ty W.; Koegel, Robert L.; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized…

  3. KidReporter : a method for engaging children in making a newspaper to gather user requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.M.; Beusmans, J.; Keyson, D.V.; Lloyd, P.A.; Bekker, M.M.; Markopoulos, P.; Tsikalkina, M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a design method, called the KidReporter method, for gathering user requirements from children. Two school classes participated in making a newspaper about a zoo, to gather requirements for the design process of an interactive educational game. The educational game was developed to

  4. Music Therapy Engages Children with Autism in Outdoor Play. FPG Snapshot. Number 39, February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The unstructured space, running, climbing, sliding, and loud nature of playground time can be overwhelming for children with autism who thrive on predictable and structured routines. As a result, these preschoolers often do not experience the learning and social development benefits from outdoor play seen in their typically developing classmates.…

  5. Young Children's Reading for Pleasure with Digital Books: Six Key Facets of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Littleton, Karen; Cremin, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers a new characterisation of young children's (2-8 years) reading for pleasure (RfP) with digital books. This characterisation is rooted in a re-contextualisation of Anna Craft's conceptualisation of twenty-first century childhoods in "Creativity and education futures" (Stoke on Trent, Trentham, 2011) and a review of the…

  6. Face Engagement during Infancy Predicts Later Face Recognition Ability in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Carina C. J. M.; Gliga, Teodora; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. However, a recent study…

  7. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  8. Rainfall erosivity map for Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oduro Afriyie, K.

    1995-10-01

    Monthly rainfall data, spanning over a period of more than thirty years, were used to compute rainfall erosivity indices for various stations in Ghana, using the Fournier index, c, defined as p 2 /P, where p is the rainfall amount in the wettest month and P is the annual rainfall amount. Values of the rainfall erosivity indices ranged from 24.5 mm at Sunyani in the mid-portion of Ghana to 180.9 mm at Axim in the south western coastal portion. The indices were used to construct a rainfall erosivity map for the country. The map revealed that Ghana may be broadly divided into five major erosion risk zones. The middle sector of Ghana is generally in the low erosion risk zone; the northern sector is in the moderate to severe erosion risk zone, while the coastal sector is in the severe to extreme severe erosion risk zone. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  10. The impact of household wealth on child survival in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Stella T; Khanam, Rasheda; Takahashi, Shingo

    2016-11-22

    Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries. In Ghana, the question as to what extent does economic circumstances of households reduces infant and child mortality still remain largely unanswered. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which wealth affects the survival of under-five children, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. In this study, we use four waves of data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana from 1993 to 2008. The DHS is a detailed data set that provides comprehensive information on households and their demographic characteristics in Ghana. Data was obtained by distributing questionnaires to women (from 6000 households) of reproductive age between 15 and 49 years, which asked, among other things, their birth history information. The Weibull hazard model with gamma frailty was used to estimate wealth effect, as well as the trend of wealth effect on child's survival probability. We find that household wealth status has a significant effect on the child survival in Ghana. A child is more likely to survive when he/she is from a household with high wealth status. Among other factors, birth spacing and parental education were found to be highly significant to increase a child's survival probability. Our findings offer plausible mechanisms for the association of household wealth and child survival. We therefore suggest that the Government of Ghana

  11. Sibling rivalry and the gender gap: evidence from child health outcomes in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Morduch, J

    1998-01-01

    "When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana [the 1988-1989 Ghana Living Standards Survey], we find that on average if children had all sisters (and no brothers) they would do roughly 25-40% better on measured health indicators than if they had all brothers (and no sisters)." excerpt

  12. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.

  13. NetWorking News - A Method for Engaging Children Actively In Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Fritsch, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    For many years cooperative design was primarily concerned with the development of IT supported systems for professional users. However, the cooperative design approach can embrace other social practices such as children’s everyday life. At a methodological level there is no difference in designing...... the Networking News workshop, offers an opportunity to make first hand studies of children’s IT supported social activities in an informal classroom setting....... with adults or children. However there is a need for new methods to support communication and collaboration between designers and children. This article proposes a new method for understandings children’s appropriation of new technology in an interactive workshop setting. The method, which we call...

  14. Hippocampal-prefrontal engagement and dynamic causal interactions in the maturation of children's fact retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soohyun; Metcalfe, Arron W S; Young, Christina B; Ryali, Srikanth; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2012-09-01

    Children's gains in problem-solving skills during the elementary school years are characterized by shifts in the mix of problem-solving approaches, with inefficient procedural strategies being gradually replaced with direct retrieval of domain-relevant facts. We used a well-established procedure for strategy assessment during arithmetic problem solving to investigate the neural basis of this critical transition. We indexed behavioral strategy use by focusing on the retrieval frequency and examined changes in brain activity and connectivity associated with retrieval fluency during arithmetic problem solving in second- and third-grade (7- to 9-year-old) children. Children with higher retrieval fluency showed elevated signal in the right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), lingual gyrus (LG), fusiform gyrus (FG), left ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC), bilateral dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and posterior angular gyrus. Critically, these effects were not confounded by individual differences in problem-solving speed or accuracy. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed significant effective connectivity of the right hippocampus with bilateral VLPFC and DLPFC during arithmetic problem solving. Dynamic causal modeling analysis revealed strong bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus and the left VLPFC and DLPFC. Furthermore, causal influences from the left VLPFC to the hippocampus served as the main top-down component, whereas causal influences from the hippocampus to the left DLPFC served as the main bottom-up component of this retrieval network. Our study highlights the contribution of hippocampal-prefrontal circuits to the early development of retrieval fluency in arithmetic problem solving and provides a novel framework for studying dynamic developmental processes that accompany children's development of problem-solving skills.

  15. Ghana Journal of Development Studies: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University for Development Studies P. O. Box 520 ... A Book by a Corporate Author University for Development Studies (2003). Strategic plan (2003-2008). Tamale, Ghana: ... Accra, Ghana: National Development Planning Commission.

  16. Archives: Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 38 of 38 ... Archives: Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Next steps towards a Climate Innovation Centre in Ghana. Discussion Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Wuertenberger, L.; Akon-Yamga, G.

    2011-03-01

    A climate innovation centre is an institution aimed at enabling development through catalysing climate technology research, development, market creation and policy. This discussion paper discusses the possibilities, considerations and next steps for a Climate Innovation Centre (CIC) in Ghana based on new insights within the government of Ghana, a mapping of climate innovation in Ghana, new developments in the international climate negotiations and other multilateral processes, and analysis conducted by ECN. The conclusion is that a Climate Innovation Centre can fill significant gaps in climate resilient development in Ghana. It seems important that a Ghana CIC does not become yet another institution that focuses on basic research in the area of climate change. Rather, it should connect the dots of the Ghanaian climate innovation system and act as a knowledge facilitator, also for the private sector. Various models of climate innovation centres exist. Before choices are made for a model or a combination of models for Ghana, it is recommended to allow for a broad stakeholder process. The World Bank's infoDev programme could be a model for such a process. Such stakeholder engagement should be aligned with other policymaking processes on adaptation and low-carbon development, as well as related policy arenas, such as agriculture, transport, waste and energy.

  18. Next steps towards a Climate Innovation Centre in Ghana. Discussion Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, H.C.; Wuertenberger, L. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Akon-Yamga, G. [Science and Technology Policy Research Institute STEPRI, Accra (Guinea)

    2011-03-15

    A climate innovation centre is an institution aimed at enabling development through catalysing climate technology research, development, market creation and policy. This discussion paper discusses the possibilities, considerations and next steps for a Climate Innovation Centre (CIC) in Ghana based on new insights within the government of Ghana, a mapping of climate innovation in Ghana, new developments in the international climate negotiations and other multilateral processes, and analysis conducted by ECN. The conclusion is that a Climate Innovation Centre can fill significant gaps in climate resilient development in Ghana. It seems important that a Ghana CIC does not become yet another institution that focuses on basic research in the area of climate change. Rather, it should connect the dots of the Ghanaian climate innovation system and act as a knowledge facilitator, also for the private sector. Various models of climate innovation centres exist. Before choices are made for a model or a combination of models for Ghana, it is recommended to allow for a broad stakeholder process. The World Bank's infoDev programme could be a model for such a process. Such stakeholder engagement should be aligned with other policymaking processes on adaptation and low-carbon development, as well as related policy arenas, such as agriculture, transport, waste and energy.

  19. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew; Kaplan, Jonas; Der Sarkissian, Alissa; Habibi, Assal

    2017-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67) were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85) and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05). During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  20. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sachs

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67 were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85 and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05. During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  1. Journal of the Ghana Science Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of the Ghana Science Association publishes scholarly articles in all disciplines of science and technology and will normally be published three times in a year. Articles are accepted from Ghana and elsewhere and the topic need not be related to Ghana or West Africa. The contents of the issues focus primarily on ...

  2. Children's engagements in their institutional life and the educational effort of the institutional practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jakob Waag

    and the becoming of the child. Instead, they have called for attention towards the child as a being, underlining the importance of children´s current life and well-being. However, both approaches are conceptualized based on a substance ontology which emphasizes the present and permanent aspect of the phenomenon......Over the last decades the Danish Day-care service has undergone dramatic changes, based on the inclusion of an educational perspective, with a strong emphasis on learning-orientated practices. As a counter reaction, various researchers have made an ethical argument against this focus on education...

  3. Governing the Organic Cocoa Network from Ghana: Towards Hybrid Governance Arrangements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the processes of initiation, construction and transformation of the organic cocoa network from Ghana. We address in particular how the state responded to and engaged with civil-society actors in the organic cocoa network and to what extent state involvement reshaped

  4. Healthcare quality in Ghana : Improving healthcare quality and health worker motivation to promote sustainable health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhassan, R.K.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about promoting a sustainable National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana through improved client-centred quality care and effective community engagement in quality care assessment. The thesis comprises of two main parts. Part one reports on findings from baseline surveys

  5. Moderate-to-vigorous physically active academic lessons and academic engagement in children with and without a social disadvantage : a within subject experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and

  6. Service Engagement in Interventions for Street-Connected Children and Young People: A Summary of Evidence Supplementing a Recent Cochrane-Campbell Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Rosa; Coren, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper builds on a Cochrane-Campbell systematic review of interventions that reduce harms and promote reintegration in street-connected children and young people focusing on intervention outcomes. The aim of the present analysis is to explore questions raised in the systematic review over the potential role of service engagement in…

  7. "I Am Reading to Her and She Loves It": Benefits of Engaging Fathers from Disadvantaged Areas in Their Children's Early Learning Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Carol; Walker, Gary; Keen, Bev

    2013-01-01

    Findings presented here relate to the evaluation of a one-year father-inclusion project, which took place in an area of multiple deprivation in the North of England. The project's goal was to engage fathers and male carers in their children's transition from an early years setting to a reception class and to maintain that involvement in the…

  8. Explaining the Impact of Disabled Children's Engagement with Physical Activity on Their Parents' Smartphone Addiction Levels: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet; Tüfekçi, Sakir

    2018-01-01

    In this research, quantitative findings and qualitative follow-up themes were used to quantify, conceptualize and finally try to explain the impact of disabled children's engagement with physical activity on their parents' smartphone addiction levels. An initial phase of quantitative investigation was conducted with 116 parents. Analyses of…

  9. Pretty as a Princess: Longitudinal Effects of Engagement with Disney Princesses on Gender Stereotypes, Body Esteem, and Prosocial Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Nelson, David A.; Birkbeck, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M[subscript age] = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data…

  10. An examination of environmental correlates with childhood height-for-age in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoi, Ebenezer; Anthamatten, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between a child's environment and nutritional status is difficult to examine yet could offer an important guide to policy. The objective of the present work was to examine individual and environmental correlates with childhood height-for-age in Ghana. Data were derived from the 2008 MEASURE Demographic and Health Survey in Ghana, the 2000 Ghana Population and Housing Census, and the World Wide Fund for Nature's eco-regions database. A generalized linear mixed regression model was used to estimate the effects of individual and environmental correlates on height-for-age. The study examined 2225 Ghanaian children aged 0-59 months. The setting was all districts in Ghana for the year 2008. After accounting for individual characteristics of children, mothers and households, height-for-age was significantly associated with population density. Other significantly associated variables in the final model were the age of the child, vaccination status, the size of the child at birth, months of breast-feeding, mother's BMI, whether the child's mother had health insurance and wealth quintile. In addition to a number of characteristics of the children and their households, the social milieu is important to understanding differences in height-for-age among children in Ghana. The biophysical environment was not associated with height-for-age.

  11. Climate Change and Variability in Ghana: Stocktaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. Asante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a holistic literature review of climate change and variability in Ghana by examining the impact and projections of climate change and variability in various sectors (agricultural, health and energy and its implication on ecology, land use, poverty and welfare. The findings suggest that there is a projected high temperature and low rainfall in the years 2020, 2050 and 2080, and desertification is estimated to be proceeding at a rate of 20,000 hectares per annum. Sea-surface temperatures will increase in Ghana’s waters and this will have drastic effects on fishery. There will be a reduction in the suitability of weather within the current cocoa-growing areas in Ghana by 2050 and an increase evapotranspiration of the cocoa trees. Furthermore, rice and rooted crops (especially cassava production are expected to be low. Hydropower generation is also at risk and there will be an increase in the incidence rate of measles, diarrheal cases, guinea worm infestation, malaria, cholera, cerebro-spinal meningitis and other water related diseases due to the current climate projections and variability. These negative impacts of climate change and variability worsens the plight of the poor, who are mostly women and children.

  12. Engaging Siblingships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Palludan, Charlotte; Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by sociological and anthropological family studies, our point of departure is that there is neither a given nor an unequivocal prototype of sibling relationships. On the basis of qualitative interviews, dialogues and filmed observations of everyday life, we investigate how children...... and young people in contemporary Denmark engage emotionally in sibling relationships. It emerges that siblingships inevitably involve frictions in various forms. In the article, we analyse the impact frictions have on social relations and discuss how such dynamics in sibling relationships both reflect...

  13. Table of Contents | Editor | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016. Editorial Committee: Ọbádélé Kambon (Editor-in-Chief; University of Ghana). E. Kweku Osam (Consulting Editor; University of Ghana). Gordon S. Adika (University of Ghana). Nana Aba A. Amfo (University of Ghana). Jemima A. Anderson (University of Ghana). Charles O. Marfo (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science ...

  14. Culture and the environment in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyasi, Hubert M.

    1985-03-01

    The traditional culture of Ghana stressed a strong relationship with the environment, and a culturally acceptable environmental management resulted from strictures and taboos related to the land. Following its independence in 1957, Ghana has enacted laws that reflect an enlightened environmental policy. These are especially important because of the difficulties Ghana has had in its economic development using Western technology that has damaged the fragile tropical ecosystem. A key aspect of Ghana's policy is the attempt to marry scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs for environmentally sound management of Ghana's resources.

  15. Cardiothoracic surgical experience in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettey, Mark; Tamatey, Martin; Edwin, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Ghana is one of the few low-to-middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa able to consistently sustain a cardiothoracic program with locally trained staff for more than two decades. Cardiothoracic surgery practice in Ghana started in 1964 but faltered from a combination of political and the economic problems. In 1989, Dr. Kwabena Frimpong-Boateng, a Ghanaian cardiothoracic surgeon trained in Hannover, rekindled interest in cardiothoracic surgery and in establishing a National Cardiothoracic Centre. His vision and leadership has brought cardiothoracic surgery practice in Ghana to its current high level. As a result, the medical landscape of what is achievable locally in both pediatric and adult patients has changed substantially: outbound medical travel that used to be common among Ghanaian cardiovascular patients has been reduced drastically. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center (NCTC), the only tertiary center in the country for cardiothoracic surgical pathology manages all such patients that were previously referred abroad. The NCTC has become a medical/surgical hub in the West African sub-region providing service, training, and research opportunities to neighboring countries. The Centre is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons as a center of excellence for training specialists in cardiothoracic surgery. Expectedly, practicing cardiothoracic surgery in such a resource-poor setting has peculiar challenges. This review focuses on the history, practice, successes, and challenges of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery in Ghana.

  16. Family-centred music therapy to promote social engagement in young children with severe autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, G A; McFerran, K S; Gold, C

    2014-11-01

    Limited capacity for social engagement is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), often evident early in the child's development. While these skills are difficult to train, there is some evidence that active involvement in music-making provides unique opportunities for social interaction between participants. Family-centred music therapy (FCMT) endeavours to support social engagement between child and parent within active music-making, yet the extent of benefits provided is unknown. This study investigated the impacts of FCMT on social engagement abilities. Twenty-three children (36-60 months) with severe ASD received either 16 weeks of FCMT in addition to their early intervention programmes (n = 12), or their early intervention programme only (n = 11). Change in social engagement was measured with standardized parent-report assessments, parent interviews and clinician observation. Intention-to-treat analysis for the Vineland Social Emotional Early Childhood Scale indicated a significant effect in favour of FCMT. Thematic qualitative analysis of the parent interviews showed that the parent-child relationship grew stronger. FCMT improves social interactions in the home and community and the parent-child relationship, but not language skills or general social responsiveness. This study provides preliminary support for the use of FCMT to promote social engagement in children with severe ASD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ghana Health Services and the Irish health system – bridging the gap.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Akaateba, D

    2017-02-01

    The University of Limerick Hospitals Group (ULHG), and the University of Limerick (UL), are committed to fostering links with the developing world and contributing to solutions of the challenges these countries face. In 2016 a group from UL and ULHG visited the Upper West Region of Ghana1 to explore the possibility of establishing a partnership with Ghana Health Services (GHS). In this article, we describe aspects of GHS and outline some of the challenges for Irish institutions trying to engage with the realties of the developing world.

  18. Factors influencing healthy lifestyle changes: a qualitative look at low-income families engaged in treatment for overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason-Wilkerson, Rochelle; Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of program effectiveness.

  19. Perceived risks and benefits of hippotherapy among parents of children currently engaged in or waiting for hippotherapy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Audrey; Rochette, Annie; Mainville, Carolyne

    2017-04-01

    Explore the perceived risks and benefits of hippotherapy among parents of children currently engaged in or waiting rehabilitation using hippotherapy. Phenomenological qualitative exploratory pilot study. An interview guide validated by experts was used to conduct the interviews. Summaries were written to capture first impressions. One team member coded the transcripts and the coding was validated by the research team through discussion until consensus was reached. The average age of the participants (n = 4) was 37.3 ± 6.6 years. The few risks they perceived related to physical injuries. Lack of knowledge of contraindications, lack of fear, minimization of risks, and risk-attenuation factors also emerged as important themes. Benefits accounted for a large part of the content of the interviews and were grouped under 13 themes, including motor and postural control, enjoyment and the development of a special relationship. Minimization of the perceived risks compared to the numerous perceived benefits could create clinical issues such as the client putting self at risk of injuries (e.g., bites, falls, and kicks) if not cautious enough or complications insufficiently prevented, which suggests the need to develop educational activities for an informed consent to this type of rehabilitation.

  20. ENGage: The use of space and pixel art for increasing primary school children's interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    The Faculty of Engineering at The University of Nottingham, UK, has developed interdisciplinary, hands-on workshops for primary schools that introduce space technology, its relevance to everyday life and the importance of science, technology, engineering and maths. The workshop activities for 7-11 year olds highlight the roles that space and satellite technology play in observing and monitoring the Earth's biosphere as well as being vital to communications in the modern digital world. The programme also provides links to 'how science works', the environment and citizenship and uses pixel art through the medium of digital photography to demonstrate the importance of maths in a novel and unconventional manner. The interactive programme of activities provides learners with an opportunity to meet 'real' scientists and engineers, with one of the key messages from the day being that anyone can become involved in science and engineering whatever their ability or subject of interest. The methodology introduces the role of scientists and engineers using space technology themes, but it could easily be adapted for use with any inspirational topic. Analysis of learners' perceptions of science, technology, engineering and maths before and after participating in ENGage showed very positive and significant changes in their attitudes to these subjects and an increase in the number of children thinking they would be interested and capable in pursuing a career in science and engineering. This paper provides an overview of the activities, the methodology, the evaluation process and results.

  1. All projects related to Ghana | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / Ghana ... Integrated Climate Smart Flood Management for Accra, Ghana ... by scaling up enhanced information and communication technology-enabled (ICT) extension service models in Ghana.

  2. The Creation of Districts and Constituencies in Ghana: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Regions of Ghana. Ghana is presently divided into ten political regions which are subdivided ..... errors to which attention was drawn (Ghana 1972b:) ... national interest has been the driving force behind the creation of districts some of ...

  3. Predictors of Contraceptive use Among Female Adolescents in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors of Contraceptive use Among Female Adolescents in Ghana. ... contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). ... (Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 18[1]: 102-109).

  4. Nuclear medicine in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affram, R.K.; Kyere, K.; Amuasi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The background to the introduction and application of radioisotopes in medicine culminating in the establishment of the nuclear Medicine Unit at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana, has been examined. The Unit has been involved in important clinical researches since early 1970s but routine application in patient management has not always been possible because of cost per test and lack of continuous availability of convertible currency for the purchase of radioisotopes which are not presently produced by the National Nuclear Research Institute at Kwabenya. The capabilities and potentials of the Unit are highlighted and a comparison of Nuclear Medicine techniques to other medical diagnostic and imaging methods have been made. There is no organised instruction in the principles of medical imaging and diagnostic methods at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital which has not promoted the use of Nuclear Medicine techniques. The development of a comprehensive medical diagnostic and imaging services is urgently needed. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Facipulation and Elite Formation: Community Resource Management in Southwestern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Baruah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite their stated commitment to democratic processes, the Government of Ghana and international authorities presume the accountability and ability of NGOs to represent local interests in forest resource management. This article scrutinises elite formation and elite capture through the case of a Community Resource Management Area (CREMA in western Ghana. NGOs and the forestry department promotes commercial tree planting on farmlands at this CREMA site. This article shows how institutional mandates, technical and managerial priorities are used by higher-level authorities to rationalise the omission of accountability and representation in CREMA activities. Disregard for democratic processes thus centralise decision making and render political processes apolitical at the cost of effective local participation and control over forest resources. Also, the legal and administrative framework of the CREMA tended to empower the traditional elites. In addition, the recognition of a local NGO by state authorities to oversee natural resource management infringed upon the CREMA's mandate and encouraged the formation of new elites. Further, the higher-level authorities' promotion of tree-tenure privatisation reduced public engagement by enclosing and thus discounting the public forest domain. The combination of these factors compromise the accountability and equitable sharing of benefits in CREMAs. Nevertheless, the CREMAs have been endorsed by the government as an innovative institutional structure for implementing REDD+ projects in Ghana.

  6. Problems of Frafra potato production in Ghana | Tetteh | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the production of Frafra potato (Solenostemum rotundifolius Poir) in Ghana was conducted to collect baseline data on the crop and to identify constraints to production. In all, 100 farmers who were randomly selected from 16 villages and towns in five districts in the Upper East Region and Upper West Region ...

  7. Mental health research in Ghana: A literature review | Read | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context/Background: Mental health is a neglected area in health care in Ghana. With few clinicians and trained researchers in the field, research has been limited both in quantity and quality. Method: A search of the available literature revealed 98 articles published between 1955 and 2009. Sixty-six are reviewed in this ...

  8. Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, Ghana | Ndur | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholera outbreak in some cities and towns in Ghana in early 2011 necessitated a sachet water quality study in Tarkwa to determine their wholesomeness. The study was conducted in four phases in August 2011, December 2011, August 2012 and December, 2013. Most of the physico-chemical parameters analysed were ...

  9. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana | Adjei | Ghana Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women. Objective: To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Method: The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 ...

  10. Towards a culture of maps appreciation in Ghana | Kofie | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Geography. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here ...

  11. Insect succession on three coffee types in Ghana | Padi | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect succession on three coffee types in Ghana. B Padi, E Ampomah. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  12. Moderate-to-vigorous physically active academic lessons and academic engagement in children with and without a social disadvantage: a within subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-04-19

    Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage. In addition, the relationship between lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and academic engagement was examined. From four elementary schools, 86 children who participated in the 22-weeks intervention were recruited (23 socially disadvantaged children). Academic engagement was determined by observing time-on-task during three classroom observation moments (start, midway and end observation). Every moment consisted of lesson observations after intervention lessons (post-intervention) and after regular classroom lessons (post-control). Differences in time-on-task between socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Differences between post-intervention and post-control observations were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Heart rate monitors measured the lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The relationship between percentage of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the intervention lessons and time-on-task was analyzed by calculation of partial correlations. Time-on-task of socially disadvantaged children was lower than that of children without this disadvantage, differences were significant at the start post-control (t(65) = 2.39, p < 0.05) and post-intervention (t(71) = 2.75, p < 0.05) observation and at the midway post-control (t(68) = 2.45, p < 0.05) observation. Multilevel analysis showed that the time-on-task of all children was significantly higher during post-intervention in comparison with post-control lessons (ES = 0.41). No significant difference was found at the start observation, but

  13. Pretty as a Princess: Longitudinal Effects of Engagement With Disney Princesses on Gender Stereotypes, Body Esteem, and Prosocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E; Nelson, David A; Birkbeck, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M age  = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data consisted of parent and teacher reports, and child observations in a toy preference task. Longitudinal results revealed that Disney Princess engagement was associated with more female gender-stereotypical behavior 1 year later, even after controlling for initial levels of gender-stereotypical behavior. Parental mediation strengthened associations between princess engagement and adherence to female gender-stereotypical behavior for both girls and boys, and for body esteem and prosocial behavior for boys only. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Motivational beliefs, cognitive engagement, and achievement in language and mathematics in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallidou, Panagiota; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2007-02-01

    The contextual differences in the patterns of relations among various motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive components of self-regulated learning and performance in two key curriculum subject areas, language and mathematics, were examined in a sample of 263 Greek primary school children of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. Age and gender differences were also investigated. Students were asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), which comprised five factors: (a) Self-efficacy, (b) Intrinsic Value, (c) Test Anxiety, (d) Cognitive Strategy Use, and (e) Self-regulation Strategies. They responded to the statements of the questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale in terms of their behaviour in mathematics and language classes, respectively. Moreover, their teachers were asked to evaluate each of their students' academic achievement in Greek language and mathematics on a 1- to 20-point comparative scale in relation to the rest of the class. The results of the study indicated very few differences in the pattern of relations among self-regulated components within and across the two subject areas and at the same time revealed a context-specific character of self-regulated components at a mean level differences. Further, the current study (a) confirmed the mediatory role of strategies in the motivation-performance relation, (b) stressed the differential role of cognitive and regulatory strategies in predicting performance in subject areas that differ in their structural characteristics of the content, and (c) pointed out the key motivational role of self-efficacy. In fact, self-efficacy proved the most significant predictor not only of performance but of cognitive and regulatory strategy use as well. Gender differences in motivation and strategy use were not reported, while motivation was found to vary mainly with age. The usefulness of these findings for promoting greater clarity among motivational and

  15. Engaging in Productive Sector Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    Through a comparison of sector cases in Mozambique and Ghana, the paper analyzes why and how African states engage in developing productive sectors and with what success. It argues that successful state interventions depend on four factors: (1) sustained political support by the government...... in the four factors and thus different economic outcomes. Specifically, cocoa, export is a case of sustained political support, palm oil is a case of poorly implemented industrial policy, and horticulture export is a case of political neglect of an industry. In concluding, the paper emphasizes the political...

  16. Engaging in productive sector development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Whitfield, Lindsay

    Through a comparison of sector cases in Mozambique and Ghana, the paper analyzes why and how African states engage in developing productive sectors and with what success. It argues that successful state interventions depend on four factors: (1) sustained political support by the government...... in the four factors and thus different economic outcomes. Specifically, cocoa, export is a case of sustained political support, palm oil is a case of poorly implemented industrial policy, and horticulture export is a case of political neglect of an industry. In concluding, the paper emphasizes the political...

  17. Ghana integrated to the world economy : focus on Ghana-UK-Germany trade linkage model

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpong, Daniel Bruce

    1998-01-01

    In this study of Ghana integrated to the world economy, we focus primarily on Ghana-UK-Germany trade axis partly because of Ghana?s relative dependence on the EU for her international trade. The study employs ?representative? country macroeconometric models of these economies, using data over 1970-1991, including bilateral trade links among them and with the USA and Japan, to quantitatively analyze and draw policy inference of the international transmission mechanism of macroeconomic disturba...

  18. Work Engagement, Burnout and Personal Accomplishments Among Social Workers: A Comparison Between Those Working in Children and Adults' Services in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shereen

    2018-04-26

    Social workers (SWs) provide emotional and practical support to vulnerable service users who are likely to suffer from emotional trauma and mental health conditions. Stress and burnout levels are reported to be high among SWs, however, little is known about their relationships with different characteristics. The current article utilises unique and large dataset (n = 3786) on SWs working in adults and children's services to examine factors associated with burnout. Employing job-demand/resources model and structural equations modelling, we highlight the varying significant impact of work-engagement, administrative support and work experience as moderating factors to burnout across adult and children service specialism in this sample.

  19. Toward universal electrification in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    sector in Ghana, negatively impacting all sectors of the economy and leading to economic losses. The low generation capacity is partly due to poor fuel supply to existing thermal power plants, meaning that installed capacity is often not available for use. This is coupled with low investment...

  20. Time and Change in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Peter

    1969-01-01

    The disastrous state of Ghanaian finances immediately before and after the coup against Nkrumah has had the effect of virtually eliminating community development and health services, particularly in non-urban areas of Ghana. It is hoped that new regional and district structure and improved staff morale can now bring about more effective programs.…

  1. How can parents get involved in preschool? Barriers and engagement in education by ethnic minority parents of children attending Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    An intervention was developed to promote parent involvement with ethnic minority families of children attending Head Start preschool programs. Two hundred eighty-eight predominantly African American families from a small southern city were included in this study. Parent satisfaction with the program was high, yet engagement was less than optimal. Some effects were found for the program, despite low levels of participation. Ethnic minority parents who received the intervention increased the frequency of reading to their child as compared with parents in a comparison group who did not receive the program. The quality of the parent-teacher relationship was significantly correlated with parental participation in the intervention. Program participation and the parent-teacher relationship were correlated with higher levels of children's school readiness abilities. Children in the intervention condition showed stronger end-of-year receptive vocabulary and parent-rated social competence as compared with children who did not receive treatment. This research documents the challenges involved in engaging parents in prevention programs. Strategies for maximizing the benefits of preschool for ethnic minority families and their children are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Age-related pattern and monocyte-acquired haemozoin associated production of erythropoietin in children with severe malarial anaemia in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugri, James; Tetteh, John Kweku Amissah; Oseni, Lateef Adebayo; Mensah-Brown, Henrietta Esi; Delimini, Rupert Kantunye; Obuobi, David Osei; Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky

    2014-08-20

    Malaria continues to be a global health challenge, affecting more than half the world's population and causing approximately 660,000 deaths annually. The majority of malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and occur in sub-Saharan Africa. One of the major complications asscociated with malaria is severe anaemia, caused by a cycle of haemoglobin digestion by the parasite. Anaemia due to falciparum malaria in children has multifactorial pathogenesis, which includes suppression of bone marrow activity. Recent studies have shown that haemozoin, which is a by-product of parasite haemoglobin digestion, may play an important role in suppression of haemoglobin production, leading to anaemia. In this study we correlated the levels of erythropoietin (EPO), as an indicator of stimulation of haemoglobin production, to the levels of monocyte acquired haemozoin in children with both severe and uncomplicated malaria. There was a significantly negative correlation between levels of haemozoin-containing monocytes and EPO, which may suggest that haemozoin suppresses erythropoiesis in severe malaria. A multiple linear regression analysis and simple bar was used to investigate associations between various haematological parameters. To examine the levels of erythropoietin in the age categories, the levels of erythropoietin was measured using a commercial Enyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Giemsa-stained blood smears were used to determine percentage pigment containing monocytes. The haemozoin containing monocytes was expressed as a percentage of the total number of monocytes. To obtain the number of haemozoin containing monocytes/μL the percentage of haemozoin containing monocytes was multiplied by the absolute number of monocytes/μL from the automated haematology analyzer. The levels of erythropoietin in younger children (<3 years) was significantly higher than in older children with a similar degree of malaria anaemia (Hb levels) (p < 0.005). Haemozoin

  3. Family Adult Awareness of Adolescents' Premarital Romantic and Sexual Relationships in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Roche, Kathleen M.; Blake, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the circumstances under which family adults in Ghana were aware of their adolescent children's involvement in premarital relationships. It was hypothesized that factors related to the seriousness and social acceptability of the relationship would influence the likelihood of family adults' awareness in gender-specific ways. Data…

  4. Gender Inequality in Basic Education in the Northern Region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with girls' education, availability of household resources, poverty and high ... boys than girls complete schooling, especially at the basic school (Kane, 2004). ... the time of the 2010 population census in Ghana, 36 percent of all males aged .... educated than the female children because of the fact that women marry out of the.

  5. Delayed Primary School Enrollment and Childhood Malnutrition in Ghana. An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glewwe, Paul; Jacoby, Hanan

    This study investigated why the primary school enrollment of children in poor countries is often delayed despite the prediction made by human capital theory that schooling will begin at the earliest possible age. Using data from the 1988-89 Ghana Living Standards Survey household questionnaire, the study examined the age of enrollment,…

  6. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    CHILDREN'S EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ACCRA,. GHANA ... Given equal family income and other back- ground opportunities, children ... between housing environment experienced dur- ing childhood and .... pils by evaluating parent and student responses. ..... mental health and behaviour: Structural equation ...

  7. Political consciousness and political action of industrial workers in Ghana : a case study of VALCO workers at Tema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    1978-01-01

    What is the political consciousness of Ghanaian workers in large-scale foreign and state enterprises and what action have they engaged in? The present study, based on fieldwork in Ghana in 1975, attempts to answer these questions with regard to answer these questions with regard to industrial

  8. Community interventions for dietary improvement in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K

    2014-12-01

    Background. Low caregiver income and poor nutrition knowledge and skills are important barriers to achieving optimal child feeding in rural Ghana. An integrated microcredit and nutrition education intervention was implemented to address these barriers. Using a quasi-experimental design, 134 caregivers of children 2 to 5 years of age in six intervention communities were enrolled into self-selected savings and loan groups. They received small individual loans over four 16-week cycles to support their income-generating activities. Nutrition and entrepreneurial education was provided during weekly loan repayment meetings. Another 261 caregivers in six comparison communities did not receive the intervention. Data on household sociodemographic and economic characteristics, perception of income-generating activity profits, and children's consumption of animal-source foods in the previous week were collected at baseline and at four additional time points. Differences according to group (intervention vs. control) and time (baseline vs. endline) were analyzed with chi-square and Student's t-tests. The intervention and comparison groups did not differ by caregivers' age and formal education; few (35) had previous experience with microcredit loans. At endline, more intervention than comparison caregivers perceived that their business profits had increased (59% vs. 23%, p < .001). In contrast to comparison children, after 16 months of intervention children consumed more livestock meat (p =.001), organ meat (p = .04), eggs (p = .001), and milk and milk products (p < .0001) in the previous week in comparison with baseline. Integrated food-centered strategies can improve children's diets, which will enhance their nutritional status, health, and cognitive outcomes.

  9. Dynamics of anti-MSP3 and Pfs230 antibody responses and multiplicity of infection in asymptomatic children from southern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoah, Linda E; Acquah, Festus K; Ayanful-Torgby, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During a Plasmodium infection, exposure of human host immune cells to both the asexual and the sexual stages of the parasite elicit immune responses. These responses may be protective and prevent the development of high parasitaemia and its associated clinical symptoms, or block...... the transmission of malaria to an uninfected person. This study aimed at examining the dynamics of naturally acquired immune responses against the asexual and sexual forms of Plasmodium falciparum as well as assessing differences in the multiplicity of infection (MOI) in asymptomatic Ghanaian children living...... 2015. Filter paper blood blots (DBS) as well as thick and thin blood smears were made from finger-pricked blood at each visit. Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence was determined by microscopy and PCR. Serum eluted from the DBS were used to assess anti-Pfs230 (sexual stage) and anti-MSP3 (asexual...

  10. Care Services in Periurban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa Kobina Turkson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study used logistic regression modelling to determine predictors of satisfaction with delivery of animal health care services for 889 clients (livestock and poultry keepers in periurban Ghana. Of the 15 indicators tested as predictors of satisfaction in this study, 8 were included in the best fit model. These were accessibility, availability of services, service charge, effectiveness, efficiency, quality of services, meeting client needs, and getting help. Efficiency and effectiveness were perceived by the respondents to be synonymous, as were service quality and effectiveness, as suggested by ORs>10 when cross tabulated. Therefore, one or the other could be used in future studies but not both to avoid collinearity. The identified predictors could be targeted for improvement in quality of service delivery to livestock and poultry keepers in Ghana.

  11. Ghana's cocoa frontier in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Agergaard, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    Since the first commercial planting of cocoa in Ghana more than a century ago, the production of cocoa has been a key factor in the redistribution of migrants and has played a pivotal role in the development of both sending and receiving communities. This process has been acknowledged...... Region, this article aims to examine how immigration and frontier dynamics in the Western region are contributing to livelihood transitions and small town development, and how this process is gradually becoming delinked from the production of cocoa. The article focuses on how migration dynamics interlink...... in the literature for decades. However, how migration flows have changed in response to changing livelihoods dynamics of the frontier and how this has impacted on the development of the frontier has only attracted limited attention. Based on a study of immigration to Ghana's current cocoa frontier in the Western...

  12. Adolescents and parents' perceptions of best time for sex and sexual communications from two communities in the Eastern and Volta Regions of Ghana: implications for HIV and AIDS education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asampong, Emmanuel; Osafo, Joseph; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey Bart; Ahiadeke, Clement

    2013-09-26

    Adolescents and parents' differ in their perceptions regarding engaging in sexual activity and protecting themselves from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The views of adolescents and parents from two south-eastern communities in Ghana regarding best time for sex and sexual communications were examined. Focus Group interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents (both In-school and Out-of school) from two communities (Somanya and Adidome) in the Eastern and Volta regions of Ghana with epidemiological differentials in HIV infection. Findings showed parents and adolescents agree that the best timing for sexual activity amongst adolescents is determined by socioeconomic viability. In practice however, there were tensions between adolescents and parents crystallized by spoilt generation and physiological drive ideologies. Whilst one community relied on a more communal approach in controlling their children; the other relied on a confrontational approach. Sex-talk is examined as a measure to reduce these tensions, and children in both communities were ambivalent over sexual communication between their parents and themselves. Parents from the two communities however differed in their perceptions. Whilst parents in one community attributed reduced teenage pregnancies to sex education, those in the other community indicated a generalized adolescents' sexual activeness manifested in the perceived widespread delinquency in the community. Parents in both communities reported significant barriers to parents-adolescents sexual communication. Parents in both communities should be educated to discuss the broader issues on sexuality that affects adolescents and their reproductive health needs.

  13. Adolescents and parents’ perceptions of best time for sex and sexual communications from two communities in the Eastern and Volta Regions of Ghana: implications for HIV and AIDS education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescents and parents’ differ in their perceptions regarding engaging in sexual activity and protecting themselves from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The views of adolescents and parents from two south-eastern communities in Ghana regarding best time for sex and sexual communications were examined. Methods Focus Group interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents (both In-school and Out-of school) from two communities (Somanya and Adidome) in the Eastern and Volta regions of Ghana with epidemiological differentials in HIV infection. Results Findings showed parents and adolescents agree that the best timing for sexual activity amongst adolescents is determined by socioeconomic viability. In practice however, there were tensions between adolescents and parents crystallized by spoilt generation and physiological drive ideologies. Whilst one community relied on a more communal approach in controlling their children; the other relied on a confrontational approach. Sex-talk is examined as a measure to reduce these tensions, and children in both communities were ambivalent over sexual communication between their parents and themselves. Parents from the two communities however differed in their perceptions. Whilst parents in one community attributed reduced teenage pregnancies to sex education, those in the other community indicated a generalized adolescents’ sexual activeness manifested in the perceived widespread delinquency in the community. Conclusion Parents in both communities reported significant barriers to parents-adolescents sexual communication. Parents in both communities should be educated to discuss the broader issues on sexuality that affects adolescents and their reproductive health needs. PMID:24070548

  14. Story time turbocharger? Child engagement during shared reading and cerebellar activation and connectivity in preschool-age children listening to stories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Hutton

    Full Text Available Expanding behavioral and neurobiological evidence affirms benefits of shared (especially parent-child reading on cognitive development during early childhood. However, the majority of this evidence involves factors under caregiver control, the influence of those intrinsic to the child, such as interest or engagement in reading, largely indirect or unclear. The cerebellum is increasingly recognized as playing a "smoothing" role in higher-level cognitive processing and learning, via feedback loops with language, limbic and association cortices. We utilized functional MRI to explore the relationship between child engagement during a mother-child reading observation and neural activation and connectivity during a story listening task, in a sample of 4-year old girls. Children exhibiting greater interest and engagement in the narrative showed increased activation in right-sided cerebellar association areas during the task, and greater functional connectivity between this activation cluster and language and executive function areas. Our findings suggest a potential cerebellar "boost" mechanism responsive to child engagement level that may contribute to emergent literacy development during early childhood, and synergy between caregiver and child factors during story sharing.

  15. Estimating solar radiation in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anane-Fenin, K.

    1986-04-01

    The estimates of global radiation on a horizontal surface for 9 towns in Ghana, West Africa, are deduced from their sunshine data using two methods developed by Angstrom and Sabbagh. An appropriate regional parameter is determined with the first method and used to predict solar irradiation in all the 9 stations with an accuracy better than 15%. Estimation of diffuse solar irradiation by Page, Lin and Jordan and three other authors' correlation are performed and the results examined. (author)

  16. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Carolette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.

  17. mics in Modern Day Ghana 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in Gender and Development in Afiica, I (200 7): September. THE WOMBAS TARGET: .... countries. The purpose of this historical contextualization of HIV/AIDS policy cur- rently in Ghana is to ..... product development from a distance. ..... environmental disintegration and poverty in Nordiem Ghana.” In response to the.

  18. Constructivism and mathematics education in Ghana | Fletcher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematics is a subject found in every school Curriculum in almost every country. Here in Ghana, mathematics is a compulsory subject in both the basic education (i.e. primary and junior secondary) and senior secondary curricula. This paper argues that in spite of the desire of mathematics educators in Ghana to pursue a ...

  19. Challenges of decentralisation in Ghana: district assembly's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana and the various legislations on decentralisation articulate the explicit objectives of the policy which includes responsiveness to community needs. The rationale behind Ghana's decentralisation programme and the functions of the District Assemblies (DAs) therefore provide a ...

  20. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  1. Management of mutual health organizations in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features.

  2. Beyond engagement in working with children in eight Nairobi slums to address safety, security, and housing: Digital tools for policy and community dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Claudia; Chege, Fatuma; Maina, Lucy; Rothman, Margot

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the ways in which researchers working in the area of health and social research and using participatory visual methods might extend the reach of participant-generated creations such as photos and drawings to engage community leaders and policy-makers. Framed as going 'beyond engagement', the article explores the idea of the production of researcher-led digital dialogue tools, focusing on one example, based on a series of visual arts-based workshops with children from eight slums in Nairobi addressing issues of safety, security, and well-being in relation to housing. The authors conclude that there is a need for researchers to embark upon the use of visual tools to expand the life and use of visual productions, and in particular to ensure meaningful participation of communities in social change.

  3. Creating an inclusive leisure space: strategies used to engage children with and without disabilities in the arts-mediated program Spiral Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Eric; Edwards, Brydne; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Sheffe, Sarah; Curran, C J; Pinto, Madhu; Crossman, Shannon; King, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    This article describes how service providers use a set of practical strategies to create an inclusive leisure space in Spiral Garden, an arts-mediated outdoor summer day program for children with and without disabilities. This study was guided by an interpretive qualitative approach. Fourteen Spiral Garden service providers participated in semi-structured interviews. Nine had extensive experience with the program and had been present during key phases of program development spanning over a 26-year period and five were service providers during the summer of 2013. Transcript data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The analysis produced eight strategies organized under three larger categories that service providers perceived to be essential in creating an inclusive leisure space: (1) engaging children in collective experiences; (2) encouraging peer interactions and friendships; and (3) facilitating collaborative child-directed experiences. Service providers working across different inclusive settings can use findings from this study to contribute to program design and implementation. Presented strategies enable children to experience opportunities for spontaneous free play, individualized structured support, and meaningful social participation. Overall, service providers are encouraged to enhance supportive child and service provider relationships and reciprocal child and environment relationships in group-based programs. Implications for Rehabilitation Exploring and facilitating reciprocal relationships between children and their environment is essential to creating inclusive leisure spaces. Transforming program intentions of meaningful social participation into practice requires learning about and affecting change in children's individual social contexts. Service providers can engage themselves as full participants in inclusive leisure spaces through playful negotiations, internal reflections, and artistic expressions.

  4. Map Coordinate Referencing and the use of GPS Datasets in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Map Coordinate Referencing and the use of GPS Datasets in Ghana. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... systems used in Ghana (the Ghana war office system and also the Clarke1880 system) using the Bursa-Wolf model.

  5. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria.

  6. Student Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conduit, Jodie; Karpen, Ingo; Farrelly, Francis

    2017-01-01

    system (the university), the narrow service system (the course), and the individual dyadic level of engagement (the student-lecturer interaction). These findings could be further considered and empirically tested in other engagement contexts (e.g. employee engagement, customer engagement).......Universities are seeking to actively and strategically manage student engagement through providing opportunities for students to interact and engage with the institution on a range of levels and in different ways. However, this increasingly complex and multi-layered nature of student engagement...... within a tertiary education environment is not well understood. Through qualitative focus groups and a series of interviews with undergraduate and postgraduate students, this study explores and articulates the cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social dimensions of engagement that depict the nature...

  7. Engaging children in the development of obesity interventions: exploring outcomes that matter most among obesity positive outliers

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Mona; Marshall, Gareth; Goldman, Roberta E.; Cunningham, Courtney; Marshall, Richard; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore outcomes and measures of success that matter most to 'positive outlier' children who improved their body mass index (BMI) despite living in obesogenic neighborhoods. Methods We collected residential address and longitudinal height/weight data from electronic health records of 22,657 children ages 6–12 years in Massachusetts. We defined obesity “hotspots” as zip codes where >15% of children had a BMI ≥95th percentile. Using linear mixed effects models, we gener...

  8. Engaging Students in Traditional and Digital Storytelling to Make Connections between Pedagogy and Children's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenbee, Peggy S.; Ford, Carol M.

    2018-01-01

    Traditional and digital storytelling is a powerful literacy tool which engage students in making connections between pedagogy and academic content. Definitions of traditional and digital storytelling, pedagogical methods aligned with curriculum standards, and examples of literacy centers associated with storytelling in early childhood classrooms…

  9. Intersubjective Imitation in Children with Autism: The Relationship between Intersubjectivity with Joint Attention, Joint Engagement and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Eric Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the imitation abilities of children with autism that require intersubjective interaction with the person modeling the action. The relationships between these types of imitation with other developmental skills were also examined. Results showed that during the same time point, children that were better at intersubjective…

  10. The Development of Siblings of Children with Autism at 4 and 14 Months: Social Engagement, Communication, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirmiya, Nurit; Gamliel, Ifat; Pilowsky, Tammy; Feldman, Ruth; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Sigman, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To compare siblings of children with autism (SIBS-A) and siblings of children with typical development (SIBS-TD) at 4 and 14 months of age. Methods: At 4 months, mother-infant interactional synchrony during free play, infant gaze and affect during the still-face paradigm, and infant responsiveness to a name-calling paradigm were examined (n…

  11. Eating breakfast enhances the efficiency of neural networks engaged during mental arithmetic in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the influence of a morning meal on complex mental functions in children (8-11 y), time-frequency analyses were applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded while children solved simple addition problems after an overnight fast and again after having either eaten or skipped...

  12. Dialogue Design for a Robot-Based Face-Mirroring Game to Engage Autistic Children with Emotional Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalier, Pauline; Li, Jamy Jue; Ainger, Eloise; Alcorn, Alyssa M.; Babovic, Snezana; Charisi, Vicky; Petrovic, Suncica; Schadenberg, Bob Rinse; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Evers, Vanessa; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Yoshida, Eiichi; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Suzuki, Kenji; Cabibihan, John-John; Eyssel, Friederike; He, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    We present design strategies for Human Robot Interaction for school-aged autistic children with limited receptive language. Applying these strategies to the DE-ENIGMA project (large EU project addressing emotion recognition in autistic children) supported development of a new activity for in facial

  13. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics Associated with Engagement in Behavioral Health Treatment among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, Lisa A.; Shankute, Naomi; Davignon, Meghan; Massolo, Maria L.; Yoshida, Cathleen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates demographic and clinical factors associated with initiation, continuation, and adherence to behavioral health treatment (BHT) among children with autism spectrum disorder. Among 293 insured children referred for applied behavior analysis (ABA) based BHT, 23% never initiated treatment. Among those initiating treatment, 31%…

  14. Attitudes towards English in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Dako

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers official and individual attitudes towards bilingualism in English and a Ghanaian language. We ask whether bilingualism in English and Ghanaian languages is a social handicap, without merit, or an important indicator of ethnic identity. Ghana has about 50 non-mutually intelligible languages, yet there are no statistics on who speaks what language(s where in the country. We consider attitudes to English against the current Ghanaian language policy in education as practised in the school system. Our data reveal that parents believe early exposure to English enhances academic performance; English is therefore becoming the language of the home.

  15. Strategies for the improvement of rural chicken production in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awuni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)

  16. Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder in School-Aged Foster Children - A Confirmatory Approach to Dimensional Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Stine; Breivik, Kyrre; Heiervang, Einar; Havik, Toril; Havik, Odd E.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and external correlates of the constructs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following were addressed: First, do our data support the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD/DSED as two separate constructs? Second, are RAD and DSED distinct from other well-established dimensions of child psychopathology? Third, what are the ...

  17. Eating breakfast enhances the efficiency of neural networks engaged during mental arithmetic in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivik, R T; Tennal, Kevin B; Chapman, Stephen D; Gu, Yuyuan

    2012-06-25

    To determine the influence of a morning meal on complex mental functions in children (8-11 y), time-frequency analyses were applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded while children solved simple addition problems after an overnight fast and again after having either eaten or skipped breakfast. Power of low frequency EEG activity [2 Hertz (Hz) bands in the 2-12 Hz range] was determined from recordings over frontal and parietal brain regions associated with mathematical thinking during mental calculation of correctly answered problems. Analyses were adjusted for background variables known to influence or reflect the development of mathematical skills, i.e., age and measures of math competence and math fluency. Relative to fed children, those who continued to fast showed greater power increases in upper theta (6-8 Hz) and both alpha bands (8-10 Hz; 10-12 Hz) across sites. Increased theta suggests greater demands on working memory. Increased alpha may facilitate task-essential activity by suppressing non-task-essential activity. Fasting children also had greater delta (2-4 Hz) and greater lower-theta (4-6 Hz) power in left frontal recordings-indicating a region-specific emphasis on both working memory for mental calculation (theta) and activation of processes that suppress interfering activity (delta). Fed children also showed a significant increase in correct responses while children who continued to fast did not. Taken together the findings suggest that neural network activity involved in processing numerical information is functionally enhanced and performance is improved in children who have eaten breakfast, whereas greater mental effort is required for this mathematical thinking in children who skip breakfast. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CERN servers donated to Ghana

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Cutting-edge research requires a constantly high performance of the computing equipment. At the CERN Computing Centre, computers typically need to be replaced after about four years of use. However, while servers may be withdrawn from cutting-edge use, they are still good for other uses elsewhere. This week, 220 servers and 30 routers were donated to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana.   “KNUST will provide a good home for these computers. The university has also developed a plan for using them to develop scientific collaboration with CERN,” said John Ellis, a professor at King’s College London and a visiting professor in CERN’s Theory Group.  John Ellis was heavily involved in building the relationship with Ghana, which started in 2006 when a Ghanaian participated in the CERN openlab student programme. Since 2007 CERN has hosted Ghanaians especially from KNUST in the framework of the CERN Summer Student Progr...

  19. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohene-Yeboah, M.; Adjei, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  20. Cool Science: Year 2 of Using Children's Artwork about Climate Change to Engage Riders on Mass Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators and scientists from the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the University of Massachusetts Boston will report on the second year of an informal science learning research project using mass transit spaces in Lowell, MA. Cool Science (CS) conducts a statewide art competition for K-12 students in the fall challenging them to express climate science understanding through the visual arts. An inter-disciplinary panel of judges evaluates entries and identifies the top 24 works of art. The best six student works of art are then put on public display throughout the spring on the Lowell Regional Transit Authority (LRTA). Displaying student artwork in Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) such as bus placards and posters is intended to engage riders with opportunities to learn informally. CS aims to promote and evaluate learning about climate change science among the general public and k-12 students/teachers. The goals of CS are: 1) Engage teachers, students, and parents in a climate change science communication competition. 2) Display the winning 6 artworks from K-12 students throughout the LRTA. 3) Assess the impact of Cool Science on the teaching and learning of climate science in K-12 formal education. 4) Assess the impact of Cool Science artwork on attitudes, awareness, and understanding of climate change among adult bus riders. A naturalistic inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design. The evaluation focuses on providing feedback regarding the potential learning outcomes for the K-12 students who create the media for the project and the general riding public who engage with the student artwork. To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, interviews, and online analytics. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The Cool Science (CS) project is an opportunity

  1. Science for Development: Failure in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    Next to follow was the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, established at .... notion of science education and the predictions made by the model of science ..... banks, production and consumption armies, serve as a god for those who have.

  2. Gender, Migration and Remittances in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to strengthen social ties and networks of responsibility and affection. Indeed .... undocumented evidence in Ghana of the construction of second cycle schools, health .... business/financial operations, administration/secretarial and elementary ...

  3. EXPERIENCES OF FEMALE ACADEMICS IN GHANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implications of the research for social work practice are discussed. .... to female academics' rise to the top of their careers in Ghana. ... Saleebey (1996) identifies resilience, empowerment and membership as the key principles of the ...

  4. Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of topical issues on all aspects of engineering practice in Ghana and abroad ... Computer Aided Synthesis of a Four-Bar Mechanism For Soil Tilling ... Development Of An Agricultural Land Drainage And Reclamation Design Software.

  5. Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Osei Bonsu Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is...

  6. A Comparison of Mobile and Fixed Device Access on User Engagement Associated With Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Online Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusk, John J; Bensley, Robert J

    2016-11-15

    Online health education has expanded its reach due to cost-effective implementation and demonstrated effectiveness. However, a limitation exists with the evaluation of online health education implementations and how the impact of the system is attenuated by the extent to which a user engages with it. Moreover, the current online health education research does not consider how this engagement has been affected by the transition from fixed to mobile user access over the last decade. This paper focuses on comparing the impact mobile versus fixed devices have on user engagement key performance indicators (KPI) associated with the wichealth website (.org), an Internet-based parent-child feeding intervention offered to clients associated with the US Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Data were collected from 612,201 nutrition education lessons completed by 305,735 unique WIC participants in 21 states over a 1-year period. Data consisted of system-collected measures, profile items, and items from an exit survey administered at the conclusion of each lesson. User engagement was defined based on 3 KPIs associated with usage of the wichealth website: number of link views, link view time, and progression in stage of readiness to change. Independent samples t tests were used to compare KPIs between fixed only and mobile only device users and paired samples t tests were used to compare KPIs within users who completed at least one lesson each on both a fixed and mobile device. A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of KPI performance thresholds in the independent samples study group given access device type while controlling for confounding of user characteristics associated with these KPIs. Analysis of 8 user characteristics (lessons completed, race, ethnicity, language, state of residence, pregnancy status, beginning stage of change, and preferred nutrition education method) were

  7. Medical physics practice and training in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuasi, John H; Kyere, Augustine K; Schandorf, Cyril; Fletcher, John J; Boadu, Mary; Addison, Eric K; Hasford, Francis; Sosu, Edem K; Sackey, Theophilus A; Tagoe, Samuel N A; Inkoom, Stephen; Serfor-Armah, Yaw

    2016-06-01

    Medical physics has been an indispensable and strategic stakeholder in the delivery of radiological services to the healthcare system of Ghana. The practice has immensely supported radiation oncology and medical imaging facilities over the years, while the locally established training programme continues to produce human resource to feed these facilities. The training programme has grown to receive students from other African countries in addition to local students. Ghana has been recognised by the International Atomic Energy Agency as Regional Designated Centre for Academic Training of Medical Physicists in Africa. The Ghana Society for Medical Physics collaborates with the School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences of the University of Ghana to ensure that training offered to medical physicists meet international standards, making them clinically qualified. The Society has also worked together with other bodies for the passage of the Health Profession's Regulatory Bodies Act, giving legal backing to the practice of medical physics and other allied health professions in Ghana. The country has participated in a number of International Atomic Energy Agency's projects on medical physics and has benefited from its training courses, fellowships and workshops, as well as those of other agencies such as International Organization for Medical Physics. This has placed Ghana's medical physicists in good position to practice competently and improve healthcare. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using a Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Engage Stakeholders in the Design of an Outpatient Children's Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E; Niccols, Alison; Rimas, Heather; Robicheau, Randi; Anderson, Colleen; DeVries, Bart

    2017-10-01

    To engage users in the design of a regional child and youth health center. The perspective of users should be an integral component of a patient-centered, evidence-based approach to the design of health facilities. We conducted a discrete choice conjoint experiment (DCE), a method from marketing research and health economics, as a component of a strategy to engage users in the preconstruction planning process. A sample of 467 participants (290 staff and 177 clients or community stakeholders) completed the DCE. Latent class analysis identified three segments with different design preferences. A group we termed an enhanced design (57%) segment preferred a fully featured facility with personal contacts at the start of visits (in-person check-in, personal waiting room notification, volunteer-assisted wayfinding, and visible security), a family resource center with a health librarian, and an outdoor playground equipped with covered heated pathways. The self-guided design segment (11%), in contrast, preferred a design allowing a more independent use of the facility (e.g., self-check-in at computer kiosks, color-coded wayfinding, and a self-guided family resource center). Designs affording privacy and personal contact with staff were important to the private design segment (32%). The theme and decor of the building was less important than interactive features and personal contacts. A DCE allowed us to engage users in the planning process by estimating the value of individual design elements, identifying segments with differing views, informing decisions regarding design trade-offs, and simulating user response to design options.

  9. Association between maternal depression and child stunting in Northern Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemakor, Anthony; Mensah, Kofi Akohene

    2016-08-24

    Stunting indicates failure to attain genetic potential for height and is a well-documented indicator for poor growth. Depression is common in women of reproductive age and women's mental health problems may affect the growth of young children. We examined the association between maternal depression and stunting in mother-child pairs attending Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) in Northern Ghana. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed involving mothers (15-45 years) and their children (0-59 months) who attended CWC at Bilpeila Health Centre, Tamale, Ghana. Socio-demographic data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, maternal depression was measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Screening Scale, and anthropometry was conducted on children following standard procedures. The association between maternal depression and child stunting was examined in logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence rates of child stunting and maternal depression were estimated at 16.1 and 27.8 % respectively in Northern Ghana. Mothers with depression when compared with those without depression tended to be younger, be currently unmarried, belong to the poorest household wealth tertile, and were more likely to have low birth weight babies, so these characteristics were adjusted for. In an adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, children of depressed mothers were almost three times more likely to be stunted compared to children of non-depressed mothers (Adjusted OR = 2.48, 95 % CI 1.29-4.77, p = 0.0011). There is a high prevalence of depression among mothers in Northern Ghana which is associated with child stunting. Further studies are needed to identify the determinants of maternal depression and to examine its association with child stunting to inform nutrition programming.

  10. Social capital and active membership in the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme - a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenenga, Christine J; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Ogink, Alice; Arhinful, Daniel K; Poortinga, Wouter; Hutter, Inge

    2015-11-02

    People's decision to enroll in a health insurance scheme is determined by socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. On request of the National health Insurance Authority (NHIA) in Ghana, our study explores the influence of social relationships on people's perceptions, behavior and decision making to enroll in the National Health Insurance Scheme. This social scheme, initiated in 2003, aims to realize accessible quality healthcare services for the entire population of Ghana. We look at relationships of trust and reciprocity between individuals in the communities (so called horizontal social capital) and between individuals and formal health institutions (called vertical social capital) in order to determine whether these two forms of social capital inhibit or facilitate enrolment of clients in the scheme. Results can support the NHIA in exploiting social capital to reach their objective and strengthen their policy and practice. We conducted 20 individual- and seven key-informant interviews, 22 focus group discussions, two stakeholder meetings and a household survey, using a random sample of 1903 households from the catchment area of 64 primary healthcare facilities. The study took place in Greater Accra Region and Western Regions in Ghana between June 2011 and March 2012. While social developments and increased heterogeneity seem to reduce community solidarity in Ghana, social networks remain common in Ghana and are valued for their multiple benefits (i.e. reciprocal trust and support, information sharing, motivation, risk sharing). Trusting relations with healthcare and insurance providers are, according healthcare clients, based on providers' clear communication, attitude, devotion, encouragement and reliability of services. Active membership of the NHIS is positive associated with community trust, trust in healthcare providers and trust in the NHIS (p-values are .009, .000 and .000 respectively). Social capital can motivate clients to enroll in health insurance

  11. Nature of mango anthracnose in Ghana: Implications for the control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature of mango anthracnose in Ghana: Implications for the control of the disease. ... Mango anthracnose is a major disease hampering the production of quality fruits for export in Ghana. The nature of the disease and ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  12. Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization and male sex trade in Ghana: Modernity or Immorality? ... apolitical and less hypocritical way of discussing the issue devoid of criminalization, in the ... Key words: Globalization, homosexuality, male sex trade, sex culture, Ghana.

  13. Chloroquine-treatment failure in northern Ghana: roles of pfcrt T76 and pfmdr1 Y86

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, F. P.; Ehrhardt, S.; Eggelte, T. A.; Agana-Nsiire, P.; Stollberg, K.; Mathieu, A.; Markert, M.; Otchwemah, R. N.; Bienzle, U.

    2005-01-01

    Although chloroquine (CQ) monotherapy is now generally inadequate for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern Ghana--recently, 58% of 225 children failed treatment by day 14--use of the drug continues because of its low cost and wide availability. The risk factors associated with

  14. Educational Progression in Ghana: Gender and Spatial Variations in Longitudinal Trajectories of Junior High School Completion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, David; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Completion of junior high school is a critical milestone in every Ghanaian child's educational trajectory and a critical step toward the transition to higher education. However, the rate of children completing junior high school still lags behind most educational indicators in Ghana. Far more attention is paid to ensuring that students enroll in…

  15. The New Zealand Earthquakes and the Role of Schools in Engaging Children in Emotional Processing of Disaster Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Carol; Gawith, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The earthquakes that rocked the city of Christchurch and surrounding districts in Canterbury, New Zealand, were to take their toll on families, schools and communities. The places that had once represented safety and security for most children were literally and figuratively turned upside down. Rather than reinforce the trauma and continue to…

  16. Understanding Engagement in Mental Health Services for Preschool Children: An Analysis of Teacher, Clinician, and Parent Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, Julie; Van Alst, Donna; Ocasio, Kerrie; Allegra, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of mental health clinicians in providing services in the preschool setting. Clinicians provided services for 3 years in urban, northern New Jersey preschools, in order to expand access to mental health services for vulnerable children. At the conclusion of the three-year period, focus groups…

  17. Chronicling Innovative Learning in Primary Classrooms: Conceptualizing a Theatrical Pedagogy to Successfully Engage Young Children Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an innovative pedagogical approach devised to re-envigorate primary (elementary) teachers' practice in the United Kingdom for older children. Learning science in elementary schools for 8-11 year olds (Key Stage 2 in England) has been constrained for several decades while teachers prepared them for national tests. The recent…

  18. Using Culturally Relevant Experiential Education to Enhance Urban Children's Knowledge and Engagement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djonko-Moore, Cara M.; Leonard, Jacqueline; Holifield, Quintaniay; Bailey, Elsa B.; Almughyirah, Sultan M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children living in urban areas often have limited opportunities to experience informal science environments. As a result, some do not have a deep understanding of the environment, natural resources, ecosystems, and the ways human activities affect nature. Purpose: This article examines how experiential science education supported urban…

  19. Does Engagement in Forest School Influence Perceptions of Risk, Held by Children, Their Parents, and Their School Staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savery, Alice; Cain, Tim; Garner, Jo; Jones, Tracy; Kynaston, Emily; Mould, Kirsten; Nicholson, Laura; Proctor, Sophie; Pugh, Rosanne; Rickard, Emma; Wilson, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    In a climate where, it is claimed, children now spend very little time out of doors because adults fear for their safety and impose a "zero risk childhood" on them, Forest School aims to offer learners the opportunity to take "supported risks". This study investigated perceptions of risk associated with the outdoors, held by…

  20. Using Design Thinking to Create a New Education Paradigm for Elementary Level Children for Higher Student Engagement and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Lesley-Ann; Liub, Tsai Lu

    2017-01-01

    Can design education have a positive impact on primary school education beyond merely preparing designers? As designers, we know almost intuitively that design education is "good education", and most designers would affirm that it would be beneficial to expose children to design education, because of the benefits of the signature…

  1. Who Is Watching and Who Is Playing: Parental Engagement with Children at a Hands-On Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Louis S.

    2013-01-01

    Family interactions are common phenomenon at visits to science centers and natural history museums. Through interactions the family can support each other as the members individually and collectively learn from their visits. Interaction is particularly important between child(ren) and parent, which may be facilitated by media provided to parents.…

  2. Engaging autistic children in imitation and turn-taking games with multiagent system of interactive lighting blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, J.C.J.; Barakova, E.I.; Yang, H.S.; et al., xx

    2010-01-01

    In this paper game scenarios that aim to establish elements of cooperative play such as imitation and turn taking between children with autism and a caregiver are investigated. Multiagent system of interactive blocks is used to facilitate the games. The training elements include verbal description

  3. Children's Self-Concept: Parental School Engagement and Student-Teacher Relationships in Rural and Urban Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Denny, Bianca; Davis, Kate; Francis, Andrew; Jackson, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept is one important yet understudied construct, often associated with healthy children's well-being, and particularly crucial for those raised in rural disadvantaged communities. Also, commonly acknowledged is that adults, including parents and teachers, play an important role in fostering self-concept. The overall aim of the current…

  4. ‘Getting Children Outdoors again’ - Outdoor Play for children in a rural North West of Ireland setting: A civic engagement Project

    OpenAIRE

    McGonagle, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Children’s’ Outdoor play nowadays is the preferred approach to playing indoors which has become a constant focus of influences and powers of technology. Children spend hours on social media sites, isolated playing video games and lost in technologically powered screens (Larson et al, 2011). As a results of this disengagement with outdoors activities, children fall victims to many problems including obesity, social exclusion, and in some cases behavioural issues Fresh air and exercise are prob...

  5. Plant genetic resources management in Ghana: Some challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant genetic resources management in Ghana: Some challenges in legumes. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... The Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, serving as the national gene bank of Ghana, together with other stakeholders, had made strenuous efforts in managing the legume genetic resources in ...

  6. Revising The Standards For Financial Reporting In Ghana | Appiah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to strengthen financial reporting through standard setting in Ghana has been examined. The roles of the Institute of Chartered Accountants (Ghana) and Ghana National Accounting Standards Board were found not to be addressing the revision and updating of the standards, and bringing the procedures and ...

  7. Institutional Support : Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA-Ghana ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institute of Economic Affairs in Ghana (IEA-Ghana) was founded in 1989 during the twilight of the military dictatorship. At that time there were no independent policy centres in the country and hence little public policy dialogue. Still, IEA-Ghana succeeded in creating a platform for debate and made a strong case for major ...

  8. Impact of malaria related messages on insecticide-treated net (ITN) use for malaria prevention in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu Adjah, Ebenezer S; Panayiotou, Andrie G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Media messages have been used in Ghana to promote insecticide-treated net (ITN)/bed net usage in an effort to impact on malaria prevention. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of such malaria-related messages delivered through electronic/print media and by volunteers/health workers on the use of ITNs by children living in a household. Methods: Data was collected from September to November of 2008 using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire by the Ghana St...

  9. Knowledge and Attitude of Children towards HIV and AIDS in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Children, perception, HIV and AIDS, Cape Coast, Ghana. Résumé. Au Ghana, il a été .... children in particular. Most of the studies on the social aspects of HIV .... while the mass media (radio and television) was also mentioned by ...

  10. Relationship between learning environment characteristics and academic engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    The relationship between learning environment characteristics and academic engagement of 777 Grade 6 children located in 41 learning environments was explored. Questionnaires were used to tap learning environment perceptions of children, their academic engagement, and their ethnic-cultural

  11. Introduction of Nuclear Power in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboh, K.; Dzobo, M

    2010-01-01

    Ghana depends mainly on hydro-systems for electricity generation. In 1984, 1998, 2003 and 2007, there was drastic shortfalls in hydro-generation due to severe droughts. In 2007, the shortfall in generation was compounded by high prices of light crude oil. In May 2007, the government set-up a 7-man Presidential Committee on feasibility of a Nuclear Power Programme. Ghana’s electricity demand was projected to increase at 7.7% p.a. between 2004 and 2030. Per capita electricity demand is expected to increase from 253 kWh in 2004 to 1120 kWh in 2030. Peak electricity demand was expected to increase from 1095 MW in 2004 to 6700 MW in 2030. Ghana received IAEA assistance to undertake a national TCP GHA/0/011: “Evaluating the role of Nuclear Power in Future Generation Mix”. Under the national TCP GHA/0/011, a proposal for establishing NEPIO – (an Inter-ministerial Steering Committee to be chaired by the Minister of Energy) based on IAEA recommendations was submitted to the Minister of Energy. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission in partnership with other stakeholders and support from the IAEA did prepared a draft nuclear bill. The draft Ghana Nuclear Bill also proposed the establishment of an independent Ghana Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The Authority is mandated to license and regulate all nuclear installations including power plants. No potential sites for nuclear power plant and waste disposal had been identified yet for evaluation. Potential sites for nuclear power plants and waste disposal were identified and assessed under the IAEA national TCP GHA/0/011. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (i.e. GAEC) and the University of Ghana with support from the IAEA have established the Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (i.e. SNAS) for training nuclear expert

  12. Arte Juntos/Art Together: Promoting School Readiness among Latino Children through Parent Engagement and Social Inclusion in a Suburban Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Tazi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Census data reveal that suburban communities are becoming increasingly diverse. Once considered affluent and predictable places, American suburbs are now confronting increasing poverty rates as well as ethnic, racial and linguistic diversity. Currently, more than half of US Latinos live in the suburbs. Schools and public institutions such as museums are challenged to provide programming that meets the needs of Latinos, who are disproportionately poor (Ackerman and Tazi 2015:3. Promoting school readiness among Latino children is an important effort in maximizing the potential and educational attainment of this growing population. In one suburban community, a school-museum collaboration resulted in a bilingual parent-child program promoting school readiness and social inclusion for Latino families. Arte Juntos/Art Together engaged parents and children using art andculture-based activities that developed observation skills, creativity, critical thinking, vocabulary, and aesthetic appreciation. Celebrating diverse perspectives and self-expression, the program provided access to museums as enriching spaces for informal learning, personal empowerment and social inclusion

  13. Development of an Internet-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy Program (ENGAGE) for Parents of Children Previously Treated for Cancer: Participatory Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Anna; Kukkola, Laura; Börjesson, Helene; Cernvall, Martin; Woodford, Joanne; Grönqvist, Helena; von Essen, Louise

    2018-04-18

    Parenting a child through cancer is a distressing experience, and a subgroup of parents report negative long-term psychological consequences years after treatment completion. However, there is a lack of evidence-based psychological interventions for parents who experience distress in relation to a child's cancer disease after end of treatment. One aim of this study was to develop an internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer. Another aim was to identify acceptable procedures for future feasibility and efficacy studies testing and evaluating the intervention. Participatory action research methodology was used. The study included face-to-face workshops and related Web-based exercises. A total of 6 parents (4 mothers, 2 fathers) of children previously treated for cancer were involved as parent research partners. Moreover, 2 clinical psychologists were involved as expert research partners. Research partners and research group members worked collaboratively throughout the study. Data were analyzed iteratively using written summaries of the workshops and Web-based exercises parallel to data collection. A 10-week, internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) was developed in collaboration with parent research partners and expert research partners. The content of the intervention, mode and frequency of e-therapist support, and the individualized approach for feedback were modified based on the research partner input. Shared solutions were reached regarding the type and timing of support from an e-therapist (eg, initial video or telephone call, multiple methods of e-therapist contact), duration and timing of intervention (eg, 10 weeks, 30-min assessments), and the removal of unnecessary support functions (eg, removal of chat and forum functions). Preferences for study procedures in

  14. Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Synthesis of Research and Input from the Listening Session Held by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjoura, G. Roger; DuBois, David L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Haight, Konrad A.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2013, a Listening Session on Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents was held in Washington, DC. This session was organized by the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in partnership with the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement. It continues the…

  15. A Review of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: What Are the Sustainability Threats and Prospects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo

    2016-01-01

    Background The introduction of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) in Ghana in 2003 significantly contributed to improved health services utilization and health outcomes. However, stagnating active membership, reports of poor quality health care rendered to NHIS-insured clients and cost escalations have raised concerns on the operational and financial sustainability of the scheme. This paper reviewed peer reviewed articles and grey literature on the sustainability challenges and prospects of the NHIS in Ghana. Methods Electronic search was done for literature published between 2003–2016 on the NHIS and its sustainability in Ghana. A total of 66 publications relevant to health insurance in Ghana and other developing countries were retrieved from Cochrane, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Googlescholar for initial screening. Out of this number, 31 eligible peer reviewed articles were selected for final review based on specific relevance to the Ghanaian context. Results Ability of the NHIS to continue its operations in Ghana is threatened financially and operationally by factors such as: cost escalation, possible political interference, inadequate technical capacity, spatial distribution of health facilities and health workers, inadequate monitoring mechanisms, broad benefits package, large exemption groups, inadequate client education, and limited community engagement. Moreover, poor quality care in NHIS-accredited health facilities potentially reduces clients’ trust in the scheme and consequently decreases (re)enrolment rates. These sustainability challenges were reviewed and discussed in this paper. Conclusions The NHIS continues to play a critical role towards attaining universal health coverage in Ghana albeit confronted by challenges that could potentially collapse the scheme. Averting this possible predicament will largely depend on concerted efforts of key stakeholders such as health insurance managers, service providers, insurance subscribers, policy

  16. A Review of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: What Are the Sustainability Threats and Prospects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) in Ghana in 2003 significantly contributed to improved health services utilization and health outcomes. However, stagnating active membership, reports of poor quality health care rendered to NHIS-insured clients and cost escalations have raised concerns on the operational and financial sustainability of the scheme. This paper reviewed peer reviewed articles and grey literature on the sustainability challenges and prospects of the NHIS in Ghana. Electronic search was done for literature published between 2003-2016 on the NHIS and its sustainability in Ghana. A total of 66 publications relevant to health insurance in Ghana and other developing countries were retrieved from Cochrane, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Googlescholar for initial screening. Out of this number, 31 eligible peer reviewed articles were selected for final review based on specific relevance to the Ghanaian context. Ability of the NHIS to continue its operations in Ghana is threatened financially and operationally by factors such as: cost escalation, possible political interference, inadequate technical capacity, spatial distribution of health facilities and health workers, inadequate monitoring mechanisms, broad benefits package, large exemption groups, inadequate client education, and limited community engagement. Moreover, poor quality care in NHIS-accredited health facilities potentially reduces clients' trust in the scheme and consequently decreases (re)enrolment rates. These sustainability challenges were reviewed and discussed in this paper. The NHIS continues to play a critical role towards attaining universal health coverage in Ghana albeit confronted by challenges that could potentially collapse the scheme. Averting this possible predicament will largely depend on concerted efforts of key stakeholders such as health insurance managers, service providers, insurance subscribers, policy makers and political actors.

  17. A Review of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: What Are the Sustainability Threats and Prospects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kaba Alhassan

    Full Text Available The introduction of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS in Ghana in 2003 significantly contributed to improved health services utilization and health outcomes. However, stagnating active membership, reports of poor quality health care rendered to NHIS-insured clients and cost escalations have raised concerns on the operational and financial sustainability of the scheme. This paper reviewed peer reviewed articles and grey literature on the sustainability challenges and prospects of the NHIS in Ghana.Electronic search was done for literature published between 2003-2016 on the NHIS and its sustainability in Ghana. A total of 66 publications relevant to health insurance in Ghana and other developing countries were retrieved from Cochrane, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Googlescholar for initial screening. Out of this number, 31 eligible peer reviewed articles were selected for final review based on specific relevance to the Ghanaian context.Ability of the NHIS to continue its operations in Ghana is threatened financially and operationally by factors such as: cost escalation, possible political interference, inadequate technical capacity, spatial distribution of health facilities and health workers, inadequate monitoring mechanisms, broad benefits package, large exemption groups, inadequate client education, and limited community engagement. Moreover, poor quality care in NHIS-accredited health facilities potentially reduces clients' trust in the scheme and consequently decreases (reenrolment rates. These sustainability challenges were reviewed and discussed in this paper.The NHIS continues to play a critical role towards attaining universal health coverage in Ghana albeit confronted by challenges that could potentially collapse the scheme. Averting this possible predicament will largely depend on concerted efforts of key stakeholders such as health insurance managers, service providers, insurance subscribers, policy makers and political actors.

  18. On the possibilities and limits of "DEAF DEAF SAME": Tourism and empowerment camps in Adamorobe (Ghana, Bangalore and Mumbai (India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ilana Friedner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article qualitatively analyzes the ways that the discourse of "deaf universalism" circulates within two common deaf practices: tourism and engaging in interventions. Arguing that the largely Northern-situated discipline of Deaf Studies does not adequately examine how deaf bodies and discourses travel, ethnographic data compiled in India and Ghana during transnational encounters is employed to examine how claims of "sameness" and "difference" are enacted and negotiated. Similarly, this article examines how deaf individuals and groups deploy the concepts of deaf "heavens" and "hells" to analyze their travel experiences and justify interventions. We argue that deaf travelers and those engaging in interventions, mostly from Northern countries, employ teleological concepts that they attempt to impose on deaf "others." Adopting a critical approach, this article argues for the importance of carving out a space within Deaf Studies for allowing non-Northern concepts to come to the fore. Keywords: Deaf, Development, Universalism, Discourse, India, Ghana

  19. On the possibilities and limits of "DEAF DEAF SAME": Tourism and empowerment camps in Adamorobe (Ghana), Bangalore and Mumbai (India).

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Ilana Friedner; Annelies Kusters

    2014-01-01

    This article qualitatively analyzes the ways that the discourse of "deaf universalism" circulates within two common deaf practices: tourism and engaging in interventions. Arguing that the largely Northern-situated discipline of Deaf Studies does not adequately examine how deaf bodies and discourses travel, ethnographic data compiled in India and Ghana during transnational encounters is employed to examine how claims of "sameness" and "difference" are enacted and negotiated. Similarly, this ar...

  20. National waste management infrastructure in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E.O.; Fletcher, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. (author)

  1. Analysis of the Proposed Ghana Broadband Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit; Botwe, Yvonne

    This project studied the Ghana Broadband Strategy with the aim of evaluating the recommendations in the strategy side by side the broadband development in Ghana. The researchers conducted interviews both officially and unofficially with ICT stakeholders, made observations, studied Government...... intervention policies recommended in the Ghana broadband policy is used to evaluate the broadband market to find out whether the strategy consolidates with the Strengths and opportunities of the market and whether it corrects the anomalies that necessitate the weaknesses and threats to the market....... The strategy did address some threats and weaknesses of the broadband market. It also consolidated on some strengths and opportunities of the broadband market. The researchers also discovered that a market can actually grow without a policy. But a market will grow faster if a well implemented policy is guiding...

  2. Safe management of radioactive waste in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established in 1963 by an Act of Parliament, Act 204 for the Promotion, Development and Peaceful Application of Nuclear Techniques for the Benefit of Ghana. As in many developing countries the use of nuclear application is growing considerably in importance within the national economy. The Radiation Protection Board was established as the national regulatory authority and empowered by the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993). The above regulations, Act 204 and LI 1559 provided a minimum legal basis for regulatory control of radioactive waste management as it deals with waste management issues in a very general way and is of limited practical use to the waste producer. Hence the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre was established in July 1995 to carry out waste safety operations in Ghana. This paper highlights steps that have been taken to develop a systemic approach for the safe management of radioactive waste in the future and those already in existence. (author)

  3. Education and Health Care Policies in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziblim Abukari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Education and health care policies in Ghana since independence have been universalist in approach providing free universal health care and free basic and tertiary education until the early 1980s. Precipitated primarily by a severe drought, stagnant economic growth, mismanagement, and political instability, Ghana undertook major economic reforms with prodding from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund in a bid to salvage the economy. These economic measures included cost recovery and cutback spending in education and health sectors. However, in recent years, purposive targeted interventions have been pursued to address inequalities in education and health care. These new programs include the Education Capitation Grant, school feeding program, and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, which are propelling Ghana toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The prospects of these programs in addressing disparities in access to education and health care in the country and recommendations for improved delivery are discussed.

  4. Ghana Chemical Society eleventh national annual conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The publication contains the programme and abstracts of the eleventh annual conference of the Ghana Chemical Society. The aim of the conference was to examine the role of chemistry and the strategic role of chemistry practitioners in the overall development of Ghana in the twenty first century. Abstracts presented have been grouped in the following order: welcome address, professional lecture on the future direction of the Ghana Chemical Society, conference programme, plenary lectures on the role of chemistry in the critical areas of the economy such as energy, environment, education, health, agriculture, special seminar on chemistry and society highlighting the role of chemistry in fire prevention, crime detection, water quality, customs operations, scientific papers and selected industrial processes. A total of twenty five abstracts have been presented. (E.A.A)

  5. Ghana Chemical Society eleventh national annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The publication contains the programme and abstracts of the eleventh annual conference of the Ghana Chemical Society. The aim of the conference was to examine the role of chemistry and the strategic role of chemistry practitioners in the overall development of Ghana in the twenty first century. Abstracts presented have been grouped in the following order: welcome address, professional lecture on the future direction of the Ghana Chemical Society, conference programme, plenary lectures on the role of chemistry in the critical areas of the economy such as energy, environment, education, health, agriculture, special seminar on chemistry and society highlighting the role of chemistry in fire prevention, crime detection, water quality, customs operations, scientific papers and selected industrial processes. A total of twenty five abstracts have been presented. (E.A.A)

  6. Human rotavirus subgroups and severity of associated diarrhoea in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, George E.; Hori, Hiroki; Anyanful, Akwasi; Addo, Julius A.; Commey, Joseph O.; Kamiya, Hitoshi; Nkrumah, Francis K.

    1995-11-01

    In a 12 month study of children with acute diarrhoea seeking medical care in 2 hospitals in Accra, Ghana, 16.3% were found to be infected with human rotaviruses (HRV). Vomiting and diarrhoea were the main symptoms observed. HRV infection was frequently associated with severe diarrhoea. Vomiting was however less frequent in HRV associated diarrhoea than in non HRV diarrhoea. No significant association was observed between the severity of dehydration and HRV infection. Subgroup II HRV was the predominant subgroup identified with the dominant serotypes being HRV serotypes 1 and 4. Poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis of HRV RNAs isolated from 40 positive stool samples revealed the existence of 7 distinct electrophoretic migration patterns in the study population.

  7. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  8. Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Sara; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana's vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana's capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana's health innovation system. Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment

  9. Conducting an audit to improve the facilitation of emergency maternal and newborn referral in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Bailey, Patricia E; Yeji, Francis; Adongo, Ayire Emmanuel; Baffoe, Peter; Williams, Afua; Mercer, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Ghana Health Service conducted an audit to strengthen the referral system for pregnant or recently pregnant women and newborns in northern Ghana. The audit took place in 16 facilities with two 3-month cycles of data collection in 2011. Midwife-led teams tracked 446 referred women until they received definitive treatment. Between the two audit cycles, teams identified and implemented interventions to address gaps in referral services. During this time period, we observed important increases in facilitating referral mechanisms, including a decrease in the dependence on taxis in favour of national or facility ambulances/vehicles; an increase in health workers escorting referrals to the appropriate receiving facility; greater use of referral slips and calling ahead to alert receiving facilities and higher feedback rates. As referral systems require attention from multiple levels of engagement, on the provider end we found that regional managers increasingly resolved staffing shortages; district management addressed the costliness and lack of transport and increased midwives' ability to communicate with pregnant women and drivers; and that facility staff increasingly adhered to guidelines and facilitating mechanisms. By conducting an audit of maternal and newborn referrals, the Ghana Health Service identified areas for improvement that service providers and management at multiple levels addressed, demonstrating a platform for problem solving that could be a model elsewhere.

  10. Research Paper Psychosocial adjustment of children affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was conducted to assess the psychosocial adjustment of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the eastern part of Ghana. Method: Four groups of children (children who lost their parents to AIDS, children who lost their parents through other causes, children living with HIV infected, alive parents and the ...

  11. Journal of the Ghana Science Association: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unless otherwise stated, the first named author of a joint publication will be taken as ... be sent to The Editor, Journal of Ghana Science Association, P.O. Box 7, Legon. ... Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.

  12. Ghana Mining Journal - Vol 9 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the Acid Mine Drainage Potential at Abosso Goldfields Limited (AGL), Ghana. JS Kuma, DN Asamoah. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gm.v9i1.42604 ... Application of Virtual Reality for Visual Presentation in the Mineral Industry. AA Mensah, PA Eshun. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gm.v9i1.42611 ...

  13. Assessing the Implementation of Ghana's Patient Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon; Manu, Abubakar; Atinga, Roger Ayimbillah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the implementation of Ghana's Patients' Charter by investigating the level of awareness and knowledge of the Charter's content, some socio-demographic factors that may influence awareness and knowledge of the Charter and how providers have discharged their responsibilities under the Charter.…

  14. Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony ANDREWS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

  15. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report covers the activities and research progams of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2001. The research programs and associated publications have been grouped under the three main institutes of the Commission namely National Nuclear Research Institute, Radiation Protection Institute and Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultre Research Institute.

  16. Ghana Library Journal - Vol 14 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Services, resources and benefits of the Internet available to academics in Ghana · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Evelyn D Markwei, 21-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/glj.v14i1.33946 ...

  17. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report covers the activities and research progams of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2001. The research programs and associated publications have been grouped under the three main institutes of the Commission namely National Nuclear Research Institute, Radiation Protection Institute and Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultre Research Institute

  18. Determinants of Antenatal Care Use in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbosch, G.B.; Nsowah-Nuamah, N.N.N.; van den Boom, G.J.M.; Damnyag, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants of antenatal care use in Ghana. In particular, we study how economic factors affect the demand for antenatal care and the probability that the number of visits falls below the recommended number of four. Estimation results from a nested three-level multinomial

  19. Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana publishes papers describing research, observational or experimental and critical reviews in Agriculture and Food Science. Vol 10, No 1 (2017). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles ...

  20. Mobile rural youth in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    , followed by structural adjustment programmes and neoliberalism, have all contributed to increasing the inequality between the north and the south. Although Ghana has now joined the ranks of lower middle-income countries, its northern part lags behind, with 22.2% of the population living below the poverty...

  1. Internationalisation of SMEs in Ghana in Retrospect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the conference paper is to collide the research on internationalisation of companies from a developing country, Ghana. The paper is based on more than 30 research projects conducted over the period 1996-2006. It is found that Ghanaian companies are poorly integrated into the global eco...

  2. ANALYSING INBOUND TOURISTS' PERCEPTIONS OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be created (either by official sources or by a marketing agency). and secondly ... that revenue from I Iotcls and Restaurants Customers' tax grew from GI I. 24 million in ..... market-driven specific tourism products in tandem with the various market ... strategy for Ghana· s tourism industry: A focus on the African-American market ...

  3. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  4. Mothers education and childhood mortality in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2003-01-01

    The significant extent to which maternal education affects child health has been advanced in several sociodemographic-medical literature, but not much has been done in analysing the spatial dimension of the problem; and also using graphic and linear regression models of representation. In Ghana,

  5. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  6. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    Our mobile phone is with us at all times. Habitually, we pick it up in the morning and carry it around on our daily routes and routines. Increasingly, we use it to locate ourselves and the things and people around us. With ubiquitous computing, technology is moving into the very fabric of our....... First, situationally appropriate forms of engagement that align well with citizens’ own conceptions are necessary in order to provide relevance and meaning of issues in the moment. Second, situated engagement requires a technological setup which facilitates the co-location of people, place...... with sophisticated prototypes in the wild. It proposes walkshops as a technique for collaborative exploration within actual outdoor environments and the use of field trials as part of an iterative design process in order to look ahead toward use practices that are still in the making....

  7. Problems and Prospects of Millennium Development Goals in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Olasupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ghana, like other developing nations, was not left behind in embracing the eight time-bound Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in September 2000. The millennium development goals aimed towards peace and good standards of living have been faced with series of problems in its attainment in Ghana. These problems have undermined the extent to which Ghana could achieve the MDGs. The study adopting qualitative research method shows that Ghana is faced with difficulty in achieving these eight millennium development goals in certain portions of the nation most especially in the rural communities due to lack of infrastructure. The study therefore recommends that Ghana should focus more on improving the standard of living of the rural dwellers by increasing the public services in the area.  The need for Ghana to focus more on solving these problems is strategic for a better result in this new era of Sustainable Development Goals.

  8. Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI) - Annual Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established to exploit space science and technology for socio-economic development of Ghana. The report gives the structure of GSSTI and the detailed activities of the year. Various activities include: training and seminars, projects and workshops. Publications and their abstracts are also listed. The report also highlights some of the challenges, provides some recommendations and points to some expectation for the following year.

  9. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Garcia, Daireen

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana.

  10. Temporal trends in childhood mortality in Ghana: impacts and challenges of health policies and programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A. Kayode

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4 in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 (SDG 3.2 that seeks to end preventable deaths of newborns and children aged under-five. Thus, this study aimed to compare trends in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality over two decades and to highlight the impacts and challenges of health policies and intervention programs implemented. Design: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data (1988–2008 were analyzed using trend analysis. Poisson regression analysis was applied to quantify the incidence rate ratio of the trends. Implemented health policies and intervention programs to reduce childhood mortality in Ghana were reviewed to identify their impact and challenges. Results: Since 1988, the annual average rate of decline in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Ghana was 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2%, respectively. From 1988 to 1989, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality declined from 48 to 33 per 1,000, 72 to 58 per 1,000, and 108 to 83 per 1,000, respectively, whereas from 1989 to 2008, neonatal mortality increased by 2 per 1,000 while infant and under-five mortality further declined by 6 per 1,000 and 17 per 1,000, respectively. However, the observed declines were not statistically significant except for under-five mortality; thus, the proportion of infant and under-five mortality attributed to neonatal death has increased. Most intervention programs implemented to address childhood mortality seem not to have been implemented comprehensively. Conclusion: Progress towards attaining MDG 4 in Ghana was below the targeted rate, particularly for neonatal mortality as most health policies and programs targeted infant and under-five mortality

  11. The overall situation of female street children (11-18 years) engaged in commercial sex work in Dire Dawa - Ethiopia : survey in case study with special reference to child prostitution

    OpenAIRE

    Mekuria, Melkem Lengereh

    2004-01-01

    THE OVERALL SITUATION OF FEMALE STREET CHILDREN (11 18 YEARS) ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL SEX WORK IN DIRE DAWA - ETHIOPIA (SURVEY IN CASE STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CHILD PROSTITUTION) By MELKAM LENGEREH MEKURIA 2004 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY IN SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF OSLO FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION ABSTRACT Prostitution in gene...

  12. An Analysis of Emergency Healthcare Delivery in Ghana: Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana medical emergencies usually result from road traffic accidents, during which ..... electrocardiography, intravenous therapy, administration of medications, drugs and solutions, use of adjunctive medical devices and trauma care.

  13. Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder in School-Aged Foster Children--A Confirmatory Approach to Dimensional Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stine; Breivik, Kyrre; Heiervang, Einar R; Havik, Toril; Havik, Odd E

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and external correlates of the constructs Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following were addressed: First, do our data support the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD/DSED as two separate constructs? Second, are RAD and DSED distinct from other well-established dimensions of child psychopathology? Third, what are the external correlates of RAD/DSED in this sample? The study sample included 122 foster children aged 6-10 years. Foster parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the RAD/DSED-scale from the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment. Child protection caseworkers completed a questionnaire regarding exposure to maltreatment and placement history. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the RAD/DSED items identified a good fit for a model with a two-factor structure, which is congruent with the DSM-5 definition of RAD and DSED. A new CFA model, which included the RAD and DSED factors together with the four problem factors of the SDQ (emotional, conduct, hyperactivity-inattention, and peer problems), also demonstrated a good fit with our data. RAD and DSED were associated with the SDQ Impact scale and help seeking behavior. This was partly explained by the SDQ externalizing and peer problem subscales. Our findings lend support for the DSM-5 conceptualization of RAD and DSED as separate dimensions of child psychopathology. Thus, the assessment of RAD and DSED provides information beyond other mental health problems.

  14. Achieving health for a lifetime: a community engagement assessment focusing on school-age children to decrease obesity in Durham, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, Leonor; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Kotch, Jonathan; Coeytaux, Remy; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Murphy, Gwen; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Poirier, Brenda; Morton, Janet; Reese, David; Baker, Sharon; Carter, Heidi; Freeman, Rebecca; Blue, Colleen; Yancy, William S

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a prominent problem in the United States and in North Carolina. One way of combating it is with community-engaged interventions that foster collaboration between health-oriented organizations and community residents. Our purpose was to assemble a multifaceted group in Durham, North Carolina, to identify factors affecting obesity-related lifestyle behaviors; assess policies, resources, and the population's perception of the problem of obesity; and develop plans to improve health outcomes related to obesity. A team consisting of more than 2 dozen partners was assembled to form Achieving Health for a Lifetime (AHL) in order to study and address obesity in the community, initially focusing on elementary school-age children. The team developed a resource guide by collecting information by telephone interviews of provider organizations; geospatial resource maps were created using high-resolution geographic information systems, Duke's Data Support Repository, and county and city records; and focus groups were conducted using the nominal group technique. The AHL team, in collaboration with 2 other teams focused on diabetes and cardiovascular disease, identified 32 resources for diabetes, 20 for obesity, and 13 for cardiovascular disease. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the team identified an area of Durham that had only 1 supermarket, but 34 fast-food restaurants and 84 convenience stores. The focus on particular neighborhoods means that the information obtained might not pertain to all neighborhoods. The AHL team was able to assemble a large community partnership in Durham that will allow the members of the community to continue to work toward making residents healthier. Communities facing similar challenges can learn from this experience.

  15. Ghana's Integrated Nuclear Security Support Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstrom, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    At the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital outside Accra, Pearl Lovelyn Lawson checks the records of the next patient to undergo radiotherapy and adjusts the dose settings of the teletherapy machine. It is business as usual at the facility that treats over fifty patients each day. But Lawson's routine now includes additional procedures to ensure that the highly radioactive cobalt-60 source located inside the machine remains secure. Nuclear security devices and systems such as double locks, motion sensors, and cameras that transmit images to a central alarm system have been installed to ensure that the source cannot be stolen, the facility sabotaged, or unauthorized access gained. At Korle Bu physical protection measures were upgraded as part of Ghana's Integrated Nuclear Security Support Plan (INSSP). Preventing, detecting and responding to criminal acts like the theft or illegal transfer of a radioactive source, is an international priority that could be addressed through an INSSP. As one of its key nuclear security services, the IAEA assists Member States in drafting such plans. An INSSP is developed jointly with the Member State, using a holistic approach to nuclear security capacity building. It reinforces the primary objective of a State's nuclear security regime to protect people, society, and the environment from the harmful consequences of a nuclear security event. Addressing five components - the legal and regulatory framework, prevention, detection, and sustainability - the jointly developed plan identifies the needs, responsible entities and organizations within the State, as well as the timeframe for the implementation of agreed nuclear security related activities. Ghana's INSSP, tailored to its specific needs, is based on findings and recommendations from advisory service missions carried out in Ghana, including an International Nuclear Security Advisory Service mission and an International Physical Protection Advisory Service mission. Ghana's INSSP was

  16. 'Zero is not good for me': implications of infertility in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderjohann, J J

    2012-05-01

    Given the high value placed on children in sub-Saharan Africa, previous research suggests that infertility increases the risk of psychological distress and marital conflict, encourages risky sexual behavior and deprives infertile individuals and couples of an important source of economic and social capital. This paper explores the implications of infertility for women in Ghana, West Africa. Semi-structured interview data collected from 107 women (aged 21-48 years, mean 33 years) seeking treatment in gynecological and obstetric clinics in Accra, Ghana, are analyzed. Based on iterative open coding of the interviews, the focus of the analysis is on mental health, marital instability, social interaction and gendered experiences. Infertile women report facing severe social stigma, marital strain and a range of mental health difficulties. Many women feel that they shoulder a disproportionate share of the blame for infertility and, by extension, face greater social consequences than male partners for difficulties conceiving. Women who do not self-identify as infertile corroborate these findings, asserting that the social consequences of infertility are severe, particularly for women. Infertility in Ghana has important consequences for social interactions, marital stability and mental health. These consequences are not perceived to be shared equally by Ghanaian men.

  17. Collective familial decision-making in times of trouble: intergenerational solidarity in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGadney-Douglass, Brenda F; Douglass, Richard L

    2008-06-01

    In post-colonial populations the retention of the nuclear family concept of collectivism as the basis for decision-making is associated with familial and cultural survival. Collectivism within familial contexts provides intergenerational access to experience, information, resources, and sound decision making during times of conflict or dealing with the consequences of poverty. In contemporary Ghana inter-ethnic wars and conflict have marginalized minority groups, causing substantial internal displacement of people. Poverty and cultural issues have caused a persistently high level of child malnutrition and mortality in all areas of Ghana, including urban centers where appropriate food is in abundance. In each of these circumstances the senior women, particularly the grandmothers, have been found to be essential for child survival, protecting the family from dissolution, and ensuring intergenerational cultural transmission. This paper discusses the place of collective decision-making processes of older African women in two studies in Ghana that assessed the: (1) indigenous methods used for understanding and arresting violent ethnic conflict by internally displaced women who survived the 1994/95 Guinea Fowl War; and (2) parenting and grandparenting strategies from families who insured the survival of children suffering from kwashiorkor, a severe form of childhood malnutrition. In this paper, findings from qualitative interview data will include narratives and illustrative cases.

  18. Malnutrition and the disproportional burden on the poor: the case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Jeanette

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in the developing world and in poor communities within these regions. Understanding the nature and determinants of socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition is essential in contemplating the health of populations in developing countries and in targeting resources appropriately to raise the health of the poor and most vulnerable groups. Methods This paper uses a concentration index to summarize inequality in children's height-for-age z-scores in Ghana across the entire socioeconomic distribution and decomposes this inequality into different contributing factors. Data is used from the Ghana 2003 Demographic and Health Survey. Results The results show that malnutrition is related to poverty, maternal education, health care and family planning and regional characteristics. Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition is mainly associated with poverty, health care use and regional disparities. Although average malnutrition is higher using the new growth standards recently released by the World Health Organization, socioeconomic inequality and the associated factors are robust to the change of reference population. Conclusion Child malnutrition in Ghana is a multisectoral problem. The factors associated with average malnutrition rates are not necessarily the same as those associated with socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition.

  19. Research focus and trends in nuclear science and technology in Ghana: a bibliometric study based on the INIS database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyeman, E. A.; Bilson, A.

    2015-01-01

    The peaceful application of atomic energy was introduced into Ghana about fifty years ago. This is the first bibliometric study of nuclear science and technology research publications originating from Ghana and listed in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The purpose was to use the simple document counting method to determine the geographical distribution, annual growth and the subject areas of the publications as well as communication channels, key journals and authorship trends. The main findings of the study were that, a greater number of the nuclear science and technology records listed in the Database were published in Ghana (598 or 56.57% against 459 or 43.43% published outside Ghana). There has been a steady growth in the number of publications over the years with the most productive year being 2012. The main focus of research has been in the area of applied life sciences, comprising plant cultivation & breeding, pest & disease control, food protection and preservation, human nutrition and animal husbandry; followed by chemistry; environmental sciences; radiation protection; nuclear reactors; physics; energy; and radiology and nuclear medicine. The area with the least number of publications was safeguards and physical protection. The main channel of communicating research results was peer reviewed journals and a greater number of the journal articles were published in Ghana followed by the United Kingdom, Hungary and the Netherlands. The core journals identified in this study were Journal of Applied Science and Technology; Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry; Journal of the Ghana Science Association; Radiation Protection Dosimetry; Journal of the Kumasi University of Science and Technology; West African Journal of Applied Ecology; Ghana Journal of Science; Applied Radiation and Isotopes; Annals of Nuclear Energy, IOP Conference Series (Earth and Environmental Science) and Radiation Physics and Chemistry. Eighty percent

  20. Integration for coexistence? Implementation of intercultural health care policy in Ghana from the perspective of service users and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Boateng, Simon; Amoah, Padmore Adusei; Mumin, Alhassan Abdul; Obodai, Jacob; Agyemang-Duah, Williams

    2017-01-01

    Ghana, the government's total commitment in informed training and provider education, enforcement of regulatory instrument and improved community engagement is needed. Evidence-based incorporation of traditional medical therapies into clinical practice will provide safer, faster and more effective health care for the underserved and resource-poor, particularly in the rural areas.

  1. Who uses outpatient healthcare services under Ghana's health protection scheme and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenny, Ama P; Asante, Felix A; Arhinful, Daniel K; Kusi, Anthony; Parmar, Divya; Williams, Gemma

    2016-05-10

    The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was launched in Ghana in 2003 with the main objective of increasing utilisation to healthcare by making healthcare more affordable. Previous studies on the NHIS have repeatedly highlighted that cost of premiums is one of the major barriers for enrollment. However, despite introducing premium exemptions for pregnant women, older people, children and indigents, many Ghanaians are still not active members of the NHIS. In this paper we investigate why there is limited success of the NHIS in improving access to healthcare in Ghana and whether social exclusion could be one of the limiting barriers. The study explores this by looking at the Social, Political, Economic and Cultural (SPEC) dimensions of social exclusion. Using logistic regression, the study investigates the determinants of health service utilisation using SPEC variables including other variables. Data was collected from 4050 representative households in five districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones (coastal, forest and savannah) in Ghana. Among 16,200 individuals who responded to the survey, 54 % were insured. Out of the 1349 who sought health care, 64 % were insured and 65 % of them had basic education and 60 % were women. The results from the logistic regressions show health insurance status, education and gender to be the three main determinants of health care utilisation. Overall, a large proportion of the insured who reported ill, sought care from formal health care providers compared to those who had never insured in the scheme. The paper demonstrates that the NHIS presents a workable policy tool for increasing access to healthcare through an emphasis on social health protection. However, affordability is not the only barrier for access to health services. Geographical, social, cultural, informational, political, and other barriers also come into play.

  2. Lessons learnt from promising practices in community engagement for the elimination of new HIV infections in children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive: summary of a desk review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman Gulaid, Laurie; Kiragu, Karusa

    2012-07-11

    Through the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive, leaders have called for broader action to strengthen the involvement of communities. The Global Plan aspires to reduce new HIV infections among children by 90 percent, and to reduce AIDS-related maternal mortality by half. This article summarizes the results of a review commissioned by UNAIDS to help inform stakeholders on promising practices in community engagement to accelerate progress towards these ambitious goals. This research involved extensive literature review and key informant interviews. Community engagement was defined to include participation, mobilization and empowerment while excluding activities that involve communities solely as service recipients. A promising practice was defined as one for which there is documented evidence of its effectiveness in achieving intended results and some indication of replicability, scale up and/or sustainability. Promising practices that increased the supply of preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services included extending community cadres, strengthening linkages with community- and faith-based organizations and civic participation in programme monitoring. Practices to improve demand for PMTCT included community-led social and behaviour change communication, peer support and participative approaches to generate local solutions. Practices to create an enabling environment included community activism and government leadership for greater involvement of communities. Committed leadership at all levels, facility, community, district and national, is crucial to success. Genuine community engagement requires a rights-based, capacity-building approach and sustained financial and technical investment. Participative formative research is a first step in building community capacity and helps to ensure programme relevance. Building on existing structures, rather than working in parallel to

  3. The Journey Towards Africanising Psychology in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychology has come a long way since its origin in Africa and Ghana in particular. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore the current state of psychological knowledge in Ghana as well as the associated problems in the application of such knowledge. It was concluded that the approach to the study and application of psychological knowledge and tests has been too Eurocentric and westernized. As a result, it limits the applicability of the approach to the African setting, and yet, Western theorists may expect African psychologists to apply the theories to Africans. On the basis of this criticism, the scope of Pan-African psychology is defined and suggestions for pursuing an Africanisation project are presented. It is expected that the strategies that this paper advocates for indigenizing psychology in Africa can equally be useful to psychologists in other developing regions of the world.

  4. Two worlds apart: experiential learning in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Sharon Douglass; Winters-Moorhead, Carol

    2009-07-01

    As our society becomes more diverse, it is important for nursing students to become culturally competent and to view the world from a global perspective. Traveling abroad enlightens the senses and expands the worldview. Traveling for study abroad is more than taking a vacation; it affords students the opportunity to learn experientially and it can be a transforming encounter that influences the way an evolving nurse will practice. Nursing students at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina, had the opportunity to bridge two worlds, urban life at the university and village life in Dodowa, Ghana, West Africa. The purpose of this article is to explore the role that studying abroad has in nurturing experiential learning. The experiences of students from a southern historically Black university that were enrolled concurrently in two summer independent study courses focusing on global healthcare in Ghana, West Africa, are described.

  5. Test of solar dryers in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S. [Teknologisk Institut. SolEnergiCentret, Taastrup (Denmark); Floejgaard Kristensen, E. [Danmarks JordbrugsForskning, Tjele (Denmark); Agyei, F. [FAGOD Ltd. (Ghana); Larsen, T. [Clipper Design Ltd. (Ghana); Nketiah, K.S. [FORIG (Ghana)

    2002-06-01

    The report describes the tests carried out in Ghana on three solar dryers as part of the project 'Test and Research Project into the Drying of Food and Wood Products with Solar Heat' financed by DANIDA. The main objective of the project was to develop and test solar dryers for crop, fish and wood in Ghana. Three dryers were erected: 1. Solar crop dryer: The solar crop dryer was erected at Silwood Farms at Pokuase about 30 km north of Accra. Silwood Farms grows primarily maize for seed and pineapples, 2. Solar fish dryer: The solar fish dryer was erected at Elite Enterprise Ltd. at Tema about 35 km east-north-east of Accra. Elite Enterprise Ltd. buys and dries fish, 3. Solar wood dryer: The solar wood dryers were erected at Clipper Design Ltd. at Mankoadze about 65 km west-south-west of Accra. Clipper Design Ltd. produces mainly doors. (BA)

  6. Ghana: an emerging oil-rich democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, Mathieu

    2011-12-01

    After an indication of the main economic and social indicators of Ghana, and an overview of the historical evolution of Ghana towards democracy since its independence in 1960, a discussion of its advances and limitations in this respect as this country is starting oil production (support of investors, obstacles and difficulties related to institutional limits, decentralisation process, land tenure regime and tradition), the author discusses the possible consequences of this oil wind fall on the democratic dynamics, notably regarding the legal framework (issues of fragility of the institutional and legal systems). In a third part, the author discusses the capacity of the Ghanaian system to face the oil challenge while exorcising the generally occurring curse associated with oil resources

  7. Management Strategies and Economic Development in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    as number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-continent. But Ghana still faces serious economic and social challenges and is, therefore, in search of new......Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked...... to provides illustrations of the usefulness of the human capability development framework presented in volume one as a foundation for sustainable and inclusive economic development in SSA. It also highlights the challenges that the country continues to grapple with and provides some directions for further...

  8. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    and biomethane under Ghanaian conditions. Detailed characterisations of thirteen of the most common agricultural residues in Ghana are presented, enabling estimations of theoretical bioenergy potentials and identifying specific residues for future biorefinery applications. When aiming at residue-based ethanol...... to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be utilised first....... A novel model for estimating BMP from compositional data of lignocellulosic biomasses is derived. The model is based on a statistical method not previously used in this area of research and the best prediction of BMP is: BMP = 347 xC+H+R – 438 xL + 63 DA , where xC+H+R is the combined content of cellulose...

  9. Beyond dualism: Multisegmented labor markets in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    James Heintz; Fabian Slonimczyk

    2007-01-01

    Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...

  10. PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Ghana has a relatively good international reputation with respect to political stability and macroeconomic reforms. However, its success with developing the private sector and attracting investment has at best been mixed. Therefore the new government that came into power in 2001 proclaimed a "Golden Age of Business". Competitiveness and private sector development are closely interlinked. On the one hand the factors that influence the competitiveness of a country are a precondition for private...

  11. MINING RELATED ARSENIC PROBLEMS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Kofi Bempah, Crentsil

    2015-01-01

    Ghana is Africa's second-largest gold producing country after South Africa. Most mining areas particularly in Ashanti Region (Obuasi) and Western Region (Tarkwa), until the introduction of the bio-oxidation (BIOX) technology of extracting gold, the processing of the ore for gold involved the crushing and grinding of ore to fine powder followed by dissolution and precipitation of free gold. During the ore preparation by roasting, sulphur dioxide and As trioxide were released into terrestrial a...

  12. The impact of active stakeholder involvement on recruitment, retention and engagement of schools, children and their families in the cluster randomised controlled trial of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP): a school-based intervention to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J; McHugh, C; Minton, J; Eke, H; Wyatt, K

    2017-08-14

    Recruitment and retention of participants is crucial for statistical power and internal and external validity and participant engagement is essential for behaviour change. However, many school-based interventions focus on programme content rather than the building of supportive relationships with all participants and tend to employ specific standalone strategies, such as incentives, to improve retention. We believe that actively involving stakeholders in both intervention and trial design improves recruitment and retention and increases the chances of creating an effective intervention. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme, HeLP (an obesity prevention programme for children 9-10 years old) was developed using intervention mapping and involved extensive stakeholder involvement in both the design of the trial and the intervention to ensure that: (i) delivery methods were suitably engaging, (ii) deliverers had the necessary skills and qualities to build relationships and (iii) the intervention dovetailed with the National Curriculum. HeLP was a year-long intervention consisting of 4 multi-component phases using a range of delivery methods. We recruited 1324 children from 32 schools from the South West of England to a cluster-randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of HeLP in preventing obesity. The primary outcome was change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) at 24 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes included additional anthropometric and behavioural (physical activity and diet) measures at 18 and 24 months. Anthropometric and behavioural measures were taken in 99%, 96% and 94% of children at baseline, 18 and 24 months, respectively, with no differential follow up between the control and intervention groups at each time point. All children participated in the programme and 92% of children and 77% of parents across the socio-economic spectrum were considered to have actively engaged with HeLP. We attribute our excellent

  13. Ethics, culture and nursing practice in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, N T; Andrews, L D

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes how nurses in Ghana approach ethical problems. The International Council of Nurses' (ICN) Code for Nurses (2006) that serves as the model for professional code of ethics worldwide also acknowledges respect for healthy cultural values. Using the ICN's Code and universal ethical principles as a benchmark, a survey was conducted in 2009 to ascertain how nurses in Ghana respond to ethical and cultural issues in their practice. The study was qualitative with 200 participant nurses. Data were obtained through anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Nurses' approaches to ethical problems in Ghana do not always meet expectations of the ICN Code for Nurses. They are also informed by local ethical practices related to the institutional setting and cultural environment in the country. While some cultural values complemented the ICN's Code and universal ethical principles, others conflicted with them. These data can assist nurses to provide culturally competent solutions to ethical dilemmas in their practice. Dynamic communication between nurses and patients/clients, intentional study of local cultural beliefs, and the development of ethics education will improve the conformity between universal ethical standards and local cultural values. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Financing public healthcare institutions in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akortsu, Mercy Akosua; Abor, Patience Aseweh

    2011-01-01

    The financing of healthcare services has been of a major concern to all governments in the face of increasing healthcare costs. For developing countries, where good health is considered a poverty reduction strategy, it is imperative that the hospitals used in the delivery of healthcare services are well financed to accomplish their tasks. The purpose of this paper is to examine how public hospitals in Ghana are financed, and the challenges facing the financing modes adopted. To achieve the objectives of the study, one major public healthcare institution in Ghana became the main focus. The findings of the study revealed that the main sources of financing the public healthcare institution are government subvention, internally-generated funds and donor-pooled funds. Of these sources, the internally generated fund was regarded as the most reliable, and the least reliable was the donor-pooled funds. Several challenges associated with the various financing sources were identified. These include delay in receipt of government subvention, delay in the reimbursement of services provided to subscribers of health insurance schemes, influence of government in setting user fees, and the specifications to which donor funds are put. The findings of this study have important implications for improving the financing of public healthcare institutions in Ghana. A number of recommendations are provided in this regard.

  15. E-waste interventions in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Pwamang, John A; Amoyaw-Osei, Yaw; Ampofo, Joseph Addo

    2016-03-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) has become an emerging environmental and human health problem in the world in the 21st century. Recently, the developing nations of West Africa (e.g. Ghana and Nigeria) have become a major destination for e-waste worldwide. In Ghana, the e-waste recyclers use primitive methods (mechanical shredding and open burning) to remove plastic insulation from copper cables. This technique can release highly toxic chemicals and severely affect the environment and human health if improperly managed. It is as a result of the adverse impact on human health that some interventions are being made in Ghana to reduce exposure. The present mode of recycling/dismantling, which happens at Agbogbloshie must be replaced by official receiving/recycling centers to be established. Currently, equipment to strip both large and small cables are available in the country via the Blacksmith Institute (USA) and it is expected that the e-waste workers will embrace the use of these machines. This technology will go a long way to help prevent the burning of e-waste and will be replicated in other smaller e-waste centers in the country.

  16. Community-company relations in gold mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato

    2009-01-01

    As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations.

  17. Development of a theory and evidence-based program to promote community treatment of fevers in children under five in a rural district in Southern Ghana: An intervention mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Mercy; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Chinbuah, Margaret A.; Gyapong, Margaret; Gyapong, John O.; van den Borne, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development and implementation of a program to promote prompt and appropriate care seeking for fever in children under the age of five. Designed as a multicomponent program, the intervention comprises elements to influence the behavior of caregivers of children, Community Health Workers, professional health care providers and the wider community. Methods Following the six fundamental steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol, we involved relevant stakehold...

  18. Conflicts in Northern Ghana: Search for Solutions, Stakeholders and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Northern Ghana that have drawn national attention, most of which were/are violent. It ... analysis of four case studies on the northern Ghana conflicts. ...... It will also be necessary to consider sponsorship of research and studies in ... more important to keep communications flows and avoid the creation of suspicion and.

  19. Utilisation of rice residues for decentralised electricity generation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, face large challenges to achieve universal electrification. Using the case of Ghana, this study explores the role that rice residues can play to help developing countries meet their electrification needs. In Ghana, Levelised Electricity Costs...

  20. All projects related to Ghana | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate change constitutes a real threat to the livelihood and well-being of the Ghanaian population. ... HEALTH STATISTICS, STATISTICAL DATA, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ... Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Flows on Poverty in Ghana. Project. Ghana will need considerable external assistance to achieve its Poverty ...

  1. Determinants of propensity of tertiary agricultural students in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to identify factors that affect the decision of tertiary agricultural students in Ghana to enter agribusiness as a self-employment venture after graduation. The results showed that tertiary agricultural students in Ghana were predominantly males with little or no farming background. They had a rather moderate ...

  2. Ghana Medical Journal - Vol 51, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Medical Journal. ... Breast cancer screening in a resource poor country: Ultrasound versus mammography · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Review of errors in the issue of medical certificates of cause of death in a tertiary hospital in Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in Ghana: The role of laboratory training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The laboratory is considered the cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) control programme. International review of Ghana's programme in the late nineties identified the laboratory services as the weakest component. Sputum smear microscopy (SSM) being the main method of diagnosing pulmonary TB in Ghana, the ...

  4. Trade Policy and Pro Poor Growth in Ghana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As in other sub-Saharan countries, small-scale subsistence farming constitutes the predominant source of livelihood in Ghana. This grant will allow the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) at the University of Ghana to assess the linkages between international trade and poverty with special ...

  5. Barriers to Sustainable MVA Supply in Ghana: Challenges for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is ideal for surgical uterine evacuation in low-resource settings such as Ghana, but developing a sustainable supply to MVA has been challenging. In 2007 a situational analysis was conducted in Ghana to identify barriers to sustainable MVA supply.

  6. Innovation platform: A tool for sustainable rice production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture plays a key role in Ghana's economy and that of sub Saharan Africa. Transforming agriculture in Ghana is key to increasing farm output, reducing poverty, ensuring environmental sustainability and reducing food insecurity. Linear transfer of technology addressing productivity, marketing and policy underlies the ...

  7. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  8. Syphilis screening practices in blood transfusion facilities in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Hassall, Oliver; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to compare laboratory practices for screening blood donors for syphilis at blood transfusion facilities in Ghana with the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the National Blood Service, Ghana (NBSG). The prevalence of syphilis a...

  9. The appraisal of mathematics teachers in Ghana | Fletcher | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the nature and existing methods of teacher appraisal in Ghana. 441 secondary mathematics teachers participated, of whom 193 teach the subject at the junior secondary level and 248 teach it at the senior secondary level. In addition, 44 Ghana Education Service Officials and 6 Heads of secondary ...

  10. The Management of Chieftaincy Records in Ghana: An Overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many developing countries like Ghana, the chieftaincy institution serves both administrative and advisory role to the government in community affairs. Using data obtained through a survey, the study examined the management of chieftaincy records in Ghana. The study revealed that chieftaincy records serve as source ...

  11. Disaster Management in Academic Libraries in Ghana | Akussah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article presents the findings of a survey of the management of disasters in academic libraries in Ghana. In the 12 academic libraries surveyed, the findings revealed varying levels of unpreparedness of most academic libraries for disasters in Ghana. The absence of purpose of recovery after disasters, the lack of disaster ...

  12. Abortion Care in Ghana: A Critical Review of the Literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research.

  13. Ghana Journal of Development Studies - Vol 6, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based Tourism and Rural Development: The Case of the Wechiau Hippo Sanctuary in the Wa West District of Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Teacher Migration and the Quality of Basic Education in the Upper West Region of Ghana · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Artisanal Mining of Gold with Mercury in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ³Department of Chemistry, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Ghana ... The paper examines the environmental impact of artisanal mining of gold ... numerous deaths resulting from the eating of Hg-contaminated fish or .... The improper use and handling of mercury can also lead to potential health.

  15. Utilisation of rice residues for decentralised electricity generation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    the average LEC of grid extension diesel mini-grids and off-grid solar systems for remote communities in Ghana. Electricity produced from husk gasification has the potential to cater to 7% of the needs of un-electrified communities in Ghana. The methodology and analysis of this study can support policymakers...

  16. Inequities in maternal and child health outcomes and interventions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zere Eyob

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the date for achieving the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs approaching fast, there is a heightened concern about equity, as inequities hamper progress towards the MDGs. Equity-focused approaches have the potential to accelerate the progress towards achieving the health-related MDGs faster than the current pace in a more cost-effective and sustainable manner. Ghana's rate of progress towards MDGs 4 and 5 related to reducing child and maternal mortality respectively is less than what is required to achieve the targets. The objective of this paper is to examine the equity dimension of child and maternal health outcomes and interventions using Ghana as a case study. Methods Data from Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 2008 report is analyzed for inequities in selected maternal and child health outcomes and interventions using population-weighted, regression-based measures: slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality. Results No statistically significant inequities are observed in infant and under-five mortality, perinatal mortality, wasting and acute respiratory infection in children. However, stunting, underweight in under-five children, anaemia in children and women, childhood diarrhoea and underweight in women (BMI Conclusion Significant Inequities are observed in many of the selected child and maternal health outcomes and interventions. Failure to address these inequities vigorously is likely to lead to non-achievement of the MDG targets related to improving child and maternal health (MDGs 4 and 5. The government should therefore give due attention to tackling inequities in health outcomes and use of interventions by implementing equity-enhancing measure both within and outside the health sector in line with the principles of Primary Health Care and the recommendations of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health.

  17. Waste electrical and electronic Equipment (E-Wastes) management in Ghana: environmental impacts at Agbogbloshie, Accra Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukure, Sampson Atiemo

    2016-07-01

    Ghana has relatively large volumes of e-wastes but inefficient recycling methods adopted by the informal sector causes both environmental contamination and potential loss of scarce metals. The control of pollution and management of e-wastes are twin challenges confronted by Ghana. The main objective of the study is to assess the extent to which the current methods employed in e-waste management in Ghana promote sound environmental management. Interviews and field observations were used to collect and collate data from key stakeholders on sustainable e-wastes management in Ghana. Soil samples were collected and analysed using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The results of the field survey revealed that there were three main method of getting e-waste into the yard; house-to-house collection, business-to-business collection and e-waste from dump sites. Majority of the scrap dealers (72%) have not received any form of training in the handling of the hazardous fractions hence do not use any personal protection equipment (PPE). There is poor awareness on the association between disease symptoms and e-waste activity however, 46% of the workers associated symptoms such as headaches, fever, stomach ache and vomiting to e-wastes activities. The challenges of the scrap dealers identified include; rampant arrests and beatings of collectors, fluctuating prices of general scraps, transportation costs, lack of access to working capital as well as ethnic, political and religious difference among the scrap dealers. The results of the elemental analysis revealed that generally the different sampling locations in the study area exhibited an overall metallic dominance pattern of SC > RD > VG > MS > CS > RS > DS > SG > BS. Lead levels registered in the in the soil samples analyzed ranged from 14.2 mg/kg to 7,020.0 mg/kg while Cd was found to be in the range of DS>SG>RS>MS>RD>CS>VF>SC. All the sampling sites showed very high

  18. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  19. Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI),Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2013/2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The report presents the structure as well as the research projects of the newly established Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission from January to December 2014. Research projects listed are in the areas of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Remote Sensing; Electronics and Instrumentation; and Satellite Communication.

  20. Human Resource Local Content in Ghana's Upstream Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benin, Papa

    Enactment of Ghana's Petroleum (Local Content and Local Participation) Regulations, 2013 (L.I. 2204) was intended to regulate the percentage of local products, personnel, financing, and goods and services rendered within Ghana's upstream petroleum industry value chain. Five years after the inception of Ghana's upstream oil and gas industry, a gap is evident between the requirements of L.I. 2204 and professional practice. Drawing on Lewin's change theory, a cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the extent of differences between the prevailing human resource local content and the requirements of L.I. 2204 in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry. The extent to which training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its upstream petroleum industry was also examined. Survey data were collected from 97 management, technical, and other staff in 2 multinational petroleum companies whose oil and gas development plans have been approved by the Petroleum Commission of Ghana. To answer the research questions and test their hypotheses, one-way ANOVA was performed with staff category (management, technical, and other) as the independent variable and prevalent local content as the dependent variable. Results indicated that prevailing local content in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry meets the requirements of L.I. 2204. Further, training acquired by indigenous Ghanaians seeking jobs in Ghana's oil fields affects the prevalent local content in its offshore petroleum industry. Findings may encourage leaders within multinational oil companies and the Petroleum Commission of Ghana to organize educational seminars that equip indigenous Ghanaians with specialized skills for working in Ghana's upstream petroleum industry.

  1. Leadership line care rounds: Application of the engage, educate, execute, and evaluate improvement model for the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, Angie; Graves, JoBeth; Johnson, Sherry; Gilliam, Craig; Gipson, Mike; Hakim, Hana

    2018-02-01

    To prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), leadership line care rounds (LLCRs) used the engage, educate, execute, and evaluate improvement model to audit compliance, identify barriers and opportunities, empower patients and families, and engage leadership. Findings of excellence and improvement opportunities were communicated to unit staff and managers. LLCRs contributed to compliance with CLABSI prevention interventions. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive Emotional Engagement and Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Brown, Brittany L.; McDonald, Nicole M.; Mattson, Whitney I.; Martin, Katherine B.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Stone, Wendy L.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Positive emotional engagement develops in the context of face-to-face interactions during the first 6 months of life. Deficits in emotional engagement are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may characterize the younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings). High-risk siblings are likely to exhibit a broad range of…

  3. Cost effectiveness of option B plus for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited countries: evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Adam; Paintsil, Elijah; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Long, Elisa F

    2015-03-18

    Achieving the goal of eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) necessitates increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Option B provides ART through pregnancy and breastfeeding, whereas Option B+ recommends continuous ART regardless of CD4 count, thus potentially reducing MTCT during future pregnancies. Our objective was to compare maternal and pediatric health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of Option B+ versus Option B in Ghana. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate HIV progression in mothers and transmission (in utero, during birth, or through breastfeeding) to current and all future children. Clinical parameters, including antenatal care access and fertility rates, were estimated from a retrospective review of 817 medical records at two hospitals in Ghana. Additional parameters were obtained from published literature. Modeled outcomes include HIV infections averted among newborn children, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness ratios. HIV-infected women in Ghana have a lifetime average of 2.3 children (SD 1.3). Projected maternal life expectancy under Option B+ is 16.1 years, versus 16.0 years with Option B, yielding a gain of 0.1 maternal QALYs and 3.2 additional QALYs per child. Despite higher initial ART costs, Option B+ costs $785/QALY gained, a value considered very cost-effective by World Health Organization benchmarks. Widespread implementation of Option B+ in Ghana could theoretically prevent up to 668 HIV infections among children annually. Cost-effectiveness estimates remained favorable over robust sensitivity analyses. Although more expensive than Option B, Option B+ substantially reduces MTCT in future pregnancies, increases both maternal and pediatric QALYs, and is a cost-effective use of limited resources in Ghana.

  4. Road accident fatality risks for "vulnerable" versus "protected" road users in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-10-03

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users. The objective of this research was to establish the relative risk of death among road users in northern Ghana. Crash data from police reports between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed for the Upper Regions of Ghana. Conditional probabilities and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to report proportions and adjusted odds ratios (AORs), respectively. Generally, crashes in northern Ghana were extremely severe; that is, 35% of all injury related collisions were fatal. The proportion of fatal casualties ranged between 21% among victims of sideswipe collisions and 41% among pedestrians and victims of rear-end collisions. Though males were 6 times more likely to die than females overall, females were more likely to die as pedestrians (90% of all female casualty deaths) and males were more likely to die as riders/drivers (78% of all male casualty deaths). Pedestrians were 3 times more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 4.1) compared with drivers/riders. Compared with drivers, the odds of death among cyclists was about 4 times higher (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6) and about 2 times higher among motorcyclists (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2). Compared with casualties aged between 30 and 59 years, children under 10 years and those aged 60 years and above were independently 2 times more likely to die in traffic collisions. Provision of requisite road infrastructure is vital

  5. Motivation and incentive preferences of community health officers in Ghana: an economic behavioral experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Sakiko; Agyekum, Enoch Oti; Shibanuma, Akira; Oduro, Abraham; Okawa, Sumiyo; Enuameh, Yeetey; Yasuoka, Junko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Gyapong, Margaret; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ansah, Evelyn; Hodgson, Abraham; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-08-22

    Health worker shortage in rural areas is one of the biggest problems of the health sector in Ghana and many developing countries. This may be due to fewer incentives and support systems available to attract and retain health workers at the rural level. This study explored the willingness of community health officers (CHOs) to accept and hold rural and community job postings in Ghana. A discrete choice experiment was used to estimate the motivation and incentive preferences of CHOs in Ghana. All CHOs working in three Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Ghana, 200 in total, were interviewed between December 2012 and January 2013. Respondents were asked to choose from choice sets of job preferences. Four mixed logit models were used for the estimation. The first model considered (a) only the main effect. The other models included interaction terms for (b) gender, (c) number of children under 5 in the household, and (d) years worked at the same community. Moreover, a choice probability simulation was performed. Mixed logit analyses of the data project a shorter time frame before study leave as the most important motivation for most CHOs (β 2.03; 95 % CI 1.69 to 2.36). This is also confirmed by the largest simulated choice probability (29.1 %). The interaction effect of the number of children was significant for education allowance for children (β 0.58; 95 % CI 0.24 to 0.93), salary increase (β 0.35; 95 % CI 0.03 to 0.67), and housing provision (β 0.16; 95 % CI -0.02 to 0.60). Male CHOs had a high affinity for early opportunity to go on study leave (β 0.78; 95 % CI -0.06 to 1.62). CHOs who had worked at the same place for a long time greatly valued salary increase (β 0.28; 95 % CI 0.09 to 0.47). To reduce health worker shortage in rural settings, policymakers could provide "needs-specific" motivational packages. They should include career development opportunities such as shorter period of work before study leave and financial policy in the

  6. Gender Disparities in Ghana National Health Insurance Claims: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Antwi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the gender disparities in Ghana national health insurance claims. In this work, data was collected from the policyholders of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. The generalized linear regression (GLR models and the SPSS version 17.0 were used for the analysis. Among men, the younger people prefer attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. In contrast to women, younger women favor attending hospital for treatment as compared to their adult counterparts. Among men, various levels of income impact greatly on their propensity to make an insurance claim, whereas among women only the highest income level did as compared to lowest income level.Men, who completed senior high school education, were less likely to make an insurance claim as compared to their counterparts with basic or no education. However it was women who had basic education that preferred using the hospital as compared to their more educated counterparts. It is suggested that the government should consider building more health centers, clinics and cheap-compounds in at least every community, to help reduce the travel time in accessing health care.  The ministry of health and the Ghana health service should engage older citizens by encouraging them to use hospitals when they are sick instead of other alternative care providers.

  7. Three cases of engaged research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise Ejgod

    2015-01-01

    frameworks for the way in which children and youngsters engage in creative practices emphasizing collective co-creation. Theoretically, the article is based on the concept of engaged scholarship (Van de Ven 2007), Practice as Research (Nelson 2013), and types of partnership (King 1998) all of which......The article is a case study of three different applied research projects analyzing and discussing the relationship between practice and research. The three projects are all arts projects occupied with participation in different forms: Theatre Talk is an audience development project conducted...... contribute to the analysis of the relationship, purpose, and outcomes of the relationship between practice and research....

  8. Development of a theory and evidence-based program to promote community treatment of fevers in children under five in a rural district in Southern Ghana: An intervention mapping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Abbey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the development and implementation of a program to promote prompt and appropriate care seeking for fever in children under the age of five. Designed as a multicomponent program, the intervention comprises elements to influence the behavior of caregivers of children, Community Health Workers, professional health care providers and the wider community. Methods Following the six fundamental steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol, we involved relevant stakeholders from the commencement of planning to program end. The IM protocol also recommends various behavior change methods to guide intervention development. Results The intervention components implemented were successful in achieving program goals. For example, the intervention resulted in the primary outcome of reductions in all-cause mortality of 30% and 44%, among children treated with an antimalarial and those treated with the antimalarial plus an antibiotic respectively. Most Community Health Workers were retained on the program, with an attrition rate of 21.2% over a period of 30 months and the Community Health Workers rate of adherence to performance guidelines was high at 94.6%. Conclusion We were able to systematically develop a theory- and evidence-based health promotion program based on the Intervention Mapping protocol. This article contributes to the response to recent calls for a more detailed description of the development of interventions and trials. The intervention mapping approach can serve as a guide for others interested in developing community- based health interventions in similar settings.

  9. Development of a theory and evidence-based program to promote community treatment of fevers in children under five in a rural district in Southern Ghana: An intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Mercy; Bartholomew, L Kay; Chinbuah, Margaret A; Gyapong, Margaret; Gyapong, John O; van den Borne, Bart

    2017-01-25

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a program to promote prompt and appropriate care seeking for fever in children under the age of five. Designed as a multicomponent program, the intervention comprises elements to influence the behavior of caregivers of children, Community Health Workers, professional health care providers and the wider community. Following the six fundamental steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol, we involved relevant stakeholders from the commencement of planning to program end. The IM protocol also recommends various behavior change methods to guide intervention development. The intervention components implemented were successful in achieving program goals. For example, the intervention resulted in the primary outcome of reductions in all-cause mortality of 30% and 44%, among children treated with an antimalarial and those treated with the antimalarial plus an antibiotic respectively. Most Community Health Workers were retained on the program, with an attrition rate of 21.2% over a period of 30 months and the Community Health Workers rate of adherence to performance guidelines was high at 94.6%. We were able to systematically develop a theory- and evidence-based health promotion program based on the Intervention Mapping protocol. This article contributes to the response to recent calls for a more detailed description of the development of interventions and trials. The intervention mapping approach can serve as a guide for others interested in developing community- based health interventions in similar settings.

  10. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Diane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33, which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI levy (part of VAT is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and

  11. Who pays for health care in Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazili, James; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Diane

    2011-06-27

    Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National

  12. Epidemiology of Hookworm Infection in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Patterns of Malaria Coinfection, Anemia, and Albendazole Treatment Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie; Mosites, Emily; Otchere, Joseph; Twum, Welbeck Amoani; Woo, Lauren; Jones-Sanpei, Hinckley; Harrison, Lisa M.; Bungiro, Richard D.; Benham-Pyle, Blair; Bimi, Langbong; Edoh, Dominic; Bosompem, Kwabena; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional pilot study of hookworm infection was carried out among 292 subjects from 62 households in Kintampo North, Ghana. The overall prevalence of hookworm infection was 45%, peaking in those 11–20 years old (58.5%). In children, risk factors for hookworm infection included coinfection with malaria and increased serum immunoglobulin G reactivity to hookworm secretory antigens. Risk factors for infection in adults included poor nutritional status, not using a latrine, not wearing shoes, and occupation (farming). Although albendazole therapy was associated with an overall egg reduction rate of 82%, 37 subjects (39%) remained infected. Among those who failed therapy, treatment was not associated with a significant reduction in egg excretion, and nearly one-third had higher counts on repeat examination. These data confirm a high prevalence of low-intensity hookworm infection in central Ghana and its association with poor nutritional status. The high rate of albendazole failure raises concern about emerging resistance. PMID:21540391

  13. Cardiovascular diseases in Ghana within the context of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Daireen

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how globalization and its elements are influencing health dynamics and in particular Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Ghana. It assesses the growing burden of CVDs and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on CVDs in Ghana. It also set out the dimensions of the relationship between CVD risk factors and globalization. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for tackling the growing burden of CVDs in Ghana. PMID:26885494

  14. The Engineering 4 Health Challenge - an interdisciplinary and intercultural initiative to foster student engagement in B.C. and improve health care for children in under-serviced communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan; Weber-Jahnke, Jens H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the Engineering 4 Health (E4H) Challenge, an interdisciplinary and intercultural initiative that, on the one hand, seeks to improve health education of children in under-serviced communities and, on the other, seeks to attract students in British Columbia to professions in engineering and health. The E4H Challenge engages high school and university students in BC to cooperatively design and develop health information and communication technology (ICT) to educate children living in under-serviced communities. The E4H Challenge works with the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) program to integrate applications for health awareness into the school programs of communities in developing countries. Although applications developed by the E4H Challenge use the low-cost, innovative XO laptop (the "$100 laptop" developed by the OLPC foundation) the software can also be used with other inexpensive hardware.

  15. Engagement states and learning from educational games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chang, Mido; Evans, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive, affective, and behavioral states of engagement enhance or impede enjoyment of, and performance with, educational games. We propose a comprehensive model of engagement states and apply it to research on educational game development and research on the role of various aspects of engagement on game play and learning. Emphasis is placed on individual differences in attention, memory, motor speed and control, persistence, and positive and negative affect (approach/avoidance), and how these pertain to social cognitions regarding mathematics achievement. Our challenge is to develop educational games that are effective for a wide variety of student engagement states. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  16. Socially responsible investment engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessling, T.; Buijter, Bas; Freeman, R.E.; Kujala, J.; Sachs, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores engagement in socially responsible investment (SRI) processes. More specifically, it researches the impact of shareholder salience on the success of engagement activities. The research question asks: What is the relationship between shareholder salience and engagement effort

  17. Prayer Camps and Biomedical Care in Ghana: Is Collaboration in Mental Health Care Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Daniel; Taylor, Lauren; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2016-01-01

    engaging with prayer camps to expand access to clinical care for patients residing in the camps. The findings demonstrate that biomedical care providers are interested in engaging with prayer camps. Key areas where partnerships may best improve conditions for patients at prayer camps include collaborating on creating safe and secure physical spaces and delivering medication for mental illness to patients living in prayer camps. However, while prayer camp staff are willing to engage biomedical knowledge, deeply held beliefs and routine practices of faith and biomedical healers are difficult to reconcile Additional discussion is needed to find the common ground on which the scarce resources for mental health care in Ghana can collaborate most effectively.

  18. Factors That Influence Enrolment and Retention in Ghana' National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoh, Agnes Millicent; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Van der Geest, Sjaak

    2017-10-17

    The government of Ghana introduced the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2004 with the goal of achieving universal coverage within 5 years. Evidence, however, shows that expanding NHIS coverage and especially retaining members have remained a challenge. A multilevel perspective was employed as a conceptual framework and methodological tool to examine why enrolment and retention in the NHIS remains low. A household survey was conducted after 20 months educational and promotional activities aimed at improving enrolment and retention rates in 15 communities in the Central and Eastern Regions (ERs) of Ghana. Observation, indepth interviews and informal conversations were used to collect qualitative data. Forty key informants (community members, health providers and district health insurance schemes' [DHISs] staff) purposely selected from two casestudy communities in the Central Region (CR) were interviewed. Several community members, health providers and DHISs' staff were also engaged in informal conversations in the other five communities in the region. Also, four staff of the Ministry of Health (MoH), Ghana Health Service (GHS) and National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) were engaged in in-depth interviews. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data was analysed using thematic content analysis. The results show that factors that influence enrolment and retention in the NHIS are multi-dimensional and cut across all stakeholders. People enrolled and renewed their membership because of NHIS' benefits and health providers' positive behaviour. Barriers to enrolment and retention included: poverty, traditional risk-sharing arrangements influence people to enrol or renew their membership only when they need healthcare, dissatisfaction about health providers' behaviour and service delivery challenges. Given the multi-dimensional nature of barriers to enrolment and retention, we suggest that the NHIA should engage DHISs, health

  19. Private healthcare provider experiences with social health insurance schemes: Findings from a qualitative study in Ghana and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Maia; Onyango, Cynthia; Suchman, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers' perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa-the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Kenya. In-depth interviews were held with providers working at 79 facilities of varying sizes in three regions of Kenya (N = 52) and three regions of Ghana (N = 27). Most providers were members of a social franchise network. Interviews covered providers' reasons for (non) enrollment in the health insurance system, their experiences with the accreditation process, and benefits and challenges with the system. Interviews were coded in Atlas.ti using an open coding approach and analyzed thematically. Most providers in Ghana were NHIS-accredited and perceived accreditation to be essential to their businesses, despite challenges they encountered due to long delays in claims reimbursement. In Kenya, fewer than half of providers were NHIF-accredited and several said that their clientele were not NHIF enrolled. Understanding of how the NHIF functioned was generally low. The lengthy and cumbersome accreditation process also emerged as a major barrier to providers' participation in the NHIF in Kenya, but the NHIS accreditation process was not a major concern for providers in Ghana. In expanding social health insurance, coordinated efforts are needed to increase coverage rates among underserved populations while also accrediting the private providers who serve those populations. Market pressure was a key force driving providers to gain and maintain accreditation

  20. Private healthcare provider experiences with social health insurance schemes: Findings from a qualitative study in Ghana and Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Maia; Onyango, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Background Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers’ perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa—the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Kenya. Methods In-depth interviews were held with providers working at 79 facilities of varying sizes in three regions of Kenya (N = 52) and three regions of Ghana (N = 27). Most providers were members of a social franchise network. Interviews covered providers’ reasons for (non) enrollment in the health insurance system, their experiences with the accreditation process, and benefits and challenges with the system. Interviews were coded in Atlas.ti using an open coding approach and analyzed thematically. Results Most providers in Ghana were NHIS-accredited and perceived accreditation to be essential to their businesses, despite challenges they encountered due to long delays in claims reimbursement. In Kenya, fewer than half of providers were NHIF-accredited and several said that their clientele were not NHIF enrolled. Understanding of how the NHIF functioned was generally low. The lengthy and cumbersome accreditation process also emerged as a major barrier to providers’ participation in the NHIF in Kenya, but the NHIS accreditation process was not a major concern for providers in Ghana. Conclusions In expanding social health insurance, coordinated efforts are needed to increase coverage rates among underserved populations while also accrediting the private providers who serve those populations. Market pressure was a key force

  1. Private healthcare provider experiences with social health insurance schemes: Findings from a qualitative study in Ghana and Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Sieverding

    Full Text Available Incorporating private healthcare providers into social health insurance schemes is an important means towards achieving universal health coverage in low and middle income countries. However, little research has been conducted about why private providers choose to participate in social health insurance systems in such contexts, or their experiences with these systems. We explored private providers' perceptions of and experiences with participation in two different social health insurance schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa-the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS in Ghana and the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF in Kenya.In-depth interviews were held with providers working at 79 facilities of varying sizes in three regions of Kenya (N = 52 and three regions of Ghana (N = 27. Most providers were members of a social franchise network. Interviews covered providers' reasons for (non enrollment in the health insurance system, their experiences with the accreditation process, and benefits and challenges with the system. Interviews were coded in Atlas.ti using an open coding approach and analyzed thematically.Most providers in Ghana were NHIS-accredited and perceived accreditation to be essential to their businesses, despite challenges they encountered due to long delays in claims reimbursement. In Kenya, fewer than half of providers were NHIF-accredited and several said that their clientele were not NHIF enrolled. Understanding of how the NHIF functioned was generally low. The lengthy and cumbersome accreditation process also emerged as a major barrier to providers' participation in the NHIF in Kenya, but the NHIS accreditation process was not a major concern for providers in Ghana.In expanding social health insurance, coordinated efforts are needed to increase coverage rates among underserved populations while also accrediting the private providers who serve those populations. Market pressure was a key force driving providers to gain and maintain

  2. Abuse of physically disabled women in Ghana: its emotional consequences and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the different forms of abuse experienced by physically disabled women in Ghana, and seeks to provide an understanding of the coping strategies used by these women. This is a qualitative inquiry based on data collected after informed consent from five female informants using in-depth interviews and focus groups. Presentation of results and discussion: The data revealed that our informants experienced social, physical/verbal and sexual abuse to which they adopt coping strategies such as help-seeking, avoidance, confrontation, confidence building and an exchange of sympathy. Disabled women in Ghana still face various forms of abuse that appear to be generally accepted because of cultural beliefs and norms, and they employ various strategies to cope with abuse and sustain their female identity. There is the need for awareness programmes at all societal levels to eradicate prejudices and practices that expose disabled women to abuse. Implications for Rehabilitation The rehabilitation of abused disabled women should include empowering processes that enable them to overcome abusive relationships. The dignity of abused disabled women can be restored by increasing their access to rehabilitation facilities. Cultural stereotypes that legitimate abuse should be addressed in efforts to rehabilitate abused, disabled women. Abused, disabled women may increase their female identity when they engage in rehabilitation processes such as networking and participation in full-time work.

  3. Engaging parents of children with and without asthma in smoking-specific parenting: Results from a 3-year randomized controlled trial evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringlever, L.; Hiemstra, J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Schayck, C.P. van; Otten, R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program targeting smoking-specific parenting in families with children with and without asthma. A total of 1398 non-smoking children (mean age 10.1) participated, of which 197 (14.1%) were diagnosed with asthma.

  4. Engaging Parents of Children with and without Asthma in Smoking-Specific Parenting: Results from a 3-Year Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringlever, Linda; Hiemstra, Marieke; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Otten, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated long-term effects of a home-based smoking prevention program targeting smoking-specific parenting in families with children with and without asthma. A total of 1398 non-smoking children ("mean age" 10.1) participated, of which 197 (14.1%) were diagnosed with asthma. Families were blinded to group assignment.…

  5. "Nothing Works!" A Case Study Using Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions to Engage Parents, Educators, and Children in the Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Eva S.; Anshel, Daphne J.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains one of the most prevalent mental health diagnoses identified in school-age children. Affected children show an increased risk for school failure, social difficulties, and the development of psychiatric comorbidities. Despite the availability of evidence-based behavioral protocols for managing…

  6. Influence of care practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children

    OpenAIRE

    Nti, Christina Antwiwaa; Lartey, Anna

    2008-01-01

    A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in the Manya Krobo District of the Eastern Region of Ghana with the objective of assessing how caregiving practices influence nutritional status of young children in Ghana. The study subjects were one hundred mothers with infants between the ages of 6 and 12 months. Each child was visited at home monthly for a period of six months. On each visit, information was collected on caregiver household and personal hygiene, child's immunization statu...

  7. Domestic violence in Ghana: an initial step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofei-aboagye, R O

    1994-01-01

    This article aims to expose the anxiety of abused women in Ghana by defining domestic violence within their culture. A survey conducted among 50 women clients of the Legal Aid Clinic of the International Federation of Women Lawyers in Ghana revealed that wife beating, to some extent, is an acceptable norm of the society. These battered women are more likely to define their experiences as a form of discipline at the hands of their husbands rather than domestic violence or wife battering. An examination of their social practices demonstrates that tradition is the most important reason why Ghanaian women accept the obvious disparity between their lifestyles and that of their male counterparts. Their traditional folk tales narrates stories about a man beating his wife to maintain law and order; while Ghanaian folk and highlife songs revolve around themes that encourage this mastery of wives and male superiority. The existence of domestic violence in all Ghanaian communities highlights the need for social reforms and substantive equality for Ghanaian women. Initial solutions include emphasis on public education, which fosters awareness and social change through women's organizations that work within communities. Once educational efforts have been established, long-term solutions such as adopting legislation to help battered women, as well as educating the police and the judiciary about domestic violence can then be integrated into Ghanaian society.

  8. Induced mutations of winged bean in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klu, G Y.P.; Quaynor-Addy, M; Dinku, E; Dikumwin, E [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon (Ghana)

    1989-07-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.) was introduced into Ghana about two decades ago and not long after a high quality baby food was compounded from it. Germplasm collections are established at the Kade Agricultural Research Station of the University of Ghana and the University of Cape Coast. In 1980 a mutation breeding project was initiated at the University of Cape Coast under FAO/IAEA research contract and among various mutants a single erect stem mutant, a multiple branched bush type and a mutant with extra long pods were obtained. A similar programme was started at the National Nuclear Research Centre Kwabenya in 1982. Seeds of accessions UPS 122 and Kade 6/16 were gamma irradiated (100-400 Gy). In M{sub 2} a mutant was obtained that did not flower throughout a growing period of five months. This mutant had very few leaves but developed an underground tuber weighing ca. 100 g. The parent, UPS 122, although normally tuber producing did not form tubers at Kwabenya within the period studied. In M{sub 3}, mutants with variations in seed size and seed coat colour have been detected.

  9. Delays in Building Construction Projects in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa B Agyakwah-Baah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causes of delay of building construction projects in Ghana to determine the most important according to the key project participants; clients, consultants, and contractors. Thirty-two possible causes of delay were identified from the literature and semi-structured interviews of 15 key players in the implementation process. These delay factors were further categorised into nine major groups. The list of delay causes was subjected to a questionnaire survey for the identification of the most important causes of delay. The field survey included 130 respondents made up of 39 contractors, 37 clients and 54 consultants. The relative importance of the individual causes and the groups were calculated and ranked by their relative importance index. The overall results of the study indicate that the respondents generally agree that financial group factors ranked highest among the major factors causing delay in construction projects in Ghana. The financial group factors were delay in honouring payment certificates, difficulty in accessing credit and fluctuation in prices. Materials group factors are second followed by scheduling and controlling factors.

  10. Neurogenomics: Challenges and opportunities for Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Karikari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of genomic tools and technologies has shown the potential to help improve healthcare and our understanding of disease mechanisms. While genomic tools are increasingly being applied to research on infectious diseases, malaria and neglected tropical diseases in Africa, an area that has seen little application of genomic approaches on this continent is neuroscience. In this article, we examined the prospects of developing neurogenomics research and its clinical use in Ghana, one of the African countries actively involved in genomics research. We noted that established international research funding sources and foundations in genomic research such as H3ABioNet nodes established at a couple of research centres in Ghana provide excellent platforms for extending the usage of genomic tools and techniques to neuroscience-related research areas. However, existing challenges such as the (i lack of degree programmes in neuroscience, genomics and bioinformatics; (ii low availability of infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists; and (iii lack of local research funding opportunities, need to be addressed. To promote and safeguard the long-term sustainability of neurogenomics research in the country, the impact of the existing challenges and possible ways of addressing them have been discussed.

  11. Childbearing and Economic Work: The Health Balance of Women in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Philippa; Hill, Allan G; Hinde, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to investigate (1) whether the health of working women with young children differs from that of working women without young children, and (2) which social factors mediate the relationship between economic and maternal role performance and health among mothers with young children. The analyses uses panel data from 697 women present in both waves of the Women's Health Study for Accra (WHSA-I and WHSA-II); a community based study of women aged 18 years and older in the Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana conducted in 2003 and 2008-2009. Change in physical and mental health between the survey waves is compared between women with a biological child alive at WHSA-II and born since WHSA-I and women without a living biological child at WHSA-II born in the interval. To account for attrition between the two survey waves selection models were used with unconditional change score models being used as the outcome model. We found in our sample of working women that those who had a child born between WHSA-I and WHSA-II who was still alive at WHSA-II did not experience a change in mental or physical health different from other women. Among working women with young children, educational status, relationship to the household head and household demography were associated with change in mental health at the 5 % level, whilst migration status and household demography was associated with change in physical health scores. The results suggest there are no health penalties of combining work and childbearing among women with young children in Accra, Ghana.

  12. Beliefs and attitudes toward Buruli ulcer in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Y; van der Graaf, WTA; Asamoa, K; van der Werf, TS

    Buruli ulcer is a devastating emerging disease in tropical countries. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained by interviewing patients with this disease and control subjects in Ghana. Common perceived causes were witchcraft and curses. Other reported causes were personal hygiene,

  13. Filial factors of kwashiorkor survival in urban Ghana: Rediscovering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected from qualitative interviews with family groups that included ... human subjects informed consent protocol and oversight of the University of Ghana, ... community health education regarding the irony of this form of malnutrition ...

  14. Housing Affordability in Ghana: A focus on Kumasi and Tamale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Department of Real ... affordable housing delivery system in Ghana. It found that ... markets; and hence has a significant impact on .... housing projects during this era were the ...... Table 4: Construction Materials in Kumasi and Tamale, 2010.

  15. Utilization of HIV Testing and Counseling in Ghana: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of HIV Testing and Counseling in Ghana: Implications for Universal Coverage. ... HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is a gateway to all systems of AIDS-related care. This study examined ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  16. Quality of Artesunate Tablets Sold in Pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    rate of disintegration in aqueous medium. Colorimetric ... countries. In Ghana, artesunate-amodiaquine is the ACT of choice2. The cure rate ... authenticity of artemisinin products in the market and ... and the development of drug resistance. The.

  17. The Impact of Globalization on The Arts in Contemporary Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mcbee

    in the cultural life of the average Ghanaian is excep- tionally high ... Ghana has experienced tremendous growth in education, health ..... The advantages of English as the country's offi- cial language .... (ICT), the internet and global trading.

  18. Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana. ... four main motivations of tourists who visited the park, namely adventure, education, ... Park were influenced by varied combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.

  19. Pesticide registration, distribution and use practices in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwona Kwakye, Michael; Mengistie, Belay; Ofosu-Anim, John; Nuer, Alexander Tetteh K.; Den Brink, van Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Ghana has implemented regulation on the registration, distribution and usage of pesticides in order to evaluate their environmental and human health effects. However, environmental monitoring and certified laboratories for pesticide analysis are lacking. Pesticide misuse, misapplication,

  20. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission : at a glance. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The brochure provides a brief history of the establishment and functions of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. It also provides information on the structure, facilities and activities of existing research institutes and centres