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Sample records for geysers steam field

  1. Analysis of Injection-Induced Micro-Earthquakes in a Geothermal Steam Reservoir, The Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2008-05-15

    In this study we analyze relative contributions to the cause and mechanism of injection-induced micro-earthquakes (MEQs) at The Geysers geothermal field, California. We estimated the potential for inducing seismicity by coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical analysis of the geothermal steam production and cold water injection to calculate changes in stress (in time and space) and investigated if those changes could induce a rock mechanical failure and associated MEQs. An important aspect of the analysis is the concept of a rock mass that is critically stressed for shear failure. This means that shear stress in the region is near the rock-mass frictional strength, and therefore very small perturbations of the stress field can trigger an MEQ. Our analysis shows that the most important cause for injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers is cooling and associated thermal-elastic shrinkage of the rock around the injected fluid that changes the stress state in such a way that mechanical failure and seismicity can be induced. Specifically, the cooling shrinkage results in unloading and associated loss of shear strength in critically shear-stressed fractures, which are then reactivated. Thus, our analysis shows that cooling-induced shear slip along fractures is the dominant mechanism of injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers.

  2. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Enedy

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant

  3. The Geysers Geothermal Field Update1990/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, P.; Lippmann, M.; Dobson, P.F.; Poux, B.

    2010-10-01

    view across all technical fields, as related to The Geysers steam-dominated geothermal system. The Geysers has seen many fundamental changes between 1990-2010 and yet the geothermal resource seems still to be robust to the extent that, long after its anticipated life span, we are seeing new geothermal projects being developed on the north and west peripheries of the field. It is hoped that this report provides a focused data source particularly for those just starting their geothermal careers, as well as those who have been involved in the interesting and challenging field of geothermal energy for many years. Despite many hurdles The Geysers has continued to generate electrical power for 50 years and its sustainability has exceeded many early researchers expectations. It also seems probable that, with the new projects described above, generation will continue for many years to come. The success of The Geysers is due to the technical skills and the financial acumen of many people, not only over the period covered by this report (1990-2010), but since the first kilowatt of power was generated in 1960. This Special Report celebrates those 50 years of geothermal development at The Geysers and attempts to document the activities that have brought success to the project so that a permanent record can be maintained. It is strongly hoped and believed that a publication similar to this one will be necessary in another 20 years to document further activities in the field.

  4. A Feasibility Study of H{sub 2}S Abatement by Incineration of Noncondensable Gases in Vented Steam Flow from Davies-State 5206-1 Geothermal Steam Well, Geysers Geothermal Steam Field, Lake County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-08-25

    Determine feasibility of using an incineration-type device to accomplish the required reduction in vent steam H{sub 2}S content to meet ICAPCO rules. This approach is to be the only method considered in this feasibility study.

  5. Video Observations Inside Channels of Erupting Geysers, Geyser Valley, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, A.; Belousova, M.; Nechaev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Geysers are a variety of hot springs characterized by violent ejections of water and steam separated by periods of repose. While ordinary boiling springs are numerous and occur in many places on Earth, geysers are very rare. In total, less than 1000 geysers are known worldwide, and most of them are located in three large geyser fields: Yellowstone (USA), Geyser Valley (Russia), and El Tatio (Chile). Several physical models were suggested to explain periodic eruptions of geysers, but realistic understanding of processes was hampered by the scarcity of field data on the internal plumbing of geyser systems. Here we present data based on video observations of interior conduit systems for geysers in Geyser Valley in Kamchatka, Russia. To investigate geyser plumbing systems we lowered a video camera (with thermal and water insulation) into the conduits of four erupting geysers. These included Velikan and Bolshoy, the largest geysers in the field, ejecting about 20 and 15 cub.m of water to heights of 25 and 15 m, respectively, with rather stable periods of approximately 5 h and 1 h. We also investigated Vanna and Kovarny, small geysers with irregular regimes, ejecting about ten liters of water to heights as much as 1.5 m, with periods of several minutes. The video footage reveals internal plumbing geometries and hydrodynamic processes that contradict the widely accepted "simple vertical conduit model", which regards geyser eruptions as caused by flashing of superheated water into steam. In contrast, our data fit the long-neglected "boiler model", in which steam accumulates in an underground cavity (boiler) and periodically erupts out through a water-filled, inverted siphon. We describe the physical rationale and conditions for the periodic discharge of steam from a boiler. Channels of the studied geysers are developed by ascending hot water in deposits of several voluminous prehistoric landslides (debris avalanches). The highly irregular contacts between adjacent debris

  6. Dynamics within geyser conduits, and sensitivity to environmental perturbations: insights from a periodic geyser in the El Tatio Geyser Field, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Saez, Carolina; Manga, Michael; Hurwitz, Shaul; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Namiki, Atsuko; Wang, Chi-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than 200 years of scientific study, the internal dynamics of geyser systems remain poorly characterized. As a consequence, there remain fundamental questions about what processes initiate and terminate eruptions, and where eruptions begin. Over a one-week period in October 2012, we collected down-hole measurements of pressure and temperature in the conduit of an exceptionally regular geyser (132 s/cycle) located in the Chilean desert. We identified four stages in the geyser cycle: (1) recharge of water into the conduit after an eruption, driven by the pressure difference between water in the conduit and in a deeper reservoir; (2) a pre-eruptive stage that follows the recharge and is dominated by addition of steam from below; (3) the eruption, which occurs by rapid boiling of a large mass of water at the top of the water column, and decompression that propagates boiling conditions downward; (4) a relaxation stage during which pressure and temperature decrease until conditions preceding the recharge stage are restored. Eruptions are triggered by the episodic addition of steam coming from depth, suggesting that the dynamics of the eruptions are dominated by geometrical and thermodynamic complexities in the conduit and reservoir. Further evidence favoring the dominance of internal processes in controlling periodicity is also provided by the absence of responses of the geyser to environmental perturbations (air pressure, temperature and probably also Earth tides).

  7. Infrasound characterization of some Yellowstone geysers' eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada-Reyes, A.; Johnson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Geysers are springs that intermittently erupt hot water and steam. As with volcanoes, infrasonic airwaves produced by different geysers provide information about the processes that occur near the nozzle, such as the amount of fluid released during eruptive episodes. The aim of this study was to investigate acoustic sources from different geyser behaviors observed at Lone Star, Sawmill and Great Fountain geysers, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Acoustic signal were measured by arrays of microphones deployed around Lone Star and Great Fountain geysers between August 9th to 14th, 2011, and during one hour on August 16th, 2011 at Sawmill Geyser. Infrasound was analyzed with coincident video recordings to quantify and compare the pressure fields generated during explosive phases at the three geysers. We propose that the periodic infrasound recorded at Sawmill, and dominated by energy at 1 to 40 Hz, is generated by: 1) steam-filled bubble oscillations, and 2) subsequent bursting at the free surface resulting in a violent steam and water discharge. At Lone Star geyser, where ~18 m/s eruption jets endure for about 30 minutes, sound is dominated by higher frequency infrasound and audio-band signal evolving from 20 - 60 Hz to 40 - 85 Hz. We suggest that the infrasound tremor amplitudes are related to the transition of the erupted two-phase mixture from mostly water (low acoustic radiation) to steam (high acoustic radiation). At Great Fountain we observed three explosive bursts of water and steam during the last stage on the August 11 eruption with bi-modal infrasound pulses of up to 0.7 Pa-m. We model these pulses as volumetric sound sources and infer up to 32 m3 of fluid ejection. The variety of recordings reflect the variety of eruption mechanisms at the different geyser systems. Better understanding of the mechanisms of geyser infrasound radiation may help us to understand infrasound analogues at erupting silicic volcanoes, which are considerably more difficult to

  8. Three-dimensional numerical reservoir simulation of the EGS Demonstration Project at The Geysers geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Andrea; Rutqvist, Jonny; Oldenburg, Curt M.; Hutchings, Lawrence; Garcia, Julio; Walters, Mark; Hartline, Craig; Jeanne, Pierre; Dobson, Patrick; Boyle, Katie

    2013-04-01

    The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration Project, currently underway at the Northwest Geysers, California, aims to demonstrate the feasibility of stimulating a deep high-temperature reservoir (up to 400 °C) through water injection over a 2-year period. On October 6, 2011, injection of 25 l/s started from the Prati 32 well at a depth interval of 1850-2699 m below sea level. After a period of almost 2 months, the injection rate was raised to 63 l/s. The flow rate was then decreased to 44 l/s after an additional 3.5 months and maintained at 25 l/s up to August 20, 2012. Significant well-head pressure changes were recorded at Prati State 31 well, which is separated from Prati 32 by about 500 m at reservoir level. More subdued pressure increases occur at greater distances. The water injection caused induced seismicity in the reservoir in the vicinity of the well. Microseismic monitoring and interpretation shows that the cloud of seismic events is mainly located in the granitic intrusion below the injection zone, forming a cluster elongated SSE-NNW (azimuth 170°) that dips steeply to the west. In general, the magnitude of the events increases with depth and the hypocenter depth increases with time. This seismic cloud is hypothesized to correlate with enhanced permeability in the high-temperature reservoir and its variation with time. Based on the existing borehole data, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional (3D) geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes, from the top down, a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (known as the normal temperature reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (where the high-temperature reservoir is located), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. We then map this model onto a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH2 multiphase, multicomponent, non

  9. Testing for the ‘predictability’ of dynamically triggered earthquakes in Geysers Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Chastity; Meng, Xiaofeng; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2018-01-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is well known for being susceptible to dynamic triggering of earthquakes by large distant earthquakes, owing to the introduction of fluids for energy production. Yet, it is unknown if dynamic triggering of earthquakes is ‘predictable’ or whether dynamic triggering could lead to a potential hazard for energy production. In this paper, our goal is to investigate the characteristics of triggering and the physical conditions that promote triggering to determine whether or not triggering is in anyway foreseeable. We find that, at present, triggering in The Geysers is not easily ‘predictable’ in terms of when and where based on observable physical conditions. However, triggered earthquake magnitude positively correlates with peak imparted dynamic stress, and larger dynamic stresses tend to trigger sequences similar to mainshock–aftershock sequences. Thus, we may be able to ‘predict’ what size earthquakes to expect at The Geysers following a large distant earthquake.

  10. Testing for the 'predictability' of dynamically triggered earthquakes in The Geysers geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Chastity; Meng, Xiaofeng; Hardebeck, Jeanne

    2018-03-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is well known for being susceptible to dynamic triggering of earthquakes by large distant earthquakes, owing to the introduction of fluids for energy production. Yet, it is unknown if dynamic triggering of earthquakes is 'predictable' or whether dynamic triggering could lead to a potential hazard for energy production. In this paper, our goal is to investigate the characteristics of triggering and the physical conditions that promote triggering to determine whether or not triggering is in anyway foreseeable. We find that, at present, triggering in The Geysers is not easily 'predictable' in terms of when and where based on observable physical conditions. However, triggered earthquake magnitude positively correlates with peak imparted dynamic stress, and larger dynamic stresses tend to trigger sequences similar to mainshock-aftershock sequences. Thus, we may be able to 'predict' what size earthquakes to expect at The Geysers following a large distant earthquake.

  11. Observing and Modeling Temporal Variations of Seismic Velocities at the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, V. H.; Tsai, V. C.; Taira, T.

    2016-12-01

    Perturbations in subsurface elastic parameters induce changes in seismic velocity. To understand the stress perturbations due to geothermal operation, we apply seismic noise interferometry to examine the temporal variations of seismic velocity (dv/v) at the Geysers Geothermal Field, California. Our observations show a strong positive correlation between dv/v and net production (steam production minus fluid injection), and a strong negative correlation between dv/v and fluid injection. Notably, there is little time lag (less than a month) between dv/v and fluid injection in the SE region of the field, suggesting a rapid response in elastic properties in this highly saturated region. The influx of fluid decreases the effective shear modulus, which in turn decreases the velocities. A number of hypotheses have been suggested to cause stress perturbations in the field, including poroelastic-induced stresses, direct elastic loading and thermoelastic-induced stresses. We perform a 1-D hydrological simulation to calculate the expected variations in dv/v due to different stresses by considering Murnaghan's theory of finite deformations and the third-order terms in the strain energy function. The synthetic dv/v measurements are spatially averaged based on computed sensitivity kernels, allowing for direct comparison with both the amplitude and phase of dv/v observations. We show the order-of-magnitude effect that each of the stresses have on the dv/v measurement, and explore the possibility of using dv/v to constrain important hydrological and elastic properties such as hydraulic conductivity in the field.

  12. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Volcanology and Seismology, the new lake appears to be stable and draining gradually through the earthen dam, alleviating fears of a catastrophic flood. Should the new lake drain enough, many of the inundated geysers may restart. Initial reports from the Volcanology and Seismology Institute state this has already happened for some geysers. Geysers outside of the slide region, including the Velikan (Giant) Geyser and a major section of the geyser field known as Vitrazh (Stained Glass) appear to have escaped damage. In addition to destroying a number of geysers, the landslide may have damaged habitats in the Valley of the Geysers. The thermal waters and heated steam jets made this valley warmer than the surrounding landscape, and the warmth supported a unique ecosystem. The loss of a large part of its heat source may alter the ecosystem, but it is not clear what additional longer-term changes might occur. For example, salmon that spawn in the Geyser River will be confined to the lower reaches of the river, and bears, which depended on salmon, will need to shift feeding grounds correspondingly. Thanks to Sergey Chernomorets and Boris Yurchak for information and translation. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  13. Partitioning geochemistry of arsenic and antimony, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, J.T. [Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Bennett, P.C., E-mail: pbennett@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Engel, A.S. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Alsina, M.A.; Pasten, P.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Milliken, K. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The abundance of As and Sb in aqueous, mineral and biological reservoirs was examined at El Tatio Geyser Field, a unique hydrothermal basin located in the Atacama Desert region of Chile. Here the concentration of total As and Sb in hydrothermal springs and discharge streams are the highest reported for a natural surface water, and the geyser basin represents a significant source of toxic elements for downstream users across Region II, Chile. The geyser waters are near neutral Na:Cl type with {approx}0.45 and 0.021 mmol L{sup -1} total As and Sb, respectively, primarily in the reduced (III) redox state at the discharge with progressive oxidation downstream. The ferric oxyhydroxides associated with the microbial mats and some mineral precipitates accumulate substantial As that was identified as arsenate by XAS analysis (>10 wt% in the mats). This As is easily mobilized by anion exchange or mild dissolution of the HFO, and the ubiquitous microbial mats represent a significant reservoir of As in this system. Antimony, in contrast, is not associated with the mineral ferric oxides or the biomats, but is substantially enriched in the silica matrix of the geyserite precipitates, up to 2 wt% as Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Understanding the mobility and partitioning behavior of these metalloids is critical for understanding their eventual impact on regional water management.

  14. Integrated modeling and field study of potential mechanisms forinduced seismicity at The Geysers Goethermal Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Majer, Ernie; Oldenburg, Curt; Peterson, John; Vasco, Don

    2006-06-07

    In this paper, we present progress made in a study aimed atincreasing the understanding of the relative contributions of differentmechanisms that may be causing the seismicity occurring at The Geysersgeothermal field, California. The approach we take is to integrate: (1)coupled reservoir geomechanical numerical modeling, (2) data fromrecently upgraded and expanded NCPA/Calpine/LBNL seismic arrays, and (3)tens of years of archival InSAR data from monthly satellite passes. Wehave conducted a coupled reservoir geomechanical analysis to studypotential mechanisms induced by steam production. Our simulation resultscorroborate co-locations of hypocenter field observations of inducedseismicity and their correlation with steam production as reported in theliterature. Seismic and InSAR data are being collected and processed foruse in constraining the coupled reservoir geomechanicalmodel.

  15. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  16. Geologic research at the Geysers -- 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.

    1997-12-31

    In response to the onset of field-wide pressure declines at The Geysers geothermal field in northern California the Department of Energy`s Geothermal Division in 1990 inaugurated sponsorship of a dedicated, multiyear research effort designed to mitigate the pressure drop and to allow steamfield operators to make more informed forecasts of steam supply and quality well into the 21st century. EGI and its predecessor, the University of Utah Research Institute, have from the onset been key participants in this important research effort. For example, utilizing fluid-inclusion and stable-isotopic methods, deciphered the field`s intricate magmatic-hydrothermal history. Hulen et al. (1991, 1992) and Hulen and Nielson (1995a) identified major textural and mineralogic differences between the productive steam reservoir and its relatively impermeable caprock.

  17. A comparison of long-term changes in seismicity at The Geysers, Salton Sea, and Coso geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trugman, Daniel T.; Shearer, Peter M.; Borsa, Adrian A.; Fialko, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is an important source of renewable energy, yet its production is known to induce seismicity. Here we analyze seismicity at the three largest geothermal fields in California: The Geysers, Salton Sea, and Coso. We focus on resolving the temporal evolution of seismicity rates, which provides important observational constraints on how geothermal fields respond to natural and anthropogenic loading. We develop an iterative, regularized inversion procedure to partition the observed seismicity rate into two components: (1) the interaction rate due to earthquake-earthquake triggering and (2) the smoothly varying background rate controlled by other time-dependent stresses, including anthropogenic forcing. We apply our methodology to compare long-term changes in seismicity to monthly records of fluid injection and withdrawal. At The Geysers, we find that the background seismicity rate is highly correlated with fluid injection, with the mean rate increasing by approximately 50% and exhibiting strong seasonal fluctuations following construction of the Santa Rosa pipeline in 2003. In contrast, at both Salton Sea and Coso, the background seismicity rate has remained relatively stable since 1990, though both experience short-term rate fluctuations that are not obviously modulated by geothermal plant operation. We also observe significant temporal variations in Gutenberg-Richter b value, earthquake magnitude distribution, and earthquake depth distribution, providing further evidence for the dynamic evolution of stresses within these fields. The differing field-wide responses to fluid injection and withdrawal may reflect differences in in situ reservoir conditions and local tectonics, suggesting that a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic stressing controls seismicity within California's geothermal fields.

  18. Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project, Northwest Geysers, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Mark A.

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of the Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project was to drill, test, and confirm the present economic viability of the undeveloped geothermal reservoir in the 870 acre Caldwell Ranch area of the Northwest Geysers that included the CCPA No.1 steam field. All of the drilling, logging, and sampling challenges were met. Three abandoned wells, Prati 5, Prati 14 and Prati 38 were re-opened and recompleted to nominal depths of 10,000 feet in 2010. Two of the wells required sidetracking. The flow tests indicated Prati 5 Sidetrack 1 (P-5 St1), Prati 14 (P-14) and Prati 38 Sidetrack 2 (P-38 St2) were collectively capable of initially producing an equivalent of 12 megawatts (MWe) of steam using a conversion rate of 19,000 pounds of steam/hour

  19. Water adsorption at high temperature on core samples from The Geysers geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1998-06-01

    The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three wells located in The Geysers geothermal reservoir, California, was measured at 150, 200, and 250 C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 {le} p/p{sub 0} {le} 0.98, where p{sub 0} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were performed on the same rock samples. Nitrogen or krypton adsorption and desorption isotherms at 77 K were used to obtain BET specific surface areas, pore volumes and their distributions with respect to pore sizes. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A qualitative correlation was found between the surface properties obtained from nitrogen adsorption and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids. However, there is in general no proportionality between BET specific surface areas and the capacity of the rocks for water adsorption at high temperatures. The results indicate that multilayer adsorption rather than capillary condensation is the dominant water storage mechanism at high temperatures.

  20. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  1. Empirical Green's tensor retrieved from ambient noise cross-correlations at The Geysers geothermal field, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Avinash; Taira, Taka'aki; Dreger, Douglas S.; Gritto, Roland

    2018-04-01

    We retrieve empirical Green's functions in the frequency range (˜0.2-0.9 Hz) for interstation distances ranging from ˜1 to ˜30 km (˜0.22 to ˜6.5 times the wavelength) at The Geysers geothermal field, Northern California, from coherency of ambient seismic noise being recorded by a variety of sensors (broad-band, short-period surface and borehole sensors, and one accelerometer). The applied methodology preserves the intercomponent relative amplitudes of the nine-component Green's tensor that allows us to directly compare noise-derived Green's functions (NGFs) with normalized displacement waveforms of complete single-force synthetic Green's functions (SGFs) computed with various 1-D and 3-D velocity models using the frequency-wavenumber integration method and a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation method, respectively. These comparisons provide an effective means of evaluating the suitability of different velocity models to different regions of The Geysers, and assessing the quality of the sensors and the NGFs. In the T-Tangential, R-Radial, Z-Vertical reference frame, the TT, RR, RZ, ZR and ZZ components (first component: force direction, second component: response direction) of NGFs show clear surface waves and even body-wave phases for many station pairs. They are also broadly consistent in phase and intercomponent relative amplitudes with SGFs for the known local seismic velocity structure that was derived primarily from body-wave traveltime tomography, even at interstation distances less than one wavelength. We also find anomalous large amplitudes in TR, TZ, RT and ZT components of NGFs at small interstation distances (≲4 km) that can be attributed to ˜10°-30° sensor misalignments at many stations inferred from analysis of longer period teleseismic waveforms. After correcting for sensor misalignments, significant residual amplitudes in these components for some longer interstation distance (≳8 km) paths are better reproduced by the 3-D velocity

  2. Preservation of the Rotorua geysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allia, R.G.; Lumb, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the preservation of the Rotorua Geysers the geothermal activity at Rotorua, New Zealand, which has always been noted for its special cultural, tourist, and scientific values. A gradual increase in the drawoff of geothermal fluid through wells since the 1950s raised national concerns in the early 1980s when spring and geyser activity significantly declined. A government-funded monitoring program began in 1982 to establish the rate and cause of the decline in activity, as well as the magnitude of the drawoff. No new wells were permitted within 1.5 km of the geyser area. By late 1985, the monitoring program confirmed that drawdown of the geothermal field was linked to the drawoff by geothermal wells. It recommended that the drawoff could be reduced by 75% by well sharing and efficiency increases. The link between well discharges and the activity of thermal decline was disputed by the Rotorua Geothermal Users Association. By late 1986, the continuing decline in field pressure was considered to be serious, so the Government recommended compulsory closure of wells within 1.5 km of the geysers, and imposed a charging policy for geothermal usage elsewhere in Rotorua. The closures were battled in the High Court, and subsequently there was also considerable local resistance and publicity to the forced entry onto private land by authorities trying to cement up wells. The combination of enforced well closures, and what was considered by some to be punitive charges for geothermal usage, resulted in an 80% reduction in geothermal well discharges by late 1989. Some of hot spring activity has returned, and geyser activity is more intense. Recently, some residents have been concerned that cooled former thermal areas near houses may be heating up again, and that the well closures have also caused a dangerous build up in gas pressure near surface. This claim is presently being investigated

  3. Characterizing Fractures in Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sammis, Charles [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sahimi, Mohammad [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Okaya, David [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The ultimate objective of the project was to develop new methodologies to characterize the northwestern part of The Geysers geothermal reservoir (Sonoma County, California). The goal is to gain a better knowledge of the reservoir porosity, permeability, fracture size, fracture spacing, reservoir discontinuities (leaky barriers) and impermeable boundaries.

  4. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SERWTP) Facilities Improvement Plan and Geysers Effluent Pipeline and Effluent Injection Project are proposed as a plan to provide expanded wastewater treatment capabilities and to dispose of the effluent by injection in The Geysers geothermal field for purposes of power production. The project is located predominantly in the County of Lake, California, and also in part of Sonoma County. The plan includes various conventional facilities improvements in wastewater treatment to a secondary level of treatment at the SWERWTP. The plan includes facilities to convey the treated effluent in a 26-mile, 24-inch inside diameter pipeline to the Southeast Geysers. The wastewater from the SERWTP would be supplemented by raw lake water diverted from nearby Clear Lake. At The Geysers, the effluent would be directed into a system of distribution lines to wells. In the geothermal reservoir, the water will be converted to steam and collected in production wells that will direct the steam to six existing power plants. This document is a summary of a combined full Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIR/EIS describes the environmental impacts of the various components of the project. Mitigation measures are suggested for reducing impacts to a less than significant level

  5. Geysering in boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien [Japan NUS Corp. Ltd., Toyko (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  6. Cumulative impacts study of The Geysers KGRA: public-service impacts of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1982-05-01

    Geothermal development in The Geysers KGRA has affected local public services and fiscal resources in Sonoma, Lake, Mendocino, and Napa counties. Each of these counties underwent rapid population growth between 1970 and 1980, some of which can be attributed to geothermal development. The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in The Geysers is identified. Using three different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in The Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdictions are examined and compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed, and a framework is presented for calculating mitigation costs per unit of public service.

  7. Geyser Decline and Extinction in New Zealand—Energy Development Impacts and Implications for Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Kenneth A.

    2007-06-01

    Geysers are rare natural phenomena that represent increasingly important recreation, economic, and scientific resources. The features of geyser basins, including hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles, are easily damaged by human development. In New Zealand, the extinction of more than 100 geysers provides important lessons for the environmental management of the world’s remaining geyser basins. The impacts on New Zealand’s geysers are described in sequential “phases,” including the following: the first use of geothermal resources by the indigenous people—the Maori; early European-style tourism and spa development; streamside geyser decline caused by river level modification at the Spa geyser basin; multiple geyser basin extinctions caused by industrial-scale geothermal well withdrawal at Wairakei; the drowning of geysers at Orakeikorako after the filling of a hydroelectric reservoir; and geyser decline caused by geothermal well heating systems in Rotorua City. The crisis in Rotorua prompted preservation of the few remaining geysers at Whakarewarewa—the last major geyser basin in New Zealand. The New Zealand government ordered the geothermal wells within 1.5 km of Pohutu Geyser, Whakarewarewa, to be closed, which was a locally controversial measure. The well closure program resulted in a partial recovery of the Rotorua geothermal reservoir, but no extinct geysers recovered. The implications of recent geothermal computer modeling and future planning are discussed. The New Zealand case suggests that the protection of geysers requires strong regulations that prevent incompatible development at the outset, a prescription that is especially relevant for the future management of the geothermal fields adjacent to the geyser basins of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.

  8. A Multi-Method Experiment to Investigate Geyser Dynamics: Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, S.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Johnston, M. J.; Sohn, R. A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rudolph, M. L.; Murphy, F.; McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Soule, S. A.; Pontbriand, C.; Meertens, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Geysers are intermittently discharging hot springs that are driven by steam and non-condensable gas. They provide unique opportunities to study multiphase eruption processes and the geophysical signals they induce. In September 2010 we carried out a four-day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park. The geyser is located about 5 km SSE of Old Faithful Geyser and 75 m north of the Upper Firehole River. Lone Star is a cone geyser that was selected for the experiment because it is isolated from other geysers, its eruptions are vigorous and voluminous, and its eruption intervals are relatively constant and predictable, occurring approximately every 3 hours. We made measurements during 32 eruption cycles using a suite of instruments including a broadband seismometer, 2 microphones, 5 platform tiltmeters, 3 collimating InfraRed sensors, 2 gravimeters, 2 self-potential sensors, 2 Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) scanners, a Forward Looking InfraRed (FLIR) camera, high-speed video cameras, and stream gauging. We also integrated meteorological data from nearby weather stations. The large dataset acquired during the experiment allows for the detection of a myriad of processes in the subsurface and in the erupting column at many different frequencies. The analyzed data yield new insights on multiphase eruptive processes that have implications for understanding self-organized, intermittent processes in nature that result from phase separation and localized input of energy and mass. The geophysical signals recorded during the experiment allow comparison with signals recorded in more complex volcanic systems where gas-driven and magma-driven processes are often hard to distinguish.

  9. A Comprehensive Study of Fracture Patterns and Densities in The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir Using Microearthquake Shear-Wave Splitting Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter E. Malin; Eylon Shalev; Min Lou; Silas M. Simiyu; Anastasia Stroujkova; Windy McCausland

    2004-02-24

    In this project we developed a method for using seismic S-wave data to map the patterns and densities of sub-surface fractures in the NW Geysers Geothermal Field/ (1) This project adds to both the general methods needed to characterize the geothermal production fractures that supply steam for power generation and to the specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. (2)By locating zones of high fracture density it will be possible to reduce the cost of geothermal power development with the targeting of high production geothermal wells. (3) The results of the project having been transferred to both US based and international geothermal research and exploration agencies and concerns by several published papers and meeting presentations, and through the distribution of the data handling and other software codes we developed.

  10. Eruptions at Lone Star geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 2. Constraints on subsurface dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Sohn, Robert A.; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Manga, Michael; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Soule, S. Adam; McPhee, Darcy K.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Karlstrom, Leif; Murphy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We use seismic, tilt, lidar, thermal, and gravity data from 32 consecutive eruption cycles of Lone Star geyser in Yellowstone National Park to identify key subsurface processes throughout the geyser's eruption cycle. Previously, we described measurements and analyses associated with the geyser's erupting jet dynamics. Here we show that seismicity is dominated by hydrothermal tremor (~5–40 Hz) attributed to the nucleation and/or collapse of vapor bubbles. Water discharge during eruption preplay triggers high-amplitude tremor pulses from a back azimuth aligned with the geyser cone, but during the rest of the eruption cycle it is shifted to the east-northeast. Moreover, ~4 min period ground surface displacements recur every 26 ± 8 min and are uncorrelated with the eruption cycle. Based on these observations, we conclude that (1) the dynamical behavior of the geyser is controlled by the thermo-mechanical coupling between the geyser conduit and a laterally offset reservoir periodically filled with a highly compressible two-phase mixture, (2) liquid and steam slugs periodically ascend into the shallow crust near the geyser system inducing detectable deformation, (3) eruptions occur when the pressure decrease associated with overflow from geyser conduit during preplay triggers an unstable feedback between vapor generation (cavitation) and mass discharge, and (4) flow choking at a constriction in the conduit arrests the runaway process and increases the saturated vapor pressure in the reservoir by a factor of ~10 during eruptions.

  11. Periodic changes in effluent chemistry at cold-water geyser: Crystal geyser in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weon Shik; Watson, Z. T.; Kampman, Niko; Grundl, Tim; Graham, Jack P.; Keating, Elizabeth H.

    2017-07-01

    Crystal geyser is a CO2-driven cold-water geyser which was originally drilled in the late 1930's in Green River, Utah. Utilizing a suite of temporal groundwater sample datasets, in situ monitoring of temperature, pressure, pH and electrical conductivity from multiple field trips to Crystal geyser from 2007 to 2014, periodic trends in groundwater chemistry from the geyser effluent were identified. Based on chemical characteristics, the primary sourcing aquifers are characterized to be both the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones with a minor contribution from Paradox Formation brine. The single eruption cycle at Crystal geyser lasted over four days and was composed of four parts: Minor Eruption (mEP), Major Eruption (MEP), Aftershock Eruption (Ae) and Recharge (R). During the single eruption cycle, dissolved ionic species vary 0-44% even though the degree of changes for individual ions are different. Generally, Na+, K+, Cl- and SO42- regularly decrease at the onset and throughout the MEP. These species then increase in concentration during the mEP. Conversely, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Sr2+ increase and decrease in concentration during the MEP and mEP, respectively. The geochemical inverse modeling with PHREEQC was conducted to characterize the contribution from three end-members (Entrada Sandstone, Navajo Sandstone and Paradox Formation brine) to the resulting Crystal geyser effluent. Results of the inverse modeling showed that, during the mEP, the Navajo, Entrada and brine supplied 62-65%, 36-33% and 1-2%, respectively. During the MEP, the contribution shifted to 53-56%, 45-42% and 1-2% for the Navajo, Entrada and Paradox Formation brine, respectively. The changes in effluent characteristics further support the hypothesis by Watson et al. (2014) that the mEP and MEP are driven by different sources and mechanisms.

  12. Gravimetric monitoring of the first field-wide steam injection in a fractured carbonate field in Oman - A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.; Ditmar, P.; Vossepoel, F.; Arts, R.; Al-Kindy, F.; Klees, R.

    2015-01-01

    Gas-Oil Gravity Drainage is to be enhanced by steam injection in a highly fractured, low permeability carbonate field in Oman. Following a successful pilot, field-wide steam injection is being implemented, first of this type in the world. A dedicated monitoring program has been designed to track

  13. Hydraulic model and steam flow numerical simulation of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, pipeline network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gutiérrez, A.; Hernández, A.F.; Martínez, J.I.; Ceceñas, M.; Ovando, R.; Canchola, I.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a hydraulic model and numerical simulation results of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF) steam pipeline network are presented. Cerro Prieto is the largest water-dominant geothermal field in the world and its transportation network has 162 producing wells, connected through a network of pipelines that feeds 13 power-generating plants with an installed capacity of 720 MWe. The network is about 125 km long and has parallel high- and low-pressure networks. Prior to this study, it was suspected that steam flow stagnated or reversed from its planned direction in some segments of the network. Yet, the network complexity and extension complicated the analysis of steam transport for adequate delivery to the power plants. Thus, a hydraulic model of the steam transportation system was developed and implemented numerically using an existing simulator, which allowed the overall analysis of the network in order to quantify the pressure and energy losses as well as the steam flow direction in every part of the network. Numerical results of the high-pressure network were obtained which show that the mean relative differences between measured and simulated pressures and flowrates are less than 10%, which is considered satisfactory. Analysis of results led to the detection of areas of opportunity and to the recommendation of changes for improving steam transport. A main contribution of the present work is having simulated satisfactorily the longest (to our knowledge), and probably the most complex, steam pipeline network in the world. - Highlights: • Extensive literature review of flow models of geothermal steam gathering networks. • Hydraulic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field steam network. • Selection and validation of the employed pressure-drop model. • Numerical flow simulation of the world's largest geothermal steam gathering network. • Detailed network pressure drop analysis and mapping of steam flow distribution

  14. How Do Modern Extreme Hydrothermal Environments Inform the Identification of Martian Habitability? The Case of the El Tatio Geyser Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Roberto; Cavalazzi, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    Despite the success in knowledge gained by the Mars missions in the last two decades, the search for traces of life on Mars is still in progress. The reconstruction of (paleo-) environments on Mars have seen a dramatic increase, in particular with regard to the potentially habitable conditions, and it is now possible to recognize a significant role to subaerial hydrothermal processes. For this reason, and because the conditions of the primordial Earth - when these extreme environments had to be common - probably resembled Mars during its most suitable time to host life, research on terrestrial extreme hydrothermal habitats may assist in understanding how to recognize life on Mars. A number of geological and environmental reasons, and logistics opportunities, make the geothermal field of El Tatio, in the Chilean Andes an ideal location to study.

  15. How Do Modern Extreme Hydrothermal Environments Inform the Identification of Martian Habitability? The Case of the El Tatio Geyser Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barbieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success in knowledge gained by the Mars missions in the last two decades, the search for traces of life on Mars is still in progress. The reconstruction of (paleo- environments on Mars have seen a dramatic increase, in particular with regard to the potentially habitable conditions, and it is now possible to recognize a significant role to subaerial hydrothermal processes. For this reason, and because the conditions of the primordial Earth—when these extreme environments had to be common—probably resembled Mars during its most suitable time to host life, research on terrestrial extreme hydrothermal habitats may assist in understanding how to recognize life on Mars. A number of geological and environmental reasons, and logistics opportunities, make the geothermal field of El Tatio, in the Chilean Andes an ideal location to study.

  16. Investigation of Earthquake and Geyser Events in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park from a Nodal Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S.; Karplus, M. S.; Farrell, J.; Lin, F. C.; Smith, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    A large seismic nodal array incorporating 133 three-component, 5-Hz geophones deployed for two weeks in early November 2015 in the Upper Geyser Basin recorded earthquake and hydrothermal activity. The University of Utah, the University of Texas at El Paso, and Yellowstone National Park collaborated to deploy Fairfield Nodal ZLand 3-C geophones concentrically centered around the Old Faithful Geyser with an average station spacing of 50 m and an aperture of 1 km. The array provided a unique dataset to investigate wave propagation through various fractures and active geysers in a hydrothermal field located over the Yellowstone hotspot. The complicated sub-surface features associated with the hydrothermal field appear to impact earthquake wave propagation in the Upper Geyser Basin and to generate seismic signals. Previous work using ambient noise cross-correlation has found an intricately fractured sub-surface that provides pathways for water beneath parts of the Upper Geyser Basin that likely feed Old Faithful and other nearby geysers and hot springs. For this study, we used the data to create visualizations of local earthquake, teleseismic earthquake, and hydrothermal events as they propagate through the array. These ground motion visualizations allow observation of wave propagation through the geyser field, which may indicate the presence of anomalous structure impacting seismic velocities and attenuation. Three teleseismic events were observed in the data, two 6.9MW earthquakes that occurred off the coast of Coquimbo, Colombia 9,000km from the array and one 6.5MW near the Aleutian Islands 4,500km from the array. All three teleseismic events observed in the data exhibited strong direct P-wave arrivals and several additional phases. One local earthquake event (2.5ML) 100km from the Upper Geyser Basin was also well-recorded by the array. Time-domain spectrograms show the dominant frequencies present in the recordings of these events. The two 6.9MW earthquakes in Chile

  17. Effects of geothermal energy utilization on stream biota and water quality at The Geysers, California. Final report. [Big Sulphur, Little Sulphur, Squaw, and Pieta Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGore, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: biological studies, including fish, insects, and microbiology; stream hydrology; stream water quality, including methods and results; the contribution of tributaries to Big Sulphur Creek, including methods, results, and tributary characterization; standing water at wellheads; steam condensate quality; accidental discharges; trout spawning bed quality; major conclusions; list of references; and appendices. It is concluded that present operational practices at Geysers geothermal field do not harm the biological resources in adjacent streams. The only effects of geothermal development observed during the study were related to operational accidents. (JGB)

  18. Challenges in determining b value in the Northwest Geysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltiel, S.; Boyle, K.; Majer, E.

    2011-02-01

    Past analyses of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value in the Geysers and other geothermal settings have revealed a deviation from the assumed linear relationship in log space between magnitude and the number of earthquakes. In this study of the Northwest Geysers, we found a gently-sloping discontinuity in the b-value curve. This is especially apparent when comparing the least-squares fit (LSQ) of the curve to the fit obtained by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), a widely-respected method of analyzing magnitude-frequency relationships. This study will describe the assumptions made when using each of these two methods and will also explore how they can be used in conjunction to investigate the characteristics of the observed b-value curve. To understand whether slope-fit differences in the LSQR and MLE methods is due to physical properties of the system or due to artifacts from errors in sampling, it is extremely important to consider the catalog completeness, magnitude bin size, number of events, and differences in source mechanisms for the events comprising the study volume. This work will hopefully lead to informative interpretations of frequency-magnitude curves for the Northwest Geysers, a geothermal area of ongoing high-volume coldwater injection and steam production. Through this statistical investigation of the catalog contents, we hope to better understand the dominant source mechanisms and the role of injected fluids in the creation of seismic clustering around nearly 60 wells of varying depths and injection volumes.

  19. Comparison between field and laboratory steam oxidation testing on aluminide coatings on P92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Gutierrez, M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Ctra. Ajalvir Km 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain); Knoedler, R.; Straub, S. [Alstom Power Systems GmbH, Boveristrasse 22, 68309 Mannheim (Germany); Muelas, R. [Ingenieria y Servicios Aeroespaciales, P Pintor Rosales 34, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Steam oxidation has become an important issue for steam power plants as operating temperatures increase from the current 550 to 600-650 C. For the last 10 years several groups have been carrying out steam oxidation testing of both uncoated substrates and coatings in the laboratory. On the other hand, field testing results are very scarce. In this paper, a comparison of laboratory steam oxidation testing with field test results carried out by Alstom at the Kraftwerk Westfalen power station located in Hamm, Germany will be presented. Both slurry deposited aluminide coatings and uncoated P92 steel have been included in the study. Under steam (atmospheric pressure) and isothermal conditions in the laboratory at 650 C, spallation of oxides formed on ferritic steels occurs after significantly longer time when compared to exposure to real operating conditions. Oxide spallation results in serious damage in steam power plants by obstructing heat exchanger tubes, erosion of valves and turbine blades, etc. Moreover, the thickness of the oxide scales formed under field testing conditions is significantly higher after similar exposure. On the other hand, aluminide coated P92, which exhibit thickness through cracks, have shown to be stable in the laboratory for up to 60 000 h at 650 C under steam, without evidence of crack propagation. However, field test results indicate that some degree of crack propagation occurs but without causing substrate attack up to 21 700 h of exposure. Moreover, the aluminium oxide observed in both laboratory and field tested specimens is different. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Modeling of local steam condensation on walls in presence of non-condensable gases. Application to a loca calculation in reactor containment using the multidimensional geyser/tonus code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benet, L.V.; Caroli, C.; Cornet, P. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    This paper reports part of a study of possible severe pressurized water reactor (PWR) accidents. The need for containment modeling, and in particular for a hydrogen risk study, was reinforced in France after 1990, with the requirement that severe accidents must be taken into account in the design of future plants. This new need of assessing the transient local hydrogen concentration led to the development, in the Mechanical Engineering and Technology Department of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DMT), of the multidimensional code GEYSER/TONUS for containment analysis. A detailed example of the use of this code is presented. The mixture consisted of noncondensable gases (air or air plus hydrogen) and water vapor and liquid water. This is described by a compressible homogeneous two-phase flow model and wall condensation is based on the Chilton-Colburn formula and the analogy between heat and mass transfer. Results are given for a transient two-dimensional axially-symmetric computation for the first hour of a simplified accident sequence. In this there was an initial injection of a large amount of water vapor followed by a smaller amount and by hydrogen injection.

  1. Mechanics of Old Faithful Geyser, Calistoga, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M.L.; Manga, M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Karlstrom, L.; Wang, Chun-Yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to probe the subsurface dynamics associated with geyser eruptions, we measured ground deformation at Old Faithful Geyser of Calistoga, CA. We present a physical model in which recharge during the period preceding an eruption is driven by pressure differences relative to the aquifer supplying the geyser. The model predicts that pressure and ground deformation are characterized by an exponential function of time, consistent with our observations. The geyser's conduit is connected to a reservoir at a depth of at least 42 m, and pressure changes in the reservoir can produce the observed ground deformations through either a poroelastic or elastic mechanical model.

  2. Field test results for steam oxidation of TP347H FG - growth of inner oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jianmin, Jia; Larsen, OH

    2005-01-01

    A series of field tests have been conducted with TP347H FG in test superheater loops in coal-fired and biomass fired boilers of steam pressure 256 and 91 bar respectively. The exposure times are from 3,500 to 30,000 hours and the temperature range is from 450-630¢XC. The morphology, composition...

  3. Eruptions at Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA, part 1: energetics and eruption dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Murphy, Fred; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Manga, Michael; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2013-01-01

    Geysers provide a natural laboratory to study multiphase eruptive processes. We present results from a four–day experiment at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, USA. We simultaneously measured water discharge, acoustic emissions, infraredintensity, and visible and infrared video to quantify the energetics and dynamics of eruptions, occurring approximately every three hours. We define four phases in the eruption cycle: 1) a 28 ± 3 minute phase with liquid and steam fountaining, with maximum jet velocities of 16–28 m s− 1, steam mass fraction of less than ∼ 0.01. Intermittently choked flow and flow oscillations with periods increasing from 20 to 40 s are coincident with a decrease in jet velocity and an increase of steam fraction; 2) a 26 ± 8 minute post–eruption relaxation phase with no discharge from the vent, infrared (IR) and acoustic power oscillations gliding between 30 and 40 s; 3) a 59 ± 13 minute recharge period during which the geyser is quiescent and progressively refills, and 4) a 69 ± 14 minute pre–play period characterized by a series of 5–10 minute–long pulses of steam, small volumes of liquid water discharge and 50–70 s flow oscillations. The erupted waters ascend froma 160 − 170° C reservoir and the volume discharged during the entire eruptive cycle is 20.8 ± 4.1 m3. Assuming isentropic expansion, we calculate a heat output from the geyser of 1.4–1.5 MW, which is < 0.1% of the total heat output from Yellowstone Caldera.

  4. Preparation of a 4D seismic acquisition program for steam chambers monitoring on Petrocedeno Field in the Venezuelan Orinoco belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaux, V.; Mus, M. [Petrocedeno, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); De Pellegars, O.; Hubans, C.; Yuh, S. [Total, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Venezuelan Orinoco belt is a huge heavy oil accumulation covering an area of about 55,000 km{sup 2}. An enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot project was launched in 2006 encompassing a 30 km{sup 2} area of the Petrocedeno field in the Zuata sector of the oil belt. The recovery performances of 3 different steam assisted recovery techniques were evaluated, notably steam drive (SD), steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), and horizontal alternating steam drive (HASD). The objective was to better understand the relation between steam chambers geometry and measured oil recovery and to proactively adjust the steam injection strategy if necessary. The Petrocedeno field consists of channelized sandy reservoirs that were deposited during the Miocene period above a stiff over-compacted basement from the Cretaceous and Cambrian ages. 3D seismic was identified as a key monitoring method to understand the development of the steam chambers. A thorough feasibility study based on numerical simulations and field tests was conducted to evaluate adequate seismic acquisition technology and parameters. The study concluded that the traditional and widely used acquisition methods based on dynamite and vibro-truck seismic sources cannot properly detect the steam chamber signal in the field because of reservoir depletion that has been induced by cold production. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Temporal changes in noble gas compositions within the Aidlinsector ofThe Geysers geothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Kennedy, Mack; van Soest,Thijs; Lewicki, Jennifer

    2006-05-03

    The use of nonreactive isotopic tracers coupled to a full thermal-hydrological reservoir simulation allows for an improved method of investigating how reservoir fluids contained within matrix and fractures contribute over time to fluids produced from geothermal systems. A combined field and modeling study has been initiated to evaluate the effects of injection, production, and fracture-matrix interaction on produced noble gas contents and isotopic ratios. Gas samples collected periodically from the Aidlin steam field at The Geysers, California, between 1997 and 2006 have been analyzed for their noble gas compositions, and reveal systematic shifts in abundance and isotopic ratios over time. Because of the low concentrations of helium dissolved in the injection waters, the injectate itself has little impact on the helium isotopic composition of the reservoir fluids over time. However, the injection process may lead to fracturing of reservoir rocks and an increase in diffusion-controlled variations in noble gas compositions, related to gases derived from fluids within the rock matrix.

  6. Hideout of sea water impurities in steam generator tube deposits: laboratory and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Turner, C.W.; Thompson, R.; Sawochka, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sea water impurities hide out within thin (∼10 μm) deposits on steam generator tubes, as demonstrated by both laboratory studies using segments of fouled steam generator tubes pulled in 1992 from Crystal River-3 nuclear power station and field hideout return studies performed during recent plant shutdowns. Laboratory tests performed at 279 o C (534 o F) and heat fluxes ranging from 35 to 114 kW/m 2 (11,100 - 36,150 Btu/h.ft 2 ), conditions typical of the lower tubesheet to the first support plate region of a once-through steam generator, showed that impurity hideout can occur in thin free-span tube deposits. The extent of hideout increased with increasing heat flux. Soluble species, such as sodium and chloride ions, returned promptly to the bulk water from the deposits when the heat flux was turned off, whereas less soluble species, such as calcium sulfate and magnesium hydroxide, returned more slowly. Recent field hideout return studies performed at Crystal River-3 where the water level in the steam generators was maintained below the first tube support plate during the shutdown, thus wetting only the thin deposits in the free span and the small sludge pile, corroborate the laboratory findings, showing that hideout does indeed occur in the free-span regions of the tubes. These findings suggest that hideout within tube deposits has to be accounted for in the calculation of crevice chemistry from hideout return studies and in controlling the bulk chemistry using the molar ratio criterion. (author). 3 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Optimization of Wellhead Piping Design for Production Wells at Development of Steam-Water Geothermal Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Shulyupin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the exploitation of geothermal resources develops in a fair competition with other types of energy resources. This leads to actuality of questions which associated with the more efficient use of existing wells, because cost of their drilling is a significant share of geothermal projects. In domestic practice of development of geothermal resources the steam-water wells have greatest energy potential. One way to improve the performance of these wells is a providing of smooth change of direction of motion of steam-water mixture from the vertical, in the well, to the horizontal, in steam gathering system. Typical wellhead piping of domestic steam-water wells involves the removal of the mixture through a cross bar at a right angle. Cross bar can generate considerable pressure loss that increases the operating pressure at the mouth of the well and reduces flow rate. It seems reasonable to substitute the typical cross bar by smooth pipe bend. This reduces wellhead resistance coefficient by more than on 2. Increase of curvature radius of pipe bend reduces the pressure loss to a local resistance but increases the friction pressure loss. There is an optimal curvature radius of pipe bend for minimum pressure loss in view of a local resistance and friction in the pipe bend. Calculations have shown that the optimum value for the radius of curvature is found in the range from 1.4 to 4.5 tube internal diameters. However, for technological reasons it is recommended to choose the radius of curvature from 1.4 to 2.4 diameters. Mounting of smooth pipe bend on the wellhead can provide significant economic benefits. For Mutnovka field (Kamchatka, this effect is estimated at 17.5 million rubles in year.

  8. Dissolved gases in hydrothermal (phreatic) and geyser eruptions at Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Clor, Laura; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Hunt, Andrew G.; Evans, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphase and multicomponent fluid flow in the shallow continental crust plays a significant role in a variety of processes over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. The presence of dissolved gases in aqueous fluids reduces the liquid stability field toward lower temperatures and enhances the explosivity potential with respect to pure water. Therefore, in areas where magma is actively degassing into a hydrothermal system, gas-rich aqueous fluids can exert a major control on geothermal energy production, can be propellants in hazardous hydrothermal (phreatic) eruptions, and can modulate the dynamics of geyser eruptions. We collected pressurized samples of thermal water that preserved dissolved gases in conjunction with precise temperature measurements with depth in research well Y-7 (maximum depth of 70.1 m; casing to 31 m) and five thermal pools (maximum depth of 11.3 m) in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Based on the dissolved gas concentrations, we demonstrate that CO2 mainly derived from magma and N2 from air-saturated meteoric water reduce the near-surface saturation temperature, consistent with some previous observations in geyser conduits. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the dissolved CO2 and N2 modulate the dynamics of geyser eruptions and are likely triggers of hydrothermal eruptions when recharged into shallow reservoirs at high concentrations. Therefore, monitoring changes in gas emission rate and composition in areas with neutral and alkaline chlorine thermal features could provide important information on the natural resources (geysers) and hazards (eruptions) in these areas.

  9. Direct Measurement of the Volume of Liquid Water Emitted During Eruptions of Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F.; Hurwitz, S.; Johnston, M. J.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Pontbriand, C.; Sohn, R. A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rudolph, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    In September, 2010 a comprehensive series of instrumental observations was carried out at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park to measure changes in the geyser and its surroundings during eruptions. That project included measurements of flow in the streams that drain the geyser area. Three small streams convey liquid water from the geyser and many of the surrounding hot springs to the Firehole River, about 75 m south of the geyser cone. We developed rating curves for two of these streams by measuring channel cross-sections and timing floating markers (using stopwatches and video recordings) while simultaneously recording stream depth at two-second intervals at two locations using pressure transducers and dataloggers. We estimated the flow in the third (ungaged) stream to be 0.15 of the flow in the easternmost stream, with which it shares a source area and part of its channel. The eruption cycle takes about 3 hours, and a total of nine eruption cycles were observed. During these 3-hour cycles the geyser and the nearby hot springs deliver a total of between 15 and 28 m3 of water to the Firehole River. During the 10-20 minutes of the main phase of an eruption, the geyser delivered between 8 and 11 m3 of water to the three streams. The volume of water emitted during eruptions appears to display a significant diurnal variation which strongly correlates with air temperature, with significantly more flow during early afternoon hours. There were also significant variations in the distribution of flow between the different channels. Our calculations suggest that losses due to evaporation along the flow channels are negligible, and losses due to infiltration appear to be small. The calculated volumes of water discharge do not account for the volume of erupted steam or evaporation of liquid water from the jet. Steam discharge will be assessed using image analysis of high speed video. The calculated volumes provide accurate and important constraint for models of

  10. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  11. Steam generator waterlancing at Darlington NGS (system development and field application)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppala, D.; Malaugh, J.; Kiisel, E.; Kamler, F.

    1996-01-01

    From the initial steam generator (SG) inspections at Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS), the authors know that the sludge accumulations on the secondary side tubesheets have been minimal. DNGS is a fairly new station but the experience at the older Ontario Hydro plants have shown that significant accumulations will happen. A pro-active strategy has been adopted for maintaining SGs that will minimize corrosion product accumulation and the potential for component degradation. During the four year planned Unit maintenance outages, SGs will be inspected and waterlanced using a waterlance system designed and built by Babcock and Wilcox International. This automated state-of-the-art system also allows fully recorded inspections of the tubesheet/first half-lattice supports. Some of the key elements covered include results of the initial field application (May, 1995), system development and design, system qualification, cleaning performance, and lessons learned for future outages

  12. Steam-injection experiments for recovery of heavy crude oil of an Iranian field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaei-Nejad, S.A.R.; Shafiei, S.; Rajabzadeh, S.; Haghlesan, A. [Sahand Univ. of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-11-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of recovering heavy oil by steam injection, a thermal recovery mechanism which involves diffusion of condensed water, evaporation of light components and diffusion of steam. Steam flooding is among the oldest commercial methods for enhanced oil recovery. Experiments of steam injection into a sand pack were conducted to compare the recovery of heavy oil with an API gravity of more than 20, and a lighter oil with an API gravity of less than 20. Two different sand pack porosities were used. The experiments were performed with 4 different types of heavy oil with different API to study their influence on recovery. Steam was injected into the sand pack using different pressures during each experimental run. It was determined that the optimum steam injection pressure must be determined experimentally by saturating the core with oil and then injecting the core with saturated steam. Recovery was found to increase with increased permeability. Although the production rate increases with an increase in injection flow rate, the breakthrough time decreased. It was concluded that the rate of steam injection has a significant influence on recovery and an optimum rate exists for optimum injection flow rate. As oil gets heavier, the recovery decreases and high pressure steam must be applied. Steam injection was found to be more effective for light oil reservoirs, but the risk of fingering exists. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. An attempt to make a reliable assessment of the wet steam flow field in the de Laval nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Sławomir; Majkut, Mirosław; Smołka, Krystian; Strozik, Michał

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the wet steam flow with spontaneous condensation in the de Laval nozzle. A comparison is made between the results of numerical modelling performed for two cases of boundary conditions obtained using an in-house CFD code and the Ansys CFX commercial package. The numerical modelling results are compared to the results of experimental testing carried out on an in-house laboratory steam tunnel. The differences between the numerical results produced by the two codes in terms of place and intensity of condensations of steam to water point to the difficulty in correct modelling of this type of flows and emphasize the need for further studies in this field.

  14. The enthalpy of the heat-carrying fluids and the energy of eruption of velican geyser, Kamchatka, U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, G. S.

    1980-10-01

    The enthalphy of the heat carrying fluids liquid water or mixture of water plus steam) which feeds the biggest Kamchatka geyser, Velican is obtained from the critical quantity of heat Q critical, which is the net heat lost during the previous eruption and must be resupplied (stored) to trigger the next eruption. There are two unknowns in the heat balance equation for the geyser that cannot be determined from observations on the geyser in its natural state: critical and the enthalpy of the heat-carrying fluids Io. In order to obtain a system of two equations for unambiguous determination of these parameters, we made temporary physical changes that affected the natural interval between geyser eruptions and constructed the heat balance equations for the different regimes (i.e., natural and induced intervals). The changes in interval of Velican geyser were achieved by changing the area of its surface pool, using dams. For geysers with large surface pool areas, the heat loss from the surface (mainly through evaporation) is of the same order and sometimes larger than the losses from discharge of hot water. The change of surface pool area for Velican geyser from 12 m 2 (in natural state) to 4.5 and 36.7 m 2 in experiments leads to changes of its interval from an average of 5 hours and 35 minutes in natural state to 4 hours and 59 minutes and 8 hours and 8 minutes, respectively. From the three independent equations of heat balance we obtained three sets cf values for the enthalpy, Io and the critical energy, Q critical, which differ from each other by less than 1%: Io= 176 kcal/kg ∗, Q critical = 3.78 × 10 6 kcal. The interval between eruptions of Velican geyser tends to change linearly with vent area (within our experimental range). The range or interval values (the difference between maximal and minimal periods) also depends linearly on vent area. These two systematics are due to the facts that the increase of vent surface area causes increased heat loss by

  15. Seismic velocity structure and microearthquake source properties at The Geysers, California, geothermal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, D.R.

    1986-12-01

    The method of progressive hypocenter-velocity inversion has been extended to incorporate S-wave arrival time data and to estimate S-wave velocities in addition to P-wave velocities. S-wave data to progressive inversion does not completely eliminate hypocenter-velocity tradeoffs, but they are substantially reduced. Results of a P and S-wave progressive hypocenter-velocity inversion at The Geysers show that the top of the steam reservoir is clearly defined by a large decrease of V/sub p//V/sub s/ at the condensation zone-production zone contact. The depth interval of maximum steam production coincides with minimum observed V/sub p//V/sub s/, and V/sub p//V/sub s/ increses below the shallow primary production zone suggesting that reservoir rock becomes more fluid saturated. The moment tensor inversion method was applied to three microearthquakes at The Geysers. Estimated principal stress orientations were comparable to those estimated using P-wave firstmotions as constraints. Well constrained principal stress orientations were obtained for one event for which the 17 P-first motions could not distinguish between normal-slip and strike-slip mechanisms. The moment tensor estimates of principal stress orientations were obtained using far fewer stations than required for first-motion focal mechanism solutions. The three focal mechanisms obtained here support the hypothesis that focal mechanisms are a function of depth at The Geysers. Progressive inversion as developed here and the moment tensor inversion method provide a complete approach for determining earthquake locations, P and S-wave velocity structure, and earthquake source mechanisms.

  16. Optimum Tilt Angle of Flow Guide in Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Considering the Effect of Last Stage Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAO, Lihua; LIN, Aqiang; LI, Yong; XIAO, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Heat transfer and vacuum in condenser are influenced by the aerodynamic performance of steam turbine exhaust hood. The current research on exhaust hood is mainly focused on analyzing flow loss and optimal design of its structure without consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the front and rear parts. To better understand the aerodynamic performance influenced by the tilt angle of flow guide inside a diffuser, taking a 600 MW steam turbine as an example, a numerical simulator CFX is adopted to solve compressible three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and standard k- ɛ turbulence model. And the exhaust hood flow field influenced by different tilt angles of flow guide is investigated with consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the last stage blades and the condenser throat. The result shows that the total pressure loss coefficient and the static pressure recovery coefficient of exhaust hood change regularly and monotonously with the gradual increase of tilt angle of flow guide. When the tilt angle of flow guide is within the range of 30° to 40°, the static pressure recovery coefficient is in the range of 15.27% to 17.03% and the total pressure loss coefficient drops to approximately 51%, the aerodynamic performance of exhaust hood is significantly improved. And the effective enthalpy drop in steam turbine increases by 0.228% to 0.274%. It is feasible to obtain a reasonable title angle of flow guide by the method of coupling the last stage and the condenser throat to exhaust hood in combination of the wet steam model, which provides a practical guidance to flow guide transformation and optimal design in exhaust hood.

  17. Analysis of mitigating measures during steam/hydrogen distributions in nuclear reactor containments with the 3D field code gasflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.; Travis, J.R.; Haytcher, E.A.; Wilkening, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the recent model additions to the 3D field code GASFLOW and on validation and application analyses for steam/hydrogen transport with inclusion of mitigation measures. The results of the 3D field simulation of the HDR test E11.2 are summarized. Results from scoping analyses that simulate different modes of CO2 inertization for conditions from the HDR test T31.5 are presented. The last part discusses different ways of recombiner modeling during 3D distribution simulations and gives the results from validation calculations for the HDR recombiner test E11.8.1 and the Battelle test MC3. The results demonstrate that field code simulations with computer codes like GASFLOW are feasible today for complex containment geometries and that they are necessary for a reliable prediction of hydrogen/steam distribution and mitigation effects. (author)

  18. Inverse Modeling of the Natural State of the Geysers Valley Hydrothermal System (kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka) Preceding of the Giant Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryukhin, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    On June 3, 2007, a catastrophic Giant landslide took place in the Geysers Valley, Kamchatka. It occurred synchronously with a steam explosion and was then transformed into a debris mudflow. Within a few minutes, 20 mln m3 of rocks were shifted 2 km downstream the Geysernaya river, which created a dam with Podprudnoe lake behind, and buried more than 23 geysers. The 20-30 m deep Podprudnoe lake started to inject cold water into the remaining part of the Geysers Valley hydrothermal system. The objectives of the present study are to integrate available hydrogeological data to develop 3D thermal hydrodynamic (chemical) models to deduce a mechanism for the formation hydrothermal system and its response to changing recharge/discharge conditions after the Giant landslide of June 3, 2007, and to understand triggers of such catastrophic events to be able to forecast future ones. TOUGH2-EOS3 software was used. EOS3 (equation of state 3) module is capable of describing two-phase (liquid+gas) two-component (water+air) unsaturated zone conditions prevalent in the elevated parts of the Geysers Valley. Modeling runs were completed in order to explore the possible timing of the Geysers Valley formation. Modeling different scenarios shows, that the formation of Geysers Valley hydrothermal system took from 20,000 to 30,000 years in terms of temperature distributions and discharge flowrates, and meteoric recharge took place on the outcrops of Mt. Geysernaya rhyolite extrusion on the right bank of Geysernaya river. Model analysis shows wide high pressure two-phase zone at a depth of 150-250 m between steam vent, backing Giant landslide of June 3, 2007 and geyser Velikan, which are conditions of potential steam explosion, if steam pressure transmits to shallower levels. Inverse modeling capabilities of iTOUGH2-EOS3 were used to estimate upflow rate, reservoir permeability and productivity indexes of 39 most significant hot springs based on their flowrates data. Model parameters are

  19. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  20. Impact of water hardness on energy consumption of geyser heating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the Eskom Research, Testing, and Development Business Unit embarked on a study to examine total water hardness as a chemical parameter that may impact the power consumption of electrical geyser heating elements. An accelerated scaling method was developed to lime-scale the geyser heating elements ...

  1. New Experiences With Steam Injection From The MÜhlacker Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, T.; Koschitzky, H.-P.; Färber, A.

    A thermally enhanced remediation scheme employing steam injection has been used at a former hazardous waste disposal site near the City of Mühlacker, Germany, to remove chlorinated solvents. Finding SVE (soil vapour extraction) to be ineffective in the unsaturated soil zone, a pilot-scale project was initiated in 1999 to employ steam injection in the highly contaminated unsaturated low permeable zone 7-15 meters be- low ground surface, limited on top and bottom by very low permeable layers. After completion of the project in September 2001, approximately 2.8 tons of chlorinated hydrocarbons had been removed from the 2500 m3 target area. This project served as a pilot site in the State of Baden-Württemberg EPA (Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz, LfU) site cleanup program, which was funded through the State's "Kommunaler Alt- lastenfonds". Detailed evaluation of SVE technology had indicated that the low permeability in this soil served as a limiting factor for "cold" SVE. As a result, alternative technologies were considered and thermally enhanced SVE by steam injection was selected in 1998 to address the unsaturated zone contaminants. A 20-meter diameter, egg-shaped test- ing area was constructed at the site for pilot-scale demonstration of the steam injection process. The testing area comprised one central injection well surrounded by six ex- traction wells that could be used simultaneously for vapor and liquid extraction. Ten monitoring lances with a total of 100 temperature sensors measured subsurface tem- peratures through the soil horizon. Using a gas-fired 100 kW generator, steam was injected at a rate of up to 100 kg/hour and a pressure of up to 2.5 bars. After ten months of steam injection, nearly complete heating of the target zone had been achieved. of the 2800 kg of TCE removed, approximately 95% was extracted in the gaseous phase and the remaining part as solute in condensed water from the capillary barrier on bottom of the soil horizon. This condensed

  2. Resource, technology, and environment at the geysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weres, O.; Tsao, K.; Wood, B.

    1977-06-01

    A general review, description, and history of geothermal development at the Geysers is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on environmental impacts of development of the area. The discussion is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction; energy, enthalpy and the First Law; vapor-producing geothermal reservoirs--review and models; geothermal; entropy and the Second Law; power plants--basics; H/sub 2/S emissions; hydrogen sulfide--possible health effects and odor; other emissions; power plant hydrogen sulfide abatement; hot water based geothermal development; phytotoxicity of geothermal emissions; appendices; and bibliography. (JGB)

  3. Evaluation and field validation of Eddy-Current array probes for steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Improved Eddy-Current ISI for Steam Generator Tubing program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for inservice inspection of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification, and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC's mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report describes the design of specialized high-speed 16-coil eddy-current array probes. Both pancake and reflection coils are considered. Test results from inspections using the probes in working steam generators are given. Computer programs developed for probe calculations are also supplied

  4. Generation and evolution of hydrothermal fluids at Yellowstone: Insights from the Heart Lake Geyser Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, William C.; Hurwitz, S.

    2012-01-01

    We sampled fumaroles and hot springs from the Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB), measured water and gas discharge, and estimated heat and mass flux from this geothermal area in 2009. The combined data set reveals that diverse fluids share an origin by mixing of deep solute-rich parent water with dilute heated meteoric water, accompanied by subsequent boiling. A variety of chemical and isotopic geothermometers are consistent with a parent water that equilibrates with rocks at 205°C ± 10°C and then undergoes 21% ± 2% adiabatic boiling. Measured diffuse CO2 flux and fumarole compositions are consistent with an initial dissolved CO2 concentration of 21 ± 7 mmol upon arrival at the caldera boundary and prior to southeast flow, boiling, and discharge along the Witch Creek drainage. The calculated advective flow from the basin is 78 ± 16 L s−1 of parent thermal water, corresponding to 68 ± 14 MW, or –1% of the estimated thermal flux from Yellowstone. Helium and carbon isotopes reveal minor addition of locally derived crustal, biogenic, and meteoric gases as this fluid boils and degasses, reducing the He isotope ratio (Rc/Ra) from 2.91 to 1.09. The HLGB is one of the few thermal areas at Yellowstone that approaches a closed system, where a series of progressively boiled waters can be sampled along with related steam and noncondensable gas. At other Yellowstone locations, steam and gas are found without associated neutral Cl waters (e.g., Hot Spring Basin) or Cl-rich waters emerge without significant associated steam and gas (Upper Geyser Basin).

  5. Review on Dutch-German steam generator safety activities in the field of SNR-development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumm, K.; Westenbrugge, J.K. van

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of the experimental and theoretical safety related work for SNR steam generators in brief. A review of the operating experience with SNR-300 sodium-water heat-exchangers and protection philosophy used in SNR-2 is also given

  6. Development and field validation of advanced array probes for steam generator inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The aging of the steam generators at the nation's nuclear power plants has led to the appearance of new forms of degradation in steam generator tubes and an increase in the frequency of forced outages due to major tube leak events. The eddy-current techniques currently being used for the inspection of steam generator tubing are no longer adequate to ensure that flaws will be detected before they lead to a shutdown of the plant. To meet the need for a fast and reliable method of inspection, ORNL has designed a 16-coil eddy-current array probe which combines an inspection speed similar to that of the bobbin coil with a sensitivity to cracks of any orientation similar to the rotating pancake coil. In addition, neural network and least square methods have been developed for the automatic analysis of the data acquired with the new probes. The probes and analysis software have been tested at two working steam generators where we have found an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of a factor of five an increase in the inspection speed of a factor of 75 over the rotating pancake coil which maintaining similar detection and characterization capabilities

  7. A model for internal oscillations in geysers, with application to Old Faithful (Yellowstone, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Sohn, Robert A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a mechanical model for internal oscillations in geysers with "bubble trap" configurations, where ascending gas or vapor becomes trapped beneath the roof of a cavity that is laterally offset from the eruption conduit. We consider two cases, one in which the trapped gas behaves as an isothermal ideal gas, and one where it is treated as isenthalpic steam. In both cases the system behaves as a damped, harmonic oscillator with a resonant frequency that is sensitive to the conduit geometries and fluid volumes. We use the model to predict internal oscillation frequencies for Old Faithful geyser, in Yellowstone, USA, using conduit geometry constraints from the literature, and find that the frequencies predicted by the model are consistent with observations ( 1 Hz). We show that systematic frequency increases during the recharge cycle, when the fluid volume of the system is increasing due to recharge, are consistent with either a decrease in the amount (both volume and mass) of trapped gas or vapor, a decrease in the eruption conduit area, or a combination of both.

  8. Field experience of cleanliness inspection for secondary-side in PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xunshen

    1997-05-01

    The mechanical cleaning and TV inspection technology for secondary-side in steam generators of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant has been used for preventing the heat transfer tubes from damage caused by residues in steam generator and foreign objects. A lancing has been used for steam generators. The high-pressure jet sent from the central lane to the inside of the bundle has two objectives: (a) the mechanical energy in the jet breaks up the deposit, and (b) the particles are then carried to the periphery of the generator, where they are collected by a water circulation system. The TV inspection consists of the inspection before lancing and after lancing. The former includes the inspection of outer tube lane and central tube lane, and the extraction of foreign objects; the latter includes the inspection of inter tube area, outer tube lane and central tube lane, and the extraction of foreign objects. Video cassette are visualized by a specialist who is qualified to realize a map representative of the cleanliness state of the tubesheet, and to judge if it is or not acceptable. The TV inspection obtained a cleanliness conclusion according to acceptance criteria. So, it is important to work out cleanliness acceptance criteria suit for every operation stages. The site practices shown that after lancing, although hard deposit existed and height of hard deposit in some local place exceeded 5 mm, but the sludge remaining on tubesheet was less. If we can conduct periodic lancing to steam generator, the increase rate of hard deposit will be small. (7 refs., 12 figs.)

  9. Non-double-couple earthquake mechanisms at the Geysers Geothermal Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alwyn; Foulger, G. R.; Julian, Bruce R.

    Inverting P- and S-wave polarities and P:SH amplitude ratios using linear programming methods suggests that about 20% of earthquakes at The Geysers geothermal area have significantly non-double-couple focal mechanisms, with explosive volumetric components as large as 33% of the seismic moment. This conclusion contrasts with those of earlier studies, which interpreted data in terms of double couples. The non-double-couple mechanisms are consistent with combined shear and tensile faulting, possibly caused by industrial water injection. Implosive mechanisms, which might be expected because of rapid steam withdrawal, have not been found. Significant compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD) components in some mechanisms may indicate rapid fluid flow accompanying crack opening.

  10. Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Edwin; Orjuela, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oil field base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching recovery factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oil field's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (ODR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of software, which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project

  11. Pacific Gas and Electric Company preliminary staff review, Geysers Unit 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The existing documentation on the Geysers Unit 16 and Geysers to Lakeville transmission line projects is reviewed and data deficiencies and areas requiring clarification for filing a Notice of Intention on these projects are identified. (MHR)

  12. H2S and CO2 generation mechanisms on a steam injection project on Petrocedeno Field, Orinoco belt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzcategui, D. [PDVSA, Petrocedeno (Venezuela); Lamoureux-Var, V (IFP-Energies nouvelles (France)); Berger, E. (PDVSA Petrocedeno seconded by TOTAL (France))

    2011-07-01

    The Petrocedeno field situated in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela contains high volumes of extra heavy oil. Due to the oil's nature, the recovery factor is low and an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) Pilot Project is underway to determine how continuous steam injection techniques could improve the recovery. The aim of this paper is to present this project and the experiments carried out to study the H2S and CO2 generation. Characterization of different oil sand cores from the EOR pilot area was conducted as well as aquathermolysis experiments in IFPEn laboratories to reproduce the contact between reservoir rocks and steam. Results showed an important production of both CO2 and H2S, and determined that H2S is mainly generated by heavy oil while the matrix could be the main source for CO2 generation. This study determined the sources of H2S and CO2 generation and its results were used in the design of Petrocedeno EOR project.

  13. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS, Volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The primary focus of this environmental analysis is on improvements to the Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SRWTP) facilities and disposal to the Geysers for injection. This analysis will be incorporated with an earlier EIR which evaluated system improvements to the SRWTP and twelve disposal alternatives. In July 1993, the Lake County Sanitation District Board of Directors (LACOSAN) selected the Geysers Effluent Pipeline as the preferred alternative to be analyzed in this EIR/EIS. This environmental analysis will primarily focus on improvements to the SRWTP facilities and a 24 inch pipeline designed to carry up to 5,400 gallons per minute of secondarily treated wastewater. The wastewater will be transported from the Lake County Sanitation District's Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, Middletown Wastewater Treatment Plant with additional make-up water from Clear Lake to the Southeast portion of the Geysers Geothermal Field in Lake and Sonoma Counties, California

  14. Review on Japanese activities in the field of maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Fukuda, T.; Sato, M.; Okabayashi, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2002-01-01

    Summary of Japanese activities on maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators (SG) is described in this paper. The concept (adoption of helical coil tube etc.) of MONJU SG was established in conceptional design started from 1968, and research and development (R and D) program was prepared. Parallel with basic studies such as material, welding, sodium water reaction and etc., overall verification tests using mock up SGs were conducted. As the first step, 1 Mw SG with two active helical tubes (and eight dummy tubes) was fabricated and operated, and many maintenance and repair experiences were accumulated through two small water leak troubles. Two 50Mw SGs, 1/5 scale of MONJU SG, were constructed and operated for long time. Post test examinations were carried out for No.1 50 Mw SG and feasibility of this type of SG was confirmed. In regard to maintenance and repair techniques, explosive and welding method for tube plugging and UT and ECT techniques for inspection of tube integrity are under development. Overall verification test for on-site and in-factory maintenance and repair techniques was conducted using No.2 50Mw SG evaporator and applicability of those techniques to real plant was evaluated. Many experiences were accumulated for removal and cleaning of sodium water reaction products after sodium water reaction in the cooling system and pressure relief system, using the Large Sodium Water Reaction Test Facility (SWAT-1 and 3). (author)

  15. Evaluation and Demonstration of a Mobile Steam Applicator to Disinfest Soil in Field-grown California Strawberry and Flower Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam can effectively kill soil borne pests if soil temperatures can be raised to 70 °C for 20 min. The Ferrari Sterilter is capable of generating super heated steam to reach these temperatures within 5 to 7 min. Frontal plates on the machine allow it to thoroughly heat the soil to 30 cm depth, gran...

  16. Monitoring and Characterizing the Geysering and Seismic Activity at the Lusi Mud Eruption Site, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyono, Karyono; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Abdurrokhim, Abdurrokhim; Masturyono, Masturyono; Hadi, Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi eruption began on May 29, 2006 in the northeast of Java Island, Indonesia, and to date is still active. Lusi is a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system characterized by continuous expulsion of liquefied mud and breccias and geysering activity. Lusi is located upon the Watukosek fault system, a left lateral wrench system connecting the volcanic arc and the bakarc basin. This fault system is still periodically reactivated as shown by field data. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we conducted several types of monitoring. Based on camera observations, we characterized the Lusi erupting activity by four main behaviors occurring cyclically: (1) Regular activity, which consists in the constant emission of water and mud breccias (i.e. viscous mud containing clay, silt, sand and clasts) associated with the constant expulsion of gas (mainly aqueous vapor with minor amounts of CO2 and CH4) (2) Geysering phase with intense bubbling, consisting in reduced vapor emission and more powerful bursting events that do not seem to have a regular pattern. (3) Geysering phase with intense vapor and degassing discharge and a typically dense plume that propagates up to 100 m height. (4) Quiescent phase marking the end of the geysering activity (and the observed cycle) with no gas emissions or bursts observed. To investigate the possible seismic activity beneath Lusi and the mechanisms controlling the Lusi pulsating behaviour, we deployed a network of 5 seismic stations and a HD camera around the Lusi crater. We characterize the observed types of seismic activity as tremor and volcano-tectonic events. Lusi tremor events occur in 5-10 Hz frequency band, while volcano tectonic events are abundant in the high frequencies range from 5 Hz until 25 Hz. We coupled the seismic monitoring with the images collected with the HD camera to study the correlation between the seismic tremor and the different phases of the geysering activity. Key words: Lusi

  17. Transport phenomena and performance of a plate methanol steam micro-reformer with serpentine flow field design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chiun-Hsun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Chu, Hsin-Sen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chu-Tung, Hsin-Chu 310 (China); Yan, Wei-Mon [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-10-15

    A numerical investigation of the transport phenomena and performance of a plate methanol steam micro-reformer with serpentine flow field as a function of wall temperature, fuel ratio and Reynolds number are presented. The fuel Reynolds number and H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 3}OH molar ratio (S/C) that influence the transport phenomena and methanol conversion are explored in detail. In addition, the effects of various wall temperatures on the plates that heat the channel are also investigated. The predictions show that conduction through the wall plays a significant effect on the temperature distribution and must be considered in the modeling. The predictions also indicate that a higher wall temperature enhances the chemical reaction rate which, in turn, significantly increases the methanol conversion. The methanol conversion is also improved by decreasing the Reynolds number or increasing the S/C molar ratio. When the serpentine flow field of the channel is heated either through top plate (Y=1) or the bottom plate (Y=0), we observe a higher degree of methanol conversion for the case with top plate heating. This is due to the stronger chemical reaction for the case with top plate heating. (author)

  18. Wyle Prof H G Viljoen | Geyser | HTS Teologiese Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (1953) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Wyle Prof H G Viljoen. A S Geyser. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  19. Steam drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1978-01-01

    Steam drums are described that are suitable for use in steam generating heavy water reactor power stations. They receive a steam/water mixture via riser headers from the reactor core and provide by means of separators and driers steam with typically 0.5% moisture content for driving turbines. The drums are constructed as prestressed concrete pressure vessels in which the failure of one or a few of the prestressing elements does not significantly affect the overall strength of the structure. The concrete also acts as a radiation shield. (U.K.)

  20. Steam 80 steam generator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, W.H.; Harris, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two special instrumentation packages in an integral economizer (preheater) steam generator of one of the first System 80 plants scheduled to go into commercial operation. The purpose of the instrumentation is to obtain accurate operating information from regions of the secondary side of the steam generator inaccessible to normal plant instrumentation. In addition to verification of the System 80 steam generator design predictions, the data obtained will assist in verification of steam generator thermal/hydraulic computer codes developed for generic use in the industry

  1. Steam condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safe steam condensation by providing steam condensation blades at the end of a pipe. Constitution: When high temperature high pressure steam flows into a vent pipe having an opening under water in a pool or an exhaust pipe or the like for a main steam eacape safety valve, non-condensable gas filled beforehand in the steam exhaust pipe is compressed, and discharged into the water in the pool. The non-condensable gas thus discharged from the steam exhaust pipe is introduced into the interior of the hollow steam condensing blades, is then suitably expanded, and thereafter exhausted from a number of exhaust holes into the water in the pool. In this manner, the non-condensable gas thus discharged is not directly introduced into the water in the pool, but is suitable expanded in the space of the steam condensing blades to suppress extreme over-compression and over-expansion of the gas so as to prevent unstable pressure vibration. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Final Report: Natural State Models of The Geysers Geothermal System, Sonoma County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. H. Brikowski; D. L. Norton; D. D. Blackwell

    2001-12-31

    Final project report of natural state modeling effort for The Geysers geothermal field, California. Initial models examined the liquid-dominated state of the system, based on geologic constraints and calibrated to match observed whole rock delta-O18 isotope alteration. These models demonstrated that the early system was of generally low permeability (around 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}), with good hydraulic connectivity at depth (along the intrusive contact) and an intact caprock. Later effort in the project was directed at development of a two-phase, supercritical flow simulation package (EOS1sc) to accompany the Tough2 flow simulator. Geysers models made using this package show that ''simmering'', or the transient migration of vapor bubbles through the hydrothermal system, is the dominant transition state as the system progresses to vapor-dominated. Such a system is highly variable in space and time, making the rock record more difficult to interpret, since pressure-temperature indicators likely reflect only local, short duration conditions.

  3. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  4. Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  5. Does Geothermal Energy Production Cause Earthquakes in the Geysers Region of Northern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, K.; Bailey, C.; Sotto, M.; Yu, M.; Cohen, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Geysers region is located in Sonoma County, several hours north of San Francisco. At this location, hot magma beneath the surface heats ground water and creates steam that is used to make electricity. Since 1997, 8 billion gallons of treated wastewater have been injected into the ground, where the water becomes hot and increases the amount of thermal energy that can be produced. Frequent micro-earthquakes (up to magnitude 4.5) occur in the region and seem to be related to the geothermal energy production. The region is mostly uninhabited, except for several small towns such as Anderson Springs, where people have been extremely concerned about potential damage to their property. The energy companies are planning to double the amount of wastewater injected into the ground and to increase their energy production. Geothermal energy is important because it is better for the environment than burning coal, oil, or gas. Air and water pollution, which have negative impacts on living things, are reduced compared to power plants that generate electricity by burning fossil fuels. We have studied the frequency and magnitude of earthquakes that have occurred in the region since the early 1970s and that are occurring today. We used software to analyze the earthquakes and to look for patterns related to water injection and energy production. We are interested in exploring ways that energy production can be continued without having negative impacts on the people in the region.

  6. Chemical analyses of waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming from 1974 to 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.M.; Yadav, S.

    1979-01-01

    Waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools of Yellowstone National Park have been analyzed. We report 422 complete major ion analyses from 330 different locations of geysers, hot springs, and pools, collected from 1974 to 1978. Many of the analyses from Upper, Midway, Lower, and Norris Geyser Basin are recollections of features previously reported.

  7. Steam-Generator Integrity Program/Steam-Generator Group Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Steam Generator Integrity Program (SGIP) is a comprehensive effort addressing issues of nondestructive test (NDT) reliability, inservice inspection (ISI) requirements, and tube plugging criteria for PWR steam generators. In addition, the program has interactive research tasks relating primary side decontamination, secondary side cleaning, and proposed repair techniques to nondestructive inspectability and primary system integrity. The program has acquired a service degraded PWR steam generator for research purposes. This past year a research facility, the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), specifically designed for nondestructive and destructive examination tasks of the SGIP was completed. The Surry generator previously transported to the Hanford Reservation was then inserted into the SGEF. Nondestructive characterization of the generator from both primary and secondary sides has been initiated. Decontamination of the channelhead cold leg side was conducted. Radioactive field maps were established in the steam generator, at the generator surface and in the SGEF

  8. Evaluation of thermal performance in fields subjected to steam injection (SW-SAGD mode), Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, F.; Mago, R.; Franco, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Gil, E. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The first well to operate the SW-SAGD process in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela was built in 2006 by Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA). SW-SAGD is a thermal recovery process consisting in the injection of steam through a horizontal well pipe insulation. In order to follow the behavior of steam and the movement of heated fluids in such a process better, PDVSA installed a monitoring system composed of high temperature fiber optic and thermocouple type sensors. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal behavior of reservoirs in wells under the SW-SAGD process. A pilot test has been conducted over the last 3 years. Results show an increase in production and estimations show a recovery factor twice as high as in other wells. This study demonstrated that SW-SAGD is an excellent alternative solution to stimulate reservoirs in the Orinoco oil belt and valuable information on the reservoir's thermal behavior was established.

  9. Numerical analysis and field study of time dependent exergy-energy of a gas-steam combined cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barari Bamdad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, time dependent exergy analysis of the Fars Combined Power Plant Cycle has been investigated. Exergy analysis has been used for investigating each part of actual combined cycle by considering irreversibility from Apr 2006 to Oct 2010. Performance analysis has been done for each part by evaluating exergy destruction in each month. By using of exergy analysis, aging of each part has been evaluated respect to time duration. In addition, the rate of lost work for each month has been calculated and variation of this parameter has been considered as a function of aging rate. Finally, effects of exergy destruction of each part have been investigated on exergy destruction of whole cycle. Entire analysis has been done for Unit 3 and 4 of gas turbine cycle which combined by Unit B of steam cycle in Fars Combined Power Plant Cycle located in Fars province in Iran.

  10. Anatomy of Old Faithful From Subsurface Seismic Imaging of the Yellowstone Upper Geyser Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sin-Mei; Ward, Kevin M.; Farrell, Jamie; Lin, Fan-Chi; Karplus, Marianne; Smith, Robert B.

    2017-10-01

    The Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains one of the highest concentrations of hydrothermal features on Earth including the iconic Old Faithful geyser. Although this system has been the focus of many geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies for decades, the shallow (<200 m) subsurface structure remains poorly characterized. To investigate the detailed subsurface geologic structure including the hydrothermal plumbing of the Upper Geyser Basin, we deployed an array of densely spaced three-component nodal seismographs in November of 2015. In this study, we extract Rayleigh wave seismic signals between 1 and 10 Hz utilizing nondiffusive seismic waves excited by nearby active hydrothermal features with the following results: (1) imaging the shallow subsurface structure by utilizing stationary hydrothermal activity as a seismic source, (2) characterizing how local geologic conditions control the formation and location of the Old Faithful hydrothermal system, and (3) resolving a relatively shallow (10-60 m) and large reservoir located 100 m southwest of Old Faithful geyser.

  11. Triggering and modulation of geyser eruptions in Yellowstone National Park by earthquakes, earth tides, and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Sohn, Robert A.; Luttrell, Karen; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We analyze intervals between eruptions (IBEs) data acquired between 2001 and 2011 at Daisy and Old Faithful geysers in Yellowstone National Park. We focus our statistical analysis on the response of these geysers to stress perturbations from within the solid earth (earthquakes and earth tides) and from weather (air pressure and temperature, precipitation, and wind). We conclude that (1) the IBEs of these geysers are insensitive to periodic stresses induced by solid earth tides and barometric pressure variations; (2) Daisy (pool geyser) IBEs lengthen by evaporation and heat loss in response to large wind storms and cold air; and (3) Old Faithful (cone geyser) IBEs are not modulated by air temperature and pressure variations, wind, and precipitation, suggesting that the subsurface water column is decoupled from the atmosphere. Dynamic stress changes of 0.1−0.2 MPa resulting from the 2002 M-7.9 Denali, Alaska, earthquake surface waves caused a statistically significant shortening of Daisy geyser's IBEs. Stresses induced by other large global earthquakes during the study period were at least an order of magnitude smaller. In contrast, dynamic stresses of >0.5 MPa from three large regional earthquakes in 1959, 1975, and 1983 caused lengthening of Old Faithful's IBEs. We infer that most subannual geyser IBE variability is dominated by internal processes and interaction with other geysers. The results of this study provide quantitative bounds on the sensitivity of hydrothermal systems to external stress perturbations and have implications for studying the triggering and modulation of volcanic eruptions by external forces.

  12. MOSCAB: a geyser-concept bubble chamber to be used in a dark matter search

    OpenAIRE

    Antonicci, A.; Ardid, M.; Bertoni, R.; Bruno, G.; Burgio, N.; Caruso, G.; Cattaneo, D.; Chignoli, F.; Clemenza, M.; Corcione, M.; Cretara, L.; Cundy, D.; Felis, I.; Frullini, M.; Fulgione, W.

    2017-01-01

    The MOSCAB experiment (Materia OSCura A Bolle) uses the "geyser technique", a variant of the superheated liquid technique of extreme simplicity. Operating principles of the new dark matter detector and technical solutions of the device are reported in detail. First results obtained in a series of test runs taken in laboratory demonstrate that we have successfully built and tested a geyser-concept bubble chamber that can be used in particle physics, especially in dark matter searches, and that...

  13. Multireaction equilibrium geothermometry: A sensitivity analysis using data from the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2016-01-01

    A multireaction chemical equilibria geothermometry (MEG) model applicable to high-temperature geothermal systems has been developed over the past three decades. Given sufficient data, this model provides more constraint on calculated reservoir temperatures than classical chemical geothermometers that are based on either the concentration of silica (SiO2), or the ratios of cation concentrations. A set of 23 chemical analyses from Ojo Caliente Spring and 22 analyses from other thermal features in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park are used to examine the sensitivity of calculated reservoir temperatures using the GeoT MEG code (Spycher et al. 2013, 2014) to quantify the effects of solute concentrations, degassing, and mineral assemblages on calculated reservoir temperatures. Results of our analysis demonstrate that the MEG model can resolve reservoir temperatures within approximately ±15°C, and that natural variation in fluid compositions represents a greater source of variance in calculated reservoir temperatures than variations caused by analytical uncertainty (assuming ~5% for major elements). The analysis also suggests that MEG calculations are particularly sensitive to variations in silica concentration, the concentrations of the redox species Fe(II) and H2S, and that the parameters defining steam separation and CO2 degassing from the liquid may be adequately determined by numerical optimization. Results from this study can provide guidance for future applications of MEG models, and thus provide more reliable information on geothermal energy resources during exploration.

  14. Red Geyser: A New Class of Galaxy with Large-scale AGN-driven Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Namrata; Bundy, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; MaNGA Team

    2018-01-01

    A new class of quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies harboring possible AGN-driven winds have been discovered using the spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from the ongoing SDSS-IV MaNGA (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) survey. These galaxies named "red geysers" constitute 5%-10% of the local quiescent galaxy population and are characterized by narrow bisymmetric ionized gas emission patterns. These enhanced patterns are seen in equivalent width maps of Hα, [OIII] and other strong emission lines. They are co-aligned with the ionized gas velocity gradients but significantly misaligned with stellar velocity gradients. They also show very high gas velocity dispersions (~200 km/s). Considering these observations in light of models of the gravitational potential, Cheung et al. argued that red geysers host large-scale AGN-driven winds of ionized gas that may play a role in suppressing star formation at late times. In this work, we test the hypothesis that AGN activity is ultimately responsible for the red geyser phenomenon. We compare the nuclear radio activity of the red geysers to a matched control sample of galaxies of similar stellar mass, redshift, rest frame NUV–r color and axis ratio. and additionally, control for the presence of ionized gas. We have used 1.4 GHz radio continuum data from the VLA FIRST Survey to stack the radio flux from the red geyser sample and control sample. We find that the red geysers have a higher average radio flux than the control galaxies at > 3σ significance. Our sample is restricted to rest-frame NUV–r color > 5, thus ruling out possible radio emission due to star formation activity. We conclude that red geysers are associated with more active AGN, supporting a feedback picture in which episodic AGN activity drives large-scale but relatively weak ionized winds in many in many early-type galaxies.

  15. Steam Digest 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.

  16. High temperature water adsorption on The Geysers rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1997-08-01

    In order to measure water retention by geothermal reservoir rocks at the actual reservoir temperature, the ORNL high temperature isopiestic apparatus was adapted for adsorption measurements. The quality of water retained by rock samples taken from three different wells of The Geysers geothermal reservoir was measured at 150{sup degree}C, 200{sup degree}C, and 250{sup degree}C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 {<=}p/p{sub degree} {<=} 0.98, where p{sub degree} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were performed on the same rock samples. Nitrogen or krypton adsorption and desorption isotherms at 77 K were used to obtain BET specific surface areas, pore volumes and their distributions with respect to pore sizes. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A correlation is sought between water adsorption, the surface properties, and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids.

  17. Steam saving during maintenance of the 50-MW Unit 7 at Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan; Ahorro de vapor durante el mantenimiento de la Unidad 7 de 50 MW en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Barajas, Elvia Nohemi; Ruiz Lemus, Alejandro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: elvia-medina@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    Commercial-steam production in the southern area of Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, Geothermal Field began in 1982 with the operation of Unit 2, the backpressure 5-MW unit, and continued in 1988 when the 50-MW condensing Unit 7 was commissioned. Today to supply steam to Unit 7, it is necessary to gather steam from 15 production wells, amounting 450 tons per hour (t/h) under operating conditions. During maintenance periods for Unit 7, production wells are removed from the steam-supply system but continue producing steam that is discharged to the atmosphere-a loss affecting the economic life of the geothermal reservoir. Therefore several actions have been proposed and tried to save the steam and preserve the geothermal resource. This paper presents the results of the actions and the technical and economic benefits obtained from them. [Spanish] La produccion de vapor con fines comerciales en la zona sur del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, empezo en 1982 con la puesta en marcha de la Unidad 2 de 5 MW a contrapresion, para continuar en 1988 con la Unidad 7 de 50 MW a condensacion. Para cumplir con el suministro de vapor a la U-7, a la fecha es necesario integrar la produccion de 15 pozos productores, que producen un total de 450 toneladas por hora (t/h) a condiciones de operacion. Durante los periodos de mantenimiento de la U-7 los pozos son desintegrados del sistema de suministro, pero continuan produciendo vapor, el cual es descargado a la atmosfera sin ningun provecho, lo que representa una perdida que afecta la vida util del yacimiento geotermico. Por ello se han propuesto y aplicado diversas acciones operativas en cada uno de esos pozos con el objetivo de ahorrar vapor y preservar el recurso geotermico. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de esas acciones y los beneficios tecnicos y economicos obtenidos.

  18. Nuclear geyser model of the origin of life: Driving force to promote the synthesis of building blocks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Ebisuzaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose the nuclear geyser model to elucidate an optimal site to bear the first life. Our model overcomes the difficulties that previously proposed models have encountered. Nuclear geyser is a geyser driven by a natural nuclear reactor, which was likely common in the Hadean Earth, because of a much higher abundance of 235U as nuclear fuel. The nuclear geyser supplies the following: (1 high-density ionizing radiation to promote chemical chain reactions that even tar can be used for intermediate material to restart chemical reactions, (2 a system to maintain the circulation of material and energy, which includes cyclic environmental conditions (warm/cool, dry/wet, etc. to enable to produce complex organic compounds, (3 a lower temperature than 100 °C as not to break down macromolecular organic compounds, (4 a locally reductive environment depending on rock types exposed along the geyser wall, and (5 a container to confine and accumulate volatile chemicals. These five factors are the necessary conditions that the birth place of life must satisfy. Only the nuclear geyser can meet all five, in contrast to the previously proposed birth sites, such as tidal flat, submarine hydrothermal vent, and outer space. The nuclear reactor and associated geyser, which maintain the circulations of material and energy with its surrounding environment, are regarded as the nuclear geyser system that enables numerous kinds of chemical reactions to synthesize complex organic compounds, and where the most primitive metabolism could be generated.

  19. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  20. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  1. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  2. Steam plant: Steam turbines for combined cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieken, J.

    Parameters affecting steam turbines design are discussed and it is concluded that steam turbines for combined cycles are suitable for: powers between 1 and 250 MW; driving a generator, via a gearbox if necessary; drive through of powers which can be up to three times their own power; and ground level installation with up, side, or axial exhaust for condensing turbine applications. Parameters affecting the steam turbine performance are discussed: inlet conditions and flows, sliding inlet conditions, reheat cycles, fired and unfired heat recovery steam generators, cogeneration systems, and combined cycle for process steam supply. Aerodynamic design aspects of steam turbines for combined cycles are discussed. It is concluded that steam turbines for combined cycles have a large range of special requirements. Some typical aspects are: large exhaust annular areas and special exhaust arrangements for condensing steam turbines, drive through of the power of the gas turbines, high influence on the total cycle performance optimization, and a wide variety of extraction systems for cogeneration.

  3. MOSCAB. A geyser-concept bubble chamber to be used in a dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonicci, A.; Bertoni, R.; Mazza, R. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Ardid, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera, Valencia (Spain); Bruno, G. [LNGS, INFN, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy); Burgio, N.; Santagata, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Caruso, G.; Frullini, M.; Ricci, E. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, DIAEE, Rome (Italy); Cattaneo, D. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipt. di Informatica Sistemistica e Comunicazione, Milan (Italy); Chignoli, F.; Clemenza, M.; Lucchini, G.; Pullia, A.; Zanotti, L. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipt. di Fisica, Milan (Italy); Corcione, M.; Quintino, A. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, DIAEE, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Cretara, L. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, DIAEE, Rome (Italy); Cundy, D. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipt. di Fisica, Milan (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Felis, I. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera, Valencia (Spain); Fulgione, W. [LNGS, INFN, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy); INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin, Pino Torinese (Italy); Manara, L. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipt. di Fisica, Milan (Italy); Maspero, M. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Universita di Milano-Bicocca, DISAT, Milan (Italy); Papagni, A. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali, Milan (Italy); Perego, M. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); LNGS, INFN, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy); Podviyanuk, R. [LNGS, INFN, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy); Redaelli, N. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Sorrenti, D. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipt. di Informatica Sistemistica e Comunicazione, Milan (Italy); Collaboration: The MOSCAB Collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The MOSCAB experiment (Materia OSCura A Bolle) uses the ''geyser technique'', a variant of the superheated liquid technique of extreme simplicity. Operating principles of the new dark matter detector and technical solutions of the device are reported in detail. First results obtained in a series of test runs taken in laboratory demonstrate that we have successfully built and tested a geyser-concept bubble chamber that can be used in particle physics, especially in dark matter searches, and that we are ready to move underground for extensive data taking. (orig.)

  4. MOSCAB. A geyser-concept bubble chamber to be used in a dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonicci, A.; Bertoni, R.; Mazza, R.; Ardid, M.; Bruno, G.; Burgio, N.; Santagata, A.; Caruso, G.; Frullini, M.; Ricci, E.; Cattaneo, D.; Chignoli, F.; Clemenza, M.; Lucchini, G.; Pullia, A.; Zanotti, L.; Corcione, M.; Quintino, A.; Cretara, L.; Cundy, D.; Felis, I.; Fulgione, W.; Manara, L.; Maspero, M.; Papagni, A.; Perego, M.; Podviyanuk, R.; Redaelli, N.; Sorrenti, D.

    2017-01-01

    The MOSCAB experiment (Materia OSCura A Bolle) uses the ''geyser technique'', a variant of the superheated liquid technique of extreme simplicity. Operating principles of the new dark matter detector and technical solutions of the device are reported in detail. First results obtained in a series of test runs taken in laboratory demonstrate that we have successfully built and tested a geyser-concept bubble chamber that can be used in particle physics, especially in dark matter searches, and that we are ready to move underground for extensive data taking. (orig.)

  5. MOSCAB: a geyser-concept bubble chamber to be used in a dark matter search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonicci, A.; Ardid, M.; Bertoni, R.; Bruno, G.; Burgio, N.; Caruso, G.; Cattaneo, D.; Chignoli, F.; Clemenza, M.; Corcione, M.; Cretara, L.; Cundy, D.; Felis, I.; Frullini, M.; Fulgione, W.; Lucchini, G.; Manara, L.; Maspero, M.; Mazza, R.; Papagni, A.; Perego, M.; Podviyanuk, R.; Pullia, A.; Quintino, A.; Redaelli, N.; Ricci, E.; Santagata, A.; Sorrenti, D.; Zanotti, L.

    2017-11-01

    The MOSCAB experiment (Materia OSCura A Bolle) uses the "geyser technique", a variant of the superheated liquid technique of extreme simplicity. Operating principles of the new dark matter detector and technical solutions of the device are reported in detail. First results obtained in a series of test runs taken in laboratory demonstrate that we have successfully built and tested a geyser-concept bubble chamber that can be used in particle physics, especially in dark matter searches, and that we are ready to move underground for extensive data taking.

  6. Coal resources, production, and quality in the Eastern kentucky coal field: Perspectives on the future of steam coal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Hiett, J.K.; Wild, G.D.; Eble, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Eastern Kentucky coal field, along with adjacent portions of Virginia and southern West Virginia, is part of the greatest production concentration of high-heating-value, low-sulfur coal in the United States, accounting for over 27% of the 1993 U.S. production of coal of all ranks. Eastern Kentucky's production is spread among many coal beds but is particularly concentrated in a limited number of highquality coals, notably the Pond Creek coal bed and its correlatives, and the Fire Clay coal bed and its correlatives. Both coals are relatively low ash and low sulfur through the areas of the heaviest concentration of mining activity. We discuss production trends, resources, and the quality of in-place and clean coal for those and other major coals in the region. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  7. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  8. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF PATCHOULI OIL (POGOSTEMON CABLIN, BENTH WITH STEAM DISTILLATION ASSISTED BY PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD VIA RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKARDI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the role of pulsed electric field (PEF treatment before hydro-distillation of the patchouli oil. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize PEF treatment (voltages, frequencies and times of distillation of patchouli oil from dried patchouli crops. The experimental design and analysis the result to obtain the optimal processing parameters was a Box-Behnken Design (BBD. Three variables were examined in this study: voltages (1,000-2,000 volt; frequencies (1,000-2,000 Hz; and distillation time (4-8 hours. The results showed that the voltage greatly affects the volume of patchouli oil obtained and optimum condition of PEF was voltages of 2,000 volts, frequencies of 1,874 Hz, and 8 hours distillation. The patchouli oil obtained is 8.037 ml of 300 g of dry material (±2.7%. The verification of the model shows that 96.6% (7.76±0.15 ml can adequately for reflecting the expected optimization.

  10. Steam generator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Han, J. H.; Kim, H. P.; Lim, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Suh, J. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Hur, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, Y. H.

    2002-05-01

    In order to keep the nuclear power plant(NPP)s safe and increase their operating efficiency, axial stress corrosion cracking(SCC)(IGA/IGSCC, PWSCC, PbSCC) test techniques were developed and SCC property data of the archive steam generator tubing materials having been used in nuclear power plants operating in Korea were produced. The data obtained in this study were data-based, which will be used to clarify the damage mechanisms, to operate the plants safely, and to increase the lifetime of the tubing. In addition, the basic technologies for the improvement of the SCC property of the tubing materials, for new SCC inhibition, for damaged tube repair, and for manufacturing processes of the tubing were developed. In the 1 phase of this long term research, basic SCC test data obtained from the archive steam generator tubing materials used in NPPs operating in Korea were established. These basic technologies developed in the 1 phase will be used in developing process optimization during the 2 phase in order to develop application technologies to the field nuclear power plants

  11. Noise reduction in steam-vent points at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Reduccion del ruido en puntos de desfogue en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: carlos.miranda02@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    Steam silencers have been placed on the power units regulation system of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, but not where the steam-pipes vent high-pressure steam (rupture disks). Moreover, the power-unit silencers are large and their abilities to reduce noise depend on an external, uncontrollable factor: pores sizes in the volcanic rocks they are made of. Thus a compact, economic and relatively easy to construct metallic silencer was designed to be used at several points of dry-steam venting to minimize the noise. The design was based on orifice-plate equations and a prototype was constructed and tested. It proved capable of reducing noise by 30 decibels for atmospheric discharges of primary steam at operating pressures. The size of the silencer can be adjusted to the particular needs of each vent case. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto solo existen silenciadores de vapor en el sistema de regulacion de las plantas generadoras, pero no en los sitios de desfogue de vapor a alta presion en los vaporductos (discos de ruptura). Ademas, los silenciadores de las plantas son muy robustos y su capacidad de reduccion del ruido depende de un factor externo no controlable, como es el tamano del poro de la roca volcanica con el que estan construidos. Por lo tanto, se diseno un silenciador metalico compacto, economico y relativamente facil de fabricar, para utilizarse en diversos puntos de descarga de vapor seco a fin de minimizar el ruido. El diseno se realizo con base en las ecuaciones de la placa de orificio. Se construyo un prototipo cuyas pruebas demostraron que es capaz de reducir el ruido hasta en 30 decibeles, al descargar desde la presion de operacion de vapor primario hacia la presion atmosferica. Las dimensiones del silenciador pueden ajustarse a las necesidades particulares de cada caso de desfogue.

  12. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, C.J. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Juneau, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  13. Anatomy of Old Faithful from subsurface seismic imaging of the Yellowstone Upper Geyser Basin

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Sin-Mei

    2017-10-03

    The Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains one of the highest concentrations of hydrothermal features on Earth including the iconic Old Faithful geyser. Although this system has been the focus of many geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies for decades, the shallow (<200 m) subsurface structure remains poorly characterized. To investigate the detailed subsurface geologic structure including the hydrothermal plumbing of the Upper Geyser Basin, we deployed an array of densely spaced three-component nodal seismographs in November of 2015. In this study, we extract Rayleigh-wave seismic signals between 1-10 Hz utilizing non-diffusive seismic waves excited by nearby active hydrothermal features with the following results. 1) imaging the shallow subsurface structure by utilizing stationary hydrothermal activity as a seismic source, 2) characterizing how local geologic conditions control the formation and location of the Old Faithful hydrothermal system, and 3) resolving a relatively shallow (10-60 m) and large reservoir located ~100 m southwest of Old Faithful geyser.

  14. A study of steam injection in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

    1996-02-01

    Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

  15. Physical interpretation of geysering phenomena and periodic boiling instability at low flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-01-01

    Over 30 years ago, Griffith showed that unstable and periodic initial boiling occurred in stagnant liquids in heated pipes coupled to a cooler or condensing plenum volume. This was called ''geysering'', and is a similar phenomenon to the rapid nucleation and voiding observed in tubes filled with superheated liquid. It is also called ''bumping'' when non-uniformly heated water or a chemical suddenly boils in laboratory glassware. In engineering, the stability and predictability has importance to the onset of bulk boiling in a natural and forced circulation loops. The latest available data show the observed stability and periodicity of the onset of boiling flow when there is a plenum, multiple heated channels, and a sustained subcooling in a circulating loop. We examine the available data, both old and new, and develop a new theory to illustrate the simple physics causing the observed periodicity of the flow. We examine the validity of the theory by comparison to all the geysering data, and develop a useful and simple correlation. We illustrate the equivalence of the onset of geysering to the onset of static instability in subcooled boiling. We also derive the stability boundary for geysering, utilizing turbulent transport analysis to determine the effects of pressure and other key parameters. This new result explains the greater stability region observed at higher pressures. The paper builds on the 30 years of quite independent thermal hydraulic work that is still fresh and useful today. We discuss the physical interpretation of geysering onset with a consistent theory, and show where refinements would be useful to the data correlations

  16. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel CO2-Tolerant Lactobacillus Strain from Crystal Geyser, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, E. U.; Major, J. R.; Omelon, C. R.; Shanahan, T. M.; Bennett, P.

    2013-12-01

    Capnophiles are microbes that grow in CO2 enriched environments. Cultured capnophiles generally, grow in 2 to 25% CO2, or 0.02 to 0.25 atm. When CO2 is sequestered in deep saline aquifers, the newly created high CO2 environment may select for capnophlic organisms. In this study, a capnophile was isolated from Crystal Geyser, a CO2 spring along the Little Grand Wash Fault, UT, a site being investigated as an analogue to CO2 sequestration. Crystal Geyser periodically erupts with CO2 charged water, indicating the presence of very high CO2 pressures below the subsurface, similar to sequestration conditions. Biomass was sampled by pumping springwater from approximately 10 m below the surface through filters. Filters were immediately placed in selective media within pressure vessels where they were pressurized to 10 atm in the field. Subsequent recultures produced an isolate, designated CG-1, that is most closely (99%) related to Lactobacillus casei on the strain level. CG-1 grows in tryptic soy broth, in PCO2 ranging from 0 atm to 10 atm, 40 times higher than pressures of previously cultured capnophiles. At 25 atm, growth is inhibited though survival can be as long as 5 days. At 50 atm, survival is poor, with sterilization occurring by 24 hours. Growth is optimal between pH values of 6 to 8, though sluggish if no CO2 is present. Its optimal salinity is 0.25 M NaCl though growth is observed ranging from 0 to 1 M NaCl. Growth is observed between 25o to 45o C, but optimal at 25oC. It consumes long-chained carbon molecules such as glucose, sucrose, and crude oil, and exhibits poor growth when supplied with lactate, acetate, formate, and pyruvate. The organism likely performs lactic acid fermentation as it requires no electron acceptors for growth and produces no acid, gas, and sulfide in triple sugar iron agar slants. CG-1 also expresses a variety of lipids, most notably cyclopropyl C19 (cycC19), or lactobacillic acid, characteristic of organisms belonging to the

  17. Experiences with industrial solar process steam generation in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dirk; Berger, Michael; Mokhtar, Marwan; Willwerth, Lisa; Zahler, Christian; Al-Najami, Mahmoud; Hennecke, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    At the Jordanian pharmaceuticals manufacturing company RAM Pharma a solar process heat supply has been constructed by Industrial Solar GmbH in March 2015 and operated since then (Figure 1). The collector field consists of 394 m² of linear Fresnel collectors supplying saturated steam to the steam network at RAM Pharma at about 6 bar gauge. In the frame of the SolSteam project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) the installation has been modified introducing an alternative way to separate water and steam by a cyclone. This paper describes the results of experiments with the cyclone and compares the operation with a steam drum. The steam production of the solar plant as well as the fuel demand of the steam boiler are continuously monitored and results are presented in this paper.

  18. Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the reservoir to produce steam at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento para producir vapor en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez; Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-01-15

    Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir for steam production are defined, taking into account the minimal acceptable steam production at the surface, considering a rank of mixed-enthalpies for different well-depths, and allowing proper assessments for the impacts of the changes in fluid reservoir pressure and enthalpy. Factors able to influence steam production are discussed. They have to be considered when deciding whether or not to drill or repair a well in a particular area of the reservoir. These evaluations become much more relevant by considering the huge thermodynamic changes that have occurred at the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir from its development, starting in 1973, which has lead to abandoning some steam producing areas in the field. [Spanish] Las condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, para producir vapor se determinan tomando en cuenta la minima produccion de vapor aceptable en superficie, considerando un rango de entalpias de la mezcla y para diferentes profundidades de pozos, lo que permite valorar adecuadamente el impacto de la evolucion de la presion y entalpia del fluido en el yacimiento. Se discuten los factores que pueden afectar la produccion de vapor, los cuales se deben tomar en cuenta para determinar la conveniencia o no de perforar o reparar un pozo en determinada zona del yacimiento. Estas evaluaciones adquieren gran relevancia al considerar los enormes cambios termodinamicos que ha presentado el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, como resultado de su explotacion iniciada en 1973, lo que ha llevado a abandonar algunas zonas del campo para la produccion de vapor. Palabras Clave: Cerro Prieto, entalpia, evaluacion de yacimientos, politicas de explotacion, presion, produccion de vapor.

  19. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  20. STEAM by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Linda; Keane, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We live in a designed world. STEAM by Design presents a transdisciplinary approach to learning that challenges young minds with the task of making a better world. Learning today, like life, is dynamic, connected and engaging. STEAM (Science, Technology, Environment, Engineering, Art, and Math) teaching and learning integrates information in…

  1. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  2. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  3. Steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Nickerson, J.; Spekkens, P.; Maruska, C.

    1998-01-01

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermal hydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. This report shows how recent advances in cleaning technology are integrated into a life management strategy, discusses downcomer flow measurement as a means of monitoring steam generator condition, and describes recent advances in hideout return as a life management tool. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified

  4. Helium isotopes in geothermal systems: Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.

    1982-01-01

    Helium isotope ratios have been measured in geothermal fluids from Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River, Steamboat Springs and Hawaii. These ratios have been interpreted in terms of the processes which supply He in distinct isotopic ratios and in terms of the processes which can alter the isotopic ratio. Using this interpretational scheme, Iceland is found to be an area of hot-spot magmatic He implying an active volcanic source although the data are suggestive of high-temperature weathering release of crustal He incorporated in the geothermal fluids. By comparison to fumarolic gases from Hawaii and Juan De Fuca and Cayman Trench basaltic glass samples, The Geysers contains MOR type magmatic He again implying an active volcanic source possibly a 'leaky' transform related to the San Andreas Fault System. Raft River contains only crustal He indicating no active volcanic sources. Steamboat Springs He isotope ratios are distinctly less than typical plate margin volcanics but must still have a magmatic source. (author)

  5. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  6. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  7. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  8. Solar steam nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Albert

    2013-01-22

    Silica-gold core-shell nanoparticles that are immersed in water act as efficient nanoscale generators of steam when illuminated with sunlight. In their paper in this issue of ACS Nano, Halas, Nordlander, and co-workers demonstrate this intriguing phenomenon that results from the nucleation of steam at the surface of individual nanoparticles that are heated by the sun. The same effect is also used to demonstrate distillation of ethanol. The solar steam nanobubble generation phenomenon results from the complex interplay of many different phenomena that occur at the nanoscale, and can find a broad range of applications.

  9. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  10. French steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remond, A.

    1986-01-01

    After recalling the potential damage mode of tubes of steam generator, the author recalls the safety criteria used in France. The improvements and the process of damage prejudice and reparation for tubular bundle are presented [fr

  11. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Developing a Conceptual Model of STEAM Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Herro, Dani; Jamil, Faiza M.

    2017-01-01

    STEAM, where the "A" represents arts and humanities, is considered a transdisciplinary learning process that has the potential to increase diverse participation in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. However, a well-defined conceptual model that clearly articulates essential components of the STEAM approach is…

  13. Determination of heat losses in the Cerro Prieto, Baja California, geothermal field steam transportation network based on the thermal insulation condition of the steam pipelines; Determinacion de perdidas de calor en la red de transporte de vapor del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Baja California, con base en el estado fisico del aislamiento termico de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovando Castelar, Rosember; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Martinez Estrella, Juan Ignacio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Jacobo Galvan, Paul; Miranda Herrera, Carlos; Mora Perez, Othon [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    In Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), the steam from producing wells is transported to power plants through a large and complex system of pipes thermally insulated with a 2 inches thick mineral wool or a fiber glass layer and an external aluminum or iron cover. The insulation material has been exposed to weather conditions during the field operation and has suffered density and thickness changes. In some cases the insulation has been lost completely, increasing heat transfer from the pipes to the environment. This paper analyzes the impact of the conditions of thermal insulation on heat losses in the CPGF steam-pipeline network. The heat losses are calculated by applying an iterative method to determine the surface temperature based on a heat balance calculated from the three basic mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Finally, using length and diameter data corresponding to the condition of the thermal insulation of each pipeline-and field operation data, the overall heat losses are quantified for steam lines throughout the pipeline network in the field. The results allow us to evaluate the magnitude of the heat losses in comparison with the overall energy losses occurring during steam transport from wells to the power plants. [Spanish] En el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), BC, el transporte de vapor desde los pozos hasta las plantas generadoras de electricidad se lleva a cabo mediante un extenso y complejo sistema de tuberias que tipicamente se encuentran aisladas termicamente con una capa de 2 pulgadas de material aislante a base de lana mineral o fibra de vidrio, y una proteccion mecanica de aluminio o hierro galvanizado. Debido a la exposicion a las condiciones meteorologicas a traves del tiempo de operacion del campo, el aislamiento ha experimentado cambios en su densidad y espesor y en ocasiones se ha perdido por completo, lo cual repercute en una mayor transferencia de calor de las tuberias hacia el medio ambiente

  14. Steam injection for heavy oil recovery: Modeling of wellbore heat efficiency and analysis of steam injection performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Hao; Cheng, Linsong; Huang, Shijun; Li, Bokai; Shen, Fei; Fang, Wenchao; Hu, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive mathematical model was established to estimate wellbore heat efficiency of steam injection wells. • A simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores was proposed. • High wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality can improve wellbore heat efficiency. • High wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean good performance of heavy oil recovery. • Using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels. - Abstract: The aims of this work are to present a comprehensive mathematical model for estimating wellbore heat efficiency and to analyze performance of steam injection for heavy oil recovery. In this paper, we firstly introduce steam injection process briefly. Secondly, a simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores is presented and a complete expression for steam quality is derived. More importantly, both direct and indirect methods are adopted to determine the wellbore heat efficiency. Then, the mathematical model is solved using an iterative technique. After the model is validated with measured field data, we study the effects of wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality on steam injection performance reflected in wellbores. Next, taking cyclic steam stimulation as an example, we analyze steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs with numerical reservoir simulation method. Finally, the significant role of improving wellbore heat efficiency in saving water and fuels is discussed in detail. The results indicate that we can improve the wellbore heat efficiency by enhancing wellhead injection rate or steam quality. However, high wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean satisfactory steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs or good performance of heavy oil recovery. Moreover, the paper shows that using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels due to enhancement of wellbore heat efficiency

  15. Hydraulic model of the steam-lines network of the Cerro Prieto, B.C., geothermal field; Modelo hidraulico de la red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaices, E; Garcia, A; Martinez J I; Ovando, R; Cecenas, M; Hernandez A F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: salaices@iie.org.mx; Canchola, I; Mora, O; Miranda, C; Herandez, M; Lopez, S; Murillo, I [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    The steam-line network of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is composed of 184 wells, and 162 of the wells are integrated and connected by pipes. Thirteen power units, with an installed electrical capacity of 720 MW, are fed by that network. The network length is 120 km, including pipes of several diameters with branches and interconnections. The extension and complexity of the steam-line system make it difficult to analyze the transport and supply of steam to the power plants. For that it was necessary to have a tool capable of analyzing the system and the performance of the network as a whole, as well as the direction and flow volumes in each part of the system. In this paper, a hydraulic model of the Cerro Prieto steam-line network is presented. The model can determine the performance of the whole network by quantifying the pressure drops, flows and heat losses of the components. The model analyses the consequences of changes in operating conditions, steam production, maintenance activities and design (such as the integration of new wells). The model was developed using PIPEPHASE 9.0, a numeric simulator of multi-phase flow in steady state with heat transfer. It is used to model systems and pipe networks for steam- and condensate-transport. [Spanish] La red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto esta compuesta por un conjunto de 184 pozos, de los cuales 162 son pozos integrados, interconectados entre si a traves de una red de tuberias. Por medio de esta red se alimentan 13 unidades generadoras de electricidad con una capacidad total instalada de 720 MWe. La red tiene una longitud aproximada de 120 kilometros y esta compuesta por tuberias de diferentes diametros, ramales, interconexiones, etc. La complejidad y extension del sistema de vaporductos hace muy dificil el analisis del transporte y suministro de vapor a las plantas generadoras. Lo anterior creo la necesidad de contar con una herramienta que ayudara en el analisis del sistema con el fin de

  16. Numerical investigation of mass transfer in the flow path of the experimental model of the PGV-1500 steam generator's steam receiving section with two steam nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golibrodo, L. A.; Krutikov, A. A.; Nadinskii, Yu. N.; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Skibin, A. P.; Sotskov, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    The hydrodynamics of working medium in the steam volume model implemented in the experimental setup constructed at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering was simulated for verifying the procedure of calculating the velocity field in the steam space of steam generators used as part of the reactor plants constructed on the basis of water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER). The numerical calculation was implemented in the environment of the STAR-CCM+ software system with its cross verification in the STAR-CD and ANSYS CFX software systems. The performed numerical investigation served as a basis for substantiating the selection of the computation code and parameters for constructing the computer model of the steam receiving device of the PGV-1500 steam generator experimental model, such as the quantization scheme, turbulence model, and mesh model.

  17. Preliminary Geophysical Characterization of a CO2-Driven Geyser in the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, D. W.; Jensen, K. J.; Kelly, C.; Ryan, J. C.; Ferriz, H.; Kanjorski, N.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D. K.; Pellerin, L.

    2009-12-01

    As part of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) a preliminary geophysical investigation was conducted in the vicinity of a cold CO2-driven geyser located at Chimayó, NM, along the eastern margin of the Rio Grand Rift. This geyser is of interest as a possible analog for CO2 leakage from deep saline-aquifer carbon sequestration projects. Observed water chemistry variations can be explained by mixing of a CO2-rich, high salinity brine rising into, and mixing with a shallow freshwater aquifer. Several large, basin bounding faults and numerous smaller normal faults cut the area of the well and may constitute the necessary conduit for the deep water. Geophysical methods were used to characterize the subsurface properties at the Chimayó geyser as well as regional structures that may influence groundwater flow in the area. Shallow transient electromagnetic (TEM) data and capactively-coupled resistivity (CCR) data were acquired in close proximity to the geyser. The CCR shows a near-surface resistive feature, possibly hematite-cemented Tesuque formation sediment, in close proximity to the geyser. A shallow, highly conductive layer delineated through modeling of the TEM data is postulated to be a fluid consistent with high levels of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) content. The well is located almost directly on the Roberts fault, which is antithetic to the basin bounding Chimayó fault 1.5 km to the east. Previously published hydrogeochemical studies associate this fault with high CO2 and TDS water along its strike. Deeper sounding TEM and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired along the Alamo Arroyo, 3 km to the southwest of the well. The Kelley Federal #1 Well located in this arroyo provides deep stratigraphic control to Pennsylvanian carbonate basement at 740 m. Tesuque formation conglomeritic alluvial fan deposits occur between 230 and 708 m and are overlain by finer grained basin floor deposits. The deep, coarse grained unit is thought to be a good

  18. Shiraz solar power plant operation with steam engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoubi, M.; Azizian, K.

    2004-01-01

    The present industrial developments and daily growing need of energy, as well as economical and environmental problem caused by fossil fuels consumption, resulted certain constraint for the future demand of energy. During the past two decades great attention has been made to use renewable energy for different sectors. In this regard for the first time in Iran, design and construction of a 250 K W Solar power plant in Shiraz, Iran is being carried out and it will go to operation within next year. The important elements of this power plant is an oil cycle and a steam cycle, and several studies have been done about design and operation of this power plant, both for steady state and transient conditions. For the steam cycle, initially a steam turbine was chosen and due to certain limitation it has been replaced by a steam engine. The steam engine is able to produce electricity with hot or saturated vapor at different pressures and temperatures. In this article, the effects of installing a steam engine and changing its vapor inlet pressure and also the effects of sending hot or saturated vapor to generate electricity are studied. Various cycle performance and daily electricity production are determined. The effects of oil cycle temperature on the collector field efficiency, and daily, monthly and annual amount of electricity production is calculated. Results are compared with the steam cycle output when it contains a steam turbine. It is found that with a steam engine it is possible to produce more annual electricity for certain conditions

  19. Study with liquid and steam tracers at the Tejamaniles area, Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en el area Tejamaniles del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Reyes Delgado, Lisette [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The Mexican Federal Commission for Electricity injects brines produced by nearby geothermal wells into well Az-08, located in the Tejamaniles area, in the southwestern portion of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field. The main goals of this study are to determine whether or not the injected fluid recharges nine producing wells in the area, and if so, to estimate the fraction of the injected fluid recharging each producing well. Five of the selected wells produce mixes of liquid and steam and the rest produce only steam. For this reason, we designed this study with simultaneous injections of liquid- and steam-tracers. The nine selected producing wells detected the steam-tracer, and the five wells producing mixes detected the liquid-phase tracer. The residence curves of both tracers present a series of peaks reflecting the known fractured nature of the reservoir. The results show the feeding areas of the nine selected wells are recharged by the fluid injected into well Az-08. When this paper was written, the arrival of steam-tracers in all wells was completed, but the wells producing mixes of liquid and steam continued to record the arrival of the liquid-tracer. Until 407 days after injecting the tracer, the total percentage recovery of liquid phase tracer in the five wells producing mixes of liquid and steam was 3.5032%. The arrival of the steam tracer ended in all nine wells 205 days after the tracer was injected, with an overall recovery rate of 2.1553 x 10-2%. The recovery rates imply the recharge rates of the monitored wells by the injector Az-08 are modest, but it appears the amounts of the recovered liquid-phase tracer will increase significantly. The modest recovery rates suggest most of the fluid injected into the well Az-08 disperses in the reservoir, contributing to recharge and maintaining the pressure. Results reveal that: (i) the injected fluid is heated at depths from 700 to over 1000 m, where it boils and rises to reach the feeding areas of the

  20. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  1. Real-time Remote Data Online For Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Clor, L.; Cervelli, P. F.; Allen, S. T.; Heasler, H.; Moloney, T.

    2010-12-01

    Perry, John, Lowenstern, Jacob, Cervelli, Peter, Clor, Laura, Heasler, Henry, Allen, Scott, Moloney, Tim During June 2010, ten 900MHz wireless temperature data loggers (nodes) were installed around the Norris Geyser Basin to monitor geothermal features, streams and soil temperatures. The loggers can provide near real-time updates on temperature variations within 0.2 deg C due to hydrothermal discharges or subsurface fluid migration. Each sensor node is programmed to measure the temperature every two minutes and automatically upload data to the base station computer daily. The hardware consists of a waterproof case containing an M5 logger (made by Marathon Products, Inc.®) with internal memory, lithium D-cell batteries and a 900 MHz, 1-W-transceiver and 5 meter long Teflon-coated probe with a thermistor sensor. Tethered stub or panel antennas are oriented to optimize signal strength to the base station near the Norris Museum. A 0.61 meter-long base-station antenna located 10m high provides signal to the furthest node over 850 meters away with most being “line-of-sight”. A 20-meter coaxial cable and lightning grounding wire connects the base-station antenna to an Ethernet-radio connected to the YNP local-area network. A server located 26-km north at Mammoth Hot Springs requests data at regular intervals (normally daily), archives the information, and then sends it to the USGS for further archiving and internet distribution. During periods of unusual hydrothermal behavior, data can be requested as needed, and it is possible to set user-programmable alarm limits for notification. The RF network is designed to monitor changes from three different sub-basins at Norris (Gray Lakes, Steamboat-Echinus and Porcelain Basin), the main Tantalus Creek drainage, and five individual thermal features (Constant, Porkchop, Steamboat and Echinus Geysers, and Opalescent Spring). The logger installed in Nuphar Lake provides ambient temperatures controlled solely by local

  2. Anatomy of Old Faithful hydrothermal system from subsurface seismic imaging of the Yellowstone Upper Geyser Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. M.; Lin, F. C.; Farrell, J.; Ward, K. M.; Karplus, M. S.; Smith, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park contains one of the highest concentrations of hydrothermal features on Earth including the iconic Old Faithful Geyser (OFG). Although this system has been the focus of many geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies, the shallow (<200 m) subsurface structure and the hydrothermal tremor behavior remain poorly characterized. To probe the detailed structure that relates to the hydrothermal plumbing of the UGB, we deployed dense arrays of 3-C 5-Hz geophones in both November of 2015 and 2016, composed of 133 stations with 50 m spacing, and 519 station locations, with an 20 m spacing, respectively. By applying seismic interferometry techniques, we extracted Rayleigh-wave signals between 1-10 Hz via seismic signals excited by nearby hydrothermal features (e.g. geysers and pools). We observe a clear lateral velocity boundary at 3.3 Hz frequency that delineates a higher phase velocity of 1.6 km/sec in the NE and a lower phase velocity of 1.0 km/sec in the SW corresponding to the local geologic formation of rhyolitic and glacial deposits, respectively. We also image a relatively shallow (20-60 m deep) large reservoir with an estimated porosity 30% located 100 meters southwest of the OFG from the significant spatial-dependent waveform distortions and delays between 5-10 Hz frequency. This reservoir is likely controlled by the local geology with a rhyolitic deposit in the NE acting as a relatively impermeable barrier to vertical fluid ascent. To understand the pre-eruption tremor signals from OFG, we first study the seismic waveforms recorded at the closest station to the OFG cone. Many highly repetitive seismic pulses associated with bubble collapse, which compose the tremor signal, can be identified. Using a reference event template and the cross-correlation method, we can determine the onset of each individual bubbling event using a cross-correlation coefficient threshold of 0.8. Based on the detected timing

  3. Geothermal energy and the land resource: conflicts and constraints in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Banion, K.; Hall, C.

    1980-07-14

    This study of potential land-related impacts of geothermal power development in The Geysers region focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. First, the land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems. Based on those factors, the potential land-use conflicts and constraints that geothermal development may encounter in the region are identified and the availability and relative suitability of land for such development is determined. A brief review of laws and powers germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  4. Land-use conflicts in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Banion, K.; Hall, C.; Haven, K.

    1979-12-01

    This preliminary study of potential land use conflicts of geothermal development in The Geysers region, one component of the LLL/LBL socioeconomic program, focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. The land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems and each factor is depicted on a map. Then those factors are analyzed for potential conflicts with both geothermal and urban development and the conflicts displayed on respective maps. A brief review of laws and methods germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  5. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: steam rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, I. G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton's and Avogadro's laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  6. Modifikasi Alat Steam untuk Pembengkokan Rotan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustasia Sri Murwati

    2016-04-01

    distribution of steam because there are no spaces between rattans besides contact with rust stains from tube steamer. The purpose of this study was to modify steamer that is designed multi-purpose steam, can soften rattan with wet steam in a steamer tube, can also be sprayed with dry steam on the rattan surfaces. The method is carried out field survey and literature, design planning, procurement of materials, manufacturing equipment, testing equipment, finishing equipment, evaluation and reporting. The test tool with rattan variable crosssection of 2,4 cm, 2,8 cm 3,2 cm and a steaming rattan 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes, with boiler and steamer tube temperature 110° C, 2 bar maximum pressure (kg / cm2. Results obtained in the form of 1 unit Steam Tool For Bending Rattan consists of: Heating, Steam boiler stainless steel base material JIS G 3116-2000 standard specifications, 118 liter of volume, steam tube SUS 340 Grade, soaking tub and bending table. The trial results are best with a steaming time of 15 minutes, rattan is not broken, no cracking or not deflated, for all variable diameter. Can bend U shape rattan, Ω, semi-circular and spiral. Dry steam trials with great results at the time of spraying is greater than 20 minutes.Keywords: steamer, furniture, bending, rattan

  7. Steam injection in Colombia under challenging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waghray, J.P. [Mansovar Energy Colombia Ltd (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    Mansarovar Energy Columbia Ltd. is a company extracting heavy oil from its Colombian fields. In order to enhance the production and at the same time to contribute to the economic recovery, they are using the cyclic steam injection method. The aim of this presentation is to show what are the challenges facing heavy oil extraction in Colombia, what is the state of the art, and what needs to be improved. Heavy oil extraction in Colombia presents two sorts of challenges: operational ones related to sanding problems and diluents and gas availability; and commercial ones, related to low return rates. The use of steam injection in conventional wells can, however, increase both productivity and the rate of return while at the same time enhancing the recovery factor by 10 to 15%. For the future, improvement in drilling and completion, production, and steam efficiency will be necessary as well as the implementation of the appropriate enhanced oil recovery processes.

  8. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, J.; Yoshino, Y.; Kuwabara, T.; Fujisima, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Maruko, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  9. Optical wet steam monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  10. Steam generator sludge removal apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, B.W.; Werner, C.E.; Klahn, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to equipment for cleaning steam generators and in particular to a high pressure fluid lance for cleaning sludge off the steam generator tubes away from an open tube lane. 6 figs

  11. Improvement in using steam for electric generation at the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Mejora en el aprovechamiento del vapor para generar energia electrica en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Rodriguez, Marco A.; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Mendoza Covarrubias, Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    Commercial exploitation in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico, started in 1982 when the first five backpressure-power units of 5-MW each were commissioned. Nowadays the installed capacity is 188 MW from 14 units: five in the South Zone fed by steam produced from 18 production wells plus two binary-cycle power units fed by residual brines; and seven in the North Zone with steam supplied by 22 production wells. There are seven backpressure-power units with high specific consumption [between 14.5 and 13.6 tons per hour of steam (t/h) per MW]. Three operate in the South Zone and four in the North Zone. This paper shows a way to achieve more efficient use of the geothermal resource by replacing the seven backpressure units, which have completed their useful lifetime-or are close to do it-with two, new condensing power units with lower specific consumption: one unit of 50 MW to be located in the North Zone and the other of 25 MW to be placed in the South Zone. No new wells need be drilled. In this way, the average specific consumption would be reduced to 8.8-7.2 t/h per MW (saving 47% of the steam), the income for electric generation would be increased and the steam-extraction rate would remain the same. [Spanish] En 1982 empezo la explotacion comercial del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico, con la instalacion y puesta en servicio de las primeras cinco unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion de 5 MW cada una. Actualmente la capacidad instalada es de 188 MW, con catorce unidades: cinco en la zona sur, alimentadas por el vapor de 18 pozos productores, mas dos unidades de ciclo binario que utilizan salmuera residual, y siete unidades en la zona norte, alimentadas por 22 pozos. Hay siete unidades a contrapresion con un consumo especifico elevado [entre 14.5 y 13.6 toneladas por hora (t/h) de vapor por MW], tres de las cuales se localizan en la zona sur y cuatro en la zona norte. En este documento se presenta un proyecto para hacer mas

  12. Steam generators - problems and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    Steam-generator problems, largely a consequence of corrosion and fouling, have resulted in increased inspection requirements and more regulatory attention to steam-generator integrity. In addition, utilities have had to develop steam-generator life-management strategies, including cleaning and replacement, to achieve design life. This paper summarizes the pertinent data to 1993/1994, and presents an overview of current steam-generator management practices. (author)

  13. IAEA activities on steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Lyssakov, V.; Trampus, P.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carries out a set of activities in the field of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) life management. Main activities within this area are implemented through the Technical Working Group on Life Management of NPPs, and mostly concentrated on studies of understanding mechanisms of degradation and their monitoring, optimisation of maintenance management, economic aspects, proven practices of and approaches to plant life management including decommissioning. The paper covers two ongoing activities related to steam generator life management: the International Database on NPP Steam Generators and the Co-ordinated Research Project on Verification of WWER Steam Generator Tube Integrity (WWER is the Russian designed PWR). The lifetime assessment of main components relies on an ability to assess their condition and predict future degradation trends, which to a large extent is dependent on the availability of relevant data. Effective management of ageing and degradation processes requires a large amount of data. Several years ago the IAEA started to work on the International Database on NPP Life Management. This is a multi-module database consisting of modules such as reactor pressure vessels materials, piping, steam generators, and concrete structures. At present the work on pressure vessel materials, on piping as well as on steam generator is completed. The paper will present the concept and structure of the steam generator module of the database. In countries operating WWER NPPs, there are big differences in the eddy current inspection strategy and practice as well as in the approach to steam generator heat exchanger tube structural integrity assessment. Responding to the need for a co-ordinated research to compare eddy current testing results with destructive testing using pulled out tubes from WWER steam generators, the IAEA launched this project. The main objectives of the project are to summarise the operating experiences of WWER

  14. Steam generator comprehensive testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changbing

    1998-12-01

    The main system and equipment of a capacity of 30 MW steam generator testing rig is briefly introduced. The thermal performance of steam generator simulator has been verified with a steam generator model comprehensive testing. The application and function of the Facility are analyzed. And the effective use of the equipment of the Facility is also proposed

  15. TRACKING THE GEYSERS OF ENCELADUS INTO SATURN’S E RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C. J.; Porco, C. C.; Weiss, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    We examine Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem images of the E ring taken over a period of almost 7 yr, from 2006 September to 2013 July, in which long, sinuous structures dubbed tendrils are present. We model these structures by numerically integrating the trajectories of particles launched from the sources of the most active geysers recently located along the four main fractures crossing the south polar terrain of the moon, and producing from these integrations synthetic images that we then compare to the real ones. We include the effects of charging and the electromagnetic forces on the particles in addition to the gravity of Saturn and Enceladus. We demonstrate that these structures are produced by the highest velocity particles erupting from the most active geysers and entering Saturn’s orbit, and not perturbations of E ring particles by Enceladus. The detailed structures of the tendrils change with the orbital position of Enceladus, a finding likely to be the result of the diurnal variability in the source activity

  16. Columnar travertines: bio-influenced genesis, Porcelana Geysers, Northern Patagonia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, B. S.; Morata, D.; Díez, B.; Daniele, L.

    2017-12-01

    Porcelana Geysers are located on the slopes of Barranco Colorado volcano, southern Chile, and is characterized by having a lateral hydrothermal fluid transport and an important CO2 content, having high gas exsolution rates on the surface at temperatures above 80°C. But it does not seem to be enough to explain the genesis of columnar travertines more than 3 meters high, considering that precipitation rates counteracts erosive rates due to rainy climate of the zone and the high slope gradient (>10 mm/h). The presence of extremophilic microbial diversity could explain this exceptional travertine morphology, particularly Phyla Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Order Thermales, which is evidenced by the vast visible presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), reducing conditions in hot springs waters, microscopic and macroscopic textures and isotopic compositions of travertines, which are lower than the values that thermogenic travertines usually present (δ13C values from -4.85‰ to -3.37‰). These biotic processes would increase total dissolved gas pressure and [CO2]AQ values (over 0.05 mmol/L), and hence making the hydrostatic and bubbling pressure lower in the geysers vent fluids, which increases the amount of bubbles and their size and precipitation total rate of calcium carbonate (about 0.003 mm/h)

  17. An Industrial Steam Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemistry experiment which demonstrates the use of codistillation for the separation of substances of low volatility from nonvolatiles. Pine gum is separated into turpentine and rosin by means of codistillation with steam at temperatures above 100 degrees centigrade. (MLH)

  18. GEYSERS: a novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalona, E.; Peng, S.; Nejabati, R.; Simeonidou, D.; García-Espín, J.A.; Ferrer, J.; Figuerola, S.; Landi, G.; Ciulli, N.; Jiménez, J.; Belter, B.; Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.; Chen, X.; Yukan, A.; Soudan, S.; Vicat-Blanc, P.; Buysse, J.; de Leenheer, M.; Develder, C.; Tzanakaki, A.; Robinson, P.; Brogle, M.; Bohnert, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    GEYSERS aims at defining an end-to-end network architecture that offers a novel planning, provisioning and operational framework for optical network and IT infrastructure providers and operators. In this framework, physical infrastructure resources (network and IT) are dynamically partitioned to

  19. Ground penetrating radar documents short-term near-surface hydrological changes around Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne, Bridget Y.; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Smith, Gary J.; Smith, Isaac J.; Foley, Duncan

    2018-04-01

    In April 2015, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used to characterize the shallow subsurface (< 5 m depth) of the western sinter slope immediately adjacent to Old Faithful Geyser and near the north side of an inferred geyser cavity. A series of time-sequence images were collected between two eruptions of Old Faithful Geyser. Each set of time-sequence GPR recordings consisted of four transects aligned to provide coverage near the potential location of the inferred 15 m deep geyser chamber. However, the deepest penetration we could achieve with a 200 MHz GPR antennae was 5 m. Seven time-sequence events were collected over a 48-minute interval to image changes in the near-surface, during pre- and post-eruptive cycles. Time-sequence GPR images revealed a series of possible micro-fractures in a highly porous siliceous sinter in the near-surface that fill and drain repetitively, immediately after an eruption and during the recharge period prior to the next main eruptive event.

  20. How the geysers, tidal stresses, and thermal emission across the south polar terrain of enceladus are related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porco, Carolyn; DiNino, Daiana; Nimmo, Francis

    2014-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive examination of the geysering, tidal stresses, and anomalous thermal emission across the south pole of Enceladus and discuss the implications for the moon's thermal history and interior structure. A 6.5 yr survey of the moon's south polar terrain (SPT) by the Cassini imaging experiment has located ∼100 jets or geysers erupting from four prominent fractures crossing the region. Comparing these results with predictions of diurnally varying tidal stresses and with Cassini low resolution thermal maps shows that all three phenomena are spatially correlated. The coincidence of individual jets with very small (∼10 m) hot spots detected in high resolution Cassini VIMS data strongly suggests that the heat accompanying the geysers is not produced by shearing in the upper brittle layer but rather is transported, in the form of latent heat, from a sub-ice-shell sea of liquid water, with vapor condensing on the near-surface walls of the fractures. Normal stresses modulate the geysering activity, as shown in the accompanying paper; we demonstrate here they are capable of opening water-filled cracks all the way down to the sea. If Enceladus' eccentricity and heat production are in steady state today, the currently erupting material and anomalous heat must have been produced in an earlier epoch. If regional tidal heating is occurring today, it may be responsible for some of the erupting water and heat. Future Cassini observations may settle the question.

  1. Condensers for measuring steam quality at the inlet of back-pressure units of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Condensadores para medir la calidad del vapor a la entrada de las turbinas a contrapresion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Rubi; Reyes Delgado, Lisette; Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Electrical conductivity is an indirect measurement of the quality of the steam supplied to power units. In the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, the electrical conductivity once was measured in a discrete and periodic way by condensing steam samples through a water-cooled condenser. In an attempt to continuously measure conductivity, conductivity meters were installed where the units discharged, but the values proved unstable and unrepresentative. Thereafter, taking into account that steam quality should be measured at the steam delivery-reception point, equipment was designed and tested for continuously condensing steam. Finally it was possible to get an air-cooled condenser able to condense 500 milliliters per minute, enough to collect a representative flow of the steam and to measure its electrical conductivity. The equipment was installed in all seven back-pressure units operating in the field and to date has been operating in an optimal manner. [Spanish] La conductividad electrica es una medida indirecta de la calidad del vapor que se suministra a las unidades turbogeneradoras. En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., la conductividad electrica se media en forma puntual y periodica, condensando muestras de vapor por medio de un serpentin enfriado con agua. Despues, ante la necesidad de medirla en forma continua, se instalaron conductivimetros en las descargas de las unidades, pero los valores resultaron muy inestables y poco representativos. Considerando, ademas, que la calidad del vapor debe medirse en el punto de entrega-recepcion, se disenaron y probaron equipos para condensar vapor de manera continua, lograndose construir un condensador enfriado por aire que logra condensar un flujo de 500 mililitros por minuto, cantidad suficiente para tener un flujo representativo del vapor que alimenta a las turbinas y medirle su conductividad electrica. Se instalaron estos equipos en las siete unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion que funcionan en el campo

  2. Steam regulation for 5 MW back-pressure units when a failure occurs in the Los Humeros, Pue., field, Mexico; Regulacion del vapor en caso de falla a unidades a contrapresion de 5 MW en el campo de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Lopez, Cesar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: cesar.rosales@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Four out of the seven back-pressure power units of 5 MW operating in the Los Humeros geothermal field, State of Puebla, Mexico, are fed by one steam pipe gathering the steam produced by nine wells. When a failure occurred in any of the units and the excedence valve had to be open to deviate the steam, a decrease in the steam flow for the remaining units was noted, along with lower electrical generation. The cause for that is analyzed and explained in this paper by comparing the interconnected steam supply system to an electric circuit. A way to maintain a uniform and continuous supply of steam in the Los Humeros field has been found. It was implemented several months ago and the problem has not reoccurred. [Spanish] Cuatro de las siete unidades de 5 MW a contrapresion que operan en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, son alimentadas por un solo vaporducto que reune el vapor de nueve pozos productores. Cuando ocurria una falla en alguna de estas unidades y se abria por completo la valvula de excedencia para desviar el vapor, se observaba una reduccion en el flujo de vapor que llegaba a las otras tres unidades, lo que a su vez ocasionaba que la generacion de electricidad se redujera notoriamente. En este trabajo se analiza y explica la causa de ello, mediante la comparacion de este sistema interconectado de suministro de vapor con un circuito electrico, y se explica la solucion que se encontro e implemento en el campo de Los Humeros para regular el suministro continuo y uniforme de vapor, con resultados satisfactorios a varios meses de su implementacion en las cuatro unidades interconectadas.

  3. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  4. Steam generator management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam Cheoul; Kim, Moo Soo; Lee, Kwang Woo

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the common concern of nuclear power industry in the development of technology mitigating and preventing the aging of steam generator tubes prevails, because the trends of steam generator flaws at Uljin unit no. 1,2 and KSNP impose a burden on the operation of nuclear power plant. While the regulatory agency is demanding the establishment of the advanced general performance maintenance system, the steam generator management program adapting advanced technology is being developed which may comply with EPRI PWR SG guidelines based on NEI 97-06. General guidelines including all the maintenance aspects consist of the tube integrity assessment criteria, repair limit, allowable leakage level, water chemistry will be composed in order to obtain the approval of regulatory agency and be applied to nuclear power plant early 2005. This presentation is to introduce maintenance state including SG tube degradation and main contents of advanced SG management program being developed, and furthermore update present and future plan, and estimate the alternation after the completion

  5. What is geothermal steam worth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsson, S.; Ragnarsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal steam is obtained from high-temperature boreholes, either directly from the reservoir or by flashing. The value of geothermal steam is similar to that of steam produced in boilers and lies in its ability to do work in heat engines such as turbines and to supply heat for a wide range of uses. In isolated cases the steam can be used as a source of chemicals, for example the production of carbon dioxide. Once the saturated steam has been separated from the water, it can be transported without further treatment to the end user. There are several constraints on its use set by the temperature of the reservoir and the chemical composition of the reservoir fluid. These constraints are described (temperature of steam, scaling in water phase, gas content of steam, well output) as are the methods that have been adopted to utilize this source of energy successfully. Steam can only be transported over relatively short distances (a few km) and thus has to be used close to the source. Examples are given of the pressure drop and sizing of steam mains for pipelines. The path of the steam from the reservoir to the end user is traced and typical cost figures given for each part of the system. The production cost of geothermal steam is estimated and its sensitivity to site-specific conditions discussed. Optimum energy recovery and efficiency is important as is optimizing costs. The paper will treat the steam supply system as a whole, from the reservoir to the end user, and give examples of how the site-specific conditions and system design have an influence on what geothermal steam is worth from the technical and economic points of view

  6. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  7. Super titanium blades for advanced steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    In 1986, the Alsthom Steam Turbines Department launched the manufacture of large titanium alloy blades: airfoil length of 1360 mm and overall length of 1520 mm. These blades are designed for the last-stage low pressure blading of advanced steam turbines operating at full speed (3000 rpm) and rating between 300 and 800 MW. Using titanium alloys for steam turbine exhaust stages as substitutes for chrome steels, due to their high strength/density ratio and their almost complete resistance to corrosion, makes it possible to increase the length of blades significantly and correspondingly that steam passage section (by up to 50%) with a still conservative stresses level in the rotor. Alsthom relies on 8 years of experience in the field of titanium, since as early as 1979 large titanium blades (airfoil length of 1240 mm, overall length of 1430 mm) were erected for experimental purposes on the last stage of a 900 MW unit of the Dampierre-sur-Loire power plant and now totals 45,000 operating hours without problems. The paper summarizes the main properties (chemical, mechanical and structural) recorded on very large blades and is based in particular on numerous fatigue corrosion test results to justify the use of the Ti 6 Al 4 V alloy in a specific context of micrographic structure

  8. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  9. ESR dating of geyserites from intermittent geyser sites on the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Feng, J.

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen geyserite samples obtained from two intermittent geyser sites on the Tibetan Plateau were dated by the ESR technique. ESR spectra of geyserite display two sets of signals. One is a set of triplet signals assigned to organic radical X-C-radicalH 2 by Griffiths et al. (1982), another is a mixed signal produced from E'-type defect centres of the silica minerals in geyserite, such as opal, cristobalite, tridymite and quartz. The ages obtained using the mixed E'-type signal are approximately consistent with the stratigraphy and the silica diagenetic sequence. The correlation between the thermal stability of E'-type signal and the mineral association of geyserite was investigated by annealing experiments. (author)

  10. Analysis of fast reactor steam generator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, G.; Curzon, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    A computer model for the prediction of flow and temperature fields within a fast reactor steam generator unit is described. The model combines a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver (PHOENICS) with a steam-tube calculation and provides solutions for the fully coupled flow and temperature fields on both the shell side and the tube side. The model includes the inlet and outlet headers and the bottom end stagnant zone. It also accounts for the effects of support grids and edge-gaps. Two and three dimensional and transient calculations have been performed for both straight tube and J-tube units. Examples of the application of the model are presented. (7 figures) (Author)

  11. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make?), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries)

  12. Nowcasting Earthquakes: A Comparison of Induced Earthquakes in Oklahoma and at the Geysers, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbuhl, Molly; Rundle, John B.; Hawkins, Angela; Turcotte, Donald L.

    2018-01-01

    Nowcasting is a new method of statistically classifying seismicity and seismic risk (Rundle et al. 2016). In this paper, the method is applied to the induced seismicity at the Geysers geothermal region in California and the induced seismicity due to fluid injection in Oklahoma. Nowcasting utilizes the catalogs of seismicity in these regions. Two earthquake magnitudes are selected, one large say M_{λ } ≥ 4, and one small say M_{σ } ≥ 2. The method utilizes the number of small earthquakes that occurs between pairs of large earthquakes. The cumulative probability distribution of these values is obtained. The earthquake potential score (EPS) is defined by the number of small earthquakes that has occurred since the last large earthquake, the point where this number falls on the cumulative probability distribution of interevent counts defines the EPS. A major advantage of nowcasting is that it utilizes "natural time", earthquake counts, between events rather than clock time. Thus, it is not necessary to decluster aftershocks and the results are applicable if the level of induced seismicity varies in time. The application of natural time to the accumulation of the seismic hazard depends on the applicability of Gutenberg-Richter (GR) scaling. The increasing number of small earthquakes that occur after a large earthquake can be scaled to give the risk of a large earthquake occurring. To illustrate our approach, we utilize the number of M_{σ } ≥ 2.75 earthquakes in Oklahoma to nowcast the number of M_{λ } ≥ 4.0 earthquakes in Oklahoma. The applicability of the scaling is illustrated during the rapid build-up of injection-induced seismicity between 2012 and 2016, and the subsequent reduction in seismicity associated with a reduction in fluid injections. The same method is applied to the geothermal-induced seismicity at the Geysers, California, for comparison.

  13. Vortex Pressure-Reducing Desuperheating Plants and Steam Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kascheev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have developed and tested the entire device class that appeared as a result of fundamental investigations of multiphase flows in centrifugal force fields, understanding of process mechanism occurring in them and their mathematical description for optimization. Method for reduction of pressure and steam temperature in vortex pressure-reducing desuperheating plants and steam coolers has been proposed for the first time in the paper.

  14. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  15. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4 692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3 222 (0.20 percent) in 1982. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that have used only volatile treatment, with or without condensate demineralization

  16. The Wheel Model of STEAM Education Based on Traditional Korean Scientific Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Won

    2016-01-01

    The Korean STEAM education pursues a convergent human resources education, but there are shortcomings associated with it due to the fact that it excludes the Humanities in its curriculum. This study embodies the accomplishments from the design and field application of the STEAM education model that has added Humanities fields (history, geography,…

  17. Decision on the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's application for certification for Geysers Unit 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The decision in favor of Geysers Unit 17 is presented. Included in the decisions are the findings, conclusions, and conditions on the following: need, socioeconomics, cultural resources, noise, hydrology and water resources, water quality, soils, biological resources, civil engineering, safety, transmission lines, geotechnical considerations, air quality, public health, and structural engineering and reliability. Provisions for monitoring compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and conditions are incorporated. (MHR)

  18. Heat exchanger with steam overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, O.; Motejl, V.; Quitta, R.; Schlinger, S.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger incorporating steam superheating is proposed suitable for nuclear power plants having heat transfer surfaces housed in the pressure vessel. The heat exchanger is characterized by the fact that on the primary side the steam overheating surface is parallel to the afterheating and evaporating surfaces. The parallel heat transfer surfaces, afterheating and evaporating surfaces are connected to a common tube plate. The superheated steam outlet is formed by the central tube, the saturated steam by-pass channel is formed by a concentric tube. The steam superheating surface is formed by a cluster of U-tubes. Spatial U-tubes form the afterheating and the evaporating surfaces outside of the superheating surface. (Oy)

  19. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  20. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  1. Three Steam Generator Replacement Projects in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, R.; Clavier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Since the companies Siemens AG and Framatome S. A. joined their experience and efforts in the field of steam generator replacements and formed a consortium in 1991, the following projects were performed in 1995: Ringhals 3, Tihange 3 and Asco 1. Further projects will follow in 1996, i. e., Doel 4 and Asco 2. Currently, this European consortium is bidding for the contract to replace the steam generators at the Krsko NPP and hopes to be awarded in 1996. An overview of the way the Consortium Siemens and Framatome approaches SG replacement projects is given based on the projects performed in 1995. Various aspects of project planning, management, licensing, personnel qualification and techniques used on site will be discussed. (author)

  2. Steam injections wells: topics to consider in casing design of steam injection wells; Revestimento para pocos de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Antonio Carlos Farias [PETROBRAS, Recife, PE (Brazil). Gerencia de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Operacoes

    1994-07-01

    Steam injection is one of the processes used to increase production from very viscous oil reservoirs. A well is completed at a temperature of about 110 deg F and during steam injection that temperature varies around 600 deg F. Strain or breakdowns may occur to the casing, due to the critical conditions generated by the change of temperature. The usual casing design methods, do not take into account special environmental conditions, such as those which exist for steam injection. From the results of this study we come up to the conclusion that casing grade K-55, heavy weight with premium connections, without pre-stressing and adequately heated, is the best option for steam injection well completion for most of the fields in Brazil. (author)

  3. Optimization of the recovery factor by implementing a continuous steam injection pilot in the Huyapari Field located in the Orinoco oil belt. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Munckton, T.; Armas, F.; Johan, J.; Barrios, A. [PDVSA PetroPiar (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Located in Venezuela, the Orinoco heavy oil belt (Faja) is one of the world's biggest accumulations of extra heavy crude oil. Recovery rates in the Faja are relatively low and so one of the key objectives is to increase it. The thermal recovery process could be a way to increase production as it has been proven in other heavy oil fields and PDVSA has started a pilot project to test the process on the Faja reservoirs. This paper aimed at providing an overview of the project. The different steps of the Huyapari thermal pilot project are discussed: the objectives and challenges of the project, project design, uncertainty management, site selection, modeling of the site subsurface and optimization planning in terms of well configuration and constraints. This project is under development and further steps will be required before there are results but when there are, it is expected that they will provide valuable information on the technical and economic feasibility of thermal recovery projects in the Faja area.

  4. Steam generators of PWRs and plan of replacing steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodo, Takashi; Matsushita, Kiyohiko.

    1995-01-01

    Also in Japan, the plan of replacing steam generators which are one of most important equipments of PWRs is being advanced. In this report, the whole circumstances of the plan of replacing steam generators, such as the background that necessitated the replacement, the concrete plan of the replacement, the results of the replacement in foreign countries and others, are described in general. The function of steam generators is to form a part of the pressure boundary for confining reactor primary coolant, and to generate steam by the heat exchange between primary and secondary coolants. The basic structure is a shell and tube type heat exchanger having vertically installed, inverse U shape tubes, in which primary coolant flows. In Japan as of December, 1994, 22 PWR plants of 18,186 million kW output were in operation. The management of steam generators and the background of their replacement due to the fear of public about heating tube leak, the enormous cost of the inspection and repair, the restriction of power system operation and others are explained. As for the steam generators of Takahama No. 2, Oi No. 1 and Genkai No. 1 plants, the application for the replacement was made, and the breakdown of a tube occurred in Mihama No. 2 plant. The replacement of steam generators in Japan and foreign countries is reported. (K.I.)

  5. Bagasse-fired steam boiler station for Kenana Sugar in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The equipment and operation of the bagasse fired steam boiler station of the Kenana Sugar factory in Sudan are described. The station consists of six bagasse-fired, steam boilers with individual capacities of 113 tonnes per hour which provide steam for a 40 MN power station. During the off-season it serves as a regional power station which also operates irrigation facilities to the cane fields. The bagasse handling and feeding system is also described.

  6. On calculation of a steam-water flow in a geothermal well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulyupin, A. N.; Chermoshentseva, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    Approaches to calculation of a steam-water flow in a geothermal well are considered. For hydraulic applications, a WELL-4 model of a steam-water well is developed. Data obtained using this model are compared with experimental data and also with calculations by similar models including the well-known HOLA model. The capacity of the A-2 well in the Mutnovskoe flash-steam field (Kamchatka half-island, Russia) after planned reconstruction is predicted.

  7. Solar augmentation of conventional steam plants : From system studies to reality

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Miroslav P.; Salomon Popa, Marianne; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar energy is often available in abundant quantities in the vicinity of conventional steam power plants close to large energy-consumption centers, where also the need for clean add-on power is substantial. Fossil-fuel based power units (coal fired steam plants or natural gas fired combined cycles) can be augmented with solar thermal power for feedwater preheating or parallel steam generation. Especially relevant is if the solar field in such developments is designed to deliver lower tempera...

  8. An Improved Steam Injection Model with the Consideration of Steam Override

    OpenAIRE

    He , Congge; Mu , Longxin; Fan , Zifei; Xu , Anzhu; Zeng , Baoquan; Ji , Zhongyuan; Han , Haishui

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The great difference in density between steam and liquid during wet steam injection always results in steam override, that is, steam gathers on the top of the pay zone. In this article, the equation for steam override coefficient was firstly established based on van Lookeren’s steam override theory and then radius of steam zone and hot fluid zone were derived according to a more realistic temperature distribution and an energy balance in the pay zone. On this basis, th...

  9. Steam generator accident protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Martoch, J.

    1986-01-01

    The outbreak of an accident in separate heat exchange unit of a steam generator (all the heat exchange units being connected to an alkali metal circuit) will activate a stop valve and a relief valve. The two valves are placed at the input and output pipes of the damaged unit. The same valves will also close after a very short time the inflow of metal into the disturbed heat exchange unit and this will immediately, without any pressure shock, pipe the metal into an equalizer tank; they will also close the outflow of metal which together with the reaction products will be piped into the discharge tank. At the same time the stop valves on the feed water pipe are closed. The whole equipment shows excellent coordination and has standby elements which are put into operation when any of the elements fail. The failed unit is thus safely separated from the other units and may be independently repaired. (J.B.)

  10. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 (0.30 percent) in 1981. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that used all-volatile treatment since start-up. At one reactor a large number of degraded tubes were repaired by sleeving which is expected to become an important method of tube repair in the future

  11. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1980. Tube defects occurred at 38% of the 97 reactors surveyed. This is a marginal improvement over 1979 when defects occurred at 41% of the reactors. The number of failed tubes was also lower, 0.14% of the tubes in service in 1980 compared with 0.20% of those in service in 1979. Analysis of the causes of these failures indicates that stress corrosion cracking was the leading failure mechanism. Reactors that used all-volatile treatment of secondary water, with or without full-flow condensate demineralization since start-up showed the lowest incidence of corrosion-related defects

  12. CANDU steam generator life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Nickerson, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Spekkens, P.; Maruska, C. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-01-01

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDUutilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermalhydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified where improvements in operating practices and/or designs can be made in order to ensure steam generator design life at an acceptable capacity factory. (author)

  13. Thermodynamic properties of dissociated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Gudym, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    In connection with the development of hydrogen technologies and the generation of dissociated steam as a result of the oxidation of hydrogen in an oxygen environment, it became necessary to determine the calorific parameters of dissociated steam. In the existing tables, the caloric parameters of dissociated steam are presented at a reference temperature of 0 K. By contrast, the authors have developed tables of dissociated steam using a reference temperature of 0°C, within the pressure range 0.01–20.0 MPa and the temperature range 1250–4000 K, along with a system of equations for the industrial calculation of the properties of dissociated steam within the temperature range 1250–2300 K and pressure range 0.01–10.0 MPa, followed by a temperature range of 2200–3600 K. During the dissociation of steam, a mixture of eight components are formed including hydrogen H, oxygen O, radicals OH and HO2, molecules of hydrogen H2, oxygen O2, steam H2O, and hydrogen peroxide H2O2. All existing tables of the properties of dissociated steam are based on a mixture of six components: H2, O2, OH, H, O, and H2O. For evaluate whether this is an oversimplification, the composition of the mixture comprising all eight components was calculated, taking into account additional chemical reactions for the formation of HO2 and H2O2. At a pressure of 0.01 MPa, the maximum mole fraction of HO2 was 2.8·10‑5 at a temperature of 3000 K, and at a pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum mole fraction was 5·10‑5 at a temperature of 4000 K. The mole fraction of H2O2 was much lower. Thus at temperatures up to 3000 K, calculations of the properties of dissociated steam are restricted to six components.

  14. CANDU steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Nickerson, J.; Spekkens, P.; Maruska, C.

    1998-01-01

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermalhydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified where improvements in operating practices and/or designs can be made in order to ensure steam generator design life at an acceptable capacity factory. (author)

  15. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  16. Advanced technologies on steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Kaoru; Nakamura, Yuuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Takasago (Japan); Nakamori, Nobuo; Mizutani, Toshiyuki; Uwagawa, Seiichi; Saito, Itaru [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Kobe (Japan); Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Co., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The thermal-hydraulic tests for a horizontal steam generator of a next-generation PWR (New PWR-21) were performed. The purpose of these tests is to understand the thermal-hydraulic behavior in the secondary side of horizontal steam generator during the plant normal operation. A test was carried out with cross section slice model simulated the straight tube region. In this paper, the results of the test is reported, and the effect of the horizontal steam generator internals on the thermalhydraulic behavior of the secondary side and the circulation characteristics of the secondary side are discussed. (orig.). 3 refs.

  17. Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit No.1 at the implementation and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yuhua; Xiao Bo; He Liu; Huang Min

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.l purpose, range of experience, experiment preparation, implementation, feedback and response. Turn of nuclear steam turbo-generator set flush, using the main reactor coolant pump and regulator of the heat generated by the electric heating element and the total heat capacity in secondary circuit of reactor coolant system (steam generator secondary side) of saturated steam turbine rushed to 1500 RPM, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 implementation of the performance of the inspection of steam turbine and its auxiliary system, through the test problems found in the clean up in time, the nuclear steam sweep turn smooth realization has accumulated experience. At the same time, Fuqing nuclear power of nuclear steam turbine generating unit no.1 at turn is half speed steam turbine generator non-nuclear turn at the first, with its smooth realization of other nuclear power steam turbine generator set in the field of non-nuclear turn play a reference role. (authors)

  18. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doornmalen, J P C M; Kopinga, K

    2013-11-01

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1%) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M(TM) Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  19. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  20. Analysis of In-Situ Stress During EGS Resource Development at The Geysers, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, O. S.; Dreger, D. S.; Gritto, R.

    2016-12-01

    Creating, identifying, and managing fractures and flow paths are essential tasks during Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) resource development. Successful generation of a fracture network requires a priori knowledge of in-situ stress and natural fracture orientation and spacing. However, because the orientation and magnitude of in-situ stress may not be reliably available, and injecting fluids at high rates and volume may disturb the natural stress state, it is advantageous to monitor in-situ stress during the injection process. In this study we investigate M ≥ 1.3 seismicity in the vicinity of EGS development in the Northwest Geysers Prati 32 (P-32) injection well and Prati State 31 (PS-31) production well to determine moment magnitudes and focal mechanisms of events that occur before and during reservoir stimulation starting October 6, 2011. In general, event rate and magnitude increase as well as variability in focal mechanism during injection operations. We use our focal mechanism catalog of more than 150 events to estimate the stress tensor using the approach outlined in Hardebeck and Michaels (2006). Preliminary results of the stress inversion suggest temporal changes in the orientation of the principal stress axes during the first year of injection. It is found that the tension axis remains stable while the trend and plunge of the intermediate axis varies the most. The variations appear to be well resolved based on the 95% confidence intervals from the bootstrap analysis.

  1. Local population impacts of geothermal energy development in the Geysers: Calistoga region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haven, K.F.; Berg, V.; Ladson, Y.W.

    1980-09-01

    The country-level population increase implications of two long-term geothermal development scenarios for the Geysers region in California are addressed. This region is defined to include the counties of Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino and Napa, all four in northern California. The development scenarios include two components: development for electrical energy production and direct use applications. Electrical production scenarios are derived by incorporating current development patterns into previous development scenarios by both industry and research organizations. The scenarios are made county-specific, specific to the type of geothermal system constructed, and are projected through the year 2000. Separate high growth rate and low growth rate scenarios are developed, based on a set of specified assumptions. Direct use scenarios are estimated from the nature of the available resource, existing local economic and demographic patterns, and available experience with various separate direct use options. From the composite development scenarios, required numbers of direct and indirect employees and the resultant in-migration patterns are estimated. In-migration patterns are compared to current county level population and ongoing trends in the county population change for each of the four counties. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions of geothermal resource development to future population levels and the significance of geothermally induced population increase from a county planning perspective.

  2. Biogenicity of silica precipitation around geysers and hot-spring vents, North Island, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Rosen, M.R. [Wairakei Research Centre, Taupo (New Zealand). Inst. of Geological and Nuclear Sciences

    1997-01-01

    Before anthropogenic modifications, Ohaaki Pool (Broadlands-Ohaaki) and Dragon`s Mouth Geyser (Wairakei) emitted waters at temperatures of 93--98 C. The siliceous sinter that precipitated around their vents has the characteristics of geyserite, a dense laminated deposit of presumed abiogenic origin, that was precipitated from waters too hot (>73C) to support microbes other than thermophilic bacteria. Petrographic and SEM examinations of the sinters show that they incorporate columnar stromatolites and silicified, laminated stromatolitic mats that contain well-preserved filamentous microbes. At both localities the microbes lack evidence of desiccation or shrinkage, which implies that they were silicified rapidly at or shortly after their death. Although boiling and very hot (>90 C) waters were discharged, temperatures at many sites surrounding the vents remained sufficiently low and moist to support a microbial community that included thermophilic bacteria and cyanobacteria. In these cooler niches, the microbes and their biofilms served as highly favorable templates for the nucleation and growth of amorphous silica, and collectively provided a microbial framework for the laminated accretionary sinter. Some columnar, spicular, and stratiform geyserites are probably not abiotic precipitates, but are true silica stromatolites.

  3. Status of the S.E. Geysers effluent pipeline & injection project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellinger, M. [Lake County Sanitation District, Lakeport, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A unique public/private partnership of local, state, federal, and corporate stakeholders is constructing the world`s first wastewater-to-electricity system in Lake County, California. A rare example of a genuinely {open_quotes}sustainable{close_quotes} system, three Lake County communities will recycle their treated wastewater effluent through the Geysers geothermal steamfield to produce an estimated 625,000 MWh of electricity annually from six existing geothermal power plants. The concept is shown schematically. Construction was initiated in October 1995, and as of this writing, the system is approximately 85% complete. Operational start-up is expected in October 1997. The key to the project`s success thus far has been its emphasis on cooperative action among affected stakeholders; and a broad, community-based view of solving problems rather than the traditional, narrower view of engineering-driven technical solutions. Special attention has been given to environmentally-responsive engineering design to avoid or minimize adverse environmental impacts.

  4. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Jaoquin Basin, California. Annual report, June 13, 1995--June 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.; Jenkins, C.; Sprinkel, D.; Swain, R.; Wydrinski, R.; Schamel, S.

    1998-09-01

    This project reactivates ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  5. Steam generator blowdown system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tien P.; Kim, David H.; Jindal, Krishan K.

    2004-01-01

    The steam generator blowdown (SGBD) system is used to remove impurities from the steam generators in order to maintain steam generator (SG) water chemistry within specifications. The original SGBD systems at Diablo Canyon power plant (DCPP) were designed in the early 1970s, and since that time the industry has changed its practices regarding water chemistry. DCPP has operated its SGBD system above its design flow rate. This resulted in a history of high maintenance and unreliable operation. Subsequently, DCPP implemented extensive modifications in order to accommodate the higher industry standard flow rates. These modifications resulted in a more reliable and rugged system. Additionally, significant savings were realized due to an increase in net plant output and a reduction in the required plant makeup water by recovering steam generator blowdown. (author)

  6. Steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inch, W.W.; Scott, D.A.; Carver, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses a code for detailed numerical modelling of steam generator thermal-hydraulics, and describes related experimental programs designed to promote in-depth understanding of three-dimensional two-phase flow. (auth)

  7. Model of reverse steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malasek, V.; Manek, O.; Masek, V.; Riman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The claim of Czechoslovak discovery no. 239272 is a model designed for the verification of the properties of a reverse steam generator during the penetration of water, steam-water mixture or steam into liquid metal flowing inside the heat exchange tubes. The design may primarily be used for steam generators with a built-in inter-tube structure. The model is provided with several injection devices configured in different heat exchange tubes, spaced at different distances along the model axis. The design consists in that between the pressure and the circumferential casings there are transverse partitions and that in one chamber consisting of the circumferential casings, pressure casing and two adjoining partitions there is only one passage of the injection device through the inter-tube space. (Z.M.). 1 fig

  8. Use of steam storage batteries at breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilenkov, A.M.; Kulakov, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    In the example of the brewing shop, a technique is examined for calculating the main technical-economic characteristics of the heat storage. The main consumers of steam at the breweries with the existing technological plans operate cyclically which results in considerable nonuniform graph for steam consumption. In order to smooth the fluctuations in steam consumption one can successfully use the proposed Roots steam storage, a sealed vessel filled partially with water, with devices for bubbling steam.

  9. Spiral inlets for steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škach, Radek; Uher, Jan

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the design process of special nozzle blades for spiral inlets. Spiral inlets are used for the first stages of high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines with both reaction and impulse blades when throttling or sliding pressure control is applied. They improve the steam flow uniformity from the inlet pipe and thus decrease the aerodynamic losses. The proposed evaluation of the inlet angle is based on the free vortex law.

  10. Research program plan: steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscara, J.; Serpan, C.Z. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    This document presents a plan for research in Steam Generators to be performed by the Materials Engineering Branch, MEBR, Division of Engineering Technology, (EDET), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It is one of four plans describing the ongoing research in the corresponding areas of MEBR activity. In order to answer the questions posed, the Steam Generator Program has been organized with the three elements of non-destructive examination; mechanical integrity testing; and corrosion, cleaning and decontamination

  11. Options for Steam Generator Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Gregor; Amcoff, Bjoern; Robinson, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best option for decommissioning steam generators is a key consideration in preparing for decommissioning PWR nuclear power plants. Steam Generators represent a discrete waste stream of large, complex items that can lend themselves to a variety of options for handling, treatment, recycling and disposal. Studsvik has significant experience in processing full size Steam Generators at its metal recycling facility in Sweden, and this paper will introduce the Studsvik steam generator treatment concept and the results achieved to date across a number of projects. The paper will outline the important parameters needed at an early stage to assess options and to help consider the balance between off-site and on-site treatment solutions, and the role of prior decontamination techniques. The paper also outlines the use of feasibility studies and demonstration projects that have been used to help customers prepare for decommissioning. The paper discusses physical, radiological and operational history data, Pro and Contra factors for on- and off-site treatment, the role of chemical decontamination prior to treatment, planning for off-site shipments as well as Studsvik experience This paper has an original focus upon the coming challenges of steam generator decommissioning and potential external treatment capacity constraints in the medium term. It also focuses on the potential during operations or initial shut-down to develop robust plans for steam generator management. (authors)

  12. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    on Ni-based catalysts during SR of ethanol were investigated in a flow reactor. Four different supports for Ni were tested and Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 showed the highest activity, but also suffered from severe carbon deposition at 600 °C or below. Operation at 600 °C or above were needed for full conversion......Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...... of ethanol over the most active catalysts at the applied conditions. At these temperatures the offgas composition was close to the thermodynamical equilibrium. Operation at high temperatures, 700 °C and 750 °C, gave the lowest carbon deposition corresponding to 30–60 ppm of the carbon in the feed ending...

  13. “Om nie te dink bó wat in die Skrif geskrywe staan nie” – konsistensie en ontwikkeling in die teologie van Piet Geyser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries G. van Aarde

    2004-10-01

    This article reflects a conversation between Andries G van Aarde and Piet A Geyser. P A Geyser was professor of Biblical and Religious Studies at the University of Pretoria. He retired in January 2004. The following issues are discussed: critique against the Calvinist doctrine of predestination from the perspective of Karl Barth’s theology; the unity of the church; theology for lay people; the authority of Scripture; the relevance of historical Jesus studies; Biblical testimony on homosexuality and the pastoral care of gays. The article aims to demonstrate the growth and development in Geyser’s hermeneutics while he remains within the parameters of Scripture.

  14. Design of SMART steam generator cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    Basic design development for the steam generator to be installed in the integral reactor SMART has been performed. Optimization of the steam generator shape, determination of the basic dimension and confirmation of the structural strength have been carried out. Individual steam generator cassette can be replaced in the optimized design concept of steam generator. Shape design of the steam generator cassette has been done on the computer based on 3-D CAE strategy. The structural integrity of the developed steam generator was investigated by performing the dynamic analysis for the steam generator cassette, flow induced vibration analysis for the tube bundle, and the thermo-mechanical analysis for the module header and tube. As for the manufacturing of steam generator, the numerical and the experimental simulation have been carried to control the amount of spring back and to eliminate residual stress. SMART steam generator cassette was developed by a sequential research of the aforementioned activities

  15. Steam jacket dynamics in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide hydrocarbon reserves by utilization of deposits not economically mineable by conventional methods. In this context, UCG involves combusting coal in-situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from high economic potentials, in-situ combustion may cause environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution by by-product leakage. In order to prevent or significantly mitigate these potential environmental concerns, UCG reactors are generally operated below hydrostatic pressure to limit the outflow of UCG process fluids into overburden aquifers. This pressure difference effects groundwater inflow into the reactor and prevents the escape of product gas. In the close reactor vicinity, fluid flow determined by the evolving high reactor temperatures, resulting in the build-up of a steam jacket. Numerical modeling is one of the key components to study coupled processes in in-situ combustion. We employed the thermo-hydraulic numerical simulator MUFITS (BINMIXT module) to address the influence of reactor pressure dynamics as well as hydro-geological coal and caprock parameters on water inflow and steam jacket dynamics. The US field trials Hanna and Hoe Creek (Wyoming) were applied for 3D model validation in terms of water inflow matching, whereby the good agreement between our modeling results and the field data indicates that our model reflects the hydrothermal physics of the process. In summary, our validated model allows a fast prediction of the steam jacket dynamics as well as water in- and outflows, required to avoid aquifer contamination during the entire life cycle of in-situ combustion operations.

  16. A study on the steam generator data base and the evaluation of chemical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kyung Rin; Yoo, Je Hyoo; Lee, Eun He; Hong, Kwang Pum

    1990-01-01

    In order to make steam generator data base, the basic plant information and water quality control data on the steam generators of the PWR nuclear power plant operating in the world have been collected by EPRI. In this project, the basic information and water quality control data of the domestic PWR nuclear power plants were collected to make steam generator data base on the basic of the EPRI format table, and the computerization of them was performed. Also, the technical evaluation of chemical environments on steam generator of the Kori 2 plant chemists. Workers and researchers working at the research institute and universities and so on. Especially, it is able to be used as a basic plant information in order to develop an artificial intellegence development system in the field on the technical development of the chemical environment. The scope and content of the project are following. The data base on the basic information data in domestic PWR plant. The steam generator data base on water quality control data. The evaluation on the chemical environment in the steam generators of the Kori 2 plant. From previous data, it is concluded as follows. The basic plant information on the domestic PWR power plant were computerized. The steam generator data base were made on the basis of EPRI format table. The chemical environment of the internal steam generators could be estimated from the analytical evaluation of water quality control data of the steam generator blowdown. (author)

  17. Electropolishing process development for PWR steam generator channel heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, R.H.; Graves, P.; Guastaferro, C.T.; Spalaris, C.N.

    1991-04-01

    A broad range of process parameters was established to smoothen the surface of 309 L weld clad overlay, prototypic of surfaces common is channel heads of replacement PWR [pressurized water reactor] steam generators. Mechanical and electropolishing steps were studied to explore process boundaries, which result in acceptable degree of surface smoothness, without compromising metallurgical properties. Recommended processes and acceptance criteria established in this work, can be applied to electropolish steam generator channel heads. Smooth surfaces are less likely to retain radioactive species, and potentially develop lower radiation fields when these components are placed into service. 7 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant steam generator owners group II: examination of 3 tubes removed from steam generator No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchirka, P.; Madeyski, A.; Pearson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The No. 12 steam generator at Prairie Island Unit 1 has experienced some degradation of the hot leg tubes within the tube sheet region. The history of the degradation is given. A comparison of the rate of degradation of No. 12 steam generator with similar rates at Point Beach and Ginna is presen. The No. 11 steam generator has not experienced similar degradation. To investigate the cause and degree of degradation and to obtain correlation of field eddy current (EC) indications with actual conditions, the three hot leg tube segments were removed from the No. 12 steam generator for laboratory EC testing and destructive examination. Two of the tubes had field EC indications in the tube sheet region and one was apparently free of indications. The results of the testing and examinations are given. These tests showed that the lab EC correlated well with the destructive exam, but the field EC did not. The lab EC detected defects that are >35% thru wall, whereas the field EC detected defects that are >80%. The principle degradation was intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the tube sheet region with some uniform intergranular attack. The clean tube had randomly distributed IGA with a maximum depth of 15%. tube/tube sheet deposit chemical analysis does not support the existence of a caustic environment. The conclusions of this work are given

  19. Water box for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, Robert; Viaud, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a water box for connecting an assembly composed of a vertical steam generator and a vertical pump to the vessel of the nuclear reactor, the assembly forming the primary cooling system of a pressurised water reactor. This invention makes it easy to dismantle the pump on the water box without significant loss of water in the primary cooling system of the reactor and particularly without it being necessary to drain the water contained in the steam generator beforehand. It makes it possible to shorten the time required for dismantling the primary pump in order to service or repair it and makes dismantling safer in that the dismantling does not involve draining the steam generator and therefore the critical storage of a large amount of cooling water that has been in contact with the fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactor core [fr

  20. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  1. Study group meeting on steam generators for LMFBR's. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The Meeting organised by IAEA international working group on fast reactors which considered that the subject of sodium heated steam generators was a topic which needed study by the experts of several disciplines. For example: people who design such steam generators, specialists in the field of sodium water reactions, experts in material and water chemistry and members of the utilities who would be the customers for such units. Besides the exchange of large amount of information, it was considered that further special studies were necessary for the following subjects: materials; maintenance and repair; operating procedures and control of steam generators. A separate study of sodium-water reactions was recommended considering the safety aspects related to large water leakage and economic advantage of possible detection and protection against small water leaks

  2. Steam reforming of light oxygenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Resasco, Daniel E; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of ethanol, acetic acid, acetone, acetol, 1-propanol, and propanal has been investigated over Ni/MgAl2O4 at temperatures between 400 and 700 degrees C and at a steam-to-carbon-ratio (S/C) of 6. The yield of H-2 and conversion increased with temperature, while the yield of by-...... of CH4. Significant deactivation of the catalyst was observed for all of the compounds and was mainly due to carbon formation. The carbon formation was highest for alcohols due to a high formation of olefins, which are potent coke precursors....

  3. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  4. Study of liquid and steam tracers at the Maritaro - La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en la zona Maritaro - La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos, (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    We ran two simultaneous tracer tests in the Maritaro-La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres geothermal field in Mexico. We wished to determine whether or not fluids injected in well Az-15 recharged the productive areas of six production wells and to estimate the fractions of injected fluid recovered in them, if any. Because only three of the wells produce water and all of them produce steam, two tracers were used, sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) for the gas phase and 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonate (1,3,6-nts) for the liquid phase. All of the observation wells recorded SF{sub 6}, and the three water-producing wells recorded 1,3,6-nts, proving that fluids injected in well Az-15 do recharge the area of interest. When sampling was suspended, the three water-producing wells were still producing 1,3,6-nts at significant rates. The total recovery of 1,3,6-nts at wells Az-65D, Az-04 and Az-28, 279 days after injection when sampling was halted, were, respectively, 6.1%, 0.90% y 0.16%, for a total of 7.61%. We concluded that these quantities constitute the lower boundaries for the respective recovery factors. When sampling was halted, wells Az-65D, Az-66D and Az-30 were still producing some SF{sub 6} at lower rates, and the rest of the wells were no longer recording the gas phase tracer. The total recovery of SF{sub 6} at wells Az-65D, Az-04, Az-41, Az-30, Az-28 and Az-66D were, respectively, 4.82 e-02%, 1.37 e-03%, 1.48 e-03%, 6.38 e-04%, 1.38 e-03% y 4.31 e-04%, for a total of 5.35 e-02%. The liquid recharge occurred in orders of magnitude greater than the steam. [Spanish] Se efectuaron dos pruebas simultaneas en la zona Maritaro-La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., Mexico. Los objetivos de estas pruebas fueron determinar si la salmuera de desecho inyectada en el pozo Az-15 recarga las zonas de alimentacion de seis pozos productores designados por CFE, y estimar que fraccion de lo inyectado recarga dichos pozos productores. Debido a que solo tres de los pozos

  5. Steam-generator dose rates on Westinghouse pressurized-water reactors. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Steam generator channel head radiation field data from nineteen Westinghouse PWR nuclear power plants were evaluated to define trends and determine factors which can influence these trends. The steam generator channel head data are the largest consistent set of radiation field data available at this time. Nine plants with measurements reported for a period of at least two effective full power years form the basis for the majority of the evaluations. All of the reported dose rates presented together yield no obvious trend. Although some individual steam generators show what may be the beginning of a trend, of a decreasing rate of radiation field buildup, not enough data is available to identify a trend. Comparisons were performed on dose rates buildup on the basis of several parameters. However, none of these parameters could be identified as a primary influence on steam generator channel head radiaton fields. 14 figures, 2 tables

  6. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  7. STEAM DALAM PEMBUATAN PAKAN UNTUK KOMODITAS AKUAKULTUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarman Sukarman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas fisik pakan (pelet untuk hewan akuakultur sangat penting, karena akan dimasukkan ke dalam air dan diharapkan tidak banyak mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh dalam menjaga kualitas fisik pakan adalah penambahan dan pengaturan steam pada saat proses pembuatan pelet. Steam adalah aliran gas yang dihasilkan oleh air pada saat mendidih. Steam dibagi menjadi 3 jenis yaitu steam basah, saturated steam, dan superheated steam. Steam yang digunakan dalam proses pembuatan pelet adalah saturated steam. Pengaruh penambahan steam pada kualitas pelet bisa mencapai 20%. Penambahan steam dengan jumlah dan kualitas yang tepat akan menghasilkan pelet berkualitas. Sedangkan jika pengaturan dan penambahannya tidak tepat, maka kualitas fisik pelet akan rendah dan kemungkinan bisa merusak kandungan nutrisi seperti vitamin dan protein. Penambahan steam yang benar bisa dilakukan di dalam kondisioner dengan mengatur retention time, sudut kemiringan paddle conditioner, kecepatan putaran bearing dan menjaga kualitas steam dari mesin boiler sampai dengan kondisioner.

  8. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morante, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hambric, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ziada, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  9. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  10. Accurate estimation of seismic source parameters of induced seismicity by a combined approach of generalized inversion and genetic algorithm: Application to The Geysers geothermal area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, M.; Oth, A.; Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; De Landro, G.; Amoroso, O.

    2017-05-01

    The accurate determination of stress drop, seismic efficiency, and how source parameters scale with earthquake size is an important issue for seismic hazard assessment of induced seismicity. We propose an improved nonparametric, data-driven strategy suitable for monitoring induced seismicity, which combines the generalized inversion technique together with genetic algorithms. In the first step of the analysis the generalized inversion technique allows for an effective correction of waveforms for attenuation and site contributions. Then, the retrieved source spectra are inverted by a nonlinear sensitivity-driven inversion scheme that allows accurate estimation of source parameters. We therefore investigate the earthquake source characteristics of 633 induced earthquakes (Mw 2-3.8) recorded at The Geysers geothermal field (California) by a dense seismic network (i.e., 32 stations, more than 17.000 velocity records). We find a nonself-similar behavior, empirical source spectra that require an ωγ source model with γ > 2 to be well fit and small radiation efficiency ηSW. All these findings suggest different dynamic rupture processes for smaller and larger earthquakes and that the proportion of high-frequency energy radiation and the amount of energy required to overcome the friction or for the creation of new fractures surface changes with earthquake size. Furthermore, we observe also two distinct families of events with peculiar source parameters that in one case suggests the reactivation of deep structures linked to the regional tectonics, while in the other supports the idea of an important role of steeply dipping faults in the fluid pressure diffusion.

  11. A real case of steam-cured concrete track slab premature deterioration due to ASR and DEF

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Kunlin; Long, Guangcheng; Xie, Youjun

    2017-01-01

    Deterioration mechanisms of some premature damaged steam-cured concrete track slabs (CTS) in Chinese railway less than 4 years were investigated. Field investigation, raw materials test and suspicious products analysis were carried out. Results show that steam-cured heat damage (SCHD) of concrete takes place in steam-cured process. Expansion products are ettringite in hydrated products and alkali-silica gels between the interface of hydrated products and coarse aggregate. SCHD makes CTS surfa...

  12. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  13. Technical diagnostics of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, B.; Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with practical experience in application of technical diagnostics methods to steam turbines, in particular using pedestal and shaft vibration measurements as well as estimation of bearing metal temperature and ultrasound emission signals. An estimation of effectiveness of the diagnostics methods used is given on the basis of experimental investigations made on a 30-MW turbine. (author)

  14. Steam generator tube integrity program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The degradation of steam generator tubes in pressurized water nuclear reactors continues to be a serious problem, and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing a performance-based rule and regulatory guide for steam generator tube integrity. To support the evaluation of industry-proposed implementation of these performance-based criteria, the NRC is sponsoring a new research program at Argonne National Laboratory on steam generator tubing degradation. The objective of the new program is to provide the necessary experimental data and predictive correlations and models that will permit the NRC to independently evaluate the integrity of steam generator tubes. The technical work in the program is divided into four tasks, (1) assessment of inspection reliability, (2) research on in-service inspection technology, (3) research on degradation modes and integrity, and (4) development of methodology and technical assessments for current and emerging regulatory issues. The objectives of and planned research activities under each of these four tasks are described here. (orig.)

  15. Steam-water relative permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  16. Nuclear process steam for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, W.A.

    1981-11-01

    A joint industrial survey funded by the Bruce County Council, the Ontario Energy Corporation and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was carried out with the cooperation of Ontario Hydro and the Ontario Ministry of Industry and Tourism. Its objective was to identify and assess the future needs and interest of energy-intensive industries in an Industrial Energy Park adjacent to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development. The Energy Park would capitalize on the infrastructure of the existing CANDU reactors and Ontario Hydro's proven and unique capability to produce steam, as well as electricity, at a cost currently about half that from a comparable coal-fired station. Four industries with an integrated steam demand of some 1 x 10 6 lb/h were found to be prepared to consider seriously the use of nuclear steam. Their combined plants would involve a capital investment of over $200 million and provide jobs for 350-400 people. The high costs of transportation and the lack of docking facilities were considered to be the major drawbacks of the Bruce location. An indication of steam prices would be required for an over-all economic assessment

  17. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600ÀC were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580ÀC, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320ÀC) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600ÀC and the other 565ÀC. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565ÀC. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  18. Effects of band-steaming on microbial activity and abundance in organic farming soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Jørgensen, Martin Heide; Elmholt, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Band-steaming of arable soil at 80-90 degrees C kill off weed seeds prior to crop establishment which allows an extensive intra-row weed control. Here we evaluated the side-effects of in situ band-steaming on soil respiration, enzyme activities, and numbers of culturable bacteria and fungi...... in an organic field soil. The results showed that mechanical disturbance created by band-steaming could be neglected as a mediator of microbial changes. Also, soil pH and water content was unaffected by band-steaming. Effects of band-steaming on in situ soil respiration and basal respiration, respectively, were...... whereas the number of fungal propagules was reduced by 50% (P effects, but with weaker recovery potential...

  19. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  20. Design of steam-hexane injection wells for gravity drainage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.E. [Fractical Solutions Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Recovery of bitumen from the Athabasca Oil Sands region has involved using the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. However, concerns with the method have been expressed because of the relatively high use of energy represented in high steam oil ratios. Several studies and field trials have investigated the addition of solvents to steam in order to reduce energy consumption levels. One of the most promising substances has been the use of hexane or a similar commercial grade naphtha mixture as a solvent, as it would match the vapor pressure curve of steam and would tend to flow and condense with the steam. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the implications of the addition of hexane to steam with respect to the design of SAGD/solvent injection wells. It reviewed the design of a typical steam-hexane injection well by first determining the expected range of injection conditions and then calculating the performance of the well. The paper also discussed specification of injection well design rates as well as the detailed injection well design. It was concluded that injection wells for steam-hexane SAGD would require the same diameter wellbores as for conventional SAGD injection wells. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  1. Absence of dynamic triggering inside the Coso geothermal field following the 1992 Mw7.3 Landers earthquake: an indication of low pore pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Lin, G.; Zhan, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal fields are often considered to be susceptible to dynamic triggering because they are likely to be at near-critical stress state and involved with fluid movement in tectonically active extensional regimes. The 1992 Mw7.3 Landers earthquake dynamically triggered widespread earthquakes, especially at active geothermal areas, such as Long Valley, the Geysers and Coso (Hill et al., 1993). Dynamic triggering in Coso, southern California, is often referred to the broad area around the geothermal field. In this study, we investigate the spatial distribution of triggered events in Coso following the Landers earthquake and find no triggered events inside the geothermal field. The Coso geothermal production area is around 6*10 km2, confined between the Coso Hot Springs and the Sugarloaf Mountain. We estimate the b-value and completeness magnitude from a relocation catalog in the geothermal field to be 1.09 and M1.0, respectively. Based on the relocations for events above magnitude 1.0, we select seven small areas to compare the seismicity rate before and after the Landers earthquake. No seismicity was detected inside the geothermal field within 30 days after the Landers earthquake, whereas the surrounding fault zones outside of the geothermal field display strong elevated seismicity rate, including a segment of the Airport Lake Fault zone where the background seismicity was low before the Landers earthquake. The production area lacking of triggered events correlates with strong subsidence from the InSAR study by Fialko and Simons (2000), which may indicate low pore pressure in the area. This observation is further supported by the low Vp/Vs ratios from our recent 3D tomography model since Vp/Vs ratio decreases with pore pressure reduction (Ito et al., 1979, Christensen, 1984). Our results imply that the geothermal production of hot water and steam in Coso may have decreased the pore pressure and brought the stress state away from the critical state.

  2. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  3. Designing steam generators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanak, D.

    1989-01-01

    The existing types, their performance, assets and shortcomings are given for vertical steam generators manufactured by Combustion Engineering and by Westinghouse, for through-flow steam generators with slight overheating of the withdrawn steam manufactured by Babcock, and for horizontally positioned WWER-440 and WWER-1000 steam generators. The steam generator for the WWER-1000 reactors of the Temelin nuclear power plant is dealt with in detail. Its design and structural materials used are given. The procedure for strength calculations of the pressure parts of the steam generator by the finite elements method, the in-service diagnostics system as well as the device for simulating corrosion phenomena in steam generators are described. (E.J.). 6 figs., 26 refs

  4. Horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubra, O. [SKODA Praha Company, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-09-01

    Horizontal steam generators are typical components of nuclear power plants with pressure water reactor type VVER. Thermal-hydraulic behavior of horizontal steam generators is very different from the vertical U-tube steam generator, which has been extensively studied for several years. To contribute to the understanding of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics a computer program for 3-D steady state analysis of the PGV-1000 steam generator has been developed. By means of this computer program, a detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermodynamic study of the horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 has been carried out and a set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained. The 3-D distribution of the void fraction and 3-D level profile as functions of load and secondary side pressure have been investigated and secondary side volumes and masses as functions of load and pressure have been evaluated. Some of the interesting results of calculations are presented in the paper.

  5. Unsteady coupling effects of wet steam in steam turbines flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional turbomachinery problems, both the behavior and performances of steam turbines are highly dependent on the vapour thermodynamic state and the presence of a liquid phase. EDF, the main French electricity producer, is interested in further developing its' modelling capabilities and expertise in this area to allow for operational studies and long-term planning. This PhD thesis explores the modelling of wetness formation and growth in a steam turbine and an analysis of the coupling between the liquid phase and the main flow unsteadiness. To this end, the work in this thesis took the following approach. Wetness was accounted for using a homogeneous model coupled with transport equations to take into account the effects of non-equilibrium phenomena, such as the growth of the liquid phase and nucleation. The real gas attributes of the problem demanded adapted numerical methods. Before their implementation in the 3D elsA solver, the accuracy of the chosen models was tested using a developed one-dimensional nozzle code. In this manner, various condensation models were considered, including both poly-dispersed and monodispersed behaviours of the steam. Finally, unsteady coupling effects were observed from several perspectives (1D, 1D - 3D, 3D), demonstrating the ability of the method of moments to sustain unsteady phenomena which were not apparent in a simple monodispersed model. (author)

  6. Analysis and potential of once-through steam generators in line focus systems - Final results of the DUKE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhoff, Jan Fabian; Hirsch, Tobias; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    The direct steam generation in line focus systems such as parabolic troughs and linear Fresnel collectors is one option for providing `solar steam' or heat. Commercial power plants use the recirculation concept, in which the steam generation is separated from the superheating by a steam drum. This paper analyzes the once-through mode as an advanced solar field concept. It summarizes the results of the DUKE project on loop design, a new temperature control strategy, thermo-mechanical stress analysis, and an overall cost analysis. Experimental results of the temperature control concept at the DISS test facility at Plataforma Solar de Almería are presented.

  7. Steam generator tube vibration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderlin, W.I.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical cleaning has been proposed to remove magnetite buildup in some pressurized water reactor steam generators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed concern that such cleaning would combine with the tube denting caused by magnetite formation to enlarge tube/tube support plate clearances, increasing the level of flow-induced vibrations that could lead to unacceptably high tube wear and failure rates. In support of NRC, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory investigated whether such increased clearances would exacerbate tube fretting wear. Using a full-length scale model of a steam generator tube bundle, flow tests were conducted at an instrumented location through clearances representing as-built and post-cleaned tube conditions. Test results indicated little potential for increased tube wear as a result of chemical cleaning, under normal operating conditions at tube support locations similar to that tested

  8. Steam generator waterlancing at DNGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppala, D.; Malaugh, J.

    1995-01-01

    Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) is a four 900 MW Unit nuclear station forming part of the Ontario Hydro East System. There are four identical steam generators(SGs) per reactor unit. The Darlington SGs are vertical heat exchangers with an inverted U-tube bundle in a cylindrical shell. The DNGS Nuclear Plant Life Assurance Group , a department of DNGS Engineering Services have taken a Proactive Approach to ensure long term SG integrity. Instead of waiting until the tubesheets are covered by a substantial and established hard deposit; DNGS plan to clean each steam generator's tubesheet, first half lattice tube support assembly and bottom of the thermal plate every four years. The ten year business plan provides for cleaning and inspection to be conducted on all four SGs in each unit during maintenance outages (currently scheduled for every four years)

  9. Site Specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis for Surrounding Communities of The Geysers Geothermal Development Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M.; Hutchings, L. J.; Savy, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a probabilistic seismic hazard and risk analysis from induced and tectonic earthquakes for a 50 km radius area centered on The Geysers, California and for the next ten years. We calculate hazard with both a conventional and physics-based approach. We estimate site specific hazard. We convert hazard to risk of nuisance and damage to structures per year and map the risk. For the conventional PSHA we assume the past ten years is indicative of hazard for the next ten years from Mnoise. Then, we interpolate within each geologic unit in finely gridded points. All grid points within a unit are weighted by distance from each data collection point. The entire process is repeated for all of the other types of geologic units until the entire area is gridded and assigned a hazard value for every grid points. We found that nuisance and damage risks calculated by both conventional and physics-based approaches provided almost identical results. This is very surprising since they were calculated by completely independent means. The conventional approach used the actual catalog of the past ten years of earthquakes to estimate the hazard for the next ten year. While the physics-based approach used geotechnical modeling to calculate the catalog for the next ten years. Similarly, for the conventional PSHA, we utilized attenuation relations from past earthquakes recorded at the Geysers to translate the ground motion from the source to the site. While for the physics-based approach we calculated ground motion from simulation of actual earthquake rupture. Finally, the source of the earthquakes was the actual source for the conventional PSHA. While, we assumed random fractures for the physics-based approach. From all this, we consider the calculation of the conventional approach, based on actual data, to validate the physics-based approach used.

  10. Corrosion of PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnsey, R.

    1979-01-01

    Some designs of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators have experienced a variety of corrosion problems which include stress corrosion cracking, tube thinning, pitting, fatigue, erosion-corrosion and support plate corrosion resulting in 'denting'. Large international research programmes have been mounted to investigate the phenomena. The operational experience is reviewed and mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the corrosion damage are presented. The implications for design development and for boiler and feedwater control are discussed. (author)

  11. Optimal design of marine steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengyang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The marine steam turbine is one of the key equipment in marine power plant, and it tends to using high power steam turbine, which makes the steam turbine to be heavier and larger, it causes difficulties to the design and arrangement of the steam turbine, and the marine maneuverability is seriously influenced. Therefore, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques to the design of the steam turbine in order to achieve the minimum weight or volume by means of finding the optimum combination of design parameters. The math model of the marine steam turbine design calculation was established. The sensitivities of condenser pressure, power ratio of HP turbine with LP turbine, and the ratio of diameter with height at the end stage of LP turbine, which influence the weight of the marine steam turbine, were analyzed. The optimal design of the marine steam turbine, aiming at the weight minimization while satisfying the structure and performance constraints, was carried out with the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that, steam turbine weight is reduced by 3.13% with the optimization scheme. Finally, the optimization results were analyzed, and the steam turbine optimization design direction was indicated. (authors)

  12. Design features of Advanced Power Reactor (APR) 1400 steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae-Jung; Park, Jun-Soo; Kim, Moo-Yong

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400) which is to achieve the improvement of the safety and economical efficiency has been developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) with the support from industries and research institutes. The steam generator for APR 1400 is an evolutionary type from System 80 + , which is the recirculating U-tube heat exchanger with integral economizer. Compared to the System 80 + steam generator, it is focused on the improved design features, operating and design conditions of APR 1400 steam generator. Especially, from the operation experience of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) steam generator, the lessons-learned measures are incorporated to prevent the tube wear caused by flow-induced vibration (FIV). The concepts for the preventive design features against FIV are categorized to two fields; flow distribution and dynamic response characteristics. From the standpoint of flow distribution characteristics, the egg-crate flow distribution plate (EFDP) is installed to prevent the local excessive flow loaded on the most susceptible tube to wear. The parametric study is performed to select the optimum design with the efficient mitigation of local excessive flow. ATHOS3 Mod-01 is used and partly modified to analyze the flow field of the APR 1400 steam generator. In addition, the upper tube bundle support is designed to eliminate the presence of tube with a low natural frequency. Based on the improved upper tube bundle support, the modal analysis is performed and compared with that of System 80 + . Using the results of flow distribution and modal analysis, the two mechanisms of flow-induced vibration are investigated; fluid-elastic instability (FEI) and random turbulence excitation (RTE). (authors)

  13. Large nuclear steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, Haruo; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Kunio; Fujita, Isao; Ebata, Sakae; Nagai, Yoji.

    1986-01-01

    The technical development of the large capacity steam turbines for ABWR plants was partially completed, and that in progress is expected to be completed soon. In this report, the outline of those new technologies is described. As the technologies for increasing the capacity and heightening the efficiency, 52 in long blades and moisture separating heaters are explained. Besides, in the large bore butterfly valves developed for making the layout compact, the effect of thermal efficiency rise due to the reduction of pressure loss can be expected. As the new technology on the system side, the simplification of the turbine system and the effect of heightening the thermal efficiency by high pressure and low pressure drain pumping-up method based on the recent improvement of feed water quality are discussed. As for nuclear steam turbines, the actual records of performance of 1100 MW class, the largest output at present, have been obtained, and as a next large capacity machine, the development of a steam turbine of 1300 MWe class for an ABWR plant is in progress. It can be expected that by the introduction of those new technologies, the plants having high economical efficiency are realized. (Kako, I.)

  14. Leak suppression at steam generator man-, hand-, and eyeholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvain, C.; Sutz, P.; Gemma, A.

    1988-01-01

    Plant unavailability associated with primary and secondary holes is approximately the same as that caused by steam generator tube defects, i.e., 0.5%. Problems encountered with steam generator man-, hand-, and eyeholes during plant operation have led Electricite de France (EdF) and Framatome to improve hole seal design and to develop robots for closing and cleaning them. The data base available in France in this field on some 150 steam generators in 900- and 1300-MW(electric) pressurized water reactors (the equivalent of 300 reactor-yr of operation) has been the base of the developments described in this paper. Incidents occurring in operation primarily concern had-and inspection holes located on the steam generator's secondary side. They include four kinds: (1) leakage detected in operation, requiring forced outages, (2) leakage detected during plant restart after a scheduled shutdown and resulting in a restart delay, (3) pitting of seal mating surfaces, not inducing any leakage but jeopardizing subsequent compliance and requiring difficult and costly repairs, and (4) seizing of screws or bolts. New primary and secondary hole stud tightening and maintenance machines help to improve the efficiency of the in-service closing operations. They provide savings of up to 80% on labor, duration of operations, and exposure

  15. Radiological protection for the ANGRA 1 steam generator replacement outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Magno Jose de; Amaral, Marcos Antonio do; Minelli, Edson; Ferreira, William Alves

    2009-01-01

    The Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a Westinghouse two-loop plant with net output before its 1P16 Outage of 632 MWe, with the Old Steam Generators (OSG) type model D3, which were replaced by two new Steam Generators with feed water-ring system. Localized in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, Angra 1 started in commercial operation in 1985 and, from the beginning problems related to corrosion have appeared in the Inconel 600 alloy of the tubes. The corrosion problems indicated the necessity for a strong control of the tubes thicknesses and, after a time, the ELETRONUCLEAR decided to replace the OSG. In 2009, ELETRONUCLEAR initiated in January 24, the actions for the Steam Generators Replacement - SGR. During the SGR process, several controls were applied in field, which made possible to have no radiological accidents, no dose limits exceeded, and permitted to achieve a very good result in terms of Collective Dose. This paper describes the radiological controls applied for the Angra 1 Steam Generator Replacement Outage, the radiological protection team sizing and distribution and the obtained results. (author)

  16. Recent technology for nuclear steam turbine-generator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Kuwashima, Hidesumi; Ueno, Takeshi; Ooi, Masao

    1988-01-01

    As the next nuclear power plants subsequent to the present 1,100 MWe plants, the technical development of ABWRs was completed, and the plan for constructing the actual plants is advanced. As for the steam turbine and generator facilities of 1,350 MWe output applied to these plants, the TC6F-52 type steam turbines using 52 in long blades, moisture separation heaters, butterfly type intermediate valves, feed heater drain pumping-up system and other new technologies for increasing the capacity and improving the thermal efficiency were adopted. In this paper, the outline of the main technologies of those and the state of examination when those are applied to the actual plants are described. As to the technical fields of the steam turbine system for ABWRs, the improvement of the total technologies of the plants was promoted, aiming at the good economical efficiency, reliability and thermal efficiency of the whole facilities, not only the main turbines. The basic specification of the steam turbine facilities for 50 Hz ABWR plants and the main new technologies applied to the turbines are shown. The development of 52 in long last stage blades, the development of the analysis program for the coupled vibration of the large rotor system, the development of moisture separation heaters, the turbine control system, condensate and feed water system, and the generators are described. (Kako, I.)

  17. Full bundle mechanical cleaning of pressurized water reactor steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.; Lewis, G.

    1998-01-01

    An improved system for cleaning the upper bundle region of pressurized water reactor steam generators is now available. This system employs high pressure water jets to remove sludge and scale from tube and support plate surfaces and from the broach holes throughout the upper bundle region of steam generators. Benefits of sludge removal can include mitigation of the corrosion process, improvement of plant performance and increased operational stability. The cleaning equipment is installed through existing handholes in the tubesheet region and accesses the upper bundle through flow slots in the tube support plates. The system includes a Bulk Cleaning Head which directs high pressure water jets into the tube bundle, a Vertical Deployment System which delivers and positions the head at the desired locations in the upper bundle region, and a high pressure water pumping and sludge processing system. This paper describes the system, several key components, overall system operation, safety issues, and field use chronology. Specific performance issues that are discussed include the cleaning coverage achieved, the time required to clean a steam generator, and cleaning effectiveness. The Upper Bundle Hydraulic Cleaning System described in this paper is available for use in several types of steam generators

  18. Steam activation of boron doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Tatsuya; Zhang Junfeng; Takasu, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Wataru

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steam activation of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. → Steam activated BDD has a porous columnar texture. → Steam activated BDD has a wide potential window. - Abstract: Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were activated in steam at various temperatures, resulting in high quality BDD electrodes with a porous microstructure. Distinct columnar structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemically active surface area of the steam-activated BDD was up to 20 times larger than the pristine BDD electrode owing to the porous texture. In addition, a widening of the potential window was observed after steam activation, suggesting that the quality of BDD was enhanced due to oxidative removal of graphitic impurities during the activation process.

  19. Forced circulation steam generators for SAGD applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, M [Engineered Boiler Systems (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Steam for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is traditionally supplied by once-through steam generators (OTSG) or drum type boilers. Research by Cleaver Brooks aims to combine the quality features of OTSGs and drum boilers and to address issues encountered with both these types of machinery. The forced-circulation oil sands steam generator (FC-OSSG) resulted from the design of a flow management system which allowed water quality upsets to be handled successfully. Integration of the boiler and the burner design through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) led to a decrease in the environmental footprint of the steam generator. Circuit maintenance was also significantly facilitated by elaborating new piggable circuits. Moreover, the design of a water cooled furnace enabled the generator to work at constant heat. The resulting FC-OSSG produces cleaner steam than either OTSGs or drum boilers, and has a higher capacity than OTSGs. Additionally, turndown, blowdown and feedwater quality are similar to that obtained using drum boilers.

  20. Two-phase flow in steam turbines: EDF R and D division investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laali, A.R.

    1992-05-01

    This report outlines the investigations on wet steam flows in steam turbines. All the softwares developed in the framework of these studies enables analysis of different aspects of these types of flows. The use of two phase codes based on 2 fluid models, which has achieved a sufficient progress, and the integration of the condensation programme in a transonic non stationary code will constitute a second step for these studies, enhancing what has already been achieved in this field

  1. The analysis of thermal hydraulics in heater of steam generator secondary side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhilin; Li Shixing; Xu Ming

    1996-01-01

    COBRA-TF code is a multi-dimensional multi-field computer program, used for analysis of the thermal hydraulics in reactor system. According to the characteristics of steam generator in a nuclear power plant, the validation of using of COBRA-TF code to analyze the thermal hydraulics of the heater of the secondary side of steam generator has been made. The results are compared with those from ALBERTINE-2

  2. Thermal-hydraulics in recirculating steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, M.B.; Carlucci, L.N.; Inch, W.W.R.

    1981-04-01

    This manual describes the THIRST code and its use in computing three-dimensional two-phase flow and heat transfer in a steam generator under steady state operation. The manual is intended primarily to facilitate the application of the code to the analysis of steam generators typical of CANDU nuclear stations. Application to other steam generator designs is also discussed. Details of the assumptions used to formulate the model and to implement the numerical solution are also included

  3. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  4. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendler, O.J.; Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results

  5. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of

  6. Improvements in steam cycle thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The invention provides improvements in steam cycle thermal power stations. The power station adapted to supply a network with variable requirements, is according provided with a heat accumulator. A feed water re-heater using steam taken in the steam generator, is mounted downstream of the water-station. This arrangement permits to substantially increase the temperature of the water admitted into the steam generator and allows the accumulator to restore the heat accumulated at a higher-rate, at peak periods. This can be applied to power stations, the basic thermal source of which is adapted only to moderate working conditions [fr

  7. Amazing & extraordinary facts the steam age

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Respected transport author Julian Holland delves into the intriguing world of steam in his latest book, which is full of absorbing facts and figures on subjects ranging from Cornish beam engines, steam railway locomotives, road vehicles and ships through to traction engines, steam rollers and electricity generating stations and the people who designed and built them. Helped along the way by the inventive minds of James Watt, Richard Trevithick and George Stephenson, steam became the powerhouse that drove the Industrial Revolution in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

  8. Method to detect steam generator tube leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Kiyomi

    1994-01-01

    It is important for plant operation to detect minor leakages from the steam generator tube at an early stage, thus, leakage detection has been performed using a condenser air ejector gas monitor and a steam generator blow down monitor, etc. In this study highly-sensitive main steam line monitors have been developed in order to identify leakages in the steam generator more quickly and accurately. The performance of the monitors was verified and the demonstration test at the actual plant was conducted for their intended application to the plants. (author)

  9. Improvements in steam cycle thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to improvements in steam-cycle thermal power stations. In a heat storage and recovery installation, two exchangers provide a heat transfert between the working fluid and a thermofluid, in a direction or the other according as heat must be stored or recovered. In the case of heat storage, the exchanger makes use of live steam as heating fluid. In the case of heat recovery, the steam generator feed-water is heated in the exchangers at the expanse of the thermo-fluid, then in a water reheater using live steam as heating fluid. This can be applied to power stations feeding variable consumption networks [fr

  10. CAREM-25 Steam Generator Stability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, A.; Delmastro, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the stability of a once-through CAREM-25 steam generator is analyzed.A fix nodes numerical model, that allows the modelling of the liquid, two-phase and superheated steam zones, is implemented.This model was checked against a mobile finite elements model under saturated steam conditions at the channel exit and a good agreement was obtained.Finally the stability of a CAREM steam generator is studied and the range of in let restrictions that a assure the system stability is analyzed

  11. Study of sustainable production in two-phase liquid dominated with steam cap underlying brine reservoir by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny

    2017-12-01

    The main issue in the management of the two-phase liquid-dominated geothermal field is rapid decline pressure in the reservoir so that the supply of steam to the power plant cannot be fulfilled. To understanding that, modelling and numerical simulation used reservoir simulators. The model is developed on liquid-dominated geothermal fields are assessed in various scenarios of production strategies (focusing only steam cap, brine reservoir and a combination) and injection strategies (deep and shallow injection, centered and dispersed injection), with the calculation using separated steam cycle method. The simulation results of the model for sustainable production are production 25% from steam cap + 75% from brine reservoir, dispersed and deep reinjection with make-up wells from steam cap results 9 make-up well number. The implementation of production-injection strategy needs to be planned right from the beginning of exploitation so that the strategy can adapt to changes in reservoir characteristics.

  12. Operating experience with steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouecke, R.

    1991-01-01

    In contrast to steam generator tube degradation problems that have been widely encountered worldwide, steam generators of the Siemens/KWU design have proven by operating experience that they are very efficient in minimizing tube corrosion or any other SG related problems. The paper will substantiate this statement by addressing the performance characteristics of nearly 20 years of operation experience. Emphasis is put on evaluations comparing the heat transfer capacity of Incoloy 800 with that of Inconel 690 TT. Various tube support designs are discussed with respect to hide-out behaviour. Recent evaluations confirm the superiority of grid type tube support designs compared to tube support plates. Anti vibration bars acc. to Siemens/KWU design allow proper support even of the innermost U-tubes, by which excessive vibration induced tube failures due to fatigue are ruled-out. Steam generators are key components which can heavily effect plant safety and availability. This was recognized by Siemens/KWU at a very early stage of the SG design. A multi level concept was developed and consequently applied, the characteristics of which can be highlighted as follows: - Implementation of specific design features after careful experimental and/or analytical verification; - Material selection based on profound validation tests; - Stringent inspection requirements regarding control of manufacturing; - Deliberate specification and control of water chemistry guidelines; - Close feedback of operational problems to be readily considered in design improvements or remedial actions to be taken. A strict application of this concept has reached a stage which allows the following summarizing statements: - All main design features of the Siemens/KWU SG are in use - basically unchanged - for roughly 20 years; - All of them are verified by excellent operating experience and available for implementation in any replacement or new SG design; - No need for replacement of Siemens/KWU SG is

  13. Steam microturbines in distributed cogeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Kicinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the most recent trends and concepts in power engineering, especially with regard to prosumer and civic energy generation. In so doing, it draws widely on his experience gained during the development of steam microturbines for use in small combined heat and power stations based on the organic Rankine cycle (CHP-ORC). Major issues concerning the dynamic properties of mechanical systems, in particular rotating systems, are discussed, and the results obtained when using unconventional bearing systems, presented. Modeling and analysis of radial-flow and axial-flow microturbines a

  14. Lifetime of superheated steam components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklossa, K.H.; Oude-Hengel, H.H.; Kraechter, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The current evaluation schemes in use for judging the lifetime expectations of superheated steam components are compared with each other. The influence of pressure and temperature fluctuations, the differences in the strength of the wall, and the spread band of constant-strainrates are critically investigated. The distribution of these contributory effects are demonstrated in the hight of numerous measuring results. As an important supplement to these evaluation schemes a newly developed technique is introduced which is designed to calculate failure probabilities. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McMleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 104 samples collected from numerous thermal and non-thermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2006-2008. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from 10 areas of YNP including Apollinaris Spring and Nymphy Creek along the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Crater Hills, the Geyser Springs Group, Nez Perce Creek, Rabbit Creek, the Mud Volcano area, and Washburn Hot Springs. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur redox species in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved on-site. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, emf (electromotive force or electrical potential), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured on-site at the time of sampling. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide was measured a few to several hours after sample collection by ion-specific electrode on samples preserved on-site. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally a few to several hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved iron and ferrous iron concentrations often were measured on-site in the

  16. The testing of a steam-water separating device used for vertical steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xunshen; Cui Baoyuan; Xue Yunkui; Liu Shixun

    1989-01-01

    The air-water screening tests of a steam-water separating device used for vertical steam generators at low pressure are introduced. The article puts emphasis on the qualification test of the steam-water separating device at hot conditions in a high temperature and pressure water test rig. The performance of the comprehensive test of the steam-water separating device indicates that the humidity of the steam at the drier exit is much less than the specified amount of 0.25%

  17. Audio-based, unsupervised machine learning reveals cyclic changes in earthquake mechanisms in the Geysers geothermal field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, B. K.; Paté, A.; Paisley, J.; Waldhauser, F.; Repetto, D.; Boschi, L.

    2017-12-01

    The earthquake process reflects complex interactions of stress, fracture and frictional properties. New machine learning methods reveal patterns in time-dependent spectral properties of seismic signals and enable identification of changes in faulting processes. Our methods are based closely on those developed for music information retrieval and voice recognition, using the spectrogram instead of the waveform directly. Unsupervised learning involves identification of patterns based on differences among signals without any additional information provided to the algorithm. Clustering of 46,000 earthquakes of $0.3

  18. Steam generator leak detection using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluchko, V.V.; Sokolov, B.M.; Bulanov, A.N.

    1982-05-01

    The main requirements to meet by a device for leak detection in sodium - water steam generators are determined. The potentialities of instrumentation designed based on the developed requirements have been tested using a model of a 550 kw steam generator [fr

  19. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  20. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  1. LMR steam generator blowdown with RETRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    One of the transients being considered in the FSAR Chapter 15 analyses of anticipated LMR transients is the fast blowdown of a steam generator upon inadvertent actuation of the liquid metal/water reaction mitigation system. For the blowdown analysis, a stand-alone steam generator model for the IFR plant was constructed using RETRAN

  2. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues

  3. Steam generation process control and automation; Automacao e controle no processo de geracao de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Junior, Jose Cleodon de; Silva, Walmy Andre C.M. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) in the steam generation process for injection in heavy oil fields of the Alto do Rodrigues Production Asset, developed by PETROBRAS/E and P/UN-RNCE. This Asset is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, in Rio Grande do Norte State. It addresses to the steam generators for injection in oil wells and the upgrade project that installed remote terminal units and a new panel controlled by PLC, changed all the pneumatic transmitters by electronic and incorporated the steam quality and oxygen control, providing the remote supervision of the process. It also discusses the improvements obtained in the steam generation after the changes in the conception of the control and safety systems. (author)

  4. Steam generator tube denting simulation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, P.J.; Singley, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    Tube denting has been reported in steam generators in a number of commercial nuclear power plants in recent years. In order to aid in understanding of the mechanism leading to tube denting in the steam generators, a Bettis laboratory test program was initiated to attempt to reproduce tube denting and to investigate the effects of chemistry, design, and temperature. The results of the tests indicate that denting can be reproduced in the small model steam generator test apparatus devised for this testing. Denting was observed under carbon steel support plates in seawater-contaminated secondary water in a test with hydrazine-ammonia chemistry and a primary water inlet temperature of 590 0 F and in a test with hydrazine-morpholine chemistry and a primary water inlet temperature of 545 0 F. The parameters of these two tests simulate conditions in a typical commercial steam generator and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station steam generators, respectively

  5. Hockey-stick steam generator for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallinan, G.J.; Svedlund, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the criteria and evaluation leading to the selection of the Hockey Stick Steam Generator Concept and subsequent development of that concept for LMFBR application. The selection process and development of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG) is discussed, including the extensive test programs that culminated in the manufacture and test of a 35 MW(t) Steam Generator. The design of the CRBRP Steam Generator is described, emphasizing the current status and a review of the critical structural areas. CRBRP steam generator development tests are evaluated, with a discussion of test objectives and rating of the usefulness of test results to the CRBRP prototype design. Manufacturing experience and status of the CRBRP prototype and plant units is covered. The scaleup of the Hockey Stick concept to large commercial plant application is presented, with an evaluation of scaleup limitations, transient effects, and system design implications

  6. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, open-quote Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.close-quote GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff's assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness

  7. Maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verriere, P.; Alanche, J.; Minguet, J.L.

    1984-06-01

    After some general remarks on the French fast neutron system, this paper presents the state of the program for the construction of fast reactor in France. Then, the general design of Super Phenix 1 steam generator components is outlined and, the in-service monitoring systems and protective devices with which they are equiped are briefly described. The methods used, in the event of leakage, for leak location, steam generator inspection, steam generator repair and putting the affected loop back into service, are discussed. There are two main lines of research, relating respectively to the means of water leak detection in sodium and the inspection arrangements that will be used either periodically, or following a sodium-water reaction. Finally, after a brief description of the steam generator, this paper describes the four incidents (leaks) that occurred on the Phenix steam generator in the course of 1982 and 1983, and the subsequent repair operations

  8. Strategic maintenance plan for Cernavoda steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicerone, T.; Dhar, D.; VandenBerg, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Steam generators are among the most important pieces of equipment in a nuclear power plant. They are required full time during the plant operation and obviously no redundancy exists. Past experience has shown that those utilities which implemented comprehensive steam generator inspection and maintenance programs and strict water chemistry controls, have had good steam generator performance that supports good overall plant performance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a strategic Life Management and Operational-monitoring program for the Cernavoda steam generators. The program is first of all to develop a base of expertise for the management of the steam generator condition; and that is to be supported by a program of actions to be accomplished over time to assess their condition, to take measures to avoid degradation and to provide for inspections, cleaning and modifications as necessary. (author)

  9. Acoustic tool for leak inspections in steam generator divider plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, J.; Maak, P.; Colbert, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cross flow leakage through divider plates in the primary head of steam generators, may be a contributor to RIHT rise which can have a negative effect on the operation of a plant. A method to provide quick and reliable inspection of divider plate leakage can be very useful in helping make timely and effective maintenance decisions. A novel acoustic tool for performing inspections in drained steam generators during shutdowns has been developed by OH Technologies and successfully demonstrated in a field application. The technique, referred as ALIS (acoustic leak inspection system), performs a scan of the divider plate face and presents a graphic image of the leakage paths and an estimate of the total leakage area. (author)

  10. Homogenized behaviour of the steam generator perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voldoire, F.

    1993-06-01

    To determine the overall behaviour of structures such as multiperforated plates, that are found in the industrial components (for instance in the nuclear plant steam generators), we propose to apply the theory of the heterogeneous thermoelastic plates. First we begin by the formulation of the model, lying on an asymptotic expansion. Then we describe the application to the tube sheet and support plates case, for 900 MW and 1300 MW steam generators. Numerical values of the homogenized behaviour are provided (thermal conductivity and thermoelastic coefficients). These values are compared with those available in the literature. Some comments on the mechanical fields distribution are added, for instance: hole ovalization, stress concentrations... This study completes earlier EDF works on the thermal and mechanical homogenization of the tube sheets, which are realized before the theoretical formulation of the homogenization for plates and shells structures. (author). 16 figs., 21 tabs., 14 refs

  11. Characteristics of steam jet impingement on annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang H.; Kim, Won J.; Suh, Kune Y.; Song, Chul H.

    2004-01-01

    The steam jet impingement occurs when the steam through the cold leg from the steam generator strikes the inner reactor barrel during the reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), which is a characteristic behavior for the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In the cold leg break LOCA, the steam and water flows in the downcomer are truly multidimensional. The azimuthal velocity distribution of the steam flow has an important bearing on the thermal hydraulic phenomena such as the emergency coolant water direct bypass, sweepout, steam condensation, and so forth. The investigation of jet flow is required to determine the steam path and momentum reduction rate after the impingement. For the observation of the steam behavior near the break, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis has been carried out using CFX5.6. The flow visualization and analysis demonstrate the velocity profiles of the steam flow in the annulus region for the same boundary conditions. Pursuant to the CFD results, the micro-Pitot tubes were positioned at varying angles, and corrected for their sensitivity. The experiments were carried out to directly measure the pressure differential and to visualize the flow utilizing a smoke injection method. Results from this study are slated to be applied to MARS, which is a thermal hydraulic system code for the best-estimate analysis. The current one- or two-dimensional analysis in MARS was known to distort the local flow behavior. To enhance prediction capability of MARS, it is necessary to inspect the steam path in the break flow and mechanically simulate the momentum variation. The present experimental and analytical results can locally be applied to developing the engineering models of specific and essential phenomena. (author)

  12. Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Hurwitz, Shaul; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the timing of hydrothermal activity at the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park, we obtained seven new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C ages of carbonaceous material trapped within siliceous sinter. Five samples came from depths of 15-152 cm within the Y-1 well, and two samples were from well Y-7 (depths of 24 cm and 122 cm). These two wells, at Black Sand and Biscuit Basins, respectively, were drilled in 1967 as part of a scientific drilling program by the U.S. Geological Survey (White et al., 1975). Even with samples as small as 15 g, we obtained sufficient carbonaceous material (a mixture of thermophilic mats, pollen, and charcoal) for the 14C analyses. Apparent time of deposition ranged from 3775 ± 25 and 2910 ± 30 14C years BP at the top of the cores to about 8000 years BP at the bottom. The dates are consistent with variable rates of sinter formation at individual sites within the UGB over the Holocene. On a basin-wide scale, though, these and other existing 14C dates hint that hydrothermal activity at the UGB may have been continuous throughout the Holocene.

  13. Marine Steam Condenser Design Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    way so as to provide a smooth transition from the negative, artificial values of negative steam exit-fraction to the real, positive values. Since the...ex QW4-f I-OMA JIM. Z"O"ci( XxXZZZ"QOL Z)-4-0 (AV) WI o U- 4’-.(j IZI-- (3. 4LD I - 4 LUZ U LUU 0Z ~- W U ~W-.Z Z:tn (WOOI-ft OeJ Wl..o oQ *%J6. 0UJ.4g...00000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 4LU LU1-U --40 I- 41-I- Luz LZ., LUJ, (JZ U ULU - LUL ;E o -..3,u’ z J- LU Oo-o z C40-4 09L CAIo0 o4aO24

  14. Steam generating system in LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Katsutoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the thermal shock loads to the structures of reactor system and secondary coolant system, for instance, upon plant trip accompanying turbine trip in the steam generation system of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Additional feedwater heater is disposed to the pipeway at the inlet of a steam generator in a steam generation system equipped with a closed loop extended from a steam generator by way of a gas-liquid separator, a turbine and a condensator to the steam generator. The separated water at high temperature and high pressure from a gas-liquid separator is heat exchanged with coolants flowing through the closed loop of the steam generation system in non-contact manner and, thereafter, introduced to a water reservoir tank. This can avoid the water to be fed at low temperature as it is to the steam generator, whereby the thermal shock loads to the structures of the reactor system and the secondary coolant system can be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Failure analysis of retired steam generator tubings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    Degradation of steam generator leads to forced outage and extension of outage, which causes increase in repair cost, cost of purchasing replacement power and radiation exposure of workers. Steam generator tube rupture incident occurred in Uljin 4 in 2002, which made public sensitive to nuclear power plant. To keep nuclear energy as a main energy source, integrity of steam generator should be demonstrated. Quantitative relationship between ECT(eddy current test) signal and crack size is needed in assesment of integrity of steam generator in pressurized water reactor. However, it is not fully established for application in industry. Retired steam generator of Kori 1 has many kinds of crack such as circumferential and axial primary water stress corrosion crack and outer diameter stress corrosion crack(ODSCC). So, it can be used in qualifying and improving ECT technology and in condition monitoring assesment for crack detected in ISI(in service inspection). In addition, examination of pulled tube of Kori 1 retired steam generator will give information about effectiveness of non welded sleeving technology which was employed to repair defect tubes and remedial action which was applied to mitigate ODSCC. In this project, hardware such as semi hot lab. for pulled tube examination and modification transportation cask for pulled tube and software such as procedure of transportation of radioactive steam generator tube and non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tube were established. Non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tubes from Kori 1 retired steam generator were performed in semi hot lab. Remedial actions applied to Kori 1 retired steam generator, PWSCC trend and bulk water chemistry and crevice chemistry in Kori 1 were evaluated. Electrochemical decontamination technology for pulled tube was developed to reduce radiation exposure and enhance effectiveness of pulled tube examination. Multiparameter algorithm developed at ANL, USA was

  16. Steam Generator Inspection Planning Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzasa, P.

    1987-01-01

    Applying Artificial Intelligence technology to steam generator non-destructive examination (NDE) can help identify high risk locations in steam generators and can aid in preparing technical specification compliant eddy current test (ECT) programs. A steam Generator Inspection Planning Expert System has been developed which can assist NDE or utility personnel in planning ECT programs. This system represents and processes its information using an object oriented declarative knowledge base, heuristic rules, and symbolic information processing, three artificial intelligence based techniques incorporated in the design. The output of the system is an automated generation of ECT programs. Used in an outage inspection, this system significantly reduced planning time

  17. Scale Thickness Measurement of Steam Generator Tubing Using Eddy Current Signal of Bobbin Coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Um, Ki Soo; Kim, Jae Dong

    2012-01-01

    Steam generator is one of the major components of nuclear power plant and steam generator tubes are the pressure boundary between primary and secondary side, which makes them critical for nuclear safety. As the operating time of nuclear power plant increases, not only damage mechanisms but also scaled deposits on steam generator tubes are known to be problematic causing tube support flow hole blockage and heat fouling. The ability to assess the extent and location of scaled deposits on tubes became essential for management and maintenance of steam generator and eddy current bobbin data can be utilized to measure thickness of scale on tubes. In this paper, tube reference standards with various thickness of scaled deposit has been set up to provide information about the overall deposit condition of steam generator tubes, providing essential tool for steam generator management and maintenance to predict and prevent future damages. Also, methodology to automatically measure scale thickness on tubes has been developed and applied to field data to estimate overall scale amount.

  18. New continuous in-line method for monitoring of particulate magnetite in steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new, continuous, in-line monitoring method capable of measuring flow (number and mass/s) of particulates in steam lines and other streams. The method is based on electronic monitoring of minute elastic shock waves produced by impacts of individual oxide particles on a solid probe protruding into the steam flow. Three instruments, using the same monitoring principles, have been developed. Particle Flow Monitor measures number of particles per second and total mass per second of the impacting particles. Computerized system records masses of individual particles and mass flows and particle mass distributions and other statistics can be produced. The simplest instrument is a Particle Flow Alarm in which up to three levels of alarm are triggered, based on the particle and/or the mass flow. The instruments are capable of detecting a wide range of particle masses, from 10 -12 to 10 3 grams, in almost any gaseous and liquid environment, including 1000 degree F, 4000 psi steam. The application which has been the most frequent so far is monitoring of magnetite particles which exfoliate from superheaters, reheaters, and steam lines in fossil-fuel fired steam systems and causes solid particle erosion in steam turbines. The purpose of the monitoring is to establish concentrations of the exfoliated oxides and their size distributions during various modes of operation. The instrumentation has been used in seven field tests and is permanently installed in three supercritical once-through units. It has also been used to monitor flue gas and airborne particulates. Several other applications, including monitoring of oxides in boiler water and feedwater, of geothermal steam, coal particles after gasification, atmospheric aerosols, solids in oil, efficiently of steam blowing, and moisture in turbines, are being developed

  19. Rapid Generation of Superheated Steam Using a Water-containing Porous Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shoji; Okuyama, Kunito

    Heat treatment by superheated steam has been utilized in several industrial fields including sterilization, desiccation, and cooking. In particular, cooking by superheated steam is receiving increased attention because it has advantages of reducing the salt and fat contents in foods as well as suppressing the oxidation of vitamin C and fat. In this application, quick startup and cut-off responses are required. Most electrically energized steam generators require a relatively long time to generate superheated steam due to the large heat capacities of the water in container and of the heater. Zhao and Liao (2002) introduced a novel process for rapid vaporization of subcooled liquid, in which a low-thermal-conductivity porous wick containing water is heated by a downward-facing grooved heating block in contact with the upper surface of the wick structure. They showed that saturated steam is generated within approximately 30 seconds from room-temperature water at a heat flux 41.2 kW⁄m2. In order to quickly generate superheated steam of approximately 300°C, which is required for cooking, the heat capacity of the heater should be as small as possible and the imposed heat flux should be so high enough that the porous wick is able to dry out in the vicinity of the contact with the heater and that the resulting heater temperature becomes much higher than the saturation temperature. The present paper proposes a simple structured generator to quickly produce superheated steam. Only a fine wire heater is contacted spirally on the inside wall in a hollow porous material. The start-up, cut-off responses and the rate of energy conversion for input power are investigated experimentally. Superheated steam of 300°C is produced in approximately 19 seconds from room-temperature water for an input power of 300 W. The maximum rate of energy conversion in the steady state is approximately 0.9.

  20. 49 CFR 230.21 - Steam locomotive number change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive number change. 230.21 Section 230... Recordkeeping Requirements § 230.21 Steam locomotive number change. When a steam locomotive number is changed, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator must reflect the change in the upper right-hand corner of...

  1. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam generator's...

  2. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation from... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8...

  3. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  4. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  5. An Improved Steam Injection Model with the Consideration of Steam Override

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Congge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The great difference in density between steam and liquid during wet steam injection always results in steam override, that is, steam gathers on the top of the pay zone. In this article, the equation for steam override coefficient was firstly established based on van Lookeren’s steam override theory and then radius of steam zone and hot fluid zone were derived according to a more realistic temperature distribution and an energy balance in the pay zone. On this basis, the equation for the reservoir heat efficiency with the consideration of steam override was developed. Next, predicted results of the new model were compared with these of another analytical model and CMG STARS (a mature commercial reservoir numerical simulator to verify the accuracy of the new mathematical model. Finally, based on the validated model, we analyzed the effects of injection rate, steam quality and reservoir thickness on the reservoir heat efficiency. The results show that the new model can be simplified to the classic model (Marx-Langenheim model under the condition of the steam override being not taken into account, which means the Marx-Langenheim model is corresponding to a special case of this new model. The new model is much closer to the actual situation compared to the Marx-Langenheim model because of considering steam override. Moreover, with the help of the new model, it is found that the reservoir heat efficiency is not much affected by injection rate and steam quality but significantly influenced by reservoir thickness, and to ensure that the reservoir can be heated effectively, the reservoir thickness should not be too small.

  6. Enhancement of Heat-Recovery Steam-Gas Plant Efficiency at Expense of Steam Reheating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Grinchuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a thermodynamic efficiency and peculiar features pertaining to realization of heat-recovery steam-gas plant schemes with steam reheating. Possible reserves of higher efficiency concerning plant economy and methods for achieving these goals are given in the paper. The author has made calculations for steam-gas plants of one-, two- and three-loop cycle of steam pressure. An analysis of the obtained results in respect of technical and economic indices and expediency of the application of corresponding plants in power engineering of the Republic of Belarus are presented in the paper.

  7. Potential application of radiogenic isotopes and geophysical methods to understand the hydrothermal dystem of the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Long, Andrew J.; Koth, Karl R.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous geochemical and geophysical studies have been conducted at Yellowstone National Park to better understand the hydrogeologic processes supporting the thermal features of the Park. This report provides the first 87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U data for thermal water from the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) intended to evaluate whether heavy radiogenic isotopes might provide insight to sources of groundwater supply and how they interact over time and space. In addition, this report summarizes previous geophysical studies made at Yellowstone National Park and provides suggestions for applying non-invasive ground and airborne studies to better understand groundwater flow in the subsurface of the UGB. Multiple samples from Old Faithful, Aurum, Grand, Oblong, and Daisy geysers characterized previously for major-ion concentrations and isotopes of water (δ2H, δ18O, and 3H) were analyzed for Sr and U isotopes. Concentrations of dissolved Sr and U are low (4.3–128 ng g-1 Sr and 0.026–0.0008 ng g-1 U); consequently only 87Sr/86Sr data are reported for most samples. Values of 87Sr/86Sr for most geysers remained uniform between April and September 2007, but show large increases in all five geysers between late October 2007 and early April, 2008. By late summer of 2008, 87Sr/86Sr values returned to values similar to those observed a year earlier. Similar patterns are not present in major-ion data measured on the same samples. Furthermore, large geochemical differences documented between geysers are not observed in 87Sr/86Sr data, although smaller differences between sites may be present. Sr-isotope data are consistent with a stratified hydrologic system where water erupted in spring and summer of 2007 and summer of 2008 equilibrated with local intracaldera rhyolite flows at shallower depths. Water erupted between October 2007 and April 2008 includes greater amounts of groundwater that circulated deep enough to acquire a radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, most likely from Archean basement

  8. In service inspection for steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, R.; Eyrolles, Ph.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the authors show the means putting in place for examination of steam generators tubes. These means (eddy current probes, ultrasonic testing) associated with a knowledge on degradation phenomena allow mapping controlled tubes and limiting undesirable obturations [fr

  9. Biophysical Evaluation of SonoSteam®:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    /response relationship between SonoSteam treatment time and changes in collagen I, and a depth dependency in bacterial reduction, which points toward CFU counts overestimating total bacterial reduction. In conclusion the biophysical methods provide a less biased, reproducible and highly detailed system description......In this study we employ a biophysical and molecular approach for the investigation of qualitative and quantitative changes in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam...... and ultrasound for effective heat transfer and short treatment times, resulting in significant reduction in surface bacteria. An efficient decontamination method should be cheap and fast, while eliminating harmful microorganism without decreasing the quality of the food. However, all known methods represent...

  10. Hydrogen generation from steam reaction with tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolik, G. R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Petti, D. A.; Coates, K.

    1998-10-01

    A LOCA in a fusion reactor involving an ingress of steam presents a safety concern due to hydrogen generated from steam reactions with plasma facing components. Hydrogen concentrations must be maintained below explosive levels. To support safety evaluations we have experimentally determined hydrogen generation rates when a tungsten alloy is exposed to steam from 400°C to 1200°C. We studied effects of steam pressure between 2.8 × 10 4 and 8.5 × 10 4 Pa, i.e., (0.28-0.84 atm) and gas velocity between 0.011 and 0.063 m/s. We present relationships for the reaction rates, oxidation phases, and mechanisms associated with the hydrogen generation.

  11. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  12. New steam generators slated for nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of Duke Power's plans to replace steam generators at its McGuire and Catawba nuclear units. A letter of intent to purchase (from Babcock and Wilcox) the 12 Westinghouse steam generators has been signed, but no constructor has been selected at this time. This action is brought about by the failures of more than 3000 tubes in these units

  13. Drying Western Red Cedar with Superheated Steam

    OpenAIRE

    Elustondo, Diego; Ahmed, Sheikh Ali; Oliveira, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated the possibility of drying 50-mm-thick western red cedar with superheated steam. Since there are no industrial facilities in Canada drying western red cedar with superheated steam, the study was designed to explore the potential of this technology in terms of lumber quality, moisture content distribution, and drying time. The experiments showed that the 50-mm-thick product can be dried in less than three days without jeopardizing lumber quality (in comparison w...

  14. Modifikasi Alat Steam untuk Pembengkokan Rotan

    OpenAIRE

    Eustasia Sri Murwati; Suharyanto Suharyanto; Demas YogoPranoto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAKSelama ini pembengkokan rotan yang dilakukan oleh IKM Mebel Rotan dengan memanaskan di atas api kompor menggunakan alat pembengkok catok. Hasil yang diperoleh memberikan noda kehitaman. Cara lain dengan memasukkan rotan ke dalam alat steam dari besi, namun terdapat kendala persebaran uap yang tidak merata karena kurangnya rongga di antara tumpukan rotan selain terkena noda karat dari tabung steamer. Permasalahan tersebut dapat diatasi dengan modifikasi alat steam yang didesain multi gu...

  15. Steam explosions in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The report deals with a postulated accident caused by molten fuel falling into the lower plenum of the containment of a reactor. The analysis which is presented in the report shows that the thermal energy released in the resulting steam explosion is not enough to destroy the pressure vessel or the containment. The report was prepared for the Swedish Governmental Committee on steam explosion in light water reactors. It includes statements issued by internationally well-known specialists. (G.B.)

  16. BWR drywell behavior under steam blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NguyenLe, Q.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, thermal hydraulics analyses on Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) have been focused on the transients within the reactor or steam generator. Few have studied the effects of steam blowdown on the containment building. This paper discusses some theoretical issues as well as presenting numerical and experimental results of the blowdown tests performed at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integrated Test Assembly (PUMA)

  17. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  18. Water-Chemistry Data for Selected Springs, Geysers, and Streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.

    2008-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 157 samples collected from numerous hot springs, their overflow drainages, and Lemonade Creek in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2003-2005. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from ten areas of YNP including Terrace and Beryl Springs in the Gibbon Canyon area, Norris Geyser Basin, the West Nymph Creek thermal area, the area near Nymph Lake, Hazle Lake, and Frying Pan Spring, Lower Geyser Basin, Washburn Hot Springs, Mammoth Hot Springs, Potts Hot Spring Basin, the Sulphur Caldron area, and Lemonade Creek near the Solfatara Trail. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, and sulfur redox distribution in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved onsite. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh (redox potential relative to the Standard Hydrogen Electrode), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured onsite at the time of sampling. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally minutes to hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved-iron and ferrous-iron concentrations often were measured onsite in the mobile laboratory vehicle. Concentrations of dissolved

  19. Fines stabilizing agent reduces production decline rates in steam injected wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo de Castillo, Milagros; Fernandez Andrades, Jarvi [PDVSA - Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Navarro Cornejo, Willian; Curtis, James [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Bachaquero Lago heavy oil field, located in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, with an area of 9800 ha, in which more than 1800 wells have been drilled. The Lagunillas formation in this field is a mature, clastic, unconsolidated sandstone of Miocene age with good permeability. Clays are present, in laminated form or dispersed within the productive sandstones. Heavy oil, less than 12 deg API, is produced by cyclic steam injection. Wells are completed with cased-hole gravel packs to prevent sand and fines production. Rapid production decline rates are typically observed after the steam injection cycles, due to fines migration and plugging of the reservoir and gravel pack. This paper describes the methodology used to treat the wells with a fines stabilizing agent during the steam injection cycles in order to successfully reduce the subsequent production decline rate. Results from a multi-well pilot project are presented and analyzed. (author)

  20. Steam initiated hydrotalcite conversion coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    A facile process of exploiting high-temperature steam to deposit nvironmentally friendly hydrotalcite (HT) coatings on Al alloy 6060 was developed in a spray system. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formationf a continuous and conformal coating comprised of a compact mass of crystallites....... A range of coating processesased on the formation of HT surface layers has been developed to examine its effect on the coating's thicknessnd corrosion resistance properties. These varieties include pre-coating cleaning (grid blasting vs. chemicaltching), metal species in HT compounds (Al-Zn HT coating vs....... Al-Li HT coating), oxidizer additives (K2S2O8,a2SO4, NH4NO3, KNO3), and post-coating treatment (Mg(CH3COO)2, Mg(CH3COO)2+Ce(NO3)3+H2O2, MgCH3COO)2+La(NO3)3). Results showed that grid blasting can increase the coating surface area, while chemical etching improves the chemical bonding connection...

  1. Isolation and characterization of a CO2-tolerant Lactobacillus strain from Crystal Geyser, Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Eugenio Felipe; Shanahan, Timothy; Omelon, Christopher; Major, Jonathan; Bennett, Philip

    2015-07-01

    When CO2 is sequestered into the deep subsurface, changes to the subsurface microbial community will occur. Capnophiles, microorganisms that grow in CO2-rich environments, are some organisms that may be selected for under the new environmental conditions. To determine whether capnophiles comprise an important part of CO2-rich environments, an isolate from Crystal Geyser, Utah, U.S.A., a CO2- rich spring considered a carbon sequestration analogue, was characterized. The isolate was cultured under varying CO2, pH, salinity, and temperature, as well as different carbon substrates and terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) to elucidate growth conditions and metabolic activity. Designated CG-1, the isolate is related (99%) to Lactobacillus casei in 16S rRNA gene identity, growing at PCO2 between 0 to 1.0 MPa. Growth is inhibited at 2.5 MPa, but stationary phase cultures exposed to this pressure survive beyond 5 days. At 5.0 MPa, survival is at least 24 hours. CG-1 grows in neutral pH, 0.25 M NaCl, and between 25° to 45°C andconsumes glucose, lactose, sucrose, or crude oil, likely performing lactic acid fermentation. Fatty acid profiles between 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa suggests decreases in cell size and increases in membrane rigidity. Transmission electron microscopy reveals rod shaped bacteria at 0.1 MPa. At 1.0 MPa, cells are smaller, amorphous, and produce abundant capsular material. Its ability to grow in environments regardless of the presence of CO2 suggests we have isolated an organism that is more capnotolerant than capnophilic. Results also show that microorganisms are capable of surviving the stressful conditions created by the introduction of CO2 for sequestration. Furthermore, our ability to culture an environmental isolate indicates that organisms found in CO2 environments from previous genomic and metagenomics studies are viable, metabolizing, and potentially affecting the surrounding environment.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a CO2-tolerant Lactobacillus strain from Crystal Geyser, Utah, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Felipe U Santillan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When CO2 is sequestered into the deep subsurface, changes to the subsurface microbial community will occur. Capnophiles, microorganisms that grow in CO2-rich environments, are some organisms that may be selected for under the new environmental conditions. To determine whether capnophiles comprise an important part of CO2-rich environments, an isolate from Crystal Geyser, Utah, U.S.A., a CO2- rich spring considered a carbon sequestration analogue, was characterized. The isolate was cultured under varying CO2, pH, salinity, and temperature, as well as different carbon substrates and terminal electron acceptors (TEAs to elucidate growth conditions and metabolic activity. Designated CG-1, the isolate is related (99% to Lactobacillus casei in 16S rRNA gene identity, growing at PCO2 between 0 to 1.0 MPa. Growth is inhibited at 2.5 MPa, but stationary phase cultures exposed to this pressure survive beyond 5 days. At 5.0 MPa, survival is at least 24 hours. CG-1 grows in neutral pH, 0.25 M NaCl, and between 25° to 45°C andconsumes glucose, lactose, sucrose, or crude oil, likely performing lactic acid fermentation. Fatty acid profiles between 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa suggests decreases in cell size and increases in membrane rigidity. Transmission electron microscopy reveals rod shaped bacteria at 0.1 MPa. At 1.0 MPa, cells are smaller, amorphous, and produce abundant capsular material. Its ability to grow in environments regardless of the presence of CO2 suggests we have isolated an organism that is more capnotolerant than capnophilic. Results also show that microorganisms are capable of surviving the stressful conditions created by the introduction of CO2 for sequestration. Furthermore, our ability to culture an environmental isolate indicates that organisms found in CO2 environments from previous genomic and metagenomics studies are viable, metabolizing, and potentially affecting the surrounding environment.

  3. Modelling local chemistry in PWR steam generator crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of impurities in local regions of PWR Steam Generators (SG) has resulted in the accelerated corrosion of SG materials. The chemical conditions in crevices and sludge piles is dependent on thermal hydraulic and mass transfer processes as well as the physical chemistry of the concentrated solution itself. This paper discusses the different modelling approaches which can be used to describe the concentration process and the local chemistry in these regions. The limitations of each approach and the applicability of model results to field conditions are discussed in the paper. EPRI's program in this area, including past accomplishments and the models used in the MULTEQ code are described in the paper. (author)

  4. Development of compressible density-based steam explosion simulation code ESE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.

    2004-01-01

    A steam explosion is a fuel coolant interaction process by which the energy of the corium is transferred to water in a time-scale smaller than the time-scale for system pressure relief and induces dynamic loading of surrounding structures. A strong enough steam explosion in a nuclear power plant could jeopardize the containment integrity and so lead to a direct release of radioactive material to the environment. To help finding answers on open questions regarding steam explosion understanding and modelling, the steam explosion simulation code ESE-2 is being developed. In contrast to the developed simulation code ESE-1, where the multiphase flow equations are solved with pressure-based numerical methods (best suited for incompressible flow), in ESE-2 densitybased numerical methods (best suited for compressible flow) are used. Therefore ESE-2 will enable an accurate treatment of the whole steam explosion process, which consists of the premixing, triggering, propagation and expansion phase. In the paper the basic characteristics of the mathematical model and the numerical solution procedure in ESE-2 are described. The essence of the numerical treatment is that the convective terms in the multiphase flow equations are calculated with the AUSM+ scheme, which is very time efficient since no field-by-field wave decomposition is needed, using second order accurate discretization. (author)

  5. Synthesis and optimization of steam system networks. 2. Multiple steam levels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of steam in heat exchanger networks (HENs) can be reduced by the application of heat integration with the intention of debottlenecking the steam boiler and indirectly reducing the water requirement [Coetzee and Majozi. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res...

  6. STEAM Enacted: A Case Study of a Middle School Teacher Implementing STEAM Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herro, Danielle; Quigley, Cassie

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation practices of a 6th grade middle school teacher enacting STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and math) teaching in his classroom after participating in a 45-hour STEAM professional development. Case study is used to detail the process, successes, and challenges. Project-based learning, technology…

  7. Cleaning device for steam units in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamuro, Takemi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactive contamination upon dismantling and inspection of steam units such as a turbine to a building containing such units and the peripheral area. Constitution: A steam generator indirectly heated by steam supplied from steam generating source in a separate system containing no radioactivity is provided to produce cleaning steam. A cleaning steam pipe is connected by way of a stop valve between separation valve of a nuclear power plant steam pipe and a high pressure turbine. Upon cleaning, the separation valve is closed, and steam supplied from the cleaning steam pipe is flown into a condenser. The water thus condensated is returned by way of a feed water heater and a condenser to a water storage tank. (Nakamura, S.)

  8. Computer modeling of a convective steam superheater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Superheater is for generating superheated steam from the saturated steam from the evaporator outlet. In the case of pulverized coal fired boiler, a relatively small amount of ash causes problems with ash fouling on the heating surfaces, including the superheaters. In the convection pass of the boiler, the flue gas temperature is lower and ash deposits can be loose or sintered. Ash fouling not only reduces heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam, but also is the cause of a higher pressure drop on the flue gas flow path. In the case the pressure drop is greater than the power consumed by the fan increases. If the superheater surfaces are covered with ash than the steam temperature at the outlet of the superheater stages falls, and the flow rates of the water injected into attemperator should be reduced. There is also an increase in flue gas temperature after the different stages of the superheater. Consequently, this leads to a reduction in boiler efficiency. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the first stage superheater of both the boiler OP-210M using the commercial software. The temperature distributions of the steam and flue gas along the way they flow together with temperature of the tube walls and temperature of the ash deposits will be determined. The calculated steam temperature is compared with measurement results. Knowledge of these temperatures is of great practical importance because it allows to choose the grade of steel for a given superheater stage. Using the developed model of the superheater to determine its degree of ash fouling in the on-line mode one can control the activation frequency of steam sootblowers.

  9. STEAM STIRRED HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-06-01

    A homogeneous nuclear reactor utilizing a selfcirculating liquid fuel is described. The reactor vessel is in the form of a vertically disposed tubular member having the lower end closed by the tube walls and the upper end closed by a removal fianged assembly. A spherical reaction shell is located in the lower end of the vessel and spaced from the inside walls. The reaction shell is perforated on its lower surface and is provided with a bundle of small-diameter tubes extending vertically upward from its top central portion. The reactor vessel is surrounded in the region of the reaction shell by a neutron reflector. The liquid fuel, which may be a solution of enriched uranyl sulfate in ordinary or heavy water, is mainiained at a level within the reactor vessel of approximately the top of the tubes. The heat of the reaction which is created in the critical region within the spherical reaction shell forms steam bubbles which more upwardly through the tubes. The upward movement of these bubbles results in the forcing of the liquid fuel out of the top of these tubes, from where the fuel passes downwardly in the space between the tubes and the vessel wall where it is cooled by heat exchangers. The fuel then re-enters the critical region in the reaction shell through the perforations in the bottom. The upper portion of the reactor vessel is provided with baffles to prevent the liquid fuel from splashing into this region which is also provided with a recombiner apparatus for recombining the radiolytically dissociated moderator vapor and a control means.

  10. Functioning efficiency of intermediate coolers of multistage steam-jet ejectors of steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Murmanskii, I. B.

    2017-03-01

    Designs of various types of intermediate coolers of multistage ejectors are analyzed and thermal effectiveness and gas-dynamic resistance of coolers are estimated. Data on quantity of steam condensed from steam-air mixture in stage I of an ejector cooler was obtained on the basis of experimental results. It is established that the amount of steam condensed in the cooler constitutes 0.6-0.7 and is almost independent of operating steam pressure (and, consequently, of steam flow) and air amount in steam-air mixture. It is suggested to estimate the amount of condensed steam in a cooler of stage I based on comparison of computed and experimental characteristics of stage II. Computation taking this hypothesis for main types of mass produced multistage ejectors into account shows that 0.60-0.85 of steam amount should be condensed in stage I of the cooler. For ejectors with "pipe-in-pipe" type coolers (EPO-3-200) and helical coolers (EO-30), amount of condensed steam may reach 0.93-0.98. Estimation of gas-dynamic resistance of coolers shows that resistance from steam side in coolers with built-in and remote pipe bundle constitutes 100-300 Pa. Gas-dynamic resistance of "pipein- pipe" and helical type coolers is significantly higher (3-6 times) compared with pipe bundle. However, performance by "dry" (atmospheric) air is higher for ejectors with relatively high gas-dynamic resistance of coolers than those with low resistance at approximately equal operating flow values of ejectors.

  11. Formaldehyde as a carbon and electron shuttle between autotroph and heterotroph populations in acidic hydrothermal vents of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Romine, Margaret F.; Riha, Krystin M.; Inskeep, William P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2016-03-19

    The Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains a large number of hydrothermal systems, which host microbial populations supported by primary productivity associated with a suite of chemolithotrophic metabolisms. We demonstrate that Metallosphaera yellowstonesis MK1, a facultative autotrophic archaeon isolated from a hyperthermal acidic hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) spring in Norris Geyser Basin, excretes formaldehyde during autotrophic growth. To determine the fate of formaldehyde in this low organic carbon environment, we incubated native microbial mat (containing M. yellowstonensis) from a HFO spring with 13C-formaldehyde. Isotopic analysis of incubation-derived CO2 and biomass showed that formaldehyde was both oxidized and assimilated by members of the community. Autotrophy, formaldehyde oxidation, and formaldehyde assimilation displayed different sensitivities to chemical inhibitors, suggesting that distinct sub-populations in the mat selectively perform these functions. Our results demonstrate that electrons originally resulting from iron oxidation can energetically fuel autotrophic carbon fixation and associated formaldehyde excretion, and that formaldehyde is both oxidized and assimilated by different organisms within the native microbial community. Thus, formaldehyde can effectively act as a carbon and electron shuttle connecting the autotrophic, iron oxidizing members with associated heterotrophic members in the HFO community.

  12. Collaborative Creativity in STEAM: Narratives of Art Education Students' Experiences in Transdisciplinary Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyotte, Kelly W.; Sochacka, Nicola W.; Costantino, Tracie E.; Kellam, Nadia N.; Walther, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Current efforts to promote STEAM (STEM + Arts) education focus predominantly on how partnering with the arts provides a range of benefits to STEM students. Here we take a different approach and focus on what art and art education students stand to gain from collaborating with STEM students. Drawing on a variety of student field texts, we present…

  13. Monitoring the efficacy of steam and formaldehyde treatment of naturally Salmonella-infected layer houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Jørgensen, J.C.; Andersen, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    before and after treatment were tested qualitatively for Salmonella and coliforms. Samples with indicator bacteria (feed inoculated with Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis and faeces with naturally occurring E. coli and enterococci) were placed during steam-treatment at 12 sites in each house...... (where the temperature was logged at 5-min intervals) and tested for surviving bacteria. Generally, the field test results confirmed the results of laboratory tests, especially when 30 ppm formaldehyde was added to the steam. In well-sealed houses, the recommended temperature-humidity-time scheme...

  14. Electropolishing of replacement steam generator channel heads at Millstone-2 PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.J.B.; Raney, H.; Raney, D.; Spalaris, C.N.

    1992-07-01

    A field application of EPRI-developed steam generator electropolishing technique was performed at Millstone-2 PWR. The process was qualified under previous programs on a laboratory scale, but it was thought appropriate to scale up application to full size components. Replacement of steam generators at Millstone-2 provided a unique opportunity to demonstrate that electropolishing can be applied safely and at a cost which was judged to be recoverable after a small number of fuel cycles. The project, preparation, electropolishing and cleanup, was completed at the reactor site in 25 working days. An alternate, less costly electrolyte solution was qualified for use in future applications

  15. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  16. New ferritic steels for advanced steam plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.H; Koenig, H. [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    During the last 15-20 years ferritic-martensitic 9-12 % chromium steels have been developed under international research programmes which permit inlet steam temperatures up to approx. 625 deg C and pressures up to about 300 bars, thus leading to improvements in thermal efficiency of around 8 % and a CO{sub 2} reduction of about 20 % versus conventional steam parameters. These new steels are already being applied in 13 European and 34 Japanese power stations with inlet steam temperature up to 610 deg C. This presentation will give an account of the content, scope and results of the research programmes and of the experience gained during the production of components which have been manufactured from the new steels. (orig.) 13 refs.

  17. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiaguo [Champaign, IL; Lu, Yonggi [Urbana, IL; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  18. Structural integrity analysis of a steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagarcia, Maria P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a power utility is the rotor of the steam turbine. Catastrophic failures of the last decades have promoted the development of life assessment procedures for rotors. The present study requires the knowledge of operating conditions, component geometry, the properties of materials, history of the component, size, location and nature of the existing flaws. The aim of the present work is the obtention of a structural integrity analysis procedure for a steam turbine rotor, taking into account the above-mentioned parameters. In this procedure, a stress thermal analysis by finite elements is performed initially, in order to obtain the temperature and stress distribution for a subsequent analysis by fracture mechanics. The risk of a fast fracture due to flaws in the central zone of the rotor is analyzed. The procedure is applied to an operating turbine: the main steam turbine of the Atucha I nuclear power utility. (author)

  19. Closure plan for CAU No. 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The steam cleaning effluent ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Nevada Operations Office operates the NTS and has entered into a trilateral agreement with the State of Nevada and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA). The trilateral agreement provides a framework for identifying, characterizing, remediating, and closing environmental sites on the NTS and associated bombing ranges. The SCEP waste unit consists of: two steam cleaning effluent ponds; layout pad and associated grease trap; Building 6-623 steam cleaning pad; test pad; Building 6-623 grease trap; Building 6-800 steam cleaning pad; Building 6-800 separator; Building 6-621 sump; and the concrete asbestos piping connecting these components to both SCEPs. Clean closure is the recommended closure strategy for the majority of the components within this CAU. Four components of the unit (Building 6-621 Sump, Test Pad Grease Trap, Building 6-623 Steam Cleaning Pad, and North SCEP pipeline) are recommended to be closed in place. This closure plan provides the strategy and backup information necessary to support the clean closure of each of the individual components within CAU 93. Analytical data generated during the characterization field work and earlier sampling events indicates the majority of CAU 93 soil and infrastructure is non-hazardous (i.e., impacted primarily with petroleum hydrocarbons).

  20. Isolation and characterization of a CO2-tolerant Lactobacillus strain from Crystal Geyser, Utah, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Omelon, Christopher R.; Major, Jonathan R.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2015-07-23

    When CO2 is sequestered into the deep subsurface, changes to the subsurface microbial community will occur. Capnophiles, microorganisms that grow in CO2-rich environments, are some organisms that may be selected for under the new environmental conditions. To determine whether capnophiles comprise an important part of CO2-rich environments, an isolate from Crystal Geyser, Utah, U.S.A., a CO2- rich spring considered a carbon sequestration analog, was characterized. The isolate was cultured under varying CO2, pH, salinity, and temperature, as well as different carbon substrates and terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) to elucidate growth conditions and metabolic activity. Designated CG-1, the isolate is related (99%) to Lactobacillus casei in 16S rRNA gene identity, growing at PCO2 between 0 and 1.0 MPa. Growth is inhibited at 2.5 MPa, but stationary phase cultures exposed to this pressure survive beyond 5 days. At 5.0 MPa, survival is at least 24 h. CG-1 grows in neutral pH, 0.25 M NaCl, and between 25° and 45°C and consumes glucose, lactose, sucrose, or crude oil, likely performing lactic acid fermentation. Fatty acid profiles between 0.1 and 1.0 MPa suggests decreases in cell size and increases in membrane rigidity. Transmission electron microscopy reveals rod shaped bacteria at 0.1 MPa. At 1.0 MPa, cells are smaller, amorphous, and produce abundant capsular material. Its ability to grow in environments regardless of the presence of CO2 suggests we have isolated an organism that is more capnotolerant than capnophilic. Results also show that microorganisms are capable of surviving the stressful conditions created by the introduction of CO2 for sequestration. Furthermore, our ability to culture an environmental isolate indicates that organisms found in CO2 environments from previous genomic and metagenomics studies are viable, metabolizing, and potentially affecting the

  1. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, Brian D. [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada); Smith, Nicole [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag

  2. How to compute the power of a steam turbine with condensation, knowing the steam quality of saturated steam in the turbine discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Albarran, Manuel Jaime; Krever, Marcos Paulo Souza [Braskem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    To compute the power and the thermodynamic performance in a steam turbine with condensation, it is necessary to know the quality of the steam in the turbine discharge and, information of process variables that permit to identifying with high precision the enthalpy of saturated steam. This paper proposes to install an operational device that will expand the steam from high pressure point on the shell turbine to atmosphere, both points with measures of pressure and temperature. Arranging these values on the Mollier chart, it can be know the steam quality value and with this data one can compute the enthalpy value of saturated steam. With the support of this small instrument and using the ASME correlations to determine the equilibrium temperature and knowing the discharge pressure in the inlet of surface condenser, the absolute enthalpy of the steam discharge can be computed with high precision and used to determine the power and thermodynamic efficiency of the turbine. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the third international steam generator and heat exchanger conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Third International Steam Generator and Heat Exchanger conference had the objective to present the state of knowledge of steam generator performance and life management, and also heat exchanger technology. As this conference followed on from the previous conferences held in Toronto in 1990 and 1994, the emphasis was on recent developments, particularly those of the last 4 years. The conference provided an opportunity to operators, designers and researchers in the field of steam generation associated with electricity generation by nuclear energy to present their findings and exchange ideas. The conference endeavoured to do this over the widest possible range of subject areas, including: general operating experience, life management and fitness for service strategies, maintenance and inspection, thermalhydraulics, vibration, fretting and fatigue, materials, chemistry and corrosion and the regulatory issues

  4. Proceedings of the third international steam generator and heat exchanger conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Third International Steam Generator and Heat Exchanger conference had the objective to present the state of knowledge of steam generator performance and life management, and also heat exchanger technology. As this conference followed on from the previous conferences held in Toronto in 1990 and 1994, the emphasis was on recent developments, particularly those of the last 4 years. The conference provided an opportunity to operators, designers and researchers in the field of steam generation associated with electricity generation by nuclear energy to present their findings and exchange ideas. The conference endeavoured to do this over the widest possible range of subject areas,including: general operating experience, life management and fitness for service strategies, maintenance and inspection, thermalhydraulics, vibration, fretting and fatigue, materials, chemistry and corrosion and the regulatory issues.

  5. Deflagration tests of an air-hydrogen-steam mixture with not uniformly distributed steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcassi, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the experimental tests carried out around the world to investigate the behaviour of a combustion of air-hydrogen-steam mixture, have been made with a uniform mixture. In the case of a severe accident of a nuclear reactor with production of hydrogen, inside the containment of the reactor, the air-hydrogen-steam mixture might be not uniform, for example in the case were containment spray fails to work. This behaviour is clearly showed in the HDR experiments were stratification were found during the experiments. To examine this aspect a series of 10 tests was undertaken at the Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Constructions of the University of Pisa. The experimental apparatus used was the HYDRO-SH (a small apparatus of 0.5 m 3 ), whereas in the past almost 100 tests of combustion of air-hydrogen-steam mixture uniformly distributed were done. The new test data was compared with the previous tests in terms of pressure efficiencies. The preliminary results show that with a steam concentration less than 30% no difference exist between the new and the old tests. With a steam concentration of 50% the pressure efficiencies of tests with not uniformly distributed steam is greater than equivalent test where the steam was well distributed

  6. Experimental study of the efficiency of steam injection on wet-steam turbine stator blade cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakov, S. V.; Alexeev, R. A.; Gavrilov, I. Y.; Gribin, V. G.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Tishchenko, V. A.; Popov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, in order to decrease the negative effects caused by the presence of a discrete phase in the flow path of steam turbines stages operating in wet-steam area, different technical solutions are apply. These methods reduce the number of coarse droplets and wetness of working medium. The implementation of erosion reduction methods requires modifying surfaces of flow path, which can significantly affect the efficiency of the steam turbine. For example application of intrachanel moisture removing and steam injection needs changes of the stator blades surfaces. This article is a part of researches cycle about the efficiency of steam injection on the stator blade surface as the main method of coarse liquid particles diameters reduction in the last stages of high-power steam turbines. The paper presents the results of the analysis and comparison of experimental research unmodified profile to the profile of the stator blade changed by injection slot. The comparison of the profile losses considered blades is present. The analysis of the experimental results showed the feasibility and efficiency of this method of coarse liquid particles diameters reduction in the last stages of high-power steam turbines.

  7. Modelling of steam condensation in the primary flow channel of a gas-heated steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Meister, G.

    1982-10-01

    A new simulation code has been developed for the analysis of steam ingress accidents in high temperatures reactors which evaluates the heat transfer in a steam generator headed by a mixture of helium and water steam. Special emphasis is laid on the analysis of steam condensation in the primary circuit of the steam generator. The code takes wall and bulk condensation into account. A new method is proposed to describe the entrainment of water droplets in the primary gas flow. Some typical results are given. Steam condensation in the primary channel may have a significant effect on temperature distributions. The effect on the heat transferred by the steam generator, however, is found to be not so prominent as might be expected. The reason is discussed. A simplified code will also be described, which gives results with reasonable accuracy within much shorter execution times. This code may be used as a program module in a program simulating the total primary circuit of a high temperature reactor. (orig.) [de

  8. Study with a steam tracer in a zone near well Az-64, in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con un trazador de vapor en la zona aledana al pozo Az-64, en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J.; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    A previous tracer study in the Maritaro-La Cumbre area of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field concluded that injection in well Az-15 recharges a group of producing wells located east of the injector to a maximum distance of about 2000 m. The study also indicated injection in Az-15 either does not recharge wells farther east in the neighborhood of the Laguna Verde fault, or does so at very low rates over a long period. Because it is important to recharge this zone, it was decided to explore the possibility of doing it by injecting in well Az-64, located in the area. Thus the present study was designed. Six producing wells were chosen to monitor tracer arrivals. Because all the chosen wells produce steam (several also produce water) and for economic reasons, it was decided to use a steam-phase tracer. We chose sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a tracer successfully used before in the field. On October 24, 2006, we injected 96.4 kg of SF6 into well Az-64. All six chosen wells were sampled for 156 days, starting the day of injection. The tracer was detected in all six wells and for every well the shape of the residence curve clearly depicted the fractured nature of the corresponding permeability. Again in every case, the recovery curves indicated recovery was completed within the 156-day sampling period. The largest recoveries were in wells Az-05 (48.5%) and Az-43 (1.27%), those closest to the injection well and on the same side of the Maritaro fault as Az-64. Well Az-51, lying at 848 m from the injector and farthest away, registered the third-highest recovery percentage (1.01 x 10-5%), significantly higher than well Az-19 (6.95 x 10-6%), located 490 m from the injector; the two wells are on the same side of the Maritaro fault as Az-64. Well Az-32, located 423 m from the injector, but on the other side of the Maritaro fault, recovered 5.6 x 10-7% of the injected tracer, comparable to 8.67 x 10-7%, the amount recovered in well Az-13 on the same side of the Maritaro fault

  9. Acoustic leak detector in Monju steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachi, E.; Inoue, T.

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic leak detectors are equipped with the Monju steam generators for one of the R and D activities, which are the same type of the detectors developed in the PNC 50MW Steam Generator Test Facility. Although they are an additional leak detection system to the regular one in Monju SG, they would also detect the intermediate or large leaks of the SG tube failures. The extrapolation method of a background noise analysis is expected to be verified by Monju SG data. (author). 4 figs

  10. Stability study in one step steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.

    1990-01-01

    The TWO program is presented developed for the behaviour limit calculation stable in one step steam generators for the case of Density Waves phenomenom. The program is based on a nodal model which, using Laplace transformation equations, allows to study the system's transfer functions and foresee the beginning of the unstable behaviour. This program has been satisfactorily validated against channels data uniformly heated in the range from 4.0 to 6.0 Mpa. Results on the CAREM reactor's steam generator analysis are presented. (Author) [es

  11. Function analysis of steam isolation valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, R.; Kilpi, K.; Noro, H.; Siikonen, T.; Sjoeberg, A.; Wallen, G.; Aakesson, H.

    1981-01-01

    Function analysis of system-medium-operated steam isolation valves has been the objective of the Swedish-Finnish IVLS project, the results of which are presented in this report. Theoretical models were to be verified against available experimental data, to some extent from the HDR blowdown experiments, which are part of a German reactor safety program. Finnish hydraulic measurements on a valve model (scale 1:2.15) have been performed to give complementary data. The analysis work has covered the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of steam isolation valves as well as phenomena related to structural mechanics. Work performed under contract with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. (Author)

  12. Function analysis of steam isolation valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, R.; Sjoeberg, A.; Aakesson, H.; Kilpi, K.; Noro, H.; Siikonen, T.; Wallen, G.

    1981-01-01

    Function analysis of system-medium-operated steam isolation valves has been the objective of the Swedish-Finnish IVLS project, the results of which are presented in this report. Theoretical models were to be verified against available experimental data, to some extent from the HDR blowdown experiments, which are part of a German reactor safety program. Finnish hydraulic measurements on a valve model (scale 1:2.15) have been performed to give complementary data. The analysis work has covered the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of steam isolation valves as well as phenomena related to structural mechanics. (Auth.)

  13. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  14. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, H.; Purhonen, H.; Kouhia, V.

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries

  15. Steam generator tubesheet waterlancing at Bruce B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, R. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada, Cambridge, Ontario (Canada); Eybergen, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    High pressure water cleaning of steam generator secondary side tubesheet surfaces is an important and effective strategy for reducing or eliminating under-deposit chemical attack of the tubing. At the Bruce B station, reaching the interior of the tube bundle with a high-pressure water lance is particularly challenging due to the requirement to setup on-boiler equipment within the containment bellows. This paper presents how these and other design constraints were solved with new equipment. Also discussed is the application of new high-resolution inter-tube video probe capability to the Bruce B steam generator tubesheets. (author)

  16. The essence of steam technology and its link to distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, David

    2004-01-01

    The essence of steam technology, as Simon Schaffer explains in Faraday’s laboratory, is to understand the behaviour of fire, water and steam. The role of glass in manipulating these is absolutely fundamental, as is the role of distilling.

  17. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  18. Radial Microchannel Reactor (RMR) used in Steam Reforming CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    Microchannel Reactor , (RMR) used in Steam Reforming CH4 Details 5) Supported Hydrogen Permeable Membrane 6) P&E MFMR Integration with PCI steam reformer... Reactor (RMR) architecture and reports the achieved breakthroughs in heat transfer and thermal efficiency in the catalytic steam reforming of methane...Radial Microchannel Reactor , (RMR) used in Steam Reforming CH$ N00014-11-C-0194 Peter R. Bossard, Ph.D. Power & Energy, Inc. 106 Railroad Drive, Ivyland

  19. Future aspects for liquid metal heated steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansing, W.; Ratzel, W.; Vinzens, K.

    1975-01-01

    The present status of steam generators is shown. The experience gained until now is expressed in form of basic points. The most important design criteria for steam generator systems are outlined. On the basis of these design criteria, two possible steam generator concepts are shown. Costs in relationship to the repair concepts of two modular steam generators (thermal output 156 and 625 MW) and a pool design of 625 MW are compared. (author)

  20. Solar-generated steam for oil recovery: Reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Joel; Fowler, Garrett; Cheng, Kris; Kovscek, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated assessment of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). • Analyses of reservoir performance, economics, and life cycle factors. • High solar fraction scenarios show economic viability for TEOR. • Continuous variable-rate steam injection meets the benchmarks set by conventional steam flood. - Abstract: The viability of solar thermal steam generation for thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) in heavy-oil sands was evaluated using San Joaquin Valley, CA data. The effectiveness of solar TEOR was quantified through reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life-cycle assessment. Reservoir simulations with continuous but variable rate steam injection were compared with a base-case Tulare Sand steamflood project. For equivalent average injection rates, comparable breakthrough times and recovery factors of 65% of the original oil in place were predicted, in agreement with simulations in the literature. Daily cyclic fluctuations in steam injection rate do not greatly impact recovery. Oil production rates do, however, show seasonal variation. Economic viability was established using historical prices and injection/production volumes from the Kern River oil field. For comparison, this model assumes that present day steam generation technologies were implemented at TEOR startup in 1980. All natural gas cogeneration and 100% solar fraction scenarios had the largest and nearly equal net present values (NPV) of $12.54 B and $12.55 B, respectively. Solar fraction refers to the steam provided by solar steam generation. Given its large capital cost, the 100% solar case shows the greatest sensitivity to discount rate and no sensitivity to natural gas price. Because there are very little emissions associated with day-to-day operations from the solar thermal system, life-cycle emissions are significantly lower than conventional systems even when the embodied energy of the structure is considered. We estimate that less than 1 g of CO 2 /MJ of refined

  1. Nickel electroplating as a remedy to steam generator tubing PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, B.; Steltzlen, F.; Sala, B.; Laire, Ch.; Stubbe, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nickel plating appears to be a versatile process, as the application field, even if always used against PWSCC, is different from plant-to-plant. Its usage has been from a purely preventive action on tubes without defects, to a corrective action on through-wall cracked and leaking tubes. As a background for the large scale on-site operations of Doel 2 in 1990 (345 tubes) and Tihange 2 in 1992 (600 tubes), studies on four points are outlined, i.e. corrosion tests, stress measurements, sulfamate bath quality control, and in-service inspection. In conclusion, it appears that the nickel plating technique, following a case-by-case study, can often be a convenient remedy against Alloy 600 stress corrosion problems. New applications, in locations other than the steam generator field are under consideration

  2. The Effect of Steaming on the Glucosinolate Content in Broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Knol, J.J.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Total and individual glucosinolates were measured after different duration of steaming broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica). During steaming, the temperature profile, cell lysis and inactivation of myrosinase were assessed as well. Steaming resulted in high retention of total aliphatic and

  3. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  4. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam sterilization treatment schedules. 305.23... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period (minutes) Directions T303-b-1 10 lbs 20 Use 28″ vacuum. Steam sterilization is not practical for treatment...

  5. Recent trends in repair and refurbishing of steam turbine components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The repair and refurbishing of steam generator components is discussed from the perspective of repair welding philosophy including applicable codes and regulations. Some case histories of repair welding of steam generator components are discussed with special emphasis on details of repair welding of cracked steam ...

  6. Efficiency of steam reheating in heat recovery steam generator at thermal power plant with gas turbine topping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of using alternative option to the displacement of regenerative heating is analyzed in this paper: application of heat recovery steam generator’s (HRSG thermal power for reheating of working medium that has passed steam turbine.

  7. Sodium and steam leak simulation studies for fluidized bed steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeton, A.R.; Vaux, W.G.; Lee, P.K.; Witkowski, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program is described which was conducted to study the effects of sodium or steam leaking into an operating fluidized bed of metal or ceramic particles at 680 to 800 0 K. This effort was part of the early development studies for a fluidized-bed steam generator concept using helium as the fluidizing gas. Test results indicated that steam and small sodium leaks had no effect on the quality of fluidization, heat transfer coefficient, temperature distribution, or fluidizing gas pressure drop across the bed. Large sodium leaks, however, immediately upset the operation of the fluidized bed. Both steam and sodium leaks were detected positively and rapidly at an early stage of a leak by instruments specifically selected to accomplish this

  8. Leakage experiences with 1 MW steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, A.; Kawara, M.; Sano, A.

    1975-01-01

    An 1 MW steam generator was tested from October, 1971 and completed with the first series of experiments by May, 1972 after 3600 hours of operation. During these tests, unextraordinary heat absorption was experienced in the downcomer region, which led to shortage of heat transfer area to attain the rated steam temperature and to one of the reasons of flow instabilities. The steam generator was disassembled to get test pieces for structure as well as material examinations and then it was reassembled to proceed the second series of tests. Before it was done, a modification was provided to insulate the downcomer region by putting a gas space around the downcomer tube. The gas space was provided by a dual tube and spacers were welded on the inner tube and an end plate was welded on upper parts between the two to seal the gap by means of fillet welding. After the modified steam generator was put into operation, water happened to leak into a sodium side two times through these additional welding spots for the gas insulation. This paper presents operating conditions and behaviors of monitors at the time of the leakages, identifications of leaked spots, an evaluation of causes and a treatment or a precaution for them

  9. KNK steam generator leakage, evaluations and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumm, K.; Ratzel, W.

    1975-01-01

    On September 23, 1972 the KNK reactor was shut down due to a sodium-water reaction. Detection, localisation and possible leak development are described and discussed. Improvements on the KNK steam generator system due to this leak experience are explained. (author)

  10. Investigation of beryllium/steam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskikh, A.M.; Vurim, A.D.; Vasilyev, Yu.S.; Pivovarov, O.S. [Inst. of Atomic Energy National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V.P.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this report program on investigations of beryllium emissivity and transient processes on overheated beryllium surface attacked by water steam to be carried out in IAE NNC RK within Task S81 TT 2096-07-16 FR. The experimental facility design is elaborated in this Report. (author)

  11. Program for parameter studies of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathisen, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    R2-GEN is a computer code for stationary thermal parameter studies of steam generators. The geometry and data are valid for Ringhals-2 generators. Subroutines and relevant calculations are included. The program is based on a heterogeneous flow model and some applications on tubes with varying contamination are presented. (G.B.)

  12. Steam explosion triggering and efficiency studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, L.D.; Nelson, L.S.; Benedick, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on the thermal interaction of simulated light water reactor (LWR) fuel melts and water are summarized. Their purpose was to investigate the possibility of steam explosions occurring for a range of hypothetical accident conditions. Pressure, temperature, hot liquid motion and cold liquid motion were monitored during the experiments

  13. Next Generation Steam Cracking Reactor Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, M.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The steam cracking process is an important asset in the hydrocarbon processing industry. The main products are lower olefins and hydrogen, with ethylene being the world's largest volume organic chemical at a worldwide capacity of ~ 120 million tonnes per year. Feed stocks are hydrocarbons such as:

  14. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangus, James D.

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  15. Theorizing the Nexus of STEAM Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Kylie; Wohlwend, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in arts education policy, as outlined in the latest National Core Arts Standards, advocate for bringing digital media into the arts education classroom. The promise of such Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM)-based approaches is that, by coupling Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)…

  16. Eddy current testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, P.

    1981-01-01

    A rotating probe is described for improving the inspection of tubes and end plate in steam generators. The method allows a representation of the whole defect, consequently the observer is able to determine directly the type of defect, signal processing in-line or off-line is possible [fr

  17. Wet steam turbines for CANDU-Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, C.H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical characteristics of 4 wet steam turbine aggregates used in the Pickering nuclear power station are reported on along with operational experience. So far, the general experience was positive. Furthermore, plans are mentioned to use this type of turbines in other CANDU reactors. (UA) [de

  18. Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

  19. Acoustic detection for water/steam leak from a tube of LMFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Masataka; Shindo, Yoshihisa

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic leak detector is useful for detecting more quickly intermediate leak than the existing hydrogen detector and is available for identification of leak location on the accident of water/steam leak from a tube of LMFBR steam generator. This paper presents the overview of HALD (High frequency Acoustics Leak Detection) system, which is more sensitive for leak detection and lower cost of equipment for identification of leak location than a low frequency type detector. (author)

  20. The progress of test and study for steam dryer in vertical steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xunshen

    1993-01-01

    Constructions, tests and test results are reviewed for three types of steam generator dryer that are concentric vertical corrugated separator, centrifugal conic separator and chevron separator. The last type is considered as the best one in comparison, which has been applied to Qinshan 300 MW steam generator. A number of pertinent remarks to draining scheme, hydraulic loss reduction, and conduct of test are given based on experiences

  1. Modeling of Steam Distillation Mechanism during Steam Injection Process Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Daryasafar, Amin; Ahadi, Arash; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2014-01-01

    Steam distillation as one of the important mechanisms has a great role in oil recovery in thermal methods and so it is important to simulate this process experimentally and theoretically. In this work, the simulation of steam distillation is performed on sixteen sets of crude oil data found in the literature. Artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as artificial neural network (ANN) and also adaptive neurofuzzy interference system (ANFIS) are used in this study as effective methods to simulat...

  2. Polymeric dispersants for control of steam generator fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Klimas, S.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Lepine, L. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Turner, C.W

    1999-05-01

    Fouling of steam generators by corrosion products from the feedtrain leads to loss of heat-transfer efficiency, disturbances in thermalhydraulics, and potential corrosion problems resulting from the development of sites for localized accumulation of aggressive chemicals. This report summarizes studies of the use of polymeric dispersants for the control of fouling, which were conducted at the Chalk River Laboratories. High-temperaturesettling studies on magnetite suspensions were performed to screen available generic dispersants, and the dispersants were ranked in terms of their dispersion efficiency; polyacrylic acid (PAA) and the phosphonate, HEDP, were ranked as the most efficient. Polyacrylic acid was considered more suitable than HEDP for nuclear steam generators, and more emphasis was given to the former in these studies. The dispersants had no effect on the particle deposition rates under single-phase forced-convective flow, but did reduce the deposition rates under flow-boiling conditions. The extent to which the deposition rates were reduced increased in proportion to the dispersant concentration. Preliminary corrosion tests indicated that pitting or general corrosion of steam generator tube materials in the presence of PAA was negligible. Corrosion of carbon steel, although higher in a magnetite-packed crevice under heat flux than in bulk water, was lower in the presence of PAA than in its absence. Some impurities (e.g., sulphate, sodium) were observed in commercially available PAA products at small, though significant concentrations, making these products unacceptable for use in nuclear plants. However, the PAA could be purified by ion exchange. Preliminary experiments, to assess the thermal stability of PAA at steam generator operating temperature, showed the polymer to break down in deaerated solutions and under argon cover to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide as the two major products in the gas phase and variable concentrations of acetate and formate

  3. Steam reforming, partial oxidation, and oxidative steam reforming of ethanol over Pt/CeZrO2 catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Noronha, Fábio Bellot

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic performance of a Pt/CeZrO2 catalyst was tested for ethanol decomposition, steam reforming, partial oxidation, and oxidative steam reforming. At low temperature, the catalyst underwent significant deactivation during ethanol decomposition and steam reforming reactions. Co-feeding oxygen decreased the deactivation rate of the catalyst but adversely affected the selectivity to hydrogen.

  4. Flux and genesis of CO2 degassing from volcanic-geothermal fields of Gulu-Yadong rift in the Lhasa terrane, South Tibet: Constraints on characteristics of deep carbon cycle in the India-Asia continent subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihong; Guo, Zhengfu; Sano, Yuji; Zhang, Maoliang; Sun, Yutao; Cheng, Zhihui; Yang, Tsanyao Frank

    2017-11-01

    Gulu-Yadong rift (GYR) is the longest extensional, NE-SW-trending rift in the Himalayas and Lhasa terrane of South Tibet. Many volcanic-geothermal fields (VGFs), which comprise intense hot springs, steaming fissures, geysers and soil micro-seepage, are distributed in the GYR, making it ideal area for studying deep carbon emissions in the India-Asia continent subduction zone. As for the northern segment of GYR in the Lhasa terrane, its total flux and genesis of CO2 emissions are poorly understood. Following accumulation chamber method, soil CO2 flux survey has been carried out in VGFs (i.e., Jidaguo, Ningzhong, Sanglai, Tuoma and Yuzhai from south to north) of the northern segment of GYR. Total soil CO2 output of the northern GYR is about 1.50 × 107 t a-1, which is attributed to biogenic and volcanic-geothermal source. Geochemical characteristics of the volcanic-geothermal gases (including CO2 and He) of the northern GYR indicate their significant mantle-derived affinities. Combined with previous petrogeochemical and geophysical data, our He-C isotope modeling calculation results show that (1) excess mantle-derived 3He reflects degassing of volatiles related with partial melts from enriched mantle wedge induced by northward subduction of the Indian lithosphere, and (2) the crust-mantle interaction can provide continuous heat and materials for the overlying volcanic-geothermal system, in which magma-derived volatiles are inferred to experience significant crustal contamination during their migration to the surface.

  5. Reduction of Microbe Contamination through Steaming Process to Cocoa Beans Using Steaming Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Firmanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dry cocoa bean quality is also determined by its microbe contamination level. Steaming process for dried cocoa beans as a pretreatment process was selected because of less effect on organic compound inside the dried cocoa bean. This experiment aim was to study microbial contamination level of cocoa beans using steaming process, determining its microbial population and evaluate its chemical changes. Experiment was carried out in Postharvest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Cocoa beans for the experiment were lots collected from four farms in Jayapura, Papua with different microbial contamination level for each lot. Results of this experiment showed that optimum steaming process was 15 minutes at 100 O C with 10 minutes preheating time. Microbial analysis result of the four lots after complete steaming process by total plate count method showed the same result (<3.0 x 103 cfu. Most of the decrease in microbial contaminant appeared in the plate was 73.5% of Staphylococcus aureusand 0.058% of Penicilliumsp. Bean acidity (pH after steaming increased (4.76 to 4.80 and free fatty acid increased (1.81% to 1.96% while carbohydrate content decreased (17.5% to 15.9% and as well as protein content (12.6% into 11.7%. Key words: cocoa bean, steaming process, microbe reduction, nutrient changes

  6. Solar energy for steam generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carvalho, A.V. Jr.; Orlando, A. DeF.; Magnoli, D.

    1979-05-01

    Steam generation is a solar energy application that has not been frequently studied in Brazil, even though for example, about 10% of the national primary energy demand is utilized for processing heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C. On the other hand, substitution of automotive gasoline by ethanol, for instance, has received much greater attention even though primary energy demand for process heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C is of the same order of magnitude than for total automotive gasoline production. Generation of low-temperature steam is analyzed in this article using distributed systems of solar collectors. Main results of daily performance simulation of single flat-plate collectors and concentrating collectors are presented for 20/sup 0/S latitude, equinox, in clear days. Flat plate collectors considered are of the aluminum roll-bond absorber type, selective surface single or double glazing. Considering feedwater at 20/sup 0/C, saturated steam at 120/sup 0/C and an annual solar utilization factor of 50%, a total collector area of about 3,000 m/sup 2/ is necessary for the 10 ton/day plant, without energy storage. A fuel-oil back-up system is employed to complement the solar steam production, when necessary. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that, although the case-study shows today a long payback period relative to subsidized fuel oil in the domestic market (over 20 years in the city of Rio de Janeiro), solar steam systems may be feasible in the medium term due to projected increase of fuel oil price in Brazil.

  7. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOGELAND, STEVE R.; NELSON, LLOYD S.; ROTH, THOMAS CHRISTOPHER

    1999-01-01

    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives

  8. Vibration and wear characteristics of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hwan

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the fluid elastic instability characteristics of Steam Generator (SG) U-tubes with defect and the safety assessment of the potential for fretting-wear damages on Steam Generator (SG) U-tubes caused by foreign object in operating nuclear power plants. The operating SG shell-side flow field conditions for determining the fluid elastic instability or fretting-wear parameters such as damping ratio, added mass and flow velocity are obtained from three-dimensional SG flow calculation using the ATHOS3 code. To get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and participation factor, modal analyses are performed for the U-tubes either with axial or circumferential flaw with different sizes. Special emphases are on the effects of flaw orientation and size on the modal and instability characteristics of tubes, which are expressed in terms of the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and stability ratio. Also, the wear rate of U-tube caused by foreign object is calculated using the Archard formula and the remaining life of the tube is predicted, and discussed in this study is the effect of the flow velocity and vibration of the tube on the remaining life of the tube. In addition, addressed is the effect of the internal pressure on the vibration and fretting-wear characteristics of the tube

  9. The fate of organics in the water-steam cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, P.

    2006-01-01

    The behaviour of organic matter in power plants has been examined. The samples were taken from water treatment plants producing make-up water for boilers as well as from water-steam cycles and cooling cycles. The power plants examined were Czech power plants, both fossil and nuclear, and one Slovakian nuclear plant. The tests were performed by the liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) method at a subcontractor lab. This method enables distinguishing between different groups of organic matter and from experience the effectiveness of water treatment technologies and the possible influence on the water-steam cycle of the power plant can be estimated. It has been confirmed that by using appropriate flocculation the problems in water treatment plants diminish and the VGB limit for total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of 200 μg . L -1 in boiler feedwater may be reached. The lower limit following EPRI recommendations of 100 μg . L -1 is hardly achievable using existing water treatment technology. This provides an open field for reverse osmosis technology that is able to remove organics completely. (orig.)

  10. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOGELAND, STEVE R.; NELSON, LLOYD S.; ROTH, THOMAS CHRISTOPHER

    1999-07-01

    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives.

  11. Steam quality determination by self-tracers present in the BOP blowdown water and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Ivanna; Chocron Mauricio; Miceli Fiorella; Saucedo, Ramona

    2012-09-01

    Steam quality determination (the ratio between steam mass flow rate and the sum of steam and liquid water mass flow rate) or its reciprocal named moisture carryover, is a magnitude of importance in fossil fired and nuclear power plants as well. This is due to that, the steam quality participates in the determination of the power transferred from the primary to the secondary circuit (ASME PTC, Gross Heat Input) and the performance of the secondary circuit, in the efficiency of the liquid separators located in the dome of the recirculating type steam generators and finally because the drops carryover implies mechanical wear in the turbine blades and transport of impurities as well. It is after the above mentioned reasons, that several standardized procedures exist (ASTM) and international institutions devoted to the properties of water and steam and applications in power plants release recommendations on the steam quality (IAPWS). Even though, the measurement is still a subject of new publications (Thomas et al., NPC10). In general, the determination methods make use of the addition of a tracer, stable alkaline element or isotope, which has to be later quantified by an analytical or radiochemical technique. It also means keeping the BOP under specified conditions during the test. Chemicals dosing of is not always accepted considering that ions used as tracers concentrate in the steam generator media and modify the water chemistry conditions. This is more pronounced in old devices with presence of fouling and sludge piles on the tube sheet. In the present work a technique based on the concentration of the ions currently existing in the cycle: Blowdown Water (BDW) and condensate (MSR-MSC) of the main steam used as heating fluid in the Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR). The latter ensures a total representative sample of the two phase stream, unlike sampling in the main steam sampling line. Those ion concentrations participate in the calculation of the steam quality. To

  12. Design considerations for a steam-injection pilot with in-situ foaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, M.H.; Sanyal, S.K.; Horn, A.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the necessary aspects of the planning, operation, evaluation, environmental impact and cost to implement a field pilot of steam injection with in-situ foaming. The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI) is planning to implement such a pilot in Kern County, California. The cost of the pilot will be shared by the US Department of Energy and an oil company. Some important aspects of drilling and completion programs and their specifications, permits from regulatory bodies, and downhole tools to improve steam stimulation are discussed. The essential surface facilities which include water treatment plant, steam generator, demulsifier and dehydrator are considered. The necessary laboratory research in support of the pilot has been recommended. The formation evaluation and reservoir engineering effort for the pilot has been divided into three phases: reservoir definition, reservoir monitoring and post-pilot study. Appropriate techniques applicable to each phase of the test have been discussed. The environmental impact regulations as related to the steam injection process have been considered. In particular, the environmental problems associated with the burning of crude oil and desulfurization of flue gas have been discussed. Other environmental considerations such as solid and liquid waste disposal, health and safety are also discussed. An estimate of the cost of this field test is presented. Three scenarii (for pilots with high, medium, and low investment potentials, respectively) are presented. Since this report was prepared, a specific site for the supri pilot has been chosen. Appendices G and H present the details on this site.

  13. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Sturtevant, Sabin A.

    2002-01-01

    Sixty-seven water analyses are reported for samples collected from 44 hot springs and their overflow drainages and two ambient-temperature acid streams in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 1990-2000. Thirty-seven analyses are reported for 1999, 18 for June of 2000, and 12 for September of 2000. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on microbially mediated sulfur oxidation in stream water, arsenic and sulfur redox speciation in hot springs, and chemical changes in overflow drainages that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. Most samples were collected from sources in the Norris Geyser Basin. Two ambient-temperature acidic stream systems, Alluvium and Columbine Creeks and their tributaries in Brimstone Basin, were studied in detail. Analyses were performed at or near the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory truck, or later in a USGS laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether or not it could be preserved effectively. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), and dissolved H2S were determined on-site at the time of sampling. Alkalinity, acidity, and F were determined within a few days of sample collection by titration with acid, titration with base, and ion-selective electrode or ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Concentrations of S2O3 and SxO6 were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by IC. Concentrations of Br, Cl, NH4, NO2, NO3, SO4, Fe(II), and Fe(total) were determined within a few days of sample collection. Densities were determined later in the USGS laboratory. Concentrations of Li and K were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As(total), B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Trace concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Sb were

  14. Minimize corrosion degradation of steam generator tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a coordinated program, AECL is developing a set of tools to aid with the prediction and management of steam generator performance. Although stress corrosion cracking (of Alloy 800) has not been detected in any operating steam generator, for life management it is necessary to develop mechanistic models to predict the conditions under which stress corrosion cracking is plausible. Experimental data suggest that all steam generator tube materials are susceptible to corrosion degradation under some specific off-specification conditions. The tolerance to the chemistry upset for each steam generator tube alloy is different. Electrochemical corrosion behaviors of major steam generator tube alloys were studied under the plausible aggressive crevice chemistry conditions. The potential hazardous conditions leading to steam generator tube degradation and the conditions, which can minimize steam generator tube degradation have been determined. Recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zones were defined for all major steam generator tube materials, including Alloys 600, 800, 690 and 400, under CANDU steam generator operating and startup conditions. Stress corrosion cracking tests and accelerated corrosion tests were carried out to verify and revise the recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zones. Based on this information, utilities can prevent steam generator material degradation surprises by appropriate steam generator water chemistry management and increase the reliability of nuclear power generating stations. (author)

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected advanced gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Devendra; Bade, Mukund H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle. To analyse the thermodynamic performance of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycles, a methodology based on pinch analysis is proposed. This graphical methodology is a systematic approach proposed for a selection of gas turbine with steam injection. The developed graphs are useful for selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) for optimal operation of it and helps designer to take appropriate decision. The selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle can be done either at minimum steam ratio (ratio of mass flow rate of steam to air) with maximum efficiency or at maximum steam ratio with maximum net work conditions based on the objective of plants designer. Operating the steam injection based advanced gas turbine plant at minimum steam ratio improves efficiency, resulting in reduction of pollution caused by the emission of flue gases. On the other hand, operating plant at maximum steam ratio can result in maximum work output and hence higher available power.

  16. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podlasek Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units – quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics are definitely obsolete. It is not possible to use such units with cooperation of steam bus or with steam engines. In particular, there is no possibility for automatically adjustment of the pressure and the temperature of the generated steam supplying steam engines. Such adjustment is necessary in case of variation of a generator load. The paper is devoted to description of improvement of an exemplary unit together with construction of the measurement-control system based on a PLC. The aim was to enable for communication between the steam generator and controllers of the steam bus and steam engines in order to construction of a complete, fully autonomic and maintenance-free microcogeneration system.

  17. Corrosion Evaluation and Corrosion Control of Steam Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, K. M

    2008-06-15

    Corrosion damage significantly influences the integrity and efficiency of steam generator. Corrosion problems of steam generator are unsolved issues until now even though much effort is made around world. Especially the stress corrosion cracking of heat exchange materials is the first issue to be solved. The corrosion protection method of steam generator is important and urgent for the guarantee of nuclear plant's integrity. The objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the corrosion properties of steam generator materials, 2) to optimize the water chemistry of steam generator and 3) to develop the corrosion protection method of primary and secondary sides of steam generator. The results will be reflected to the water chemistry guideline for improving the integrity and efficiency of steam generator in domestic power plants.

  18. Corrosion Evaluation and Corrosion Control of Steam Generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, K. M.

    2008-06-01

    Corrosion damage significantly influences the integrity and efficiency of steam generator. Corrosion problems of steam generator are unsolved issues until now even though much effort is made around world. Especially the stress corrosion cracking of heat exchange materials is the first issue to be solved. The corrosion protection method of steam generator is important and urgent for the guarantee of nuclear plant's integrity. The objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the corrosion properties of steam generator materials, 2) to optimize the water chemistry of steam generator and 3) to develop the corrosion protection method of primary and secondary sides of steam generator. The results will be reflected to the water chemistry guideline for improving the integrity and efficiency of steam generator in domestic power plants

  19. Report on US-Japan 1983 meetings on steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This is a report on a trip to Japan by personnel of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1983 to exchange information on steam generators of nuclear power plants. Steam generators of Japanese pressurized water reactors have experienced nearly all of the forms of degradation that have been experienced in US recirculating-type steam generators, except for denting and pitting. More tubes have been plugged per year of reactor operation in Japanese than in US steam generators, but much of the Japanese tube plugging is preventative rather than the result of leaks experienced. The number of leaks per reactor year is much smaller for Japanese than for US steam generators. No steam generators have been replaced in Japan while several have been replaced in the US. The Japanese experience may be related to their very stringent inspection and maintenance programs for steam generators

  20. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  1. Steam sterilisation's energy and water footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGain, Forbes; Moore, Graham; Black, Jim

    2017-03-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to quantify hospital steam steriliser resource consumption to provide baseline environmental data and identify possible efficiency gains. We sought to find the amount of steriliser electricity and water used for active cycles and for idling (standby), and the relationship between the electricity and water consumption and the mass and type of items sterilised. Methods We logged a hospital steam steriliser's electricity and water meters every 5min for up to 1 year. We obtained details of all active cycles (standard 134°C and accessory or 'test' cycles), recording item masses and types. Relationships were investigated for both the weight and type of items sterilised with electricity and water consumption. Results Over 304 days there were 2173 active cycles, including 1343 standard 134°C cycles that had an average load mass of 21.2kg, with 32% of cycles water used was 1243495L (79%). Standby used 21457kWh (40%) electricity and 329200L (21%) water. Total electricity and water consumption per mass sterilised was 1.9kWhkg -1 and 58Lkg -1 , respectively. The linear regression model predicting electricity use was: kWh=15.7+ 0.14×mass (in kg; R 2 =0.58, Pwater and item type were poor. Electricity and water use fell from 3kWhkg -1 and 200Lkg -1 , respectively, for 5-kg loads to 0.5kWhkg -1 and 20Lkg -1 , respectively, for 40-kg loads. Conclusions Considerable electricity and water use occurred during standby, load mass was only moderately predictive of electricity consumption and light loads were common yet inefficient. The findings of the present study are a baseline for steam sterilisation's environmental footprint and identify areas to improve efficiencies. What is known about the topic? There is increasing interest in the environmental effects of healthcare. Life cycle assessment ('cradle to grave') provides a scientific method of analysing environmental effects. Although data of the effects of steam sterilisation are integral

  2. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-06-01

    The sourcebook is a reference for industrial steam system users, outlining opportunities to improve steam system performance. This Sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The Sourcebook is divided into the following three main sections: Section 1: Steam System Basics--For users unfamiliar with the basics of steam systems, or for users seeking a refresher, a brief discussion of the terms, relationships, and important system design considerations is provided. Users already familiar with industrial steam system operation may want to skip this section. This section describes steam systems using four basic parts: generation, distribution, end use, and recovery. Section 2: Performance Improvement Opportunities--This section discusses important factors that should be considered when industrial facilities seek to improve steam system performance and to lower operating costs. This section also provides an overview of the finance considerations related to steam system improvements. Additionally, this section discusses several resources and tools developed by the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) BestPractices Steam Program to identify and assess steam system improvement opportunities. Section 3: Programs, Contacts, and Resources--This section provides a directory of associations and other organizations involved in the steam system marketplace. This section also provides a description of the BestPractices Steam Program, a directory of contacts, and a listing of available resources and tools, such as publications, software, training courses, and videos.

  3. Experiment on the Influence Factors of Steam Distillation Rate of Crude Oil in Porous Media

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Guoqing; Xu Wenzhuang; Huang Hangjuan; Xie Zhiti; Huo Junzhou; Li Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    To explore the influence of complexity of reservoir properties in porous media and the diversity of operating conditions on the steam distillation rate of crude oil in the process of heavy oil exploitation with steam injection, steam distillation simulation devices are used to study steam distillation rate of crude oil in porous media. Then steam distillation ratio is obtained under the condition of different core permeability, oil saturation, steam temperatures, system pressure, steam inject...

  4. Steam-frothing of milk for coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münchow, Morten; Jørgensen, Leif; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A method for evaluation of the foaming properties of steam-frothed milk, based on image analysis (feature extraction) carried out on a video taken immediately after foam formation, was developed. The method was shown to be able to analyse steam-frothed milk made using a conventional espresso...... machine, such as commonly used by baristas. Samples of milk, processed in a commercial dairy plant, were made with varying fat (0.5%, 0.9%, 1.5%, 2.6%, 3.5%) or protein (3.0%, 3.4%. 3.8%) content and analysed using the developed method. Increased protein content was shown to cause a delay in the formation...

  5. Acoustic leak detection of LMFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo

    1993-01-01

    The development of a water leak detector with short response time for LMFBR steam generators is required to prevent the failure propagation caused by the sodium-water reaction and to maintain structural safety in steam generators. The development of an acoustic leak detector assuring short response time has attracted. The purpose of this paper is to confirm the basic detection feasibility of the active acoustic leak detector, and to investigate the leak detection method by erasing the background noise by spectrum analysis of the passive acoustic leak detector. From a comparison of the leak detection sensitivity of the active and the passive method, the active method is not influenced remarkably by the background noise, and it has possibility to detect microleakage with short response time. We anticipate a practical application of the active method in the future. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic properties of superheated and supercritical steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, A. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Panda, D.M.R. [Dadri Gas Power Station, NTPC, Gautam Buddha Nagar (India)

    2001-07-01

    An existing formulation for steam properties is due to Irvine and Liley. Their equations are convenient to program and do not require excessive computational time to produce results. The properties computed from these equations compare favourably with standard data. An additional advantage of these equations is that they follow prescribed theoretical trends by reducing to perfect-gas behaviour away from the saturation dome. However, a difficulty with these equations is that, at pressures above 10 MPa and close to the saturation dome, unacceptably large errors (above 10%) are produced. These equations are examined in the present work with a view towards enhancing their range of application through the use of additional functions. It is shown that the errors may be reduced to within 1% over the entire range of pressures (both sub-critical and super-critical pressures) required in steam-plant calculations. (author)

  7. Solar steam generation by heat localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hadi; Ni, George; Marconnet, Amy Marie; Loomis, James; Yerci, Selcuk; Miljkovic, Nenad; Chen, Gang

    2014-07-21

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated surfaces or vacuum. New solar receiver concepts such as porous volumetric receivers or nanofluids have been proposed to decrease these losses. Here we report development of an approach and corresponding material structure for solar steam generation while maintaining low optical concentration and keeping the bulk liquid at low temperature with no vacuum. We achieve solar thermal efficiency up to 85% at only 10 kW m(-2). This high performance results from four structure characteristics: absorbing in the solar spectrum, thermally insulating, hydrophilic and interconnected pores. The structure concentrates thermal energy and fluid flow where needed for phase change and minimizes dissipated energy. This new structure provides a novel approach to harvesting solar energy for a broad range of phase-change applications.

  8. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes...... to 12 present various experimental results in the form of appended papers. The chapters consist of the experimental results obtained by the use of steam-based process and its effect on microstructureand corrosion resistance of the alloy as a function of steam pressure, use of various chemicals...... the use of aluminium alloys in the painted form requiring a conversion coating to improve the adhesion. Chromate based conversion coating processes are extremely good for these purposes, however the carcinogenic and toxic nature of hexavalent chromium led to the search for more benign and eco...

  9. Catalytic steam reforming of bio-oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, R.; Dahl, S.; Skjøth-Rasmussen, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen and synthesis gas can be produced in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way through steam reforming (SR) of bio-oil and this review presents the state-of-the-art of SR of bio-oil and model compounds hereof. The possible reactions, which can occur in the SR process and the influe......Hydrogen and synthesis gas can be produced in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way through steam reforming (SR) of bio-oil and this review presents the state-of-the-art of SR of bio-oil and model compounds hereof. The possible reactions, which can occur in the SR process...... and the influence of operating conditions will be presented along with the catalysts and processes investigated in the literature.Several catalytic systems with Ni, Ru, or Rh can achieve good performance with respect to initial conversion and yield of hydrogen, but the main problem is that the catalysts...

  10. A steam generator maintenance and repair robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A robot is described which allows the maintenance and repair of Model 44 and 51 steam generators with minimum operator received dose. The manipulator loads itself into the steam generator channel head through the manway, and locks itself to the tube plate, from where it can reach out to accept tools and inspection equipment. At no stage in the operation of the robot does the operator have to break the plane of the manway or stand in the direct shine path from the tube plate. The robot design is based on a manipulator successfully developed for use throughout the British nuclear industry. At the time of writing five such manipulators were in manufacture for applications in fuel element remote handling and fuel reprocessing plant repair. Proposals are being considered for further applications in reactor decommissioning, underwater fuel handling and general remote maintenance

  11. Design of a nuclear steam reforming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a plant for the steam reforming of methane using a High Temperature Reactor has been studied by CEA in connection with the G.E.G.N. This group of companies (CEA, GAZ DE FRANCE, CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE, CREUSOT-LOIRE, NOVATOME) is in charge of studying the feasibility of the coal gasification process by using a nuclear reactor. The process is based on the hydrogenation of the coal in liquid phase with hydrogen produced by a methane steam reformer. The reformer plant is fed by a pipe of natural gas or SNG. The produced hydrogen feeds the gasification plant which could not be located on the same site. An intermediate hydrogen storage between the two plants could make the coupling more flexible. The gasification plant does not need a great deal of heat and this heat can be satisfied mostly by internal heat exchanges

  12. Steam-generator replacement sets new marks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how, in one of the most successful steam-generator replacement experiences at PWRs worldwide, the V C Summer retrofit exceeded plant goals for critical-path duration, radiation, exposure, and radwaste generation. Intensive planning and teamwork, combined with the firm support of station management and the use of mockups to prepare the work crews for activity in a radiological environment, were key factors in the record performance achieved by South Carolina Electric and Gas Co (SCE and G) in replacing three steam generators at V C Summer nuclear station. The 97-day, two-hour breaker-to-breaker replacement outage -- including an eight-day delay for repair of leak in a small-bore seal-injection line of a reactor coolant pump (unrelated to the replacement activities) -- surpassed the project goal by over one day. Moreover, the outage was only 13 hours shy of the world record held by Virginia Power Co's North Anna Unit 1

  13. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    The lifetimes of heterogeneous catalysts in many widely used industrial processes are determined by the loss of active surface area. In this context, the underlying physical sintering mechanism and quantitative information about the rate of sintering at industrial conditions are relevant....... In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...... compared to other potential nickel transport species. The relation between experimental catalyst sintering data and the effective mass diffusion constant for Ni-OH is established by numerical modelling of the particle migration and coalescence process. Using this relation, the effective mass diffusion...

  14. Embalse steam generators - status in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, P.; Yetisir, M.; Roy, S.; MacEacheron, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Embalse Nuclear Generating Station (ENGS) is a CANDU 6, a pressurized heavy water plant, with a net capacity of 648 MW. The primary heat transport system at Embalse includes four Steam Generators (SGs) manufactured by Babcock and Wilcox Canada (B and W). These steam generators are vertical recirculating heat exchangers with Incoloy 800 inverted U-tubes and an integral preheater. Embalse SGs performed very well until the late 1990s, when an increase in tube fretting was noticed in the U-bend region. In-service inspection in 2002 and 2004 confirmed that the cause of the tube fretting was flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) damage of scallop bar supports in the U-bend region. The straight leg tube support plates (TSPs) have also been degrading. Degradation was worst at the top support plates, and it was in the form of material loss on the cold leg. The hot leg TSPs were heavily fouled with deposits and flow areas were blocked. Visual inspections and subsequent studies showed that the cause of the TSP degradation was also FAC. The Embalse SGs have carbon steel supports that make them susceptible to FAC. To mitigate the effects of degraded tube support structures, three additional sets of anti-vibration bars were installed in the U-bend regions of all four steam generators in 2004. In 2007, an improved secondary-side chemistry specification was implemented to reduce the FAC rate and the hot leg TSPs was waterlanced. A root cause analysis and condition assessment was performed for the tube supports in 2007. Fitness for Service (FFS) evaluation was completed using the Canadian Industry Guidelines for steam generator tubes. The steam generators were returned to service and the plan has operated without another forced outage to date. The FAC degradation of the carbon steel U-bend tube support systems has had the most significant impact on the plant operation causing a number of forced outages. The discovery of the extent of TSP degradation and difficulties to repair TSPs

  15. Jay Carter Enterprises, Incorporated steam engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE) selected an organic rankine cycle (ORC) engine driving a high speed permanent magnet alternator (PMA) as the baseline power conversion subsystem (PCS) design. The back-up conceptual PCS design is a steam engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The development of the automotive reciprocating simple rankine cycle steam engine and how an engine of similar design might be incorporated into the SCSE is discussed. A description of the third generation automotive engine is included along with some preliminary test data. Tests were conducted with the third generation engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The purpose of these tests is to further verify the effects of expander inlet temperature, input thermal power level, expansion ratio, and other parameters affecting engine performance to aid in the development of an SCSE PCS.

  16. Jay Carter Enterprises, Incorporated steam engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE) selected an organic rankine cycle (ORC) engine driving a high speed permanent magnet alternator (PMA) as the baseline power conversion subsystem (PCS) design. The back-up conceptual PCS design is a steam engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The development of the automotive reciprocating simple rankine cycle steam engine and how an engine of similar design might be incorporated into the SCSE is discussed. A description of the third generation automotive engine is included along with some preliminary test data. Tests were conducted with the third generation engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The purpose of these tests is to further verify the effects of expander inlet temperature, input thermal power level, expansion ratio, and other parameters affecting engine performance to aid in the development of an SCSE PCS.

  17. Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylijoki, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C.; Porkholm, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  18. Integration of torrefaction with steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakri, B.; Saari, J.; Sermyagina, E.; Vakkilainen, E.

    2013-09-01

    Torrefaction is one of the pretreatment technologies to enhance the fuel characteristics of biomass. The efficient and continuous operation of a torrefaction reactor, in the commercial scale, demands a secure biomass supply, in addition to adequate source of heat. Biorefinery plants or biomass-fuelled steam power plants have the potential to integrate with the torrefaction reactor to exchange heat and mass, using available infrastructure and energy sources. The technical feasibility of this integration is examined in this study. A new model for the torrefaction process is introduced and verified by the available experimental data. The torrefaction model is then integrated in different steam power plants to simulate possible mass and energy exchange between the reactor and the plants. The performance of the integrated plant is investigated for different configurations and the results are compared. (orig.)

  19. Burnout power in once-through tubular steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campolunghi, F.; Cumo, M.; Ferrari, G.; Leo, R.; Vaccaro, G.

    1974-01-01

    The present experimental research provides experimental data in a design field where existing burnout correlations are usually extrapolated outside their validity range. Low surface heat fluxes and very long geometries typical of L.M.F.B.R. sodium heated steam generators require full scale water tests. 218 burnout qualities at pressures ranging from 60 to 160 kg/cm 2 and specific mass flowrates from 110 to 260 g/cm 2 s were measured and tested against the most known burnout correlations. Physically it appears that burnout quality is substantially independent from the flowrate, while a sharp subdivision with pressure suggests that for 60 less than p less than 90 kg/cm 2 and 110 less than p less than 160 kg/cm 2 two different burnout mechanisms may set up. (U.S.)

  20. Model Predictive Control for Ethanol Steam Reformers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    This thesis firstly proposes a new approach of modelling an ethanol steam reformer (ESR) for producing pure hydrogen. Hydrogen has obvious benefits as an alternative for feeding the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) to produce electricity. However, an important drawback is that the hydrogen distribution and storage have high cost. So the ESR is regarded as a way to overcome these difficulties. Ethanol is currently considered as a promising energy source under the res...

  1. EP 1000 steam generator tube rupture analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiu, G.; Frogheri, M.; Schulz, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    European electrical utility organizations together with Westinghouse and Ansaldo are participating in a program to utilize the Westinghouse passive nuclear plant technology to develop a plant which meets the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and is expected to be licensable in Europe. The program was initiated in 1994 and the plant is designated EP1000. The EP1000 design is notable for simplicity that comes from a reliance on passive safety systems to enhance plant safety. The use of passive safety systems has provided significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. These systems use only natural forces such as gravity, natural circulation, and compressed gas to provide the driving forces for the systems to adequately cool the reactor core following an initiating event. The EP1000 builds up on the Westinghouse passive nuclear plant technology to enhance plant safety and meet European Utility Requirements and specific European National Safety Criteria. This paper summarizes the main results of the Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) analysis activity, performed in Phase 2B of the European Passive Plant Program. The purpose of the study is to provide evidence that the passive safety system performance provides a significant improvement in terms of safety, providing significant margins to steam generator overfilling and reducing the need for operator actions. The behavior of the EP1000 plant following SGTR accidents has been analyzed by means of the RELAP5/Mod3.2 code. Sensitivity cases were performed, to address the impact of varying the number of steam generator tubes that rupture, and the potential adverse interactions that could result from operation of control systems (i.e., Chemical and Volume Control System, Startup Feedwater). Analyses have also been performed to define and verify improved protection system logic to avoid possible steam generator safety valve challenges both in the

  2. Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus: steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C; Eugenio, Maria E

    2014-09-01

    Steam explosion and steam pre-treatment have proved capable of enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. However, until now, these methods had not been compared under the same operational conditions and using the same raw material. Both pre-treatments lead to increased yields in the saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus; but results have been better with steam pre-treatments, despite the more accessible surface of exploded samples. The reason for this finding could be enzymatic inhibition: steam explosion causes a more extensive extraction of hemicelluloses and releases a greater amount of degradation products which can inhibit enzymatic action. Enzymatic inhibition is also dependent on the amount and chemical structure of lignin, which was also a contributing factor to the lower enzymatic yields obtained with the most severe pre-treatment. Thus, the highest yields (46.7% glucose and 73.4% xylose yields) were obtained after two cycle of steam treatment, of 5 and 3 min, at 183°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perspective of the Westinghouse steam generator secondary side maintenance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaley, D.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Westinghouse had developed a set of steam generator secondary maintenance guidelines focused around performing recurring activities each outage without direct regards to the age, deposit loading, operational status, or corrosion status of the steam generator. Through the evolution of steam generator design and steam generator condition data, Westinghouse now uses a proactive assessment and planning approach for utilities. Westinghouse works with utilities to develop steam generator secondary maintenance plans for long term steam generator viability. Westinghouse has developed a portfolio of products to allow utilities to optimize steam generator operability and develop programs aimed at maintaining the steam generator secondary side in a favorable condition for successful long term operation. Judicious use of the means available for program development should allow for corrosion free operation, long term full power operation at optimum thermal efficiency, and leveling of outage expenditures over a long period of time. This paper will review the following required elements for an effective steam generator secondary side strategy: • Assessment: In order to develop an appropriate maintenance strategy, actions must be taken to obtain an accurate picture of the SG secondary side condition. • Forecasting: Using available data predictions are developed for future steam generator conditions and required maintenance actions. • Action: Cost effective engineering and maintenance actions must be completed at the appropriate time as designated by the plan. • Evaluation of Results: Following execution of maintenance tactics, it is necessary to revise strategy and develop technology enhancements as appropriate. (author)

  4. Perspective of the Westinghouse steam generator secondary side maintenance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaley, D. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Historically, Westinghouse had developed a set of steam generator secondary maintenance guidelines focused around performing recurring activities each outage without direct regards to the age, deposit loading, operational status, or corrosion status of the steam generator. Through the evolution of steam generator design and steam generator condition data, Westinghouse now uses a proactive assessment and planning approach for utilities. Westinghouse works with utilities to develop steam generator secondary maintenance plans for long term steam generator viability. Westinghouse has developed a portfolio of products to allow utilities to optimize steam generator operability and develop programs aimed at maintaining the steam generator secondary side in a favorable condition for successful long term operation. Judicious use of the means available for program development should allow for corrosion free operation, long term full power operation at optimum thermal efficiency, and leveling of outage expenditures over a long period of time. This paper will review the following required elements for an effective steam generator secondary side strategy: • Assessment: In order to develop an appropriate maintenance strategy, actions must be taken to obtain an accurate picture of the SG secondary side condition. • Forecasting: Using available data predictions are developed for future steam generator conditions and required maintenance actions. • Action: Cost effective engineering and maintenance actions must be completed at the appropriate time as designated by the plan. • Evaluation of Results: Following execution of maintenance tactics, it is necessary to revise strategy and develop technology enhancements as appropriate. (author)

  5. Dismantling of the 50 MW steam generator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Onojima, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Isozaki, T.; Gunji, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have been dismantling the 50MW Steam Generator Test Facility (50MWSGTF). The objectives of the dismantling are reuse of sodium components to a planned large scale thermal hydraulics sodium test facility and the material examination of component that have been operated for long time in sodium. The facility consisted of primary sodium loop with sodium heater by gas burner as heat source instead of reactor, secondary sodium loop with auxiliary cooling system (ACS) and water/steam system with steam temperature and pressure reducer instead of turbine. It simulated the 1 loop of the Monju cooling system. The rated power of the facility was 50MWt and it was about 1/5 of the Monju power plant. Several sodium removal methods are applied. As for the components to be dismantled such as piping, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), air cooled heat exchangers (AC), sodium is removed by steam with nitrogen gas in the air or sodium is burned in the air. As for steam generators which material tests are planned, sodium is removed by steam injection with nitrogen gas to the steam generator. The steam generator vessel is filled with nitrogen and no air in the steam generator during sodium removal. As for sodium pumps, pump internal structure is pulled out from the casing and installed into the tank. After the installation, sodium is removed by the same method of steam generator. As for relatively small reuse components such as sodium valves, electromagnet flow meters (EMFs) etc., sodium is removed by alcohol process. (author)

  6. Fifth CNS international steam generator conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Fifth CNS International Steam Generator Conference was held on November 26-29, 2006 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In contrast with other conferences which focus on specific aspects, this conference provided a wide ranging forum on nuclear steam generator technology from life-cycle management to inspection and maintenance, functional and structural performance characteristics to design architecture. The 5th conference has adopted the theme: 'Management of Real-Life Equipment Conditions and Solutions for the Future'. This theme is appropriate at a time of transition in the industry when plants are looking to optimize the performance of existing assets, prevent costly degradation and unavailability, while looking ahead for new steam generator investments in life-extension, replacements and new-build. More than 50 technical papers were presented in sessions that gave an insight to the scope: life management strategies; fouling, cleaning and chemistry; replacement strategies and new build design; materials degradation; condition assessment/fitness for service; inspection advancements and experience; and thermal hydraulic performance

  7. Ferritic steels for French LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, M.; Mathieu, B.; Petrequin, P.

    1983-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels have been widely used in many components of the French LMFBR. Up to now, ferritic steels have not been considered for these components, mainly due to their relatively low creep properties. Some ferritic steels are usable when the maximum temperatures in service do not exceed about 530 0 C. It is the case of the steam generators of the Phenix plant, where the exchange tubes of the evaporator are made of 2,25% Cr-1% Mo steel, stabilized or not by addition of niobium. These ferritic alloys have worked successfully since the first steam production in October 1973. For the SuperPhenix power plant, an ''all austenitic stainless alloy'' apparatus has been chosen. However, for the future, ferritic alloys offer potential for use as alternative materials in the evaporators: low alloys steels type 2,25% Cr-1% Mo (exchange tubes, tube-sheets, shells), or at higher chromium content type 9% Cr-2% Mo NbV (exchange tubes) or 12M Cr-1% Mo-V (tube-sheets). Most of these steels have already an industrial background, and are widely used in similar applications. The various potential applications of these steels are reviewed with regards to the French LMFBR steam generators, indicating that some points need an effort of clarification, for instance the properties of the heterogeneous ferritic/austenitic weldments

  8. Steam generator of FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Ko.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid metal (for example, mercury) which is scarcely reactive with metal sodium is contained and cover gases which are scarcely reactive with the liquid metal are filled in a steam generator of an FBR type reactor and it is closed. The heat of primary sodium is transferred to the liquid metal, which is not reactive with sodium, in a primary thermal conduction portion. Since the temperature of the primary thermal conduction portion is high, the density is extremely low. On the other hand, since a second thermal conduction portion is kept at a single phase and the temperature is lower compared with that of the first thermal conduction portion, the density is kept high. since the density difference and gas jetting speed generate a great circulating force to liquid metal passing the opening of a partition plate, heat can be conducted on the side of water without disposing pumps. The steam concentration in the liquid metal is low being in a single phase of steams, corrosion caused from the outside of pipes of the primary thermal conduction pipe is scarcely promoted. Even if sodium leaks should be caused, since the sodium concentration in the liquid metal is extremely low and the reactivity is low, the temperature of the liquid metal is not elevated. (N.H.)

  9. Steam-chemical reactivity for irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Oates, M.A.; Petti, D.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation to determine the influence of neutron irradiation effects and annealing on the chemical reactivity of beryllium exposed to steam. The work entailed measurements of the H{sub 2} generation rates for unirradiated and irradiated Be and for irradiated Be that had been previously annealed at different temperatures ranging from 450degC to 1200degC. H{sub 2} generation rates were similar for irradiated and unirradiated Be in steam-chemical reactivity experiments at temperatures between 450degC and 600degC. For irradiated Be exposed to steam at 700degC, the chemical reactivity accelerated rapidly and the specimen experienced a temperature excursion. Enhanced chemical reactivity at temperatures between 400degC and 600degC was observed for irradiated Be annealed at temperatures of 700degC and higher. This reactivity enhancement could be accounted for by the increased specific surface area resulting from development of a surface-connected porosity in the irradiated-annealed Be. (author)

  10. Valve for closing a steam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Potrykus, G.

    1976-01-01

    Instead of several control elements, the quick-closing valve, especially in the main-steam line between steam generator and turbine of a power station has the valve cone itself as the only movable part, acting with its inner surface as a piston within a second cylinder space. The valve shaft is at the same time a piston rod with a stepped piston at the upper end. This piston is loaded in a cylinder at the upspace below the valve cover on one hand by a spring, on the other hand by its own medium. Two non-return valves, one of it in a bore of the valve cone, connect the first-mentioned cylinder space with the steam-loaded inlet resp. outlet side of the valve. For controlling the valve, a magnet valve is sufficient. By automatic control of the valve cone coupled with several pistons several control lines can be omitted. There are also no pressurized control lines outside the valve which could be damaged by exterior influences. (ERA) [de

  11. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H 2 . In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N 2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H 2 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 . The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H 2 O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%

  12. U-tube steam generator predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Kalyanasundaram, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a RELAP5/MOD2 computer code model for a Model Boiler-2 U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to predict the thermal-hydraulic response of a UTSG during steady-state operation and for a loss-of-feedwater (LOF) transient. Steady-state conditions calculated by RELAP5 are compared with the measured data. The calculated heat transfer from the primary to the secondary side of the steam generator is found to be underpredicted by 30%. The heat transfer correlations used in existing thermal-hydraulic codes are developed for flow inside individual tubes and not for flow around tube bundles. Consequently, the secondary convective heat transfer is not accurately predicted by the codes. A revised version of the RELAP5 code with modified heat transfer correlations reasonably predicts the primary to the secondary heat transfer in bundle environments. Improved heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients are obtained during steady-state and LOF accident transients. Steady-state behavior of the Semiscale MOD-2C steam generator is also computed with both the original and the revised versions of the code. Good agreement is achieved between the predictions and the test data when the modified heat transfer correlations are utilized

  13. Fracture toughness determination in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant M; Yawny, A; Perez Ipina, J

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural integrity of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants deserved increasing attention in the last years due to the negative impact related to their failures. In this context, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) methodology appears as a potential tool for the analysis. The application of EPFM requires, necessarily, knowledge of two aspects, i.e., the driving force estimation in terms of an elastic plastic toughness parameter (e.g., J) and the experimental measurement of the fracture toughness of the material (e.g., the material J-resistance curve). The present work describes the development of a non standardized experimental technique aimed to determine J-resistance curves for steam generator tubes with circumferential through wall cracks. The tubes were made of Incoloy 800 (Ni: 30.0-35.0; Cr: 19.0-23.0; Fe: 35.5 min, % in weight). Due to its austenitic microstructure, this alloy shows very high toughness and is widely used in applications where a good corrosion resistance in aqueous environment or an excellent oxidation resistance in high temperature environment is required. Finally, a procedure for the structural integrity analysis of steam generator tubes with crack-like defects, based on a FAD diagram (Failure Assessment Diagram), is briefly described (author)

  14. Increase of Steam Moisture in the BWR-Facility KKP 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, Volker

    2002-01-01

    Main steam moisture in a BWR facility is determined by steam quality at core outlet and efficiency of steam separators and steam dryers. Transport of water with steam is accompanied by transport of radionuclides out of RPV resulting in enhanced radiation level in the main steam system. A remarkable increase of main steam moisture started at KKP 1 in 1997. In the following years increase of steam outlet moisture started at lower and lower core mass flow rates. Dose rate in main steam system increased simultaneously. Core mass flow rate and thus thermal power had to be reduced during stretch out operation to keep the main steam moisture below the specified boundary of 0.2 %. This boundary also guarantees, that radiological exposure remains far below approved values. The increase of main steam moisture corresponds with the application of low leakage core loading. Low leakage core loading results in enhanced steam generation in the center and in reduced steam generation in the outer zones of the core. It can be shown, that the uneven steam generation in the core became stronger over the years. Therefore, steam quality at inlet of the outer steam separators was getting lower. This resulted in higher carry over of water in this steam separators and steam dryers, thus explaining the increasing main steam moisture. KKP 1 started in 2000 with spectral shift operation. As one should expect, this resulted in reduced steam moisture. It remains the question of steam moisture in case of stretch out operation. Countermeasures are briefly discussed. (authors)

  15. High temperature technological heat exchangers and steam generators with helical coil assembly tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotaev, O.J.; Mizonov, N.V.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Nazarov, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of thermal hydraulics characteristics of nuclear steam generators with different tube bundle arrangements and waste heat boilers for ammonia production units was performed on the basis of operating experience results and research and development data. The present report involves the obtained information. The estimations of steam generator performances and repair-ability are given. The significant temperature profile of the primary and secondary coolant flows are attributed to all steam generator designs. The intermediate mixing is found to be an effective means of temperature profile overcoming. At present the only means to provide an effective mixing in heat exchangers of the following types: straight tubes, field tubes, platen tubes and multibank helical coil tubes (with complicated bend distribution along their length) are section arrangements in series in conjunction with forced and natural mixing in connecting lines. Development of the unificated system from mini helical coil assemblies allows to design and manufacture heat exchangers and steam generators within the wide range of operating conditions without additional expenses on the research and development work

  16. Aerodynamic Optimization Design of a Multistage Centrifugal Steam Turbine and Its Off-Design Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal turbine which has less land occupation, simple structure, and high aerodynamic efficiency is suitable to be used as small to medium size steam turbines or waste heat recovery plant. In this paper, one-dimensional design of a multistage centrifugal steam turbine was performed by using in-house one-dimensional aerodynamic design program. In addition, three-dimensional numerical simulation was also performed in order to analyze design and off-design aerodynamic performance of the proposed centrifugal steam turbine. The results exhibit reasonable flow field and smooth streamline; the aerodynamic performance of the designed turbine meets our initial expectations. These results indicate that the one-dimensional aerodynamic design program is reliable and effective. The off-design aerodynamic performance of centrifugal steam turbine was analyzed, and the results show that the mass flow increases with the decrease of the pressure ratio at a constant speed, until the critical mass flow is reached. The efficiency curve with the pressure ratio has an optimum efficiency point. And the pressure ratio of the optimum efficiency agrees well with that of the one-dimensional design. The shaft power decreases as the pressure ratio increases at a constant speed. Overall, the centrifugal turbine has a wide range and good off-design aerodynamic performance.

  17. Improvement of Steam Turbine Operational Performance and Reliability with using Modern Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu M.; Kultishev, A. Yu

    2017-11-01

    The report presents improvement methods review in the fields of the steam turbine units design and operation based on modern information technologies application. In accordance with the life cycle methodology support, a conceptual model of the information support system during life cycle main stages (LC) of steam turbine unit is suggested. A classifying system, which ensures the creation of sustainable information links between the engineer team (manufacture’s plant) and customer organizations (power plants), is proposed. Within report, the principle of parameterization expansion beyond the geometric constructions at the design and improvement process of steam turbine unit equipment is proposed, studied and justified. The report presents the steam turbine unit equipment design methodology based on the brand new oil-cooler design system that have been developed and implemented by authors. This design system combines the construction subsystem, which is characterized by extensive usage of family tables and templates, and computation subsystem, which includes a methodology for the thermal-hydraulic zone-by-zone oil coolers design calculations. The report presents data about the developed software for operational monitoring, assessment of equipment parameters features as well as its implementation on five power plants.

  18. Postfact phenomena of the wet-steam flow electrization in turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Physical processes occurring in a turbine with natural electrization of a humidity-steam flow and their effect on efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation has been considered. Causes of the electrical potential occurrence on a rotor shaft are analyzed. The wet steam's electrization exposure on the electrical potential that is one of the major factors of bearings' electroerosion has been demonstrated on the full-scale installation. Hydrogen formation in wheelspace of the turbine as a result of electrochemical processes and electric field exposure of the space charge has been considered. Hydrogen concentration dependence on a volume charge density in the steam flow has been determined. It is stated that the processes occurring behind the final stage of wet-steam turbines are similar to the ones in elaerosol ectrostatic generators. It has been demonstrated that this phenomenon causes the flow's temporal inhibition and starts pulsations. These factors' impact on power loss of the turbine has been evaluated and recommendations for their elimination have been offered. It has been determined that motions of charged drops can cause self-maintained discharges inside of the flow and between the flow and grounded surfaces that are accompanied by electromagnetic radiation of the wide spectrum. The integrated studies have shown that physical phenomena occurring due to natural electrization negatively affect efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation. Practical recommendations allowing one to minimize the negative effects of the flow natural electrization process have been offered.

  19. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Saha, Deepak [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Thangirala, Mani [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Booras, George [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Powers, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Riley, Colin [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  20. LMFBR steam generators in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.; Hayden, O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience has been gained in the UK on the operation of LMFBR Steam Generator Units (SGU) over a period of 20 years from the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). The DFR steam generator featured a double barrier and therefore did not represent a commercial design. PFR, however, faced the challenge of a single wall design and it is experience from this which is most valuable. The PFR reactor went critical in March 1974 and the plant operating history since then has been dominated by experience with leaks in the tube to tube plate welds of the high performance U-tubes SGU's. Operation at high power using the full complement of three secondary sodium circuits was delayed until July 1976 by the occurrence of leaks in the tube to tube plate welds of the superheater and reheater units which are fabricated in stainless steel. Repairs were carried out to the two superheaters and they were returned to service. The reheater tube bundle was removed from circuit after sodium was found to have entered the steam side. When the sodium had been removed and inspection carried out it was decided not to recover the unit. Since 1976 the remaining five stainless steel units have operated satisfactorily. This year a replacement reheater unit has been installed. This is of a new design in 9-Cr-Mo ferritic steel using a sleeve through which the steam tube passes to eliminate the tube to tube plate weld. Despite a few early leaks in evaporator tube to tube plate welds up to 1979, these failures did not initially present a major problem. However, in 1980 the rate of evaporator weld failures increased and despite the successful application of a shot peening process to eliminate stress corrosion failures from the water side of the weld, failures traced to the sodium side continued. A sleeving process was developed for application to complete evaporator units on a production basis with the objective of bypassing the welds at each end of the 500 tubes. The decision

  1. Method of controlling steam temperature of a fluid heating separation type steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashita, Tsuyoshi; Monta, Kazuo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To keep constant the stability and normal deviation in the entire control system by connecting an element of variable gain substantially in proportion to a preset load in series with the ordinary PID type control system. Structure: Changes in steam temperature at an evaporator outlet due to changes in sodium flow rate are detected by a thermocouple. The resultant detection signal is compared with a preset value of the steam generator output temperature, and a portion proportional to the difference between them is added as an operating signal, the operating signal also being used as a sodium flow rate control signal coupled to a sodium flow rate control means. In this method of control of vapor temperature of a fluid heating separation type steam generator, a control gain variable means is connected in series with a temperature control system to obtain control substantially proportional to the preset load. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Steam temperature variation behind a turbine steam separator-superheater during NPP start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejzerovich, A.Sh.; Melamed, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    To determine necessary parameters of the steam temperature automatic regulator behind the steam separator-rheater supe (SSS) of an NPP turbine the static and dynamic characteristics of the temperature change behind the SSS were studied experimentally. The measurements were carried out at the K-220-44 turbine of the Kolskaja NPP in the case of both varying turbine loads and the flow rate of the heating vapor. Disturbances caused by the opening of the regulating valve at the inlet of the heating vapor are investigated as well. It is found that due to a relatively high inertiality of the SSS a rather simple structure of the start-up steam temperature regulators behind the SSS in composition with automatated driving systems of the turbine start-up without regard for the change of the dynamic characteristics can be used

  3. Improved steam gasification of lignocellulosic residues in a fluidized bed with commercial steam reforming catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Corella, J.; Delgado, J.; Lahoz, J. (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The improved/two-stage steam gasification of biomass or lignocellulosic residues in fluidized bed with steam reforming catalysts placed in a downstream secondary reactor has been studied. Two commercial catalysts, R-67 and RKS-1 from Topsoee, were used at their incipient fluidization conditions. At 720-760 C and space-times of only 0.10-0.20 s, with catalyst sizes under 1.0 mm and with steam/biomass ratios of 1.2-1.6, tar conversions of 99.95% were achieved in the catalytic reactor. In this process, tar and methane in the flue gas can be easily lowered below 5 mg/m[sup 3](NTP) and 0.5 vol %, respectively, without using oxygen. The catalyst deactivation by coke from the tar cracking is the main problem of this process.

  4. Condensation of the steam in the horizontal steam line during cold water flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strubelj, L.; Tiselj, I.

    2006-01-01

    Direct contact condensation and condensation induced water-hammer in a horizontal pipe was experimentally investigated at PMK-2 test facility of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Research Institute KFKI. The experiment is preformed in the horizontal section of the steam line of the PMK-2 integral test facility. As liquid water floods the horizontal part of the pipeline, the counter current horizontally stratified flow is being observed. During the flooding of the steam line, the vapour-liquid interface area increases and therefore the vapour condensation rate and the vapour velocity also increase. Similar phenomena can occur in the cold/hot leg of the primary loop of PWR nuclear power plant during loss of coolant accident, when emergency core cooling system is activated. Water level at one cross-section and four local void fraction and temperature at the top of steam line was measured and compared with simulation. Condensed steam increases the water temperature that is why the local temperature measurements are the most important information, from which condensation rate can be estimated, since mass of condensed steam was not measured. Free surface simulation of the experiment with thermal phase change model is presented. Surface renewal concept with small eddies is used for calculation of heat transfer coefficient. With surface renewal theory we did not get results similar to experiment, that is why heat transfer coefficient was increased by factor 20. In simulation with heat transfer coefficient calculated with surface renewal concept bubble entrapment is due to reflection of the wave from the end of the pipe. When heat transfer coefficient is increased, condensation rate and steam velocity are also increased, bubble entrapment is due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the free surface, and the results become similar to the measurements. (author)

  5. Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects

  6. The ageing of CANDU steam generator due to localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucan, D.; Fulger, M.; Jinescu, Ghe.

    2001-01-01

    The Steam Generator (SG) tubing degradation caused by corrosion and other age-related mechanisms continues to be a significant safety and cost concern for many Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The understanding of the steam generator ageing mechanisms is the key to effective management of steam generator ageing and consists of the knowledge of steam generator materials and these one properties, stressors and operating conditions, like degradation sites and wear mechanisms. The principal types of corrosion are presented which can occur in CANDU steam generator. There are also presented the operation conditions, the specifications referring to the water chemistry and the construction materials of Steam Generator, the factors that have a great influence on the corrosion behaviour during the whole exploitation period of this equipment. (R.P.)

  7. LMFBR steam generator development: duplex bayonet tube steam generator. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFur, D.D.

    1975-04-01

    This report represents the culmination of work performed in fulfillment of ERDA Contract AT(11-1)-2426, Task Agreement 2, in which alternate steam generator designs were developed and studied. The basic bayonet tube generator design previously developed by C-E under AEC Contract AT(11-1)-3031 was expanded by incorporating duplex heat transfer tubes to enhance the unit's overall safety and reliability. The effort consisted of providing and evaluating conceptual designs of the evaporator, superheater and reheater components for a large plant LMFBR steam generator (950 MWt per heat transport loop)

  8. Multi-layer casing of a steam turbine for high steam pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remberg, A.

    1978-01-01

    In previous turbine casings there is no sealing provided between the inner layer and the outer layer, so that the steam pressure acts fully on the casing top and on the shaft seal housing situated there. To reduce the displacement which occurs there due to pressure differences in the various steam spaces, the normal inner casing is made with the shaft sealing housing in an inner layer, which cannot be divided in the axial direction. The inner layer can be inserted from the high pressure side into the unit outer casing. A horizontal section through the turbine in the attached drawing makes the construction and operation of the invention clear. (GL) [de

  9. The transport of corrosive salts in steam: the steam purity/turbine experience of three PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, T.O.; Allmon, W.; Mravich, N.

    1983-01-01

    Corrosion of turbine internals is often associated with solid deposits or concentrated chemical solutions that have formed from impurities in the steam. Results from measurements on various suspected corrosives such as sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride show the safe levels to be in the range less than 0.5 ppb. Plant observations have led to some tests of the hypothesis that chloride and sulfate may be transported around steam circuits by the ammonium salts or their decomposition products, the acid gases HCl and H 2 SO 4 . In addition water chemistry data from three PWRs which had different turbine damage experience will be described. (author)

  10. Evaluation of material integrity on electricity generator water steam cycles component (Main Steam Pipe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudardjo; Histori; Triyadi, Ari

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of material integrity on electricity generator component has been done. That component was main steam pipe of Unit II Suralaya Coal Fired Power Plant. evaluation was done by replication technique. The damage was found are two porosity's, from two point samples of six points sample population. Based on cavity evaluation in steels, which proposed by Neubauer and Wedel that porosity's still at class A damage. For class A damage, its means no remedial action would be required until next major scheduled maintenance outage. That porosity's was grouped on isolated cavities and not need ti repair that main steam pipe component less than three year after replication test

  11. Diagnostic system of steam generator, especially molten metal heated steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Martoch, J.

    1986-01-01

    A diagnostic system is described and graphically represented consisting of a leak detector, a medium analyzer and sensors placed on the piping connected to the indication sections of both tube plates. The advantage of the designed system consists in the possibility of detecting tube failure immediately on leak formation, especially in generators with duplex tubes. This shortens the period of steam generator shutdown for repair and reduces power losses. The design also allows to make periodical leak tests during planned steam generator shutdowns. (A.K.)

  12. Maaltye as seremonies in die Markusevangelie: 'n Sleutel om J H J A Greyvenstein en A S Geyser se denke oor die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika as volkskerk te evalueer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest van Eck

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Meals as ceremonies in Mark's gospel: A key to evaluate the under-standing of the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika as 'peoples church' by J H J A Greyvenstein and A S Geyser This article aims to participate in the current debate regarding the writing of a new church order for the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika, concentrating on Article III of the current church order. In a previous article the understanding of the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk as a 'peoples church' ('volkskerk' by Professors J H J A Greyvenstein and A S Geyser - both New Testament scholars in teaching positions at the University of Pretoria between 1917 and 1961 - was traced. This understanding is now critically evaluated by means of a social-scientific analysis of meals as ceremonies in Mark's gospel. The conclusion reached is that Mark proclaimed - as Greyvenstein and Geyser advocated - the presence and availibility of God as aspects that should ecclesiologically be open to all. Finally, a few remarks are made concerning the continuation of the debate on the new church order for the Nederduitsch Hervomde Kerk van Afrika.

  13. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and...

  14. Stanford geothermal program. Final report, July 1990--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) improving models of vapor-dominated geothermal fields: the effects of adsorption; (2) adsorption characteristics of rocks from vapor-dominated geothermal reservoir at the Geysers, CA; (3) optimizing reinjection strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines based on chloride data; (4) optimization of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs; and (5) steam-water relative permeability.

  15. Model for transient simulation in a PWR steam circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, L.A. de.

    1982-11-01

    A computer code (SURF) was developed and used to simulate pressure losses along the tubes of the main steam circuit of a PWR nuclear power plant, and the steam flow through relief and safety valves when pressure reactors its thresholds values. A thermodynamic model of turbines (high and low pressure), and its associated components are simulated too. The SURF computer code was coupled to the GEVAP computer code, complementing the simulation of a PWR nuclear power plant main steam circuit. (Author) [pt

  16. Conceptual design report of a refuse-fired steam plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedinger, L. B.

    1982-08-01

    This is a conceptual design report for the installation of a refuse-fired boiler to produce steam. The refuse, mostly paper waste, would come from two adjacent facilities, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The new steam plant, to be located at SNLL, would produce close to 100% of the steam requirements at SNLL. Unfortunately it does not have an attractive payback.

  17. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  18. Thermal-hydraulic characteristic of the PGV-1000 steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubra, O.; Doubek, M.

    1995-01-01

    Horizontal steam generators are typical parts of nuclear power plants with pressure water reactor type VVER. By means of this computer program, a detailed thermal-hydraulic study of the horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 has been carried out and a special attention has been paid to the thermal-hydraulics of the secondary side. A set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained and analyzed. Some of the interesting results of the analysis are presented in the paper. (author)

  19. Modifications of steam condensation model implemented in commercial solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Libor; Jun, Gukchol; ŠÅ¥astný, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    Nucleation theory and droplet grow theory and methods how they are incorporated into numerical solvers are crucial factors for proper wet steam modelling. Unfortunately, they are still covered by cloud of uncertainty and therefore some calibration of these models according to reliable experimental results is important for practical analyses of steam turbines. This article demonstrates how is possible to calibrate wet steam model incorporated into commercial solver ANSYS CFX.

  20. Future development LMFBR-steam generators SNR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essebaggers, J.; Pors, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The development work for steam generators for large LMFBR plants by Neratoom will be reviewed consisting of: 1. Development engineering information. 2. Concept select studies followed by conceptual designs of selected models. 3. Development manufacturing techniques. 4. Detail design of a prototype unit. 5. Testing of sub-constructions for prototype steam generators. In this presentation item 1 and 2 above will be high lighted, identifying the development work for the SNR-2 steam generators on short term basis. (author)

  1. Fracture mechanics analysis of the steam generator tube after shot peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kyu In; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Young Hwan; Park, Jai Hak

    2003-01-01

    One of the main degradation of steam generator tubes is stress corrosion cracking induced by residual stress. The resulting damages can cause tube bursting or leakage of the primary water which contained radioactivity. Primary water stress corrosion crack occurs at the location of tube/tubesheet hard rolled transition zone. In order to investigate the effect of shot peening on stress corrosion cracking, stress intensity factors are calculated for the crack which is located in the induced residual stress field

  2. Maintenance and repair aspects of the steam generator modules for the United States' LMFBR demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the main considerations relating to the field maintenance and repair of the steam generator modules for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and the development approaches being employed for some of the critical elements of these operations. In particular, the approach to plant chemical cleaning of the waterside of the modules and the approach to recovery from leaks between the water and sodium sides of the modules are discussed. (author)

  3. Coolant stratification and its thermohydrodynamic specificity under natural circulation in horizontal steam generator collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitriukhin, A. [Saint-Petersburg Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The experiments and the test facilities for the study of the stratification phenomenon in the hot plenum of reactor and the upper parts of the steam generator collectors in a nuclear power plant are described. The aim of the experiments was to define the conditions of the stratification initiation, to study the temperature field in the upper part, the definition of the characteristics in the stratification layer, and also to study the factors which cause the intensity of the stagnant volume cooling.

  4. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  5. Thermography of flame during diesel fuel combustion with steam gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriev, I. S.; Arsentyev, S. S.; Agafontsev, M. V.; Kopyev, E. P.; Loboda, E. L.; Shadrin, E. Yu; Sharypov, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper represents a study concerning the combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuel in a perspective burner device with the controlled forced supply of overheated steam into the combustion zone, using diesel fuel. The thermal imaging measurements are conducted for the outer flame of the burner device in the wide range of regime parameters (flow rate and temperature of steam). A thermal imaging camera (FLIR, JADE J530SB) is used in the experiments. The effective emissivity coefficient of flame is obtained versus the flow rate of steam supplied. The steam parameters are found to influence on the temperature in the outer flame of the burner device.

  6. Corrosion aspects in steam generators of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visoni, E.; Santos Pinto, M. dos

    1988-01-01

    Steam generators of pressurized water reactors (PWR), transfer heat from a primary coolant system to a secondary coolant system. Primary coolant water is heated in the core and passes through the steam generator that transfer heat to the secondary coolant water. However, the steam generator is dead for ionic impurities, corrosion products and fabrication/maintenence residues. These impurities concentrate between crevice and cracks. Many types of degradation mechanisms affect the tubes. The tubes are dented, craked, ovalized, wasted, etc. This paper describes the main corrosion problems in steam generators and includes the corrective actions to considered to reduce or eliminate these corrosion problems. (author) [pt

  7. SWAAM code development, verification and application to steam generator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Valentin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the family of SWAAM codes developed by Argonne National Laboratory to analyze the effects of sodium/water reactions on LMR steam generators. The SWAAM codes were developed as design tools for analyzing various phenomena related to steam generator leaks and to predict the resulting thermal and hydraulic effects on the steam generator and the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS). The theoretical foundations and numerical treatments on which the codes are based are discussed, followed by a description of code capabilities and limitations, verification of the codes by comparison with experiment, and applications to steam generator and IHTS design. (author). 25 refs, 14 figs

  8. Optimal Operations and Resilient Investments in Steam Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bungener, Stéphane L.; Van Eetvelde, Greet; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Steam is a key energy vector for industrial sites, most commonly used for process heating and cooling, cogeneration of heat and mechanical power as a motive fluid or for stripping. Steam networks are used to carry steam from producers to consumers and between pressure levels through letdowns and steam turbines. The steam producers (boilers, heat and power cogeneration units, heat exchangers, chemical reactors) should be sized to supply the consumers at nominal operating conditions as well as peak demand. First, this paper proposes an Mixed Integer Linear Programing formulation to optimize the operations of steam networks in normal operating conditions and exceptional demand (when operating reserves fall to zero), through the introduction of load shedding. Optimization of investments based on operational and investment costs are included in the formulation. Though rare, boiler failures can have a heavy impact on steam network operations and costs, leading to undercapacity and unit shutdowns. A method is therefore proposed to simulate steam network operations when facing boiler failures. Key performance indicators are introduced to quantify the network’s resilience. The proposed methods are applied and demonstrated in an industrial case study using industrial data. The results indicate the importance of oversizing key steam producing equipments and the value of industrial symbiosis to increase industrial site resilience.

  9. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.B.; Antaki, G.A.; Rawls, G.B.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. THis phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The insuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  10. Nuclear-reactor steam-generator shut-off valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1978-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor installation a live-steam line leading from each steam generator through the containment is equipped with a fast-acting valve. If the pressure in the generator rises the valve operates as a safety valve and releases up to one-half of the aperture cross section of the valve, so that there is no danger of damage to the steam generators. According to the invention, the valve is operated for this purpose by two pistons by means of steam. The invention is of interest particularly for light-water reactors, e.g., pressurized-water reactors

  11. Modeling and Simulation of U-tube Steam Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Fu, Zhongguang; Li, Jinyao; Wang, Mingfei

    2018-03-01

    The U-tube natural circulation steam generator was mainly researched with modeling and simulation in this article. The research is based on simuworks system simulation software platform. By analyzing the structural characteristics and the operating principle of U-tube steam generator, there are 14 control volumes in the model, including primary side, secondary side, down channel and steam plenum, etc. The model depends completely on conservation laws, and it is applied to make some simulation tests. The results show that the model is capable of simulating properly the dynamic response of U-tube steam generator.

  12. Optimal operations and resilient investments in steam networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Laurent Bungener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is a key energy vector for industrial sites, most commonly used for process heating and cooling, cogeneration of heat and mechanical power, as a motive fluid or for stripping. Steam networks are used to carry steam from producers to consumers and between pressure levels through letdowns and steam turbines. The steam producers (boilers, heat and power cogeneration units, heat exchangers, chemical reactors should be sized to supply the consumers at nominal operating conditions as well as peak demand.This paper firstly proposes an Mixed Integer Linear Programming formulation to optimise the operations of steam networks in normal operating conditions and exceptional demand (when operating reserves fall to zero, through the introduction of load shedding. Optimisation of investments based on operational and investment costs are included in the formulation.Though rare, boiler failures can have a heavy impact of steam network operations and costs, leading to undercapacity and unit shutdowns. A method is therefore proposed to simulate steam network operations when facing boiler failures. Key performance indicators are introduced to quantify the network's resilience.The proposed methods are applied and demonstrated in an industrial case study using industrial data. The results indicate the importance of oversizing key steam producing equipments and the value of industrial symbiosis to increase industrial site resilience.

  13. New chemical and original isotopic data on waters from El Tatio geothermal field, Northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortecci, Gianni; Mussi, Mario; Boschetti, Tiziano; Herrera Lameli, Christian; Mucchino, Claudio; Barbieri, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The El Tatio geothermal field is located at an height of 4200-4300 m on the Cordillera de los Andes (Altiplano). Geysers, hot pools and mudpots in the geothermal field and local meteoric waters were sampled in April 2002 and analyzed for major and trace elements, δ 2 H, δ 18 O and 3 H of water, δ 34 S and δ 18 O of dissolved sulfate, δ 13 C of dissolved total carbonate, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of aqueous strontium. There are two different types of thermal springs that field, that are chloride-rich water and sulfate-rich water. The chemical composition of chloride springs is controlled by magma degassing and by water-rock interaction processes. Sulfate springs are fed by shallow meteoric water heated by ascending gases. In keeping with the geodynamic setting and nature of the reservoir rocks, chloride water is rich in As, B, Cs, Li; on the other hand, sulfate waste is enriched only in B relative to local meteoric water. Alternatively to a merely meteoric model, chloride waters can be interpreted as admixtures of meteoric and magmatic (circa andesitic) water, which moderately exchanges oxygen isotopes with rocks at a chemical Na/K temperature of about 270degC in the main reservoir, and then undergoes loss of vapor (and eventually mixing with shallow water) and related isotopic effects ascent to the surface. These chloride waters do not present tritium and can be classified as submodern (pre-1952). A chloride content of 5,400 mg/l is estimated in the main reservoir, for which δ 2 H and δ 18 O values, respectively of -78 per mille and -6.9 per mille, are calculated applying the multistage-steam separation isotopic effects between liquid and vapor. From these data, the meteoric recharge (Cl≅0 mg/l) of the main reservoir should approach a composition of -107 per mille in δ 2 H and -14.6 per mille in δ 18 O, when a magmatic water of δ 2 H=-20 per mille, δ 18 O=+10 per mille and Cl=17,500 mg/l is assumed. The 87 Sr/ 86 ratios of the hot springs are quite

  14. Horizontal steam generator thermal hydraulic simulation in typical steady and transient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiee, Ataollah, E-mail: rabiee@shirazu.ac.ir; Kamalinia, Amir Hossein; Haddad, Kamal

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of the horizontal steam generator with the available code in typical normal and transient operations. • Replacement of tube bundle with a porous media due to the complexity of the SG geometry. • Simulation of typical transient mode of the VVER 440 steam generator, loss of feed water accident. - Abstract: Thermal hydraulic analysis of the steam generators as one of the main components of the power cycle in pressurized water reactor (PWR) is crucial in the design and safety of the nuclear power plants. Two phase flow field simulation near the tube bundles is important in obtaining logical numerical results however the complexity of the tube bundles due to geometry and arrangement makes the numerical analysis complicated. In this research tube bundle has been assumed as the porous media and the outlet boundary condition as the one of the main challenge in these kind of simulations has been optimized according to similar researches. In order to adjust and tune the available computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code, pressure drop of the typical kettle reboiler tube bundle in two various heat fluxes and vapor volume fraction distribution in VVER 1000 steam generator in normal operation have been investigated. The typical transient mode of the VVER 440 steam generator, loss of feed water accident, has been studied eventually. It was observed that obtained vapor volume fraction can predict experimental data with more accuracy than the similar researches and would be increased with the elevation during the accident. On the other hand, pressure drop and level of the feed water value reduces through time and show good adoption with the measurements.

  15. Thermal gain of CHP steam generator plants and heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshina, S. K.; Kudinov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Heating calculation of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) installed behind the BKZ-420-140 NGM boiler resulting in determination of HRU heat output according to fire gas value parameters at the heat recovery unit inlet and its outlet, heated water quantity, combustion efficiency per boiler as a result of installation of HRU, and steam condensate discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point and HRU heat exchange area has been performed. Inspection results of Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM power boilers and field tests of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) made on the bimetal calorifier base KCk-4-11 (KSk-4-11) installed behind station no. 2 Ulyanovsk CHP-3 DE-10-14 GM boiler were the basis of calculation. Integration of the surface condensation heat recovery unit behind a steam boiler rendered it possible to increase combustion efficiency and simultaneously decrease nitrogen oxide content in exit gases. Influence of the blowing air moisture content, the excess-air coefficient in exit gases, and exit gases temperature at the HRU outlet on steam condensate amount discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point has been analyzed. The steam condensate from HRU gases is offered as heat system make-up water after degasification. The cost-effectiveness analysis of HRU installation behind the Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM steam boiler with consideration of heat energy and chemically purified water economy has been performed. Calculation data for boilers with different heat output has been generalized.

  16. Maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators. II. Design philosophy of maintenance and repair for Super Phenix 1 steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verriere, P.; Alanche, J.; Minguet, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Creys Malville steam generators have been the subject of a number of papers presented at this congress. However, the general design of the components are outlined, and the in-service monitoring systems and protective devices they are equipped with are briefly described. The methods used in the event of leakage, are described for: leak location, steam generator inspection, steam generator repair, and putting the affected loop back into service

  17. Method for operating a steam turbine of the nuclear type with electronic reheat control of a cycle steam reheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    An electronic system is provided for operating a nuclear electric power plant with electronic steam reheating control applied to the nuclear turbine system in response to low pressure turbine temperatures, and the control is adapted to operate in a plurality of different automatic control modes to control reheating steam flow and other steam conditions. Each of the modes of control permit turbine temperature variations within predetermined constraints and according to predetermined functions of time. (Official Gazette)

  18. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, P.

    1997-01-01

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O ampersand M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O ampersand M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R ampersand D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment)

  19. Steam generator replacement from ALARA aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, I.; Breznik, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is going to consider radiological related parameters important for steam generator replacement (SGR) implementation. These parameters are identified as ALARA related parameters, owner-contractor relationship, planning, health physics with logistic services, and time required for the replacement. ALARA related parameters such as source or initial dose rate and plant system configuration define the initial conditions for the planning. There is room to optimise work planning. managerial procedures and also the staff during the implementation phase. The overview of these general considerations is based on the following background: using internationally available data and the experience of one of the vendors, i.e. Siemens-Framatome, and management experience of SG replacement which took place at Krsko NPP in the spring of 2000. Generally plant decisions on maintenance or repair procedures under radiation conditions take into account ALARA considerations. But in the main it is difficult to adjudge the results of an ALARA study, usually in the form of a collective dose estimate, because a comparison standard is missing. That is, very often the planned work is of a one-off nature so comparisons are not possible or the scopes are not the same. In such a case the collective doses for other types of work are looked at and a qualitative evaluation is made. In the case of steam generator replacement this is not the case. Over years of steam generator replacements world-wide a standard has been developed gradually. The first part of the following displays an overview of SGR and sets the Krsko SGR in perspective by applying dose analysis. The second part concentrates on the Krsko SGR itself and its ALARA aspects. (authors)

  20. Third steam-gas plant in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    There are currently two large steam/gas plants in Slovakia, in Bratislava and Ruzomberok, and a third company is to start producing electricity and heat using natural gas. Although Siemens and the Swiss company, Advanced Power, have been discussing creating a steam/gas plant in Malzenice close to Trnava, it seems that Adato, Levice will be the first to launch production. Adato plans to build a facility worth 2 bil. Sk (54.05 mil. EUR) at the Gena industrial park in Levice. Although it is to employ only 35 people, the whole region would benefit. Levice wants to attract more investors that will need more electricity and according to the Mayor of Levice, Stefan Misak, the heat produced by the steam/gas plant will represent a good option for old town boilers. The executive officer and sole owner of Adato, Miroslav Gazo, stressed that the company could not cover the whole costs of the planned investment on its own. Several investors have already shown interest in financing the project and one foreign and two local investors are in negotiations. Adato has a state permit, has signed a contract with the town, has found suppliers of technologies abroad and has signed a preliminary contract with energy consumers. The company is not rushing into the project without having a risk assessment in place. W e know that gas prices are going up. But our project will be profitable even under the least optimistic scenarios of gas price development,' said M. Gazo. He is negotiating with the gas utility, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, and other gas suppliers. (authors)

  1. Hideout in steam generator tube deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Franklin, K.J.; Turner, C.W.

    1998-05-01

    Hideout in deposits on steam generator tubes was studied using tubes coated with magnetite. Hideout from sodium chloride solutions at 279 degrees C was followed using an on-line high-temperature conductivity probe, as well as by chemical analysis of solution samples from the autoclave in which the studies were done. Significant hideout was observed only at a heat flux greater than 200 kW/m 2 , corresponding to a temperature drop greater than 2 degrees C across the deposits. The concentration factor resulting from the hideout increased highly non-linearly with the heat flux (varying as high as the fourth power of the heat flux). The decrease in the apparent concentration factor with increasing deposit thickness suggested that the pores in the deposit were occupied by a mixture of steam and water, which is consistent with the conclusion from the thermal conductivity measurements on deposits in a separate study. Analyses of the deposits after the hideout tests showed no evidence of any hidden-out solute species, probably due to the concentrations being very near the detection limits and to their escape from the deposit as the tests were being ended. This study showed that hideout in deposits may concentrate solutes in the steam generator bulk water by a factor as high as 2 x 10 3 . Corrosion was evident under the deposit in some tests, with some chromium enrichment on the surface of the tube. Chromium enrichment usually indicates an acidic environment, but the mobility required of chromium to become incorporated into the thick magnetite deposit may indicate corrosion under an alkaline environment. An alkaline environment could result from preferential accumulation of sodium in the solution in the deposit during the hideout process. (author)

  2. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  3. Duplex tube steam reformer development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewe, C K; Nieto, J M; Papadopoulos, A

    1978-09-01

    Work done in partial fulfillment of Task 7 of the Duplex Steam Reformer Development Program is described. The DSR concept acts as a double barrier between a process heat high temperature reactor plant (PNP) and a closed loop chemical heat pipe (CHP) for the long distance transport of chemical energy to a remote industrial user. The current state of the DSR design is described as well as related systems and equipment. The PNP concept presented is based upon work currently underway in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  4. Duplex tube steam reformer development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewe, C.K.; Nieto, J.M.; Papadopoulos, A.

    1978-09-01

    Work done in partial fulfillment of Task 7 of the Duplex Steam Reformer Development Program is described. The DSR concept acts as a double barrier between a process heat high temperature reactor plant (PNP) and a closed loop chemical heat pipe (CHP) for the long distance transport of chemical energy to a remote industrial user. The current state of the DSR design is described as well as related systems and equipment. The PNP concept presented is based upon work currently underway in the Federal Republic of Germany

  5. Hydrogen production from biomass over steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, R.; Potetz, A.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Weber, G. [Bioenergy 2020+, Guessing (Austria)

    2010-12-30

    Renewable hydrogen is one option for a clean energy carrier in the future. There were several research programs in the past, to produce hydrogen on a renewable basis by electrolysis, direct conversion of water or by gasification of biomass. None of these options were developed to a stage, that they could be used on a commercial basis. At the moment almost all hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels and one main consumer of hydrogen are refineries. So a good option to demonstrate the production of renewable hydrogen and bring it later into the market is over refineries. The most economic option to produce renewable hydrogen at the moment is over gasification of biomass. In Austria an indirect gasification system was developed and is demonstrated in Guessing, Austria. The biomass CHP Guessing uses the allothermal steam dual fluidised bed gasifier and produces a high grade product gas, which is used at the moment for the CHP in a gas engine. As there is no nitrogen in the product gas and high hydrogen content, this gas can be also used as synthesis gas or for production of hydrogen. The main aim of this paper is to present the experimental and simulation work to convert biomass into renewable hydrogen. The product gas of the indirect gasification system is mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Within the ERA-Net project ''OptiBtLGas'' the reforming of methane and the CO-shift reaction was investigated to convert all hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to hydrogen. On basis of the experimental results the mass- and energy balances of a commercial 100 MW fuel input plant was done. Here 3 different cases of complexity of the overall plant were simulated. The first case was without reforming and CO-shift, only by hydrogen separation. The second case was by including steam - reforming and afterwards separation of hydrogen. The third case includes hydrocarbon reforming, CO-shift and hydrogen separation. In all cases the off-gases (CO

  6. {sup 220}Rn in geothermal steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, N.E.; Barry, B.J. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1994-12-31

    The isotope {sup 220}Rn (half-life 56 seconds) occurs in fumaroles in Japan and Taiwan, in amounts as high as 1000 times the {sup 222}Rn content. The authors report its presence in geothermal steam at Wairakei, New Zealand, in amounts as high as 130 times those of {sup 222}Rn. It is detected by a radiochemical separation of Pb, and gamma spectrometry. Some of the {sup 220}Rn/{sup 222}Rn ratios are higher than theoretically expected, but have frequently been reported from similar locations. Theories of possible origins will be discussed. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Lifetime Assessment of a Steam Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Janovec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design a method for assessing the life of steam pipes for Czech power plants. The most widely-used material in Czech power plants is steel 15 128. Our findings may also be applied for international equivalents of this steel. The paper shows the classification of cavitation damage and microstructure classification status, based on the German VGB Act, with references to EPRI law in the USA. Calculations of remaining life on the basis of Russian experience are also shown. The possibility of applying this method to increase the operating parameters for power plants is discussed.

  8. Modelling of UO2 oxidation in steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.C.; Iglesias, F.C.; Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A computer model has been developed for calculating oxidation of UO 2 at high temperatures in steam oxidising conditions. Several methods to calculate the partial pressure of oxygen in the fuel and in the environment surrounding the fuel are available. The various methodologies have been compared and the best models have been compiled into a computer model which will be implemented into fuel thermal/mechanical behaviour codes such as FACTAR 2.0 (LOECI) and ELESIM/ELOCA. Calculations from the computer model have been compared to experimental results. The calculated oxidation reaction kinetics are in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  9. Steam generator of the forced circulation type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestier, Jean; Leblanc, Bernard; Monteil, Marcel; Monteil, Pierre

    1977-01-01

    The steam generator described is of the forced circulation single passage type comprising an outer casing including a vertical generally cylindrical side ring, an internal skirt coaxial with the outer casing, the bottom of this skirt having a free edge separated from a bottom end closing the outer casing, a central tube plate extending horizontally near a top end, in opposition to the bottom end, a peripheral tube plate, parallel to the central plate and located in the annular space under this central plate, a bundle of J shaped tubes [fr

  10. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (3) Separate two-phase flow analysis for multi-stage steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, T.; Iwaki, C.; Mori, M.; Ohmori, S.

    2004-01-01

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as an high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. To develop high performance compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. We carried out experiments to observe the internal behavior of the water jet using a laser doppler velocimetry. It's performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was also conducted by using CFD code embedded separate two-phase flow models and confirmed that the steam has a high-performance direct-contact heater that was suitable for compact feedwater heater. As it is compact equipment, SI is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, while its simple structure ensures high reliability of its operation, thereby greatly contributing to the simplification of the power plant by replacing all low-pressure feedwater heaters with the four-stage SI system, having steam extraction pressures equal to those for the existing ABWR system. (author)

  11. High-efficiency condenser of steam from a steam-gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, O. O.; Krylov, V. S.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Yankov, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    The design of a module for a high-efficiency condenser of steam with a high content (up to 15%) of noncondensable gases (NCGs) with a nearly constant steam-gas mixture (SGM) velocity during the condensation of steam has been developed. This module provides the possibility to estimate the operational efficiency of six condenser zones during the motion of steam from the inlet to the SGM suction point. Some results of the experimental tests of the pilot high-efficiency condenser module are presented. The dependence of the average heat transfer coefficient k¯ on the volumetric NCG concentration v¯ has been derived. It is shown that the high-efficiency condenser module can provide a moderate decrease in k¯ from 4400-4600 to 2600-2800 W/(m2 K) at v¯ ≈ 0.5-9.0%. The heat transfer coefficient distribution over different module zones at a heat duty close to its nominal value has been obtained. From this distribution, it can be seen that the average heat transfer coefficient decreases to 2600 W/(m2 K) at an NCG concentration v¯ = 7.5%, but the first condenser sections ( 1- 3) retain high values of k¯ at a level of no lower than 3200 W/(m2 K), and the last sections operate less well, having k¯ at a level of 1700 W/(m2 K). The dependence of the average heat transfer coefficient on the water velocity in condenser tubes has been obtained at a nearly nominal duty such that the extrapolation of this dependence to the water velocity of 2 m/s may be expected to give k¯ = 5000 W/(m2 K) for relatively pure steam, but an increase in k¯ at v¯ = 8% will be smaller. The effect of the gas removal device characteristic on the operation of the high-efficiency condenser module is described. The design developed for the steam condenser of a gas-turbine plant with a power of 25 MW, a steam flow rate of 40.2 t/h, and a CO2 concentration of up to 12% with consideration for the results of performed studies is presented.

  12. Nondestructive testing of welds in steam generators for advanced gas cooled reactors at Heyshamm II and Torness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, K.; Bainbridge, A.; Carver, K.; Hammell, R.; Lack, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns non-destructive testing (NDT) of welds in advanced gas cooled steam generators for Heysham II and Torness nuclear power stations. A description is given of the steam generator. The selection of NDT techniques is also outlined, including the factors considered to ascertain the viability of a technique. Examples are given of applied NDT methods which match particular fabrication processes; these include: microfocus radiography, ultrasonic testing of austenitic tube butt welds, gamma-ray isotope projection system, surface crack detection, and automated radiography. Finally, future trends in this field of NDT are highlighted. (UK)

  13. Some matters concerned with selecting steam parameters and process-circuit solutions to optimize the parameters of steam turbine equipment and engineering design developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    The possibility and advantages of increasing steam pressure in the steam-turbine low-pressure loop for combined-cycle power plants are considered. The question about the advisability of developing and manufacturing steam turbines for being used in combined-cycle power units equipped with modern class F gas turbines for supercritical and ultrasupercritical steam parameters is raised.

  14. Equations for calculating the properties of dissociated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Gudym, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The equations of state for dissociated steam have been developed in the temperature and pressure ranges of 1250-2300 K and 0.01-10.00 MPa for calculating thermodynamic processes in thermal power units operating on high-temperature steam. These equations are based on the property tables for dissociated steam derived at a reference temperature of 0 K. It is assumed that the initial substance is steam, the dissociation of which—in accordance with the most likely chemical reactions—results in formation of molecules of hydrogen, oxygen, steam, hydroxyl, and atoms of oxygen and hydrogen. Differential thermodynamic correlations, considering a change in the chemical potential and the composition of the mixture, during the steam dissociation are used. A reference temperature of 0.01°C used in the calculation of parameters of nondissociated steam has been adopted to predict processes in thermal power units without matching the reference temperatures and to account for transformation of dissociated steam into its usual form for which there is the international system of equations with the water triple point of 0.01°C taken as the reference. In the investigated region, the deviation of dissociated steam properties from those of nondissociated steam, which increases with decreasing the pressure or increasing the temperature, was determined. For a pressure of 0.02 MPa and a temperature of 2200 K, these deviations are 512 kJ/kg for the enthalpy, 0.2574 kJ/(kg K) for the entropy, and 3.431 kJ/(kg K) for the heat capacity at constant pressure. The maximum deviation of the dissociated steam properties calculated by the developed equations from the handbook values that these equations are based on does not exceed 0.03-0.05%.

  15. JASMINE-pro: A computer code for the analysis of propagation process in steam explosions. User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yanhua; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Maruyama, Yu; Nakamura, Hideo; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-12-01

    A steam explosion is a phenomenon where a high temperature liquid gives its internal energy very rapidly to another low temperature volatile liquid, causing very strong pressure build up due to rapid vaporization of the latter. In the field of light water reactor safety research, steam explosions caused by the contact of molten core and coolant has been recognized as a potential threat which could cause failure of the pressure vessel or the containment vessel during a severe accident. A numerical simulation code JASMINE was developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to evaluate the impact of steam explosions on the integrity of reactor boundaries. JASMINE code consists of two parts, JASMINE-pre and -pro, which handle the premixing and propagation phases in steam explosions, respectively. JASMINE-pro code simulates the thermo-hydrodynamics in the propagation phase of a steam explosion on the basis of the multi-fluid model for multiphase flow. This report, 'User's Manual', gives the usage of JASMINE-pro code as well as the information on the code structures which should be useful for users to understand how the code works. (author)

  16. JASMINE-pro: A computer code for the analysis of propagation process in steam explosions. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yanhua; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Maruyama, Yu; Nakamura, Hideo; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro

    2000-12-01

    A steam explosion is a phenomenon where a high temperature liquid gives its internal energy very rapidly to another low temperature volatile liquid, causing very strong pressure build up due to rapid vaporization of the latter. In the field of light water reactor safety research, steam explosions caused by the contact of molten core and coolant has been recognized as a potential threat which could cause failure of the pressure vessel or the containment vessel during a severe accident. A numerical simulation code JASMINE was developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to evaluate the impact of steam explosions on the integrity of reactor boundaries. JASMINE code consists of two parts, JASMINE-pre and -pro, which handle the premixing and propagation phases in steam explosions, respectively. JASMINE-pro code simulates the thermo-hydrodynamics in the propagation phase of a steam explosion on the basis of the multi-fluid model for multiphase flow. This report, 'User's Manual', gives the usage of JASMINE-pro code as well as the information on the code structures which should be useful for users to understand how the code works. (author)

  17. Design specifications to ensure flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear performance in CANDU steam generators and heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzen, V.P.; Han, Y.; Pettigrew, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Preventing flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear problems in steam generators and heat exchangers requires design specifications that bring together specific guidelines, analysis methods, requirements and appropriate performance criteria. This paper outlines the steps required to generate and support such design specifications for CANDU nuclear steam generators and heat exchangers, and relates them to typical steam-generator design features and computer modeling capabilities. It also describes current issues that are driving changes to flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear specifications that can be applied to the design process for component refurbishment, replacement or new designs. These issues include recent experimental or field evidence for new excitation mechanisms, e.g., the possibility of in-plane fluidelastic instability of U-tubes, the demand for longer reactor and component lifetimes, the need for better predictions of dynamic properties and vibration response, e.g., two-phase random-turbulence excitation, and requirements to consider system 'excursions' or abnormal scenarios, e.g., a main steam line break in the case of steam generators. The paper describes steps being taken to resolve these issues. (author)

  18. A real case of steam-cured concrete track slab premature deterioration due to ASR and DEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunlin Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration mechanisms of some premature damaged steam-cured concrete track slabs (CTS in Chinese railway less than 4 years were investigated. Field investigation, raw materials test and suspicious products analysis were carried out. Results show that steam-cured heat damage (SCHD of concrete takes place in steam-cured process. Expansion products are ettringite in hydrated products and alkali-silica gels between the interface of hydrated products and coarse aggregate. SCHD makes CTS surface layer loose, porous and more micro-cracks. Long-term fatigue load from high-speed train acting on CTS enlarges concrete microcracks, leading to water penetrating into concrete easily in moist and rainy environment. In the process of water ingression, alkali-silica reaction (ASR and delayed ettringite formation (DEF take place, hence resulting in CTS cracking and premature deterioration.

  19. Steam condensation modelling in aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this study is the modelling of the condensation of steam into and evaporation of water from aerosol particles. These processes introduce a new type of term into the equation for the development of the aerosol particle size distribution. This new term faces the code developer with three major problems: the physical modelling of the condensation/evaporation process, the discretisation of the new term and the separate accounting for the masses of the water and of the other components. This study has considered four codes which model the condensation of steam into and its evaporation from aerosol particles: AEROSYM-M (UK), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), NAUA (Federal Republic of Germany) and CONTAIN (USA). The modelling in the codes has been addressed under three headings. These are the physical modelling of condensation, the mathematics of the discretisation of the equations, and the methods for modelling the separate behaviour of different chemical components of the aerosol. The codes are least advanced in area of solute effect modelling. At present only AEROSOLS/B1 includes the effect. The effect is greater for more concentrated solutions. Codes without the effect will be more in error (underestimating the total airborne mass) the less condensation they predict. Data are needed on the water vapour pressure above concentrated solutions of the substances of interest (especially CsOH and CsI) if the extent to which aerosols retain water under superheated conditions is to be modelled. 15 refs

  20. Full STEAM Ahead: From Earth to Ploonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C. R.; Hall, C.; Blackman, C. L.; Royle, M.; Williams, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    What the heck is a plunoid, you ask? The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute's Education/Public Engagement (EPE) program,from two SSERVI teams (SEEED at Brown/MIT and CLASS at University of Central Florida), is moving full STEAM ahead, engaging the public in the exciting discoveries being made around small bodies, including PLanetary mOONs and asterOIDS (i.e ploonoids). The team has incorporated the arts, from visual representations, storytelling, and music into every facet of the program, to stimulate an affective and personal connection to the content. This past year, the SSERVI STEAM team has participated in numerous public science events, including International Observe the Moon Night, two Astronomy Nights at a local baseball venue, Dark Skies at the US and Canadian National Parks, and Space Day at Camp Happy Days, a camp for children with cancer. Through these events, the team reached over 10000 members of the general public, showcasing current NASA SSERVI research, dispelling myths about our landing and exploring the moon, demonstrating the excitement of STEM through hands-on interactive displays, and providing an outlet for creativity by having multiple ways of representing and explaining scientific information through the arts. Join us on our "ed"venture through the solar system ploonoids.